Science.gov

Sample records for hydrostatic two-layer flow

  1. Roll waves in two-layer Hele-Shaw flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, I. V.; Chesnokov, A. A.; Liapidevskii, V. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study the emergence and development of roll waves in two-layer fluid flow in a Hele-Shaw cell. We propose the mathematical model of such flow and define the conditions of transition from stable state to instability in the form of the roll waves. We find out the physical parameters of flows at which the roll waves exist. A linear stability analysis and the Whitham criterion of roll waves existence are used for solving the problem and arrive to identical conclusions on depths of upper and lower layers at which violation of flow stability occurs. The numerical calculations for the obtained mathematical model at found ratios of densities, viscosities and depths of layers are performed. They confirm development of the roll waves of finite amplitude from small oscillations of the interface.

  2. Two layer flow of thin leaky dielectric films between electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovina, Elizaveta; Craster, Richard; Papageorgiou, Demetrios

    2014-11-01

    The flow of two viscous conducting fluids between two electrodes is investigated. The fluids are assumed to be leaky dielectrics and two nonlinear coupled evolution equations are derived for the moving interface and the interfacial charge. These are solved numerically for three different cases in which the magnitude of the ratios of electric conductivities and permittivities is varied. A linear stability analysis indicates that electrical forces destabilize the system. These predictions are confirmed by numerical results which show that increasing the ratios of conductivities and permittivities leads to traveling waves that grow in amplitude.

  3. Dominating wave regimes in a two-layer film flowing down a vertical wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ćekiç, G.; Sisoev, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Flows of two-layer falling films are analyzed by an approximate method. Similar to other film flows, there is a non-uniqueness of steady-traveling waves as solutions of the problem. To select the wave regimes developing in two-layer films, systematic transient computations have been carried out to create a map of the attracting wave regimes which can be used to model real-life processes, for example, mass transfer of a gas between the layers or gas absorption into a two-layer film.

  4. Two-layer flow of polymer melts in extruder die channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharafutdinov, R. F.; Snigerev, B. A.; Galimov, E. R.; Galimova, N. Ya

    2016-06-01

    The paper discusses numerical modeling of two-layer flow of viscous non-Newtonian fluids in extruder die channels. Fluid motion is described by mass and momentum conservation equations supplemented by the rheological equation of state of a viscous non-Newtonian fluid according to the Carreau model. Technique of numerical solution of the problem based on the finite element method is presented. Distribution pattern of fluid velocities, pressure, stresses, positions of the interface in the two-layer flow depending on the rheological properties of a fluid and flow regimes is investigated.

  5. Locomotion based on a two-layers flow of magnetizable nanosuspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Zeidis, I.; Naletova, V. A.; Turkov, V. A.; Bachurin, V. E.

    2005-04-01

    The possibility of creating the viscous magnetizable fluid flow by means of a nonuniform alternate magnetic field is investigated. The two-layers flow of incompressible magnetizable fluids (nanosuspensions) in a magnetic field is studied within the framework of the viscous fluid model.

  6. Instability of viscous flow over a deformable two-layered gel: experiments and theory.

    PubMed

    Neelamegam, R; Giribabu, D; Shankar, V

    2014-10-01

    The instability of the flow of a viscous fluid past a soft, two-layered gel is probed using experiments, and the observations are compared with results from a linear stability analysis. The experimental system consists of the rotating top plate of a rheometer and its stationary bottom plate on which the two-layer gel is placed. When the flow between the top plate and the two-layer gel is viscometric (i.e., laminar), the viscosity obtained from the rheometer is a measure of the material property of the fluid. However, after a critical shear stress, there is a sudden increase in apparent viscosity, indicating that the flow has undergone an instability due to the deformable nature of the two-layer gel. Experiments are carried out to quantify how the critical value of fluid shear stress required to destabilize the flow varies as a function of ratio of solid to fluid layer thickness, and the ratio of the shear moduli of the two gels. A linear stability analysis is carried out for plane Couette flow of a Newtonian fluid past the two-layered gel, by assuming the two solid layers to be elastic neo-Hookean materials. In order to compare the experimental and theoretical results, the effective shear modulus (Geff, defined by H/Geff=H1/G1+H2/G2) of the two-layer gel is found to be useful, where H=H1+H2. Here, Hi and Gi (i=1,2), respectively, denote the thickness and shear modulus of each layer. Results for the nondimensional parameter Γeff=ηV/(dGeff) (V is the velocity of the top plate; η is fluid viscosity, d is the fluid thickness) as a function of solid to fluid thickness H/d obtained from the stability analysis agree well with experimental observations, without any fitting parameters. In general, we find that the flow is more unstable if the softer gel is adjacent to the fluid flow compared to the case when it is not. This suggests that the instability is more interfacial in nature and is crucially dependent on the relative placement of the two layers, and not just on

  7. Development of an algebraic stress/two-layer model for calculating thrust chamber flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Huang, J.

    1993-07-01

    Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modeling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data, to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

  8. Development of an algebraic stress/two-layer model for calculating thrust chamber flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Huang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modeling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data, to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

  9. Weakly nonlinear behavior of periodic disturbances in two-layer Couette-Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renardy, Yuriko

    1989-10-01

    The stability of a plane Couette-Poiseuille flow consisting of two layers of different fluids is analyzed using methods of bifurcation theory. The fluids have different viscosities and densities, and there is surface tension at the interface. The center manifold theorem is used to justify the derivation of the final amplitude evolution equation. The nonlinear calculations are carried out with two alternative approaches. One approach is to keep the combined volume flux fixed, and the other is to keep the pressure gradient in the horizontal direction fixed. Numerical results are presented for some Couette flow profiles and a Poiseuille flow profile at low speeds, showing that traveling waves are supported at the interface. A computation at a high speed is also presented. The derivation and numerical results are compared with those of a formal approach, employing multiple scales, which has been used on related problems.

  10. Three dimensional spatio-temporal instabilities in two-layer flows at high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valluri, Prashant; O'Na'Raigh, Lennon; Spelt, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Interfacial instabilities in Newtonian two-layer flows are investigated via three-dimensional direct numerical simulations using the diffuse-interface method to capture the interface. The simulations study the effect of waves, generated by a random 3D noise, at the inlet on the spatio-temporal behaviour of the instabilities. Of specific interest are the conditions of growth/decay of the spanwise interfacial perturbation. Preliminary results show a sustained growth of the spanwise mode, irrespective of the primary streamwise mode, at various streamwise locations in the domain. At positions close to the inlet the spanwise wave grows linearly until a non-linear distortion which eventually saturates the amplitude. This work extends our recently reported two-dimensional studies on spatiotemporal interfacial instabilities (J. Fluid Mech. (2010), vol. 656, pp. 458--480) to i) three dimensions and ii) higher Reynolds numbers.

  11. Derivation of amplitude equations and analysis of sideband instabilities in two-layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renardy, Michael; Renardy, Yuriko

    1993-11-01

    Sideband instabilities following the onset of traveling interfacial waves in two-layer Couette-Poiseuille flow are considered. The usual Ginzburg-Landau equation does not apply to this problem due to the presence of a long-wave mode for which the decay rate tends to zero in the limit of infinite wavelength. Instead of the Ginzburg-Landau equation, a coupled set of equations for three amplitude factors is derived. The first corresponds to an amplitude of a traveling wave, the second to a long-wave modulation of the interface height, and the third results from the pressure. The criteria which determine the stability of the primary traveling wave to sideband perturbations are presented. This scenario raises the possibility that as a result of sideband instability of a primary traveling wave, the flow may eventually be dominated by a long-wave mode. Experimental data on a gas-liquid flow are analyzed and models for air-water waves are discussed. Finally, it is noted that the amplitude equations allow for possibilities other than periodically modulated waves. In the concluding section, the presence of homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits is investigated. These correspond to solutions which approach either a flat interface or periodic waves at infinity.

  12. A two layer model of permeability in the unsaturated flow regime for a woven RTM preform

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, K.M.; Advani, S.G.

    1994-12-31

    In Resin Transfer molding (RTM) with woven fiber preforms, the preforms are placed in a closed mold and are impregnated by a resin. This process of permeation is modeled as the flow of resin through porous media formed by the preform. Woven preforms are tows of fibers knitted together. This architecture introduces dual length scales in the porous media which causes the resistance to the flow of resin to be much higher inside the tows than outside the tow regions. Numerical simulations of mold filling in RTM assign a permeability value to each location before the start of the simulation which does not account for the ``sink`` effect. In this paper, the concept of dynamic permeability is developed. This will permit us to incorporate the ``sink`` effect in the unsaturated region close to the resin front. The model is constructed by considering a woven preform as an equivalent tow layered preform such that one layer corresponds to the more permeable inter-tow region in the woven preform and the other corresponds to the less permeable intra-tow region. Cross flow of resin from more permeable region to the low permeable region reproduces the ``sink`` effect. Numerical simulation of 1-D flow through this two layered preform yields information about the gradation of permeability close to the front which can later be used to assign permeability dynamically during the simulation of an RTM part. Results of this model reproduces the trend of the experiments conducted in 1-D flow of resin through a woven preform qualitatively.

  13. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A; Koshel, Konstantin V

    2015-10-01

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero-oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations. PMID:26520074

  14. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A; Koshel, Konstantin V

    2015-10-01

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero-oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations.

  15. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A.; Koshel, Konstantin V.

    2015-10-15

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero–oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations.

  16. Parametric study on instabilities in a two-layer electromagnetohydrodynamic channel flow confined between two parallel electrodes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Dinesh Sankar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Joo, Sang Woo; Sharma, Ashutosh; Qian, Shizhi

    2011-03-01

    Instabilities in a two-phase electromagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) flow between a pair of parallel electrodes are explored. A linear stability analysis has been performed based on a coupled Orr-Sommerfeld system generated from the conservation laws. The study shows the presence of a finite-wave-number EMHD mode of instability in addition to the two commonly observed instability modes in the pressure-driven two-layer flows, namely, the long-wave interfacial mode arising from the viscosity or density stratification and the finite-wave-number shear flow mode engendered by the Reynolds stresses. This extra EMHD mode originates from the additional stresses generated by the Lorenz force acting at the liquid layers and is found to exist under all conditions beyond a critical strength of the externally applied magnetic field. The EMHD mode either can exist as a singular dominant mode or can coexist as a dominant or subdominant mode with the conventional interfacial mode or shear flow instabilities in the two-layer flows. The EMHD flow studied here has numerous potential applications in fluid transport, enhanced heat and mass transfer, mixing, and emulsification because of the low energy requirement, flow reversibility, absence of moving parts, and facile control over flow rate. The parametric study presented here on the instabilities in the two-layer EMHD flow will thus be of great practical use. PMID:21517593

  17. Numerical and Analytical Study of Two-Layered Unsteady Blood Flow through Catheterized Artery

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Akbar; Ali, Nasir; Sajid, M.; Hayat, Tasawar

    2016-01-01

    The pulsatile flow of blood in a catheterized blood vessel is analyzed. The flow of blood in vessel is modeled as the flow of two immiscible fluids. The fluid in the core region is characterized as a non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid satisfying the constitutive equation of an Oldroyd-B fluid. The fluid in the peripheral region is treated as a Newtonian fluid. The catheter inside the vessel is modeled as a rigid tube of very small radius. The resulting differential system for velocity in each region is computed numerically by finite-difference scheme and analytically by Laplace transform. A comparison of numerical solution with Laplace transform solution is carried out. Various physical quantities of interest through the computed velocity are also analyzed. PMID:27548476

  18. Numerical and Analytical Study of Two-Layered Unsteady Blood Flow through Catheterized Artery.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Akbar; Ali, Nasir; Sajid, M; Hayat, Tasawar

    2016-01-01

    The pulsatile flow of blood in a catheterized blood vessel is analyzed. The flow of blood in vessel is modeled as the flow of two immiscible fluids. The fluid in the core region is characterized as a non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid satisfying the constitutive equation of an Oldroyd-B fluid. The fluid in the peripheral region is treated as a Newtonian fluid. The catheter inside the vessel is modeled as a rigid tube of very small radius. The resulting differential system for velocity in each region is computed numerically by finite-difference scheme and analytically by Laplace transform. A comparison of numerical solution with Laplace transform solution is carried out. Various physical quantities of interest through the computed velocity are also analyzed. PMID:27548476

  19. Nonlinear development of two-layer Couette-Poiseuille flow in the presence of surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassom, Andrew P.; Blyth, M. G.; Papageorgiou, D. T.

    2010-10-01

    The two-dimensional nonlinear evolution of the interface between two superposed layers of viscous fluid moving in a channel in the presence of an insoluble surfactant is examined. A pair of coupled weakly nonlinear equations is derived describing the interfacial and surfactant dynamics when one of the two fluid layers is very thin in comparison to the other. In contrast to previous work, the dynamics in the thin film are coupled to the dynamics in the thicker layer through a nonlocal integral term. For asymptotically small Reynolds number, the flow in the thicker layer is governed by the Stokes equations. A linearized analysis confirms the linear instability identified by previous workers and it is proven that the film flow is linearly unstable if the undisturbed surfactant concentration exceeds a threshold value. Numerical simulations of the weakly nonlinear equations reveal the existence of finite amplitude traveling-wave solutions. For order one Reynolds number, the flow in the thicker layer is governed by the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. In this case the weakly nonlinear film dynamics are more complex and include the possibility of periodic traveling-waves and chaotic flow.

  20. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    1982-01-01

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  1. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-05-04

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion. 3 figs.

  2. Steady thermocapillary flows in a two-layer liquid system with flat interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Arco, E. Crespo; Extremet, G. P.; Sani, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Steady thermocapillary convection is studied in a system of two flat, superposed layers of immiscible liquids with two fluid-fluid interfaces in a configuration similar to that of an encapsulated crystal growth. The layers are bounded on the sides by isothermal vertical walls maintained at different constant temperatures. A simplified analytical solution is used initially to explore different potential flow regimes in a parameter space of large dimensionality. Then the coupled Navier-Stokes and heat transfer equations are solved numerically with a finite element method via FIDAP, in a rectangular cavity filled with two immiscible liquids in the absence of a gravitational field.

  3. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  4. Optimal dispersion with minimized Poisson equations for non-hydrostatic free surface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Haiyang; Pietrzak, J. D.; Stelling, G. S.

    2014-09-01

    A non-hydrostatic shallow-water model is proposed to simulate the wave propagation in situations where the ratio of the wave length to the water depth is small. It exploits the reduced-size stencil in the Poisson pressure solver to make the model less expensive in terms of memory and CPU time. We refer to this new technique as the minimized Poisson equations formulation. In the simplest case when the method applied to a two-layer model, the new model requires the same computational effort as depth-integrated non-hydrostatic models, but can provide a much better description of dispersive waves. To allow an easy implementation of the new method in depth-integrated models, the governing equations are transformed into a depth-integrated system, in which the velocity difference serves as an extra variable. The non-hydrostatic shallow-water model with minimized Poisson equations formulation produces good results in a series of numerical experiments, including a standing wave in a basin, a non-linear wave test, solitary wave propagation in a channel and a wave propagation over a submerged bar.

  5. Study of an unitised bidirectional vanadium/air redox flow battery comprising a two-layered cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    grosse Austing, Jan; Nunes Kirchner, Carolina; Hammer, Eva-Maria; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Wittstock, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a unitised bidirectional vanadium/air redox flow battery (VARFB) is described. It contains a two-layered cathode consisting of a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) with Pt/C catalyst for discharging and of an IrO2 modified graphite felt for charging. A simple routine is shown for the modification of a graphite felt with IrO2. A maximum energy efficiency of 41.7% at a current density of 20 mA cm-2 as well as an average discharge power density of 34.6 mW cm-2 at 40 mA cm-2 were obtained for VARFB operation at room temperature with the novel cathode setup. A dynamic hydrogen electrode was used to monitor half cell potentials during operation allowing to quantify the contribution of the cathode to the overall performance of the VARFB. Four consecutive cycles revealed that crossover of vanadium ions took place and irreversible degradation processes within the reaction unit lead to a performance decrease.

  6. A two Layer Convecting Mantle With Exchange : A Unified Model Based on Geochemical, Seismic and Heat Flow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allègre, C. J.; Jaupart, C.; Nolet, G.

    2007-12-01

    -penetrating slabs as emphasized by Fukao and al.(2001) and the recent observation of the large energy spectrum differences at 670 km depth (Gu and al., 2006). We discuss the problem of return flow, which is crucial for both energy budget and convection regime. The recent work on plume by Montelli and al. (2004, 2006) shows the existence of broad plumes in the lower mantle and thin plumes in the upper mantle. d) The estimate of heat flow coming from the lower mantle of 35-32 TW. The work of Davies(1990) and Sleep(1992) shows clearly that this transfer is not the result of plumes reaching the surface, because they correspond at most to 3TW. At the reverse the estimated heat flow carried by the lower mantle plumes is much higher (Nolet and al., 2006). We also discuss the heat flow paradox to explain a Urey ratio of 0.4 with whole mantle convection. In conclusion, we propose mantle with two layers convecting separately but with some exchange of matter, this global exchange corresponding to 1.1024kg since 4.4 Gy. Plume genesis is a two-stage process. Lower mantle plumes heat the Mesosphere boundary layer generating second generation plumes which reach the surface (Allègre and Turcotte; 1983; Allègre, 1987). In the upper mantle itself, we have to distinguish between a vigorously convecting asthenosphere and a sluggish convecting transition zone, both convecting in same cells.

  7. Documentation of a finite-element two-layer model for simulation of ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, Michael J.

    1979-01-01

    This report documents a finite-element model for simulation of ground-water flow in a two-aquifer system where the two aquifers are coupled by a leakage term that represents flow through a confining layer separating the two aquifers. The model was developed by Timothy J. Durbin (U.S. Geological Survey) for use in ground-water investigations in southern California. The documentation assumes that the reader is familiar with the physics of ground-water flow, numerical methods of solving partial-differential equations, and the FORTRAN IV computer language. It was prepared as part of the investigations made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District. (Kosco-USGS)

  8. Investigation of combined heat and mass transfer between vertical parallel plates in a two-layer flow of couple stress nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Najeeb Alam; Sultan, Faqiha; Riaz, Fatima; Jamil, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    This study is an investigation of fully-developed laminar flow in a two-layer vertical channel; one part filled with couple stress nanofluid and the other part with clear couple stress fluid. The flow is examined for combined heat and mass transfer using uniform wall temperature and concentration boundary conditions. Optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) is used to solve the nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the flow in each region. This method is based on the homotopy analysis method (HAM)which is an effective method to analytically approximate the solution of highly nonlinear problems. The influence of pertinent parameters is observed on velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions, specifically, the effect of Brownian parameter on couple stress fluid is mentioned.

  9. The stability of two layer dielectric-electrolyte micro-flow subjected to an external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demekhin, E. A.; Ganchenko, G. S.; Navarkar, A.; Amiroudine, S.

    2016-09-01

    The two-phase microflow of conductive (electrolyte) and non-conductive (dielectric) viscous liquids bounded by two solid walls in an external electric field is scrutinized. The lower solid wall, which is adjoined to the electrolyte, is a charged dielectric surface; the upper wall which bounds the dielectric is insulated. The problem has a steady one-dimensional (1D) solution. The theoretical results for a plug-like velocity profile are successfully compared with available theoretical and experimental data from the literature. The linear stability of the steady-state flow is investigated numerically with spectral Galerkin's method for solving linearized eigenvalue problem. This method was successfully applied for related problem of electroosmosis of ultrathin film. The numerical analysis provides insights on the coexistence of long and short-wave instabilities. The influence of control parameters such as the ratio of the viscosities of both liquids and the ratio of the channel heights on the stability of one-dimensional flow was investigated for different values of external electric field. The influence of an external pressure gradient on the flow stability is also investigated. The experimental facts established by other authors, according to which the system destabilizes if the electroosmotic flow is oppositely directed to the external pressure gradient, is confirmed in this work. Otherwise stabilization takes place.

  10. Linear and nonlinear instability and ligament dynamics in 3D laminar two-layer liquid/liquid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Valluri, Prashant; Scott, David; Bethune, Iain; Spelt, Peter

    2013-11-01

    We consider the linear and nonlinear stability of two-phase density-matched but viscosity contrasted fluids subject to laminar Poiseuille flow in a channel, paying particular attention to the formation of three-dimensional waves. The Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire analysis is used along with DNS of the 3D two-phase Navier-Stokes equations using our newly launched TPLS Solver (http://edin.ac/10cRKzS). For the parameter regimes considered, we demonstrate the existence of two distinct mechanisms whereby 3D waves enter the system, and dominate at late time. There exists a direct route, whereby 3D waves are amplified by the standard linear mechanism; for certain parameter classes, such waves grow at a rate less than but comparable to that of most-dangerous two-dimensional mode. Additionally, there is a weakly nonlinear route, whereby a purely spanwise wave couples to a streamwise mode and grows exponentially. We demonstrate these mechanisms in isolation and in concert. Consideration is also given to the ultimate state of these waves: persistent three-dimensional nonlinear waves are stretched and distorted by the base flow, thereby producing regimes of ligaments, ``sheets,'' or ``interfacial turbulence.'' HECToR RAP/dCSE Project e174, HPC-Europa 2.

  11. Numerical aspects and implementation of a two-layer zonal wall model for LES of compressible turbulent flows on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on numerical and practical aspects associated with a parallel implementation of a two-layer zonal wall model for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible wall-bounded turbulent flows on unstructured meshes. A zonal wall model based on the solution of unsteady three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations on a separate near-wall grid is implemented in an unstructured, cell-centered finite-volume LES solver. The main challenge in its implementation is to couple two parallel, unstructured flow solvers for efficient boundary data communication and simultaneous time integrations. A coupling strategy with good load balancing and low processors underutilization is identified. Face mapping and interpolation procedures at the coupling interface are explained in detail. The method of manufactured solution is used for verifying the correct implementation of solver coupling, and parallel performance of the combined wall-modeled LES (WMLES) solver is investigated. The method has successfully been applied to several attached and separated flows, including a transitional flow over a flat plate and a separated flow over an airfoil at an angle of attack.

  12. MHD Heat Transfer in Two-Layered Flow of Conducting Fluids through a Channel Bounded by Two Parallel Porous Plates in a Rotating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linga Raju, T.; Neela Rao, B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper aims to analyze the heat transfer aspects of a two-layered fluid flow in a horizontal channel under the action of an applied magnetic and electric fields, when the whole system is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the flow. The flow is driven by a common constant pressure gradient in the channel bounded by two parallel porous insulating plates, one being stationary and the other one oscillatory. The fluids in the two regions are considered electrically conducting, and are assumed to be incompressible with variable properties, namely, different densities, viscosities, thermal and electrical conductivities. The transport properties of the two fluids are taken to be constant and the bounding plates are maintained at constant and equal temperature. The governing partial differential equations are then reduced to the ordinary linear differential equations by using a two-term series. The temperature distributions in both fluid regions of the channel are derived analytically. The results are presented graphically to discuss the effect on the heat transfer characteristics and their dependence on the governing parameters, i.e., the Hartmann number, Taylor number, porous parameter, and ratios of the viscosities, heights, electrical and thermal conductivities. It is observed that, as the Coriolis forces become stronger, i.e., as the Taylor number increases, the temperature decreases in the two fluid regions. It is also seen that an increase in porous parameter diminishes the temperature distribution in both the regions.

  13. Unsteady two-layered fluid flow of conducting fluids in a channel between parallel porous plates under transverse magnetic field in a rotating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linga Raju, T.; Neela Rao, B.

    2016-05-01

    An unsteady MHD two-layered fluid flow of electrically conducting fluids in a horizontal channel bounded by two parallel porous plates under the influence of a transversely applied uniform strong magnetic field in a rotating system is analyzed. The flow is driven by a common constant pressure gradient in a channel bounded by two parallel porous plates, one being stationary and the other oscillatory. The two fluids are assumed to be incompressible, electrically conducting with different viscosities and electrical conductivities. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to the linear ordinary differential equations using two-term series. The resulting equations are solved analytically to obtain exact solutions for the velocity distributions (primary and secondary) in the two regions respectively, by assuming their solutions as a combination of both the steady state and time dependent components of the solutions. Numerical values of the velocity distributions are computed for different sets of values of the governing parameters involved in the study and their corresponding profiles are also plotted. The details of the flow characteristics and their dependence on the governing parameters involved, such as the Hartmann number, Taylor number, porous parameter, ratio of the viscosities, electrical conductivities and heights are discussed. Also an observation is made how the velocity distributions vary with the rotating hydromagnetic interaction in the case of steady and unsteady flow motions. The primary velocity distributions in the two regions are seen to decrease with an increase in the Taylor number, but an increase in the Taylor number causes a rise in secondary velocity distributions. It is found that an increase in the porous parameter decreases both the primary and secondary velocity distributions in the two regions.

  14. The use of Tecnomatix software to simulate the manufacturing flows in an industrial enterprise producing hydrostatic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrila, S.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis performed on manufacturing flows within industrial enterprises producing hydrostatic components twos made on a number of factors that influence smooth running of production such: distance between pieces, waiting time from one surgery to another; time achievement of setups on CNC machines; tool changing in case of a large number of operators and manufacturing complexity of large files [2]. To optimize the manufacturing flow it was used the software Tecnomatix. This software represents a complete portfolio of manufacturing solutions digital manufactured by Siemens. It provides innovation by linking all production methods of a product from process design, process simulation, validation and ending the manufacturing process. Among its many capabilities to create a wide range of simulations, the program offers various demonstrations regarding the behavior manufacturing cycles. This program allows the simulation and optimization of production systems and processes in several areas such as: car suppliers, production of industrial equipment; electronics manufacturing, design and production of aerospace and defense parts.

  15. Unsteady Two-Layered Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Conducting Fluids in a Channel Between Parallel Porous Plates Under Transverse Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, T. Linga; Nagavalli, M.

    2013-08-01

    The unsteady magnetohydrodynamic flow of two immiscible fluids in a horizontal channel bounded by two parallel porous isothermal plates in the presence of an applied magnetic and electric field is investigated. The flow is driven by a constant uniform pressure gradient in the channel bounded by two parallel insulating plates, one being stationary and the other oscillating, when both fluids are considered as electrically conducting. Also, both fluids are assumed to be incompressible with variable properties, viz. different viscosities, thermal and electrical conductivities. The transport properties of the two fluids are taken to be constant and the bounding plates are maintained at constant and equal temperatures. The governing equations are partial in nature, which are then reduced to the ordinary linear differential equations using two-term series. Closed form solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are obtained in both fluid regions of the channel. Profiles of these solutions are plotted to discuss the effect on the flow and heat transfer characteristics, and their dependence on the governing parameters involved, such as the Hartmann number, porous parameter, ratios of the viscosities, heights, electrical and thermal conductivities

  16. Two layer asymptotic model for the wave propagation in the presence of vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakova, M. Yu; Noble, P.

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we consider the system of two layers of the immiscible constant density fluids which are modeled by the full Euler equations. The domain of the flow is infinite in the horizontal directions and delimited above by a free surface. Bottom topography is taken into account. This is a simple model of the wave propagation in the ocean where the upper layer corresponds to the (thin) layer of fluid above the thermocline whereas the lower layer is under the thermocline. Though even this simple framework is computationally too expensive and mathematically too complicated to describe efficiently propagation of waves in the ocean. Modeling assumption such as shallowness, vanishing vorticity and hydrostatic pressure are usually made to get the bi-layer shallow water models that are mathematically more manageable. Though, they cannot describe correctly the propagation of both internal and free surface waves and dispersive/non hydrostatic must be added. Our goal is to consider the regime of medium to large vorticities in shallow water flow. We present the derivation of the model for internal and surface wave propagation in the case of constant and general vorticities in each layer. The model reduces to the classical Green-Naghdi equations in the case of vanishing vorticities.

  17. Investigations of Reduced Equations for Rotating, Stratified and Non-hydrostatic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, David J.

    This thesis is a collection of studies concerning an asymptotically reduced equation set derived from the Boussinesq approximation describing rotationally constrained geophysical flow. The first investigation is concerned with a statistical identification of coherent and long-lived structures in rotationally constrained Rayleigh-Benard convection. Presently, physical laboratory limitations challenge experimentalists while spatio-temporal resolution requirements challenges numericists performing direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations. These challenges prevent an exhaustive analysis of the flow morphology in the rapid rotating limit. In this study the flow morphologies obtained from simulations of the reduced equations are investigated from a statistical perspective. Auto- and cross-correlations are computed from temporal and spatial signals that synthesize experimental data that may be obtained in laboratory experiments via thermistor measurements or particle image velocimetry. The statistics used can be employed in laboratory experiments to identify regime transitions in flow morphology, capture radial profiles of coherent structures, and extract transport properties belonging to these structures. These results provide a foundation for comparison and a measure for understanding the extent to which rotationally constrained regime has been accessed by laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations. A related study comparing the influence of fixed temperature and fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions on rapidly rotating convection in the plane layer geometry is also investigated and briefly summarized for the case of stress-free mechanical boundary conditions. It is shown that the difference between these thermal boundary conditions on the interior geostrophically balanced convection is asymptotically weak. Through a simple rescaling of thermal variables, the leading order reduced system is shown to be equivalent for both thermal

  18. Associative Flow Rule Used to Include Hydrostatic Stress Effects in Analysis of Strain-Rate-Dependent Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2004-01-01

    designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. The nonlinearity and the strain-rate dependence of the composite response are due primarily to the matrix constituent. Therefore, in developing material models to be used in the design of impact-resistant composite engine cases, the deformation of the polymer matrix must be correctly analyzed. However, unlike in metals, the nonlinear response of polymers depends on the hydrostatic stresses, which must be accounted for within an analytical model. By applying micromechanics techniques along with given fiber properties, one can also determine the effects of the hydrostatic stresses in the polymer on the overall composite deformation response. First efforts to account for the hydrostatic stress effects in the composite deformation applied purely empirical methods that relied on composite-level data. In later efforts, to allow polymer properties to be characterized solely on the basis of polymer data, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed equations to model the polymers that were based on a non-associative flow rule, and efforts to use these equations to simulate the deformation of representative polymer materials were reasonably successful. However, these equations were found to have difficulty in correctly analyzing the multiaxial stress states found in the polymer matrix constituent of a composite material. To correct these difficulties, and to allow for the accurate simulation of the nonlinear strain-rate-dependent deformation analysis of polymer matrix composites, in the efforts reported here Glenn researchers reformulated the polymer constitutive equations from basic principles using the concept of an associative flow rule. These revised equations were characterized and validated in an

  19. Two-layer quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Vinícius Pereira; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2015-06-01

    Recently a new quantum key distribution protocol using coherent and thermal states was proposed. In this work, this kind of two-layer QKD protocol is formalized and its security against the most common attacks, including external control and Trojan horse attacks, is discussed.

  20. Two layer structure for reinforcing pothole repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Yuan, Kuo-Yao; Zou, Linhua; Yang, Jenn-Ming; Ju, Jiann-Wen; Kao, Wei; Carlson, Larry

    2013-04-01

    We have applied dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) resin for reinforcing pothole patch materials due to its unique properties - low cost, low viscosity at beginning and ultra-toughness after curing, chemical compatibility with tar, tunable curing profile through catalyst design. In this paper, we have designed a two layer structure - well compacted base layer and DCPD reinforced 1-1.5" top layer - for pothole repair. By choosing two graded asphalt mixes, a porous top layer and fully compacted base layer was prepared after compaction and ready for DCPD resin infiltration. The DCPD curing and infiltration profile within this porous top layer was measured with thermocouples. The rutting resistance was tested with home-made wheel rutter. The cage effect due to the p-DCPD wrapping was characterized with wheel penetration test. The results showed that this two layer structure pothole repair has greatly improved properties and can be used for pothole repair to increase the service life.

  1. High pressure stopped-flow apparatus for the rapid mixing and subsequent study of two fluids under high hydrostatic pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karan, Daniel M.; Macey, Robert I.

    1980-08-01

    A stopped-flow apparatus is described for the rapid mixing and subsequent study of two dissimilar fluids under pressures up to 1200 bar. The device consists of two identical pressure chambers which contain the two fluids, a third pressure chamber which contains gas to maintain the pressure in the system, an optical port for photometric observation, and various connections. The device has been used to measure reaction times on the order of a hundred milliseconds to tens of seconds, using a maximum of 2 ml of each reagent per experimental determination. The dead time is found to be 5-25 ms with minium average flow velocities of 2.0 m/s. The construction and operation of the device are described and examples of water transport data in red blood cells and the bromophenolblue indicated chemical reaction of NaHCO3 and HCl under pressure are presented.

  2. Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, C.W.

    1986-01-13

    A thin-film, two-layer organic photovoltaic cell has been fabricated from copper phthalocyanine and a perylene tetracarboxylic derivative. A power conversion efficiency of about 1% has been achieved under simulated AM2 illumination. A novel feature of the device is that the charge-generation efficiency is relatively independent of the bias voltage, resulting in cells with fill factor values as high as 0.65. The interface between the two organic materials, rather than the electrode/organic contacts, is crucial in determining the photovoltaic properties of the cell.

  3. Nonlinear ring waves in a two-layer fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusnutdinova, Karima R.; Zhang, Xizheng

    2016-10-01

    Surface and interfacial weakly-nonlinear ring waves in a two-layer fluid are modelled numerically, within the framework of the recently derived 2 + 1-dimensional cKdV-type equation. In a case study, we consider concentric waves from a localised initial condition and waves in a 2D version of the dam-break problem, as well as discussing the effect of a piecewise-constant shear flow. The modelling shows, in particular, the formation of 2D dispersive shock waves and oscillatory wave trains.

  4. Hydrostatic Adjustment in Vertically Stratified Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Dean G.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrostatic adjustment due to diabatic heat in two nonisothermal atmospheres is examined. In the first case the temperature stratification is continuous; in the second case the atmosphere is composed of a warm, isothermal troposphere and a colder, isothermal semi-infinitely deep stratosphere.In both cases hydrostatic adjustment, to a good approximation, follows the pattern found in the Lamb problem (semi-infinitely deep. isothermal atmosphere): Initially we have acoustic waves with the kinetic energy increasing or decreasing at the expense of available elastic energy. After this initial period the acoustic waves evolve into acoustic-gravity waves with the kinetic, available potential and available elastic energies interacting with each other. Relaxation to hydrostatic balance occurs within a few oscillations. Stratification in an atmosphere with a continuous temperature profile affects primarily the shape and amplitude of the disturbances. In the two-layer atmosphere, a certain amount of energy is trapped in the tropospheric waveguide as disturbances reflect off the tropopause and back into the troposphere. With each internal reflection a portion of this trapped energy escapes and radiates to infinity.

  5. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  6. The Hydrostatic Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alpha E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an example demonstrating the quantitative resolution of the hydrostatic paradox which is the realization that the force due to fluid pressure on the bottom of a vessel can be considerably greater or considerably less than the weight of the fluid in the vessel. (JRH)

  7. A New Two-Layer Photoresist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Konoe; Ochiai, Tameichi; Kameyama, Yasuhiro; Uoya, Shigeo; Yamazaki, Teruhiko

    1986-07-01

    A new positive working photoresist which is applicable to the two-layer resist techniq using a current g-line stepper has been developed. This resist consists of a naphth, quinone diazide photoactive compound and a silicon containing novolak resin, which synthesized from m-trimethylsilylphenol, m-cresol, and formaldehyde by condensation r action according to the standard method. The 02 RIE durability of this resist gets great with increase of molar fraction of the silylphenol in the binder. The resist comprising resin prepared from the silylphenol alone by condensation with formaldehyde shows the highest 02 RIE durability,although resolution, sensitivity, and coating property are n sufficient. These properties are improved by incorporation of m-cresol moiety into t binder resin. Novo 1 ak prepared from a mixture of 30 mole % of m- creso 1 and 70 mole % of t silylphenol gives sufficient resolution, reasonable sensitivity and good coating proper leaving RIE durability at fairly high level. The molecular weight and the content of t sensitizer were optimized. The resist is completely compatible with current resist processings. The sensitivity good enough for the usual application and essentially no unexposed-film thickness loss w observed when it is developed with 2.38% tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution. Gam] value is fairly large and line and space as small as 0.6um can be resolved with go, profiles when it is exposed using a g-line stepper equipped with a lens of N.A.=0.35. This resist can be applied to the two-level resist process. MP-1400 was used as planarization layer and after curing at 200 C the present resist was applied on that as thin imaging resist. After exposure and development of the top layer, the pattern of 0. line and space was transferred to the bottom resist by 02 RIE with nearly vertical sil walls. The etch rates of top and bottom resist are shown to be 450 and 1360A/min, respectively.

  8. Hydrostatic Modeling of Buoyant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroman, A.; Dewar, W. K.; Wienders, N.; Deremble, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has led to increased interest in understanding point source convection dynamics. Most of the existing oil plume models use a Lagrangian based approach, which computes integral measures such as plume centerline trajectory and plume radius. However, this approach doesn't account for feedbacks of the buoyant plume on the ambient environment. Instead, we employ an Eulerian based approach to acquire a better understanding of the dynamics of buoyant plumes. We have performed a series of hydrostatic modeling simulations using the MITgcm. Our results show that there is a dynamical response caused by the presence of the buoyant plume, in that there is a modification of the background flow. We find that the buoyant plume becomes baroclinically unstable and sheds eddies at the neutral buoyancy layer. We also explore different scenarios to determine the effect of the buoyancy source and the temperature stratification on the evolution of buoyant plumes.

  9. Two-Layer Models for Landslide-Generated Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Nicolsky, D.; Ma, G.; Shi, F.; Hsu, T. J.; Schnyder, J. S. D.

    2014-12-01

    We describe the development of a model for landslide tsunami generation based on a depth-integrated, fully deformable lower layer, and apply the resulting model to several laboratory and field cases. The approach follows on earlier studies where models for the slide layer and overlying water layer are formulated in the depth integrated, shallow water approximation, with kinematic and pressure coupling between the layers. In the present study, we use the 3D nonhydrostatic model of Ma et al (2012) to retain fully dispersive behavior in the upper fluid layer. In perfect fluid applications for shallow or intermediate depth waves, the model has been shown to predict tsunami response to solid slides (Enet and Grilli, 2007) with good accuracy using only three vertical sigma levels, making it computationally competitive with weakly dispersive Boussinesq formulations using a single depth-integrated layer. The effect of non-hydrostatic acceleration effects in the lower, depth integrated layer (resulting from steep substrate slopes) is implemented using the approach of Yamazaki et al (2009), who used a layer-averaged approximation for vertical acceleration to correct the hydrostatic pressure distribution. The two coupled models are formulated using a finite volume, TVD approach. Lateral boundaries of the slide volume may be arbitrarily approached relative to the initial still water shoreline, and thus the triggering event may be either submarine, subaerial, or a combination of the two. In our first implementation, we assume the lower layer to be a simple, viscous Newtonian fluid, following the approach of Jiang and LeBlond (1994) as corrected by Fine et al (1998). An alternate model is also constructed based on a rheology model representing a granular or debris flow supported by intergranular stresses, following Savage and Hutter (1989) and Iverson (1997). Both models amount to the addition of a single mass and horizontal momentum equation to the three-layer perfect fluid

  10. Implementation of an Associative Flow Rule Including Hydrostatic Stress Effects Into the High Strain Rate Deformation Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    A previously developed analytical formulation has been modified in order to more accurately account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses on the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical J2 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective inelastic strain, along with the equations used to compute the components of the inelastic strain rate tensor, are appropriately modified. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of two representative polymers are computed across a wide range of strain rates. Results computed using the developed constitutive equations correlate well with experimental data. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare well to experimentally obtained results.

  11. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated with Commercial Aviation Accidents. Part 2; Hydrostatic Mesobeta Scale Numerical Simulations of Supergradient Wind Flow and Streamwise Ageostrophic Frontogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Huffman, Allan W.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Charney, Joseph J.; Riordan, Allen J.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Waight, Kenneth T., III; Proctor, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Simulation experiments reveal key processes that organize a hydrostatic environment conducive to severe turbulence. The paradigm requires juxtaposition of the entrance region of a curved jet stream, which is highly subgeostrophic, with the entrance region of a straight jet stream, which is highly supergeostrophic. The wind and mass fields become misphased as the entrance regions converge resulting in the significant spatial variation of inertial forcing, centripetal forcing, and along- and cross-stream pressure gradient forcing over a mesobeta scale region. This results in frontogenesis and the along-stream divergence of cyclonic and convergence of cyclonic ageostrophic vertical vorticity. The centripetally forced mesoscale front becomes the locus of large gradients of ageostrophic vertical vorticity along an overturning isentrope. This region becomes favorable for streamwise vorticity gradient formation enhancing the environment for organization of horizontal vortex tubes in the presence of buoyant forcing.

  12. Experimentally excellent beaming in a two-layer dielectric structure

    DOE PAGES

    Tasolamprou, Anna C.; Zhang, Lei; Kafesaki, Maria; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-09-15

    We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that a two-layer dielectric structure can provide collimation and enhanced transmission of a Gaussian beam passing through it. This is due to formation of surface localized states along the layered structure and the coupling of these states to outgoing propagating waves. As a result, a system of multiple cascading two-layers can sustain the beaming for large propagation distances.

  13. Improved efficient routing strategy on two-layer complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinlong; Han, Weizhan; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Zhihao

    2016-10-01

    The traffic dynamics of multi-layer networks has become a hot research topic since many networks are comprised of two or more layers of subnetworks. Due to its low traffic capacity, the traditional shortest path routing (SPR) protocol is susceptible to congestion on two-layer complex networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing strategy named improved global awareness routing (IGAR) strategy which is based on the betweenness centrality of nodes in the two layers. With the proposed strategy, the routing paths can bypass hub nodes of both layers to enhance the transport efficiency. Simulation results show that the IGAR strategy can bring much better traffic capacity than the SPR and the global awareness routing (GAR) strategies. Because of the significantly improved traffic performance, this study is helpful to alleviate congestion of the two-layer complex networks.

  14. DETAIL OF TYPICAL WALL CONSTRUCTION IN COOLING ROOMS; TWO LAYERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TYPICAL WALL CONSTRUCTION IN COOLING ROOMS; TWO LAYERS OF CORK INSULATION ARE ATTACHED TO REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL WITH WOOD SLEEPERS AND ASPHALT MASTIC; THIN, GLAZED TERRA-COTTA TILES PROTECT THE INSULATION INSIDE THE COOLER - Rath Packing Company, Hog Cutting Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  15. Groundwater travel time computation for two-layer islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketabchi, Hamed; Mahmoodzadeh, Davood; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2016-06-01

    A closed-form analytical computation of groundwater travel time (GWTT) for two-layer oceanic small island aquifers is developed assuming steady-state and sharp-interface conditions. The two-layer geology impacts on the GWTT are investigated using the developed analytical solution to achieve a greater transparency of such conceptualizations. The results demonstrate that the inclusion of geologic layering leads to large changes in the GWTT. Sensitivity analyses, using specified dimensionless parameters, are employed to assess the influences of hydraulic conductivity, recharge rate, upper layer thickness, and seawater/freshwater density difference parameters, which influence the GWTT. These evaluations reveal that the GWTT is mainly influenced by the recharge rate and the upper layer thickness compared to the other influential parameters when the typical parameter ranges are considered.

  16. Two-layer closure of a wide palatal cleft.

    PubMed

    Bumsted, R M

    1981-04-01

    A method of obtaining a complete two-layer closure of an extremely wide cleft of the secondary palate is presented. Extremely wide is defined as a bony palatal shelf less than one-third the width of the cleft defect. The nasal mucoperiosteum of the superior surface of the palatal shelf was incorporated into the oral layer of the closure by the use of turnover flaps based on the oral mucosa at the cleft margin. The nasal layer of the closure was obtained by the use of a long, superiorly based pharyngeal flap. This procedure was successfully utilized in a patient who was unable to wear a speech appliance successfully. This technique of palatoplasty provides a complete two-layer closure of wide palatal clefts when surgical correction is indicated.

  17. Efficient Computation of Atmospheric Flows with Tempest: Validation of Next-Generation Climate and Weather Prediction Algorithms at Non-Hydrostatic Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Jorge; Ullrich, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Tempest is a next-generation global climate and weather simulation platform designed to allow experimentation with numerical methods for a wide range of spatial resolutions. The atmospheric fluid equations are discretized by continuous / discontinuous finite elements in the horizontal and by a staggered nodal finite element method (SNFEM) in the vertical, coupled with implicit/explicit time integration. At horizontal resolutions below 10km, many important questions remain on optimal techniques for solving the fluid equations. We present results from a suite of idealized test cases to validate the performance of the SNFEM applied in the vertical with an emphasis on flow features and dynamic behavior. Internal gravity wave, mountain wave, convective bubble, and Cartesian baroclinic instability tests will be shown at various vertical orders of accuracy and compared with known results.

  18. Power control for a hydrostatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Geringer, K.G.

    1988-05-24

    A power control for a hydrostatic transmission is described having a pair of hydraulic units at least one of which being of variable displacement. The variable displacement hydraulic unit has hydraulic servo means for varying the displacement. The hydrostatic transmission furthermore has a fixed displacement speed signal pump driven at a speed proportional to the input speed of the transmission and providing a hydraulic input speed signal. The power control comprises first and second valves in series flow relationship between the speed signal pump and the servo means. The first valve is a variable orifice valve spring biased toward a cloeed position and biased by the input speed signal toward an open position to establish a pressure drop having a generally linear relationship to the input speed signal. The second valve is spring biased toward a closed position relative to communicating the output of the first valve to the servo means and having first and second opposed pilots connected across the first valve so that the input speed signal induced pressure drop biases the second valve toward an open position. The second valve also has an output feedback proportional to pressure in the servo means and connected to a third pilot biasing the second valve towards the closed position.

  19. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  20. Multiple plate hydrostatic viscous damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A device for damping radial motion of a rotating shaft is described. The damper comprises a series of spaced plates extending in a radial direction. A hydraulic piston is utilized to place a load in these plates. Each annular plate is provided with a suitable hydrostatic bearing geometry on at least one of its faces. This structure provides a high degree of dampening in a rotor case system of turbomachinery in general. The damper is particularly useful in gas turbine engines.

  1. Mean dyadic Green's function for a two layer random medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuniga, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The mean dyadic Green's function for a two-layer random medium with arbitrary three-dimensional correlation functions has been obtained with the zeroth-order solution to the Dyson equation by applying the nonlinear approximation. The propagation of the coherent wave in the random medium is similar to that in an anisotropic medium with different propagation constants for the characteristic transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. In the limit of a laminar structure, two propagation constants for each polarization are found to exist.

  2. Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    PubMed Central

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion. PMID:22029367

  3. Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Maas, Leo

    2015-11-01

    A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluids over a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformal transformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, for the dispersion relation between wave frequency and generalized wavenumber (Floquet exponent), and for the waveforms of free wave modes. The dispersion relation is the analogue of the classical Lamb's equation for a two-layer fluid over a flat bottom. For internal modes the interfacial wave shows rapid modulation at the scale of its own wavelength that is comparable to bottom wavelength, whereas for surface modes it becomes a long wave carrier for modulating short waves of bottom wavelength. The approximation using a rigid-lid is given. Sample calculations are shown, including the frequencies that are Bragg resonant. Supports to JY by US National Science Foundation (Grant CBET-0845957) and a visitor's grant of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) during the period of this work, are gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Mass transfer model for two-layer TBP oxidation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1994-09-28

    To prove that two-layer, TBP-nitric acid mixtures can be safely stored in the canyon evaporators, it must be demonstrated that a runaway reaction between TBP and nitric acid will not occur. Previous bench-scale experiments showed that, at typical evaporator temperatures, this reaction is endothermic and therefore cannot run away, due to the loss of heat from evaporation of water in the organic layer. However, the reaction would be exothermic and could run away if the small amount of water in the organic layer evaporates before the nitric acid in this layer is consumed by the reaction. Provided that there is enough water in the aqueous layer, this would occur if the organic layer is sufficiently thick so that the rate of loss of water by evaporation exceeds the rate of replenishment due to mixing with the aqueous layer. This report presents measurements of mass transfer rates for the mixing of water and butanol in two-layer, TBP-aqueous mixtures, where the top layer is primarily TBP and the bottom layer is comprised of water or aqueous salt solution. Mass transfer coefficients are derived for use in the modeling of two-layer TBP-nitric acid oxidation experiments. Three cases were investigated: (1) transfer of water into the TBP layer with sparging of both the aqueous and TBP layers, (2) transfer of water into the TBP layer with sparging of just the TBP layer, and (3) transfer of butanol into the aqueous layer with sparging of both layers. The TBP layer was comprised of 99% pure TBP (spiked with butanol for the butanol transfer experiments), and the aqueous layer was comprised of either water or an aluminum nitrate solution. The liquid layers were air sparged to simulate the mixing due to the evolution of gases generated by oxidation reactions. A plastic tube and a glass frit sparger were used to provide different size bubbles. Rates of mass transfer were measured using infrared spectrophotometers provided by SRTC/Analytical Development.

  5. ANSYS Modeling of Hydrostatic Stress Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.

    1999-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic pressure has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Plasticity textbooks, from the earliest to the most modem, infer that there is no hydrostatic effect on the yielding of metals, and even modem finite element programs direct the user to assume the same. The object of this study is to use the von Mises and Drucker-Prager failure theory constitutive models in the finite element program ANSYS to see how well they model conditions of varying hydrostatic pressure. Data is presented for notched round bar (NRB) and "L" shaped tensile specimens. Similar results from finite element models in ABAQUS are shown for comparison. It is shown that when dealing with geometries having a high hydrostatic stress influence, constitutive models that have a functional dependence on hydrostatic stress are more accurate in predicting material behavior than those that are independent of hydrostatic stress.

  6. Thermally induced instabilities of two-layer fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingber, M. S.

    Thermally induced instabilities of two layer fluid systems are studied by the use of both a linear and nonlinear analysis. Two essentially different destabilizing mechanisms are identified, namely buoyancy and surface tension. A general procedure is developed to determine the relative importance of each mechanism. The interfacial boundary conditions are comparisons with experiment are performed to attain a level of confidence. The investigation is motivated from the study of the geophysical problem of a body of water cooled by the atmosphere. The effects of surface tension and surface curvature are explored in depth. The reinforcing nature of the destabilizing mechanisms, surface tension and buoyancy is demonstrated. The relationship between the mean surface tension and surface curvature is also investigated.

  7. Microwave remote sensing of a two-layer random medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A two-variable expansion technique is used to solve for the mean Green's. function from the Dyson equation under the nonlinear approximation. The Bethe-Salpeter equation then gives rise to a set of modified radiative transfer (MRT) equations which accommodate coherent effects essential to bounded media. It is found that the nonlinear approximation, instead of the more popular bilocal approximation, should be used for the case of bounded media. The two approximations yield identical results for unbounded media. The MRT equations are then solved for a two-layer random medium. The MRT equations give rise to simple and useful solutions which are applicable to both active and passive microwave remote sensing.

  8. Effects of plasma spray parameters on two layer thermal barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1981-01-01

    The power level and the type of arc gas used during plasma spraying of a two layer thermal barrier system (TBS) were found to affect the life of the system. Life at 1095 C in a cyclic furnace test was improved by about 140 percent by increasing the power during plasma spray applications of the bond and thermal barrier coatings. This improvement is due to increases in the densities of the bond and thermal barrier coatings by 3 and 5 percent, respectively. These increases in densities are equivalent to about 45 and 30 percent reduction in mean porosities, respectively. The addition of hydrogen to the argon arc gas had the same effect as the reduction in power level and caused a reduction in TBS life.

  9. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications, including the treatment of medical conditions. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system that will provide controlled pressurization of the system, and provide adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the

  10. Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jennifer R A.; Kier, William M.; Walker, I. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal support systems are essential for support, movement, muscular antagonism, and locomotion. Crustaceans shed their rigid exoskeleton at each molt yet are still capable of forceful movement. We hypothesize that the soft water-inflated body of newly molted crabs may rely on a hydrostatic skeleton, similar to that of worms and polyps. We measured internal hydrostatic pressure and the force exerted during claw adduction and observed a strong correlation between force and hydrostatic pressure, consistent with hydrostatic skeletal support. This alternation between the two basic skeletal types may be widespread among arthropods.

  11. Hydrostatic compaction of Microtherm HT.

    SciTech Connect

    Broome, Scott Thomas; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2010-09-01

    Two samples of jacketed Microtherm{reg_sign}HT were hydrostatically pressurized to maximum pressures of 29,000 psi to evaluate both pressure-volume response and change in bulk modulus as a function of density. During testing, each of the two samples exhibited large irreversible compactive volumetric strains with only small increases in pressure; however at volumetric strains of approximately 50%, the Microtherm{reg_sign}HT stiffened noticeably at ever increasing rates. At the maximum pressure of 29,000 psi, the volumetric strains for both samples were approximately 70%. Bulk modulus, as determined from hydrostatic unload/reload loops, increased by more than two-orders of magnitude (from about 4500 psi to over 500,000 psi) from an initial material density of {approx}0.3 g/cc to a final density of {approx}1.1 g/cc. An empirical fit to the density vs. bulk modulus data is K = 492769{rho}{sup 4.6548}, where K is the bulk modulus in psi, and {rho} is the material density in g/cm{sup 3}. The porosity decreased from 88% to {approx}20% indicating that much higher pressures would be required to compact the material fully.

  12. Resonant Rotation of Two-layer Moon and Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Y. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    Present significance of the study of rotation of the Moon and Mercury (M&M)considered as a core-mantle system arises from planned missions to these bodies. An investigation of the resonant rotation of Mercury, begun by Colombo G. (1966), will play main part for Messenger and BepiColombo missions to Mercury. New accurate data about the Moon dynamics will be obtained from a series of future missions to the Moon. In this connection the new approach to the study of M&M resonant dynamics are suggested. Within these approaches M&M are considered as a system of two non-spherical interacting bodies: a liquid core and a mantle. The porpoise of study is to construct the analytical theories of resonant rotational motion of two-layer body (M&M). In first we give an explanation and illustration of the main regularities of M&M rotation and formulate generalized Cassini's laws. Main resonant properties of Mercury motion were described first as generalized Cassini's laws (Colombo, 1966). But Colombo and some another's scientists (Peale, 1969; Beletskii, 1972; Ward, 1975, Barkin, 1978) considered Mercury (and the Moon) as rigid non-spherical body sometimes taking into account a tidal deformation. Here we have been formulated these laws and their eneralization for a two-layer model of Mercury and the Moon. The mantle of M&M is considered as non-spherical, rigid (or elastic) layer. Inner shell is a liquid core, which occupies a ellipsoidal cavity of M&M (Poincare model). The Mercury system moves in the gravitational field of the Sun in a traslatory-rotary regime of the resonance 3:2 and the Moon system - in synchronous regime. We take into account gravitational attraction of the Sun (for Mercury) and gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun (for the Moon). For the study of M&M rotation we have been used specially designed canonical equations of motion in Andoyer and Poincare variables (Barkin, Ferrandiz, 2001) and special analytical methods of construction of the conditionally

  13. 46 CFR 64.83 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... on the metal identification plate without leaking; and (6) If fitted with an internal heating coil, the heating coil passing a hydrostatic test at a pressure of 200 psig or more or 50 percent or more above the rated pressure of the coil, whichever is greater. (b) If the tank passes the hydrostatic...

  14. 46 CFR 64.83 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on the metal identification plate without leaking; and (6) If fitted with an internal heating coil, the heating coil passing a hydrostatic test at a pressure of 200 psig or more or 50 percent or more above the rated pressure of the coil, whichever is greater. (b) If the tank passes the hydrostatic...

  15. Acoustic focusing through two layer annuluses in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yi-Jun; Sun, Hong-Xiang; Liu, Shu-Sen; Yuan, Shou-Qi; Xia, Jian-Ping; Ge, Yong

    2016-10-01

    We report an acoustic focusing lens composed of two-layer annuluses made of metal cylinders in air. We find that the cylindrical waves can be focused into a perfect point without diffraction in the centre of the annuluses, which arises from the Mie-resonance modes in the annuluses. The focusing frequencies are related to the size of the inner annulus, and the focusing effect can be applied to the annuluses with different shapes and incident positions. Interesting applications of the focusing lens in the acoustic beam splitter and directional transmitter with energy enhancement are further discussed. Project supported by the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51239005), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11404147), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20140519), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M571672), the Research Fund for Advanced Talents of Jiangsu University, China (Grant No. 11JDG118), and the Training Project of Young Backbone Teachers of Jiangsu University, China.

  16. Single crystal growth and properties of two layered oxytellurides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besara, Tiglet; Ramirez, Daniel; Siegrist, Theo; Sun, Jifeng; Whalen, Jeffrey; Tokumoto, Takahisa; McGill, Stephen; Stillwell, Ryan; Tozer, Stanley; Singh, David

    2015-03-01

    We report on the synthesis, structure, and physical properties of two layered oxytellurides: Ba3Yb2O5Te and Ba2TeO. Both compound were grown in single crystalline form using a molten metal flux, and crystallize in a tetragonal space group: P4 / mmm for Ba3Yb2O5Te and P4 / nmm for Ba2TeO. Ba3Yb2O5TeconsistsofBa2Yb2O5 perovskite double layers separated by a CsCl-type BaTe slab, while Ba2TeO consists of an inverse PbO-type BaO layer separated by an NaCl-type BaTe slab. Ba3Yb2O5Te displays short range 2D magnetic ordering below 4 K, and a sharp optical absorption feature at 1.27 eV consistent with a 2F7 / 2-->2F5 / 2 transition of Yb3+. For Ba2TeO, optical measurements display a sharp increase in absorbance, a manifest of a band edge. DOS corroborates the band gap, at 2.93 eV, indicating semiconducting behavior. DOE DE-SC0008832 (T.B., D.R., J.S., T.S.), NSF DMR-1157490 (NHMFL).

  17. FMR doublet in two-layer iron garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, A. M.; Dellalov, V. S.; Nikolayev, E. I.; Shkar, V. F.; Yampolskii, S. V.

    1994-11-01

    Multilayer epitaxial iron garnet films have been investigated very intensively in the recent past. The dipole and exchange couplings of spins lying in different layers results in the existence of new types of oscillations in these structures and give rise to the characteristic resonance properties of them. Resonance microwave absorption in two-layer iron garnet films, of which one layer is in a saturated state and the other is in a demagnetized state, is investigated. The films were prepared by the epitaxial method on a gallium-gadolinium substrate with (111) orientation. The first layer on the substrate was the doped iron yttrium garnet with the easy plane magnetization. The second easy axis layer was the bubble domain layer. The resonant field of the first layer FMR line versus the external in-plane magnetic field was investigated. It was determined that the FMR doublet merge into a single line and the resonance intensity is doubled if the magnetic field is oriented in the zone axes (110) directions. It was established that the FMR line splitting is conditioned by the layer exchange interaction, the cubic anisotropy, and the domain dissipative field. The magnetic and anisotropy of the resonance fields agrees with the model of an isolated layer magnetized by domains of the neighboring layer.

  18. Zonostrophic Turbulence in Two-layer Quasi-geotrophic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, J.; Jansen, M.; Vallis, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    Zonostrophic turbulence was discovered in the one-layer shallow water model forced by random stirring and has since been related to Jovian atmosphere for the appearance of very strong and steady zonal jets. This study shows that such zonostrophic turbulence can also exist in a two-layer QG model driven by baroclinic instability. The kinetic energy spectrum shows a clear transition from the inertial inverse cascade regime with energy spectrum slope -5/3 at small scales to the zonostrophic regime with slope -5 at the largest scales. The turbulent regime is characterized by two non-dimensional numbers criticality and non-dimensional surface friction. The zonostrophic regime is reached and is most clear in the corner of low friction and low criticality. A new dependency of eddy diffusivity on surface friction is founded when surface friction is low enough, that eddy diffusivity decreases with surface friction regardless of criticality. The zonal jets are found to be strong mixing barriers, especially in the upper layer, and therefore potential vorticity (PV) and tracer staircases are formed. Time-space spectrum shows that the strong zonal jet traps waves within the critical latitudes so that the waves do not break. The longest waves are trapped as edge waves, and the shorter waves are trapped by Rossby wave reflection. Both are a result of the PV gradient created by the jet core.

  19. A constrained two-layer compression technique for ECG waves.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyungguen; Song, Eunwoo; Shim, Hwan; Lim, Hyungjoon; Kang, Hong-Goo

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a constrained two-layer compression technique for electrocardiogram (ECG) waves, of which encoded parameters can be directly used for the diagnosis of arrhythmia. In the first layer, a single ECG beat is represented by one of the registered templates in the codebook. Since the required coding parameter in this layer is only the codebook index of the selected template, its compression ratio (CR) is very high. Note that the distribution of registered templates is also related to the characteristics of ECG waves, thus it can be used as a metric to detect various types of arrhythmias. The residual error between the input and the selected template is encoded by a wavelet-based transform coding in the second layer. The number of wavelet coefficients is constrained by pre-defined maximum distortion to be allowed. The MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm shows around 7.18 CR when the reference value of percentage root mean square difference (PRD) is set to ten. PMID:26737691

  20. In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.

  1. A two-layer closure of sino-orbital fistula.

    PubMed

    Tse, D T; Bumsted, R M

    1989-11-01

    A two-layer closure of sino-orbital fistulae using tension-free local flaps is described. For small fistulae, the opening is first closed with a mucosal turnover flap; this is combined on the orbital surface with a local rotational advancement flap of the orbital skin. For larger fistulae where a mucosal turnover flap cannot be fashioned, a two-stage, delayed, composite mucocutaneous rotational flap is used. The advantages of these techniques are: (1) a mucous membrane to provide nasal or sinus lining, insulating the raw ventral surface of the skin flap; (2) each flap has an independent blood supply; (3) local flaps are used, avoiding the use of a pedicle flap from forehead; (4) excellent cosmesis since tissues outside the orbital rim are not disturbed; and (5) does not require refitting of exenteration prosthesis since the integrity of the orbital rim is maintained. The authors have used these techniques in six patients with chronic sino-orbital fistulae of the exenterated socket. In one patient, a wound dehiscence occurred and a small fistula measuring 3 to 4 mm in diameter persisted. The fistulae of the remaining five patients were successfully closed.

  2. A multiobjective two-layer transportation network design model

    SciTech Connect

    Figlali, A.; Koc, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, a two-layer transportation network design model with three objectives is presented. The objectives are: (1) to minimize the primary path length (or travelling time) from a predetermined starting node to a predetermined terminus node; (2) to minimize the total distance traversed by the demand to reach the primary path; (3) to minimize the total road construction cost. The problem is formulated as an integer linear programming model and solved as relaxed continuous linear programming model. If fractional values for the variables occur, then a branch and bound algorithm may be employed to obtain 0 or 1 variable values. In the model, three different solution procedure is suggested which depends on the preference position of the decision maker. Such problems are encountered in the applications of the construction of a new rail line between two major cities of a developing country; in the construction of networks of highways and unimproved roads; in the design of airline routes and in the design of energy distribution systems.

  3. Optimization of conical hydrostatic bearing for minimum friction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nypan, L. J.; Hamrock, B. J.; Scibbe, H. W.; Anderson, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Equations for the flow rate, load capacity, and friction torque for a conical hydrostatic bearing were developed. These equations were solved by a digital computer program to determine bearing configurations for minimum friction torque. Design curves are presented that show optimal bearing dimensions for minimum friction torque as a function of dimensionless flow rate for a range of dimensionless load capacity. Results are shown for both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. The results indicate that hydrostatic pocket friction is a significant portion of the total friction torque. However, the bearing dimensions for a minimum friction design are affected very little by inclusion of pocket friction in the analysis. For laminar flow the values of the outer-land radius ratio X3 and outer bearing radius ratio X4 did not change significantly with increasing friction factor. For turbulent flow, the outer bearing radius ratio X4 did not change with increasing friction factor; therefore the value determined for X4 in the laminar flow case is valid for all turbulent flows.

  4. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware

  5. Traffic dynamics on two-layer complex networks with limited delivering capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinlong; Han, Weizhan; Guo, Qing; Wang, Zhenyong

    2016-08-01

    The traffic dynamics of multi-layer networks has attracted a great deal of interest since many real networks are comprised of two or more layers of subnetworks. Due to its low traffic capacity, the average delivery capacity allocation strategy is susceptible to congestion with the wildly used shortest path routing protocol on two-layer complex networks. In this paper, we introduce a delivery capacity allocation strategy into the traffic dynamics on two-layer complex networks and focus on its effect on the traffic capacity measured by the critical point Rc of phase transition from free flow to congestion. When the total nodes delivering capacity is fixed, the delivering capacity of each node in physical layer is assigned to the degree distributions of both the physical and logical layers. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can bring much better traffic capacity than that with the average delivery capacity allocation strategy. Because of the significantly improved traffic performance, this work may be useful for optimal design of networked traffic dynamics.

  6. Nonlinear traveling waves in a two-layer system with heat release/consumption at the interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanovskii, Ilya B.; Viviani, Antonio; Dubois, Frank; Legros, Jean-Claude

    2016-06-01

    The influence of an interfacial heat release and heat consumption on nonlinear convective flows, developed under the joint action of buoyant and thermocapillary effects in a laterally heated two-layer system with periodic boundary conditions, is investigated. Regimes of traveling waves and modulated traveling waves have been obtained. It is found that rather intensive heat sinks at the interface can lead to the change of the direction of the waves' propagation.

  7. Intrusive gravity currents propagating into two-layer stratified ambients: Vorticity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodkar, M. A.; Nasr-Azadani, M. M.; Meiburg, E.

    2016-08-01

    A simplified model is developed for intrusive gravity currents propagating along the interface of a two-layer stratified ambient. The model is based on the conservation of mass and vorticity and it does not require any empirical closure assumptions. A parametric study conducted with this model reproduces the correct behavior in various limits and is consistent with previously reported experimental observations. Specifically, it predicts the formation of equilibrium intrusions when the intrusion density equals the depth-weighted mean density of the two ambient layers. It furthermore demonstrates the existence of nonsmooth limits under certain conditions. An energy analysis shows that under nonequilibrium conditions the intrusion gains energy. The predictions by the parametric study are furthermore compared to two-dimensional direct numerical simulation results and very good agreement is observed with regard to all flow properties.

  8. Marangoni waves in a two-layer film under the action of an inclined temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomnyashchy, A. A.; Simanovskii, I. B.

    2014-08-01

    The development of the longwave deformational instability of a thermocapillary flow in a two-layer film under the action of an inclined temperature gradient is studied in the framework of the lubrication approximation. The stability boundaries with respect to different oscillatory modes are calculated by means of the linear stability theory. In a contradistinction to the case of a vertical temperature gradient, these boundaries strongly depend on the direction of the wave propagation. Numerical simulations of spatially periodic nonlinear regimes are fulfilled. It is shown that because of the anisotropy of the problem, the most typical kind of patterns is a traveling wave. For small inclination of the temperature gradient, temporally quasiperiodic waves are observed. A number of new three-dimensional traveling wave planforms is revealed.

  9. Hydrostatic Stress Effects in Metal Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the theory of plasticity has assumed that hydrostatic stress does not affect the yield or postyield behavior of metals. This assumption is based on the early work of Bridgman. Bridgman found that hydrostatic pressure (compressive stress) does not affect yield behavior until a substantial amount of pressure (greater than 100 ksi) is present. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hydrostatic tension on yield behavior. Two different specimen geometries were examined: an equal-arm bend specimen and a double edge notch specimen. The presence of a notch is sufficient to develop high enough hydrostatic tensile stresses to affect yield. The von Mises yield function, which does not have a hydrostatic component, and the Drucker-Prager yield function, which includes a hydrostatic component, were used in finite element analyses of the two specimen geometries. The analyses were compared to test data from IN 100 specimens. For both geometries, the analyses using the Drucker-Prager yield function more closely simulated the test data. The von Mises yield function lead to 5-10% overprediction of the force-displacement or force-strain response of the test specimens.

  10. A Hydrostatic Bearing Test System for Measuring Bearing Load Using Magnetic-Fluid Lubricants.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huei Chu; Chen, Lu-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This paper conducts a study on the design of a hydrostatic bearing test system. It involves the determination of viscous properties of magnetic-fluid lubricants. The load of a hydrostatic thrust bearing using a water-based magnetite nanofluid of varying volume flow rate is measured under an applied external induction field via the test system. Results reveal that the presence of nanoparticles in a carrier liquid would cause an enhanced bearing load. Such an effect could be further magnified by increasing the lubricant volume flow rate or the external induction field strength. PMID:27483902

  11. Parametric investigation on mixing in a micromixer with two-layer crossing channels.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Shakhawat; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a parametric investigation on flow and mixing in a chaotic micromixer consisting of two-layer crossing channels proposed by Xia et al. (Lab Chip 5: 748-755, 2005). The flow and mixing performance were numerically analyzed using commercially available software ANSYS CFX-15.0, which solves the Navier-Stokes and mass conservation equations with a diffusion-convection model in a Reynolds number range from 0.2 to 40. A mixing index based on the variance of the mass fraction of the mixture was employed to evaluate the mixing performance of the micromixer. The flow structure in the channel was also investigated to identify the relationship with mixing performance. The mixing performance and pressure-drop were evaluated with two dimensionless geometric parameters, i.e., ratios of the sub-channel width to the main channel width and the channels depth to the main channel width. The results revealed that the mixing index at the exit of the micromixer increases with increase in the channel depth-to-width ratio, but decreases with increase in the sub-channel width to main channel width ratio. And, it was found that the mixing index could be increased up to 0.90 with variations of the geometric parameters at Re = 0.2, and the pressure drop was very sensitive to the geometric parameters. PMID:27390635

  12. Two Layer Model for Local Tear Film Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gewecke, Nicholas; Braun, Rich; Breward, Chris; King-Smith, Ewen

    2012-11-01

    Many tear film models utilize a single-layer approach that represents only the aqueous layer, which constitutes the majority of the tear film. In such models, the layer is dominated by shear stresses. Some recent models have incorporated surfactant effects at the liquid-air interface to model the effects of polar lipids there. Clinical observations of the lipid layer indicate more complicated dynamics of the lipid layer than demonstrated by these previous models. The model presented in this talk includes a thin lipid layer between the aqueous layer and the air, which is treated as an extensional flow. Our results demonstrate formation of lipid drops, with the number of drops dependent upon the parameters of the system, especially the thickness ratio between the lipid and aqueous layers.

  13. Two-layer viscous instability in a rotating couette device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Christopher; Kropnewicki, Tom; Leighton, David T.; Mccready, Mark J.

    1994-01-01

    A novel experiment to study the interfacial shear instability between two liquids is described. Density-matched immiscible liquids are confined between concentric cylinders such that the interface is parallel to the cylinder walls. Interfacial waves that develop because of viscosity differences between the shearing fluids are studied as a function of rotation rate and depth ratio using optical techniques. Conditions neutral stability and the most unstable wavenumber agree reasonably well with predictions from linear stability analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations. Illumination using laser sheets allows precise measurement of the interface shape. Future experiments will verify the correctness of weakly nonlinear theories that describe energy transfer and saturation of wave growth by nonlinear effects. Measurements of solitary wave shapes, that occur far above neutral stability, will be compared to similar measurements for systems that have gravity as an important force to determine how gravity effects large disturbances. These results will be used to interpret slug and annular flow data that have been obtained in other mu g studies.

  14. Mobil uses two-layer coating process on replacement pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    Mobil Oil's West Coast Pipe Line, as part of an ongoing program, has replaced sections of its crude oil pipe line that crosses Southern California's San Joaquin Valley. The significant aspect of the replacement project was the use of a new two-part coating process that has the ability to make cathodic protection more effective, while not deteriorating in service. Mobil's crude line extends from the company's San Joaquin Valley oil field in Kern County to the Torrance, Calif., refinery on the south side of Los Angeles. It crosses a variety of terrain including desert, foothills and urban development. Crude oil from the San Joaquin Valley is heavy and requires heating for efficient flow. Normal operating temperature is about 180{degrees}F. Due to moisture in the soil surrounding the hot line, the risk of corrosion is constant. Additionally, soil stress on such a line extending through the California hills inflicts damage on the protective coating. Under these conditions, coatings can soften, bake out and eventually become brittle. The ultimate result is separation from the pipe. The coating system employs a two-part process. Each of the two coatings are tailored to each other in a patented process, forming a chemical bond between the layers. This enhances the pipe protection both mechanically and electrically.

  15. Evaluation of a hybrid hydrostatic bearing for cryogenic turbopump application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spica, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.; Meyer, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    A hybrid hydrostatic bearing was designed to operate in liquid hydrogen at speeds to 80,000 rpm and radial loads to 440 n (100 lbf). The bearing assembly consisted of a pair of 20-mm angular-contact ball bearings encased in a journal, which was in turn supported by a fluid film of liquid hydrogen. The size and operating conditions of the bearing were selected to be compatible with the operating requirements of an advanced technology turbopump. Several test parameters were varied to characterize the bearing's steady-state operation. The rotation of the tester shaft was varied between 0 and 80,000 rpm. Bearing inlet fluid pressure was varied between 2.07 and 4.48 MPa (300 and 650 psia), while the fluid sump pressure was independently varied between 0.34 and 2.07 MPa (50 and 300 psia). The maximum radial load applied to the bearing was 440 N (110 lbf). Measured hybrid-hydrostatic-bearing stiffness was 1.5 times greater than predicted, while the fluid flow rate through the bearing was 35 to 65 percent less than predicted. Under two-phase fluid conditions, the stiffness was even greater and the flow rate was less. The optimal pressure ratio for the bearing should be between 0.2 and 0.55 depending on the balance desired between bearing efficiency and stiffness. Startup and shutdown cyclic tests were conducted to demonstrate the ability of the hybrid-hydrostatic-bearing assembly to survive at least a 300-firing-duty cycle. For a typical cycle, the shaft was accelerated to 50,000 rpm in 1.8 sec. The bearing operated for 337 start-stop cycles without failure.

  16. Two-layer Crustal Structure of the Contiguous United States from Joint Inversion of USArray Receiver Functions and Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Lowry, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The composition and thickness of crustal layering is fundamental to understanding the evolution and dynamics of continental lithosphere. Lowry and Pérez-Gussinyé (2011) found that the western Cordillera of the United States, characterized by active deformation and high heat flow, is strongly correlated with low bulk crustal seismic velocity ratio. They interpreted this observation as evidence that quartz controls continental tectonism and deformation. We will present new imaging of two-layer crustal composition and structure from cross-correlation of observed receiver functions and model synthetics. The cross-correlation coefficient of the two-layer model increases significantly relative to an assumed one-layer model, and the lower crustal thickness map from raw two-layer modeling (prior to Bayesian filtering with gravity models and Optimal Interpolation) clearly shows Colorado plateau and Appalachian boundaries, which are not apparent in upper crustal models, and also the high vP/vS fill the most of middle continental region while low vP/vS are on the west and east continental edge. In the presentation, we will show results of a new algorithm for joint Bayesian inversion of thickness and vP/vS of two-layer continental crustal structure. Recent thermodynamical modeling of geophysical models based on lab experiment data (Guerri et al., 2015) found that a large impedance contrast can be expected in the midcrust due to a phase transition that decreases plagioclase and increases clinopyroxene, without invoking any change in crustal chemistry. The depth of the transition depends on pressure, temperature and hydration, and in this presentation we will compare predictions of layer thicknesses and vP/vS predicted by mineral thermodynamics to those we observe in the USArray footprint.

  17. Spatial variability of steady-state infiltration into a two-layer soil system on burned hillslopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff simulations were conducted to estimate the characteristics of the steady-state infiltration rate into 1-m2 north- and south-facing hillslope plots burned by a wildfire in October 2003. Soil profiles in the plots consisted of a two-layer system composed of an ash on top of sandy mineral soil. Multiple rainfall rates (18.4-51.2 mm h-1) were used during 14 short-duration (30 min) and 2 long-duration simulations (2-4 h). Steady state was reached in 7-26 min. Observed spatially-averaged steady-state infiltration rates ranged from 18.2 to 23.8 mm h-1 for north-facing and from 17.9 to 36.0 mm h-1 for south-facing plots. Three different theoretical spatial distribution models of steady-state infiltration rate were fit to the measurements of rainfall rate and steady-state discharge to provided estimates of the spatial average (19.2-22.2 mm h-1) and the coefficient of variation (0.11-0.40) of infiltration rates, overland flow contributing area (74-90% of the plot area), and infiltration threshold (19.0-26 mm h-1). Tensiometer measurements indicated a downward moving pressure wave and suggest that infiltration-excess overland flow is the runoff process on these burned hillslope with a two-layer system. Moreover, the results indicate that the ash layer is wettable, may restrict water flow into the underlying layer, and increase the infiltration threshold; whereas, the underlying mineral soil, though coarser, limits the infiltration rate. These results of the spatial variability of steady-state infiltration can be used to develop physically-based rainfall-runoff models for burned areas with a two-layer soil system. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    DOE PAGES

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy alsomore » eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.« less

  19. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy also eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.

  20. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Andersson, I.; Ericsson, U.

    1981-01-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  1. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Andersson, I.; Ericsson, U.

    1981-05-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  2. Two-layer convective heating prediction procedures and sensitivities for blunt body reentry vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouslog, Stanley A.; An, Michael Y.; Wang, K. C.; Tam, Luen T.; Caram, Jose M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a description of procedures typically used to predict convective heating rates to hypersonic reentry vehicles using the two-layer method. These procedures were used to compute the pitch-plane heating distributions to the Apollo geometry for a wind tunnel test case and for three flight cases. Both simple engineering methods and coupled inviscid/boundary layer solutions were used to predict the heating rates. The sensitivity of the heating results in the choice of metrics, pressure distributions, boundary layer edge conditions, and wall catalycity used in the heating analysis were evaluated. Streamline metrics, pressure distributions, and boundary layer edge properties were defined from perfect gas (wind tunnel case) and chemical equilibrium and nonequilibrium (flight cases) inviscid flow-field solutions. The results of this study indicated that the use of CFD-derived metrics and pressures provided better predictions of heating when compared to wind tunnel test data. The study also showed that modeling entropy layer swallowing and ionization had little effect on the heating predictions.

  3. A two-layer model to simulate variations in surface water chemistry draining a northern forest watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Limin; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2005-09-01

    Seasonal patterns are evident in surface water chemistry draining forested headwaters in the northeastern United States. This variation in surface water chemistry is largely driven by seasonal fluctuations in hydrologic flow paths and biological activity. Especially during spring snowmelt, high-flow conditions are characterized by high concentrations of NO3‒, naturally occurring organic anions and aluminum species, and depression in surface water pH and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Under extreme conditions, decreases in pH and ANC and increases in aluminum can have adverse effects on aquatic biota. As a result, there is a critical need to be able to simulate seasonal variations in surface water acid-base chemistry. Previously, a single soil layer biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC) was found to be inadequate to simulate seasonal variations in stream chemistry draining acid-sensitive forest watersheds. In order to better simulate the seasonal variations in the acid-base chemistry of surface waters, a two-layer model (PnET-BGC2) was formulated and applied to a northern forest ecosystem. End-member mixing analysis was used to better understand hydrologic flow paths contributing to temporal patterns in stream chemistry and to parameterize the model. The resulting two-layer model is generally able to reproduce the seasonal variations in surface water runoff, concentrations of base cations, SO42‒, NO3‒, pH, and ANC.

  4. A two-layer model to simulate variations in surface water chemistry draining a northern forest watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Limin; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2005-09-01

    Seasonal patterns are evident in surface water chemistry draining forested headwaters in the northeastern United States. This variation in surface water chemistry is largely driven by seasonal fluctuations in hydrologic flow paths and biological activity. Especially during spring snowmelt, high-flow conditions are characterized by high concentrations of NO3-, naturally occurring organic anions and aluminum species, and depression in surface water pH and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Under extreme conditions, decreases in pH and ANC and increases in aluminum can have adverse effects on aquatic biota. As a result, there is a critical need to be able to simulate seasonal variations in surface water acid-base chemistry. Previously, a single soil layer biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC) was found to be inadequate to simulate seasonal variations in stream chemistry draining acid-sensitive forest watersheds. In order to better simulate the seasonal variations in the acid-base chemistry of surface waters, a two-layer model (PnET-BGC2) was formulated and applied to a northern forest ecosystem. End-member mixing analysis was used to better understand hydrologic flow paths contributing to temporal patterns in stream chemistry and to parameterize the model. The resulting two-layer model is generally able to reproduce the seasonal variations in surface water runoff, concentrations of base cations, SO42-, NO3-, pH, and ANC.

  5. Hydrostatic liquid-bearing for precision gyro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sgambati, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Unit with 2W power increase and slightly larger overall dimensions performs as well as or better than its gas-bearing counterpart. Liquid-bearings are built by reworking serviceable gas-bearing components /sleeves, endplates, and cylinders/. Hydrostatic bearing is self-centered, requiring no magnetic suspension or centering jewel.

  6. A Load Cell for Hydrostatic Weighing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Thomas D.; Schroeder, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Although a load cell is more expensive than the autopsy scale for hydrostatic weighing, it is more accurate, easier to read, has no moving parts, is less susceptible to rust, and is less likely to be damaged by large subjects exceeding its capacity. (Author)

  7. Numerical Simulation of Damage during Forging with Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressure by Active Media

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, B.-A.; Hagen, T.; Roehr, S.; Sidhu, K. B.

    2007-05-17

    The effective reduction of energy consumption and a reasonable treatment of resources can be achieved by minimizing a component's weight using lightweight metals. In this context, aluminum alloys play a major role. Due to their material-sided restricted formability, the mentioned aluminum materials are difficult to form. The plasticity of a material is ascertained by its maximum forming limit. It is attained, when the deformation causes mechanical damage within the material. Damage of that sort is reached more rapidly, the greater the tensile strength rate in relation to total tension rate. A promising approach of handling these low ductile, high-strength aluminum alloys within a forming process, is forming with a synchronized superposition of comprehensive stress by active media such as by controlling oil pressure. The influence of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the flow stress was analyzed as well as the formability for different procedures at different hydrostatic pressures and temperature levels. It was observed that flow stress is independent of superimposed hydrostatic pressure. Neither the superimposed pressure has an influence on the plastic deformation, nor does a pressure dependent material hardening due to increasing hydrostatic pressure take place. The formability increases with rising hydrostatic pressure. The relative gain at room temperature and increase of the superimposed pressure from 0 to 600 bar for tested materials was at least 140 % and max. 220 %. Therefore in this paper, based on these experimental observations, it is the intended to develop a numerical simulation in order to predict ductile damage that occurs in the bulk forging process with superimposed hydrostatic pressure based Lemaitre's damage model.

  8. 49 CFR 178.814 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.814 Section 178.814... Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification... loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids. (b) Special preparation for...

  9. 49 CFR 178.814 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.814 Section 178.814... Testing of IBCs § 178.814 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be... contain solids that are loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids. (b)...

  10. 49 CFR 178.605 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.605 Section 178.605... Packagings and Packages § 178.605 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must... required for inner packagings of combination packagings. For internal pressure requirements for...

  11. 49 CFR 178.605 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.605 Section 178.605... Packagings and Packages § 178.605 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must... required for inner packagings of combination packagings. For internal pressure requirements for...

  12. 49 CFR 178.605 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.605 Section 178.605... Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.605 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification of all metal, plastic, and...

  13. 49 CFR 178.814 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.814 Section 178.814... Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification... loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids. (b) Special preparation for...

  14. 49 CFR 178.814 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.814 Section 178.814... Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification... loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids. (b) Special preparation for...

  15. 49 CFR 178.605 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.605 Section 178.605... Packagings and Packages § 178.605 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must... required for inner packagings of combination packagings. For internal pressure requirements for...

  16. 46 CFR 61.30-10 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-10 Hydrostatic test. All new installations of thermal fluid heaters must be given a hydrostatic test of 11/2 times the maximum allowable... all accessible parts under pressure. The thermal fluid may be used as the hydrostatic test medium....

  17. 46 CFR 61.30-10 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-10 Hydrostatic test. All new installations of thermal fluid heaters must be given a hydrostatic test of 11/2 times the maximum allowable... all accessible parts under pressure. The thermal fluid may be used as the hydrostatic test medium....

  18. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  19. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  20. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  1. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  2. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  3. A global non-hydrostatic dynamical core using the spectral element method on a cubed-sphere grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Suk-Jin; Hong, Song-You

    2016-06-01

    A new global model with a non-hydrostatic (NH) dynamical core is developed. It employs the spectral element method (SEM) in the horizontal discretization and the finite difference method (FDM) in the vertical discretization. The solver includes a time-split third-order Runge-Kutta (RK3) time-integration technique. Pursuing the quasi-uniform and pole singularity-free spherical geometry, a cubed-sphere grid is employed. To assess the performance of the developed dynamical solver, the results from a number of idealized benchmark tests for hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic flows are presented and compared. The results indicate that the non-hydrostatic dynamical solver is able to produce solutions with good accuracy and consistency comparable to reference solutions. Further evaluation of the model with a full-physics package demonstrates its capability in reproducing heavy rainfall over the Korean Peninsula, which confirms that coupling of the dynamical solver and full-physics package is robust.

  4. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure.

  5. A new method for achieving complete two-layer closure of a massive palatal cleft.

    PubMed

    Bumsted, R M

    1982-03-01

    A new surgical technique was used to provide a complete two-layer closure of an extremely wide cleft palate in cases in which the width of the cleft defect is larger than the sum of the combined widths of the remaining palate. The oral layer of closure is obtained by the use of turnover flaps of the nasal mucoperiosteum based on the margin of the cleft. This recruits the nasal mucosal flap into the oral layer of closure and allows adequate width for complete closure of the oral layer of the cleft. The nasal layer of closure is obtained by the use of a wide, long, superiorly based pharyngeal flap. This technique provides, in a single surgical procedure, a complete two-layer closure of extremely wide palatal defects. Previously, staged procedures were necessary to obtain a complete two-layer closure, or if a single procedure was performed, an incomplete two-layer closure resulted.

  6. Strength Differential Measured in Inconel 718: Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, John J.; Wesseling, Paul; Prabhu, Nishad S.; Larose, Joel; Lissenden, Cliff J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2003-01-01

    Aeropropulsion components, such as disks, blades, and shafts, are commonly subjected to multiaxial stress states at elevated temperatures. Experimental results from loadings as complex as those experienced in service are needed to help guide the development of accurate viscoplastic, multiaxial deformation models that can be used to improve the design of these components. During a recent study on multiaxial deformation (ref. 1) on a common aerospace material, Inconel 718, it was shown that the material in the aged state exhibits a strength differential effect (SDE), whereby the uniaxial compressive yield and subsequent flow behavior are significantly higher than those in uniaxial tension. Thus, this material cannot be described by a standard von Mises yield formulation. There have been other formulations postulated (ref. 2) that involve other combinations of the stress invariants, including the effect of hydrostatic stress. The question remained as to which invariants are necessary in the flow model. To capture the physical mechanisms occurring during deformation and reflect them in the plasticity formulation, researchers examined the flow of Inconel 718 under various amounts of hydrostatic stress to determine whether or not hydrostatic stress is needed in the formulation. Under NASA Grant NCC3-464, monitored by the NASA Glenn Research Center, a series of tensile tests were conducted at Case Western Reserve University on aged (precipitation hardened) Inconel 718 at 650 C and with superimposed hydrostatic pressure. Dogbone shaped tensile specimens (3-mm-diameter gauge by 16-mm gauge length) and cylindrical compression specimens (3-mm-diameter gauge by 6-mm gauge length) were strain gauged and loaded in a high-pressure testing apparatus. Hydrostatic pressures were obtained with argon and ranged from 210 to 630 MPa. The aged Inconel 718 showed a pronounced difference in the tension and compression yield strength (i.e., an SDE), as previously observed. Also, there were

  7. A Multipurpose Device for Some Hydrostatics Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    A number of well-known hydrostatics problems dealing with Archimedes' principle concern a loaded boat floating in a pool. Examples of this sort of problem include: 1. (a) If a stone is thrown overboard from a boat floating in a pool, does the water level in the pool rise, fall, or remain unchanged? (b) If a hole is made in the bottom of the boat…

  8. Work capsule for lightweight hydrostatic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, M. S.

    1983-02-01

    The theoretical feasibility of designing a lightweight flexible capsule suitable for use as the basic actuating means in the place of the conventional piston and cylinder in a high pressure hydrostatic machine was investigated. The idea was suggested by the high strength/modulus ratio obtained with glass fiber reinforced composites. It is found that the combined effect of hoop and bend stresses in the flexible walls of a bellows type capsule imposes severe limitations on the work output of the capsule.

  9. Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces.

  10. An anaerobic two-layer permeable reactive biobarrier for the remediation of nitrate-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, She-Jiang; Zhao, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Jie; Wang, Juan; Qi, Yun

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, an anaerobic two-layer permeable reactive biobarrier system consisting of an oxygen-capturing layer followed by a biodegradation layer was designed firstly for evaluating the remediation effectiveness of nitrate-contaminated groundwater. The first layer filling with granular oxygen-capturing materials is used to capture dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater in order to create an anaerobic condition for the microbial denitrification. Furthermore, it can also provide nutrition, such as carbon and phosphorus, for the normal metabolism of immobilized denitrifying bacteria filled in the second layer. The second layer using granular activated carbon as microbial carrier is able to biodegrade nitrate entering the barrier system. Batch experiments were conducted to identify the effect of DO on microbial denitrification, oxygen-capturing performance of zero valent iron (ZVI) powder and the characteristics of the prepared oxygen-capturing materials used to stimulate growth of denitrifying bacteria. A laboratory-scale experiment using two continuous upflow stainless-steel columns was then performed to evaluate the feasibility of this designed system. The first column was filled with granular oxygen-capturing materials prepared by ZVI powder, sodium citrate as well as other inorganic salts, etc. The second column was filled with activated carbon immobilizing denitrifying microbial consortium. Simulated nitrate-contaminated groundwater (40 mg NO3-N/L, pH 7.0) with 6 mg/L of DO content was pumped into this system at a flow rate of 235 mL/d. Samples from the second column were analyzed for nitrate and its major degradation byproduct. Results showed that nitrate could be removed more than 94%, and its metabolic intermediate, nitrite, could also be biodegraded further in this passive system. Further study is necessary in order to evaluate performance of its field application.

  11. Role of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures in bacteriophage genome ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, Serge G.; Panja, Debabrata; Molineux, Ian J.

    2013-02-01

    A critical step in the bacteriophage life cycle is genome ejection into host bacteria. The ejection process for double-stranded DNA phages has been studied thoroughly in vitro, where after triggering with the cellular receptor the genome ejects into a buffer. The experimental data have been interpreted in terms of the decrease in free energy of the densely packed DNA associated with genome ejection. Here we detail a simple model of genome ejection in terms of the hydrostatic and osmotic pressures inside the phage, a bacterium, and a buffer solution or culture medium. We argue that the hydrodynamic flow associated with the water movement from the buffer solution into the phage capsid and further drainage into the bacterial cytoplasm, driven by the osmotic gradient between the bacterial cytoplasm and culture medium, provides an alternative mechanism for phage genome ejection in vivo; the mechanism is perfectly consistent with phage genome ejection in vitro.

  12. A two-layer multiple-time-scale turbulence model and grid independence study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.

    1989-01-01

    A two-layer multiple-time-scale turbulence model is presented. The near-wall model is based on the classical Kolmogorov-Prandtl turbulence hypothesis and the semi-empirical logarithmic law of the wall. In the two-layer model presented, the computational domain of the conservation of mass equation and the mean momentum equation penetrated up to the wall, where no slip boundary condition has been prescribed; and the near wall boundary of the turbulence equations has been located at the fully turbulent region, yet very close to the wall, where the standard wall function method has been applied. Thus, the conservation of mass constraint can be satisfied more rigorously in the two-layer model than in the standard wall function method. In most of the two-layer turbulence models, the number of grid points to be used inside the near-wall layer posed the issue of computational efficiency. The present finite element computational results showed that the grid independent solutions were obtained with as small as two grid points, i.e., one quadratic element, inside the near wall layer. Comparison of the computational results obtained by using the two-layer model and those obtained by using the wall function method is also presented.

  13. A two-layer approach to the coupled coherent states method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James A.; Grigolo, Adriano; Ronto, Miklos; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a two-layer scheme is outlined for the coupled coherent states (CCS) method, dubbed two-layer CCS (2L-CCS). The theoretical framework is motivated by that of the multiconfigurational Ehrenfest method, where different dynamical descriptions are used for different subsystems of a quantum mechanical system. This leads to a flexible representation of the wavefunction, making the method particularly suited to the study of composite systems. It was tested on a 20-dimensional asymmetric system-bath tunnelling problem, with results compared to a benchmark calculation, as well as existing CCS, matching-pursuit/split-operator Fourier transform, and configuration interaction expansion methods. The two-layer method was found to lead to improved short and long term propagation over standard CCS, alongside improved numerical efficiency and parallel scalability. These promising results provide impetus for future development of the method for on-the-fly direct dynamics calculations.

  14. Thermal fluid-solid interaction model and experimental validation for hydrostatic mechanical face seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weifeng; Liao, Chuanjun; Liu, Xiangfeng; Suo, Shuangfu; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuming

    2014-09-01

    Hydrostatic mechanical face seals for reactor coolant pumps are very important for the safety and reliability of pressurized-water reactor power plants. More accurate models on the operating mechanism of the seals are needed to help improve their performance. The thermal fluid-solid interaction (TFSI) mechanism of the hydrostatic seal is investigated in this study. Numerical models of the flow field and seal assembly are developed. Based on the mechanism for the continuity condition of the physical quantities at the fluid-solid interface, an on-line numerical TFSI model for the hydrostatic mechanical seal is proposed using an iterative coupling method. Dynamic mesh technology is adopted to adapt to the changing boundary shape. Experiments were performed on a test rig using a full-size test seal to obtain the leakage rate as a function of the differential pressure. The effectiveness and accuracy of the TFSI model were verified by comparing the simulation results and experimental data. Using the TFSI model, the behavior of the seal is presented, including mechanical and thermal deformation, and the temperature field. The influences of the rotating speed and differential pressure of the sealing device on the temperature field, which occur widely in the actual use of the seal, are studied. This research proposes an on-line and assembly-based TFSI model for hydrostatic mechanical face seals, and the model is validated by full-sized experiments.

  15. Arsenolite: a quasi-hydrostatic solid pressure-transmitting medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sans, J. A.; Manjón, F. J.; Popescu, C.; Muñoz, A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Jordá, J. L.; Rey, F.

    2016-11-01

    This study reports the experimental characterization of the hydrostatic properties of arsenolite (As4O6), a molecular solid which is one of the softest minerals in the absence of hydrogen bonding. The high compressibility of arsenolite and its stability up to 15 GPa have been proved by x-ray diffraction measurements, and the progressive loss of hydrostaticity with increasing pressure up to 20 GPa has been monitored by ruby photoluminescence. Arsenolite has been found to exhibit hydrostatic behavior up to 2.5 GPa and a quasi-hydrostatic behavior up to 10 GPa at room temperature. This result opens the way to explore other molecular solids as possible quasi-hydrostatic pressure-transmitting media. The validity of arsenolite as an insulating, stable, non-penetrating and quasi-hydrostatic medium is explored by the study of the x-ray diffraction of zeolite ITQ-29 at high pressure.

  16. Arsenolite: a quasi-hydrostatic solid pressure-transmitting medium.

    PubMed

    Sans, J A; Manjón, F J; Popescu, C; Muñoz, A; Rodríguez-Hernández, P; Jordá, J L; Rey, F

    2016-11-30

    This study reports the experimental characterization of the hydrostatic properties of arsenolite (As4O6), a molecular solid which is one of the softest minerals in the absence of hydrogen bonding. The high compressibility of arsenolite and its stability up to 15 GPa have been proved by x-ray diffraction measurements, and the progressive loss of hydrostaticity with increasing pressure up to 20 GPa has been monitored by ruby photoluminescence. Arsenolite has been found to exhibit hydrostatic behavior up to 2.5 GPa and a quasi-hydrostatic behavior up to 10 GPa at room temperature. This result opens the way to explore other molecular solids as possible quasi-hydrostatic pressure-transmitting media. The validity of arsenolite as an insulating, stable, non-penetrating and quasi-hydrostatic medium is explored by the study of the x-ray diffraction of zeolite ITQ-29 at high pressure. PMID:27636010

  17. Two-Layer Ultra-High Density X-Ray Optical Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezirganyan, Hakob (Akop) P.; Bezirganyan, Siranush E.; Bezirganyan, Hayk H., Jr.; Bezirganyan, Petros H., Jr.

    Data reading procedure from nanostructured semiconductor X-ray optical memory (X-ROM) system detects data by measuring the changes in x-ray micro beam intensity reflected from the various surface points of data storage media. Two different mechanisms of the digital information read-out procedure, which are utilizing grazing-angle incidence X-ray backscattering diffraction (GIXB) and grazing-angle incidence X-ray reflection (GIX) techniques respectively, enable, in principle, the fabrication and exploitation of two-layer X-ROM. Angle of incidence of the x-ray micro beam is different for each storage layer of the proposed two-layer X-ROM.

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of heat transfer for two-layered microchannel heat sink with non-uniform heat flux conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shanglong; Yang, Lili; Li, Yue; Wu, Yihao; Hu, Xinglong

    2016-09-01

    To meet the cooling demand of electronic devices with multiple heat sources, we design two novel two-layer mini-channel heat sinks (3-port structure and 5-port structure) to improve the uniformity of surface temperature distribution. The temperature distribution and fluid flow in the two channel networks with single and two layer structures are investigated. The 5-port mini-channel network is verified to have a lower pressure drop and a better thermal performance compared with the 3-port one in terms of total thermal resistance and surface temperature distribution. For the 5-port 2-layer structure, the local thermal resistance ranges from 0.2 to 0.08 K/W at the flow rate of 400-900 ml/min while the pressure drop is lower than 2.5 kPa.

  19. Hydrostatic shoe bearing system for the TIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Schneider, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Godoy, Javier; Farah Simon, Alejandro; Quintanilla, R.; Soto, P.; Salas, Luis; Cruz-Gonzales, Irene

    2000-08-01

    We present an active, low cost hydrostatic shoe bearing system for the Mexican Infrared Telescope which solves the suspension and motion of a 100 ton, 7.8 m telescope. Different geometries are analyzed to optimize the shoe's pressure print. These designs offer a self-adjusting action between the shoe's sliding path and the girth track. Different parameters such as pressure, temperature and proximity are measured and implemented into a control system in order to stabilize the bearing from the fluid's thermal viscosity effects. A simple method for fluid injection is discussed.

  20. Nonlinear unsteady contact heat conduction of two-layer shells in the presence of thermal radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novikov, V. S.; Chumakov, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is proposed for calculating the complex heat transfer of mated shells with the surrounding medium which also takes into account the temperature dependence of the contact thermal resistance between the shells. This technique can be used for thermal calculations and for calculations of the temperature stresses in two-layer space structure shells.

  1. Analysis of Steam Heating of a Two-Layer TBP/N-Paraffin/Nitric Acid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.; Hassan, N.M.; Rudisill, T.S.; Askew, N.M.

    1998-07-22

    This report presents an analysis of steam heating of a two-layer tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin-nitric acid mixture.The purpose of this study is to determine if the degree of mixing provided by the steam jet or by bubbles generated by the TBP/nitric acid reaction is sufficient to prevent a runaway reaction.

  2. Cooperation in group-structured populations with two layers of interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanling; Fu, Feng; Chen, Xiaojie; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in studying multiplex networks where individuals are structured in multiple network layers. Previous agent-based simulations of games on multiplex networks reveal rich dynamics arising from interdependency of interactions along each network layer, yet there is little known about analytical conditions for cooperation to evolve thereof. Here we aim to tackle this issue by calculating the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation in group-structured populations with two layers of interactions. In our model, an individual is engaged in two layers of group interactions simultaneously and uses unrelated strategies across layers. Evolutionary competition of individuals is determined by the total payoffs accrued from two layers of interactions. We also consider migration which allows individuals to move to a new group within each layer. An approach combining the coalescence theory with the theory of random walks is established to overcome the analytical difficulty upon local migration. We obtain the exact results for all “isotropic” migration patterns, particularly for migration tuned with varying ranges. When the two layers use one game, the optimal migration ranges are proved identical across layers and become smaller as the migration probability grows. PMID:26632251

  3. Development And Application Of Non-Hydrostatic Model To The Coastal Engineering Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maderych, V.; Brovchenko, I.; Fenical, S.; Nikishov, V.; Terletska, K.

    2007-12-01

    The 3D non-hydrostatic free surface model developed by Kanarska and Maderich (2003) for stratified flows was further improved and has been used to simulate coastal processes. In the model the surface elevation, hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic components of pressure and velocity are calculated at sequential stages. Unlike most non-hydrostatic models, the 2-D depth-averaged momentum and continuity equations were integrated explicitly, whereas the 3-D equations were solved semi-implicitly at subsequent stages. The RANS and subgrid- scale eddy viscosity and diffusivity parameterization were implemented in the model to parameterize small-scale mixing. The model was applied to three coastal engineering problems. First, we used the model coupled with a 3D Lagrangian sediment transport model to predict scour caused by propeller jets of slowly maneuvering ships. The results of the simulations show good agreement with laboratory experiments and field ADCP measurements with tug boats. Second, the model was applied, while nested into the hydrostatic far-field counterpart model, for near-field simulation of cooling water discharge through submerged outfalls. Third, laboratory experiments and simulations were performed to estimate effects of large-amplitude internal solitary waves (ISW) on submerged structures and coastal bottom sediments. In the first series of experiments and simulations, the interaction of ISW-depressions with a rectangular bottom obstacle was investigated. In the second series, the ISW-depression was studied passing through a smooth local lateral constriction. The third series of laboratory experiments and simulations was conducted to investigate the dynamics of ISW of depressions reflecting from a steep slope. Contribution of V. Maderych in this work was supported by Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Research Fund of 2007.

  4. External Coulomb-Friction Damping For Hydrostatic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmann, Paul S.

    1992-01-01

    External friction device damps vibrations of shaft and hydrostatic ring bearing in which it turns. Does not rely on wear-prone facing surfaces. Hydrostatic bearing ring clamped in radially flexing support by side plates clamped against radial surfaces by spring-loaded bolts. Plates provide friction against radial motions of shaft.

  5. A Simple Explanation of the Classic Hydrostatic Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An interesting problem in fluid mechanics, with significant educational importance, is the classic hydrostatic paradox. The hydrostatic paradox states the fact that in different shaped containers, with the same base area, which are filled with a liquid of the same height, the applied force by the liquid on the base of each container is exactly the…

  6. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  8. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  9. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  10. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  11. Heat Transfer of Thermocapillary Convection in a Two-Layered Fluid System Under the Influence of Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Ludovisis, D.; Cha, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    Heat transfer of a two-layer fluid system has been of great importance in a variety of industrial applications. For example, the phenomena of immiscible fluids can be found in materials processing and heat exchangers. Typically in solidification from a melt, the convective motion is the dominant factor that affects the uniformity of material properties. In the layered flow, thermocapillary forces can come into an important play, which was first emphasized by a previous investigator in 1958. Under extraterrestrial environments without gravity, thermocapillary effects can be a more dominant factor, which alters material properties in processing. Control and optimization of heat transfer in an immiscible fluid system need complete understanding of the flow phenomena that can be induced by surface tension at a fluid interface. The present work is focused on understanding of the magnetic field effects on thermocapillary convection, in order to optimize material processing. That is, it involves the study of the complicated phenomena to alter the flow motion in crystal growth. In this effort, the Marangoni convection in a cavity with differentially heated sidewalls is investigated with and without the influence of a magnetic field. As a first step, numerical analyses are performed, by thoroughly investigating influences of all pertinent physical parameters. Experiments are then conducted, with preliminary results, for comparison with the numerical analyses.

  12. Impact of phenanthrene on the properties of biogeochemical interfaces in soil: A two-layer column study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, Katharina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Biogeochemical interfaces in soils (Totsche et al. 2010) are the "hot spots" of microbial activity and the processing of organic compounds in soils. The production and relocation of mobile organic matter (MOM) and biocolloids like microorganisms are key processes for the formation and depth propagation of biogeochemical interfaces in soils (BGI). Phenanthrene (PHE) has been shown to affect microbial communities in soils (Ding et al. 2012) and may induce shifts in MOM quantity and quality (amount, type and properties of MOM). We hypothesize that the properties of BGI in soil change significantly due to the presence of PHE. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the effect of PHE on soil microbial communities and on MOM quantity and quality under flow conditions with single- and two-layer column experiments and (ii) to assess the role of these processes for the physicochemical, mechanical and sorptive properties of BGI in soils. The soil columns were operated under water-unsaturated conditions. The top layer (source layer, SL, 2 cm) is made of sieved soil material (Luvisol, Scheyern, Germany) spiked with PHE (0.2 mg/g). The bottom layer (reception layer, RL, 10 cm) comprised the same soil without PHE. PHE-free columns were conducted in parallel as reference. Release and transport of MOM in mature soil of a single-layer column experiment was found to depend on the transport regime. The release of larger sized MOM (>0.45 µm) was restricted to an increased residence time during flow interruptions. Steady flow conditions favor the release of smaller MOM (<0.45 µm). Compared to the reference, in the two-layer column experiments higher OC concentrations were detected in the effluent from PHE spiked columns after enhanced flow interruptions (26d, 52d). That indicated the PHE influenced production or mobilization of MOM. Parallel factor analysis of fluorescence excitation and emission matrices revealed the presence of a constant DOM background and two new unknown

  13. Hydrodynamic and hydrostatic modelling of hydraulic journal bearings considering small displacement condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Yin; Chuang, Jen-Chen; Tu, Jia-Ying

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes modified coefficients for the dynamic model of hydraulic journal bearing system that integrates the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic properties. In recent years, design of hydraulic bearing for machine tool attracts worldwide attention, because hydraulic bearings are able to provide higher capacity and accuracy with lower friction, compared to conventional bearing systems. In order to achieve active control of the flow pressure and enhance the operation accuracy, the dynamic model of hydraulic bearings need to be developed. Modified coefficients of hydrostatic stiffness, hydrodynamic stiffness, and squeeze damping of the dynamic model are presented in this work, which are derived referring to small displacement analysis from literature. The proposed modified coefficients and model, which consider the pressure variations, relevant geometry size, and fluid properties of the journal bearings, are able to characterise the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic properties with better precision, thus offering the following pragmatic contribution: (1) on-line prediction of the eccentricity and the position of the shaft in the face of external force that results in vibration; (2) development of active control system to regulate the supply flow pressure and to minimize the eccentricity of the shaft. Theoretical derivation and simulation results with different vibration cases are discussed to verify the proposed techniques.

  14. Nonstationary Axisymmetric Temperature Field in a Two-Layer Slab Under Mixed Heating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchin, I. N.; Timar, I.; Kolodii, Yu. A.

    2015-09-01

    With the use of the Laguerre and Hankel integral transforms, the solution of a two-dimensional initial-boundary-value heat conduction problem for a two-layer slab under mixed boundary conditions is constructed: one of the surfaces is heated by a heat flux distributed axisymmetrically in a circle of radius R and is cooled by the Newton law outside this circle. The solution of the problem is reduced to a sequence of infinite quasi-regular systems of algebraic equations. The results of numerical analysis of the temperature field in the two-layer slab made from an aluminum alloy and ceramicsare presented depending on the relative geometric properties of the components and cooling intensity.

  15. Improved efficient static weighted routing strategy on two-layer complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liang, Man-Gui; Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Hui-Jia

    2015-05-01

    Global static routing is one kind of important routing algorithms for complex networks, especially in large communication networks. In this paper, we propose a heuristic global static routing algorithm to mitigate traffic congestion on two-layer complex networks. The proposed routing algorithm extends the relevant static weighted routing algorithm in the literature [Y. Zhou, Y. F. Peng, X. L. Yang and K. P. Long, Phys. Sci. 84, 055802 (2011)]. Our routing path is constructed from a proper assignment of edge weights by considering the static information of both layers and an adjustable parameter α. When this routing algorithm is adopted on BA-BA two-layer networks with an appropriate parameter α, it can achieve the maximum network traffic capacity compared with the shortest path (SP) routing algorithm and the static weighted routing algorithm.

  16. A two-layer team-assembly model for invention networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2014-12-01

    Companies are exposed to rigid competition, so they seek how best to improve the capabilities of their innovations. One strategy is to collaborate with other companies in order to speed up their own innovations. Such inter-company collaborations are conducted by inventors belonging to the companies. At the same time, the inventors also seem to be affected by past collaborations between companies. Therefore, interdependency of two networks, namely inventor and company networks, exists. This paper discusses a model that replicates two-layer networks extracted from patent data of Japan and the United States in terms of degree distributions. The model replicates two-layer networks with the interdependency. Moreover it is the only model that uses local information, while other models have to use overall information, which is unrealistic. In addition, the proposed model replicates empirical data better than other models.

  17. Two-Layer Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Representation for General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, L.

    1994-01-01

    A simple two-layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC-2L) land surface model suitable for incorporation in general circulation models (GCMs) is described. The model consists of a two-layer characterization of the soil within a GCM grid cell, and uses an aerodynamic representation of latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The effects of GCM spatial subgrid variability of soil moisture and a hydrologically realistic runoff mechanism are represented in the soil layers. The model was tested using long-term hydrologic and climatalogical data for Kings Creek, Kansas to estimate and validate the hydrological parameters. Surface flux data from three First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiments (FIFE) intensive field compaigns in the summer and fall of 1987 in central Kansas, and from the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) in Brazil were used to validate the mode-simulated surface energy fluxes and surface temperature.

  18. Excitonic Effects in Tungsten Disulfide Monolayers on Two-Layer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Giusca, Cristina E; Rungger, Ivan; Panchal, Vishal; Melios, Christos; Lin, Zhong; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Kahn, Ethan; Elías, Ana Laura; Robinson, Joshua A; Terrones, Mauricio; Kazakova, Olga

    2016-08-23

    Light emission in atomically thin heterostructures is known to depend on the type of materials and the number and stacking sequence of the constituent layers. Here we show that the thickness of a two-dimensional substrate can be crucial in modulating the light emission. We study the layer-dependent charge transfer in vertical heterostructures built from monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) on one- and two-layer epitaxial graphene, unravelling the effect that the interlayer electronic coupling has on the excitonic properties of such heterostructures. We bring evidence that the excitonic properties of WS2 can be effectively tuned by the number of supporting graphene layers. Integrating WS2 monolayers with two-layer graphene leads to a significant enhancement of the photoluminescence response, up to 1 order of magnitude higher compared to WS2 supported on one-layer graphene. Our findings highlight the importance of substrate engineering when constructing atomically thin-layered heterostructures. PMID:27434813

  19. On Theory of Dispersive Transport in a Two-Layer Polymer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibatov, R. T.; Morozova, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    Dispersive transport of charge carriers in a two-layer polymer structure is modeled on the basis of the integrodifferential equation of hereditary diffusion. The model of multiple trapping in a bilayer is generalized to the case of an arbitrary density of localized states. With the help of an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm, curves of the transient current are calculated and their features are explained within the framework of a stochastic interpretation of the process.

  20. Significantly reduced thermal diffusivity of free-standing two-layer graphene in graphene foam.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huan; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei; Mei, Ning

    2013-10-18

    We report on a thermal diffusivity study of suspended graphene foam (GF) using the transient electro-thermal technique. Our Raman study confirms the GF is composed of two-layer graphene. By measuring GF of different lengths, we are able to exclude the radiation effect. Using Schuetz's model, the intrinsic thermal diffusivity of the free-standing two-layer graphene is determined with a high accuracy without using knowledge of the porosity of the GF. The intrinsic thermal diffusivity of the two-layer graphene is determined at 1.16-2.22 × 10(-4) m(2) s(-1). The corresponding intrinsic thermal conductivity is 182-349 W m(-1) K(-1), about one order of magnitude lower than those reported for single-layer graphene. Extensive surface impurity defects, wrinkles and rough edges are observed under a scanning electron microscope for the studied GF. These structural defects induce substantial phonon scattering and explain the observed significant thermal conductivity reduction. Our thermal diffusivity characterization of GF provides an advanced way to look into the thermal transport capacity of free-standing graphene with high accuracy and ease of experimental implementation. PMID:24060813

  1. Phase transitions and kinetic properties of gold nanoparticles confined between two-layer graphene nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wu, Nanhua; Chen, Jionghua; Wang, Jinjian; Shao, Jingling; Zhu, Xiaolei; Lu, Xiaohua; Guo, Lucun

    2016-11-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors of gold nanoparticles confined between two-layer graphene nanosheets (two-layer-GNSs) are examined and investigated during heating and cooling processes via molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. An EAM potential is applied to represent the gold-gold interactions while a Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential is used to describe the gold-GNS interactions. The MD melting temperature of 1345 K for bulk gold is close to the experimental value (1337 K), confirming that the EAM potential used to describe gold-gold interactions is reliable. On the other hand, the melting temperatures of gold clusters supported on graphite bilayer are corrected to the corresponding experimental values by adjusting the εAu-C value. Therefore, the subsequent results from current work are reliable. The gold nanoparticles confined within two-layer GNSs exhibit face center cubic structures, which is similar to those of free gold clusters and bulk gold. The melting points, heats of fusion, and heat capacities of the confined gold nanoparticles are predicted based on the plots of total energies against temperature. The density distribution perpendicular to GNS suggests that the freezing of confined gold nanoparticles starts from outermost layers. The confined gold clusters exhibit layering phenomenon even in liquid state. The transition of order-disorder in each layer is an essential characteristic in structure for the freezing phase transition of the confined gold clusters. Additionally, some vital kinetic data are obtained in terms of classical nucleation theory.

  2. Long-term persistence of oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in two-layer beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2010-02-01

    Oil spilled from the tanker Exxon Valdez in 1989 (refs 1, 2) persists in the subsurface of gravel beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The contamination includes considerable amounts of chemicals that are harmful to the local fauna. However, remediation of the beaches was stopped in 1992, because it was assumed that the disappearance rate of oil was large enough to ensure a complete removal of oil within a few years. Here we present field data and numerical simulations of a two-layered beach with a small freshwater recharge in the contaminated area, where a high-permeability upper layer is underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. We find that the upper layer temporarily stored the oil, while it slowly and continuously filled the lower layer wherever the water table dropped below the interface of the two layers, as a result of low freshwater recharge from the land. Once the oil entered the lower layer, it became entrapped by capillary forces and persisted there in nearly anoxic conditions that are a result of the tidal hydraulics in the two-layered beaches. We suggest that similar dynamics could operate on tidal gravel beaches around the world, which are particularly common in mid- and high-latitude regions, with implications for locating spilled oil and for its biological remediation.

  3. Steady internal waves in an exponentially stratified two-layer fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Maltseva, Janna; Ivanova, Kseniya

    2016-04-01

    The problem on internal waves in a weakly stratified two-layered fluid is studied analytically. We suppose that the fluid possess exponential stratification in both the layers, and the fluid density has discontinuity jump at the interface. By that, we take into account the influence of weak continuous stratification outside of sharp pycnocline. The model equation of strongly nonlinear interfacial waves propagating along the pycnocline is considered. This equation extends approximate models [1-3] suggested for a two-layer fluid with one homogeneous layer. The derivation method uses asymptotic analysis of fully nonlinear Euler equations. The perturbation scheme involves the long wave procedure with a pair of the Boussinesq parameters. First of these parameters characterizes small density slope outside of pycnocline and the second one defines small density jump at the interface. Parametric range of solitary wave solutions is characterized, including extreme regimes such as plateau-shape solitary waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grant No 15-01-03942). References [1] N. Makarenko, J. Maltseva. Asymptotic models of internal stationary waves, J. Appl. Mech. Techn. Phys, 2008, 49(4), 646-654. [2] N. Makarenko, J. Maltseva. Phase velocity spectrum of internal waves in a weakly-stratified two-layer fluid, Fluid Dynamics, 2009, 44(2), 278-294. [3] N. Makarenko, J. Maltseva. An analytical model of large amplitude internal solitary waves, Extreme Ocean Waves, 2nd ed. Springer 2015, E.Pelinovsky and C.Kharif (Eds), 191-201.

  4. Marangoni convection and thermo-vibrational convection in two-layer liquid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. S.; Wang, A.; Zhou, J. Y.; Polezhaev, V. I.; Fedyushkin, A.; Yaremchuk, V. P.

    The onset-instability and the generation of Marangoni convection and thermolvibrational convection induced simultaneously by thermocapillary force and high-frequency vibration in two-layer systems are investigated theoretically and numerically The effect of high-frequency translational harmonic vibrations on the onset of Marangoni convection in the system of two liquid layer with a non-deformable interface bounded by upper and lower solid walls maintained at constant temperatures is studied by using the methods of the linear stability analysis and the averaged convection equations The Krylov-Bogolyubov averaging method is applied to the generalized heat transport equation and Navier-Stokes equation with the Boussinesq approximation on the assumption that the vibration frequency is high and the velocity amplitude is finite A spectral numerical method Tau-Chebychev was used to resolve the eigenvalue problem for the linearized governing equations together with its boundary conditions of the two-layer Marangoni system with vibration In a two-layer Marangoni system with vibration the convection arises due to vibration and temperature dependence of the interfacial tension and their contributions are estimated by two important non-dimension parameters the vibration Rayleigh number Ra V and the Marangoni number Ma At onset of convection these parameters correspond to the critical values Ra V C Ma C with the critical temperature difference T C and the critical vibration amplitudes and frequency In this study we found some

  5. Significantly reduced thermal diffusivity of free-standing two-layer graphene in graphene foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huan; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei; Mei, Ning

    2013-10-01

    We report on a thermal diffusivity study of suspended graphene foam (GF) using the transient electro-thermal technique. Our Raman study confirms the GF is composed of two-layer graphene. By measuring GF of different lengths, we are able to exclude the radiation effect. Using Schuetz’s model, the intrinsic thermal diffusivity of the free-standing two-layer graphene is determined with a high accuracy without using knowledge of the porosity of the GF. The intrinsic thermal diffusivity of the two-layer graphene is determined at 1.16-2.22 × 10-4 m2 s-1. The corresponding intrinsic thermal conductivity is 182-349 W m-1 K-1, about one order of magnitude lower than those reported for single-layer graphene. Extensive surface impurity defects, wrinkles and rough edges are observed under a scanning electron microscope for the studied GF. These structural defects induce substantial phonon scattering and explain the observed significant thermal conductivity reduction. Our thermal diffusivity characterization of GF provides an advanced way to look into the thermal transport capacity of free-standing graphene with high accuracy and ease of experimental implementation.

  6. Significantly reduced thermal diffusivity of free-standing two-layer graphene in graphene foam.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huan; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei; Mei, Ning

    2013-10-18

    We report on a thermal diffusivity study of suspended graphene foam (GF) using the transient electro-thermal technique. Our Raman study confirms the GF is composed of two-layer graphene. By measuring GF of different lengths, we are able to exclude the radiation effect. Using Schuetz's model, the intrinsic thermal diffusivity of the free-standing two-layer graphene is determined with a high accuracy without using knowledge of the porosity of the GF. The intrinsic thermal diffusivity of the two-layer graphene is determined at 1.16-2.22 × 10(-4) m(2) s(-1). The corresponding intrinsic thermal conductivity is 182-349 W m(-1) K(-1), about one order of magnitude lower than those reported for single-layer graphene. Extensive surface impurity defects, wrinkles and rough edges are observed under a scanning electron microscope for the studied GF. These structural defects induce substantial phonon scattering and explain the observed significant thermal conductivity reduction. Our thermal diffusivity characterization of GF provides an advanced way to look into the thermal transport capacity of free-standing graphene with high accuracy and ease of experimental implementation.

  7. Photobleachable Diazonium Salt-Phenolic Resin Two-Layer Resist System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, Shou-ichi; Iwayanagi, Takao; Hashimoto, Michiaki

    1988-01-01

    This article describes a new negative two-layer photoresist system formed by a simple, successive spin-coating method. An aqueous acetic acid solution of diazonium salt and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) is deposited so as to contact a phenolic resin film spin-coated on a silicon wafer. The diazonium salt diffuses into the phenolic resin layer after standing for several minutes. The residual solution on the phenolic resin film doped with diazonium salt is spun to form the diazonium salt-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) top layer. This forms a uniform two-layer resist without phase separation or striation. Upon UV exposure, the diazonium salt in the top layer bleaches to act as a CEL dye, while the diazonium salt in the bottom layer decomposes to cause insolubilization. Half μm line-and-space patterns are obtained with an i-line stepper using 4-diazo-N,N-dimethylaniline chloride zinc chloride double salt as the diazonium salt and a cresol novolac resin for the bottom polymer layer. The resist formation processes, insolubilization mechanism, and the resolution capability of the new two-layer resist are discussed.

  8. Rough-to-smooth transition of an equilibrium neutral constant stress layer. [atmospheric flow over rough terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, E., Jr.; Fichtl, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    A model is proposed for low-level atmospheric flows over terrains of changing roughness length, such as those found at the windward end of landing strips adjoining rough terrain. The proposed model is used to develop a prediction technique for calculating transition wind and shear-stress profiles in the region following surface roughness discontinuity. The model for the transition region comprises two layers: a logarithmic layer and a buffer layer. The flow is assumed to be steady, two-dimensional, and incompressible, with neutral hydrostatic stability. A diagram is presented for a typical wind profile in the transition region, obtained from the logarithmic and velocity defect profiles using shear stress calculated by relevant equations.

  9. Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2002-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

  10. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure on Carcinogenic Properties of Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Kim, Young Hak; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki; Furuse, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. The inflammation increases the permeability of blood vessels and consequently elevates pressure in the interstitial tissues. However, there have been only a few reports on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on cultured cells, and the relationship between elevated hydrostatic pressure and cell properties related to malignant tumors is less well understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the cultured epithelial cells seeded on permeable filters. Surprisingly, hydrostatic pressure from basal to apical side induced epithelial stratification in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) I and Caco-2 cells, and cavities with microvilli and tight junctions around their surfaces were formed within the multi-layered epithelia. The hydrostatic pressure gradient also promoted cell proliferation, suppressed cell apoptosis, and increased transepithelial ion permeability. The inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) promoted epithelial stratification by the hydrostatic pressure whereas the activation of PKA led to suppressed epithelial stratification. These results indicate the role of the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the regulation of various epithelial cell functions. The findings in this study may provide clues for the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of the carcinoma. PMID:26716691

  11. Gravity, the hydrostatic indifference concept and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2011-02-01

    Gravity, like any acceleration, causes a hydrostatic pressure gradient in fluid-filled bodily compartments. At a force of 1G, this pressure gradient amounts to 10 kPa/m. Postural changes alter the distribution of hydrostatic pressure patterns according to the body's alignment to the acceleration field. At a certain location--referred to as hydrostatically indifferent--within any given fluid compartment, pressure remains constant during a given change of position relative to the acceleration force acting upon the body. At this specific location, there is probably little change in vessel volume, wall tension, and the balance of Starling forces after a positional manoeuvre. In terms of cardiac function, this is important because arterial and venous hydrostatic indifference locations determine postural cardiac preload and afterload changes. Baroreceptors pick up pressure signals that depend on their respective distance to hydrostatic indifference locations with any change of body position. Vascular shape, filling volume, and compliance, as well as temperature, nervous and endocrine factors, drugs, and time all influence hydrostatic indifference locations. This paper reviews the physiology of pressure gradients in the cardiovascular system that are operational in a gravitational/acceleration field, offers a broadened hydrostatic indifference concept, and discusses implications that are relevant in physiological and clinical terms.

  12. Influence of supraglottal structures on the glottal jet exiting a two-layer synthetic, self-oscillating vocal fold model

    PubMed Central

    Drechsel, James S.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic two-layer, self-oscillating, life-size vocal fold model was used to study the influence of the vocal tract and false folds on the glottal jet. The model vibrated at frequencies, pressures, flow rates, and amplitudes consistent with human phonation, although some differences in behavior between the model and the human vocal folds are noted. High-speed images of model motion and flow visualization were acquired. Phase-locked ensemble-averaged glottal jet velocity measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) were acquired with and without an idealized vocal tract, with and without false folds. PIV data were obtained with varying degrees of lateral asymmetric model positioning. Glottal jet velocity magnitudes were consistent with those measured using excised larynges. A starting vortex was observed in all test cases. The false folds interfered with the starting vortex, and in some cases vortex shedding from the false folds was observed. In asymmetric cases without false folds, the glottal jet tended to skew toward the nearest wall; with the false folds, the opposite trend was observed. rms velocity calculations showed the jet shear layer and laminar core. The rms velocities were higher in the vocal tract cases compared to the open jet and false fold cases. PMID:18537394

  13. Evaluating the role of hydrostatic gradient and structural dip on subsurface dissolution of evaporites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechner, E.; Konz, M.; Younes, A.; Huggenberger, P.

    2009-04-01

    Typically, four basic requirements are defined for subsurface dissolution of salt (NaCl), or gypsum (CaSO4): (1) a deposit of salt or gypsum against which, or through which water can flow, (2) a supply of water undersaturated with NaCl, or CaSO4, (3) an outlet where the resulting brine can escape, and (4) energy, such as provided by a hydrostatic head, or density gradient, which causes groundwater flow through the system. Based on an approximately 1000m long, and 150m deep 2D field scale model, which represents a setup of two aquifers connected by subvertical fault zones, a series of 2D density-coupled solute transport simulations were conducted. Hydraulic boundary conditions were assigned according to a regional 3D groundwater flow model. The maintained hydrostatic gradient in the 2D model section is a result of both a natural hydrostatic gradient and a superimposed anthropogenic large-scale groundwater withdrawal in the upper aquifer. A numerical model based on Mixed Finite Elements for the fluid flow problem and a combination of Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element and Multi-Point Flux Approximation methods for the transport turned out to be adequate for the simulation of density driven flow. Results indicate that the upconing process of saline groundwater from the deeper aquifer above the halite formation to the upper aquifer occurs under different sets of subsurface parameter constellations and hydraulic boundary conditions. Steady-state of the concentration distribution in the upper aquifer is reached in most simulations after relative short time span, and increased salinities are affecting most parts of the aquifer. The resulting salinity stratification with increase towards the bottom of the upper aquifer corresponds both to field observation data and measurements in laboratory scale flow tank experiments. Moreover, the effect of the anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal on salt dissolution rate is significantly lower than expected. Considerably more

  14. A simple explanation of the classic hydrostatic paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2016-07-01

    An interesting problem in fluid mechanics, with significant educational importance, is the classic hydrostatic paradox. The hydrostatic paradox states the fact that in different shaped containers, with the same base area, which are filled with a liquid of the same height, the applied force by the liquid on the base of each container is exactly the same. However, if the shape of the container is different, the amount of the liquid (and as a consequence the weight) can greatly vary. In this paper, a simple explanation of the hydrostatic paradox, specifically designed and implemented for educational purposes regarding secondary education, is provided.

  15. A robust, finite element model for hydrostatic surface water flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, R.A.; Casulli, V.

    1998-01-01

    A finite element scheme is introduced for the 2-dimensional shallow water equations using semi-implicit methods in time. A semi-Lagrangian method is used to approximate the effects of advection. A wave equation is formed at the discrete level such that the equations decouple into an equation for surface elevation and a momentum equation for the horizontal velocity. The convergence rates and relative computational efficiency are examined with the use of three test cases representing various degrees of difficulty. A test with a polar-quadrant grid investigates the response to local grid-scale forcing and the presence of spurious modes, a channel test case establishes convergence rates, and a field-scale test case examines problems with highly irregular grids.A finite element scheme is introduced for the 2-dimensional shallow water equations using semi-implicit methods in time. A semi-Lagrangian method is used to approximate the effects of advection. A wave equation is formed at the discrete level such that the equations decouple into an equation for surface elevation and a momentum equation for the horizontal velocity. The convergence rates and relative computational efficiency are examined with the use of three test cases representing various degrees of difficulty. A test with a polar-quadrant grid investigates the response to local grid-scale forcing and the presence of spurious modes, a channel test case establishes convergence rates, and a field-scale test case examines problems with highly irregular grids.

  16. Fracture Analysis of a Functionally Graded Two-Layer Strip with a Surface Crack Intersecting the Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Licheng; Noda, Naotake

    2008-02-15

    The crack problem for a functionally graded two-layer strip under an in-plane load is investigated. The functionally graded layer is assumed to contain a surface crack intersecting the interface. An auxiliary function related to two layers is used. By using integral transform methods, the singular integral equation is obtained. The parameter influences on the stress intensity factors (SIFs) are studied.

  17. Modified radiative transfer theory for a two-layer random medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuniga, M. A.; Kong, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Modified radiative transfer (MRT) equations appropriate for electromagnetic wave propagation in bounded random media are derived from the Bethe-Salpeter equation with the ladder approximation and the Dyson equation with the nonlinear approximation. The MRT equations are then solved with the first-order renormalization approximation to obtain analytical results for the backscattering cross sections of a two-layer random medium with arbitrary three-dimensional correlation functions. The coherent effects of the MRT theory are illustrated and comparisons are made with backscattering cross sections obtained with the first Born approximation to the wave equation.

  18. Trapped modes around freely floating bodies in a two-layer fluid channel

    PubMed Central

    Cal, Filipe S.; Dias, Gonçalo A. S.; Videman, Juha H.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike the trapping of time-harmonic water waves by fixed obstacles, the oscillation of freely floating structures gives rise to a complex nonlinear spectral problem. Still, through a convenient elimination scheme the system simplifies to a linear spectral problem for a self-adjoint operator in a Hilbert space. Under symmetry assumptions on the geometry of the fluid domain, we present conditions guaranteeing the existence of trapped modes in a two-layer fluid channel. Numerous examples of floating bodies supporting trapped modes are given. PMID:25294970

  19. A Two-Layers Based Approach of an Enhanced-Map for Urban Positioning Support

    PubMed Central

    Piñana-Díaz, Carolina; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier; Skarmeta, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a two-layer based enhanced map that can support navigation in urban environments. One layer is dedicated to describe the drivable road with a special focus on the accurate description of its bounds. This feature can support positioning and advanced map-matching when compared with standard polyline-based maps. The other layer depicts building heights and locations, thus enabling the detection of non-line-of-sight signals coming from GPS satellites not in direct view. Both the concept and the methodology for creating these enhanced maps are shown in the paper. PMID:23202172

  20. Trapped modes around freely floating bodies in a two-layer fluid channel.

    PubMed

    Cal, Filipe S; Dias, Gonçalo A S; Videman, Juha H

    2014-10-01

    Unlike the trapping of time-harmonic water waves by fixed obstacles, the oscillation of freely floating structures gives rise to a complex nonlinear spectral problem. Still, through a convenient elimination scheme the system simplifies to a linear spectral problem for a self-adjoint operator in a Hilbert space. Under symmetry assumptions on the geometry of the fluid domain, we present conditions guaranteeing the existence of trapped modes in a two-layer fluid channel. Numerous examples of floating bodies supporting trapped modes are given.

  1. Quadrupolar Effect on Two Layered Thin Film Antiferroelectric Smectic Liquid Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, Chia-Yuee; Ong, Lye-Hock; Cepic, Mojca

    2011-03-30

    Within the framework of the discrete Landau phenomenological model, the free energy of an antiferroelectric smectic liquid crystal is analyzed. This model considers the interactions between the liquid crystal molecules within the nearest and the next nearest layers. Electrostatic quadrupolar interaction up to the nearest layers is included. This quadrupolar term, b{sub q{xi}}???{sub i{center_dot}{xi}}???{sub i+1}{sup 2} is positive, thus favouring a perpendicular orientation in the adjacent layer respectively. We show how quadrupolar interaction can affects the planar regions of the phase diagram of a two layered thin antiferroelectric smectic liquid crystal film.

  2. On multi-component Ermakov systems in a two-layer fluid: a variational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hongli; Fan, Engui; Zhu, Haixing

    2012-10-01

    By introducing Madelung-type transformations, a two-layer fluid model with a circular paraboloidal bottom topography is reduced to coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations incorporating harmonic traps and de Broglie-Bohm quantum potentials. A kind of multi-component Ermakov system is obtained via a variational approach and a multi-parameter Gaussian ansatz. In particular, three typical reductions to generalized Ermakov systems are discussed. Notable integrals of motion and additional Hamiltonian structures are employed to derive analytical solutions in terms of elliptic integrals for the multi-component Ermakov systems.

  3. A 3D unstructured non-hydrostatic ocean model for internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Congfang; Ding, Weiye

    2016-10-01

    A 3D non-hydrostatic model is developed to compute internal waves. A novel grid arrangement is incorporated in the model. This not only ensures the homogenous Dirichlet boundary condition for the non-hydrostatic pressure can be precisely and easily imposed but also renders the model relatively simple in its discretized form. The Perot scheme is employed to discretize horizontal advection terms in the horizontal momentum equations, which is based on staggered grids and has the conservative property. Based on previous water wave models, the main works of the present paper are to (1) utilize a semi-implicit, fractional step algorithm to solve the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE); (2) develop a second-order flux-limiter method satisfying the max-min property; (3) incorporate a density equation, which is solved by a high-resolution finite volume method ensuring mass conservation and max-min property based on a vertical boundary-fitted coordinate system; and (4) validate the developed model by using four tests including two internal seiche waves, lock-exchange flow, and internal solitary wave breaking. Comparisons of numerical results with analytical solutions or experimental data or other model results show reasonably good agreement, demonstrating the model's capability to resolve internal waves relating to complex non-hydrostatic phenomena.

  4. A 3D unstructured non-hydrostatic ocean model for internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Congfang; Ding, Weiye

    2016-08-01

    A 3D non-hydrostatic model is developed to compute internal waves. A novel grid arrangement is incorporated in the model. This not only ensures the homogenous Dirichlet boundary condition for the non-hydrostatic pressure can be precisely and easily imposed but also renders the model relatively simple in its discretized form. The Perot scheme is employed to discretize horizontal advection terms in the horizontal momentum equations, which is based on staggered grids and has the conservative property. Based on previous water wave models, the main works of the present paper are to (1) utilize a semi-implicit, fractional step algorithm to solve the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE); (2) develop a second-order flux-limiter method satisfying the max-min property; (3) incorporate a density equation, which is solved by a high-resolution finite volume method ensuring mass conservation and max-min property based on a vertical boundary-fitted coordinate system; and (4) validate the developed model by using four tests including two internal seiche waves, lock-exchange flow, and internal solitary wave breaking. Comparisons of numerical results with analytical solutions or experimental data or other model results show reasonably good agreement, demonstrating the model's capability to resolve internal waves relating to complex non-hydrostatic phenomena.

  5. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-10-01

    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity of crude oil storage wells at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This effort was motivated by steady, yet distinct, pressure behavior of a series of Big Hill caverns that have been placed under nitrogen for extended period of time. This report describes the HCM model, its functional requirements, the model structure and the verification and validation process. Different modes of operation are also described, which illustrate how the software can be used to model extended nitrogen monitoring and Mechanical Integrity Tests by predicting wellhead pressures along with nitrogen interface movements. Model verification has shown that the program runs correctly and it is implemented as intended. The cavern BH101 long term nitrogen test was used to validate the model which showed very good agreement with measured data. This supports the claim that the model is, in fact, capturing the relevant physical phenomena and can be used to make accurate predictions of both wellhead pressure and interface movements.

  6. A Multipurpose Device for Some Hydrostatics Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2008-10-01

    A number of well-known hydrostatics problems dealing with Archimedes' principle concern a loaded boat floating in a pool.1-4 Examples of this sort of problem include: 1. (a) If a stone is thrown overboard from a boat floating in a pool, does the water level in the pool rise, fall, or remain unchanged? (b) If a hole is made in the bottom of the boat so that the boat sinks, does the water level in the pool change? If so, when does the change begin (when water first begins to enter the boat or later)? 2. A boat floating in a pool carries a mass M that can either be placed on the raft or hung below the raft. (a) How does the water level in the pool compare in the two cases? (b) In which case does the raft float higher in the water? This paper describes a simple low-cost experimental setup that can be used to demonstrate the solutions to such problems in a concrete and dramatic way.

  7. Control of hydrostatic transmission wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabhandharaks, Danop

    In this study, we proposed a control strategy for a wind turbine that employed a hydrostatic transmission system for transmitting power from the wind turbine rotor via a hydraulic transmission line to a ground level generator. Wind turbine power curve tracking was achieved by controlling the hydraulic pump displacement and, at the other end of the hydraulic line, the hydraulic motor displacement was controlled so that the overall transmission loss was minimized. Steady state response, dynamic response, and system stability were assessed. The maximum transmission efficiency obtained ranged from 79% to 84% at steady state when the proposed control strategy was implemented. The leakage and friction losses of the hydraulic components were the main factors that compromised the efficiency. The simulation results showed that the system was stable and had fast and well-damped transient response. Double wind turbine system sharing hydraulic pipes, a hydraulic motor, and a generator were also studied. The hydraulic pipe diameter used in the double-turbine system increased by 27% compared to the single-turbine system in order to make the transmission coefficient comparable between both systems. The simulation results suggested that the leakage losses were so significant that the efficiency of the system was worsened compared with the single-turbine system. Future studies of other behavioral aspects and practical issues such as fluid dynamics, structure strength, materials, and costs are needed.

  8. A hydrostatic pressure-cycle energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Michael W.; Hahn, Gregory; Morgan, Eric

    2015-04-01

    There have been a number of new applications for energy harvesting with the ever-decreasing power consumption of microelectronic devices. In this paper we explore a new area of marine animal energy harvesting for use in powering tags known as bio-loggers. These devices record data about the animal or its surroundings, but have always had limited deployment times due to battery depletion. Reduced solar irradiance below the water's surface provides the impetus to explore other energy harvesting concepts beyond solar power for use on marine animals. We review existing tag technologies in relation to this application, specifically relating to energy consumption. Additionally, we propose a new idea for energy harvesting, using hydrostatic pressure changes as a source for energy production. We present initial testing results of a bench-top model and show that the daily energy harvesting potential from this technology can meet or exceed that consumed by current marine bio-logging tags. The application of this concept in the arena of bio-logging technology could substantially increase bio-logger deployment lifetimes, allowing for longitudinal studies over the course of multiple breeding and/or migration cycles.

  9. Dielectric elastomer actuators with hydrostatic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; De Rossi, Danilo

    2009-03-01

    The rapidly growing adoption of dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators as a high performance EAP technology for many kinds of new applications continuously opens new technical challenges, in order to take always the most from each adopted device and actuating configuration. This paper presents a new type of DE actuators, which show attractive potentialities for specific application needs. The concept here proposed adopts an incompressible fluid to mechanically couple active and passive parts. The active parts work according to the DE actuation principle, while the passive parts represent the end effector, in contact with the load. The fluid is used to transfer actuation hydrostatically from an active to a passive part and, then, to the load. This can provide specific advantages, including improved safety and less stringent design constraints for the architecture of the actuator, especially for soft end effectors. Such a simple concept can be readily implemented according to different shapes and intended functionalities of the resulting actuators. The paper describes the structure and the performance of the first prototype devices developed so far.

  10. The transition from hydrostatic to greater than hydrostatic fluid pressure in presently active continental hydrothermal systems in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, R.O. )

    1991-05-01

    Fluid flow at hydrostatic pressure (P{sub h}) is relatively common through fractures in silicic and in mafic crystalline rocks where temperatures are less than about 350-370C. In contrast, pore-fluid pressure (P{sub f}) > P{sub h} has been encountered at the bottom of 3 geothermal exploration wells that attained temperatures >370C (at Larderello, Italy, at Nesjavellir, Iceland, and at The Geysers, California). Chemical sealing by deposition of minerals in veins appears to have allowed the development of the high P{sub f} encountered in the above wells. The upper limit for the magnitude of P{sub f} that can be attained is controlled by either the onset of shear fracturing (where differential stress is relatively high) that reopens clogged veins, or the hydraulic opening of new or old fractures (at relatively low values of differential stress). The brittle-plastic transition for silicic rocks can occur at temperatures as high as 370-400C in tectonically active regions. In regions where high-temperature geothermal systems develop and persist, it appears that either strain rates commonly are in the range 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}13}, or that silicic rocks in the shallow crust generally behave rheologically more like wet quartz diorite than wet Westerly granite.

  11. Effect of Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressure on Bendability of Sheet Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. X.; Wu, P. D.; Lloyd, D. J.

    2010-06-01

    The effect of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on fracture under three-point bending is studied numerically using the finite element method based on the Gurson damage model. It is demonstrated that superimposed hydrostatic pressure significantly increases the bendability and bending fracture strain due to the fact that a superimposed pressure delays or completely eliminates the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microvoids or microcracks. Numerical results are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  12. Two-Layer Tight Frame Sparsifying Model for Compressed Sensing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Dong, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CSMRI) employs image sparsity to reconstruct MR images from incoherently undersampled K-space data. Existing CSMRI approaches have exploited analysis transform, synthesis dictionary, and their variants to trigger image sparsity. Nevertheless, the accuracy, efficiency, or acceleration rate of existing CSMRI methods can still be improved due to either lack of adaptability, high complexity of the training, or insufficient sparsity promotion. To properly balance the three factors, this paper proposes a two-layer tight frame sparsifying (TRIMS) model for CSMRI by sparsifying the image with a product of a fixed tight frame and an adaptively learned tight frame. The two-layer sparsifying and adaptive learning nature of TRIMS has enabled accurate MR reconstruction from highly undersampled data with efficiency. To solve the reconstruction problem, a three-level Bregman numerical algorithm is developed. The proposed approach has been compared to three state-of-the-art methods over scanned physical phantom and in vivo MR datasets and encouraging performances have been achieved. PMID:27747226

  13. Two-layer competitive based Hopfield neural network for medical image edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chuan Y.; Chung, Pau-Choo

    2000-03-01

    In medical applications, the detection and outlining of boundaries of organs and tumors in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images are prerequisite. A two-layer Hopfield neural network called the competitive Hopfield edge-finding neural network (CHEFNN) is presented for finding the edges of CT and MRI images. Different from conventional 2D Hopfield neural networks, the CHEFNN extends the one-layer 2D Hopfield network at the original image plane a two-layer 3D Hopfield network with edge detection to be implemented on its third dimension. With the extended 3D architecture, the network is capable of incorporating a pixel's contextual information into a pixel- labeling procedure. As a result, the effect of tiny details or noises will be effectively removed by the CHEFNN and the drawback of disconnected fractions can be overcome. Furthermore, by making use of the competitive learning rule to update the neuron states, the problem of satisfying strong constraints can be alleviated and results in a fast convergence. Our experimental results show that the CHEFNN can obtain more appropriate, more continued edge points than the Laplacian-based, Marr-Hildreth, Canny, and wavelet-based methods.

  14. Theoretical analysis of solid oxide fuel cells with two-layer, composite electrolytes - Electrolyte stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkar, Anil V.

    1991-05-01

    Theoretical analysis of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using two-layer, composite electrolytes consisting of a solid electrolyte of a significantly higher conductivity compared to zirconia (such as ceria or bismuth oxide) with a thin layer of zirconia or thoria on the fuel side is presented. Electrochemical transport in the two-layer composite electrolytes is examined by taking both ionic and electronic fluxes into account. Similar to most electrochemical transport phenomena, it is assumed that local equilibrium prevails. An equivalent circuit approach is used to estimate the partial pressure of oxygen at the interface. It is shown that thermodynamic stability of the electrolyte (ceria or bismuth oxide) depends upon the transport characteristics of the composite electrolyte, in particular the electronic conductivity of the air-side part of the electrolyte. The analysis shows that it would be advantageous to use composite electrolytes instead of all-zirconia electrolytes, thus making low-temperature (about 600-800 C) SOFCs feasible. Implications of the analysis from the standpoint of the desired characteristics of SOFC components are discussed.

  15. On-line thickness measurement for two-layer systems on polymer electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Ana Perez; Tremmel, Anton J; Koch, Alexander W; El-Khozondar, Hala J

    2013-11-18

    During the manufacturing of printed electronic circuits, different layers of coatings are applied successively on a substrate. The correct thickness of such layers is essential for guaranteeing the electronic behavior of the final product and must therefore be controlled thoroughly. This paper presents a model for measuring two-layer systems through thin film reflectometry (TFR). The model considers irregular interfaces and distortions introduced by the setup and the vertical vibration movements caused by the production process. The results show that the introduction of these latter variables is indispensable to obtain correct thickness values. The proposed approach is applied to a typical configuration of polymer electronics on transparent and non-transparent substrates. We compare our results to those obtained using a profilometer. The high degree of agreement between both measurements validates the model and suggests that the proposed measurement method can be used in industrial applications requiring fast and non-contact inspection of two-layer systems. Moreover, this approach can be used for other kinds of materials with known optical parameters.

  16. Reverse-feeding effect of epidemic by propagators in two-layered networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayu, Wu; Yanping, Zhao; Muhua, Zheng; Jie, Zhou; Zonghua, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Epidemic spreading has been studied for a long time and is currently focused on the spreading of multiple pathogens, especially in multiplex networks. However, little attention has been paid to the case where the mutual influence between different pathogens comes from a fraction of epidemic propagators, such as bisexual people in two separated groups of heterosexual and homosexual people. We here study this topic by presenting a network model of two layers connected by impulsive links, in contrast to the persistent links in each layer. We let each layer have a distinct pathogen and their interactive infection is implemented by a fraction of propagators jumping between the corresponding pairs of nodes in the two layers. By this model we show that (i) the propagators take the key role to transmit pathogens from one layer to the other, which significantly influences the stabilized epidemics; (ii) the epidemic thresholds will be changed by the propagators; and (iii) a reverse-feeding effect can be expected when the infective rate is smaller than its threshold of isolated spreading. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the numerical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11135001, 11375066, and 11405059) and the National Basic Key Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834100).

  17. Two-layer wireless distributed sensor/control network based on RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Li; Lin, Yuchi; Zhou, Jingjing; Dong, Guimei; Xia, Guisuo

    2006-11-01

    A project of embedded Wireless Distributed Sensor/Control Network (WDSCN) based on RF is presented after analyzing the disadvantages of traditional measure and control system. Because of high-cost and complexity, such wireless techniques as Bluetooth and WiFi can't meet the needs of WDSCN. The two-layer WDSCN is designed based on RF technique, which operates in the ISM free frequency channel with low power and high transmission speed. Also the network is low cost, portable and moveable, integrated with the technologies of computer network, sensor, microprocessor and wireless communications. The two-layer network topology is selected in the system; a simple but efficient self-organization net protocol is designed to fit the periodic data collection, event-driven and store-and-forward. Furthermore, adaptive frequency hopping technique is adopted for anti-jamming apparently. The problems about power reduction and synchronization of data in wireless system are solved efficiently. Based on the discussion above, a measure and control network is set up to control such typical instruments and sensors as temperature sensor and signal converter, collect data, and monitor environmental parameters around. This system works well in different rooms. Experiment results show that the system provides an efficient solution to WDSCN through wireless links, with high efficiency, low power, high stability, flexibility and wide working range.

  18. Faraday instability of a two-layer liquid film with a free upper surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pototsky, Andrey; Bestehorn, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We study the linear stability of a laterally extended flat two-layer liquid film under the influence of external vertical vibration. The first liquid layer rests on a vibrating solid plate and is overlaid by a second layer of immiscible fluid with deformable upper surface. Surface waves, excited as the result of the Faraday instability, can be characterized by a time-dependent relative amplitude of the displacements of the liquid-liquid and the liquid-gas interfaces. The in-phase displacements are associated with a zigzag (barotropic) mode and the antiphase displacement corresponds to the varicose thinning mode. We numerically determine the stability threshold in the vibrated two-layer film and compute the dispersion relation together with the decay rates of the surface waves in the absence of vibration. The in-phase and the antiphase displacements are strongly coupled in the vibrated system. The interplay between the Faraday and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in the system with heavier fluid on top of a lighter fluid is analyzed.

  19. Hydrostatic pressure influences HIF-2 alpha expression in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Terauchi, Ryu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Tsuchida, Shinji; Matsuki, Tomohiro; Ueshima, Keiichirou; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α. PMID:25569085

  20. Hydrostatic Pressure Influences HIF-2 Alpha Expression in Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Terauchi, Ryu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Tsuchida, Shinji; Matsuki, Tomohiro; Ueshima, Keiichirou; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α. PMID:25569085

  1. Hydrostatic and caustic mass profiles of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maughan, Ben J.; Giles, Paul A.; Rines, Kenneth J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Geller, Margaret J.; Van Der Pyl, Nina; Bonamente, Massimiliano

    2016-10-01

    We compare X-ray and caustic mass profiles for a sample of 16 massive galaxy clusters. We assume hydrostatic equilibrium in interpreting the X-ray data, and use large samples of cluster members with redshifts as a basis for applying the caustic technique. The hydrostatic and caustic masses agree to better than ≈20 per cent on average across the radial range covered by both techniques (˜[0.2-1.25]R500). The mass profiles were measured independently and do not assume a common functional form. Previous studies suggest that, at R500, the hydrostatic and caustic masses are biased low and high, respectively. We find that the ratio of hydrostatic to caustic mass at R500 is 1.20^{+0.13}_{-0.11}; thus it is larger than 0.9 at ≈3σ and the combination of under- and overestimation of the mass by these two techniques is ≈10 per cent at most. There is no indication of any dependence of the mass ratio on the X-ray morphology of the clusters, indicating that the hydrostatic masses are not strongly systematically affected by the dynamical state of the clusters. Overall, our results favour a small value of the so-called hydrostatic bias due to non-thermal pressure sources.

  2. Transient natural and surface-tension-driven convection in a two-layer gas-and-liquid enclosure with nonuniform radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramzon, B.; Edwards, D. K.; Sirignano, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical study has been made of transient heat transfer and fluid flow in a cylindrical enclosure containing a two-layer gas-and-liquid system. The geometric configuration and the boundary conditions of the problem are relevant to the analysis of the preignition processes during the fire accident situation involving a pool of liquid fuel in the vicinity of an ignition source. It is demonstrated that the effects of the natural and thermocapillary convection, radiative transfer, thermal inertia and conduction of the walls bounding the enclosure, as well as, the magnitude of the gravity field play important roles in the development of the temperature and velocity fields in the container.

  3. Hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic simulations of dense waters cascading off a shelf: The East Greenland case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaldi, Marcello G.; Haine, Thomas W. N.

    2015-02-01

    The cascade of dense waters of the Southeast Greenland shelf during summer 2003 is investigated with two very high-resolution (0.5-km) simulations. The first simulation is non-hydrostatic. The second simulation is hydrostatic and about 3.75 times less expensive. Both simulations are compared to a 2-km hydrostatic run, about 31 times less expensive than the 0.5 km non-hydrostatic case. Time-averaged volume transport values for deep waters are insensitive to the changes in horizontal resolution and vertical momentum dynamics. By this metric, both lateral stirring and vertical shear instabilities associated with the cascading process are accurately parameterized by the turbulent schemes used at 2-km horizontal resolution. All runs compare well with observations and confirm that the cascade is mainly driven by cyclones which are linked to dense overflow boluses at depth. The passage of the cyclones is also associated with the generation of internal gravity waves (IGWs) near the shelf. Surface fields and kinetic energy spectra do not differ significantly between the runs for horizontal scales L > 30 km. Complex structures emerge and the spectra flatten at scales L < 30 km in the 0.5-km runs. In the non-hydrostatic case, additional energy is found in the vertical kinetic energy spectra at depth in the 2 km < L < 10 km range and with frequencies around 7 times the inertial frequency. This enhancement is missing in both hydrostatic runs and is here argued to be due to the different IGW evolution and propagation offshore. The different IGW behavior in the non-hydrostatic case has strong implications for the energetics: compared to the 2-km case, the baroclinic conversion term and vertical kinetic energy are about 1.4 and at least 34 times larger, respectively. This indicates that the energy transfer from the geostrophic eddy field to IGWs and their propagation away from the continental slope is not properly represented in the hydrostatic runs.

  4. Template-directed preparation of two-layer porous NiO film via hydrothermal synthesis for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Xiao, A.; Chen, Y.; Zuo, C.; Zhou, S.; Li, L.

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: A two-layer porous NiO film is prepared via hydrothermal synthesis method based on monolayer polystyrene sphere template and shows noticeable Li battery performance with good cycle life and high capacity. Highlights: ► Two-layer porous NiO film is prepared via monolayer polystyrene spheres template. ► NiO film with high capacity as anode material for lithium ion batteries. ► Two-layer porous structure is favorable for fast lithium ion and electron transfer. -- Abstract: A two-layer porous NiO film is prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method through self-assembled monolayer polystyrene spheres template. The substructure of the NiO film is composed of ordered close-packed hollow-sphere array and the superstructure is made up of randomly NiO nanoflakes. The electrochemical properties are measured by galvanostatic charge/discharge tests and cyclic voltammetric analysis (CV). As anode material for lithium ion batteries, the two-layer porous NiO film exhibits high initial coulombic efficiency of 75%, high reversible capacity and rather good cycling performance. The discharge capacity of the two-layer porous NiO film is 501 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C after 50 cycles. The two-layer porous architecture is responsible for the enhancement of electrochemical properties.

  5. Transient response of a vertical electric dipole (VED) on a two-layer medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, S. Y.; Kong, J. A.

    The transient electromagnetic radiation by a vertical electric dipole on a two-layer medium is analyzed using the double deformation technique, which is a modal technique based on identification of singularities in the complex frequency and wavenumber planes. Previous application of the double deformation technique to the solution of this problem is incomplete in the early time response. In this paper it is shown that the existence of a pole locus on the negative imaginary frequency axis, which dominates the early time response, proves crucial in obtaining the solution for all times. A variety of combinations of parameters are used to illustrate the double deformation technique, and results will be compared with those obtained via explicit inversion, and a single deformation method.

  6. Sparse/DCT (S/DCT) two-layered representation of prediction residuals for video coding.

    PubMed

    Kang, Je-Won; Gabbouj, Moncef; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a cascaded sparse/DCT (S/DCT) two-layer representation of prediction residuals, and implement this idea on top of the state-of-the-art high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard. First, a dictionary is adaptively trained to contain featured patterns of residual signals so that a high portion of energy in a structured residual can be efficiently coded via sparse coding. It is observed that the sparse representation alone is less effective in the R-D performance due to the side information overhead at higher bit rates. To overcome this problem, the DCT representation is cascaded at the second stage. It is applied to the remaining signal to improve coding efficiency. The two representations successfully complement each other. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed algorithm outperforms the HEVC reference codec HM5.0 in the Common Test Condition.

  7. Piezoelectric two-layer stacks of cellular polypropylene ferroelectrets: transducer response at audio and ultrasound frequencies.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Michael; Bergweiler, Steffen; Wirges, Werner; Pucher, Andreas; Tuncer, Enis; Gerhard-Multhaupt, Reimund

    2005-09-01

    Piezoelectric cellular polypropylene films, so-called ferroelectrets, are assembled in a stack with two active transducer layers. The stack is characterized with respect to its linear and quadratic response in a frequency range from 1 kHz to 80 kHz. A relatively smooth frequency response in the sound-pressure level is found for the individual layers as well as for both layers driven in phase. The piezoelectric response of the two-layer stack is twice the response of an individual layer over a rather broad frequency range. Furthermore, the influence of the preparation conditions on the resonance frequency and the effect of the quadratic distortion on the radiated sound are investigated both for the individual transducer films in the stack and for the stack system as a whole. PMID:16285459

  8. 2-DE combined with two-layer feature selection accurately establishes the origin of oolong tea.

    PubMed

    Chien, Han-Ju; Chu, Yen-Wei; Chen, Chi-Wei; Juang, Yu-Min; Chien, Min-Wei; Liu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chang; Tzen, Jason T C; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2016-11-15

    Taiwan is known for its high quality oolong tea. Because of high consumer demand, some tea manufactures mix lower quality leaves with genuine Taiwan oolong tea in order to increase profits. Robust scientific methods are, therefore, needed to verify the origin and quality of tea leaves. In this study, we investigated whether two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and nanoscale liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy (nano-LC/MS/MS) coupled with a two-layer feature selection mechanism comprising information gain attribute evaluation (IGAE) and support vector machine feature selection (SVM-FS) are useful in identifying characteristic proteins that can be used as markers of the original source of oolong tea. Samples in this study included oolong tea leaves from 23 different sources. We found that our method had an accuracy of 95.5% in correctly identifying the origin of the leaves. Overall, our method is a novel approach for determining the origin of oolong tea leaves.

  9. Electromagnetic wave scattering in a two-layer anisotropic random medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. K.; Kong, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    For electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in an anisotropic random medium, the Dyson equation for the mean field and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the correlation or the covariance of the field were derived. With the random permittivity expressed in a general anisotropic form, the bilocal and the nonlinear approximations are employed to solve the Dyson equation, and the ladder approximation to solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The mean dyadic Green's function for a two-layer anisotropic random medium with arbitrary three-dimensional correlation functions has been investigated with the zeroth-order solutions to the Dyson equation under the nonlinear approximation. The effective propagation constants are calculated for the four characteristic waves associated with the coherent vector fields, propagating in an anisotropic random-medium layer, which are the ordinary and extraordinary waves with upward- and downward-propagating vectors.

  10. Two-layer thermal barrier coating for turbine airfoils - furnace and burner rig test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, two-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system was developed which has the potential for protecting high temperature air-cooled gas turbine components. Of those coatings initially examined, the most promising system consisted of a Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.6Y (in wt%) thermal barrier coating (about 0.005 to 0.010 cm thick) and a ZrO2-12Y2O3 (in wt%) thermal barrier coating (about 0.025 to 0.064 cm thick). This thermal barrier substantially lowered the metal temperature of an air-cooled airfoil. The coating withstood 3,200 cycles (80 sec at 1,280 C surface temperature) and 275 cycles (1 hr at 1,490 C surface temperature) without cracking or spalling. No separation of the thermal barrier from the bond coating or the bond coating from the substrate was observed.

  11. Two-layer fragile watermarking method secured with chaotic map for authentication of digital Holy Quran.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed S; Kurniawan, Fajri; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alginahi, Yasser M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel watermarking method to facilitate the authentication and detection of the image forgery on the Quran images. Two layers of embedding scheme on wavelet and spatial domain are introduced to enhance the sensitivity of fragile watermarking and defend the attacks. Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain. The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark. A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack. The proposed method allows high watermark payloads, while preserving good image quality. Experiment results confirm that the proposed methods are fragile and have superior tampering detection even though the tampered area is very small.

  12. Extension-twist coupling of two-layered angle-ply laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoichi

    Two-layered angle-ply laminates twist under a tensile load. In the present paper, the phenomena are analyzed first by a classical lamination theory. The results of the numerical calculations show that the twist angles of the laminates highly depend on the fiber directions and that the direction of twisting is either positive or negative depending on the material properties and the fiber directions. The phenomena are next analyzed by extending the theory of torsion of bars. The analysis is carried out by the utilization of the Hellinger-Reissner principle and the Ritz method. In the analysis, the untwist effects which are observed in pretwisted isotropic rods under a tensile load are also taken into account, but the effects are found to be small.

  13. A Modified Soil Moisture Model for Two-Layer Soil.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yonghua; Lü, Haishen; Horton, Robert; Yu, Zhongbo; Ouyang, Fen

    2016-07-01

    There can be marked variations in soil hydraulic properties in a soil vertical profile from the soil surface to the base of the root zone. Many existing two-layer soil moisture (TLSM) models cannot well describe typical stratified soil profiles. A modified TLSM model is presented in this study. The modified model results and those from two existing models are compared with field observations. The modified TLSM model had the best agreement with the field observations. In both the surface layer and the root zone layer, the root mean square errors of soil moisture estimated by the modified model were smaller than those for the other models. The parameters in the modified TLSM model are relatively easy to determine. The modified TLSM model offers clear advantages over current TLSM models. PMID:26728919

  14. Significance of thermal contact resistance in two-layer thermal-barrier-coated turbine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Gaugler, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of thermal contact resistance between layers in heat transfer through two layer, plasma sprayed, thermal barrier coatings applied to turbine vanes was investigated. Results obtained with a system of NiCrAlY bond and yttria stabilized zirconia ceramic show that thermal contact resistance between layers is negligible. These results also verified other studies which showed that thermal contact resistance is negligible for a different coating system of NiCr bond calcia stabilized zirconia ceramic. The zirconia stabilized ceramic thermal conductivity data scatter presented in the literature is ?20 to -10 percent about a curve fit of the data. More accurate predictions of heat transfer and metal wall temperatures are obtained when the thermal conductivity values are used at the ?20 percent level.

  15. Two-Layer Fragile Watermarking Method Secured with Chaotic Map for Authentication of Digital Holy Quran

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mohammed S.; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alginahi, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel watermarking method to facilitate the authentication and detection of the image forgery on the Quran images. Two layers of embedding scheme on wavelet and spatial domain are introduced to enhance the sensitivity of fragile watermarking and defend the attacks. Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain. The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark. A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack. The proposed method allows high watermark payloads, while preserving good image quality. Experiment results confirm that the proposed methods are fragile and have superior tampering detection even though the tampered area is very small. PMID:25028681

  16. Testing the Two-Layer Model for Correcting Clear Sky Reflectance near Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Evans, Frank; Varnai, Tamas; Levy, Rob

    2015-01-01

    A two-layer model (2LM) was developed in our earlier studies to estimate the clear sky reflectance enhancement due to cloud-molecular radiative interaction at MODIS at 0.47 micrometers. Recently, we extended the model to include cloud-surface and cloud-aerosol radiative interactions. We use the LES/SHDOM simulated 3D true radiation fields to test the 2LM for reflectance enhancement at 0.47 micrometers. We find: The simple model captures the viewing angle dependence of the reflectance enhancement near cloud, suggesting the physics of this model is correct; the cloud-molecular interaction alone accounts for 70 percent of the enhancement; the cloud-surface interaction accounts for 16 percent of the enhancement; the cloud-aerosol interaction accounts for an additional 13 percent of the enhancement. We conclude that the 2LM is simple to apply and unbiased.

  17. The peak effect (PE) region of the antiferromagnetic two layer Ising nanographene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şarlı, Numan; Akbudak, Salih; Ellialtıoğlu, Mehmet Recai

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic two layer spin-1/2 Ising nanographene systems are investigated within the effective field theory. We find that the magnetizations and the hysteresis behaviors of the central graphene atoms are similar to those of the edge graphene atoms in the ferromagnetic case. But, they are quite different in the antiferromagnetic case. The antiferromagnetic central graphene atoms exhibit type II superconductivity and they have triple hysteresis loop. The peak effect (PE) region is observed on the hysteresis curves of the antiferromagnetic Ising nanographene system. Therefore, we suggest that there is a strong relationship between the antiferromagnetism and the peak effect. Our results are in agreement with some experimental works in recent literature.

  18. Development of analytical theory of the physical libration for a two-layer Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Natalia; Barkin, Yurii; Gusev, Alexander; Ivanova, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    -project. Prognosis recommendations are made for the future experiment. The model of free rotation of the two-layer Moon is constructed, the periods of the free modes and of the librational motion of a pole are received, effects of influence of a lunar core on behavior of LPhL-harmonics caused by the solid-state rotation of the Moon are deduced. Computer simulating has revealed the sensitivity of the free libration periods to core's ellipticity and to core-mantle boundary dissipation parameters. Geometrical interpretation of the pole motion owing to the free libration is given. For the first time the theoretical model of tidal potential of the Moon is developed, on the basis of the model the analytical formulae for variations of the Stockes coefficients of the 2-nd order and of the speed of the Lunar rotation is received in dependence on time. For a two-layer structure of the Moon and the Mercury Cassini's law were stated at the first time: 1. a two-layer Moon keeps its own stationary rotation; 2. there is a splitting of Cassini nodes and angular momentums of Lunar mantle and core; 3. the same phenomenon will be observed for any two-layer planet (Mercury); 4. the differential rotation of a core and mantle is inherent to a planet as result of a generalized Cassini's Laws. Theoretical and practical methods of construction of the theory of rotation of the Earth have been successfully applied in the development of the theory of rotation of the Moon, in

  19. Numerical simulation and analysis of complex patterns in a two-layer coupled reaction diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Zheng; Bai, Zhan-Guo; Li, Yan; He, Ya-Feng; Zhao, Kun

    2015-04-01

    The resonance interaction between two modes is investigated using a two-layer coupled Brusselator model. When two different wavelength modes satisfy resonance conditions, new modes will appear, and a variety of superlattice patterns can be obtained in a short wavelength mode subsystem. We find that even though the wavenumbers of two Turing modes are fixed, the parameter changes have influences on wave intensity and pattern selection. When a hexagon pattern occurs in the short wavelength mode layer and a stripe pattern appears in the long wavelength mode layer, the Hopf instability may happen in a nonlinearly coupled model, and twinkling-eye hexagon and travelling hexagon patterns will be obtained. The symmetries of patterns resulting from the coupled modes may be different from those of their parents, such as the cluster hexagon pattern and square pattern. With the increase of perturbation and coupling intensity, the nonlinear system will convert between a static pattern and a dynamic pattern when the Turing instability and Hopf instability happen in the nonlinear system. Besides the wavenumber ratio and intensity ratio of the two different wavelength Turing modes, perturbation and coupling intensity play an important role in the pattern formation and selection. According to the simulation results, we find that two modes with different symmetries can also be in the spatial resonance under certain conditions, and complex patterns appear in the two-layer coupled reaction diffusion systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11247242), the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51201057), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2014208171).

  20. Revisiting the Two-Layer Hypothesis: Coexistence of Alternative Functional Rooting Strategies in Savannas

    PubMed Central

    Holdo, Ricardo M.

    2013-01-01

    The two-layer hypothesis of tree-grass coexistence posits that trees and grasses differ in rooting depth, with grasses exploiting soil moisture in shallow layers while trees have exclusive access to deep water. The lack of clear differences in maximum rooting depth between these two functional groups, however, has caused this model to fall out of favor. The alternative model, the demographic bottleneck hypothesis, suggests that trees and grasses occupy overlapping rooting niches, and that stochastic events such as fires and droughts result in episodic tree mortality at various life stages, thus preventing trees from otherwise displacing grasses, at least in mesic savannas. Two potential problems with this view are: 1) we lack data on functional rooting profiles in trees and grasses, and these profiles are not necessarily reflected by differences in maximum or physical rooting depth, and 2) subtle, difficult-to-detect differences in rooting profiles between the two functional groups may be sufficient to result in coexistence in many situations. To tackle this question, I coupled a plant uptake model with a soil moisture dynamics model to explore the environmental conditions under which functional rooting profiles with equal rooting depth but different depth distributions (i.e., shapes) can coexist when competing for water. I show that, as long as rainfall inputs are stochastic, coexistence based on rooting differences is viable under a wide range of conditions, even when these differences are subtle. The results also indicate that coexistence mechanisms based on rooting niche differentiation are more viable under some climatic and edaphic conditions than others. This suggests that the two-layer model is both viable and stochastic in nature, and that a full understanding of tree-grass coexistence and dynamics may require incorporating fine-scale rooting differences between these functional groups and realistic stochastic climate drivers into future models. PMID

  1. Episodic large-scale overturn of two-layer mantles in terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, David L.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    It is usually assumed that the upper and lower mantles of a chemically stratified planet are arranged so that the upper mantle is chemically less dense and that these layers convect separately. Possible buoyant overturn of the two mantle layers has not previously been considered. Such overturn would initially occur when thermal expansion of a chemically denser lower mantle more than offsets the compositional density difference between the layers, reversing the relative sense of buoyancy. Once overturn has occurred, the chemically denser, but thermally less dense upper mantle cools more efficiently than the lower mantle and loses its relative thermal buoyancy. If mixing is slow, this leads to repeated overturns that result in thermal histories that differ radically from those obtained without this large-scale overturning. Thermal evolution calculations, for a two-layer mantle over a wide range of parameter space, show that large-scale overturn occurs cyclically with a well-defined period. This period depends most strongly on the viscosity of the lower mantle, to which it is approximately proportional. Geologically interesting overturn periods on the order of 10(exp 7) to 10(exp 9) years result for lower mantle viscosities of 10(exp 22) to 10(exp 24) Pa s for the Earth and Venus, and 10(exp 21) to 10(exp 23) Pa s for Mars. The mantles of Mercury and the Moon are too thin to permit two-layer convection, and therefore the model is not appropriate for them. Overturn cannot occur on Earth or Venus if the compositional density difference between the layers exceeds about 4%, or on Mars if it exceeds about 2%. Large-scale mantle overturn could have significant tectonic consequences such as the initiation of a new plate tectonic cycle on the Earth or a major resurfacing event on Mars or Venus. Such episodic events in the evolution of a planet are not easily explained by whole mantle thermal convection.

  2. Precession of a two-layer Earth: contributions of the core and elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baenas, Tomás; Ferrándiz, José M.; Escapa, Alberto; Getino, Juan; Navarro, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's internal structure contributes to the precession rate in a small but non-negligible amount, given the current accuracy goals demanded by IAG/GGOS to the reference frames, namely 30 μas and 3 μas/yr. These contributions come from a variety of sources. One of those not yet accounted for in current IAU models is associated to the crossed effects of certain nutation-rising terms of a two-layer Earth model; intuitively, it gathers an 'indirect' effect of the core via the NDFW, or FCN, resonance as well as a 'direct' effect arising from terms that account for energy variations depending on the elasticity of the core. Similar order of magnitude reaches the direct effect of the departure of the Earth's rheology from linear elasticity. To compute those effects we work out the problem in a unified way within the Hamiltonian framework developed by Getino and Ferrándiz (2001). It allows a consistent treatment of the problem since all the perturbations are derived from the same tide generating expansion and the crossing effects are rigorously obtained through Hori's canonical perturbation method. The problem admits an asymptotic analytical solution. The Hamiltonian is constructed by considering a two-layer Earth model made up of an anelastic mantle and a fluid core, perturbed by the gravitational action of the Moon and the Sun. The former effects reach some tens of μas/yr in the longitude rate, hence above the target accuracy level. We outline their influence in the estimation of the Earth's dynamical ellipticity, a main parameter factorizing both precession and nutation.

  3. A New, Two-layer Canopy Module For The Detailed Snow Model SNOWPACK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouttevin, I.; Lehning, M.; Jonas, T.; Gustafsson, D.; Mölder, M.

    2014-12-01

    A new, two-layer canopy module with thermal inertia for the detailed snow model SNOWPACK is presented. Compared to the old, one-layered canopy formulation with no heat mass, this module now offers a level of physical detail consistent with the detailed snow and soil representation in SNOWPACK. The new canopy model is designed to reproduce the difference in thermal regimes between leafy and woody canopy elements and their impact on the underlying snowpack energy balance. The new model is validated against data from an Alpine and a boreal site. Comparisons of modelled sub-canopy thermal radiations to stand-scale observations at Alptal, Switzerland, demonstrate the improvements induced by our new parameterizations. The main effect is a more realistic simulation of the canopy night-time drop in temperatures. The lower drop is induced by both thermal inertia and the two-layer representation. A specific result is that such a performance cannot be achieved by a single-layered canopy model. The impact of the new parameterizations on the modelled dynamics of the sub-canopy snowpack is analysed and yields consistent results, but the frequent occurrence of mixed-precipitation events at Alptal prevents a conclusive assessment of model performances against snow data.Without specific tuning, the model is also able to reproduce the measured summertime tree trunk temperatures and biomass heat storage at the boreal site of Norunda, Sweden, with an increased accuracy in amplitude and phase. Overall, the SNOWPACK model with its enhanced canopy module constitutes a unique (in its physical process representation) atmosphere-to-soil-through-canopy-and-snow modelling chain.

  4. Hydrostatic pressure mimics gravitational pressure in characean cells.

    PubMed

    Staves, M P; Wayne, R; Leopold, A C

    1992-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure applied to one end of a horizontal Chara cell induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming, thus mimicking the effect of gravity. A positive hydrostatic pressure induces a more rapid streaming away from the applied pressure and a slower streaming toward the applied pressure. In contrast, a negative pressure induces a more rapid streaming toward and a slower streaming away from the applied pressure. Both the hydrostatic pressure-induced and gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming respond identically to cell ligation, UV microbeam irradiation, external Ca2+ concentrations, osmotic pressure, neutral red, TEA Cl-, and the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and LaCl3. In addition, hydrostatic pressure applied to the bottom of a vertically-oriented cell can abolish and even reverse the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. These data indicate that both gravity and hydrostatic pressure act at the same point of the signal transduction chain leading to the induction of a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming and support the hypothesis that characean cells respond to gravity by sensing a gravity-induced pressure differential between the cell ends.

  5. BE STAR DISK MODELS IN CONSISTENT VERTICAL HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Sigut, T. A. A.; McGill, M. A.; Jones, C. E. E-mail: mmcgill@astro.uwo.ca

    2009-07-10

    A popular model for the circumstellar disks of Be stars is that of a geometrically thin disk with a density in the equatorial plane that drops as a power law of distance from the star. It is usually assumed that the vertical structure of such a disk (in the direction parallel to the stellar rotation axis) is governed by the hydrostatic equilibrium set by the vertical component of the star's gravitational acceleration. Previous radiative equilibrium models for such disks have usually been computed assuming a fixed density structure. This introduces an inconsistency as the gas density is not allowed to respond to temperature changes and the resultant disk model is not in vertical, hydrostatic equilibrium. In this work, we modify the BEDISK code of Sigut and Jones so that it enforces a hydrostatic equilibrium consistent with the temperature solution. We compare the disk densities, temperatures, H{alpha} line profiles, and near-IR excesses predicted by such models with those computed from models with a fixed density structure. We find that the fixed models can differ substantially from the consistent hydrostatic models when the disk density is high enough that the circumstellar disk develops a cool (T {approx}< 10, 000 K) equatorial region close to the parent star. Based on these new hydrostatic disks, we also predict an approximate relation between the (global) density-averaged disk temperature and the T{sub eff} of the central star, covering the full range of central Be star spectral types.

  6. Hydrostatic pressure mimics gravitational pressure in characean cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure applied to one end of a horizontal Chara cell induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming, thus mimicking the effect of gravity. A positive hydrostatic pressure induces a more rapid streaming away from the applied pressure and a slower streaming toward the applied pressure. In contrast, a negative pressure induces a more rapid streaming toward and a slower streaming away from the applied pressure. Both the hydrostatic pressure-induced and gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming respond identically to cell ligation, UV microbeam irradiation, external Ca2+ concentrations, osmotic pressure, neutral red, TEA Cl-, and the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and LaCl3. In addition, hydrostatic pressure applied to the bottom of a vertically-oriented cell can abolish and even reverse the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. These data indicate that both gravity and hydrostatic pressure act at the same point of the signal transduction chain leading to the induction of a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming and support the hypothesis that characean cells respond to gravity by sensing a gravity-induced pressure differential between the cell ends.

  7. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  8. Hydrostatic Water Level Systems At Homestake DUSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetler, L. D.; Volk, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Two arrays of Fermilab-style hydrostatic water level sensors have been installed in the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, the site of the new Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Sensors were constructed at Fermilab from 8.5 cm diameter PVC pipe (housing) that was sealed on the ends and fit with a proximity sensor. The instrument have a height of 10 cm. Two ports in each sensor housing provide for connectivity, the upper port for air and the bottom port for water. Multiple instruments connected in series provide a precise water level and differences in readings between successive sensors provide for ground tilt to be resolved. Sensor resolution is 5 μm per count and has a range of approximately 1.25 cm. Data output from each sensor is relayed to a Fermilab-constructed readout card that also has temperature/relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors connected. All data are relayed out of the mine by fiber optic cable and can be recorded by Ethernet at remote locations. The current arrays have been installed on the 2000-ft level (610 m) and consist of six instruments in each array. Three sensors were placed in a N-S oriented drift and three in an E-W oriented drift. Using this orientation, it is anticipated that tilt direction may be resolved in addition to overall tilt magnitude. To date the data show passage of earth tides and frequency analysis has revealed five components to this signal, three associated with the semi-diurnal (~12.4 hr) and two with the diurnal (~24.9 hr) tides. Currently, installation methods are being analyzed between concrete pillar and rib-mounting using the existing setup on the 2000-ft level. Using these results, two additional arrays of Fermilab instruments will be installed on the 4550-ft and 4850-ft levels (1387 and 1478 m, respectively). In addition to Fermilab instruments, several high resolution Budker tiltmeters (1 μm resolution) will be installed in the mine workings in the near future, some

  9. Depth-dependent erodibility: representing burnt soils as a two-layered cohesive/non-cohesive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, P.; Sheridan, G. J.; Moody, J. A.; Smith, H. G.; Lane, P. N.

    2011-12-01

    Immediately after wildfire there is an abundant supply of non-cohesive ash, soil and gravel which is easily entrained by overland flow. Under these conditions the sediment flux on hillslopes can be assumed to be equal to the transport capacity of the flow. However, the supply of material is finite and at some point the hillslope could shift towards a system where entrainment is restricted by armouring and soil cohesion. In this study we test the notion that burnt hillslopes can be represented as a two-layered system of non-cohesive and cohesive soils. Using a combination of i) shear vane measurements, ii) confined hillslope flow experiments and iii) a laboratory flume, we demonstrate how erosion on burnt hillslopes primarily takes place in a distinct layer of non-cohesive soil with erosion properties that are very different to the underlying soil matrix. Shear vane measurements were taken at 5 soil depths at more than 50 points along transects in order to quantify the depth and spatial distribution of non-cohesive soil in two small (0.5 ha) and steep (30 deg) convergent basins (SE Australia) that were burnt at high severity. The measurements showed that the recently burnt hillslopes were mantled with non-cohesive soil to an average depth of 18mm and 20mm at the two sites which were situated in different geologic terrain but in similar eucalyptus dominated forests. In the hillslope flow experiments, the rapid entrainment of non-cohesive material resulted in very high sediment concentration (50-60% by volume) in the initial surge from the test area. During the flow experiments the sediment concentration decreased exponentially with time until the erosion rate reached a steady state reflecting the erodibility of the underlying cohesive soil. The formation of shallow rills and the presence of large clasts (>16cm) within the test area resulted in incomplete removal of the non-cohesive material at shear stress < 50 Ncm-2. At shear stress > 50 Ncm-2 all material was

  10. Storage capacity and learning algorithms for two-layer neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Köhler, H. M.; Tschepke, F.; Vollmayr, H.; Zippelius, A.

    1992-05-01

    A two-layer feedforward network of McCulloch-Pitts neurons with N inputs and K hidden units is analyzed for N-->∞ and K finite with respect to its ability to implement p=αN random input-output relations. Special emphasis is put on the case where all hidden units are coupled to the output with the same strength (committee machine) and the receptive fields of the hidden units either enclose all input units (fully connected) or are nonoverlapping (tree structure). The storage capacity is determined generalizing Gardner's treatment [J. Phys. A 21, 257 (1988); Europhys. Lett. 4, 481 (1987)] of the single-layer perceptron. For the treelike architecture, a replica-symmetric calculation yields αc~ √K for a large number K of hidden units. This result violates an upper bound derived by Mitchison and Durbin [Biol. Cybern. 60, 345 (1989)]. One-step replica-symmetry breaking gives lower values of αc. In the fully connected committee machine there are in general correlations among different hidden units. As the limit of capacity is approached, the hidden units are anticorrelated: One hidden unit attempts to learn those patterns which have not been learned by the others. These correlations decrease as 1/K, so that for K-->∞ the capacity per synapse is the same as for the tree architecture, whereas for small K we find a considerable enhancement for the storage per synapse. Numerical simulations were performed to explicitly construct solutions for the tree as well as the fully connected architecture. A learning algorithm is suggested. It is based on the least-action algorithm, which is modified to take advantage of the two-layer structure. The numerical simulations yield capacities p that are slightly more than twice the number of degrees of freedom, while the fully connected net can store relatively more patterns than the tree. Various generalizations are discussed. Variable weights from hidden to output give the same results for the storage capacity as does the committee

  11. Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Francesco; Sassaroli, Angelo; Henry, Michael E.; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered diffusive medium to investigate the effect of a superficial layer on the measurement of absorption variations from optical diffuse reflectance data processed by using: (a) a multidistance, frequency-domain method based on diffusion theory for a semi-infinite homogeneous medium; (b) a differential-pathlength-factor method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a homogeneous medium and (c) a two-distance, partial-pathlength method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a two-layered medium. Methods (a) and (b) lead to a single value for the absorption variation, whereas method (c) yields absorption variations for each layer. In the simulations, the optical coefficients of the medium were representative of those of biological tissue in the near-infrared. The thickness of the first layer was in the range 0.3-1.4 cm, and the source-detector distances were in the range 1-5 cm, which is typical of near-infrared diffuse reflectance measurements in tissue. The simulations have shown that (1) method (a) is mostly sensitive to absorption changes in the underlying layer, provided that the thickness of the superficial layer is ~0.6 cm or less; (2) method (b) is significantly affected by absorption changes in the superficial layer and (3) method (c) yields the absorption changes for both layers with a relatively good accuracy of ~4% for the superficial layer and ~10% for the underlying layer (provided that the absorption changes are less than 20-30% of the baseline value). We have applied all three methods of data analysis to near-infrared data collected on the forehead of a human subject during electroconvulsive therapy. Our results suggest that the multidistance method (a) and the two-distance partial-pathlength method (c) may better decouple the contributions to the optical signals that originate in deeper tissue (brain) from those that originate in more superficial tissue layers.

  12. Hydrostatic Pressure Promotes Domain Formation in Model Lipid Raft Membranes.

    PubMed

    Worcester, David L; Weinrich, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements demonstrate that hydrostatic pressure promotes liquid-ordered (Lo) domain formation in lipid membranes prepared as both oriented multilayers and unilamellar vesicles made of a canonical ternary lipid mixture for which demixing transitions have been extensively studied. The results demonstrate an unusually large dependence of the mixing transition on hydrostatic pressure. Additionally, data at 28 °C show that the magnitude of increase in Lo caused by 10 MPa pressure is much the same as the decrease in Lo produced by twice minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) of general anesthetics such as halothane, nitrous oxide, and xenon. Therefore, the results may provide a plausible explanation for the reversal of general anesthesia by hydrostatic pressure.

  13. A hydrostatic stress-dependent anisotropic model of viscoplasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.; Tao, Q.; Verrilli, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrostatic stress-dependent, anisotropic model of viscoplasticity is formulated as an extension of Bodner's model. This represents a further extension of the isotropic Bodner model over that made to anisotropy by Robinson and MitiKavuma. Account is made of the inelastic deformation that can occur in metallic composites under hydrostatic stress. A procedure for determining the material parameters is identified that is virtually identical to the established characterization procedure for the original Bodner model. Characterization can be achieved using longitudinal/transverse tensile and shear tests and hydrostatic stress tests; alternatively, four off-axis tensile tests can be used. Conditions for a yield stress minimum under off-axis tension are discussed. The model is applied to a W/Cu composite; characterization is made using off-axis tensile data generated at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC).

  14. Laboratory column study for remediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater using a biological two-layer permeable barrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, She-Jiang; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xin-Gang

    2006-10-01

    In this study, an in situ biological two-layer permeable reactive barrier system consisting of an oxygen-releasing material layer followed by a biodegradation layer was designed to evaluate the remediation effectiveness of MTBE-contaminated groundwater. The first layer containing calcium peroxide (CaO(2)) and other inorganic salts is to provide oxygen and nutrients for the immobilized microbes in the second layer in order to keep them in aerobic condition and maintain their normal metabolism. Furthermore, inorganic salts such as potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH(2)PO(4)) and ammonium sulphate ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) can also decrease the high pH caused by the alkali salt degraded from CaO(2). The second layer using granular expanded perlite as microbial carrier is able to biodegrade MTBE entering the barrier system. Batch experiments were conducted to identify the appropriate components of oxygen-releasing materials and the optimum pH value for the biodegradation of MTBE. At pH=8.0, the biodegradation efficiency of MTBE is the maximum and approximately 48.9%. A laboratory-scale experiment using two continuous upflow stainless-steel columns was then performed to evaluate the feasibility of this designed system. The fist column was filled with oxygen-releasing materials at certain ratio by weight. The second column was filled with expanded perlite granules immobilizing MTBE-degrading microbial consortium. Simulated MTBE-contaminated groundwater, in which dissolved oxygen (DO) content was 0mg/L, was pumped into this system at a flow rate of 500mL/d. Samples from the second column were analyzed for MTBE and its major degradation byproduct. Results showed that MTBE could be removed, and its metabolic intermediate, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), could also be further degraded in this passive system.

  15. A study of heat transfer for two layered composite inclined plate crotch absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, M.

    1989-11-01

    Since a copper plate (Z=29) absorbs most of the photon energy very near the surface, the temperature of the surface becomes very high despite of having a high thermal conductivity. On the other hand, a beryllium plate( Z=4) can diffuse the intense radiation throughout the depth of its plate by allowing photons to penetrate, but has a low thermal conductivity (about half of that of a copper). As an effort to combine both merits of Be and Cu, a Be-Cu composite absorber was developed and has been successfully used in CESR. They analyzed composite the heat transfer problem numerically for the case of a vertically located Be-Cu composite cylinder which results in symmetry with respect to the center of photon beam and allows them to consider only half a domain. In this note, an inclined absorber with two layered metal plates is considered and a full domain solution is sought to study the asymmetric heating due to the inclined photon beam penetration heating. An analytical solution for heat transfer is obtained for a full domain using the Fourier integral transformation and of particular interests are the effects of different thickness ratios of two materials and different inclination angles.

  16. Numerical investigation on oscillatory Turing patterns in a two-layer coupled reaction-diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Zheng; Bai, Zhan-Guo; Li, Yan; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, various kinds of spontaneous dynamic patterns are investigated based on a two-layer nonlinearly coupled Brusselator model. It is found that, when the Hopf mode or supercritical Turing mode respectively plays major role in the short or long wavelength mode layer, the dynamic patterns appear under the action of nonlinearly coupling interactions in the reaction-diffusion system. The stripe pattern can change its symmetrical structure and form other graphics when influenced by small perturbations sourced from other modes. If two supercritical Turing modes are nonlinearly coupled together, the transition from Turing instability to Hopf instability may appear in the short wavelength mode layer, and the twinkling-eye square pattern, traveling and rotating pattern will be obtained in the two subsystems. If Turing mode and subharmonic Turing mode satisfy the three-mode resonance relation, twinkling-eye patterns are generated, and oscillating spots are arranged as square lattice in the two-dimensional space. When the subharmonic Turing mode satisfies the spatio-temporal phase matching condition, the traveling patterns, including the rhombus, hexagon and square patterns are obtained, which presents different moving velocities. It is found that the wave intensity plays an important role in pattern formation and pattern selection.

  17. Two-layer symbolic representation for stochastic models with phase-type distributed events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Francesco; Scarpa, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Among the techniques that have been proposed for the analysis of non-Markovian models, the state space expansion approach showed great flexibility in terms of modelling capacities.The principal drawback is the explosion of the state space. This paper proposes a two-layer symbolic method for efficiently storing the expanded reachability graph of a non-Markovian model in the case in which continuous phase-type distributions are associated with the firing times of system events, and different memory policies are considered. At the lower layer, the reachability graph is symbolically represented in the form of a set of Kronecker matrices, while, at the higher layer, all the information needed to correctly manage event memory is stored in a multi-terminal multi-valued decision diagram. Such an information is collected by applying a symbolic algorithm, which is based on a couple of theorems. The efficiency of the proposed approach, in terms of memory occupation and execution time, is shown by applying it to a set of non-Markovian stochastic Petri nets and comparing it with a classical explicit expansion algorithm. Moreover, a comparison with a classical symbolic approach is performed whenever possible.

  18. A Two-Layer Gene Circuit for Decoupling Cell Growth from Metabolite Production.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tat-Ming; Chng, Si Hui; Teo, Wei Suong; Cho, Han-Saem; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2016-08-01

    We present a synthetic gene circuit for decoupling cell growth from metabolite production through autonomous regulation of enzymatic pathways by integrated modules that sense nutrient and substrate. The two-layer circuit allows Escherichia coli to selectively utilize target substrates in a mixed pool; channel metabolic resources to growth by delaying enzymatic conversion until nutrient depletion; and activate, terminate, and re-activate conversion upon substrate availability. We developed two versions of controller, both of which have glucose nutrient sensors but differ in their substrate-sensing modules. One controller is specific for hydroxycinnamic acid and the other for oleic acid. Our hydroxycinnamic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 2-fold and productivity 5-fold, whereas our oleic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 1.3-fold and productivity 2.4-fold. These results demonstrate the potential for engineering strategies that decouple growth and production to make bio-based production more economical and sustainable. PMID:27559924

  19. A novel approach to ECG classification based upon two-layered HMMs in body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei; Zhang, Yinlong; Tan, Jindong; Li, Yang

    2014-03-27

    This paper presents a novel approach to ECG signal filtering and classification. Unlike the traditional techniques which aim at collecting and processing the ECG signals with the patient being still, lying in bed in hospitals, our proposed algorithm is intentionally designed for monitoring and classifying the patient's ECG signals in the free-living environment. The patients are equipped with wearable ambulatory devices the whole day, which facilitates the real-time heart attack detection. In ECG preprocessing, an integral-coefficient-band-stop (ICBS) filter is applied, which omits time-consuming floating-point computations. In addition, two-layered Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are applied to achieve ECG feature extraction and classification. The periodic ECG waveforms are segmented into ISO intervals, P subwave, QRS complex and T subwave respectively in the first HMM layer where expert-annotation assisted Baum-Welch algorithm is utilized in HMM modeling. Then the corresponding interval features are selected and applied to categorize the ECG into normal type or abnormal type (PVC, APC) in the second HMM layer. For verifying the effectiveness of our algorithm on abnormal signal detection, we have developed an ECG body sensor network (BSN) platform, whereby real-time ECG signals are collected, transmitted, displayed and the corresponding classification outcomes are deduced and shown on the BSN screen.

  20. Powerful Amplification Cascades of FRET-Based Two-Layer Nonenzymatic Nucleic Acid Circuits.

    PubMed

    Quan, Ke; Huang, Jin; Yang, Xiaohai; Yang, Yanjing; Ying, Le; Wang, He; Xie, Nuli; Ou, Min; Wang, Kemin

    2016-06-01

    Nucleic acid circuits have played important roles in biological engineering and have increasingly attracted researchers' attention. They are primarily based on nucleic acid hybridizations and strand displacement reactions between nucleic acid probes of different lengths. Signal amplification schemes that do not rely on protein enzyme show great potential in analytical applications. While the single amplification circuit often achieves linear amplification that may not meet the need for detection of target in a very small amount, it is very necessary to construct cascade circuits that allow for larger amplification of inputs. Herein, we have successfully engineered powerful amplification cascades of FRET-based two-layer nonenzymatic nucleic acid circuits, in which the outputs of catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) activate hybridization chain reactions (HCR) circuits to induce repeated hybridization, allowing real-time monitoring of self-assembly process by FRET signal. The cascades can yield 50000-fold signal amplification with the help of the well-designed and high-quality nucleic acid circuit amplifiers. Subsequently, with coupling of structure-switching aptamer, as low as 200 pM adenosine is detected in buffer, as well as in human serum. To our knowledge, we have for the first time realized real-time monitoring adaptation of HCR to CHA circuits and achieved amplified detection of nucleic acids and small molecules with relatively high sensitivity. PMID:27142084

  1. Inferring topologies via driving-based generalized synchronization of two-layer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingfei; Wu, Xiaoqun; Feng, Hui; Lu, Jun-an; Xu, Yuhua

    2016-05-01

    The interaction topology among the constituents of a complex network plays a crucial role in the network’s evolutionary mechanisms and functional behaviors. However, some network topologies are usually unknown or uncertain. Meanwhile, coupling delays are ubiquitous in various man-made and natural networks. Hence, it is necessary to gain knowledge of the whole or partial topology of a complex dynamical network by taking into consideration communication delay. In this paper, topology identification of complex dynamical networks is investigated via generalized synchronization of a two-layer network. Particularly, based on the LaSalle-type invariance principle of stochastic differential delay equations, an adaptive control technique is proposed by constructing an auxiliary layer and designing proper control input and updating laws so that the unknown topology can be recovered upon successful generalized synchronization. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The technique provides a certain theoretical basis for topology inference of complex networks. In particular, when the considered network is composed of systems with high-dimension or complicated dynamics, a simpler response layer can be constructed, which is conducive to circuit design. Moreover, it is practical to take into consideration perturbations caused by control input. Finally, the method is applicable to infer topology of a subnetwork embedded within a complex system and locate hidden sources. We hope the results can provide basic insight into further research endeavors on understanding practical and economical topology inference of networks.

  2. A Two-Layer Gene Circuit for Decoupling Cell Growth from Metabolite Production.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tat-Ming; Chng, Si Hui; Teo, Wei Suong; Cho, Han-Saem; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2016-08-01

    We present a synthetic gene circuit for decoupling cell growth from metabolite production through autonomous regulation of enzymatic pathways by integrated modules that sense nutrient and substrate. The two-layer circuit allows Escherichia coli to selectively utilize target substrates in a mixed pool; channel metabolic resources to growth by delaying enzymatic conversion until nutrient depletion; and activate, terminate, and re-activate conversion upon substrate availability. We developed two versions of controller, both of which have glucose nutrient sensors but differ in their substrate-sensing modules. One controller is specific for hydroxycinnamic acid and the other for oleic acid. Our hydroxycinnamic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 2-fold and productivity 5-fold, whereas our oleic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 1.3-fold and productivity 2.4-fold. These results demonstrate the potential for engineering strategies that decouple growth and production to make bio-based production more economical and sustainable.

  3. Penetration depth of linear polarization imaging for two-layer anisotropic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ran; Zeng, Nan; Li, Dongzhi; Yun, Tianliang; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2011-08-01

    Polarization techniques can suppress multiply scattering light and have been demonstrated as an effective tool to improve image quality of superficial tissues where many cancers start to develop. Learning the penetration depth behavior of different polarization imaging techniques is important for their clinical applications in diagnosis of skin abnormalities. In the present paper, we construct a two-layer sample consisting of isotropic and anisotropic media and examine quantitatively using both experiments and Monte Carlo simulations the penetration depths of three different polarization imaging methods, i.e., linear differential polarization imaging (LDPI), degree of linear polarization imaging (DOLPI), and rotating linear polarization imaging (RLPI). The results show that the contrast curves of the three techniques are distinctively different, but their characteristic depths are all of the order of the transport mean free path length of the top layer. Penetration depths of LDPI and DOLPI depend on the incident polarization angle. The characteristic depth of DOLPI, and approximately of LDPI at small g, scales with the transport mean free path length. The characteristic depth of RLPI is almost twice as big as that of DOLPI and LDPI, and increases significantly as g increases.

  4. Thermal properties of composite two-layer systems with a fractal inclusion structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Salgado, J. J.; Dossetti, V.; Bonilla-Capilla, B.; Carrillo, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the thermal transport properties of platelike composite two-layer samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy and thermal relaxation, their effective thermal diffusivity and conductivity were experimentally measured. The composite layers were prepared under the action of a static magnetic field, resulting in anisotropic (fractal) inclusion structures with the formation of chain-like magnetite aggregates parallel to the faces of the layers. In one kind of the bilayers, a composite layer was formed on top of a resin layer while their relative thickness was varied. These samples can be described by known models. In contrast, bilayers with the same concentration of inclusions and the same thickness on both sides, where only the angle between their inclusion structures was systematically varied, show a nontrivial behaviour of their thermal conductivity as a function of this angle. Through a multifractal and lacunarity analysis, we explain the observed thermal response in terms of the complexity of the interface between the layers.

  5. Segmentation of the left ventricle using distance regularized two-layer level set approach.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chaolu; Li, Chunming; Zhao, Dazhe; Davatzikos, Christos; Litt, Harold

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel two-layer level set approach for segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) short-axis images. In our method, endocardium and epicardium are represented by two specified level contours of a level set function. Segmentation of the LV is formulated as a problem of optimizing the level set function such that these two level contours best fit the epicardium and endocardium. More importantly, a distance regularization (DR) constraint on the level contours is introduced to preserve smoothly varying distance between them. This DR constraint leads to a desirable interaction between the level contours that contributes to maintain the anatomical geometry of the endocardium and epicardium. The negative influence of intensity inhomogeneities on image segmentation are overcome by using a data term derived from a local intensity clustering property. Our method is quantitatively validated by experiments on the datasets for the MICCAI grand challenge on left ventricular segmentation, which demonstrates the advantages of our method in terms of segmentation accuracy and consistency with anatomical geometry.

  6. A two-layer recurrent neural network for nonsmooth convex optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sitian; Xue, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a two-layer recurrent neural network is proposed to solve the nonsmooth convex optimization problem subject to convex inequality and linear equality constraints. Compared with existing neural network models, the proposed neural network has a low model complexity and avoids penalty parameters. It is proved that from any initial point, the state of the proposed neural network reaches the equality feasible region in finite time and stays there thereafter. Moreover, the state is unique if the initial point lies in the equality feasible region. The equilibrium point set of the proposed neural network is proved to be equivalent to the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality set of the original optimization problem. It is further proved that the equilibrium point of the proposed neural network is stable in the sense of Lyapunov. Moreover, from any initial point, the state is proved to be convergent to an equilibrium point of the proposed neural network. Finally, as applications, the proposed neural network is used to solve nonlinear convex programming with linear constraints and L1 -norm minimization problems.

  7. TWO-LAYER MODEL FOR PULL-OUT BEHAVIOR OF POST-INSTALLED ANCHOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Tsubaki, Tatsuya

    A new two-layer anchor-infill assembly structure for the post-installed anchor is introduced with the analytical model to simulate its pull-out deformational response. The post-installed anchor is such that used in strengthening techniques for reinforced concrete structures. The properties of the infill material used for post-installed anchor are characterized by nonlinear interfaces. Because of the mechanical properties of the infill layer the existing pull-out model of deformed bars is not applicable in this case. Interfacial de-bonding is examined using energy criterion and strength criterion. The effect of the interface properties such as stiffness and strength on the pull-out behavior of a post-installed anchor is investigated. Using sensitivity analysis, the effect of these parameters on load-displacement curve, shear stress distribution, de-bonded length and damage to the surrounding concrete is clarified. Then, the optimum combination of these parameters is presented. It is confirmed that the elastic modulus of infill should be large to reduce the pull-out displacement and the increase of the shear strength of infill makes the pull-out load larger.

  8. Seismic evidence of a two-layer lithospheric deformation in the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanfang; Singh, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Intra-plate deformation and associated earthquakes are enigmatic features on the Earth. The Wharton Basin in the Indian Ocean is one of the most active intra-plate deformation zones, confirmed by the occurrence of the 2012 great earthquakes (Mw≥8.2). These earthquakes seem to have ruptured the whole lithosphere, but how this deformation is distributed at depth remains unknown. Here we present seismic reflection images that show faults down to 45 km depth. The amplitude of these reflections in the mantle first decreases with depth down to 25 km and then remains constant down to 45 km. The number of faults imaged along the profile and the number of earthquakes as a function of depth show a similar pattern, suggesting that the lithospheric mantle deformation can be divided into two layers: a highly fractured fluid-filled serpentinized upper layer and a pristine brittle lithospheric mantle where great earthquakes initiate and large stress drops occur. PMID:26365624

  9. Seismic evidence of a two-layer lithospheric deformation in the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanfang; Singh, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Intra-plate deformation and associated earthquakes are enigmatic features on the Earth. The Wharton Basin in the Indian Ocean is one of the most active intra-plate deformation zones, confirmed by the occurrence of the 2012 great earthquakes (Mw≥8.2). These earthquakes seem to have ruptured the whole lithosphere, but how this deformation is distributed at depth remains unknown. Here we present seismic reflection images that show faults down to 45 km depth. The amplitude of these reflections in the mantle first decreases with depth down to 25 km and then remains constant down to 45 km. The number of faults imaged along the profile and the number of earthquakes as a function of depth show a similar pattern, suggesting that the lithospheric mantle deformation can be divided into two layers: a highly fractured fluid-filled serpentinized upper layer and a pristine brittle lithospheric mantle where great earthquakes initiate and large stress drops occur.

  10. Extreme events statistics in a two-layer quasi-geostrophic atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galfi, Vera Melinda; Bodai, Tamas; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Extreme events statistics provides a theoretical framework to analyze and predict extreme events based on the convergence of the distribution of the extremes to some limiting distribution. In this work we analyze the convergence of the distribution of extreme events to the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution and to the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), using a two-layer quasi-geostrophic atmospheric model, and compare our results with theoretical findings from the field of extreme value theory for dynamical systems. We study the behavior of the GEV shape parameter by increasing the block size and of the GPD shape parameter by increasing the threshold, and compare the inferred parameters with a theoretical shape parameter that depends only on the geometrical properties of the attractor. The main objective is to find out whether this theoretical shape parameter can be used to evaluate extreme event analysis based on model output. For this, we perform very long simulations. We run our system with two different levels of forcing determined by two different meridional temperature gradients, one inducing a medium level of chaos and the other one a high level of chaos. We analyze in both cases extremes of energy variables.

  11. Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet

    1987-01-01

    A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.

  12. A model for hydrostatic consolidation of Pierre shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.Z.; Braddock, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for consolidation of transversely isotropic porous media under hydrostatic stress. The solutions are applied to model the time variation of pore pressure, volume strain and strains parallel and normal to bedding, and to obtain coefficients of consolidation and permeability, as well as other properties, and the bulk modulus resulting from hydrostatic consolidation of Pierre shale. It is found that the coefficients consolidation and permeability decrease and the bulk moduli increase with increasing confining pressure, reflecting the closure of voids in the rock. ?? 1991.

  13. Remediation of PCE-contaminated aquifer by an in situ two-layer biobarrier: laboratory batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Wang, J Y; Chen, Y L; Lee, S Z

    2003-01-01

    The industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ two-layer biobarrier system consisting of an organic-releasing material layer followed by an oxygen-releasing material layer. The organic-releasing material, which contained sludge cakes from a domestic wastewater treatment plant, is able to release biodegradable organics continuously. The oxygen-releasing material, which contained calcium peroxide, is able to release oxygen continuously upon contact with water. The first organic-releasing material layer was to supply organics (primary substrates) to reductively dechlorinate PCE in situ. The second oxygen-releasing material layer was to release oxygen to aerobic biodegrade or cometabolize PCE degradation byproducts from the first anaerobic layer. Batch experiments were conducted to design and identify the components of the organic and oxygen-releasing materials, and evaluate the organic substrate (presented as chemical oxygen demand (COD) equivalent) and oxygen release rates from the organic-releasing material and oxygen-releasing materials, respectively. The observed oxygen and COD release rates were approximately 0.0368 and 0.0416 mg/d/g of material, respectively. A laboratory-scale column experiment was then conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system for the bioremediation of PCE-contaminated groundwater. This system was performed using a series of continuous-flow glass columns including a soil column, an organic-releasing material column, two consecutive soil columns, and an oxygen-releasing material column, followed by two other consecutive soil columns. Anaerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in the first four columns, and aerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in the last three columns to provide microbial consortia for contaminant biodegradation. Simulated PCE-contaminated groundwater with a

  14. Remediation of PCE-contaminated aquifer by an in situ two-layer biobarrier: laboratory batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Wang, J Y; Chen, Y L; Lee, S Z

    2003-01-01

    The industrial solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to develop an in situ two-layer biobarrier system consisting of an organic-releasing material layer followed by an oxygen-releasing material layer. The organic-releasing material, which contained sludge cakes from a domestic wastewater treatment plant, is able to release biodegradable organics continuously. The oxygen-releasing material, which contained calcium peroxide, is able to release oxygen continuously upon contact with water. The first organic-releasing material layer was to supply organics (primary substrates) to reductively dechlorinate PCE in situ. The second oxygen-releasing material layer was to release oxygen to aerobic biodegrade or cometabolize PCE degradation byproducts from the first anaerobic layer. Batch experiments were conducted to design and identify the components of the organic and oxygen-releasing materials, and evaluate the organic substrate (presented as chemical oxygen demand (COD) equivalent) and oxygen release rates from the organic-releasing material and oxygen-releasing materials, respectively. The observed oxygen and COD release rates were approximately 0.0368 and 0.0416 mg/d/g of material, respectively. A laboratory-scale column experiment was then conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system for the bioremediation of PCE-contaminated groundwater. This system was performed using a series of continuous-flow glass columns including a soil column, an organic-releasing material column, two consecutive soil columns, and an oxygen-releasing material column, followed by two other consecutive soil columns. Anaerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in the first four columns, and aerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in the last three columns to provide microbial consortia for contaminant biodegradation. Simulated PCE-contaminated groundwater with a

  15. Full chip two-layer CD and overlay process window analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rachit; Shang, Shumay; Sturtevant, John

    2015-03-01

    In-line CD and overlay metrology specifications are typically established by starting with design rules and making certain assumptions about error distributions which might be encountered in manufacturing. Lot disposition criteria in photo metrology (rework or pass to etch) are set assuming worst case assumptions for CD and overlay respectively. For example poly to active overlay specs start with poly endcap design rules and make assumptions about active and poly lot average and across lot CDs, and incorporate general knowledge about poly line end rounding to ensure that leakage current is maintained within specification. There is an opportunity to go beyond generalized guard band design rules to full-chip, design-specific, model-based exploration of worst case layout locations. Such an approach can leverage not only the above mentioned coupling of CD and overlay errors, but can interrogate all layout configurations for both layers to help determine lot-specific, design-specific CD and overlay dispositioning criteria for the fab. Such an approach can elucidate whether for a specific design layout there exist asymmetries in the response to misalignment which might be exploited in manufacturing. This paper will investigate an example of two-layer model-based analysis of CD and overlay errors. It is shown, somewhat non-intuitively, that there can be small preferred misalignment asymmetries which should be respected to protect yield. We will show this relationship for via-metal overlap. We additionally present a new method of displaying edge placement process window variability, akin to traditional CD process window analysis.

  16. Two-layer tree-connected feed-forward neural network model for neural cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xinyu; Liao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fei; Huang, Tingwen

    2013-03-01

    Neural synchronization by means of mutual learning provides an avenue to design public key exchange protocols, bringing about what is known as neural cryptography. Two identically structured neural networks learn from each other and reach full synchronization eventually. The full synchronization enables two networks to have the same weight, which can be used as a secret key for many subsequent cryptographic purposes. It is striking to observe that after the first decade of neural cryptography, the tree parity machine (TPM) network with hidden unit K=3 appears to be the sole network that is suitable for a neural protocol. No convincingly secure neural protocol is well designed by using other network structures despite considerable research efforts. With the goal of overcoming the limitations of a suitable network structure, in this paper we develop a two-layer tree-connected feed-forward neural network (TTFNN) model for a neural protocol. The TTFNN model captures the notion that two partners are capable of exchanging a vector with multiple bits in each time step. An in-depth study of the dynamic process of TTFNN-based protocols is then undertaken, based upon which a feasible condition is theoretically obtained to seek applicable protocols. Afterward, according to two analytically derived heuristic rules, a complete methodology for designing feasible TTFNN-based protocols is elaborated. A variety of feasible neural protocols are constructed, which exhibit the effectiveness and benefits of the proposed model. With another look from the perspective of application, TTFNN-based instances, which can outperform the conventional TPM-based protocol with respect to synchronization speed, are also experimentally confirmed.

  17. Aluminum compounds in soil solutions and their migration in podzolic soils on two-layered deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2009-01-01

    The fractional composition of aluminum compounds was studied in soil solutions obtained using vacuum lysimeters from loamy podzolic soils on two-layered deposits. The concentration of aluminum was estimated in brooks and a river draining the area with a predominance of these soils. In soil solutions, the concentration of aluminum was experimentally determined in the following compounds: (1) organic and inorganic monomers, (2) stable complexes with HAs and FAs together with polymers, and (3) the most stable complexes with HAs and FAs together with fine-crystalline and colloidal compounds. The total Al concentration in soil solutions from forest litter was 0.111-0.175 mmol/l and decreased with depth to 0.05 mmol/l and lower in solutions from the IIBD horizons. More than 90% of the Al in the solutions was bound into complexes with organic ligands. Some amount of Al in solution could occur in aluminosilicate sols. The translocation of Al complexes from the litter through the AE horizon to the podzolic horizon was accompanied by an increase in the ratio between the Al concentration in fraction 2 and the C concentration in the solution. The concentrations of Altot in the surface waters varied in the range from 0.015 to 0.030 mmol/l. Most of the Al came to the surface waters from the litter and AE horizons and partially from the podzolic horizon due to the lateral runoff along the waterproof IIBD horizon. Approximate calculations showed that the recent annual removal of Al from the AE and E horizons with the lateral runoff was 7 to 560 mg (3-21 mmol) from 1 m2.

  18. Two Improvements of an Operational Two-Layer Model for Terrestrial Surface Heat Flux Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renhua; Tian, Jing; Su, Hongbo; Sun, Xiaomin; Chen, Shaohui; Xia, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In order to make the prediction of land surface heat fluxes more robust, two improvements were made to an operational two-layer model proposed previously by Zhang. These improvements are: 1) a surface energy balance method is used to determine the theoretical boundary lines (namely ‘true wet/cool edge’ and ‘true dry/warm edge’ in the trapezoid) in the scatter plot for the surface temperature versus the fractional vegetation cover in mixed pixels; 2) a new assumption that the slope of the Tm – f curves is mainly controlled by soil water content is introduced. The variables required by the improved method include near surface vapor pressure, air temperature, surface resistance, aerodynamic resistance, fractional vegetation cover, surface temperature and net radiation. The model predictions from the improved model were assessed in this study by in situ measurements, which show that the total latent heat flux from the soil and vegetation are in close agreement with the in situ measurement with an RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) ranging from 30 w/m2∼50 w/m2, which is consistent with the site scale measurement of latent heat flux. Because soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration are not measured separately from the field site, in situ measured CO2 flux is used to examine the modeled λEveg. Similar trends of seasonal variations of vegetation were found for the canopy transpiration retrievals and in situ CO2 flux measurements. The above differences are mainly caused by 1) the scale disparity between the field measurement and the MODIS observation; 2) the non-closure problem of the surface energy balance from the surface fluxes observations themselves. The improved method was successfully used to predict the component surface heat fluxes from the soil and vegetation and it provides a promising approach to study the canopy transpiration and the soil evaporation quantitatively during the rapid growing season of winter wheat in northern China.

  19. Implausibility of Hydrostatic Funnels Constituting the Sun's Upper Transition Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Carpio, Melisa M.; Sheung, Janet

    2007-09-01

    Over the past thirty years, two bodies of literature have developed in parallel presenting mutually exclusive views of the Sun’s upper transition region. One model holds that the Sun’s upper-transition-region plasmas are confined primarily in hydrostatic funnels with a substantial backheating component. The other model holds that discrete structures, which are effectively isolated from the corona, predominate in the Sun’s upper transition region. Purveyors of the latter position have recently begun to present near-resolved observations of discrete structures. The funnel scenario, in contrast, has only been addressed by modeling unresolved upper transition region emission. To address this paradox we have constructed hydrostatic funnel models and tested them against a wider set of solar observations than previously performed. We reproduce the results of the previous analyses, yet find that the hydrostatic funnels are unable to self-consistently match the wider set of observations against which we test the models. We show that it is not possible for a class of funnels having peak temperatures in the transition region or in the corona to match the observations. We conclude that it is implausible that a class of hydrostatic funnels constitutes the dominant emitting component of the Sun’s upper-transition-region plasmas as has been suggested.

  20. [Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on microbial physiological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Li, Zong-Jun; Xu, Jian-Xing

    2005-08-01

    Physiological characterizations of Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 11994 and Escherichia coli ATCC 80739 have deeply changed by high hydrostatic pressure. The results showed that counts of both microbial strains decreased 7 log cfu at 400MPa, 10 min. Pressure treatments also resulted in change of Intracellular pH value, lowed membrane potential, have internal potassium filtered out, and decreased ATP concentration.

  1. Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, Daniel G.; Gerth, Howard L.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint.

  2. Numerical construction of magneto-hydrostatic atmospheres in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, Stuart; Braun, Douglas; Barnes, Graham

    2016-05-01

    There is a general interest in constructing magneto-hydrostatic models of the solar atmosphere. These models describe large-scale, long-lived magnetic structures like sunspots, prominences, coronal loops, and the corona itself on global scales. The nonlinearity of the magneto-hydrostatic equations prohibits direct analytic solution except when idealized approximations like self-similarity are made. Numerical approaches, too, are limited in scope, and primarily focus on the two-dimensional problem --- the general three-dimensional magneto-hydrostatic problem is not treated. In this presentation we present a new numerical scheme for solving the magneto-hydrostatic equations in three dimensions. We are presently using this method to construct sunspot models for helioseismic MHD wave-propagation simulations with the goal of comparing the simulations to local-helioseismic measurements. We will present the details of the method and its application to test cases.This work is supported by NASA Heliophysics Division through grant NNX14AD42G and by the NSF Solar-Terrestrial program through grant AGS-1127327.

  3. Comparison of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure to inactivate foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HPP) and hydrodynamic pressure (HDP), in combination with chemical treatments, was evaluated for inactivation of foodborne viruses and non-pathogenic surrogates in a pork sausage product. Sausages were immersed in water, 100 ppm EDTA, or 2 percent lactoferrin...

  4. Hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings in high-speed turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A high speed, high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested under a previous contract. This design was then modified to incorporate hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings on both the pump end and turbine end to replace the original conventional ball bearing packages. The design, analysis, turbopump modification, assembly, and testing of the turbopump with hybrid bearings is presented here. Initial design considerations and rotordynamic performance analysis was made to define expected turbopump operating characteristics and are reported. The results of testing the turbopump to speeds of 9215 rad/s (88,000 rpm) using a wide range of hydrostatic bearing supply pressures are presented. The hydrostatic bearing test data and the rotordynamic behavior of the turbopump was closely analyzed and are included in the report. The testing of hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings on a turbopump to the high speed requirements has indicated the configuration concept is feasible. The program has presented a great deal of information on the technology requirements of integrating the hybrid bearing into high speed turbopump designs for improved bearing life.

  5. Analysis of a two row hydrostatic journal bearing with variable properties, inertia effects and surface roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Adams, M. L.; Mullen, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A computer algorithm for simulation of hydrostatic journal bearing pressure-flow behavior has been generated. The effects taken into account are inertia, cavitation, variable properties (isothermal bearing) and roughness. The program has been specifically tailored for simulation of the hybrid bearing of the cryogenic turbopumps of the main shuttle engine. Due to the high pressure (515 psia) of the supply line no cavitation has been found. The influence of the roughness effects have been found to become important only when the surface-roughness order of magnitude is comparable with that of the bearing clearance itself. Pocket edge inertia and variable properties have been found to have quite an important influence upon the pocket pressure, field pressure distribution and lubricant mass flow.

  6. Cooperation influenced by the correlation degree of two-layered complex networks in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jian-Yue; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wang, Ying-Hai

    2010-02-01

    An evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game is investigated on two-layered complex networks respectively representing interaction and learning networks in one and two dimensions. A parameter q is introduced to denote the correlation degree between the two-layered networks. Using Monte Carlo simulations we studied the effects of the correlation degree on cooperative behaviour and found that the cooperator density nontrivially changes with q for different payoff parameter values depending on the detailed strategy updating and network dimension. An explanation for the obtained results is provided.

  7. On the stability of two-layer geostrophic point-vortex multipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizner, Ziv

    2014-04-01

    A point-vortex multipole is an ensemble of m+1 vortices (m = 2, 3, …) possessing a m-fold symmetry, with the "core vortex" being located at the centre and m identical "satellite vortices" located at the vertices of an equilateral m-sided polygon (at m > 2) or at the ends of a straight-line segment (at m = 2). At m = 2, m = 3, and m = 4, the multipole is commonly termed a tripole, a quadrupole, and a pentapole, respectively, and the distance from the core vortex to the satellite vortices, the multipole leg. A multipole is said to be stable if, in response to sufficiently small initial perturbations in the distances between the vortices, the variations in the distances remain small for all times. The main issue of this article is an analytical study of the nonlinear stability of point-vortex tripoles characterized by that their core and satellite vortices reside in different layers of a two-layer f-plane quasigeostrophic model. Also the stability of pentapoles and quadrupoles is discussed. The parameters affecting the stability properties of a multipole are the length of its leg and the intensity of the core vortex relative to the satellite vortices. Among the invariants of the dynamical system that describes the motion of an ensemble of m+1 vortices, there are two ones depending on the distances between the vortices only. To establish the stability/instability of a multipole, we consider the restriction of one of the two invariants to the sheet (in the phase space) constituted by the states at which the second invariant takes the same value as at the multipole equilibrium state. Two versions of the method are presented and employed to analyze the stability of collinear states (m = 2) and non-collinear states (m > 2). For tripoles, complete stability analysis is performed resulting in the determination of the regions of stability/instability in the parameter plane. Depending on the parameters, a multipole can rotate clockwise or counterclockwise, and also can be

  8. High resolution non-hydrostatic GCM simulations of Venus polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, Alexander V.; Orlov, Konstantin; Mingalev, Igor

    Non-hydrostatic general circulation model of the Venus atmosphere is capable of reproducing both superrotatoin and subsolar-antisolar circulation, providing proper parameterization of the peculiar heat balance. Using high resolution (0.7 (o) in longitude and latitude, 250 m in height) simulations from the bottom to 120 km, we explore the response of the circulation system to perturbation of heating and cooling rates in the polar regions. It is shown that diurnal tide results in off-axis displacement of the polar vortex external part at the upper cloud level, consistent with the patterns retrieved from cloud tracking observations. On the other hand, minor (3 (o) -7 (o) ) displacement of the polar vortex central part constrains the diurnal variations of the heating/cooling rates within main cloud deck. Based on the recently developed radiative transfer code, we simulate heat balance in the polar Venus atmosphere, that results in realistic circulation pattern. It is shown that Hadley cell circulation provides extra heating above the clouds, resulting in the effective damping of superrotation and development of subsolar-antisolar circulation at higher altitudes. In turin high slant opacity of the polar atmosphere within the clouds provides the effective cooling near the pole, that causes non-hydrostatic downwelling flow, manifested as a core of the observed polar vortex. The work has been supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation grant #11.G34.31.0074

  9. Hydrostatic Simulation of Earth's Atmospheric Gas Using Multi-particle Collision Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis; Purqon, Acep; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2016-01-01

    Multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) is a mesoscopic simulation method to simulate fluid particle-like flows. MPCD has been widely used to simulate various problems in condensed matter. In this study, hydrostatic behavior of gas in the Earth's atmospheric layer is simulated by using MPCD method. The simulation is carried out by assuming the system under ideal state and is affected only by gravitational force. Gas particles are homogeneous and placed in 2D box. Interaction of the particles with the box is applied through implementation of boundary conditions (BC). Periodic BC is applied on the left and the right side, specular reflection on the top side, while bounce-back on the bottom side. Simulation program is executed in Arch Linux and running in notebook with processor Intel i5 @2700 MHz with 10 GB DDR3 RAM. The results show behaviors of the particles obey kinetic theory for ideal gas when gravitational acceleration value is proportional to the particle mass. Density distribution as a function of altitude also meets atmosphere's hydrostatic theory.

  10. Screen-Capturing System with Two-Layer Display for PowerPoint Presentation to Enhance Classroom Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yen-Shou; Tsai, Hung-Hsu; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new presentation system integrating a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation in a two-layer method, called the TL system, to promote learning in a physical classroom. With the TL system, teachers can readily control hints or annotations as a way of making them visible or invisible to students so as to reduce information load. In…

  11. Restoration of the contact surface in FORCE-type centred schemes II: Non-conservative one- and two-layer two-dimensional shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canestrelli, Alberto; Toro, Eleuterio F.

    2012-10-01

    Recently, a non-conservative well-balanced FORCE-type scheme has been proposed for solving multidimensional non-conservative equations such as the shallow water equations [4], the two-fluid flow model of Pitman and Le and the two- and three-dimensional Baer-Nunziato equations for compressible multiphase flows [17]. In the present paper the original scheme is first rewritten in a suitable form that allows easy manipulation of numerical fluxes. We then propose a modified scheme that provides a better resolution of contact waves for both one-layer and two-layer shallow water models. The improvement is particularly evident when an additional equation is solved for a passive solute. In this case, the original scheme does not satisfy the C-property for a uniformly distribute tracer, whereas the modified scheme provides a solution that is exact up to machine precision. Moreover, the modified scheme better resolves contact discontinuities, with an accuracy close to the one provided by a fully-upwind non-conservative ROE-type scheme accounting for the complete wave structure. When higher orders are achieved, the difference in accuracy between the various schemes is less pronounced. Moreover, the capability of the two-dimensional scheme to capture steady states is analyzed for both straight and meandering non-flat channels with non-zero friction, and for both one-layer and two-layer equations. Whereas the original first order FORCE scheme is able to correctly reproduce the longitudinal profile in the case of a straight channel even on a coarse mesh, when the channel is strongly meandering a modification of the scheme is necessary, otherwise a very refined mesh and a very high order of accuracy are needed, with a notable increase of computational time.

  12. The application of ICOM, a non-hydrostatic, fully unstructured mesh model in large scale ocean domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Stephan C.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Cotter, Colin J.; Pain, Chris C.; Nelson, Rhodri B.

    2010-05-01

    There are many apparent advantages of the application of unstructured meshes in ocean modelling: a much better representation of the coastal boundaries, the ability to focus resolution in areas of interest, or areas of intensified flow, such as boundary currents, etc. In particular with adaptive mesh technology, where the mesh is adapted during the simulation as the flow evolves, one is able to resolve much smaller features in the often turbulent ocean flow, than would be possible with fixed, structured mesh models. The Imperial College Ocean Model[1], is a non-hydrostatic ocean model that employs fully unstructured adaptive meshes, that allow focussing of resolution not only in the horizontal but also in the vertical. This enables the modelling of physical processes, such as open ocean deep convection, density driven flows on a steep bottom topography, etc. that are very important for the global ocean circulation. The Imperial College Ocean Model has been applied succesfully in the modelling of many of these processes. On the other hand hydrostatic, layered ocean models have a significant advantage in large areas of the oceans where the hydrostatic assumption is valid. The fact that with fully unstructured meshes it is no longer straightforward to separate horizontal, baroptropic modes and vertical, baroclinic dynamics, has consequences for both numerical accuracy and the efficiency of the linear solvers. It has therefore been a challenge for ICOM to remain competitive in these areas with layered mesh models. These problems have been overcome by, amongst others, the development of a new mesh adaptation technique that maintains a columnar structure of the mesh in such areas. The application of multigrid techniques has improved the effiency of the non-hydrostatic pressure solve[2] in such a way that convergence is now independent of aspect ratio, which makes the pressure solve competitive with that of a hydrostatic model. In this contribution an overview will be

  13. Refolding of endostatin from inclusion bodies using high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Chura-Chambi, Rosa Maria; Genova, Luis Antonio; Affonso, Regina; Morganti, Ligia

    2008-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure was used for concomitant solubilization and refolding of insoluble endostatin (ES) aggregated as inclusion bodies (IBs). High hydrostatic pressure (200 MPa or 2 kbar) was applied in combination with nondenaturing concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride. High levels of correctly folded ES (90 mg/L culture) were obtained after optimization/standardization of the procedure by applying pressures of 200 MPa for 16 h in 1.5 M guanidine hydrochloride/0.5 mM oxidized glutathione and reduced glutathione. Refolded ES was purified by affinity chromatography on a heparin column and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, size exclusion HPLC, circular dichroism, and intrinsic fluorescence. We demonstrated that high pressure can successfully convert insoluble IBs of ES expressed in Escherichia coli into an ES preparation with native tertiary structure and full biological activity.

  14. The influence of hydrostatic pressure on tissue engineered bone development.

    PubMed

    Neßler, K H L; Henstock, J R; El Haj, A J; Waters, S L; Whiteley, J P; Osborne, J M

    2016-04-01

    The hydrostatic pressure stimulation of an appropriately cell-seeded porous scaffold within a bioreactor is a promising method for engineering bone tissue external to the body. We propose a mathematical model, and employ a suite of candidate constitutive laws, to qualitatively describe the effect of applied hydrostatic pressure on the quantity of minerals deposited in such an experimental setup. By comparing data from numerical simulations with experimental observations under a number of stimulation protocols, we suggest that the response of bone cells to an applied pressure requires consideration of two components; (i) a component describing the cell memory of the applied stimulation, and (ii) a recovery component, capturing the time cells require to recover from high rates of mineralisation. PMID:26796221

  15. Hydrostatic compression of Fe(1-x)O wuestite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanloz, R.; Sato-Sorensen, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrostatic compression measurements on Fe(0.95)O wuestite up to 12 GPa yield a room temperature value for the isothermal bulk modulus of K(ot) = 157 (+ or - 10) GPa at zero pressure. This result is in accord with previous hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic measurements of K(ot) for wuestites of composition: 0.89 = Fe/O 0.95. Dynamic measurements of the bulk modulus by ultrasonic, shock-wave and neutron-scattering experiments tend to yield a larger value: K(ot) approximately 180 GPa. The discrepancy between static and dynamic values cannot be explained by the variation of K(ot) with composition, as has been proposed. This conclusion is based on high-precision compression data and on theoretical models of the effects of defects on elastic constants. Barring serious errors in the published measurements, the available data suggest that wuestite exhibits a volume relaxation under pressure.

  16. Steel pressure vessels for hydrostatic pressures to 50 kilobars.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, A; Whalley, E

    1978-07-01

    Cylindrical steel pressure vessels are described that can be used for hydrostatic pressures up to 50 kilobars. Monoblock vessels of 350 maraging steel can be used to 40 kilobars and compound vessels with an inner vessel of 350 maraging steel and an outer vessel of 300 maraging steel to 50 kilobars. Neither requires the cylinder to be end loaded, and so they are much easier to use than the more usual compound vessels with a tungsten carbide inner and steel outer vessel.

  17. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of finfish to inactivate Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Dong, Faye M; Cook, Allison R; Herwig, Russell P

    2003-10-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been demonstrated to be a useful technique for treating food to reduce the number of pathogenic organisms and to extend shelf life. Most research in this area has focused on bacteria. However, a concern in the sashimi (raw fish) industry is that nematode worms such as Anisakis simplex occur naturally in cold-water marine fish. The objectives of this research were to perform a pilot study to determine the effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the viability of Anisakis simplex larvae, commonly found in king salmon and arrowtooth flounder, and to evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the color and texture of the fish fillets. Pieces of fish (ca. 100 g per bag) containing 13 to 118 larvae were exposed to pressures of up to 80,000 lb/in2 (552 MPa) for up to 180 s. The times and pressures required to kill 100% of the larvae were as follows: 30 to 60 s at 60,000 lb/in2 (414 MPa), 90 to 180 s at 40,000 lb/in2 (276 MPa), and 180 s at 30,000 lb/in2 (207 MPa). For all salmon treatments that killed 100% of the larvae, a significant increase in the whiteness of the flesh was observed. Although high hydrostatic pressure was effective in killing A. simplex larvae in raw fish fillets, its significant effect on the color and overall appearance of the fillet may limit its application to the processing of fish for raw-fish markets.

  18. Non-hydrostatic equilibrium of the Sun and alternative physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferronsky, V.

    2009-04-01

    The proved fact that the Earth and the Moon don't stay in hydrostatic equilibrium and many other evidences bring us to conclusion that dynamics and physics of all other Solar System bodies including the Sun itself ought to be studied on non-hydrostatic basis. The only reasonable and logical alternative to that is the dynamical approach. We accepted this option and found it as a promising direction. It was found that in order to change hydrostatics by dynamical physics the outer force field of the body must be replaced by its inner volumetric force pressure. This is because the gravitational and electromagnetic forces, being inner mass forces, are volumetric in their nature. The analytical approach of that is shown in our abstract presented to GD10 of GA2009. A novel equation of state for the Sun and other stars following from the dynamical approach was obtained. The common nature of gravitational and electromagnetic energy, generated by interacted (collide and scattered) elementary particles, follows from the dynamics. New ideas related to mechanism of the Solar System creation are aroused from the approach. See more information in our works: Ferronsky V.I. and S.V. Ferronsky (2007). Dynamics of the Earth, Scientific World, Moscow; Ferronsky V.I. (2008). Non-averaged virial theorem for natural systems: http://zhurnal.ape.relarn.ru/articles/2008/066e.pdf; Ferronsky V.I., S.A. Denisik and S.V. Ferronsky (1987). Jacobi Dynamics, Riedel, Dordrecht.

  19. Hydrostatic levelling systems: Measuring at the system limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Edi; Geiger, Alain; Ingensand, Hilmar; Licht, Hans; Limpach, Philippe; Steiger, Andreas; Zwyssig, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Three hydrostatic displacement monitoring system applications in Switzerland are discussed; the first concerns experience gained monitoring the foundation of the Albigna dam, the second relating to the underground stability of the Swiss Light Source synchrotron and the third concerning the deformation of a bridge near the city of Lucerne. Two different principles were applied, the Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) using the “half-filled pipe principle” developed by the Paul Scherrer Institute and the Large Area Settlement System (LAS) using the “differential pressure principle”. With both systems ground deformations induced by tidal forces can be seen. However, high accuracy of single sensors is not sufficient. A well-designed configuration of the complete system is equally important. On the other hand there are also limits imposed by installation logistics and by the environmental conditions. An example is the bridge monitoring application, where the acceleration along the bridge due to the passage of heavy trucks limits the feasibility of using hydrostatic levelling measurements.

  20. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure Exposure on Hepatic Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Recker, Stephanie; Bukovec, Melani; Sparks, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) have the potential to regenerate healthy tissue in the setting of chronic liver disease. The goal of this study was to characterize the mechanosensitivity of HPCs to sustained hydrostatic pressure (20 mmHg) similar to that observed in liver cirrhosis. Bipotential Murine Oval Liver (BMOL) cells, an HPC-like cell line, were cultured in a hydrostatic pressure controlled chamber at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 4 days (to 90% confluency) or 12 days (superconfluency). Controls were run for each time point in a standard incubator without pressure. Nuclei were stained with DAPI and cells were viewed under a Zeiss 710 laser scanning confocal microscope with 40x objective. Nuclei were measured with Image J software (170 to 398 distinct cell nucleus area measurements per group). Two-way ANOVA was used to examine the influence of pressure and confluency on nuclear size. Cells exposed to pressure (mean nuclear area 126.7µm2, S.D. 56.9) had significantly larger nuclei than control cells (mean nuclear area 102.3µm2, S.D. 84.1), p<.001. The pressure*confluency interaction was also significant (p<.05). Results suggest that HPCs are sensitive to low-level hydrostatic pressure associated with chronic liver disease. Further experiments include analyzing cellular proliferation, morphology, and differentiation effects associated with pressure exposure.

  1. A system for acoustical and optical analysis of encapsulated microbubbles at ultrahigh hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed

    Zhushma, Aleksandr; Lebedeva, Natalia; Sen, Pabitra; Rubinstein, Michael; Sheiko, Sergei S; Dayton, Paul A

    2013-05-01

    Acoustics are commonly used for borehole (i.e., oil well) imaging applications, under conditions where temperature and pressure reach extremes beyond that of conventional medical ultrasonics. Recently, there has been an interest in the application of encapsulated microbubbles as borehole contrast agents for acoustic assessment of fluid composition and flow. Although such microbubbles are widely studied under physiological conditions for medical imaging applications, to date there is a paucity of information on the behavior of encapsulated gas-filled microbubbles at high pressures. One major limitation is that there is a lack of experimental systems to assess both optical and acoustic data of micrometer-sized particles data at these extremes. In this paper, we present the design and application of a high-pressure cell designed for acoustical and optical studies of microbubbles at hydrostatic pressures up to 27.5 MPa (271 atm). PMID:23742587

  2. A system for acoustical and optical analysis of encapsulated microbubbles at ultrahigh hydrostatic pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhushma, Aleksandr; Lebedeva, Natalia; Sen, Pabitra; Rubinstein, Michael; Sheiko, Sergei S.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2013-05-01

    Acoustics are commonly used for borehole (i.e., oil well) imaging applications, under conditions where temperature and pressure reach extremes beyond that of conventional medical ultrasonics. Recently, there has been an interest in the application of encapsulated microbubbles as borehole contrast agents for acoustic assessment of fluid composition and flow. Although such microbubbles are widely studied under physiological conditions for medical imaging applications, to date there is a paucity of information on the behavior of encapsulated gas-filled microbubbles at high pressures. One major limitation is that there is a lack of experimental systems to assess both optical and acoustic data of micrometer-sized particles data at these extremes. In this paper, we present the design and application of a high-pressure cell designed for acoustical and optical studies of microbubbles at hydrostatic pressures up to 27.5 MPa (271 atm).

  3. A new generation of the regional climate model REMO: REMO non-hydrostatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Kevin; Raub, Thomas; Marien, Lennart; Buntemeyer, Lars; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    The regional climate model REMO is well established and has proofed it's value in regional climate simulations for more than a decade. However, due to the hydrostatic formulation REMO is not able to produce useful regional climate information on scales smaller than ~10 km. The demand for higher resolution data especially in the climate service sector is evident. Often climate change information on urban district or even point level is needed. A previous development of a non-hydrostatic dynamical core for REMO utilizing ideas of Miller and Pearce (1974) and Janjic (2001) has been picked up and implemented into the latest hydrostatic REMO version. One of the advantages of the Janjic formulation is that hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic computations are well separated. This offers a straightforward implementation of the non-hydrostatic calculations into an existing hydrostatic model. Other advantages are the easy quantification of the error done by the hydrostatic approximation and the lower computational costs at lower resolutions by switching of the non-hydrostatic part. We will show results from climate simulations on the EURO-CORDEX domain with and without non-hydrostatic option.

  4. Heat diffusion and thermolastic vibration influence on the signal of an open photoacoustic cell for two layer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichardo-Molina, J. L.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2004-06-01

    Thermal diffusion and thermoelastic vibration in two layer systems is studied using photoacoustic spectroscopy. Three different two layer systems, copper/lead-tin (Cu/Pb-Sn), aluminum/paint (Al/paint) and aluminum/polyvinyl-chloride (Al/PVC) are studied. A model is developed considering that both layers present thermoelastic vibration and heat diffusion. It is shown that our equations can be used to obtain the theoretical photoacoustic signal independent of the mechanical properties when the thermal and thermomechanical properties of the composing layers are similar. It is shown that this approximation is much better suited for the study of metal/metal systems where the coupling of the thermoelastic bending is smooth. The restrictions of this approach and the possible extensions to study systems with different thermal expansion and mechanical behavior are discussed.

  5. ATLAS-TPX: a two-layer pixel detector setup for neutron detection and radiation field characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, B.; Caicedo, I.; Leroy, C.; Pospisil, S.; Vykydal, Z.

    2016-10-01

    A two-layer pixel detector setup (ATLAS-TPX), designed for thermal and fast neutron detection and radiation field characterization is presented. It consists of two segmented silicon detectors (256 × 256 pixels, pixel pitch 55 μm, thicknesses 300 μm and 500 μm) facing each other. To enhance the neutron detection efficiency a set of converter layers is inserted in between these detectors. The pixelation and the two-layer design allow a discrimination of neutrons against γs by pattern recognition and against charged particles by using the coincidence and anticoincidence information. The neutron conversion and detection efficiencies are measured in a thermal neutron field and fast neutron fields with energies up to 600 MeV. A Geant4 simulation model is presented, which is validated against the measured detector responses. The reliability of the coincidence and anticoincidence technique is demonstrated and possible applications of the detector setup are briefly outlined.

  6. Compression of α-cristobalite under different hydrostatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernok, Ana; Marquardt, Katharina; Bykova, Elena; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2015-04-01

    The response of α-cristobalite to high-pressure has been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies for more than two decades. The results indicated prolific polymorphism under high pressures, yet no consensus has emerged on what is the sequence of these pressure-induced transformations. In particular, the structure of the high-pressure polymorph that appears above ~10 GPa (hereafter cristobalite X-I), which is believed to be a direct link between the low-pressure (silicon in SiO4 tetrahedra) and the high-pressure (SiO6 octahedra) forms of silica remained elusive. This study examined the response of α-cristobalite when compressed at different levels of hydrostaticity, with the special focus on formation and stability of cristobalite X-I. The structural behavior of cristobalite under pressure was investigated up to ~80 GPa and at ambient temperature. We investigated behavior of single crystals and powders, in either (quasy)-hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic environment. In situ high pressure transformation path and structural behavior was studied by means of Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). The samples recovered after pressure release were additionally investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Low- or α-cristobalite responds differently to high pressure depending on the degree of the hydrostaticity. The highest attainable hydrostaticity preserves the initial structure of cristobalite at least up to ~15 GPa. When the crystal experiences even slight stresses during an experiment, transformation sequence leads to cristobalite X-I - a monoclinic polymorph with silicon in octahedral coordination. This polymorph belongs to the family of the high-pressure silica phases that are comprised of distorted close-packed array of oxygen ions in which silicon atoms fully or partially occupy octahedral sites. The reflections collected on a single crystal at ~11 GPa can be indexed by a monoclinic unit cell a=6.658(9) Å, b=4

  7. Two-layer critical dimensions and overlay process window characterization and improvement in full-chip computational lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Liubich, Vlad; Gupta, Rachit

    2016-04-01

    Edge placement error (EPE) was a term initially introduced to describe the difference between predicted pattern contour edge and the design target for a single design layer. Strictly speaking, this quantity is not directly measurable in the fab. What is of vital importance is the relative edge placement errors between different design layers, and in the era of multipatterning, the different constituent mask sublayers for a single design layer. The critical dimensions (CD) and overlay between two layers can be measured in the fab, and there has always been a strong emphasis on control of overlay between design layers. The progress in this realm has been remarkable, accelerated in part at least by the proliferation of multipatterning, which reduces the available overlay budget by introducing a coupling of overlay and CD errors for the target layer. Computational lithography makes possible the full-chip assessment of two-layer edge to edge distances and two-layer contact overlap area. We will investigate examples of via-metal model-based analysis of CD and overlay errors. We will investigate both single patterning and double patterning. For single patterning, we show the advantage of contour-to-contour simulation over contour to target simulation, and how the addition of aberrations in the optical models can provide a more realistic CD-overlay process window (PW) for edge placement errors. For double patterning, the interaction of 4-layer CD and overlay errors is very complex, but we illustrate that not only can full-chip verification identify potential two-layer hotspots, the optical proximity correction engine can act to mitigate such hotspots and enlarge the joint CD-overlay PW.

  8. Internal waves in a compressible two-layer model atmosphere: Hamiltonian description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, V. P.

    2010-11-01

    We consider slow, compared to the speed of sound, motions of an ideal compressible fluid (gas) in a gravitational field in the presence of two isentropic layers with a small specific-entropy difference between them. Assuming the flow to be potential in each of the layers ( v 1, 2 = ▿ϕ1, 2) and neglecting the acoustic degrees of freedom (div( bar ρ ( z)▿ϕ1, 2) ≈ 0, where bar ρ ( z) is the average equilibrium density), we derive the equations of motion for the boundary in terms of the shape of the surface z = η( x, y, t) itself and the difference between the boundary values of the two velocity field potentials: ψ( x, y, t) = ψ1 - ψ2. We prove the Hamilto nian structure of the derived equations specified by a Lagrangian of the form ℒ = ∫ bar ρ (η)η t ψ dxdy - ℋ{η, ψ}. The system under consideration is the simplest theoretical model for studying internal waves in a sharply stratified atmosphere in which the decrease in equilibrium gas density due to gas compressibility with increasing height is essentially taken into account. For plane flows, we make a generalization to the case where each of the layers has its own constant potential vorticity. We investigate a system with a model dependence bar ρ ( z) ∝ e -2α z with which the Hamiltonian ℋ{η, ψ} can be represented explicitly. We consider a long-wavelength dynamic regime with dispersion corrections and derive an approximate nonlinear equation of the form u t + auu x - b[- hat partial _x^2 + α2]1/2 u x = 0 (Smith's equation) for the slow evolution of a traveling wave.

  9. Verification of a two-layer inverse Monte Carlo absorption model using multiple source-detector separation diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manu; Hennessy, Ricky; Markey, Mia K; Tunnell, James W

    2013-12-01

    A two-layer Monte Carlo lookup table-based inverse model is validated with two-layered phantoms across physiologically relevant optical property ranges. Reflectance data for source-detector separations of 370 μm and 740 μm were collected from these two-layered phantoms and top layer thickness, reduced scattering coefficient and the top and bottom layer absorption coefficients were extracted using the inverse model and compared to the known values. The results of the phantom verification show that this method is able to accurately extract top layer thickness and scattering when the top layer thickness ranges from 0 to 550 μm. In this range, top layer thicknesses were measured with an average error of 10% and the reduced scattering coefficient was measured with an average error of 15%. The accuracy of top and bottom layer absorption coefficient measurements was found to be highly dependent on top layer thickness, which agrees with physical expectation; however, within appropriate thickness ranges, the error for absorption properties varies from 12-25%. PMID:24466475

  10. Verification of a two-layer inverse Monte Carlo absorption model using multiple source-detector separation diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manu; Hennessy, Ricky; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2013-01-01

    A two-layer Monte Carlo lookup table-based inverse model is validated with two-layered phantoms across physiologically relevant optical property ranges. Reflectance data for source-detector separations of 370 μm and 740 μm were collected from these two-layered phantoms and top layer thickness, reduced scattering coefficient and the top and bottom layer absorption coefficients were extracted using the inverse model and compared to the known values. The results of the phantom verification show that this method is able to accurately extract top layer thickness and scattering when the top layer thickness ranges from 0 to 550 μm. In this range, top layer thicknesses were measured with an average error of 10% and the reduced scattering coefficient was measured with an average error of 15%. The accuracy of top and bottom layer absorption coefficient measurements was found to be highly dependent on top layer thickness, which agrees with physical expectation; however, within appropriate thickness ranges, the error for absorption properties varies from 12–25%. PMID:24466475

  11. Energy balance in the solar transition region. I - Hydrostatic thermal models with ambipolar diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.

    1990-01-01

    The energy balance in the lower transition region is analyzed by constructing theoretical models which satisfy the energy balance constraint. The energy balance is achieved by balancing the radiative losses and the energy flowing downward from the corona. This energy flow is mainly in two forms: conductive heat flow and hydrogen ionization energy flow due to ambipolar diffusion. Hydrostatic equilibrium is assumed, and, in a first calculation, local mechanical heating and Joule heating are ignored. In a second model, some mechanical heating compatible with chromospheric energy-balance calculations is introduced. The models are computed for a partial non-LTE approach in which radiation departs strongly from LTE but particles depart from Maxwellian distributions only to first order. The results, which apply to cases where the magnetic field is either absent, or uniform and vertical, are compared with the observed Lyman lines and continuum from the average quiet sun. The approximate agreement suggests that this type of model can roughly explain the observed intensities in a physically meaningful way, assuming only a few free parameters specified as chromospheric boundary conditions.

  12. A well-balanced finite volume scheme for the Euler equations with gravitation. The exact preservation of hydrostatic equilibrium with arbitrary entropy stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käppeli, R.; Mishra, S.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Many problems in astrophysics feature flows which are close to hydrostatic equilibrium. However, standard numerical schemes for compressible hydrodynamics may be deficient in approximating this stationary state, where the pressure gradient is nearly balanced by gravitational forces. Aims: We aim to develop a second-order well-balanced scheme for the Euler equations. The scheme is designed to mimic a discrete version of the hydrostatic balance. It therefore can resolve a discrete hydrostatic equilibrium exactly (up to machine precision) and propagate perturbations, on top of this equilibrium, very accurately. Methods: A local second-order hydrostatic equilibrium preserving pressure reconstruction is developed. Combined with a standard central gravitational source term discretization and numerical fluxes that resolve stationary contact discontinuities exactly, the well-balanced property is achieved. Results: The resulting well-balanced scheme is robust and simple enough to be very easily implemented within any existing computer code that solves time explicitly or implicitly the compressible hydrodynamics equations. We demonstrate the performance of the well-balanced scheme for several astrophysically relevant applications: wave propagation in stellar atmospheres, a toy model for core-collapse supernovae, convection in carbon shell burning, and a realistic proto-neutron star.

  13. An analysis of the 70-meter antenna hydrostatic bearing by means of computer simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, the computer program 'A Computer Solution for Hydrostatic Bearings with Variable Film Thickness,' used to design the hydrostatic bearing of the 70-meter antennas, was modified to improve the accuracy with which the program predicts the film height profile and oil pressure distribution between the hydrostatic bearing pad and the runner. This article presents a description of the modified computer program, the theory upon which the computer program computations are based, computer simulation results, and a discussion of the computer simulation results.

  14. Precipitation of anion inclusions and plasticity under hydrostatic pressure in II-VI crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, G. P.; Weinstein, B. A.

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation of anion nanocrystals (NCs) in initially stoichiometric II-VI crystals under hydrostatic pressure and light exposure is explored by Raman spectroscopy, and the mechanism for this effect is analyzed by model calculations. ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdSe crystals are studied in bulk and/or epitaxial-film forms. Se and Te NCs in the trigonal (t) phase precipitate in ZnSe and ZnTe, but the effect is absent or minimal in CdSe. The precipitation is induced by pressure and assisted by sub-band-gap light. In ZnSe, t-Se NCs appear for pressure exceeding 4.8 GPa and light flux above 50 -70 W /m m2 . In ZnTe, the precipitation of t-Te NCs requires less pressure to initiate, and there is a clear upper-pressure limit for t-Te nuclei to form. We find also that ZnTe samples with cleavage damage or elevated zinc-vacancy content are more prone to form t-Te NCs at lower pressures (even 1 atm in some cases) and lower flux. The precipitation seen in ZnSe and ZnTe occurs at pressures far below their phase transitions, and cannot be due to those transitions. Rather, we propose that the NCs nucleate on dislocations that arise from hydrostatic-pressure induced plastic flow triggered by noncubic defect sites. Calculations of the kinetic barrier for growth of an optimally shaped nucleus are performed, including hydrostatic pressure in the energy minimization scheme. Using sensible values for the model parameters related to the cohesive energies of Se and Te, the calculations account for our main observations, including the existence of an upper pressure limit for precipitation, and the absence of precipitation in CdSe. We consider the effects of pressure-induced precipitate formation on the I-II phase transitions in a variety of binary semiconductors and make predictions of when this effect should be important.

  15. A technique to measure rotordynamic coefficients in hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capaldi, Russell J.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental technique is described for measuring the rotordynamic coefficients of fluid film journal bearings. The bearing tester incorporates a double-spool shaft assembly that permits independent control over the journal spin speed and the frequency of an adjustable-magnitude circular orbit. This configuration yields data that enables determination of the full linear anisotropic rotordynamic coefficient matrices. The dynamic force measurements were made simultaneously with two independent systems, one with piezoelectric load cells and the other with strain gage load cells. Some results are presented for a four-recess, oil-fed hydrostatic journal bearing.

  16. Hydrostatic extrusion of Cu-Ag melt spun ribbon

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Mary Ann; Bingert, John F.; Bingert, Sherri A.; Thoma, Dan J.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing high-strength and high-conductance copper and silver materials comprising the steps of combining a predetermined ratio of the copper with the silver to produce a composite material, and melt spinning the composite material to produce a ribbon of copper and silver. The ribbon of copper and silver is heated in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thereafter die pressed into a slug. The slug then is placed into a high-purity copper vessel and the vessel is sealed with an electron beam. The vessel and slug then are extruded into wire form using a cold hydrostatic extrusion process.

  17. Hydrostatic extrusion of Cu-Ag melt spun ribbon

    DOEpatents

    Hill, M.A.; Bingert, J.F.; Bingert, S.A.; Thoma, D.J.

    1998-09-08

    The present invention provides a method of producing high-strength and high-conductance copper and silver materials comprising the steps of combining a predetermined ratio of the copper with the silver to produce a composite material, and melt spinning the composite material to produce a ribbon of copper and silver. The ribbon of copper and silver is heated in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thereafter die pressed into a slug. The slug then is placed into a high-purity copper vessel and the vessel is sealed with an electron beam. The vessel and slug then are extruded into wire form using a cold hydrostatic extrusion process. 5 figs.

  18. Pasteurization of food by hydrostatic high pressure: chemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Tauscher, B

    1995-01-01

    Food pasteurized by hydrostatic high pressure have already been marketed in Japan. There is great interest in this method also in Europe and USA. Temperature and pressure are the essential parameters influencing the state of substances including foods. While the influence of temperature on food has been extensively investigated, effects of pressure, also in combination with temperature, are attracting increasing scientific attention now. Processes and reactions in food governed by Le Chatelier's principle are of special interest; they include chemical reactions of both low- and macromolecular compounds. Theoretical fundamentals and examples of pressure affected reactions are presented. PMID:7732731

  19. Nonaxisymmetric incompressible hydrostatic pressure effects in radial face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    A flat seal having an angular misalinement is analyzed, taking into account the radial variations in seal clearance. An analytical solution for axial force, tilting moment, and leakage is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalinement. Nonaxisymmetric hydrostatic pressures due to the radial variations in the film thickness have a considerable effect on seal stability. When the high pressure is on the outer periphery of the seal, both the axial force and the tilting moment are nonrestoring. The case of high-pressure seals where cavitation is eliminated is discussed, and the possibility of dynamic instability is pointed out.

  20. Single-molecule imaging at high hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vass, Hugh; Lucas Black, S.; Flors, Cristina; Lloyd, Diarmuid; Bruce Ward, F.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2013-04-01

    Direct microscopic fluorescence imaging of single molecules can provide a wealth of mechanistic information, but up to now, it has not been possible under high pressure conditions, due to limitations in microscope pressure cell design. We describe a pressure cell window design that makes it possible to image directly single molecules at high hydrostatic pressure. We demonstrate our design by imaging single molecules of Alexa Fluor 647 dye bound to DNA, at 120 and 210 bar, and following their fluorescence photodynamics. We further show that the failure pressure of this type of pressure cell window can be in excess of 1 kbar.

  1. The NCEP Eulerian Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjic, Z.; Vasic, R.; Djurdjevic, V.; Black, T.; Jovic, D.

    2014-12-01

    The unified Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB) is being developed at the National Centers for Environmental Predictions. The model dynamics preserve a number of important properties of differential operators and conserve a variety of first order and quadratic quantities. The nonlinear dynamics is controlled by conserving energy and enstrophy in case of non-divergent flow. Over-specification of non-hydrostatic vertical velocity is avoided. The physical package was developed from the WRF NMM's physics, but other physics options are also available. The regional version of the NMMB is run operationally as the main deterministic North American short-range forecasting model (NAM) and in a number of other applications. The global NMMB also has been run over the last few years experimentally in order to assess its capabilities and develop it further. In terms of large scale metrics, the performance of the global NMMB in medium range weather forecasting has been generally comparable to that of other major medium range forecasting systems. Its computational efficiency satisfies and exceeds the current and projected operational requirements. Recently, the transition has started of the operational hurricane forecasting system HWRF from the WRF NMM dynamics to those of the NMMB. This system involves the use of a hierarchy of 2-way interactive telescoping moving nests. The work on developing a unified multi-scale physics package has continued. Extended range forecasts showed large sensitivity to the method for representing clouds. With the clouds represented by optical properties of their microphysics species, the results depend on the microphysics scheme used. Also, taking into account the impact of convective clouds remains a challenge with this approach. Numerous sensitivity studies of physical parameterizations and the dynamical core features have been carried out as well. Relevant results will be presented and discussed, including some results of recent idealized

  2. Temperature impact on the spectra of the spin-wave resonance in two-layer magnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyuzin, A. M.; Bakulin, M. A.; Radaikin, V. V.; Sabaev, S. N.; Yantsen, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    A sharp difference has been revealed in the behavior of the temperature dependences of the spectra of the spin-wave resonance of two-layer films with different parameters of the pinning layers. The calculations have shown that the effect of the disappearance and subsequent appearance of spin-wave modes in the specific temperature ranges was connected with the decrease in the degree of pinning because of the convergence of the fields of uniform resonance in the layers of excitation and pinning of spin fluctuations.

  3. Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of two-layer turbid media by densely packed multi-pixel photodiode reflectance probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senlik, Ozlem; Greening, Gage; Muldoon, Timothy J.; Jokerst, Nan M.

    2016-03-01

    Spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance (SRDR) measurements provide photon path information, and enable layered tissue analysis. This paper presents experimental SRDR measurements on two-layer PDMS skin tissue-mimicking phantoms of varying top layer thicknesses, and bulk phantoms of varying optical properties using concentric multi-pixel photodiode array (CMPA) probes, and corresponding forward Monte Carlo simulations. The CMPA is the most densely packed semiconductor SRDR probe reported to date. Signal contrasts between the single layer phantom and bi-layer phantoms with varying top layer thicknesses are as high as 80%. The mean error between the Monte Carlo simulations and the experiment is less than 6.2 %.

  4. Inelastic compaction, dilation and hysteresis of sandstones under hydrostatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalev, Eyal; Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Hamiel, Yariv; Zhu, Wenlu

    2014-05-01

    Sandstones display non-linear and inelastic behaviour such as hysteresis when subjected to cyclic loading. We present three hydrostatic compaction experiments with multiple loading-unloading cycles on Berea and Darley Dale sandstones and explain their hysteretic behaviour using non-linear inelastic compaction and dilation. Each experiment included eight to nine loading-unloading cycles with increasing maximum pressure in each subsequent cycle. Different pressure-volumetric strain relations during loading and unloading were observed. During the first cycles, under relatively low pressures, not all of the volumetric strain is recovered at the end of each cycle whereas at the last cycles, under relatively high pressures, the strain is recovered and the pressure-volumetric strain hysteresis loops are closed. The observed pressure-volumetric strain relations are non-linear and the effective bulk modulus of the sandstones changes between cycles. Observations are modelled with two inelastic deformation processes: irreversible compaction caused by changes in grain packing and recoverable compaction associated with grain contact adhesion, frictional sliding on grains or frictional sliding on cracks. The irreversible compaction is suggested to reflect rearrangement of grains into a more compact mode as the maximum pressure increases. Our model describes the `inelastic compaction envelope' in which sandstone sample will follow during hydrostatic loading. Irreversible compaction occurs when pressure is greater than a threshold value defined by the `inelastic compaction envelope'.

  5. Double nanoplate-based NEMS under hydrostatic and electrostatic actuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Hosseini, S. H. S.

    2016-05-01

    Presented herein is a comprehensive investigation on the nonlinear vibration behavior of nanoplate-based nano electromechanical systems (NEMS) under hydrostatic and electrostatic actuations based on nonlocal elasticity and Gurtin-Murdoch theory. Using nonlinear strain-displacement relations, the geometrical nonlinearity is modeled. Based on Kelvin-Voigt model, the influence of the viscoelastic coefficient is also discussed. Nonlocal plate theory and Hamilton's principle are utilized for deriving the governing equations. Furthermore, the differential quadrature method (DQM) is employed to compute the nonlinear frequency. In addition, pull-in voltage and hydrostatic pressure are considered by comparing the results obtained from nanoplates made of two different materials including aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si). Finally, the influences of important parameters including the small scale, thickness of the nanoplate, center gap and Winkler coefficient in the actuated nanoplate are thoroughly studied. The plots for the ratio of nonlinear-to-linear frequencies against thickness, maximum transverse amplitude and non-dimensional center gap of nanoplate are also presented.

  6. Opportunities of hydrostatically coupled dielectric elastomer actuators for haptic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; De Rossi, Danilo

    2011-04-01

    As a means to improve versatility and safety of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) for several fields of application, so-called 'hydrostatically coupled' DEAs (HC-DEAs) have recently been described. HC-DEAs are based on an incompressible fluid that mechanically couples a DE-based active part to a passive part interfaced to the load, so as to enable hydrostatic transmission. This paper presents ongoing developments of HC-DEAs and potential applications in the field of haptics. Three specific examples are considered. The first deals with a wearable tactile display used to provide users with tactile feedback during electronic navigation in virtual environments. The display consists of HCDEAs arranged in contact with finger tips. As a second example, an up-scaled prototype version of an 8-dots refreshable cell for dynamic Braille displays is shown. Each Braille dot consists of a miniature HC-DEA, with a diameter lower than 2 mm. The third example refers to a device for finger rehabilitation, conceived to work as a sort of active version of a rehabilitation squeezing ball. The device is designed to dynamically change its compliance according to an electric control. The three examples of applications intend to show the potential of the new technology and the prospective opportunities for haptic interfaces.

  7. Study of glass hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoyun; Wang, Jintao; Li, Zhihao; Zhang, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Glass hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. Glass hydrometers calibration based on the Archimedes law, using silicon ring as a reference standard solid density, n-tridecane with density stability and low surface tension as the standard working liquid, based on hydrostatic weighing method designs a glass hydrometer calibration system. Glass hydrometer calibration system uses CCD image measurement system to align the scale of hydrometer and liquid surface, with positioning accuracy of 0.01 mm. Surface tension of the working liquid is measured by Whihemy plate. According to twice glass hydrometer weighing in the air and liquid can calculate the correction value of the current scale. In order to verify the validity of the principle of the hydrostatic weighing method of glass hydrometer calibration system, for measuring the density range of (770-790) kg/m3, with a resolution of 0.2 kg/m3 of hydrometer. The results of measurement compare with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt(PTB) ,verifying the validity of the calibration system.

  8. Photomultiplier tube failure under hydrostatic pressure in future neutrino detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Chambliss, K.; Diwan, M.; Simos, N.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2014-10-09

    Failure of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) under hydrostatic pressure is a concern in neutrino detection, specifically, in the proposed Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment project. Controlled hydrostatic implosion tests were performed on prototypic PMT bulbs of 10-inch diameter and recorded using high speed filming techniques to capture failures in detail. These high-speed videos were analyzed frame-by-frame in order to identify the origin of a crack, measure the progression of individual crack along the surface of the bulb as it propagates through the glass, and estimate crack velocity. Crack velocity was calculated for each individual crack, and an average velocity was determined for allmore » measurable cracks on each bulb. Overall, 32 cracks were measured in 9 different bulbs tested. Finite element modeling (FEM) of crack formation and growth in prototypic PMT shows stress concentration near the middle section of the PMT bulbs that correlates well with our crack velocity measurements in that section. The FEM model predicts a crack velocity value that is close to the terminal crack velocity reported. Our measurements also reveal significantly reduced crack velocities compared to terminal crack velocities measured in glasses using fracture mechanics testing and reported in literature.« less

  9. Photomultiplier tube failure under hydrostatic pressure in future neutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chambliss, K.; Diwan, M.; Simos, N.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2014-10-09

    Failure of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) under hydrostatic pressure is a concern in neutrino detection, specifically, in the proposed Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment project. Controlled hydrostatic implosion tests were performed on prototypic PMT bulbs of 10-inch diameter and recorded using high speed filming techniques to capture failures in detail. These high-speed videos were analyzed frame-by-frame in order to identify the origin of a crack, measure the progression of individual crack along the surface of the bulb as it propagates through the glass, and estimate crack velocity. Crack velocity was calculated for each individual crack, and an average velocity was determined for all measurable cracks on each bulb. Overall, 32 cracks were measured in 9 different bulbs tested. Finite element modeling (FEM) of crack formation and growth in prototypic PMT shows stress concentration near the middle section of the PMT bulbs that correlates well with our crack velocity measurements in that section. The FEM model predicts a crack velocity value that is close to the terminal crack velocity reported. Our measurements also reveal significantly reduced crack velocities compared to terminal crack velocities measured in glasses using fracture mechanics testing and reported in literature.

  10. DX centers in III-V semiconductors under hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    DX centers are deep level defects found in some III-V semiconductors. They have persistent photoconductivity and large difference between thermal and optical ionization energies. Hydrostatic pressure was used to study microstructure of these defects. A new local vibrational mode (LVM) was observed in hydrostatically stressed, Si-doped GaAs. Corresponding infrared absorption peak is distinct from the Si{sub Ga} shallow donor LVM peak, which is the only other LVM peak observed in our samples, and is assigned to the Si DX center. Analysis of the relative intensities of the Si DX LVM and the Si shallow donor LVM peaks, combined with Hall effect and resistivity indicate that the Si DX center is negatively charged. Frequency of this new mode provides clues to the structure of this defect. A pressure induced deep donor level in S-doped InP was also discovered which has the properties of a DX center. Pressure at which the new defect becomes more stable than the shallow donor is 82 kbar. Optical ionization energy and energy dependence of the optical absorption cross section was measured for this new effect. Capture barrier from the conduction band into the DX state were also determined. That DX centers can be formed in InP by pressure suggests that DX states should be common in n-type III-V semiconductors. A method is suggested for predicting under what conditions these defects will be the most stable form of the donor impurity.

  11. A two-layer structured PbI2 thin film for efficient planar perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Chao; Shi, Chengwu; Wu, Ni; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Mao

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a two-layer structured PbI2 thin film was constructed by the spin-coating procedure using a 0.80 M PbI2 solution in DMF and subsequent close-spaced vacuum thermal evaporation using PbI2 powder as a source. The bottom PbI2 thin film was compact with a sheet-like appearance, parallel to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a compact perovskite thin film to suppress the charge recombination of the electrons of the TiO2 conduction band and the holes of the spiro-OMeTAD valence band. The top PbI2 thin film was porous with nano-sheet arrays, perpendicular to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a porous perovskite thin film to improve the hole migration from the perovskite to spiro-OMeTAD and the charge separation at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface. The planar perovskite solar cells based on the two-layer structured PbI2 thin film exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 11.64%, along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.90 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 19.29 mA cm-2 and a fill factor of 0.67.

  12. Gravity Currents Propagating Up a Slope in a Uniform Ambient and a Two-Layer Stratified Ambient Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marleau, Larissa; Flynn, Morris; Sutherland, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    Bottom propagating gravity currents resulting from full- and partial-depth lock-release experiments are investigated as they propagate up a slope within a uniform and a two-layer stratified ambient. For the former case we adapt the theory of Shin et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 521, 2004) and derive a relationship for the deceleration of the front as a function of the slope angle and gravity current density. Experimental results show that the shape of the gravity current is self-similar as it decelerates over relatively steep slopes. The evolution of a gravity current in a two-layer ambient is complicated by the excitation of and interaction with a solitary wave. If the initial gravity current speed is subcritical to the wave speed, the current eventually stops abruptly while the wave continues at constant speed. If supercritical, turbulence at the current head is suppressed as it approaches the interface at the leading edge of the wave and the is re-established as the head becomes in direct contact with the upper layer.

  13. Acoustic scattering by a two-layer cylindrical tube immersed in a fluid medium: Existence of a pseudo wave.

    PubMed

    Elhanaoui, Abdelkader; Aassif, Elhoucein; Maze, Gérard; Décultot, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The present paper studies the acoustic signal backscattered by an air-filled copper–solid polymer two-layer cylindrical tube immersed in water. The work is done from the calculation of the backscattered pressure, an inverse Fourier Transform, which allows us to obtain an impulse signal. Smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville and Concentrated spectrogram representations have been chosen to analyze the scattering phenomenon. For reduced frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 200, the resonance trajectories and time–frequency images have shown the presence of the guided waves. The bifurcation of the A0 wave into the A0(-) and the A0(+) waves has also been observed. The authors provide the phase and the group velocities of guided waves and investigate the differences between curves. The findings are then compared with those obtained for the copper and the solid polymer one-layer cylindrical tubes. Group velocity values have also been extracted from smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville and Concentrated spectrogram time–frequency images. A good agreement with the theory has, therefore, been observed. The study of acoustic backscattering by a copper–solid polymer two-layer tube has revealed the interaction and the coupling of guided waves, specially the presence of a pseudo A1 wave; which is a very interesting, remarkable phenomenon. PMID:26601563

  14. A two-layer structured PbI2 thin film for efficient planar perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chao; Shi, Chengwu; Wu, Ni; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Mao

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, a two-layer structured PbI2 thin film was constructed by the spin-coating procedure using a 0.80 M PbI2 solution in DMF and subsequent close-spaced vacuum thermal evaporation using PbI2 powder as a source. The bottom PbI2 thin film was compact with a sheet-like appearance, parallel to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a compact perovskite thin film to suppress the charge recombination of the electrons of the TiO2 conduction band and the holes of the spiro-OMeTAD valence band. The top PbI2 thin film was porous with nano-sheet arrays, perpendicular to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a porous perovskite thin film to improve the hole migration from the perovskite to spiro-OMeTAD and the charge separation at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface. The planar perovskite solar cells based on the two-layer structured PbI2 thin film exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 11.64%, along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.90 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 19.29 mA cm(-2) and a fill factor of 0.67. PMID:26118756

  15. Analysis of Bonding Behavior and Critical Reduction of Two-Layer Strips in Clad Cold Rolling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, H.; Bagherzadeh, S.; Mollaei-Dariani, B.; Abrinia, K.

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, two-layer metallic sheets have been increasingly used in various industries to create combined functions. Among cladding methods, the cold rolling is most widely used in producing bimetallic sheets. In this research, to thoroughly provide guidelines for cold rolling of bimetal strip, an attempt has been made to develop an analytical model based on upper bound method. Also, the bonding strength and critical reduction were calculated using upper bound theorem and the finite element simulation was used for Al/St bimetallic strip. Finally, an experimental study was run for our model to be verified analytically and numerically. Results show that the bonding strength of strips increases with increasing the total thickness reduction of bimetal strips and because of subsequent occurrence of strips bonding in roll gap, increasing the yield strength of base layer gives rise to critical reduction. Through the study, it becomes clear that the proposed analytical model is applicable for simulating the cold rolling process of the two-layer strips and is capable to broaden our knowledge in manufacturing and production of bimetal strips and sheets.

  16. Measurement of small values of hydrostatic pressure difference / Pomiar małych wartości różnicy ciśnień hydrostatycznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broda, Krzysztof; Filipek, Wiktor

    2012-10-01

    In order to describe the fluid flow through the porous centre, made of identical spheres, it is necessary to know the pressure, but in fact - the pressure distribution. For the flows in the range that was traditionally called laminar flow (i. e. for Reynolds numbers (Bear, 1988; Duckworth, 1983; Troskolański, 1957) from the range 0,01 to 3) it is virtually impossible with the use of the tools directly available on the market. Therefore, many scientists who explore this problem have concentrated only on the research of the velocity distribution of the medium that penetrates the intended centre (Bear, 1988) or pressure distribution at high hydraulic gradients (Trzaska & Broda, 1991, 2000; Trzaska et al., 2005). It may result from the inaccessibility to the measurement methods that provide measurement of very low hydrostatic pressures, such as pressure resulting from the weight of liquid located in the gravitational field (Duckworth, 1983; Troskolański, 1957). The pressure value c. 10 Pa (Troskolański, 1957) can be generated even by 1 mm height difference between the two levels of the free water surface, which in fact constitutes the definition of gauging tools of today measuring the level of the hydrostatic pressure. Authors proposed a method of hydrostatic pressure measurement and devised a gauging tool. Then a series of tests was conducted aiming at establishing what is the influence of various factors, such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, velocity of measurement completion, etc. on the accuracy and method of measurements. A method for considerable reduction of hysteresis that occurs during measurement was also devised. The method of measurement of small hydrostatic difference measurements allows for the accuracy of measurement of up to 0.5 Pa. Measurement results can be improved successfully by one order of magnitude, which for sure would entail necessary temperature stabilization of the tool. It will be more difficult though to compensate the influence

  17. The tensile deformation behavior of nuclear-grade isotropic graphite posterior to hydrostatic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, S.; Eto, M.

    1983-10-01

    The effects of prehydrostatic loading on microstructural changes and tensile deformation behavior of nuclear-grade isotropic graphite have been examined. Scanning electron micrographs show that formation of microcracks associated with delamination between basal planes occurs under hydrostatic loading. Hydrostatic loading on specimens results in the decrease in tensile strength and increase in residual strain generated by the applied tensile stress at various levels, indicating that the graphite material is weakened by hydrostatic loading. A relationship between residual strain and applied tensile stress for graphite hydrostatically-loaded at several pressure levels can be approximately expressed as ɛ = ( AP + B) σn over a wide range hydrostatic pressure, where ɛ, P and σ denote residual strain, hydrostatic pressure and applied tensile stress, respectively; A, B and n are constants. The effects of prehydrostatic loading on the tensile stress-strain behavior of the graphite were examined in more detail. The ratio of stress after hydrostatic loading to that before hydrostatic loading on the stress-strain relationship remains almost unchanged irrespective of strain.

  18. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  19. Cell Membranes Under Hydrostatic Pressure Subjected to Micro-Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilev, Vassil M.; Kostadinov, Kostadin G.; Mladenov, Ivaïlo M.; Shulev, Assen A.; Stoilov, Georgi I.; Djondjorov, Peter A.

    2011-04-01

    The work is concerned with the determination of the mechanical behaviour of cell membranes under uniform hydrostatic pressure subject to micro-injections. For that purpose, assuming that the shape of the deformed cell membrane is axisymmetric a variational statement of the problem is developed on the ground of the so-called spontaneous curvature model. In this setting, the cell membrane is regarded as an axisymmetric surface in the three-dimensional Euclidean space providing a stationary value of the shape energy functional under the constraint of fixed total area and fixed enclosed volume. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations and natural boundary conditions are derived, analyzed and used to express the forces and moments in the membrane. Several examples of such surfaces representing possible shapes of cell membranes under pressure subjected to micro injection are determined numerically.

  20. Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Jesus; Wright, John D.; Bean, Vern E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an uncertainty of 0.08 mm. The calibration results have an expanded uncertainty (with a coverage factor of 2) of 100 parts in 106 or less of the liquid density. We validated the apparatus by comparisons using water, toluene, tridecane and trichloroethylene, and found agreement within 40 parts in 106 or less. The new calibration method is consistent with earlier, manual calibrations performed by NIST. When customers use calibrated hydrometers, they may encounter uncertainties of 370 parts in 106 or larger due to surface tension, contact angle and temperature effects.

  1. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on ligand binding to hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Carey, F G; Knowles, F; Gibson, Q H

    1977-06-25

    Increase in hydrostatic pressure to 1000 atm increased the affinity of human and menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) hemoglobins for oxygen. With necessary assumptions about the form of the equilibrium curve, and after correction for changes in pH and volume due to pressure, the increase in affinity is about 2-fold for both hemoglobins. At pH 6.5, Hill's n for menhaden hemoglobin is near 1, and it is believed to remain in the T state, whereas human hemoglobin undergoes a T to R transition. This suggests that the R-T equilibrium is not disturbed by pressure. In direct experiments the binding of a fluorescent effector (8 hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene (trisulfonic acid) to deoxyhemoglobin was not changed by pressure. The binding of n-butylisocyanide to hemoglobin and to myoglobin is also greater at high pressures, similarly suggesting that the R-T transition is not involved in the pressure effect. PMID:16924

  2. Melting of icosahedral nickel clusters under hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bing; Chen, Li; Wang, Feifei; Xie, Yiqun; Ye, Xiang

    2014-12-01

    The thermal stabilities and melting behavior of icosahedral nickel clusters under hydrostatic pressure have been studied by constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulation. The potential energy and Lindemann index are calculated. The overall melting temperature exhibits a strong dependence on pressure. The Lindemann index of solid structure before melting varies slowly and is almost independent of pressure. However, after the clusters melt completely, the Lindemann index at the overall melting point strongly depends on pressure. The overall melting temperature is found to be increasing nonlinearly with increasing pressure, while the volume change during melting decreases linearly with increasing pressure. Under a high pressure and temperature environment, similar angular distributions were found between liquid and solid structures, indicating the existence of a converging local structure.

  3. Solid-Supported Lipid Multilayers under High Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Benedikt; Paulus, Michael; Nase, Julia; Salmen, Paul; Degen, Patrick; Wirkert, Florian J; Honkimäki, Veijo; Tolan, Metin

    2016-03-22

    In this work, the structure of solid-supported lipid multilayers exposed to increased hydrostatic pressure was studied in situ by X-ray reflectometry at the solid-liquid interface between silicon and an aqueous buffer solution. The layers' vertical structure was analyzed up to a maximum pressure of 4500 bar. The multilayers showed phase transitions from the fluid into different gel phases. With increasing pressure, a gradual filling of the sublayers between the hydrophilic head groups with water was observed. This process was inverted when the pressure was decreased, yielding finally smaller water layers than those in the initial state. As is commonly known, water has an abrasive effect on lipid multilayers by the formation of vesicles. We show that increasing pressure can reverse this process so that a controlled switching between multi- and bilayers is possible. PMID:26927365

  4. Porcine radial artery decellularization by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Jun; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Nam, Kwangoo; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Many types of decellularized tissues have been studied and some have been commercially used in clinics. In this study, small-diameter vascular grafts were made using HHP to decellularize porcine radial arteries. One decellularization method, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), has been used to prepare the decellularized porcine tissues. Low-temperature treatment was effective in preserving collagen and collagen structures in decellularized porcine carotid arteries. The collagen and elastin structures and mechanical properties of HHP-decellularized radial arteries were similar to those of untreated radial arteries. Xenogeneic transplantation (into rats) was performed using HHP-decellularized radial arteries and an untreated porcine radial artery. Two weeks after transplantation into rat carotid arteries, the HHP-decellularized radial arteries were patent and without thrombosis. In addition, the luminal surface of each decellularized artery was covered by recipient endothelial cells and the arterial medium was fully infiltrated with recipient cells.

  5. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  6. Two-layer optical model of skin for early, non-invasive detection of wound development on the diabetic foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nouvong, Aksone; Schomacker, Kevin; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Foot ulceration is a debilitating comorbidity of diabetes that may result in loss of mobility and amputation. Optical detection of cutaneous tissue changes due to inflammation and necrosis at the preulcer site could constitute a preventative strategy. A commercial hyperspectral oximetry system was used to measure tissue oxygenation on the feet of diabetic patients. A previously developed predictive index was used to differentiate preulcer tissue from surrounding healthy tissue with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 80%. To improve prediction accuracy, an optical skin model was developed treating skin as a two-layer medium and explicitly accounting for (i) melanin content and thickness of the epidermis, (ii) blood content and hemoglobin saturation of the dermis, and (iii) tissue scattering in both layers. Using this forward model, an iterative inverse method was used to determine the skin properties from hyperspectral images of preulcerative areas. The use of this information in lowering the false positive rate was discussed.

  7. A two-layer diagnostic model of the long-term physical evolution of warm-core ring 82B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, D. B.; Schmitt, R. W.; Kennelly, M.; Joyce, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    The present shipboard data in the 1982 time series on a single Gulf Stream warm core ring are composited on a cylindrical coordinate system following ring motion; 10 C-isotherm depth measurements are used in a two-layer model of the ring's structure to compute gradient current, kinetic energy, available potential energy (APE), and potential vorticity. The ring's evolution can be divided into two periods: April-late June, while the ring is isolated from strong Gulf Stream interaction, during which the ring loses APE at a low rate, and from July onward, following ring interactions with the Gulf Stream and topography with much higher energy loss. Within measurement errors, the potential vorticity at the center of the ring is conserved from April through August, implying nearly inviscid dynamics.

  8. Modeling marine boundary-layer clouds with a two-layer model: A one-dimensional simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shouping

    1993-01-01

    A two-layer model of the marine boundary layer is described. The model is used to simulate both stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in downstream simulations. Over cold sea surfaces, the model predicts a relatively uniform structure in the boundary layer with 90%-100% cloud fraction. Over warm sea surfaces, the model predicts a relatively strong decoupled and conditionally unstable structure with a cloud fraction between 30% and 60%. A strong large-scale divergence considerably limits the height of the boundary layer and decreases relative humidity in the upper part of the cloud layer; thus, a low cloud fraction results. The efffects of drizzle on the boundary-layer structure and cloud fraction are also studied with downstream simulations. It is found that drizzle dries and stabilizes the cloud layer and tends to decouple the cloud from the subcloud layer. Consequently, solid stratocumulus clouds may break up and the cloud fraction may decrease because of drizzle.

  9. Multi-frequency based location search algorithm of small electromagnetic inhomogeneities embedded in two-layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won-Kwang; Park, Taehoon

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a problem for finding the locations of electromagnetic inhomogeneities completely embedded in homogeneous two layered medium. For this purpose, we present a filter function operated at several frequencies and design an algorithm for finding the locations of such inhomogeneities. It is based on the fact that, the collected Multi-Static Response (MSR) matrix can be modeled via a rigorous asymptotic expansion formula of the scattering amplitude due to the presence of such inhomogeneities. In order to show the effectiveness, we compare the proposed algorithm with traditional MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm and Kirchhoff migration. Various numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust with respect to random noise and yields more accurate location than the MUSIC algorithm and Kirchhoff migration.

  10. On the Nature of Hydrostatic Equilibrium in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, V.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Rasia, E.; Planelles, S.; Granato, G. L.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.; Beck, A. M.; Gaspari, M.; Dolag, K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the level of hydrostatic equilibrium (HE) in the intracluster medium of simulated galaxy clusters, extracted from state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations performed with the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamic code GADGET-3. These simulations include several physical processes, among which are stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback, and have been performed with an improved version of the code that allows for a better description of hydrodynamical instabilities and gas mixing processes. Evaluating the radial balance between the gravitational and hydrodynamical forces via the gas accelerations generated, we effectively examine the level of HE in every object of the sample and its dependence on the radial distance from the center and on the classification of the cluster in terms of either cool-coreness or dynamical state. We find an average deviation of 10%–20% out to the virial radius, with no evident distinction between cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. Instead, we observe a clear separation between regular and disturbed systems, with a more significant deviation from HE for the disturbed objects. The investigation of the bias between the hydrostatic estimate and the total gravitating mass indicates that, on average, this traces the deviation from HE very well, even though individual cases show a more complex picture. Typically, in the radial ranges where mass bias and deviation from HE are substantially different, the gas is characterized by a significant amount of random motions (≳ 30 % ), relative to thermal ones. As a general result, the HE-deviation and mass bias, at a given distance from the cluster center, are not very sensitive to the temperature inhomogeneities in the gas.

  11. On the Nature of Hydrostatic Equilibrium in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, V.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Rasia, E.; Planelles, S.; Granato, G. L.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.; Beck, A. M.; Gaspari, M.; Dolag, K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the level of hydrostatic equilibrium (HE) in the intracluster medium of simulated galaxy clusters, extracted from state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations performed with the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamic code GADGET-3. These simulations include several physical processes, among which are stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback, and have been performed with an improved version of the code that allows for a better description of hydrodynamical instabilities and gas mixing processes. Evaluating the radial balance between the gravitational and hydrodynamical forces via the gas accelerations generated, we effectively examine the level of HE in every object of the sample and its dependence on the radial distance from the center and on the classification of the cluster in terms of either cool-coreness or dynamical state. We find an average deviation of 10%-20% out to the virial radius, with no evident distinction between cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. Instead, we observe a clear separation between regular and disturbed systems, with a more significant deviation from HE for the disturbed objects. The investigation of the bias between the hydrostatic estimate and the total gravitating mass indicates that, on average, this traces the deviation from HE very well, even though individual cases show a more complex picture. Typically, in the radial ranges where mass bias and deviation from HE are substantially different, the gas is characterized by a significant amount of random motions (≳ 30 % ), relative to thermal ones. As a general result, the HE-deviation and mass bias, at a given distance from the cluster center, are not very sensitive to the temperature inhomogeneities in the gas.

  12. Mem-ADSVM: A two-layer multi-label predictor for identifying multi-functional types of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shibiao; Mak, Man-Wai; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Identifying membrane proteins and their multi-functional types is an indispensable yet challenging topic in proteomics and bioinformatics. However, most of the existing membrane-protein predictors have the following problems: (1) they do not predict whether a given protein is a membrane protein or not; (2) they are limited to predicting membrane proteins with single-label functional types but ignore those with multi-functional types; and (3) there is still much room for improvement for their performance. To address these problems, this paper proposes a two-layer multi-label predictor, namely Mem-ADSVM, which can identify membrane proteins (Layer I) and their multi-functional types (Layer II). Specifically, given a query protein, its associated gene ontology (GO) information is retrieved by searching a compact GO-term database with its homologous accession number. Subsequently, the GO information is classified by a binary support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether it is a membrane protein or not. If yes, it will be further classified by a multi-label multi-class SVM classifier equipped with an adaptive-decision (AD) scheme to determine to which functional type(s) it belongs. Experimental results show that Mem-ADSVM significantly outperforms state-of-the-art predictors in terms of identifying both membrane proteins and their multi-functional types. This paper also suggests that the two-layer prediction architecture is better than the one-layer for prediction performance. For reader׳s convenience, the Mem-ADSVM server is available online at http://bioinfo.eie.polyu.edu.hk/MemADSVMServer/. PMID:27000774

  13. Porosity-Permeability Relationships Around the Percolation Threshold in a Near-Perfect Crystalline Rock Under Hydrostatic and Deviatoric Stress.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clint, O. C.; Meredith, P. G.; Main, I. G.

    2001-12-01

    We are investigating the scaling properties of crack populations near the percolation thresholds for fracture and fluid flow. Here we report measurements of changes in fluid permeability and porosity during hydrostatic and deviatoric stressing on samples of Ailsa Craig Microgranite (ACM) with increasing levels of damage. We show virgin ACM to be almost perfectly isotropic with P & S wave velocity anisotropy coefficients of 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. The fluid permeability of the undeformed rock is 1.5 x 10-23 m2 determined at an effective pressure of 10MPa and it has a porosity <<1%. These properties show that ACM is a near-ideal material to investigate the percolation threshold. We have used thermal stressing to different elevated temperatures up to 900° C to induce crack damage in samples of ACM. For hydrostatic experiments; P and S wave velocities and the fluid permeability are then measured on each sample after the heat treatment process. Connected porosity is calculated using a novel ferrofluid saturation technique and the permeability is measured over a range of effective pressures up to 100MPa with a mean pore pressure of 10MPa. For the triaxial deformation experiments; a confining pressure of 40MPa, mean pore fluid pressure of 10MPa and a strain rates of 1.5 x 10-5 s-1 was employed. Permeability and porosity is calculated continuously during deformation from the steady-state flow rate, controlled by a servo-controlled double acting permeameter system. P and S wave velocities reduce by 48% and 32% respectively for thermal stressing up to 800° C, indicating the high level of cracking induced in the sample, while damage is found to remain isotropic over the temperature range, confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The fluid permeability increases by 7 orders of magnitude and connected crack porosity is increased by 4 orders of magnitude over this temperature range as induced cracks create more pathways available for fluid flow. This resulting

  14. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on secondary structure and emulsifying behavior of sweet potato protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood Khan, Nasir; Mu, Tai-Hua; Sun, Hong-Nan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jing-Wang

    2015-04-01

    In this study, secondary structures of sweet potato protein (SPP) after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (200-600 MPa) were evaluated and emulsifying properties of emulsions with HHP-treated SPP solutions in different pH values (3, 6, and 9) were investigated. Circular dichroism analysis confirmed the modification of the SPP secondary structure. Surface hydrophobicity increased at pH 3 and decreased at 6 and 9. Emulsifying activity index at pH 6 increased with an increase in pressure, whereas emulsifying stability index increased at pH 6 and 9. Oil droplet sizes decreased, while volume frequency distribution of the smaller droplets increased at pH 3 and 6 with the HHP treatment. Emulsion viscosity increased at pH 6 and 9 and pseudo-plastic flow behaviors were not altered for all emulsions produced with HHP-treated SPP. These results suggested that HHP could modify the SPP structure for better emulsifying properties, which could increase the use of SPP emulsion in the food industry.

  15. Parallel pathways and free-energy landscapes for enzymatic hydride transfer probed by hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Pudney, Christopher R; McGrory, Tom; Lafite, Pierre; Pang, Jiayun; Hay, Sam; Leys, David; Sutcliffe, Michael J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2009-05-25

    Mutation of an active-site residue in morphinone reductase leads to a conformationally rich landscape that enhances the rate of hydride transfer from NADH to FMN at standard pressure (1 bar). Increasing the pressure causes interconversion between different conformational substates in the mutant enzyme. While high pressure reduces the donor-acceptor distance in the wild-type enzyme, increased conformational freedom "dampens" its effect in the mutant.We show that hydride transfer from NADH to FMN catalysed by the N189A mutant of morphinone reductase occurs along parallel "chemical" pathways in a conformationally rich free-energy landscape. We have developed experimental kinetic and spectroscopic tools by using hydrostatic pressure to explore this free-energy landscape. The crystal structure of the N189A mutant enzyme in complex with the unreactive coenzyme analogue NADH(4) indicates that the nicotinamide moiety of the analogue is conformationally less restrained than the corresponding structure of the wild-type NADH(4) complex. This increased degree of conformational freedom in the N189A enzyme gives rise to the concept of multiple reactive configurations (MRCs), and we show that the relative population of these states across the free-energy landscape can be perturbed experimentally as a function of pressure. Specifically, the amplitudes of individual kinetic phases that were observed in stopped-flow studies of the hydride transfer reaction are sensitive to pressure; this indicates that pressure drives an altered distribution across the energy landscape. We show by absorbance spectroscopy that the loss of charge-transfer character of the enzyme-coenzyme complex is attributed to the altered population of MRCs on the landscape. The existence of a conformationally rich landscape in the N189A mutant is supported by molecular dynamics simulations at low and high pressure. The work provides firm experimental and computational support for the existence of parallel pathways

  16. Using stable water isotopes in a two-layer soil moisture conceptual framework to understand transpiration dynamics in a semiarid shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szutu, D. J.; Papuga, S. A.; Wehr, R.

    2014-12-01

    Semiarid shrublands and other dryland ecosystems are highly sensitive to precipitation pulses. Because the frequency and magnitude of precipitation events have been projected to change for these ecosystems, the nature of these pulses and how they are distributed as moisture in the soil profile are also expected to change. Previous research has suggested that transpiration dynamics in drylands are associated with deep soil moisture, which accumulates after large rainfall events. Because transpiration is the productive component of evapotranspiration in that it is water used toward biomass accumulation, a hypothetical decrease in large rainfall events would have major consequences for the health and functioning of dryland ecosystems. Furthermore, as drylands account for nearly 40% of terrestrial biomes, these cascading changes have the potential to impact global water and carbon budgets. Still, in pulse-dependent dryland ecosystems, the relative contribution of transpiration to evapotranspiration and the temporal dynamics of this contribution are not well understood. The objective of this research is to better characterize the temporal dynamics of transpiration in dryland ecosystems. We present the relative contribution of transpiration to evapotranspiration over the course of a year from eddy covariance and sap flow measurements taken at a creosotebush-dominated shrubland ecosystem in southern Arizona. We analyze soil moisture and stable water isotopes within the context of a two-layer soil moisture conceptual framework in an attempt to identify the source water for transpiration. We use these results to explain the temporal dynamics of transpiration in this semiarid shrubland. Finally, we put our results in the context of regional climate projections to suggest how this dryland ecosystem might be impacted in the future. We expect our study will contribute to understanding where precipitation pulses are distributed in the soil moisture profile and when these pulses

  17. Spin torque driven dynamics of a coupled two-layer structure: Interplay between conservative and dissipative coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romera, M.; Lacoste, B.; Ebels, U.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.

    2016-09-01

    The general concepts of spin wave theory are adapted to the spin torque driven dynamics of a self-polarized system based on two layers coupled via interlayer exchange (conservative coupling) and mutual spin torque (dissipative coupling). An analytical description of the nonlinear dynamics is proposed and validated through numerical simulations. In contrast to the single layer model, the phase equation of the coupled system has a contribution coming from the dissipative part of the LLGS equation. It is shown that this is a major contribution to the frequency mandatory to describe well the most basic features of the dynamics of this coupled system. Using the proposed model a specific feature of coupled dynamics is addressed: the redshift to blueshift transition observed in the frequency current dependence of this kind of exchange coupled systems upon increasing the applied field. It is found that the blueshift regime can only occur in a region of field where the two linear eigenmodes contribute equally to the steady state mode (i.e., high mode hybridization). Finally, a general perturbed Hamiltonian equation for the coupled system is proposed.

  18. Photothermal characterization of the thermal properties of materials using four characteristic modulation frequencies in two-layer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vales-Pinzon, C.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    A simple photothermal methodology for determining simultaneously and in four different ways the thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity of the illuminated layer in a two-layer system is presented. The method is based on the analysis of the photothermal signal of the whole system normalized by the corresponding signal of the illuminated one-layer system. Our approach uses the modulation frequencies at which the normalized amplitude (phase) passes through unity (zero) and reaches its maximum (minimum). It is shown that these four characteristic modulation frequencies are independent of the thermal effusivities of the layers, and their values can be used to obtain the thermal diffusivity of the illuminated layer. Then, by using the exact complex expression of the normalized photothermal signal with the experimental data for its amplitude and phase, the thermal effusivity of the same layer can be found. In order to show the usefulness of this approach, the method is applied to a glassy carbon sample in thermal contact with three different types of very thick back layers of air, water, and glycerine. It is shown that the highest (lowest) accuracy on the measurement of the thermal properties corresponds to the frequency at which the zero (minimum) of the normalized phase occurs.

  19. High-Performanced Cathode with a Two-Layered R-P Structure for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Huan, Daoming; Wang, Zhiquan; Wang, Zhenbin; Peng, Ranran; Xia, Changrong; Lu, Yalin

    2016-02-01

    Driven by the mounting concerns on global warming and energy crisis, intermediate temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) have attracted special attention for their high fuel efficiency, low toxic gas emission, and great fuel flexibility. A key obstacle to the practical operation of IT-SOFCs is their sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics. In this work, we applied a new two-layered Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) oxide, Sr3Fe2O7-δ (SFO), as the material for oxygen ion conducting IT-SOFCs. Density functional theory calculation suggested that SFO has extremely low oxygen ion formation energy and considerable energy barrier for O(2-) diffusion. Unfortunately, the stable SrO surface of SFO was demonstrated to be inert to O2 adsorption and dissociation reaction, and thus restricts its catalytic activity toward ORR. Based on this observation, Co partially substituted SFO (SFCO) was then synthesized and applied to improve its surface vacancy concentration to accelerate the oxygen adsorptive reduction reaction rate. Electrochemical performance results suggested that the cell using the SFCO single phase cathode has a peak power density of 685 mW cm(-2) at 650 °C, about 15% higher than those when using LSCF cathode. Operating at 200 mA cm(-2), the new cell using SFCO is quite stable within the 100-h' test.

  20. An analytical model for solute transport through a GCL-based two-layered liner considering biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Guan, C; Xie, H J; Wang, Y Z; Chen, Y M; Jiang, Y S; Tang, X W

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model for solute advection and dispersion in a two-layered liner consisting of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a soil liner (SL) considering the effect of biodegradation was proposed. The analytical solution was derived by Laplace transformation and was validated over a range of parameters using the finite-layer method based software Pollute v7.0. Results show that if the half-life of the solute in GCL is larger than 1 year, the degradation in GCL can be neglected for solute transport in GCL/SL. When the half-life of GCL is less than 1 year, neglecting the effect of degradation in GCL on solute migration will result in a large difference of relative base concentration of GCL/SL (e.g., 32% for the case with half-life of 0.01 year). The 100-year solute base concentration can be reduced by a factor of 2.2 when the hydraulic conductivity of the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The 100-year base concentration was reduced by a factor of 155 when the half life of the contaminant in the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The effect of degradation is more important in approving the groundwater protection level than the hydraulic conductivity. The analytical solution can be used for experimental data fitting, verification of complicated numerical models and preliminary design of landfill liner systems. PMID:23906856

  1. Two-layered phantom experiments for characterizing the influence of a fat layer on measurement of muscle oxygenation using NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ling; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Shiga, Toshikazu; Kudo, Nobuki; Takahashi, Makoto; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    1998-04-01

    Two-layered phantom experiments were performed to examine the influence of a fat layer on measurement of muscle oxygenation using near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS). The phantom consisted of a fat-like layer and a muscle-like layer which were a mixture of agar and TiO2 powder and a suspension of washed bovine blood into 0.55 percent intralipid solution. An LED including 760 and 840 nm elements was used as the optical source, and the reflectance light was detected by photodiodes at source-detector distances of 20, 30 and 40 mm. Curves of optical density changes versus blood volume ratio were obtained with fat-like layer thickness of 0, 5, 10 and 15 mm. It was found that the change in optical density is significantly decreased and that the linearity of measurement characteristics clearly deteriorated by the presence of a fat layer. This strongly suggests that a new algorithm is needed for muscle oxygenation measurement to eliminate the influence of a fat layer. In addition to the phantom experiments, Monte Carlo simulations corresponding to the experiments were performed. Although the simulations showed similar results concerning the influence of a fat layer, it was noted that the changes in optical density obtained from simulations were lower than those of the phantom experiments. This discrepancy was though to be due to the light scattering caused by blood cells.

  2. High-pressure resistivity technique for quasi-hydrostatic compression experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotundu, C. R.; Ćuk, T.; Greene, R. L.; Shen, Z.-X.; Hemley, Russell J.; Struzhkin, V. V.

    2013-06-01

    Diamond anvil cell techniques are now well established and powerful methods for measuring materials properties to very high pressure. However, high pressure resistivity measurements are challenging because the electrical contacts attached to the sample have to survive to extreme stress conditions. Until recently, experiments in a diamond anvil cell were mostly limited to non-hydrostatic or quasi-hydrostatic pressure media other than inert gases. We present here a solution to the problem by using focused ion beam ultrathin lithography for a diamond anvil cell loaded with inert gas (Ne) and show typical resistivity data. These ultrathin leads are deposited on the culet of the diamond and are attaching the sample to the anvil mechanically, therefore allowing for measurements in hydrostatic or nearly hydrostatic conditions of pressure using noble gases like Ne or He as pressure transmitting media.

  3. String and Sticky Tape Experiments: Light Pipes, Hydrostatics, Surface Tension and a Milk Carton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a demonstration of light pipes using low-cost materials, relating it to fiber optics communication. Also provides several experiments in hydrostatics and hydrodynamics using the materials for light pipe. (JM)

  4. O'Sullivan's hydrostatic reduction of an inverted uterus: sonar sequence recorded.

    PubMed

    Ward, H R

    1998-10-01

    A case of acute uterine inversion which was successfully managed with hydrostatic reduction is reported. A sequence of sonograms demonstrating this is presented, as far as we are aware, for the first time.

  5. Intraband optical absorption in a single quantum ring: Hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    The intraband optical absorption in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As two-dimensional single quantum ring is investigated. Considering the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field the energy of the ground and few excited states has been found using the effective mass approximation and exact diagonalization technique. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intraband optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure for the different values of the laser field parameter. We also investigated the dependencies of the intraband optical absorption coefficient as a function of incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure and laser field parameter. It is found that the effects of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field lead to redshift and blueshift of the intraband optical spectrum respectively.

  6. High hydrostatic pressure and biology: a brief history.

    PubMed

    Demazeau, Gérard; Rivalain, Nolwennig

    2011-03-01

    Pressure as a thermodynamical parameter was successively introduced in physics, hydrometallurgy, geochemistry, and biology. In all cases, the main objective was to recreate a natural phenomenon (gas or liquid compressibility, synthesis or crystal growth of minerals, survival of deep sea microorganisms…). The introduction of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in Biology was an important scientific feature over the last hundred years. This paper describes the different steps that have led to the spreading of pressure in biology and the opening of new frontiers either in basic and applied researches due to the specific characteristics of the pressure parameter. Because of the low energy conveyed by this parameter, leading to the preservation of most organoleptic properties of foods, and its ability to inactivate many pathogens, the use of HHP began to spread at the end of the twentieth century into the food industry, in particular for the development of pathogen inactivation processes. Today, even if this field is still the first application domain for HHP, more and more research works have shown that this parameter could be of great interest in health and medicine sciences.

  7. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  8. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation.

  9. Scaling of the hydrostatic skeleton in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Jessica A; Kier, William M

    2014-06-01

    The structural and functional consequences of changes in size or scale have been well studied in animals with rigid skeletons, but relatively little is known about scale effects in animals with hydrostatic skeletons. We used glycol methacrylate histology and microscopy to examine the scaling of mechanically important morphological features of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris over an ontogenetic size range from 0.03 to 12.89 g. We found that L. terrestris becomes disproportionately longer and thinner as it grows. This increase in the length to diameter ratio with size means that, when normalized for mass, adult worms gain ~117% mechanical advantage during radial expansion, compared with hatchling worms. We also found that the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal musculature scales as body mass to the ~0.6 power across segments, which is significantly lower than the 0.66 power predicted by isometry. The cross-sectional area of the circular musculature, however, scales as body mass to the ~0.8 power across segments, which is significantly higher than predicted by isometry. By modeling the interaction of muscle cross-sectional area and mechanical advantage, we calculate that the force output generated during both circular and longitudinal muscle contraction scales near isometry. We hypothesize that the allometric scaling of earthworms may reflect changes in soil properties and burrowing mechanics with size. PMID:24871920

  10. Raman study of radiation-damaged zircon under hydrostatic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasdala, Lutz; Miletich, Ronald; Ruschel, Katja; Váczi, Tamás

    2008-12-01

    Pressure-induced changes of Raman band parameters of four natural, gem-quality zircon samples with different degrees of self-irradiation damage, and synthetic ZrSiO4 without radiation damage, have been studied under hydrostatic compression in a diamond anvil cell up to ~10 GPa. Radiation-damaged zircon shows similar up-shifts of internal SiO4 stretching modes at elevated pressures as non-damaged ZrSiO4. Only minor changes of band-widths were observed in all cases. This makes it possible to estimate the degree of radiation damage from the width of the ν3(SiO4) band of zircon inclusions in situ, almost independent from potential “fossilized pressures” or compressive strain acting on the inclusions. An application is the non-destructive analysis of gemstones such as corundum or spinel: broadened Raman bands are a reliable indicator of self-irradiation damage in zircon inclusions, whose presence allows one to exclude artificial color enhancement by high-temperature treatment of the specimen.

  11. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M.; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  12. Quantitative assessment of meteorological and tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Guo, Jiming; Chen, Ming; Shi, Junbo; Zhou, Lv

    2016-09-01

    Tropospheric delay has always been an important issue in GNSS/DORIS/VLBI/InSAR processing. Most commonly used empirical models for the determination of tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), including three meteorological models and two empirical ZHD models, are carefully analyzed in this paper. Meteorological models refer to UNB3m, GPT2 and GPT2w, while ZHD models include Hopfield and Saastamoinen. By reference to in-situ meteorological measurements and ray-traced ZHD values of 91 globally distributed radiosonde sites, over a four-years period from 2010 to 2013, it is found that there is strong correlation between errors of model-derived values and latitudes. Specifically, the Saastamoinen model shows a systematic error of about -3 mm. Therefore a modified Saastamoinen model is developed based on the "best average" refractivity constant, and is validated by radiosonde data. Among different models, the GPT2w and the modified Saastamoinen model perform the best. ZHD values derived from their combination have a mean bias of -0.1 mm and a mean RMS of 13.9 mm. Limitations of the present models are discussed and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  13. A CANDIDATE DETECTION OF THE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Enoch, Melissa L.; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Harvey, Paul; Dunham, Michael M.; Schnee, Scott

    2010-10-10

    The first hydrostatic core (FHSC) represents a very early phase in the low-mass star formation process, after collapse of the parent core has begun but before a true protostar has formed. This large (few AU), cool (100 K), pressure-supported core of molecular hydrogen is expected from theory, but has yet to be observationally verified. Here, we present observations of an excellent candidate for the FHSC phase: Per-Bolo 58, a dense core in Perseus that was previously believed to be starless. The 70 {mu}m flux of 65 mJy, from new deep Spitzer MIPS observations, is consistent with that expected for the FHSC. A low signal-to-noise detection at 24 {mu}m leaves open the possibility that Per-Bolo 58 could be a very low luminosity protostar, however. We utilize radiative transfer models to determine the best-fitting FHSC and protostar models to the spectral energy distribution and 2.9 mm visibilities of Per-Bolo 58. The source is consistent with an FHSC with some source of lower opacity through the envelope allowing 24 {mu}m emission to escape; a small outflow cavity and a cavity in the envelope are both possible. While we are unable to rule out the presence of a protostar, if present it would be one of the lowest luminosity protostellar objects yet observed, with an internal luminosity of {approx}0.01 L {sub sun}.

  14. Ordered states of URu2Si2 under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Butch, N. P.; Paglione, J.; Maple, M. B.

    2006-03-01

    Oriented single crystalline samples of URu2Si2 have been synthesized and investigated under nearly hydrostatic pressure via electrical resistivity and ac susceptibility measurements. The heavy fermion compound URu2Si2 exhibits three distinct ordered states as a function of temperature and pressure: ``hidden order'' (HO), in which the order parameter has yet to be determined; antiferromagnetism (AFM), which seemingly develops out of the HO state at P <=15 kbar; and superconductivity (SC), which exists at ambient pressure. Careful measurements of the HO transition, occurring at THO˜16.5 K at ambient pressure, have been performed at several different pressures, yielding a P-T phase diagram for the HO state as a function of pressure. In addition, measurements of the superconducting critical temperature, Tc˜1.4 K at ambient pressure, and the upper critical field Hc2 have been performed at low temperatures using a ^3He-^4He dilution refrigerator, revealing the superconducting H-T-P phase diagram. Possible correlations between the HO, AFM, and SC states will be discussed. This research was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-FG52-03NA00068.

  15. II-VI wide band gap semiconductors under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baquero, R.; Decoss, R.; Olguin, D.

    1993-08-01

    We set an analytical expression for the gap as a function of hydrostatic deformation, E(sub g)(epsilon), by diagonalizing in Gamma the corresponding empirical tight-binding Hamiltonian (ETBH). In the ETBH we use the well known d(exp -2) Harrison scaling law (HSL) to adjust the TB parameter (TBP) to the changes in interatomic distances. We do not consider cation-anion charge transfer. We calculate E(sub g)(epsilon) for wide band gap II-VI semiconductors with zincblende crystal structure for deformations under pressure up to -5 percent. Results are in good agreement with experiment for the compounds of lower ionicity but deviate as the ionicity of the compound increases. This is due to the neglect of charge transfer which should be included self-consistently. Within the approximation we always find a positive second derivative of E(sub g)(epsilon) with respect to epsilon, independent of the material. Furthermore, the inclusion of deviations from HSL appear to be unimportant to this problem.

  16. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  17. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P < 0.05). Inactivation of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase could be fitted by two-fraction model and that of pectin methylesterase could be described by first-order reaction model. Titratable acidity, pH, and total soluble solid of juice did not change significantly (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P < 0.05) but did not change significantly with treatment time (P > 0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P < 0.05). Through the comparison of total color difference values, high hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  18. Day-night variations in malate concentration, osmotic pressure, and hydrostatic pressure in Cereus validus

    SciTech Connect

    Luettge, U.; Nobel, P.S.

    1984-07-01

    Malate concentration and stem osmotic pressure concomitantly increase during nighttime CO/sub 2/ fixation and then decrease during the daytime in the obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, Cereus validus (Cactaceae). Changes in malate osmotic pressure calculated using the Van't Hoff relation match the changes in stem osmotic pressure, indicating that changes in malate level affected the water relations of the succulent stems. In contrast to stem osmotic pressure, stem water potential showed little day-night changes, suggesting that changes in cellular hydrostatic pressure occurred. This was corroborated by direct measurements of hydrostatic pressure using the Juelich pressure probe where a small oil-filled micropipette is inserted directly into chlorenchyma cells, which indicated a 4-fold increase in hydrostatic pressure from dusk to dawn. A transient increase of hydrostatic pressure at the beginning of the dark period was correlated with a short period of stomatal closing between afternoon and nighttime CO/sub 2/ fixation, suggesting that the rather complex hydrostatic pressure patterns could be explained by an interplay between the effects of transpiration and malate levels. A second CAM plant, Agave deserti, showed similar day-night changes in hydrostatic pressure in its succulent leaves. It is concluded that, in addition to the inverted stomatal rhythm, the oscillations of malate markedly affect osmotic pressures and hence water relations of CAM plants. 13 references, 4 figures.

  19. Combined use of infrared and Raman spectra in the characterization of orthoclase under various hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Xu, Qiang; Yu, Na; Cao, Miao-Cong

    2014-02-01

    Colorless and pink orthoclase from Balikun granite body, East Zhunger in Xinjiang, served as the samples for the research on hydrostatic pressure experiment. The in-situ hydrostatic pressure test for orthoclases was conducted at the room temperature and pressures from 100 to 600 MPa using cubic zirconia anvil cell, with quartz as pressure gauge. The water located in the orthoclases for the conditions of different hydrostatic pressures was characterized through the methods of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra. The results showed that there was a linear correlation between the shifting of Raman bands and hydrostatic pressure applied to the feldspar. All of vibration peaks of M-O structural groups in orthoclases, the bending vibration peaks of Si(Al(IV))-O-Si bond and tetrahedron groups of [SiO4] in Raman spectra shifted toward the higher frequency regularly, the drift distance is 2, 2.19 and less than 2 cm(-1) respectively. The spectra of FTIR suggested that there was more water in colorless orthoclases than the pink one under certain conditions of hydrostatic pressure. The intensity and integral area centered at 3420 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra increased with the rising of hydrostatic pressure. The integral area for colorless and pink feldspar in FTIR spectra rose from 120, 1383 cm(-1) under normal pressure to 1570, 2001 cm(-1) at 600 MPa respectively. The experimental results might indicate that the water in the earth crust could enter the orthoclases in certain condition of the aqueous confining pressure.

  20. Hydraulic efficiency of a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement pump and motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, Daniel

    Pumps and motors are commonly connected hydraulically to create hydrostatic drives, also known as hydrostatic transmissions. A typical hydrostatic transmission consists of a variable displacement pump and a fixed displacement motor. Maximum efficiency is typically created for the system when the motor operates at maximum volumetric displacement. The objective of this research is to determine if a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement motor can be more efficient than one with a fixed displacement motor. A work cycle for a Caterpillar 320D excavator was created and the efficiency of the hydrostatic drive system, controlling the swing circuit, with a fixed displacement motor was compared to the efficiency with a variable displacement motor. Both multiplicative and additive uncertainty analysis were performed to determine uncertainty models that could be used to analyze the robustness of the system with feedback control applied. A PID and an H∞ controller were designed for a position control model, as well as velocity control. It was found that while it may seem obvious to achieve maximum efficiency at maximum displacement, there are some cases where maximum efficiency is achieved at a lower displacement. It was also found that for the given work cycle, a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement motor can be more efficient.

  1. Hydrostatic pressure effects on vestibular hair cell afferents in fish and crustacea.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Peter J; Cruickshank, Stuart F; Shelmerdine, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    Following the discovery of a hydrostatic pressure sensor with no associated gas phase in the crab, and the knowledge that several systems of cells in culture show long term alterations to small changes in hydrostatic pressure, we show here that vestibular type II hair cells in a well known model system (the isolated elasmobranch labyrinth), are sensitive to hydrostatic pressure. This new finding for the vertebrate vestibular system may provide an explanation for low levels of resting activity in vertebrate hair cells and explain how fish without swim bladders sense hydrostatic cues. It could have implications for humans using their balancing systems in hypobaric or hyperbaric environments such as in aircraft or during space exploration. Although lacking the piston mechanism thought to operate in crab thread hairs which sense angular acceleration and hydrostatic pressure, the vertebrate system may use larger numbers of sensory cells with resultant improvement in signal to noise ratio. The main properties of the crab hydrostatic pressure sensing system are briefly reviewed and new experimental work on the isolated elasmobranch labyrinth is presented.

  2. Hydrostatic pressures developed by osmotically swelling vesicles bound to planar membranes

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    When phospholipid vesicles bound to a planar membrane are osmotically swollen, they develop a hydrostatic pressure (delta P) and fuse with the membrane. We have calculated the steady-state delta P, from the equations of irreversible thermodynamics governing water and solute flows, for two general methods of osmotic swelling. In the first method, vesicles are swollen by adding a solute to the vesicle- containing compartment to make it hyperosmotic. delta P is determined by the vesicle membrane's permeabilities to solute and water. If the vesicle membrane is devoid of open channels, then delta P is zero. When the vesicle membrane contains open channels, then delta P peaks at a channel density unique to the solute permeability properties of both the channel and the membrane. The solute enters the vesicle through the channels but leaks out through the region of vesicle-planar membrane contact. delta P is largest for channels having high permeabilities to the solute and for solutes with low membrane permeabilities in the contact region. The model predicts the following order of solutes producing pressures of decreasing magnitude: KCl greater than urea greater than formamide greater than or equal to ethylene glycol. Differences between osmoticants quantitatively depend on the solute permeability of the channel and the density of channels in the vesicle membrane. The order of effectiveness is the same as that experimentally observed for solutes promoting fusion. Therefore, delta P drives fusion. When channels with small permeabilities are used, coupling between solute and water flows within the channel has a significant effect on delta P. In the second method, an impermeant solute bathing the vesicles is isosmotically replaced by a solute which permeates the channels in the vesicle membrane. delta P resulting from this method is much less sensitive to the permeabilities of the channel and membrane to the solute. delta P approaches the theoretical limit set by the

  3. Mathematical and numerical analysis of non-planer static mode-II crack in a two-layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, S.; Yamashita, T.

    2009-12-01

    A crack in an infinite homogeneous medium is widely assumed as a model for earthquake fault. It is, however, well known that the earth's crust is heterogeneous and its structure is approximated well by a layered medium. Hence, such structure should be taken into account to model earthquake fault reasonably. We mathematically analyze the behavior of a 2-D static mode-II non-planar crack in a two-layered elastic medium in order to understand the effect of layer boundary on earthquake faulting. Although Rani and Singh (1993) and Rivalta et al.(2002) studied similar problems, focuses of their studies were quite narrow probably because of inherent mathematical difficulty. Actually the former assumed a planar crack with uniform slip and the latter assumed a planar crack perpendicular to the layer boundary. While a serious difficulty of the analysis of mode-II crack lies in the derivation of stress distribution due to point source as a kernel function, we first overcome the difficulty by writing its expression in a sequence of complex functions in the real (not the Fourier) domain. A very important characteristic in the sequence is that it has recursive property, which makes possible to derive the kernel function explicitly and to integrate it by parts; the integration by parts is required before the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is applied. Our kernel function is much easier to treat than the expression given by Rani and Singh (1993). This enables us to analyze arbitrarily oriented non-planar crack in a two-layered medium. Next, we calculate the spatial distribution of stress due to crack that does not intersect the layer boundary using the above derived kernel function. We find in the calculation that the existence of layer boundary amplifies or reduces the stress at the crack tip when the crack is located close to the boundary; the stress is amplified when the crack exists in the layer with lower rigidity. Our method of analysis can easily be applied to the

  4. On the stability of discrete tripole, quadrupole, Thomson' vortex triangle and square in a two-layer/homogeneous rotating fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurakin, Leonid G.; Ostrovskaya, Irina V.; Sokolovskiy, Mikhail A.

    2016-05-01

    A two-layer quasigeostrophic model is considered in the f-plane approximation. The stability of a discrete axisymmetric vortex structure is analyzed for the case when the structure consists of a central vortex of arbitrary intensity Γ and two/three identical peripheral vortices. The identical vortices, each having a unit intensity, are uniformly distributed over a circle of radius R in a single layer. The central vortex lies either in the same or in another layer. The problem has three parameters ( R, Γ, α), where α is the difference between layer thicknesses. A limiting case of a homogeneous fluid is also considered. A limiting case of a homogeneous fluid is also considered. The theory of stability of steady-state motions of dynamic systems with a continuous symmetry group G is applied. The two definitions of stability used in the study are Routh stability and G-stability. The Routh stability is the stability of a one-parameter orbit of a steady-state rotation of a vortex multipole, and the G-stability is the stability of a three-parameter invariant set O G , formed by the orbits of a continuous family of steady-state rotations of a multipole. The problem of Routh stability is reduced to the problem of stability of a family of equilibria of a Hamiltonian system. The quadratic part of the Hamiltonian and the eigenvalues of the linearization matrix are studied analytically. The cases of zero total intensity of a tripole and a quadrupole are studied separately. Also, the Routh stability of a Thomson vortex triangle and square was proved at all possible values of problem parameters. The results of theoretical analysis are sustained by numerical calculations of vortex trajectories.

  5. Testing the two-layer model for correcting near-cloud reflectance enhancement using LES/SHDOM-simulated radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Várnai, Tamás.; Levy, Robert

    2016-08-01

    A transition zone exists between cloudy skies and clear sky; such that, clouds scatter solar radiation into clear-sky regions. From a satellite perspective, it appears that clouds enhance the radiation nearby. We seek a simple method to estimate this enhancement, since it is so computationally expensive to account for all three-dimensional (3-D) scattering processes. In previous studies, we developed a simple two-layer model (2LM) that estimated the radiation scattered via cloud-molecular interactions. Here we have developed a new model to account for cloud-surface interaction (CSI). We test the models by comparing to calculations provided by full 3-D radiative transfer simulations of realistic cloud scenes. For these scenes, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-like radiance fields were computed from the Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method (SHDOM), based on a large number of cumulus fields simulated by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) large eddy simulation (LES) model. We find that the original 2LM model that estimates cloud-air molecule interactions accounts for 64% of the total reflectance enhancement and the new model (2LM + CSI) that also includes cloud-surface interactions accounts for nearly 80%. We discuss the possibility of accounting for cloud-aerosol radiative interactions in 3-D cloud-induced reflectance enhancement, which may explain the remaining 20% of enhancements. Because these are simple models, these corrections can be applied to global satellite observations (e.g., MODIS) and help to reduce biases in aerosol and other clear-sky retrievals.

  6. Empirical relationships between soil moisture, albedo, and the planetary boundary layer height: a two-layer bucket model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Mejia, Z. M.; Papuga, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    In semiarid regions, where water resources are limited and precipitation dynamics are changing, understanding land surface-atmosphere interactions that regulate the coupled soil moisture-precipitation system is key for resource management and planning. We present a modeling approach to study soil moisture and albedo controls on planetary boundary layer height (PBLh). We used data from the Santa Rita Creosote Ameriflux site and Tucson Airport atmospheric sounding to generate empirical relationships between soil moisture, albedo and PBLh. We developed empirical relationships and show that at least 50% of the variation in PBLh can be explained by soil moisture and albedo. Then, we used a stochastically driven two-layer bucket model of soil moisture dynamics and our empirical relationships to model PBLh. We explored soil moisture dynamics under three different mean annual precipitation regimes: current, increase, and decrease, to evaluate at the influence on soil moisture on land surface-atmospheric processes. While our precipitation regimes are simple, they represent future precipitation regimes that can influence the two soil layers in our conceptual framework. For instance, an increase in annual precipitation, could impact on deep soil moisture and atmospheric processes if precipitation events remain intense. We observed that the response of soil moisture, albedo, and the PBLh will depend not only on changes in annual precipitation, but also on the frequency and intensity of this change. We argue that because albedo and soil moisture data are readily available at multiple temporal and spatial scales, developing empirical relationships that can be used in land surface - atmosphere applications are of great value.

  7. Two-layered injectable self-assembling peptide scaffold hydrogels for long-term sustained release of human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Koutsopoulos, Sotirios; Zhang, Shuguang

    2012-06-28

    The release kinetics for human immunoglobulin (IgG) through the permeable structure of nanofiber scaffold hydrogels consisting of the ac-(RADA)(4)-CONH(2) and ac-(KLDL)(3)-CONH(2) self-assembling peptides were studied during a period of 3 months. Self assembling peptides are a class of stimuli-responsive materials which undergo sol-gel transition in the presence of an electrolyte solution such as biological fluids and salts. IgG diffusivities decreased with increasing hydrogel nanofiber density providing a means to control the release kinetics. Two-layered hydrogel structures were created consisting of concentric spheres of ac-(RADA)(4)-CONH(2) core and ac-(KLDL)(3)-CONH(2) shell and the antibody diffusion profile was determined through the 'onion-like' architecture. Secondary and tertiary structure analyses as well as biological assays using single molecule analyses and quartz crystal microbalance of the released IgG showed that encapsulation and release did not affect the conformation of the antibody and the biological activity even after 3 months inside the hydrogel. The functionality of polyclonal human IgG to the phosphocholine antigen was determined and showed that IgG encapsulation and release did not affect the antibody binding efficacy to the antigen. Our experimental protocol allows for 100% IgG loading efficiency inside the hydrogel while the maximum amount of antibody loading depends solely on the solubility of the antibody in water because the peptide hydrogel consists of water up to 99.5%. Our results show that this fully biocompatible and injectable peptide hydrogel system may be used for controlled release applications as a carrier for therapeutic antibodies. PMID:22465676

  8. Hydrostatic pressure and shear stress affect endothelin-1 and nitric oxide release by endothelial cells in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Vozzi, Federico; Bianchi, Francesca; Ahluwalia, Arti; Domenici, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abundant experimental evidence demonstrates that endothelial cells are sensitive to flow; however, the effect of fluid pressure or pressure gradients that are used to drive viscous flow is not well understood. There are two principal physical forces exerted on the blood vessel wall by the passage of intra-luminal blood: pressure and shear. To analyze the effects of pressure and shear independently, these two stresses were applied to cultured cells in two different types of bioreactors: a pressure-controlled bioreactor and a laminar flow bioreactor, in which controlled levels of pressure or shear stress, respectively, can be generated. Using these bioreactor systems, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells were measured under various shear stress and pressure conditions. Compared to the controls, a decrease of ET-1 production by the cells cultured in both bioreactors was observed, whereas NO synthesis was up-regulated in cells under shear stress, but was not modulated by hydrostatic pressure. These results show that the two hemodynamic forces acting on blood vessels affect endothelial cell function in different ways, and that both should be considered when planning in vitro experiments in the presence of flow. Understanding the individual and synergic effects of the two forces could provide important insights into physiological and pathological processes involved in vascular remodeling and adaptation.

  9. Dissociation of F-actin induced by hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Garcia, C R; Amaral Júnior, J A; Abrahamsohn, P; Verjovski-Almeida, S

    1992-11-01

    F-actin purified from rabbit skeletal muscle undergoes reversible dissociation when subjected to hydrostatic pressures up to 240 MPa. Dissociation and reversibility were detected by the following procedures: fluorescence spectral changes observed under pressure, when either intrinsic tryptophan or pyrenyl emission of N-(1-pyrenyl)iodoacetamide-labeled actin were monitored; electron microscopy of samples fixed under pressure; size-exclusion HPLC of pressurized actin. The effect of pressure upon F-actin that had been polymerized in the presence of either Mg2+, Ca2+ or K+ was studied. The standard volume changes for the association of actin subunits, calculated from pressure/dissociation curves were 74 +/- 14 ml/mol for Mg-F-actin, 79 +/- 12 ml/mol for Ca-F-actin and 328 +/- 63 ml/mol for K-F-actin, indicating that actin subunits are packed differently in the polymer depending on which cation is present. All pressure/dissociation data could be fitted by a model for dissociation of a dimer, which suggests that in the F-actin filament there is a predominant intersubunit interaction interface, most likely the head-to-tail intrastrand interaction between two subunits which repeats itself along the polymer. A tenfold change in total protein concentration from 20 micrograms to 200 micrograms/ml Mg-F-actin did not cause a change in the pressure required for half-maximal dissociation. This indicates a heterogeneity of free energy of association among actin monomers in the Mg-F-actin polymer, suggesting that, in addition to the predominant intersubunit interaction, the disordered interactions in the filament significantly contribute to the heterogeneity of microenvironments in the interface between the subunits. PMID:1425683

  10. Energetics of Streptococcal Growth Inhibition by Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Philip; Marquis, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    Growth of Streptococcus faecalis in complex media with various fuel sources appeared to be limited by the rate of supply of adenosine-5′ -triphosphate (ATP) at 1 atm and also under 408 atm of hydrostatic pressure. Growth under pressure was energetically inefficient, as indicated by an average cell yield for exponentially growing cultures of only 10.7 g (dry weight) per mol of ATP produced compared with a 1-atm value of 15.6. Use of ATP for pressure-volume work or for turnover of protein, peptidoglycan, or stable ribonucleic acid (RNA) did not appear to be significant causes of growth inefficiency under pressure. In addition, there did not seem to be an increased ATP requirement for ion uptake because cells growing at 408 atm had significantly lower internal K+ levels than did those growing at 1 atm. Pressure did stimulate the membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) or S. faecalis at ATP concentrations greater than 0.5 mM. Intracellular ATP levels were found to vary during the culture cycle from about 2.5 μmol/ml of cytoplasmic water for lag-phase or stationary-phase cells to maxima for exponentially growing cells of about 7.5 μmol/ml at 1 atm and 5.5 μmol/ml at 408 atm. N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide at a 10 μM concentration improved growth efficiency under pressure, as did Mg2+ or Ca2+ ions at 50 mM concentration. These agents also enhanced ATP pooling, and it seemed that at least part of the growth inefficiency under pressure was due to increased ATPase activity. In all, it appeared that S. faecalis growing under pressure has somewhat reduced ATP supply but significantly increased demand and that the inhibitory effects of pressure can be interpreted largely in terms of ATP supply and demand. PMID:405925

  11. A non-hydrostatic algorithm for free-surface ocean modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auclair, Francis; Estournel, Claude; Floor, Jochem W.; Herrmann, Marine; Nguyen, Cyril; Marsaleix, Patrick

    An original implementation of a non-hydrostatic, free-surface algorithm based on a pressure correction method is proposed for ocean modelling. The free surface is implemented through an explicit scheme combined with a mode-spitting method but the depth-averaged velocity and the position of the free surface are updated at each non-hydrostatic iteration. The vertical momentum equation is also integrated up to the surface enabling a natural and accurate treatment of the surface layer. The consistent specification of the numerical schemes provides balanced transfers of potential and kinetic energy. This algorithm is well-suited for implementation as a non-hydrostatic kernel on originally hydrostatic free-surface ocean models such as Symphonie ( http://poc.obs-mip.fr/pages/research_topics/modelling/symphonie/symphonie.htm) for which it has originally been developed. Energy balances associated with the propagation of short surface waves and solitary waves are presented for two dedicated well-documented configurations over closed domains. The buoyancy flux, the work rate of the pressure force together with the power of the advective terms are evaluated and discussed for the generation and the propagation of these two types of waves. The dissipation rate is in particular shown to be several orders of magnitude smaller than the work rates of the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure forces confirming the necessity for the exchanges of energy to be numerically balanced. The algorithm is subsequently applied to the complex generation of non-linear solitary internal waves by surface tides over Georges Bank, in the Gulf of Maine. The generation and the propagation of the observed non-linear and non-hydrostatic features in this region are correctly reproduced.

  12. First Self-Consistent, Two-Layer Model of Near-Surface Water-Equivalent-Hydrogen on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Pathare, A.; Prettyman, T. H.; Maurice, S.

    2015-12-01

    This study uses 9.5 years of Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer (MONS) data [1]. We have used the epithermal and fast neutron count rates to determine the water-equivalent-hydrogen (WEH) content of an upper layer, Wup, having thickness D. The "crossover" technique we utilized is an improvement over previous work [2,3]. We then used Monte Carlo simulated grids of epithermal and thermal count rates spanning Wup = 1% to 15% [4] to determine the WEH content, Wdn, of a semi-infinite lower layer buried at depth, D. We also advance upon previous work by using improved deconvolution methods to reduce spatial blurring in fast and epithermal maps [5]. The resultant count-rates were digitized into a 2°x2°cylindrical grid for all WEH computations. Two sets of WEH maps will be shown. The first uses the one-layer model developed initially by Feldman et al. [6]. Comparison of the undeconvolved and deconvolved versions clearly illustrates the improvement obtained by deconvolution. We will also present the full two layer maps of Wup, Wdn, and D for the deconvolved data sets, which show: 1) contrary to our previous preliminary mapping [3], the fresh icy mid-latitude craters identified by [7] are NOT exclusively found in regions with average Wdn values that exceed the pore-filling threshold for regolith ice; 2) a maximum Wdn of about 80% by weight at the Phoenix site; 3) an isolated Wdn maximum just east of Gale crater that is centered on Aeolis Mensae; 4) a resolved Wdn maximum that overlays the Orsen Wells crater on Xanthe Terra; 5) Wdn local maxima that hug the western flanks of Olympus Mons and Elysium Mons, and 6) several Wdn maxima that cover Arabia Terra. We will present and interpret regional maps of all of these features. Refs: [1] Maurice et al. JGR, 2011; [2] Feldman et al. JGR, 2011; [3] Pathare et al. 8th Mars Conf., 2014; [4] Prettyman et al. JGR, 2004 [5] Prettyman et al. JGR, 2009; [6] Feldman et al. JGR, 2004; [7] Dundas et al. JGR, 2014.

  13. An Experimental Study of Dynamic Tensile Failure of Rocks Subjected to Hydrostatic Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bangbiao; Yao, Wei; Xia, Kaiwen

    2016-10-01

    It is critical to understand the dynamic tensile failure of confined rocks in many rock engineering applications, such as underground blasting in mining projects. To simulate the in situ stress state of underground rocks, a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar system is utilized to load Brazilian disc (BD) samples hydrostatically, and then exert dynamic load to the sample by impacting the striker on the incident bar. The pulse shaper technique is used to generate a slowly rising stress wave to facilitate the dynamic force balance in the tests. Five groups of Laurentian granite BD samples (with static BD tensile strength of 12.8 MPa) under the hydrostatic confinement of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MPa were tested with different loading rates. The result shows that the dynamic tensile strength increases with the hydrostatic confining pressure. It is also observed that under the same hydrostatic pressure, the dynamic tensile strength increases with the loading rate, revealing the so-called rate dependency for engineering materials. Furthermore, the increment of the tensile strength decreases with the hydrostatic confinement, which resembles the static tensile behavior of rock under confining pressure, as reported in the literature. The recovered samples are examined using X-ray micro-computed tomography method and the observed crack pattern is consistent with the experimental result.

  14. Pulmonary edema: an MR study of permeability and hydrostatic types in animals.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H C; Tsay, D G; Higgins, C B

    1986-02-01

    Permeability pulmonary edema was induced in ten rats by intravenous injection of oleic acid. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was induced in another ten rats by continuous infusion of saline. Permeability pulmonary edema was detected as increased signal intensity in all animals on images obtained with repetition times (TR) of 2.0 sec and echo times (TE) of 28 and 56 msec. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was perceivable only in seven of ten rats. It was best seen on spin-echo TR = 2.0 sec, TE = 28 msec images as increased intensity either throughout the whole lung or in a predominant central distribution. The slopes of the relationships between the mean signal intensity and water content of both lungs were lower for hydrostatic pulmonary edema than for permeability pulmonary edema. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema demonstrated similar T1 but markedly shorter T2 relaxation times than permeability edema. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to estimate severity of hydrostatic and permeability pulmonary edemas. PMID:3941856

  15. Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    1997-01-01

    An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

  16. Parameter identification of the rotordynamic coefficients of high-Reynolds-number hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouvas, Constantinos

    The research presented here concentrates on experimental and analytical methods to identify the twelve rotordynamic coefficients of high-Reynolds-number hydrostatic bearings. Fluid-flow-induced noise (turbulence, cavitation) presents a significant problem in testing these bearings, since this noise exists in the same frequency range as the test signals. This common frequency range eliminates the possibility of rejecting the noise through filtering. A frequency-domain analysis method has been developed to extract the rotordynamic coefficients from data obtained by multi-frequency sequential excitation testing. Power-spectral-density estimates are used to reject noise that is independent of the applied excitation. The method is verified experimentally by single-frequency excitation, and repeatability tests. A second power-spectral-density based identification method has been developed and applied to simultaneous excitation test data. Here, two independent random excitations are applied simultaneously to the bearing, and their effects are separated by computing appropriate power-spectral-density estimates, while, at the same time, maintaining excellent noise rejection properties. This method yields results identical to the sequential excitation procedure, and reduces the actual test and analysis times by one half. Last, an analysis method in the time domain has been developed and implemented. In essence it is a direct application of least squares to the bearing housing equations of motion. For this method, it is shown that for the low-frequency noise present in the measurements, differentiation of the signals is acceptable, and preferable over integration. The twelve rotordynamic coefficients are obtained from a recursive formulation of least squares, and the results are shown to have acceptable convergence. Also, the coefficients extracted from this method are found to reconstruct the bearing response more accurately than the coefficients extracted from the power

  17. Turning performance in squid and cuttlefish: unique dual-mode, muscular hydrostatic systems.

    PubMed

    Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S

    2016-05-01

    Although steady swimming has received considerable attention in prior studies, unsteady swimming movements represent a larger portion of many aquatic animals' locomotive repertoire and have not been examined extensively. Squids and cuttlefishes are cephalopods with unique muscular hydrostat-driven, dual-mode propulsive systems involving paired fins and a pulsed jet. These animals exhibit a wide range of swimming behavior, but turning performance has not been examined quantitatively. Brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, and dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis, were filmed during turns using high-speed cameras. Kinematic features were tracked, including the length-specific radius of the turn (R/L), a measure of maneuverability, and angular velocity (ω), a measure of agility. Both L. brevis and S. bandensis demonstrated high maneuverability, with (R/L)min values of 3.4×10(-3)±5.9×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-3)±4.7×10(-4) (mean±s.e.m.), respectively, which are the lowest measures of R/L reported for any aquatic taxa. Lolliguncula brevis exhibited higher agility than S. bandensis (ωa,max=725.8 versus 485.0 deg s(-1)), and both cephalopods have intermediate agility when compared with flexible-bodied and rigid-bodied nekton of similar size, reflecting their hybrid body architecture. In L. brevis, jet flows were the principal driver of angular velocity. Asymmetric fin motions played a reduced role, and arm wrapping increased turning performance to varying degrees depending on the species. This study indicates that coordination between the jet and fins is important for turning performance, with L. brevis achieving faster turns than S. bandensis and S. bandensis achieving tighter, more controlled turns than L. brevis.

  18. Lift and drag in intruders moving through hydrostatic granular media at high speeds.

    PubMed

    Potiguar, Fabricio Q; Ding, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Recently, experiments showed that forces on intruders dragged horizontally through dense, hydrostatic granular packings mainly depend on the local surface orientation and can be seen as the sum of the forces exerted on small surface elements. In order to understand such forces more deeply, we perform a two-dimensional soft-sphere molecular dynamics simulation, on a similar setup, of an intruder dragged through a 50-50 bi-disperse granular packing, with diameters 0.30 and 0.34 cm. We measure, for both circular and half-circle shapes, the forces parallel (drag) and perpendicular (lift) to the drag direction as functions of the drag speed, with V=10.3-309 cm/s, and intruder depths, with D=3.75-37.5 cm. The drag forces on an intruder monotonically increase with V and D, and are larger for the circle. However, the lift force does not depend monotonically on V and D, and this relationship is affected by the shape of the intruder. The vertical force was negative for the half-circle, but for a small range of V and D, we measure positive lift. We find no sign change for the lift on the circle, which is always positive. The explanation for the nonmonotonic dependence is related to the decrease in contacts on the intruder as V increases. This is qualitatively similar to supersonic flow detachment from an obstacle. The detachment picture is supported by simulation measurements of the velocity field around the intruder and force profiles measured on its surface.

  19. The NCEP Eulerian Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjic, Zavisa; Vasic, Ratko; Jovic, Dusan; Black, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The development of the unified Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB) has continued at NCEP. The model dynamics preserve a number of important properties of differential operators and conserve a variety of first order and quadratic quantities. The nonlinear dynamics is controlled by conserving energy and enstrophy in case of non-divergent flow. Over-specification of vertical velocity is avoided. The physical package was developed from the WRF NMM's physics, but other physics options are also available. The regional version of the NMMB is run operationally as the main deterministic North American short-range forecasting model (NAM) and in a number of other applications. The global NMMB also has been run over the last few years experimentally in order to assess its capabilities and develop it further. In terms of large scale metrics, the performance of the global NMMB in medium range weather forecasting has been generally comparable to that of other major medium range forecasting systems. Its computational efficiency satisfies and exceeds the current and projected operational requirements. Recently, the transition has started of the operational hurricane forecasting system HWRF from the WRF NMM dynamics to those of the NMMB. This system involves the use of a hierarchy of 2-way interactive telescoping moving nests. The work on the interaction between clouds and radiation has continued. Extended range forecasts showed large sensitivity to the method for representing clouds. With the clouds represented by optical properties of their microphysics species, the results depend on the microphysics scheme used. Taking into account the impact of convective clouds remains a challenge with this approach. Development of an indigenous data assimilation system for the global NMMB has commenced. The system is based on the hybrid ensemble Kalman filter/3DVAR technique. It is believed that the potential of the NMMB can be better assessed using its own dedicated data assimilation

  20. A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys

    2016-04-01

    account for this transfer of fluid into and out of the mixture, a two-layer model is proposed with a fluid layer on top of the two-phase mixture layer. Mass and momentum conservation are satisfied for the two phases, and mass and momentum are transferred between the two layers. A thin-layer approximation is used to derive average equations. Special attention is paid to the drag friction terms that are responsible for the transfer of momentum between the two phases and for the appearance of an excess pore pressure with respect to the hydrostatic pressure. We present several numerical tests of two-phase granular flows over sloping topography that are compared to the results of the model proposed by {Pitman and Le} [2005]. In particular, we quantify the role of the fluid and compression/dilatation processes on granular flow velocity field and runout distance. F. Bouchut, E.D. Fernandez-Nieto, A. Mangeney, G. Narbona-Reina, A two-phase shallow debris flow model with energy balance, {ESAIM: Math. Modelling Num. Anal.}, 49, 101-140 (2015). F. Bouchut, E. D. Fernandez-Nieto, A. Mangeney, G. Narbona-Reina, A two-phase two-layer model for fluidized granular flows with dilatancy effects, {J. Fluid Mech.}, submitted (2016). R.M. Iverson, M. Logan, R.G. LaHusen, M. Berti, The perfect debris flow? Aggregated results from 28 large-scale experiments, {J. Geophys. Res.}, 115, F03005 (2010). R. Jackson, The Dynamics of Fluidized Particles, {Cambridges Monographs on Mechanics} (2000). E.B. Pitman, L. Le, A two-fluid model for avalanche and debris flows, {Phil.Trans. R. Soc. A}, 363, 1573-1601 (2005). S. Roux, F. Radjai, Texture-dependent rigid plastic behaviour, {Proceedings: Physics of Dry Granular Media}, September 1997. (eds. H. J. Herrmann et al.). Kluwer. Cargèse, France, 305-311 (1998).

  1. Practical applications of hydrostatic pressure to refold proteins from inclusion bodies for NMR structural studies.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kenji; Kobashigawa, Yoshihiro; Saio, Tomohide; Kumeta, Hiroyuki; Torikai, Shinnosuke; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the hydrostatic pressure refolding method was reported as a practical tool for solubilizing and refolding proteins from inclusion bodies; however, there have been only a few applications for protein structural studies. Here, we report the successful applications of the hydrostatic pressure refolding method to refold proteins, including the MOE-2 tandem zinc-finger, the p62 PB1 domain, the GCN2 RWD domain, and the mTOR FRB domain. Moreover, the absence of aggregation and the correct folding of solubilized protein samples were evaluated with size exclusion chromatography and NMR experiments. The analyses of NMR spectra for MOE-2 tandem zinc-finger and GCN2 RWD further led to the determination of tertiary structures, which are consistent with those from soluble fractions. Overall, our results indicate that the hydrostatic pressure method is effective for preparing samples for NMR structural studies.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROSTATIC JOURNAL BEARING WITH SLIT-STEP COMPENSATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C; Donaldson, R R; Castro, C; Chung, C A; Hopkins, D J

    2006-07-28

    This paper describes the mathematical modeling and initial testing of an oil-hydrostatic bearing that derives compensation from both a central radial slit where fluid enters and stepped clearances near each end. Bearings using either a radial slit or stepped clearances for compensation were well studied over forty years ago by Donaldson. These bearings have smooth bores uninterrupted with multiple recesses around the circumference. The present slit-step bearing achieves the best of both types with somewhat higher hydrostatic stiffness than the slit bearing and fluid shear drag lower than the step bearing. This is apparent in TABLE 1, which compares calculated values of initial (i.e., centered) hydrostatic stiffness for each type. The slit-step bearing is one of several types being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for possible use on the Precision Optical Grinder and Lathe (POGAL).

  3. Microstructure and properties of ultrafine grain nickel 200 after hydrostatic extrusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, R.; Krajewski, C.; Kamiński, J.; Spychalski, M.; Garbacz, H.; Pachla, W.; Kurzydłowski, K. J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the studies of the structure and properties of ultrafine grained nickel 200 obtained by hydrostatic extrusion processes. Microstructure was characterized by means of optical microscopy and electron transmission microscopy. Corrosion resistance was studied by impedance and potentiodynamic methods using an AutoLab PGSTAT 100 potentiostat in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution and in acidified (by addition of H2SO4) 0.1 M NaCl solution at pH = 4.2 at room temperature. Microhardness tests were also performed. The results showed that hydrostatic extrusion produces a heterogeneous, ultrafine-grained microstructure in nickel 200. The corrosive resistance tests showed that the grain refinement by hydrostatic extrusion is accompanied by a decreased corrosive resistance of nickel 200.

  4. Steady State Performance Analysis of Hydrostatic Transmission System using Two Motor Summation Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, K.; Kumar, N.; Kumar, R.

    2013-10-01

    Hydrostatic transmission (HST) system used in heavy earth moving machineries (HEMMs) has high power density, wide range of speed control and good overall efficiency. Hydrostatically coupled two motor summation drive is an alternative power transmission system, compared to existing closed-loop HST system with low speed high torque motor, used in HEMM. Such drive arrangement has made the possibility to design the transmission system, used in heavy vehicles, in an efficient way to cover wide range of torque-speed demand. This article studies the concept of two motor summation drive and its steady state performance. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the performance of such system. The characteristics of single and two motor drive systems are compared at different load-torque and speed levels. It is concluded that two motor hydrostatic drive systems is more effective at high load-torque and low speed compared to single motor drive system.

  5. Combined use of infrared and Raman spectra in the characterization of orthoclase under various hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Xu, Qiang; Yu, Na; Cao, Miao-Cong

    2014-02-01

    Colorless and pink orthoclase from Balikun granite body, East Zhunger in Xinjiang, served as the samples for the research on hydrostatic pressure experiment. The in-situ hydrostatic pressure test for orthoclases was conducted at the room temperature and pressures from 100 to 600 MPa using cubic zirconia anvil cell, with quartz as pressure gauge. The water located in the orthoclases for the conditions of different hydrostatic pressures was characterized through the methods of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra. The results showed that there was a linear correlation between the shifting of Raman bands and hydrostatic pressure applied to the feldspar. All of vibration peaks of M-O structural groups in orthoclases, the bending vibration peaks of Si(Al(IV))-O-Si bond and tetrahedron groups of [SiO4] in Raman spectra shifted toward the higher frequency regularly, the drift distance is 2, 2.19 and less than 2 cm(-1) respectively. The spectra of FTIR suggested that there was more water in colorless orthoclases than the pink one under certain conditions of hydrostatic pressure. The intensity and integral area centered at 3420 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra increased with the rising of hydrostatic pressure. The integral area for colorless and pink feldspar in FTIR spectra rose from 120, 1383 cm(-1) under normal pressure to 1570, 2001 cm(-1) at 600 MPa respectively. The experimental results might indicate that the water in the earth crust could enter the orthoclases in certain condition of the aqueous confining pressure. PMID:24822414

  6. Constraints on Enceladus' Internal Structure from Cassini Gravity: Beyond Hydrostatic Cores and Uniformly Compensated Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, W. B.; Bland, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Cassini has determined three important gravitational coefficients for Enceladus, J2, C22 and J3 (Iess et al., Science 344, 78). The gravity field is non-hydrostatic to 3σ (J2/C22 = 3.38-3.63, as opposed to 10/3). Iess et al. interpret these in terms of a hydrostatic interior (core) and isostatic (not hydrostatic) floating ice shell. The hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic contributions are separated by assuming the isostatic compensation depth is the same for each gravity term, although this can't be strictly true in the case of a regional south polar sea. The inferred normalized moment-of-inertia (0.335) implies a core density of 2340-2400 kg/m3, consistent with a highly hydrated and oxidized (sulfate-rich) core, or more plausibly (in a cosmochemical sense), a porous, water-saturated core. The long-term stability of such porosity is questionable, however. Modest topography on a more indurated core could significantly contribute to the gravity signal. For example, if Enceladus' core density were 3000 kg/m3, excess topography of only 1 km amplitude could provide the same "hydrostatic" J2 component as modeled in Iess et al. (and requires only 0.1 MPa of stress support). There is also the question of compensation depth of the ice shell. Different formalisms for spherical shells exist in the literature (e.g., Lambeck vs. Turcotte); Iess et al. follow the former and derive a 30-to-40-km thick shell at the south pole, whereas the Turcotte formalism gives a shell only 18-25-km thick. We pay particular attention to this issue, and note a thinner shell would be more mechanically compatible with the spacing of the "tiger stripes," if the fissures are indeed crevasses open to the ocean below.

  7. Enema reduction of intussusception: the success rate of hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Wakhanrittee, Junsujee; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intussusception is a common surgical emergency in infants and children. The incidence of intussusception is from one to four per 2,000 infants and children. If there is no peritonitis, perforation sign on abdominal radiographic studies, and nonresponsive shock, nonoperative reduction by pneumatic or hydrostatic enema can be performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates of both the methods. Methods Two institutional retrospective cohort studies were performed. All intussusception patients (ICD-10 code K56.1) who had visited Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012 were included in the study. The data were obtained by chart reviews and electronic databases, which included demographic data, symptoms, signs, and investigations. The patients were grouped according to the method of reduction followed into pneumatic reduction and hydrostatic reduction groups with the outcome being the success of the reduction technique. Results One hundred and seventy episodes of intussusception occurring in the patients of Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital were included in this study. The success rate of pneumatic reduction was 61% and that of hydrostatic reduction was 44% (P=0.036). Multivariable analysis and adjusting of the factors by propensity scores were performed; the success rate of pneumatic reduction was 1.48 times more than that of hydrostatic reduction (P=0.036, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.03–2.13). Conclusion Both pneumatic and hydrostatic reduction can be performed safely according to the experience of the radiologist or pediatric surgeon and hospital setting. This study showed that pneumatic reduction had a higher success rate than hydrostatic reduction. PMID:26719697

  8. Nonlinear Control of Wind Turbines with Hydrostatic Transmission Based on Takagi-Sugeno Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Horst; Georg, Soren

    2014-06-01

    A nonlinear model-based control concept for wind turbines with hydrostatic transmission is proposed. The complete mathematical model of a wind turbine drive train with variable displacement pump and variable displacement motor is presented. The controller design takes into consideration the nonlinearity of the aerodynamic maps and hydrostatic drive train by an convex combination of state space controller with measurable generator speed and hydraulic motor displacement as scheduling parameters. The objectives are the set point control of generator speed and tracking control of the rotor speed to reach the maximum power according to the power curve in the partial-load region.

  9. Hydrostatic pressure sensor based on micro-cavities developed by the catastrophic fuse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, M. F.; Paixão, T.; Mesquita, E.; Alberto, N.; Antunes, P.; Varum, H.; André, P. S.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, an optical fiber hydrostatic pressure sensor based in Fabry-Perot micro-cavities is presented. These micro structures were generated by the recycling of optical fiber previously damaged by the fiber fuse effect, resulting in a cost effective solution when compared with the traditional methods used to produce similar micro-cavities. The developed sensor was tested for pressures ranging from 20.0 to 190.0 cmH2O and a sensitivity of 53.7 +/- 2.6 pm/cmH2O for hydrostatic pressures below to 100 cmH2O was achieved.

  10. Titan's Hydrostatic Figure and a Possible Dynamic Tidal Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.

    2012-12-01

    An archive of radio Doppler data from the Cassini mission can be found in NASA's PDS Atmospheres Node as a series of binary files called Orbit Data Files (ODF). We have downloaded six ODFs from the Cassini mission for six Titan gravity passes T11 (27-Feb-2006), T22 (28-Dec-2006), T33 (29-Jun-2007), T45 (31-Jul-2008), T68 (20-May-2010) and T74 (18-Feb-2011). After converting to text files with JPL space-navigation software (ODDUMP), we convert the observed Doppler shift for the Cassini spacecraft to radial velocity along the line of sight (LOS) at one-second sample interval. These data can be fit by a numerical integration of the equations of motion for the craft with respect to Titan, and a subsequent projection of the velocity so obtained along the LOS. The orbital parameters are represented by six standard Kepler elements with the plane of sky as the fundamental reference system, the system used for spectroscopic binary stars. While the systemic velocity Vs is taken as a constant for binary stars, it is represented for spacecraft by six parameters in a function developed for the Doppler detection of gravitational waves. We adopt well-determined values for the GM of Titan and Saturn and add a 13th gravity parameter C22 for an ellipsoidal hydrostatic Titan distorted by the Saturn tide and synchronous rotation (J2 = (10/3) C22). Also, we adopt the IAU definition for the pole and prime meridian of Titan in the ICRF/J2000 reference system. The interval of observation for each flyby is held to two hours, centered as closely as possible on the time of closest approach to Titan. This interval is sufficiently long for purposes of including all the detectable signal from C22, but short enough that spacecraft-generated translational forces can be neglected. By iterating on a linear least-squares system, 13 converged parameters and associated covariance matrix are found by singular-value decomposition of the least-squares design matrix for each of the six flybys. With

  11. Investigations of non-hydrostatic, stably stratified and rapidly rotating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, David; Grooms, Ian; Julien, Keith; Weiss, Jeffrey B.

    2016-08-01

    We present an investigation of rapidly rotating (small Rossby number $Ro\\ll 1$) and stratified turbulence where the stratification strength is varied from weak (large Froude number $Fr\\gg1$) to strong ($Fr\\ll1$). The investigation is set in the context of a reduced model derived from the Boussinesq equations that efficiently retains anisotropic inertia-gravity waves with order-one frequencies and highlights a regime of wave-eddy interactions. Numerical simulations of the reduced model are performed where energy is injected by a stochastic forcing of vertical velocity, which forces wave modes only. The simulations reveal two regimes characterized by the presence of well-formed, persistent and thin turbulent layers of locally-weakened stratification at small Froude numbers, and by the absence of layers at large Froude numbers. Both regimes are characterized by a large-scale barotropic dipole enclosed by small-scale turbulence. When the Reynolds number is not too large a direct cascade of barotropic kinetic energy is observed, leading to total energy equilibration. We examine net energy exchanges that occur through vortex stretching and vertical buoyancy flux and diagnose the horizontal scales active in these exchanges. We find that the baroclinic motions inject energy directly to the largest scales of the barotropic mode, implying that the large-scale barotropic dipole is not the end result of an inverse cascade within the barotropic mode.

  12. How Informative are the Vertical Buoyancy and the Prone Gliding Tests to Assess Young Swimmers’ Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Profiles?

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Tiago M.; Costa, Mário J.; Morais, Jorge E; Moreira, Marc; Silva, António J.; Marinho, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a path-flow analysis model to highlight the relationships between buoyancy and prone gliding tests and some selected anthropometrical and biomechanical variables. Thirty-eight young male swimmers (12.97 ± 1.05 years old) with several competitive levels were evaluated. It were assessed the body mass, height, fat mass, body surface area, vertical buoyancy, prone gliding after wall push-off, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity after a maximal 25 [m] swim. The confirmatory model included the body mass, height, fat mass, prone gliding test, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity. All theoretical paths were verified except for the vertical buoyancy test that did not present any relationship with anthropometrical and biomechanical variables nor with the prone gliding test. The good-of-fit from the confirmatory path-flow model, assessed with the standardized root mean square residuals (SRMR), is considered as being close to the cut-off value, but even so not suitable of the theory (SRMR = 0.11). As a conclusion, vertical buoyancy and prone gliding tests are not the best techniques to assess the swimmer’s hydrostatic and hydrodynamic profile, respectively. PMID:23486528

  13. How Informative are the Vertical Buoyancy and the Prone Gliding Tests to Assess Young Swimmers' Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Profiles?

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Costa, Mário J; Morais, Jorge E; Moreira, Marc; Silva, António J; Marinho, Daniel A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a path-flow analysis model to highlight the relationships between buoyancy and prone gliding tests and some selected anthropometrical and biomechanical variables. Thirty-eight young male swimmers (12.97 ± 1.05 years old) with several competitive levels were evaluated. It were assessed the body mass, height, fat mass, body surface area, vertical buoyancy, prone gliding after wall push-off, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity after a maximal 25 [m] swim. The confirmatory model included the body mass, height, fat mass, prone gliding test, stroke length, stroke frequency and velocity. All theoretical paths were verified except for the vertical buoyancy test that did not present any relationship with anthropometrical and biomechanical variables nor with the prone gliding test. The good-of-fit from the confirmatory path-flow model, assessed with the standardized root mean square residuals (SRMR), is considered as being close to the cut-off value, but even so not suitable of the theory (SRMR = 0.11). As a conclusion, vertical buoyancy and prone gliding tests are not the best techniques to assess the swimmer's hydrostatic and hydrodynamic profile, respectively. PMID:23486528

  14. Unconventional but tunable phase transition above the percolation threshold by two-layer conduction in electroless-deposited Au nanofeatures on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Shin, Muncheol; Hwang, Seongpil; Jang, Jae-Won

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that disorder, dislocation, and carrier concentration are the main factors impacting transitions in the traditional metal-insulator transition (MIT) and metal-semiconductor transition (MST). In this study, it is demonstrated that a non-traditional metal-semiconductor transition governed by two-layer conduction is possible by tuning the conducting channel of one layer of the two-layer conduction system. By means of the electroless deposition method we produced Au nanofeatures (AuNFs) on p-type silicon (p-Si) as the two-layer conduction system, controlling AuNF coverage (Au%) below and above the percolation threshold (p c). Even when the AuNF coverage percentage is larger than p c, the resistivities of the AuNFs on p-Si show MST as the temperature increases. To demonstrate this finding, we present a conduction model based upon two predominant parallel conductions by AuNFs and p-Si in the present paper. In the results, we show how the temperature of the MST (T MST) is tuned from 145 to 232 K as Au% is changed from 82.7 to 54.3%.

  15. Unconventional but tunable phase transition above the percolation threshold by two-layer conduction in electroless-deposited Au nanofeatures on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Hwang, Seongpil; Jang, Jaw-Won

    Previous research has shown that disorder, dislocation, and carrier concentration are the main factors impacting transitions in the traditional metal-insulator transition (MIT) and metal-semiconductor transition (MST). In this study, it is demonstrated that a non-traditional MST governed by two-layer conduction is possible by tuning the conducting channel of one layer of the two-layer conduction system. By means of the electroless deposition method we produced Au nanofeatures (AuNFs) on p-type silicon (p-Si) as the two-layer conduction system, controlling AuNF coverage (Au%) below and above the percolation threshold (pc). Even when the AuNF coverage percentage is larger than pc, the resistivities of the AuNFs on p-Si show MST as the temperature increases. We present a conduction model based upon two predominant parallel conductions by AuNFs and p-Si in the present paper. In the results, we show how the temperature of the MST is tuned from 145 to 232 K as Au% is changed from 82.7 to 54.3%. Supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (no. 2013K1A3A1A32035429 and 2015R1A1A1A05027681).

  16. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  17. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-3, Hydrostatic Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This third in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the principles and practices associated with hydrostatic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student,…

  18. Deciphering the adaptation strategies of Desulfovibrio piezophilus to hydrostatic pressure through metabolic and transcriptional analyses.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Amira; van Helden, Jacques; Bergon, Aurélie; Aouane, Aicha; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Tamburini, Christian; Loriod, Béatrice; Imbert, Jean; Ollivier, Bernard; Pradel, Nathalie; Dolla, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Desulfovibrio piezophilus strain C1TLV30(T) is a mesophilic piezophilic sulfate-reducer isolated from Wood Falls at 1700 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we analysed the effect of the hydrostatic pressure on this deep-sea living bacterium at the physiologic and transcriptomic levels. Our results showed that lactate oxidation and energy metabolism were affected by the hydrostatic pressure. Especially, acetyl-CoA oxidation pathway and energy conservation through hydrogen and formate recycling would be more important when the hydrostatic pressure is above (26 MPa) than below (0.1 MPa) the optimal one (10 MPa). This work underlines also the role of the amino acid glutamate as a piezolyte for the Desulfovibrio genus. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 146 differentially expressed genes emphasizing energy production and conversion, amino acid transport and metabolism and cell motility and signal transduction mechanisms as hydrostatic pressure responding processes. This dataset allowed us to identify a sequence motif upstream of a subset of differentially expressed genes as putative pressure-dependent regulatory element. PMID:27264199

  19. Prolonged Exercise and Changes in Percent Fat Determinations by Hydrostatic Weighing and Scintillation Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tom R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This study, designed to determine the effect of a prolonged running bout on the measurement of percent fat, produced erroneously low readings. It is suggested that previous exercise and state of hydration of subjects should be controlled prior to percent fat determination by hydrostatic weighing or scintillation counting. (MJB)

  20. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Torikachvili, M S; Kim, S K; Colombier, E; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60,000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe(1-x)Ru(x))2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperature resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. This pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic. PMID:26724044

  1. Hydrostatic Pressure Project: Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Freddie J.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Hunt, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, WTAMU Mathematics, Engineering and Science faculty has used interdisciplinary projects as the basis for implementation of a linked-class approach to Problem-Based Learning (PBL). A project that has significant relevance to engineering statics, fluid mechanics, and calculus is the Hydrostatic Pressure Project. This project…

  2. A class-A GPCR solubilized under high hydrostatic pressure retains its ligand binding ability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the solubilization of a class-A G protein-coupled receptor, the silkmoth pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR), was investigated. PBANR was expressed in expresSF+ insect cells as a C-terminal fusion protein with EGFP. The mem...

  3. Transcriptomics Reveal Several Gene Expression Patterns in the Piezophile Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis in Response to Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Amrani, Amira; Bergon, Aurélie; Holota, Hélène; Tamburini, Christian; Garel, Marc; Ollivier, Bernard; Imbert, Jean; Dolla, Alain; Pradel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    RNA-seq was used to study the response of Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on the East-Pacific Rise at a depth of 2,600 m, to various hydrostatic pressure growth conditions. The transcriptomic datasets obtained after growth at 26, 10 and 0.1 MPa identified only 65 differentially expressed genes that were distributed among four main categories: aromatic amino acid and glutamate metabolisms, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and unknown function. The gene expression patterns suggest that D. hydrothermalis uses at least three different adaptation mechanisms, according to a hydrostatic pressure threshold (HPt) that was estimated to be above 10 MPa. Both glutamate and energy metabolism were found to play crucial roles in these mechanisms. Quantitation of the glutamate levels in cells revealed its accumulation at high hydrostatic pressure, suggesting its role as a piezolyte. ATP measurements showed that the energy metabolism of this bacterium is optimized for deep-sea life conditions. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms linked to hydrostatic pressure adaptation in sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:25215865

  4. Vertical finite-element scheme for the hydrostatic primitive equations on a cubed-sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. R.; Yi, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    A vertical finite-element (VFE) scheme of three-dimensional hydrostatic primitive equations is adopted for the numerical weather prediction system, which is horizontally discretized with spectral elements on a cubed-sphere. The hybrid pressure-based vertical coordinate is employed to discretize a vertical grid, in which only the full levels of the coordinate are used in the VFE. Vertical integrals and derivatives in the hydrostatic equations are derived based on Galerkin-based finite elements with b-spline functions. These basis functions and their first-order derivatives are constructed using the Cox-de Boor algorithm. The computation of vertical integrals, derivatives and advections in the hydrostatic equations are easily done in physical space by matrix multiplication with the corresponding vertical operators. The VFE discretization scheme implemented into the global three-dimensional hydrostatic model on the cubed-sphere is evaluated by performing ideal test cases including the steady-state, baroclinic wave, 3D Rossby-Haurwitz wave, and mountain-induced Rossby wave train test cases. The two types of the VFE scheme are compared to the vertical finite difference scheme.

  5. 46 CFR 56.97-30 - Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... system is filling. (b) Test medium and test temperature. (1) Water will be used for a hydrostatic leak test unless another medium is approved by the Commandant. (2) The temperature of the test medium will... greater than 90 percent of its yield strength (0.2 percent offset) at test temperature. (g)...

  6. 46 CFR 56.97-30 - Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system is filling. (b) Test medium and test temperature. (1) Water will be used for a hydrostatic leak test unless another medium is approved by the Commandant. (2) The temperature of the test medium will... greater than 90 percent of its yield strength (0.2 percent offset) at test temperature. (g)...

  7. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Torikachvili, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Colombier, E.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-12-16

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60,000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe1–xRux)2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperature resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. As a result, this pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic.

  8. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Torikachvili, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Colombier, E.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-12-16

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60,000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe1–xRux)2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperaturemore » resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. As a result, this pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic.« less

  9. Deciphering the adaptation strategies of Desulfovibrio piezophilus to hydrostatic pressure through metabolic and transcriptional analyses.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Amira; van Helden, Jacques; Bergon, Aurélie; Aouane, Aicha; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Tamburini, Christian; Loriod, Béatrice; Imbert, Jean; Ollivier, Bernard; Pradel, Nathalie; Dolla, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Desulfovibrio piezophilus strain C1TLV30(T) is a mesophilic piezophilic sulfate-reducer isolated from Wood Falls at 1700 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we analysed the effect of the hydrostatic pressure on this deep-sea living bacterium at the physiologic and transcriptomic levels. Our results showed that lactate oxidation and energy metabolism were affected by the hydrostatic pressure. Especially, acetyl-CoA oxidation pathway and energy conservation through hydrogen and formate recycling would be more important when the hydrostatic pressure is above (26 MPa) than below (0.1 MPa) the optimal one (10 MPa). This work underlines also the role of the amino acid glutamate as a piezolyte for the Desulfovibrio genus. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 146 differentially expressed genes emphasizing energy production and conversion, amino acid transport and metabolism and cell motility and signal transduction mechanisms as hydrostatic pressure responding processes. This dataset allowed us to identify a sequence motif upstream of a subset of differentially expressed genes as putative pressure-dependent regulatory element.

  10. Ill-Posedness of the Hydrostatic Euler and Singular Vlasov Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han-Kwan, Daniel; Nguyen, Toan T.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we develop an abstract framework to establish ill-posedness, in the sense of Hadamard, for some nonlocal PDEs displaying unbounded unstable spectra. We apply this to prove the ill-posedness for the hydrostatic Euler equations as well as for the kinetic incompressible Euler equations and the Vlasov-Dirac-Benney system.

  11. 46 CFR 56.97-30 - Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Examination for leakage after application of pressure. Following the application of the hydrostatic test pressure for a minimum of 10 minutes (see § 56.97-30(g)), examination for leakage must be made of all... of 10 minutes and for such additional time as may be necessary to conduct the examination for...

  12. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torikachvili, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Colombier, E.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60 000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe1-xRux)2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperature resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. This pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic.

  13. Effects of hydrostatic pressure, agitation and CO2 stress on Phytophthora nicotianae zoospore survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan was used as a model pathogen to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure, agitation, and aeration with CO2 or breathable air on the survival of Phytophthora zoospores in water. Injecting CO2 into 2 liters of zoospore-infested water for 5 min at 110.4 ml ...

  14. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 54.01-1). The value of “S” at test... vessel, multiplied by the ratio of the stress value “S” at the test temperature to the stress value “S... ratio less than one shall be used. The stress resulting from the hydrostatic test shall not exceed...

  15. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 54.01-1). The value of “S” at test... vessel, multiplied by the ratio of the stress value “S” at the test temperature to the stress value “S... ratio less than one shall be used. The stress resulting from the hydrostatic test shall not exceed...

  16. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 54.01-1). The value of “S” at test... vessel, multiplied by the ratio of the stress value “S” at the test temperature to the stress value “S... ratio less than one shall be used. The stress resulting from the hydrostatic test shall not exceed...

  17. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 54.01-1). The value of “S” at test... vessel, multiplied by the ratio of the stress value “S” at the test temperature to the stress value “S... ratio less than one shall be used. The stress resulting from the hydrostatic test shall not exceed...

  18. Effect of Pulsed Ultraviolet Light and High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Antigenicity of Almond Protein Extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on reducing the IgE binding to the almond extracts, was studied using SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA probed with human plasma containing IgE antibodies to almond allergens, and a polyclonal antibody against almond ...

  19. Inactivation of human norovirus in contaminated oysters and clams by high-hydrostatic pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the most frequent causative agent of foodborne disease associated with shellfish consumption. In this study, the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on inactivation of NoV was determined. Genogroup I.1 (GI.1) or Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) NoV were inoculated into oyster ho...

  20. Two-layer Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) with passive capillary valves for mHealth medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    There is a new potential to address needs for medical diagnostics in Point-of-Care (PoC) applications using mHealth (Mobile computing, medical sensors, and communications technologies for health care), a mHealth based lab test will require a LOC to perform clinical analysis. In this work, we describe the design of a simple Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for mHealth medical diagnostics. The LOC utilizes a passive capillary valve with no moving parts for fluid control using channels with very low aspect ratios cross sections (i.e., channel width ≫ height) achieved through transitions in the channel geometry via that arrest capillary flow. Using a CO2 laser in raster engraving mode, we have designed and fabricated an eight-channel LOC for fluorescence signal detection fabricated by engraving and combining just two polymer layers. Each of the LOC channels is capable of mixing two reagents (e.g., enzyme and substrate) for various assays. For mHealth detection, we used a mobile CCD detector equipped with LED multispectral illumination in the red, green, blue, and white range. This technology enables the development of low-cost LOC platforms for mHealth whose fabrication is compatible with standard industrial plastic fabrication processes to enable mass production of mHealth diagnostic devices, which may broaden the use of LOCs in PoC applications, especially in global health settings.

  1. Effect of working position on vertical motion straightness of open hydrostatic guideways in grinding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Jun; Wang, Zhiwei; Xue, Fei; Chen, Yaolong

    2016-08-01

    Hydrostatic guideways have various applications in precision machine tools due to their high motion accuracy. The analysis of motion straightness in hydrostatic guideways is generally ignoring the external load on the slider. A variation force also exists, caused by the different working positions, together with the dead load of the slider and that of other auxiliary devices. The effect of working position on vertical motion straightness is investigated based on the equivalent static model, considering the error averaging effort of pressured oil film in open hydrostatic guideways. Open hydrostatic guideways in LGF1000 are analyzed with this approach. The theoretical results show that the slider has maximum vertical motion straightness when the working position is closer the guiderail of Y axis. The vertical motion straightness reaches a minimum value as the working position is located at the center of the two guiderails on the Y axis. The difference between the maximum and minimum vertical motion straightness is 34.7%. The smaller vertical motion straightness is attributed to the smaller spacing of the two pads centers, along the Y direction. The experimental results show that the vertical motion straightness is 4.15 μm/1200 mm, when the working position is located in the middle of the X beam, and 5.08 μm/1200 mm, when the working position is approaching the Y guiderails, denoting an increase of 18.3%. The changing trends of the measured results validate the correctness of the theoretical model. The research work can be used to reveal the variation law of accuracy of the open hydrostatic guideways, under different working positions, to predict the machining precision, and provides the basis for an error compensation strategy for gantry type grinding machines.

  2. The role of ontogeny in physiological tolerance: decreasing hydrostatic pressure tolerance with development in the northern stone crab Lithodes maja.

    PubMed

    Munro, Catriona; Morris, James P; Brown, Alastair; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2015-06-22

    Extant deep-sea invertebrate fauna represent both ancient and recent invasions from shallow-water habitats. Hydrostatic pressure may present a significant physiological challenge to organisms seeking to colonize deeper waters or migrate ontogenetically. Pressure may be a key factor contributing to bottlenecks in the radiation of taxa and potentially drive speciation. Here, we assess shifts in the tolerance of hydrostatic pressure through early ontogeny of the northern stone crab Lithodes maja, which occupies a depth range of 4-790 m in the North Atlantic. The zoea I, megalopa and crab I stages were exposed to hydrostatic pressures up to 30.0 MPa (equivalent of 3000 m depth), and the relative fold change of genes putatively coding for the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-regulated protein 1 (narg gene), two heat-shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) isoforms and mitochondrial Citrate Synthase (CS gene) were measured. This study finds a significant increase in the relative expression of the CS and hsp70a genes with increased hydrostatic pressure in the zoea I stage, and an increase in the relative expression of all genes with increased hydrostatic pressure in the megalopa and crab I stages. Transcriptional responses are corroborated by patterns in respiratory rates in response to hydrostatic pressure in all stages. These results suggest a decrease in the acute high-pressure tolerance limit as ontogeny advances, as reflected by a shift in the hydrostatic pressure at which significant differences are observed.

  3. The role of ontogeny in physiological tolerance: decreasing hydrostatic pressure tolerance with development in the northern stone crab Lithodes maja

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Catriona; Morris, James P.; Brown, Alastair; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Extant deep-sea invertebrate fauna represent both ancient and recent invasions from shallow-water habitats. Hydrostatic pressure may present a significant physiological challenge to organisms seeking to colonize deeper waters or migrate ontogenetically. Pressure may be a key factor contributing to bottlenecks in the radiation of taxa and potentially drive speciation. Here, we assess shifts in the tolerance of hydrostatic pressure through early ontogeny of the northern stone crab Lithodes maja, which occupies a depth range of 4–790 m in the North Atlantic. The zoea I, megalopa and crab I stages were exposed to hydrostatic pressures up to 30.0 MPa (equivalent of 3000 m depth), and the relative fold change of genes putatively coding for the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-regulated protein 1 (narg gene), two heat-shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) isoforms and mitochondrial Citrate Synthase (CS gene) were measured. This study finds a significant increase in the relative expression of the CS and hsp70a genes with increased hydrostatic pressure in the zoea I stage, and an increase in the relative expression of all genes with increased hydrostatic pressure in the megalopa and crab I stages. Transcriptional responses are corroborated by patterns in respiratory rates in response to hydrostatic pressure in all stages. These results suggest a decrease in the acute high-pressure tolerance limit as ontogeny advances, as reflected by a shift in the hydrostatic pressure at which significant differences are observed. PMID:26041343

  4. Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the 3D Porosity Distribution and Mechanical Behavior of a High Pressure Die Cast Mg AZ91 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sket, Federico; Fernández, Ana; Jérusalem, Antoine; Molina-Aldareguía, Jon M.; Pérez-Prado, María Teresa

    2015-09-01

    A limiting factor of high pressure die cast (HPDC) Mg alloys is the presence of porosity, which has a detrimental effect on the mechanical strength and gives rise to a large variability in the ductility. The application of hydrostatic pressure after casting is known to be beneficial to improve the mechanical response of HPDC Mg alloys. In this study, a combined experimental and simulation approach has been developed in order to investigate the influence of pressurization on the 3D porosity distribution and on the mechanical behavior of an HPDC Mg AZ91 alloy. Examination of about 10,000 pores by X-ray computed microtomography allowed determining the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the bulk porosity volume fraction, as well as the change in volume and geometry of each individual pore. The evolution of the 3D porosity distribution and mechanical behavior of a sub-volume containing 200 pores was also simulated by finite element analysis. Both experiments and simulations consistently revealed a decrease in the bulk porosity fraction and a bimodal distribution of the individual volume changes after the application of the pressure. This observation is associated with pores containing internal pressure as a result of the HPDC process. Furthermore, a decrease in the complexity factor with increasing volume change is observed experimentally and predicted by simulations. The pressure-treated samples have consistently higher plastic flow strengths.

  5. HYDROSTATIC GAS CONSTRAINTS ON SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM AND DYNAMICAL MODELING IN A SAMPLE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Philip J.; Buote, David A.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Gebhardt, Karl; Mathews, William G.

    2009-10-01

    We present new mass measurements for the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the centers of three early-type galaxies. The gas pressure in the surrounding, hot interstellar medium (ISM) is measured through spatially resolved spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, allowing the SMBH mass (M {sub BH}) to be inferred directly under the hydrostatic approximation. This technique does not require calibration against other SMBH measurement methods and its accuracy depends only on the ISM being close to hydrostatic, which is supported by the smooth X-ray isophotes of the galaxies. Combined with results from our recent study of the elliptical galaxy NGC 4649, this brings the number of galaxies with SMBHs measured in this way to four. Of these, three already have mass determinations from the kinematics of either the stars or a central gas disk, and hence join only a handful of galaxies with M {sub BH} measured by more than one technique. We find good agreement between the different methods, providing support for the assumptions implicit in both the hydrostatic and the dynamical models. The stellar mass-to-light ratios for each galaxy inferred by our technique are in agreement with the predictions of stellar population synthesis models assuming a Kroupa initial mass function (IMF). This concurrence implies that no more than {approx}10%-20% of the ISM pressure is nonthermal, unless there is a conspiracy between the shape of the IMF and nonthermal pressure. Finally, we compute Bondi accretion rates (M-dot{sub bondi}), finding that the two galaxies with the highest M-dot{sub bondi} exhibit little evidence of X-ray cavities, suggesting that the correlation with the active galactic nuclei jet power takes time to be established.

  6. Quantification of the optical properties of two-layer turbid materials using a hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique.

    PubMed

    Cen, Haiyan; Lu, Renfu

    2009-10-10

    Recent research has shown that a hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique is useful for determining the optical properties of homogenous fruits and food products. To better characterize fruit properties and quality attributes, it is desirable to consider fruit to be composed of two homogeneous layers of skin and flesh. This research was aimed at developing a nondestructive method to determine the absorption and scattering properties of two-layer turbid materials with the characteristics of fruit. An inverse algorithm along with the sensitivity coefficient analysis for a two-layer diffusion model was developed for the extraction of optical properties from the spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance data acquired using a hyperspectral imaging system. The diffusion model and the inverse algorithm were validated with Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements from solid model samples of known optical properties. The average errors of determining two and four optical parameters were 6.8% and 15.3%, respectively, for Monte Carlo reflectance data. The optical properties of the first or top layer of the model samples were determined with errors of less than 23.0% for the absorption coefficient and 18.4% for the reduced scattering coefficient. The inverse algorithm did not give acceptable estimations for the second or lower layer of the model samples. While the hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique has the potential to measure the optical properties of two-layer turbid materials like fruits and food products, further improvements are needed in determining the optical properties of the second layer.

  7. A Replication Study for Genome-Wide Gene Expression Levels in Two Layer Lines Elucidates Differentially Expressed Genes of Pathways Involved in Bone Remodeling and Immune Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Habig, Christin; Geffers, Robert; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    The current replication study confirmed significant differences in gene expression profiles of the cerebrum among the two commercial layer lines Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB). Microarray analyses were performed for 30 LSL and another 30 LB laying hens kept in the small group housing system Eurovent German. A total of 14,103 microarray probe sets using customized Affymetrix ChiGene-1_0-st Arrays with 20,399 probe sets were differentially expressed among the two layer lines LSL and LB (FDR adjusted P-value <0.05). An at least 2-fold change in expression levels could be observed for 388 of these probe sets. In LSL, 214 of the 388 probe sets were down- and 174 were up-regulated and vice versa for the LB layer line. Among the 174 up-regulated probe sets in LSL, we identified 51 significantly enriched Gene ontology (GO) terms of the biological process category. A total of 63 enriched GO-terms could be identified for the 214 down-regulated probe sets of the layer line LSL. We identified nine genes significantly differentially expressed between the two layer lines in both microarray experiments. These genes play a crucial role in protection of neuronal cells from oxidative stress, bone mineral density and immune response among the two layer lines LSL and LB. Thus, the different regulation of these genes may significantly contribute to phenotypic trait differences among these layer lines. In conclusion, these novel findings provide a basis for further research to improve animal welfare in laying hens and these layer lines may be of general interest as an animal model. PMID:24922511

  8. Quantifying the optical properties of turbid media using polarization sensitive hyperspectral imaging (SkinSpect): two-layer optical phantom studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Saager, Rolf; Durkin, Anthony J.; Chave, Robert; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2015-03-01

    A polarization-sensitive hyperspectral imaging system (SkinSpect) has been built and evaluated using two-layer tissue phantoms, fabricated to mimic the optical properties of melanin in different epidermal thickness and hemoglobin in dermal layers. Multiple tissue-mimicking phantoms with varying top layer thicknesses were measured for optical system calibration and performance testing. Phantom properties were characterized and validated using SkinSpect. The resulting analysis shows that the proposed system is capable of distinguishing and differentiating the layer-dependent absorption spectra and the depths at which this absorption occurs.

  9. Hydrostatic Pressure Increases the Catalytic Activity of Amyloid Fibril Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Luong, Trung Quan; Erwin, Nelli; Neumann, Matthias; Schmidt, Andreas; Loos, Cornelia; Schmidt, Volker; Fändrich, Marcus; Winter, Roland

    2016-09-26

    We studied the combined effects of pressure (0.1-200 MPa) and temperature (22, 30, and 38 °C) on the catalytic activity of designed amyloid fibrils using a high-pressure stopped-flow system with rapid UV/Vis absorption detection. Complementary FT-IR spectroscopic data revealed a remarkably high pressure and temperature stability of the fibrillar systems. High pressure enhances the esterase activity as a consequence of a negative activation volume at all temperatures (about -14 cm(3)  mol(-1) ). The enhancement is sustained in the whole temperature range covered, which allows a further acceleration of the enzymatic activity at high temperatures (activation energy 45-60 kJ mol(-1) ). Our data reveal the great potential of using both pressure and temperature modulation to optimize the enzyme efficiency of catalytic amyloid fibrils.

  10. Hydrostatic Pressure Increases the Catalytic Activity of Amyloid Fibril Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Luong, Trung Quan; Erwin, Nelli; Neumann, Matthias; Schmidt, Andreas; Loos, Cornelia; Schmidt, Volker; Fändrich, Marcus; Winter, Roland

    2016-09-26

    We studied the combined effects of pressure (0.1-200 MPa) and temperature (22, 30, and 38 °C) on the catalytic activity of designed amyloid fibrils using a high-pressure stopped-flow system with rapid UV/Vis absorption detection. Complementary FT-IR spectroscopic data revealed a remarkably high pressure and temperature stability of the fibrillar systems. High pressure enhances the esterase activity as a consequence of a negative activation volume at all temperatures (about -14 cm(3)  mol(-1) ). The enhancement is sustained in the whole temperature range covered, which allows a further acceleration of the enzymatic activity at high temperatures (activation energy 45-60 kJ mol(-1) ). Our data reveal the great potential of using both pressure and temperature modulation to optimize the enzyme efficiency of catalytic amyloid fibrils. PMID:27573584

  11. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    PubMed Central

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins. PMID:27250364

  12. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  13. Distributed measurement of hydrostatic pressure based on Brillouin dynamic grating in polarization maintaining fibers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Hong; Kim, Jeongjun; Song, Kwang Yong

    2016-09-19

    High-sensitivity distributed measurement of hydrostatic pressure is experimentally demonstrated by optical time-domain analysis of Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG) in polarization maintaining fibers (PMF's). The spectral shift of the BDG in four different types of PMF's are investigated under hydrostatic pressure variation from 14.5 psi (1 bar) to 884.7 psi (61 bar) with less than 2 m spatial resolution. The pressure sensitivity of BDG frequency is measured to be ‒1.69, + 0.65, + 0.78, and + 0.85 MHz/psi for a PM photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF), two Bow-tie fibers, and a PANDA fiber, respectively, which is about 65 to 169 times larger than that of Brillouin frequency-based pressure sensing. PMID:27661881

  14. Investigation of a hydrostatic azimuth thrust bearing for a large steerable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbarger, J.; Castelli, V.; Rippel, H.

    1972-01-01

    The problems inherent in the design and construction of a hydrostatic azimuth thrust bearing for a tracking antenna of very large size were studied. For a load of 48,000,000 lbs., it is concluded that the hydrostatic bearing concept is feasible, provided that a particular multiple pad arrangement, high oil viscosity, and a particular load spreading arrangement are used. Presently available computer programs and techniques are deemed to be adequate for a good portion of the design job but new integrated programs will have to be developed in the area of the computation of the deflections of the supporting bearing structure. Experimental studies might also be indicated to ascertain the life characteristics of grouting under cyclic loading, and the optimization of hydraulic circuits and pipe sizes to insure the long life operation of pumps with high viscosity oil while avoiding cavitation.

  15. The effect of hydrostatic vs. shock pressure treatment on plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustey, Adrian; Leighs, James; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Hazael, Rachael; McMillan, Paul; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The hydrostatic pressure and shock response of plant seeds have both been previously investigated (primarily driven by an interest in reducing bacterial contamination of crops and the theory of panspermia respectively). However, comparisons have not previously been made between these two methods of applying pressure to plant seeds. Here such a comparison has been undertaken based on the premise that any correlations in such data may provide a route to inform understanding of damage mechanisms in the seeds under test. In this work two varieties of plant seeds were subjected to hydrostatic pressure via a non-end-loaded piston cylinder set-up and shock compression via employment of a 50-mm bore, single stage gas gun using the flyer-plate technique. Results from germination tests of recovered seed samples have been compared and contrasted, and initial conclusions made regarding causes of trends in the resultant data-set.

  16. Highly birefringent polymer side-hole fiber for hydrostatic pressure sensing.

    PubMed

    Martynkien, Tadeusz; Wojcik, Grzegorz; Mergo, Pawel; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2015-07-01

    We report on the fabrication of a birefringent side-hole polymer optical fiber with an elliptical core made of polymethyl metacrylate-polystyrene (PMMA/PS) copolymer and pure PMMA cladding. The fiber core is located in a narrow PMMA bridge separating the holes. Two fibers with different bridge thickness were fabricated and characterized. We demonstrate, experimentally and numerically, that, by narrowing the bridge between the holes, one can increase simultaneously the fiber birefringence and the polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure. In the fiber with the bridge as narrow as 5 μm, we achieved a record-high polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure ranging between 175 and 140 rad/MPa/m in the spectral range of 600-830 nm. The phase modal birefringence in this fiber is also high and exceeds 3×10(-5) at 600 nm, which results in small polarization cross talk. PMID:26125360

  17. Quantifying hydrostatic pressure in plant cells by using indentation with an atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Beauzamy, Léna; Derr, Julien; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2015-05-19

    Plant cell growth depends on a delicate balance between an inner drive-the hydrostatic pressure known as turgor-and an outer restraint-the polymeric wall that surrounds a cell. The classical technique to measure turgor in a single cell, the pressure probe, is intrusive and cannot be applied to small cells. In order to overcome these limitations, we developed a method that combines quantification of topography, nanoindentation force measurements, and an interpretation using a published mechanical model for the pointlike loading of thin elastic shells. We used atomic force microscopy to estimate the elastic properties of the cell wall and turgor pressure from a single force-depth curve. We applied this method to onion epidermal peels and quantified the response to changes in osmolality of the bathing solution. Overall our approach is accessible and enables a straightforward estimation of the hydrostatic pressure inside a walled cell.

  18. Partial alignment and measurement of residual dipolar couplings of proteins under high hydrostatic pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yinan; Wand, A. Joshua

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a complementary approach for investigating various structural and thermodynamic properties of macromolecules. Noticeably absent from the array of experimental restraints that have been employed to characterize protein structures at high hydrostatic pressure is the residual dipolar coupling, which requires the partial alignment of the macromolecule of interest. Here we examine five alignment media that are commonly used at ambient pressure for this purpose. We find that the spontaneous alignment of Pf1 phage, d(GpG) and a C12E5/n-hexnanol mixture in a magnetic field is preserved under high hydrostatic pressure. However, DMPC/ DHPC bicelles and collagen gel are found to be unsuitable. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that pressure-induced structural changes can be identified using the residual dipolar coupling. PMID:23807390

  19. A two-layered diffusion model traces the dynamics of information processing in the valuation-and-choice circuit of decision making.

    PubMed

    Piu, Pietro; Fargnoli, Francesco; Innocenti, Alessandro; Rufa, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    A circuit of evaluation and selection of the alternatives is considered a reliable model in neurobiology. The prominent contributions of the literature to this topic are reported. In this study, valuation and choice of a decisional process during Two-Alternative Forced-Choice (TAFC) task are represented as a two-layered network of computational cells, where information accrual and processing progress in nonlinear diffusion dynamics. The evolution of the response-to-stimulus map is thus modeled by two linked diffusive modules (2LDM) representing the neuronal populations involved in the valuation-and-decision circuit of decision making. Diffusion models are naturally appropriate for describing accumulation of evidence over the time. This allows the computation of the response times (RTs) in valuation and choice, under the hypothesis of ex-Wald distribution. A nonlinear transfer function integrates the activities of the two layers. The input-output map based on the infomax principle makes the 2LDM consistent with the reinforcement learning approach. Results from simulated likelihood time series indicate that 2LDM may account for the activity-dependent modulatory component of effective connectivity between the neuronal populations. Rhythmic fluctuations of the estimate gain functions in the delta-beta bands also support the compatibility of 2LDM with the neurobiology of DM.

  20. A Two-Layered Diffusion Model Traces the Dynamics of Information Processing in the Valuation-and-Choice Circuit of Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A circuit of evaluation and selection of the alternatives is considered a reliable model in neurobiology. The prominent contributions of the literature to this topic are reported. In this study, valuation and choice of a decisional process during Two-Alternative Forced-Choice (TAFC) task are represented as a two-layered network of computational cells, where information accrual and processing progress in nonlinear diffusion dynamics. The evolution of the response-to-stimulus map is thus modeled by two linked diffusive modules (2LDM) representing the neuronal populations involved in the valuation-and-decision circuit of decision making. Diffusion models are naturally appropriate for describing accumulation of evidence over the time. This allows the computation of the response times (RTs) in valuation and choice, under the hypothesis of ex-Wald distribution. A nonlinear transfer function integrates the activities of the two layers. The input-output map based on the infomax principle makes the 2LDM consistent with the reinforcement learning approach. Results from simulated likelihood time series indicate that 2LDM may account for the activity-dependent modulatory component of effective connectivity between the neuronal populations. Rhythmic fluctuations of the estimate gain functions in the delta-beta bands also support the compatibility of 2LDM with the neurobiology of DM. PMID:25254039

  1. Enhancing the sensitivity to scattering coefficient of the epithelium in a two-layered tissue model by oblique optical fibers: Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Kung-Bin; Chen, Hsi-Hsun

    2012-10-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been applied to detect tissue absorption and scattering properties associated with dysplasia, which is a potential precursor of epithelial cancers. The ability of DRS techniques to detect dysplasia could be improved by enhancing the detection of optical properties of the thin epithelial layer where dysplasia occurs. We propose a beveled fiber bundle probe consisting of a source fiber and multiple detection fibers parallel to each other and oriented obliquely to the tissue surface and investigate the sensitivity of reflectance measured with the probe to optical properties of a two-layered normal oral mucosa model. A scalable Monte Carlo method is employed to speed up analyzing spatially resolved reflectance spectra. Results reveal that the oblique probe is more sensitive to epithelial scattering and less sensitive to both stromal absorption and scattering than conventional perpendicular fiber configuration. The clinical relevance of the enhanced sensitivity to epithelial scattering by the proposed probe is demonstrated by quantifying optical properties of the two-layered tissue model from simulated data. The average error of extracted epithelial scattering coefficient is 1.5% and 32% using the oblique and perpendicular probe, respectively. The errors in other optical properties are all below 10% using the oblique probe.

  2. Vibration effect on the onset of thermal convection in a two-layer system with deformable interface in low gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lyubimov, Dmitriy; Parshakova, Yanina

    The effect of high-frequency vertical vibrations on a conductive state stability of a two-layer system of horizontal layers of immiscible liquids with close densities and deformable interface is studied for the case of fixed heat flux at the external boundaries and low gravity conditions. Two systems are considered: 1) two-layer system of fluids for which all properties except for the densities are the same, and 2) the system formic acid - transformer oil. It is shown that the vibrations of low and moderate intensities do not influence the long-wave instability and the vibrations of high intensity make destabilizing effect: under such vibrations for the system 1 stability domain remains only for negative Galileo and Rayleigh numbers, i.e. when more dense fluid is below and heating is from above and for the system 2, there is, additionally, a narrow stability wedge at negative Galileo numbers and positive Rayleigh numbers. Vibration effect on cellular instability mode is stabilizing and on cellular monotonous mode is destabilizing for small absolute values of negative Galileo numbers and stabilizing for larger absolute values of negative Galileo numbers.

  3. Electronic structure computation and differential capacitance profile in δ-doped FET as a function of hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos-Pinedo, C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work we present the results obtained from the calculation of the level structure of a n-type delta-doped well Field Effect Transistor when is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. We study the energy level structure as a function of hydrostatic pressure within the range of 0 to 6 kbar for different Schottky barrier height (SBH). We use an analytical expression for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the SBH and the pressure dependence of the basic parameters of the system as the effective mass m(P) and the dielectric constant ε(P) of GaAs. We found that due to the effects of hydrostatic pressure, in addition to electronic level structure alteration, the profile of the differential capacitance per unit area C{sup −2} is affected.

  4. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters - IV: Robustly calibrating hydrostatic masses with weak lensing

    DOE PAGES

    Applegate, D. E; Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.; von der Linden, A.; Morris, R. G.; Hilbert, S.; Kelly, P. L.; Burke, D. L.; Ebeling, H.; Rapetti, D. A.; et al

    2016-02-04

    This is the fourth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Here, we use measurements of weak gravitational lensing from the Weighing the Giants project to calibrate Chandra X-ray measurements of total mass that rely on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. This comparison of X-ray and lensing masses measures the combined bias of X-ray hydrostatic masses from both astrophysical and instrumental sources. While we cannot disentangle the two sources of bias, only the combined bias is relevant for calibrating cosmological measurements using relaxed clusters. Assuming a fixed cosmology, and within amore » characteristic radius (r2500) determined from the X-ray data, we measure a lensing to X-ray mass ratio of 0.96 ± 9% (stat) ± 9% (sys). We find no significant trends of this ratio with mass, redshift or the morphological indicators used to select the sample. Our results imply that any departures from hydrostatic equilibrium at these radii are offset by calibration errors of comparable magnitude, with large departures of tens-of-percent unlikely. In addition, we find a mean concentration of the sample measured from lensing data of c200 = 3.0+4.4–1.8. In conclusion, anticipated short-term improvements in lensing systematics, and a modest expansion of the relaxed lensing sample, can easily increase the measurement precision by 30–50%, leading to similar improvements in cosmological constraints that employ X-ray hydrostatic mass estimates, such as on Ωm from the cluster gas mass fraction.« less

  5. Simulation of Storm Surge by a Depth-integrated Non-hydrostatic Nested-gird Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Wu, Tso-Ren; Terng, Chuen-Teyr; Cheung, Mei-Hui

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents COMCOT-SS (COrnell Multi-grid Coupled of Tsunami Model - Storm Surge) operational model, a depth integrated non-hydrostatic storm surge model developed for the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) in Taiwan. This model is based on the widely-validated COMCOT tsunami model. However, the governing equations were modified to be a depth-integrated vertical momentum equation, and the nonlinear shallow water equations including extra terms, such as the non-hydrostatic pressure, weather forcing, and tidal terms. The non-hydrostatic term enables the model to simulate relatively steep waves in the near-shore region. The conventional features in COMCOT, such as the nested-grid system, spherical and Cartesian coordinate systems, and the moving boundary scheme for inundation prediction were preserved. In this study, we carefully validated the model with analytic solutions for wind shear stress and pressure gradient terms. TWRF (Typhoon Weather Research and Forecasting) model was coupled for providing the meteorological forces generated by typhoons. Besides, parametric typhoon models such as Holland model (1980) and CWB model were also coupled with COMCOT-SS in which the drag coefficient was advised by Large and Pond (1981) and Powell (2003). Astronomical tide provided by the TPXO global tidal model was imported from the domain boundaries. As for the model performance, COMCOT-SS spends less than 30 minutes to finish a 48-hrs forecasting with a large computational domain which covers Taiwan Strait and most parts of Western Pacific Ocean and South China Sea and satisfies the requirement of early warning. In this paper, we also presented the results of nine typical typhoon routes defined by CWB in Taiwan for the model verification. The simulation results accompanied with the non-hydrostatic effect presented good agreement with observation data. Detailed results and discussion will be presented in EGU, 2015.

  6. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters - IV. Robustly calibrating hydrostatic masses with weak lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, D. E.; Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.; der Linden, A. von; Morris, R. Glenn; Hilbert, S.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Burke, D. L.; Ebeling, H.; Rapetti, D. A.; Schmidt, R. W.

    2016-04-01

    This is the fourth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Here, we use measurements of weak gravitational lensing from the Weighing the Giants project to calibrate Chandra X-ray measurements of total mass that rely on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. This comparison of X-ray and lensing masses measures the combined bias of X-ray hydrostatic masses from both astrophysical and instrumental sources. While we cannot disentangle the two sources of bias, only the combined bias is relevant for calibrating cosmological measurements using relaxed clusters. Assuming a fixed cosmology, and within a characteristic radius (r2500) determined from the X-ray data, we measure a lensing to X-ray mass ratio of 0.96 ± 9 per cent (stat) ± 9 per cent (sys). We find no significant trends of this ratio with mass, redshift or the morphological indicators used to select the sample. Our results imply that any departures from hydrostatic equilibrium at these radii are offset by calibration errors of comparable magnitude, with large departures of tens-of-percent unlikely. In addition, we find a mean concentration of the sample measured from lensing data of c_{200} = 3.0_{-1.8}^{+4.4}. Anticipated short-term improvements in lensing systematics, and a modest expansion of the relaxed lensing sample, can easily increase the measurement precision by 30-50 per cent, leading to similar improvements in cosmological constraints that employ X-ray hydrostatic mass estimates, such as on Ωm from the cluster gas mass fraction.

  7. WEIGHING GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH GAS. I. ON THE METHODS OF COMPUTING HYDROSTATIC MASS BIAS

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke; Nelson, Kaylea

    2013-11-10

    Mass estimates of galaxy clusters from X-ray and Sunyeav-Zel'dovich observations assume the intracluster gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium with their gravitational potential. However, since galaxy clusters are dynamically active objects whose dynamical states can deviate significantly from the equilibrium configuration, the departure from the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption is one of the largest sources of systematic uncertainties in cluster cosmology. In the literature there have been two methods for computing the hydrostatic mass bias based on the Euler and the modified Jeans equations, respectively, and there has been some confusion about the validity of these two methods. The word 'Jeans' was a misnomer, which incorrectly implies that the gas is collisionless. To avoid further confusion, we instead refer these methods as 'summation' and 'averaging' methods respectively. In this work, we show that these two methods for computing the hydrostatic mass bias are equivalent by demonstrating that the equation used in the second method can be derived from taking spatial averages of the Euler equation. Specifically, we identify the correspondences of individual terms in these two methods mathematically and show that these correspondences are valid to within a few percent level using hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation. In addition, we compute the mass bias associated with the acceleration of gas and show that its contribution is small in the virialized regions in the interior of galaxy clusters, but becomes non-negligible in the outskirts of massive galaxy clusters. We discuss future prospects of understanding and characterizing biases in the mass estimate of galaxy clusters using both hydrodynamical simulations and observations and their implications for cluster cosmology.

  8. The effects of defects on copper melting under hydrostatic and shock loading

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Shengnian; An, Qi; Germann, Timothy C; Han, Li - Bo

    2009-07-24

    With molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigate the effects of defects on Cu melting under hydrostatic and shock wave loading. We explore preexistent defects including vacancies, stacking faults and grain boundaries, as well as shock-induced defects. Depending on defect characteristics (energy and concentration), defects may have negligible or considerable effects on melting at MD scales However, it is expected that defects have more pronounced effects at heating rates lower than the MD rates.

  9. High-pressure, high-temperature bioreactor for comparing effects of hyperbaric and hydrostatic pressure on bacterial growth.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, C M; Schuppenhauer, M R; Clark, D S

    1992-01-01

    We describe a high-pressure reactor system suitable for simultaneous hyperbaric and hydrostatic pressurization of bacterial cultures at elevated temperatures. For the deep-sea thermophile ES4, the growth rate at 500 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa) and 95 degrees C under hydrostatic pressure was ca. three times the growth rate under hyperbaric pressure and ca. 40% higher than the growth rate at 35 atm. PMID:1622255

  10. High hydrostatic pressure increases amino acid requirements in the piezo-hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus.

    PubMed

    Cario, Anaïs; Lormières, Florence; Xiang, Xiao; Oger, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    We have established a defined growth medium for the piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus, which allows growth yields of ca. 10(8) cells/ml under both atmospheric and high hydrostatic pressure. Our results demonstrate a major impact of hydrostatic pressure on amino acid metabolism, with increases from 3 amino acids required at atmospheric pressure to 17 at 40 MPa. We observe in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales a similar discrepancy between the presence/absence of amino acid synthesis pathways and amino acid requirements, which supports the existence of alternate, but yet unknown, amino acid synthesis pathways, and may explain the low number of essential amino acids observed in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales. T. barophilus displays a strong metabolic preference for organic polymers such as polypeptides and chitin, which may constitute a more readily available resource of carbon and energy in situ in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We hypothesize that the low energy yields of fermentation of organic polymers, together with energetic constraints imposed by high hydrostatic pressure, may render de novo synthesis of amino acids ecologically unfavorable. Induction of this metabolic switch to amino acid recycling can explain the requirement for non-essential amino acids by Thermococcales for efficient growth in defined medium. PMID:26226334

  11. Tropical Cyclones in the Non-hydrostatic GFDL HiRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    A new, non-hydrostatic version of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) is being developed for tropical cyclone (TC) studies, with a focus on improving the climatology of TC genesis and landfall while maintaining the realism of the large-scale climate. This model marks a radical shift from the hydrostatic dynamics used by previous GFDL climate models. It uses a C384 (25 km) horizontal grid with 63 vertical levels, and includes many updates in the dynamical core, cloud microphysics and cloud convective parameterization. A new land model configuration with the effects of lakes and rivers, as well as many other land-surface process improvements is also tested and included. The long-term TC properties, e.g. storm counts, geographical distribution, and intensity, are examined in several climatology and AMIP(Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project)-type simulations. We compare the results both to observations and to hydrostatic HiRAM which achieved a high prediction skill of Atlantic TCs.

  12. Artificial induction of mito-gynogenetic diploids in large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) by hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Mingyi; Wu, Qingming; Liu, Xiande; Yao, Cuiluan; Chen, Qingkai; Wang, Zhiyong

    2010-07-01

    The present study investigated conditions for inducing mito-gynogenetic (endomitosis) diploids by hydrostatic pressure in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. In haploid control groups, the development of eggs was activated with ultraviolet radiated semen. All fry presented typical haploid syndrome in the haploid control groups, and were verified as haploids using cytometry. After hydrostatic pressure treatment, morphologically normal fry reappeared at different frequencies according to the intensity and time of pressure shock. Fry with normal appearance in the pressure treated groups were verified as gynogenetic double haploids (GDHs), containing only one allele from the female parent at all four diagnostic microsatellite loci. For a fixed duration of 3 min, the optimal intensity of blocking the first mitosis was determined to be 40 Mpa, which was similar to that of blocking the second meiosis. There was a “window” of starting time, from 36.1 min to 38.1 min post-insemination at 25.0±1.0°C, within which the production of GDHs was not significantly different. Maximum production of morphologically normal fries, 9.36%±2.97% of developed eggs, was found when the eggs were shocked with hydrostatic pressure at 40 Mpa for 3 min, starting from 38.1 min post insemination at 25.0±1.0°C.

  13. Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

  14. A novel technique towards deployment of hydrostatic pressure based level sensor in nuclear fuel reprocessing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, K.; Rajiniganth, M. P.; Arun, A. D.; Sahoo, P.; Satya Murty, S. A. V.

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach towards deployment of a hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device is presented for continuous monitoring of liquid level in a reservoir with high resolution and precision. Some of the major drawbacks such as spurious information of measured level due to change in ambient temperature, requirement of high resolution pressure sensor, and bubbling effect by passing air or any gaseous fluid into the liquid are overcome by using such a newly designed hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device. The technique involves precise measurement of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the process liquid using a high sensitive pulsating-type differential pressure sensor (capacitive type differential pressure sensor using a specially designed oil manometer) and correlating it to the liquid level. In order to avoid strong influence of temperature on liquid level, a temperature compensation methodology is derived and used in the system. A wireless data acquisition feature has also been provided in the level monitoring device in order to work in a remote area such as a radioactive environment. At the outset, a prototype level measurement system for a 1 m tank is constructed and its test performance has been well studied. The precision, accuracy, resolution, uncertainty, sensitivity, and response time of the prototype level measurement system are found to be less than 1.1 mm in the entire range, 1%, 3 mm, <1%, 10 Hz/mm, and ˜4 s, respectively.

  15. Hydrostatic pressure effect on micro air bubbles deposited on surfaces with a retreating tip.

    PubMed

    Huynh, So Hung; Wang, Jingming; Yu, Yang; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2014-06-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on 6 μL air bubbles formed on micropillar structured PDMS and silicone surfaces using a 2 mm diameter stainless steel tip retreated at 1 mm/s was investigated. Dimensional analysis of the tip retraction process showed the experiments to be conducted in the condition where fluid inertial forces are comparable in magnitude with surface tension forces, while viscous forces were lower. Larger bubbles could be left behind on the structured PDMS surface. For hydrostatic pressures in excess of 20 mm H2O (196 Pa), the volume of bubble deposited was found to decrease progressively with pressure increase. The differences in width of the deposited bubbles (in contact with the substrate) were significant at any particular pressure but marginal in height. The attainable height before rupture reduced with pressure increase, thereby accounting for the reducing dispensed volume characteristic. On structured PDMS, the gaseous bridge width (in contact with the substrate) was invariant with tip retraction, while on silicone it was initially reducing before becoming invariant in the lead up to rupture. With silicone, hence, reductions in the contact width and height were both responsible for reduced volumes with pressure increase. Increased hydrostatic pressure was also found to restrict the growth in contact width on silicone during the stage when air was injected in through the tip. The ability to effect bubble size in such a simple manner may already be harnessed in nature and suggests possibilities in technological applications.

  16. A novel technique towards deployment of hydrostatic pressure based level sensor in nuclear fuel reprocessing facility.

    PubMed

    Praveen, K; Rajiniganth, M P; Arun, A D; Sahoo, P; Murty, S A V Satya

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach towards deployment of a hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device is presented for continuous monitoring of liquid level in a reservoir with high resolution and precision. Some of the major drawbacks such as spurious information of measured level due to change in ambient temperature, requirement of high resolution pressure sensor, and bubbling effect by passing air or any gaseous fluid into the liquid are overcome by using such a newly designed hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device. The technique involves precise measurement of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the process liquid using a high sensitive pulsating-type differential pressure sensor (capacitive type differential pressure sensor using a specially designed oil manometer) and correlating it to the liquid level. In order to avoid strong influence of temperature on liquid level, a temperature compensation methodology is derived and used in the system. A wireless data acquisition feature has also been provided in the level monitoring device in order to work in a remote area such as a radioactive environment. At the outset, a prototype level measurement system for a 1 m tank is constructed and its test performance has been well studied. The precision, accuracy, resolution, uncertainty, sensitivity, and response time of the prototype level measurement system are found to be less than 1.1 mm in the entire range, 1%, 3 mm, <1%, 10 Hz/mm, and ∼4 s, respectively.

  17. High hydrostatic pressure increases amino acid requirements in the piezo-hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus.

    PubMed

    Cario, Anaïs; Lormières, Florence; Xiang, Xiao; Oger, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    We have established a defined growth medium for the piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus, which allows growth yields of ca. 10(8) cells/ml under both atmospheric and high hydrostatic pressure. Our results demonstrate a major impact of hydrostatic pressure on amino acid metabolism, with increases from 3 amino acids required at atmospheric pressure to 17 at 40 MPa. We observe in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales a similar discrepancy between the presence/absence of amino acid synthesis pathways and amino acid requirements, which supports the existence of alternate, but yet unknown, amino acid synthesis pathways, and may explain the low number of essential amino acids observed in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales. T. barophilus displays a strong metabolic preference for organic polymers such as polypeptides and chitin, which may constitute a more readily available resource of carbon and energy in situ in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We hypothesize that the low energy yields of fermentation of organic polymers, together with energetic constraints imposed by high hydrostatic pressure, may render de novo synthesis of amino acids ecologically unfavorable. Induction of this metabolic switch to amino acid recycling can explain the requirement for non-essential amino acids by Thermococcales for efficient growth in defined medium.

  18. Comparing effects of perfusion and hydrostatic pressure on gene profiles of human chondrocyte.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ge; Mayer-Wagner, Susanne; Schröder, Christian; Woiczinski, Matthias; Blum, Helmut; Lavagi, Ilaria; Krebs, Stefan; Redeker, Julia I; Hölzer, Andreas; Jansson, Volkmar; Betz, Oliver; Müller, Peter E

    2015-09-20

    Hydrostatic pressure and perfusion have been shown to regulate the chondrogenic potential of articular chondrocytes. In order to compare the effects of hydrostatic pressure plus perfusion (HPP) and perfusion (P) we investigated the complete gene expression profiles of human chondrocytes under HPP and P. A simplified bioreactor was constructed to apply loading (0.1 MPa for 2 h) and perfusion (2 ml) through the same piping by pressurizing the medium directly. High-density monolayer cultures of human chondrocytes were exposed to HPP or P for 4 days. Controls (C) were maintained in static cultures. Gene expression was evaluated by sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Both treatments changed gene expression levels of human chondrocytes significantly. Specifically, HPP and P increased COL2A1 expression and decreased COL1A1 and MMP-13 expression. Despite of these similarities, RNAseq revealed a list of cartilage genes including ACAN, ITGA10 and TNC, which were differentially expressed by HPP and P. Of these candidates, adhesion related molecules were found to be upregulated in HPP. Both HPP and P treatment had beneficial effects on chondrocyte differentiation and decreased catabolic enzyme expression. The study provides new insight into how hydrostatic pressure and perfusion enhance cartilage differentiation and inhibit catabolic effects.

  19. Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

  20. Exploring Radioactive Decay and Geochronology through Hydrostatic Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claiborne, L. L.; Miller, C. F.

    2008-12-01

    One of the most essential tools to unraveling Earth's history and the processes involved in shaping our planet is an understanding of deep time and the timescales involved in geologic processes. The primary process that allows quantification of this history is radioactive decay of unstable isotopes within earth materials, and as one of the most essential tools in geology, this concept is taught at all levels of geoscience education. The concept of radioactive decay contains nuances that are often lost on students during lectures, and students often express low confidence in their comprehension of the concept. The goal of this laboratory activity is for students to understand radioactive decay including what controls it, how it proceeds and what information it provides, along with developing higher level scientific skills including making observations and predictions, and creating and interpreting quantitative graphical representations of data. The activity employs graduated beakers, shampoo, and stopwatches. Students pour shampoo put into an upper beaker (representing the parent isotope) with a hole in the base and allow it to flow into a lower beaker (representing the daughter isotope). Students measure changes in liquid depth with time, relating this to the amount of decay and its dependence on the amount of parent available (depth of liquid) and the decay constant (area of the hole in the beaker). Several beakers with varying sized holes illustrate variations specific to the different parent isotopes. They then explore graphical representations of their "decay" data, discovering for themselves which kinds of plots yield the equations and constants that control the decay process and the derived quantity of the "half-life", and are therefore the most useful. Making their own measurements, creating graphs, and then calculating these fundamental quantities is both enlightening and empowering. An advanced variation of this experiment involves students predicting the

  1. Modelling pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, Merryn H.; Burrowes, Kelly S.

    2008-01-01

    Computational model analysis is a method that has been used widely to understand and interpret complexity of interactions in the pulmonary system. Pulmonary blood transport is a multi-scale phenomenon that involves scale-dependent structure and function, therefore requiring different model assumptions for the microcirculation and the arterial or venous flows. The blood transport systems interact with the surrounding lung tissue, and are dependent on hydrostatic pressure gradients, control of vasoconstriction, and the topology and material composition of the vascular trees. This review focuses on computational models that have been developed to study the different mechanisms contributing to regional perfusion of the lung. Different models for the microcirculation and the pulmonary arteries are considered, including fractal approaches and anatomically-based methods. The studies that are reviewed illustrate the different complementary approaches that can be used to address the same physiological question of flow heterogeneity. PMID:18434260

  2. A two-layer canopy model with thermal inertia for an improved snowpack energy balance below needleleaf forest (model SNOWPACK, version 3.2.1, revision 741)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouttevin, I.; Lehning, M.; Jonas, T.; Gustafsson, D.; Molder, M.

    2015-08-01

    A new, two-layer canopy module with thermal inertia as part of the detailed snow model SNOWPACK (version 3.2.1) is presented and evaluated. As a by-product of these new developments, an exhaustive description of the canopy module of the SNOWPACK model is provided, thereby filling a gap in the existing literature. In its current form, the two-layer canopy module is suited for evergreen needleleaf forest, with or without snow cover. It is designed to reproduce the difference in thermal response between leafy and woody canopy elements, and their impact on the underlying snowpack or ground surface energy balance. Given the number of processes resolved, the SNOWPACK model with its enhanced canopy module constitutes a sophisticated physics-based modeling chain of the continuum going from atmosphere to soil through the canopy and snow. Comparisons of modeled sub-canopy thermal radiation to stand-scale observations at an Alpine site (Alptal, Switzerland) demonstrate improvements induced by the new canopy module. Both thermal heat mass and the two-layer canopy formulation contribute to reduce the daily amplitude of the modeled canopy temperature signal, in agreement with observations. Particularly striking is the attenuation of the nighttime drop in canopy temperature, which was a key model bias. We specifically show that a single-layered canopy model is unable to produce this limited temperature drop correctly. The impact of the new parameterizations on the modeled dynamics of the sub-canopy snowpack is analyzed. The new canopy module yields consistent results but the frequent occurrence of mixed-precipitation events at Alptal prevents a conclusive assessment of model performance against snow data. The new model is also successfully tested without specific tuning against measured tree temperature and biomass heat-storage fluxes at the boreal site of Norunda (Sweden). This provides an independent assessment of its physical consistency and stresses the robustness and

  3. Influence of a fat layer on the near infrared spectra of human muscle: quantitative analysis based on two-layered Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ye; Soyemi, Olusola O.; Landry, Michelle R.; Soller, Babs R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of fat thickness on the diffuse reflectance spectra of muscle in the near infrared (NIR) region is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-layer structure and with phantom experiments. A polynomial relationship was established between the fat thickness and the detected diffuse reflectance. The influence of a range of optical coefficients (absorption and reduced scattering) for fat and muscle over the known range of human physiological values was also investigated. Subject-to-subject variation in the fat optical coefficients and thickness can be ignored if the fat thickness is less than 5 mm. A method was proposed to correct the fat thickness influence. c2005 Optical Society of America.

  4. Effect of formulation parameters on the drug release and floating properties of gastric floating two-layer tablets with acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Hasçiçek, Canan; Yüksel-Tilkan, Günseli; Türkmen, Berna; Ozdemir, Nurten

    2011-09-01

    Floating dosage forms of acetylsalicylic acid, used for its antithrombotic effect, were developed to prolong gastric residence time and increase bioavailability. In the two-layer tablet formulation, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of high viscosity and an effervescent mixture of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate formed the floating layer. The release layer contained the drug, direct tableting agent and different types of matrix-forming polymers such as HPMC of low viscosity, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and chitosan. Tablets were prepared using a direct compression technique. The effect of formulation variables on physicochemical and floating properties and the drug release from tablets were investigated. Floating ability was dependent on the amount of effervescent agent and gel-forming polymer of the floating layer. Drug release was prolonged to 8 hours by changing the type and viscosity of the matrix-forming polymer in the drug-loading layer and all formulations showed a diffusion release mechanisms.

  5. Effect of a thin superficial layer on the estimate of hemodynamic changes in a two-layer medium by time domain NIRS

    PubMed Central

    Re, Rebecca; Contini, Davide; Zucchelli, Lucia; Torricelli, Alessandro; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In order to study hemodynamic changes involved in muscular metabolism by means of time domain fNIRS, we need to discriminate in the measured signal contributions coming from different depths. Muscles are, in fact, typically located under other tissues, e.g. skin and fat. In this paper, we study the possibility to exploit a previously proposed method for analyzing time-resolved fNIRS measurements in a two-layer structure with a thin superficial layer. This method is based on the calculation of the time-dependent mean partial pathlengths. We validated it by simulating venous and arterial arm cuff occlusions and then applied it on in vivo measurements. PMID:26977338

  6. A Bio-Inspired Two-Layer Sensing Structure of Polypeptide and Multiple-Walled Carbon Nanotube to Sense Small Molecular Gases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Chun; Su, Tseng-Hsiung; Ho, Cheng-Long; Yang, Shang-Ren; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Kuo, Han-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired, two-layer, multiple-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-polypeptide composite sensing device. The MWCNT serves as a responsive and conductive layer, and the nonselective polypeptide (40 mer) coating the top of the MWCNT acts as a filter into which small molecular gases pass. Instead of using selective peptides to sense specific odorants, we propose using nonselective, peptide-based sensors to monitor various types of volatile organic compounds. In this study, depending on gas interaction and molecular sizes, the randomly selected polypeptide enabled the recognition of certain polar volatile chemical vapors, such as amines, and the improved discernment of low-concentration gases. The results of our investigation demonstrated that the polypeptide-coated sensors can detect ammonia at a level of several hundred ppm and barely responded to triethylamine. PMID:25751078

  7. A bio-inspired two-layer sensing structure of polypeptide and multiple-walled carbon nanotube to sense small molecular gases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chun; Su, Tseng-Hsiung; Ho, Cheng-Long; Yang, Shang-Ren; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Kuo, Han-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2015-03-05

    In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired, two-layer, multiple-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-polypeptide composite sensing device. The MWCNT serves as a responsive and conductive layer, and the nonselective polypeptide (40 mer) coating the top of the MWCNT acts as a filter into which small molecular gases pass. Instead of using selective peptides to sense specific odorants, we propose using nonselective, peptide-based sensors to monitor various types of volatile organic compounds. In this study, depending on gas interaction and molecular sizes, the randomly selected polypeptide enabled the recognition of certain polar volatile chemical vapors, such as amines, and the improved discernment of low-concentration gases. The results of our investigation demonstrated that the polypeptide-coated sensors can detect ammonia at a level of several hundred ppm and barely responded to triethylamine.

  8. Long-wave theory of bounded two-layer films with a free liquid-liquid interface: Short- and long-time evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkt, D.; Pototsky, A.; Bestehorn, M.; Thiele, U.

    2005-06-01

    We consider two layers of immiscible liquids confined between an upper and a lower rigid plate. The dynamics of the free liquid-liquid interface is described for arbitrary amplitudes by an evolution equation derived from the basic hydrodynamic equations using long-wave approximation. After giving the evolution equation in a general way, we focus on interface instabilities driven by gravity, thermocapillary and electrostatic fields. First, we study the linear stability discussing especially the conditions for destabilizing the system by heating from above or below. Second, we use a variational formulation of the evolution equation based on an energy functional to predict metastable states and the long-time pattern morphology (holes, drops or maze structures). Finally, fully nonlinear three-dimensional numerical integrations are performed to study the short- and long-time evolution of the evolving patterns. Different coarsening modes are discussed and long-time scaling exponents are extracted.

  9. A bio-inspired two-layer sensing structure of polypeptide and multiple-walled carbon nanotube to sense small molecular gases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chun; Su, Tseng-Hsiung; Ho, Cheng-Long; Yang, Shang-Ren; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Kuo, Han-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired, two-layer, multiple-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-polypeptide composite sensing device. The MWCNT serves as a responsive and conductive layer, and the nonselective polypeptide (40 mer) coating the top of the MWCNT acts as a filter into which small molecular gases pass. Instead of using selective peptides to sense specific odorants, we propose using nonselective, peptide-based sensors to monitor various types of volatile organic compounds. In this study, depending on gas interaction and molecular sizes, the randomly selected polypeptide enabled the recognition of certain polar volatile chemical vapors, such as amines, and the improved discernment of low-concentration gases. The results of our investigation demonstrated that the polypeptide-coated sensors can detect ammonia at a level of several hundred ppm and barely responded to triethylamine. PMID:25751078

  10. A two-layer canopy with thermal inertia for an improved modelling of the sub-canopy snowpack energy-balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouttevin, I.; Lehning, M.; Jonas, T.; Gustafsson, D.; Mölder, M.

    2015-01-01

    A new, two-layer canopy module with thermal inertia as part of the detailed snow model SNOWPACK (version 3.2.1) is presented and evaluated. This module is designed to reproduce the difference in thermal response between leafy and woody canopy elements, and their impact on the underlying snowpack energy balance. Given the number of processes resolved, the SNOWPACK model with its enhanced canopy module constitutes a very advanced, physics-based atmosphere-to-soil-through-canopy-and-snow modelling chain. Comparisons of modelled sub-canopy thermal radiation to stand-scale observations at an Alpine site (Alptal, Switzerland) demonstrate the improvements of the new canopy module. Both thermal heat mass and the two-layer canopy formulation contribute to reduce the daily amplitude of the modelled canopy temperature signal, in agreement with observations. Particularly striking is the attenuation of the night-time drop in canopy temperature, which was a key model bias. We specifically show that a single-layered canopy model is unable to produce this limited temperature drop correctly. The impact of the new parameterizations on the modelled dynamics of the sub-canopy snowpack is analysed and yields consistent results but the frequent occurrence of mixed-precipitation events at Alptal prevents a conclusive assessment of model performance against snow data. The new model is also successfully tested without specific tuning against measured tree temperatures and biomass heat storage fluxes at the boreal site of Norunda (Sweden). This provides an independent assessment of its physical consistency and stresses the robustness and transferability of the parameterizations used.

  11. Using a two-layered sphere model to investigate the impact of gas vacuoles on the inherent optical properties of Microcystis aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, M. W.; Bernard, S.

    2013-12-01

    A two-layered sphere model is used to investigate the impact of gas vacuoles on the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of the cyanophyte Microcystis aeruginosa. Enclosing a vacuole-like particle within a chromatoplasm shell layer significantly altered spectral scattering and increased backscattering. The two-layered sphere model reproduced features in the spectral attenuation and volume scattering function (VSF) that have previously been attributed to gas vacuoles. This suggests the model is good at least as a first approximation for investigating how gas vacuoles alter the IOPs. Measured Rrs was used to provide a range of values for the central value of the real refractive index, 1 + ɛ, for the shell layer using measured IOPs and a radiative transfer model. Sufficient optical closure was obtained for 1 + ɛ between 1.1 and 1.14, which had corresponding Chl a-specific phytoplankton backscattering, bbφ*, between 3.9 and 7.2 × 10-3 m2 mg-1 at 510 nm. The bbφ* values are in close agreement with the literature and in situ particulate backscattering measurements. Rrs simulated for a population of vacuolate cells was greatly enlarged relative to a homogeneous population. A sensitivity analysis of empirical algorithms for estimating Chl a in eutrophic/hypertrophic waters suggests these are robust under variable constituent concentrations and likely to be species-sensitive. The study confirms that gas vacuoles cause significant increase in backscattering and are responsible for the high Rrs values observed in buoyant cyanobacterial blooms. Gas vacuoles are therefore one of the most important bio-optical substructures influencing the IOPs in phytoplankton.

  12. Using a two-layered sphere model to investigate the impact of gas vacuoles on the inherent optical properties of M. aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, M. W.; Bernard, S.

    2013-06-01

    A two-layered sphere model is used to investigate the impact of gas vacuoles on the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of the cyanophyte Microcystis aeruginosa. Enclosing a vacuole-like particle within a chromatoplasm shell layer significantly altered spectral scattering and increased backscattering. The two-layered sphere model reproduced features in the spectral attenuation and volume scattering function (VSF) that have previously been attributed to gas vacuoles. This suggests the model is good at least as a first approximation for investigating how gas vacuoles alter the IOPs. The central value of the real refractive index, 1+ ɛ, for the shell layer was determined using a radiative transfer model and measured remote sensing reflectance, Rrs, and IOP data. For a cell with 50% vacuole volume, the mean 1+ ɛ value for the shell layer was 1.12. The corresponding chl a specific phytoplankton backscattering coefficient, bbφ*, ranged between 3.9 × 10-3 and 7.2 × 10-3 m2 mg-1 at 510 nm. This agrees closely with in situ particulate backscattering measurements and values reported elsewhere. Rrs simulated for a population of vacuolate cells was greatly enlarged relative to a homogeneous population. Empirical algorithms based on Rrs were derived for estimating chl a in eutrophic/hypertrophic waters dominated by M. aeruginosa. The study confirms that gas vacuoles cause significant increase in backscattering and are responsible for the high Rrs values observed in buoyant cyanobacterial blooms. Gas vacuoles are therefore one of the most important bio-optical substructures influencing the IOPs in phytoplankton.

  13. Therapeutic Vaccination against Adjuvant Arthritis Using Autoimmune T Cells Treated with Hydrostatic Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lider, Ofer; Karin, Nathan; Shinitzky, Meir; Cohen, Irun R.

    1987-07-01

    An ideal treatment for autoimmune diseases would be a nontoxic means of specifically neutralizing the autoreactive lymphocytes responsible for the disease. This goal has been realized in experimental autoimmunity models by immunizing rats or mice against their own autoimmune cells such that the animals generate an immune response specifically repressive to the disease-producing lymphocytes. This maneuver, termed lymphocyte vaccination, was demonstrated to be effective using some, but not all, autoimmune helper T-lymphocyte lines. We now report that T lymphocytes, otherwise incapable of triggering an immune response, can be transformed into effective immunogens by treating the cells in vitro with hydrostatic pressure. Clone A2b, as effector clone that recognized cartilage proteoglycan and caused adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats, is such a cell. Untreated A2b could not trigger an immune response, but inoculating rats with pressure-treated A2b induced early remission of established adjuvant arthritis as well as resistance to subsequent disease. Specific resistance to arthritis was associated with anti-idiotypic T-cell reactivity to clone A2b and could be transferred from vaccinated rats to naive recipients using donor lymphoid cells. Aggregation of T-lymphocyte membrane components appeared to be important for an immune response because the effects of hydrostatic pressure could be reproduced by treatment of A2b with chemical cross-linkers or with agents disrupting the cytoskeleton. Populations of lymph node cells from antigen-primed rats, when treated with hydrostatic pressure, could also induce suppression of disease. Thus, effective vaccines can be developed without having to isolate the autoimmune T lymphocytes as lines or clones. These results demonstrate that effector T lymphocytes suitably treated may serve as agents for specifically controlling the immune system.

  14. Reversible Morphological Control of Tubulin-Encapsulating Giant Liposomes by Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masahito; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kazayama, Yuki; Toyota, Taro; Harada, Yoshie; Takiguchi, Kingo

    2016-04-19

    Liposomes encapsulating cytoskeletons have drawn much recent attention to develop an artificial cell-like chemical-machinery; however, as far as we know, there has been no report showing isothermally reversible morphological changes of liposomes containing cytoskeletons because the sets of various regulatory factors, that is, their interacting proteins, are required to control the state of every reaction system of cytoskeletons. Here we focused on hydrostatic pressure to control the polymerization state of microtubules (MTs) within cell-sized giant liposomes (diameters ∼10 μm). MT is the cytoskeleton formed by the polymerization of tubulin, and cytoskeletal systems consisting of MTs are very dynamic and play many important roles in living cells, such as the morphogenesis of nerve cells and formation of the spindle apparatus during mitosis. Using real-time imaging with a high-pressure microscope, we examined the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the morphology of tubulin-encapsulating giant liposomes. At ambient pressure (0.1 MPa), many liposomes formed protrusions due to tubulin polymerization within them. When high pressure (60 MPa) was applied, the protrusions shrank within several tens of seconds. This process was repeatedly inducible (around three times), and after the pressure was released, the protrusions regenerated within several minutes. These deformation rates of the liposomes are close to the velocities of migrating or shape-changing living cells rather than the shortening and elongation rates of the single MTs, which have been previously measured. These results demonstrate that the elongation and shortening of protrusions of giant liposomes is repeatedly controllable by regulating the polymerization state of MTs within them by applying and releasing hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27023063

  15. Demagnetization of terrestrial and extraterrestrial rocks under hydrostatic pressure up to 1.2 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezaeva, Natalia S.; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Sadykov, Ravil A.; Trukhin, Vladimir I.

    2010-03-01

    We carried out hydrostatic pressure demagnetization experiments up to 1.24 GPa on samples of terrestrial and extraterrestrial rocks and minerals of different lithologies as well as on synthetic samples. The magnetic remanence of samples was measured directly under pressure using a non-magnetic high-pressure cell of piston-cylinder type that was inserted into a high sensitivity SQUID magnetometer. In order to bring light on the pressure demagnetization effect, we investigated 50 samples with different magnetic mineralogies, remanent coercivities ( Bcr) and hysteresis parameters. The samples consisted of pyrrhotite-, magnetite- and titanomagnetite-bearing Martian meteorites, taenite-, tetrataenite- and kamacite-bearing ordinary chondrites and pyrrhotite-bearing Rumuruti chondrite; magnetite- and titanomagnetite-bearing basalts, andesites, ignimbrites, obsidians and granites; a variety of pyrrhotite- and hematite-bearing rocks and minerals (jasper, schist, rhyolite, radiolarite); samples of goethite and greigite as well as synthetic samples of dispersed powders of magnetite, hematite, pyrrhotite and native iron set into epoxy resin. Under hydrostatic pressure of 1.24 GPa, applied in a low magnetic field (<5 μT), the samples lost up to 84% of their initial saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) without any changes in their intrinsic magnetic properties. We found that the efficiency of the pressure demagnetization is not exclusively controlled by the magnetic hardness of the samples ( Bcr), but that it is strongly dependent on their magnetic mineralogy. For a given magnetic mineralogy the resistance to hydrostatic pressure is roughly proportional to ln( Bcr). It was shown that there is no simple equivalence between pressure demagnetization and alternating field demagnetization effects. The pressure demagnetization was shown to be time-independent but repeated application of the same pressure level resulted in further demagnetization.

  16. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study

    PubMed Central

    Szpinda, Michał; Paruszewska-Achtel, Monika; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Elminowska-Wenda, Gabriela; Dombek, Małgorzata; Szpinda, Anna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 × age ± Z  × (−3.15 + 0.27 × age). The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (r = 0.91, p < 0.001) between the liver volumes achieved by hydrostatic (x) and indirect (y) methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16x  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias. PMID:26413551

  17. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on the ductility of copper as a function of its initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure in the interval 0-250 MPa on the deformation properties of copper versus its initial state is studied. After liquid nitrogen storage, the torsion strain to fracture is found to increase when the pressure rises to 200 MPa. As the pressure rises further and reaches 250 MPa, the torsion strain to fracture drops. Preliminary torsion to a strain of 5% in opposition to torsion under pressure makes the pressure dependence of the ultimate strain linear. If the prestrain equals 25%, a rise in the pressure to 150MPa increases the ductility of the material. A further increase in the pressure to 250 MPa changes the ductility insignificantly.

  18. Hydrostatic pressure sensor based on fiber Bragg grating written in single-ring suspended fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Htein, Lin; Liu, Zhengyong; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel optical fiber consisting of a suspended-fiber with core and cladding diameter of ~ 5 and 30 μm and a supporting ring with thickness of ~ 9 μm. The outer diameter of the fiber was 125 μm and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a length of 1-mm was inscribed on it. Hydrostatic pressure was measured by monitoring the Bragg wavelength shifts of 9-mm long single-ring suspended fiber. Pressure sensitivity was measured to be -18.92 pm/MPa, which is about five times higher than FBG on standard single-mode fiber.

  19. Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation of a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel During Hydrostatic Pressure Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revilock, Duane M., Jr.; Thesken, John C.; Schmidt, Timothy E.

    2007-01-01

    Ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization tests were conducted on a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) to understand the fiber stresses in COPV components. Two three-dimensional digital image correlation systems with high speed cameras were used in the evaluation to provide full field displacement and strain data for each pressurization test. A few of the key findings will be discussed including how the principal strains provided better insight into system behavior than traditional gauges, a high localized strain that was measured where gages were not present and the challenges of measuring curved surfaces with the use of a 1.25 in. thick layered polycarbonate panel that protected the cameras.

  20. Development of a polymetric grout for the hydrostatic bearing at DSS 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, C. E.; Schwendeman, J. L.; Ball, G. L., III; Jenkins, G. H.; Casperson, R. D.; Gale, G. P.; Riewe, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an investigation into the causes of the deterioration and premature failure of the grout under the hydrostatic bearing runner at DSS 14 are reported. Generic types of materials were screened and tested to find a grout material more resistive to the causes of grout failure. Emphasis was placed on the physical properties, strength, modulus of elasticity, and resistance to erosion and chemical attack by oil and unique requirements imposed by each material for mixing, placing, compacting, and cooling. The polymetric grout developed to replace the dry grout is described.

  1. Superconductivity for CaC{sub 6} to 32 GPa hydrostatic pressure.

    SciTech Connect

    Debessai, M.; Hamlin, J. J.; Schilling, J. S.; Rosenmann, D.; Hinks, D. G.; Claus, H.; Materials Science Division; Washington Univ.

    2010-10-04

    The dependence of the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} of CaC{sub 6} has been determined as a function of hydrostatic pressure in both helium-loaded gas and diamond-anvil cells to 0.6 GPa and 32 GPa, respectively. Following an initial increase at the rate +0.39(1) K/GPa, T{sub c} drops abruptly from 15 to 4 K at {approx}10 GPa. Between 18 and 32 GPa, no superconducting transition is observed above 2 K.

  2. Dependence of the permittivity of direct gap semiconductors on hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Gadzhaliev, M. M.; Daunov, M. I.; Musaev, A. M.

    2015-08-15

    The pressure dependence of permittivity χ of direct gap ZnO, CdTe, InSb, InAs, CdSnAs{sub 2}, and CdGeAs{sub 2} semiconductors in the hydrostatic pressure range from zero to 1 GPa is determined from the results of quantitative analysis of the pressure dependences of resistivity ρ(P) and Hall constant R{sub H}(P). It is found that the dielectric constant decreases upon an increase in pressure so that coefficient (dχ/d{sub P})/χ increases with (dE{sub g}/dP)/E{sub g}.

  3. Wormgear geometry adopted for implementing hydrostatic lubrication and formulation of the lubrication problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

    1995-01-01

    The geometrical parameters for a wormgear intended to be used as the transmission in advanced helicopters are finalized. The resulting contact pattern of the meshing tooth surfaces is suitable for the implementation of hydrostatic lubrication Fluid film lubrication of the contact is formulated considering external pressurization as well as hydrodynamic wedge and squeeze actions. The lubrication analysis is aimed at obtaining the oil supply pressure needed to separate the worm and gear surfaces by a prescribed minimum film thickness. The procedure of solving the mathematical problem is outlined.

  4. Cell compressibility studies utilizing noncontact hydrostatic pressure measurements on single living cells in a microchamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L. A. G.; Liu, A. Q.; Yu, Y. F.; Zhang, C.; Lim, C. S.; Ng, S. H.; Yap, P. H.; Gao, H. J.

    2008-06-01

    A micro-optical-fluidic system (MOFS), which integrates a force generating device and an optical detector, is designed to measure the bulk modulus of a single living cell in real time under a controlled hydrostatic pressure. In this design, the accuracy of the bulk modulus measurement is improved because neither the force generating device nor the optical detector needs to be in contact with the cells. The MOFS device has been used to investigate the mechanotransduction of THP-1 human acute monocytic leukemia cells and the effects of the toxin lipopolysaccharide and colchicine on various properties of these cells.

  5. Hydrostatic Level Sensors as High Precision Ground Motion Instrumentation for Tevatron and Other Energy Frontier Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, James; Hansen, Sten; Johnson, Todd; Jostlein, Hans; Kiper, Terry; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Chupyra, Andrei; Kondaurov, Mikhail; Medvedko, Anatoly; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Singatulin, Shavkat

    2012-01-01

    Particle accelerators require very tight tolerances on the alignment and stability of their elements: magnets, accelerating cavities, vacuum chambers, etc. In this article we describe the Hydrostatic Level Sensors (HLS) for very low frequency measurements used in a variety of facilities at Fermilab. We present design features of the sensors, outline their technical parameters, describe their test and calibration procedures, discuss different regimes of operation and give few illustrative examples of the experimental data. Detail experimental results of the ground motion measurements with these detectors will be presented in subsequent papers.

  6. Shape evolution of a core-shell spherical particle under hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Colin, Jérôme

    2012-03-01

    The morphological evolution by surface diffusion of a core-shell spherical particle has been investigated theoretically under hydrostatic pressure when the shear modulii of the core and shell are different. A linear stability analysis has demonstrated that depending on the pressure, shear modulii, and radii of both phases, the free surface of the composite particle may be unstable with respect to a shape perturbation. A stability diagram finally emphasizes that the roughness development is favored in the case of a hard shell with a soft core. PMID:22587137

  7. THE EFFECTS OF HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE ON THE MICROTUBULES OF TETRAHYMENA PYRIFORMIS

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, John R.; Zimmerman, Arthur M.

    1970-01-01

    Exposure of Tetrahymena pyriformis to 7,500 or 10,000 psi of hydrostatic pressure for 2, 5, or 10 min intervals results in a change in cell shape and ciliary activity. Shape changes occur concurrently with a degradation of longitudinal microtubules in a posterior to anterior direction. High pressure also causes a disruption of ciliary activity. Fine structural analysis reveals a breakdown (presumably microtubule depolymerization) of the central ciliary microtubules. The depolymerization begins at the junction of the central ciliary microtubules with the axosome and progresses distally along the ciliary shaft for a distance of about 0.5 µ. PMID:5497538

  8. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on microflora and some quality attributes of grape juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Mecnun; Buzrul, Sencer; Alpas, Hami

    2013-03-01

    Red and white grape juices were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at three different pressures, temperature and time values to investigate the effects of HHP on natural microflora and some quality attributes of the juices. Increased pressure, temperature and time showed significant effect on the microbial reduction and no microbial growth were observed in HHP-treated grape juices up to 90 days. HHP had little or no effect on pH and color of the juices. Although 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation was observed in heat pasteurized samples, no HMF was detected in HHP-treated juices. This study demonstrated that HHP could be used as an alternative to heat treatment.

  9. Theoretical studies of optical gain tuning by hydrostatic pressure in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gladysiewicz, M.; Wartak, M. S.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2014-01-21

    In order to describe theoretically the tuning of the optical gain by hydrostatic pressure in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs), the optical gain calculations within kp approach were developed and applied for N-containing and N-free QWs. The electronic band structure and the optical gain for GaInNAs/GaAs QW were calculated within the 10-band kp model which takes into account the interaction of electron levels in the QW with the nitrogen resonant level in GaInNAs. It has been shown that this interaction increases with the hydrostatic pressure and as a result the optical gain for GaInNAs/GaAs QW decreases by about 40% and 80% for transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes, respectively, for the hydrostatic pressure change from 0 to 40 kilobars. Such an effect is not observed for N-free QWs where the dispersion of electron and hole energies remains unchanged with the hydrostatic pressure. This is due to the fact that the conduction and valence band potentials in GaInAs/GaAs QW scale linearly with the hydrostatic pressure.

  10. RESIDUAL GAS MOTIONS IN THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM AND BIAS IN HYDROSTATIC MEASUREMENTS OF MASS PROFILES OF CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Erwin T.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2009-11-10

    We present analysis of bulk and random gas motions in the intracluster medium using high-resolution Eulerian cosmological simulations of 16 simulated clusters, including both very relaxed and unrelaxed systems and spanning a virial mass range of 5 x 10{sup 13} - 2 x 10{sup 15} h{sup -1} M-odot. We investigate effects of the residual subsonic gas motions on the hydrostatic estimates of mass profiles and concentrations of galaxy clusters. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the gas motions contribute up to approx5%-15% of the total pressure support in relaxed clusters with contribution increasing with the cluster-centric radius. The fractional pressure support is higher in unrelaxed systems. This contribution would not be accounted for in hydrostatic estimates of the total mass profile and would lead to systematic underestimate of mass. We demonstrate that total mass can be recovered accurately if pressure due to gas motions measured in simulations is explicitly taken into account in the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium. Given that the underestimate of mass is increasing at larger radii, where gas is less relaxed and contribution of gas motions to pressure is larger, the total density profile derived from hydrostatic analysis is more concentrated than the true profile. This may at least partially explain some high values of concentrations of clusters estimated from hydrostatic analysis of X-ray data.

  11. Desert shrub responses to experimental modification of precipitation seasonality and soil depth: relationship to the two-layer model and ecohydrological niche

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.; Reinhardt, Keith

    2013-01-01

    1. Ecohydrological niches are important for understanding plant community responses to climate shifts, particularly in dry lands. According to the two-layer hypothesis, selective use of deep-soil water increases growth or persistence of woody species during warm and dry summer periods and thereby contributes to their coexistence with shallow-rooted herbs in dry ecosystems. The resource-pool hypothesis further suggests that shallow-soil water benefits growth of all plants while deep-soil water primarily enhances physiological maintenance and survival of woody species. Few studies have directly tested these by manipulating deep-soil water availability and observing the long-term outcomes. 2. We predicted that factors promoting infiltration and storage of water in deep soils, specifically greater winter precipitation and soil depth, would enhance Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush) in cold, winter-wet/summer-dry desert. Sagebrush responses to 20 years of winter irrigation were compared to summer- or no irrigation, on plots having relatively deep or shallow soils (2 m vs. 1 m depths). 3. Winter irrigation increased sagebrush cover, and crown and canopy volumes, but not density (individuals/plot) compared to summer or no irrigation, on deep-soil plots. On shallow-soil plots, winter irrigation surprisingly decreased shrub cover and size, and summer irrigation had no effect. Furthermore, multiple regression suggested that the variations in growth were related (i) firstly to water in shallow soils (0-0.2 m) and secondly to deeper soils (> 1 m deep) and (ii) more by springtime than by midsummer soil water. Water-use efficiency increased considerably on shallow soils without irrigation and was lowest with winter irrigation. 4. Synthesis. Sagebrush was more responsive to the seasonal timing of precipitation than to total annual precipitation. Factors that enhanced deep-water storage (deeper soils plus more winter precipitation) led to increases in Artemisia tridentata that

  12. An online trajectory module (version 1.0) for the non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model COSMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltenberger, A. K.; Pfahl, S.; Wernli, H.

    2013-02-01

    A module to calculate online trajectories has been implemented into the non-hydrostatic limited-area weather prediction and climate model COSMO. Whereas offline trajectories are calculated with wind fields from model output, which is typically available every one to six hours, online trajectories use the simulated wind field at every model time step (typically less than a minute) to solve the trajectory equation. As a consequence, online trajectories much better capture the short-term temporal fluctuations of the wind field, which is particularly important for mesoscale flows near topography and convective clouds, and they do not suffer from temporal interpolation errors between model output times. The numerical implementation of online trajectories in the COSMO model is based upon an established offline trajectory tool and takes full account of the horizontal domain decomposition that is used for parallelization of the COSMO model. Although a perfect workload balance cannot be achieved for the trajectory module (due to the fact that trajectory positions are not necessarily equally distributed over the model domain), the additional computational costs are fairly small for high-resolution simulations. Various options have been implemented to initialize online trajectories at different locations and times during the model simulation. As a first application of the new COSMO module an Alpine North Föhn event in summer 1987 has been simulated with horizontal resolutions of 2.2 km, 7 km, and 14 km. It is shown that low-tropospheric trajectories calculated offline with one- to six-hourly wind fields can significantly deviate from trajectories calculated online. Deviations increase with decreasing model grid spacing and are particularly large in regions of deep convection and strong orographic flow distortion. On average, for this particular case study, horizontal and vertical positions between online and offline trajectories differed by 50-190 km and 150-750 m

  13. Improving the prediction accuracy of residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins by guided-learning through a two-layer neural network.

    PubMed

    Faraggi, Eshel; Xue, Bin; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2009-03-01

    This article attempts to increase the prediction accuracy of residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins through improved learning. Most methods developed for improving the backpropagation algorithm of artificial neural networks are limited to small neural networks. Here, we introduce a guided-learning method suitable for networks of any size. The method employs a part of the weights for guiding and the other part for training and optimization. We demonstrate this technique by predicting residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins. In this application, the guiding factor is designed to satisfy the intuitive condition that for most residues, the contribution of a residue to the structural properties of another residue is smaller for greater separation in the protein-sequence distance between the two residues. We show that the guided-learning method makes a 2-4% reduction in 10-fold cross-validated mean absolute errors (MAE) for predicting residue solvent accessibility and backbone torsion angles, regardless of the size of database, the number of hidden layers and the size of input windows. This together with introduction of two-layer neural network with a bipolar activation function leads to a new method that has a MAE of 0.11 for residue solvent accessibility, 36 degrees for psi, and 22 degrees for phi. The method is available as a Real-SPINE 3.0 server in http://sparks.informatics.iupui.edu.

  14. Noninvasive cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation quantification of fetal sheep under hypoxic stress in utero using frequency-domain diffuse optical two-layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Nijland, Mark J. M.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Chance, Britton; Yodh, Arjun G.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2003-07-01

    A study using pregnant sheep was designed to simulate fetal hypoxia in order to investigate the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect and quantify fetal hypoxia in utero. The near-infrared spectroscopic probe consisted of two detectors and six source positions. It was placed on the maternal ewe abdomen above the fetal head. The light sources were modulated at 70 MHz and frequency-encoded so that simultaneous measurements at 675, 786, 830 nm for each source position were possible. After the baseline measurements, fetal hypoxia was induced by blocking the aorta of pregnant ewe and thus compromising the blood supply to the uterus. Blood gas samples were concurrently drawn from the fetal brachial artery and jugular veins. Analysis of the diffuse optical data used a two-layer model to separate the maternal layer from the fetal head. The analysis also employed a priori spectral information about tissue chromophores. This approach provided good quantification of blood oxygenation changes, which correlated well with the blood gas analyses. By contrast the homogeneous model underestimated oxygenation changes during hypoxia.

  15. Three-Dimensional Flexible Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Logic Circuits Based On Two-Layer Stacks of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yudan; Li, Qunqing; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Li, Guanhong; Jin, Yuanhao; Jiang, Kaili; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-02-23

    We have proposed and fabricated stable and repeatable, flexible, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film transistor (TFT) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits based on a three-dimensional (3D) structure. Two layers of SWCNT-TFT devices were stacked, where one layer served as n-type devices and the other one served as p-type devices. On the basis of this method, it is able to save at least half of the area required to construct an inverter and make large-scale and high-density integrated CMOS circuits easier to design and manufacture. The 3D flexible CMOS inverter gain can be as high as 40, and the total noise margin is more than 95%. Moreover, the input and output voltage of the inverter are exactly matched for cascading. 3D flexible CMOS NOR, NAND logic gates, and 15-stage ring oscillators were fabricated on PI substrates with high performance as well. Stable electrical properties of these circuits can be obtained with bending radii as small as 3.16 mm, which shows that such a 3D structure is a reliable architecture and suitable for carbon nanotube electrical applications in complex flexible and wearable electronic devices. PMID:26768020

  16. Remediation of nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater using a pilot-scale two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification permeable reactive barrier with spongy iron/pine bark.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoxin; Huang, Yuanying; Hu, Hongyan; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Renwei

    2015-07-01

    A novel two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (HAD) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was proposed for remediating nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater in an oxygen rich environment, which has a packing structure of an upstream pine bark layer and a downstream spongy iron and river sand mixture layer. The HAD PRB involves biological deoxygenation, heterotrophic denitrification, hydrogenotrophic denitrification, and anaerobic Fe corrosion. Column and batch experiments were performed to: (1) investigate the NO3(-)-N removal and inorganic geochemistry; (2) explore the nitrogen transformation and removal mechanisms; (3) identify the hydrogenotrophic denitrification capacity; and (4) evaluate the HAD performance by comparison with other approaches. The results showed that the HAD PRB could maintain constant high NO3(-)-N removal efficiency (>91%) before 38 pore volumes (PVs) of operation (corresponding to 504d), form little or even negative NO2(-)-N during the 45 PVs, and produce low NH4(+)-N after 10 PVs. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria played a dominant role in oxygen depletion via aerobic respiration, providing more CO2 for hydrogenotrophic denitrification. The HAD PRB significantly relied on heterotrophic denitrification. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification removed 10-20% of the initial NO3(-)-N. Effluent total organic carbon decreased from 403.44mgL(-1) at PV 1 to 9.34mgL(-1) at PV 45. Packing structure had a noticeable effect on its denitrification. PMID:25747301

  17. Optimal estimation reconstruction of the optical properties of a two-layered tissue phantom from time-resolved single-distance measurements.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Del Bianco, Samuele; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cavalieri, Stefano; Di Ninni, Paola; Binzoni, Tiziano; Jelzow, Alexander; Macdonald, Rainer; Wabnitz, Heidrun

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we have tested the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm for the reconstruction of the optical properties of a two-layered liquid tissue phantom from time-resolved single-distance measurements. The OE allows a priori information, in particular on the range of variation of fit parameters, to be included. The purpose of the present investigations was to compare the performance of OE with the Levenberg–Marquardt method for a geometry and real experimental conditions typically used to reconstruct the optical properties of biological tissues such as muscle and brain. The absorption coefficient of the layers was varied in a range of values typical for biological tissues. The reconstructions performed demonstrate the substantial improvements achievable with the OE provided a priori information is available. We note the extreme reliability, robustness, and accuracy of the retrieved absorption coefficient of the second layer obtained with the OE that was found for up to six fit parameters, with an error in the retrieved values of less than 10%. A priori information on fit parameters and fixed forward model parameters clearly improves robustness and accuracy of the inversion procedure.

  18. Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Kung-Bin; Shih, Kuang-Wei; Hsu, Fang-Wei; Hsieh, Hong-Po; Chuang, Min-Jie; Hsiao, Yi-Hsien; Su, Yu-Hui; Tien, Gen-Hao

    2014-07-01

    We are reporting on an experimental investigation of a movable diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system to extract diagnostically relevant optical properties of two-layered tissue phantoms simulating mucosae that are covered with stratified squamous epithelium. The reflectance spectra were measured at multiple source-detector separations using two imaging fiber bundles in contact with the phantoms, one with its optical axis perpendicular to the sample surface (perpendicular probe) and the other with its distal end beveled and optical axis tilted at 45 deg (oblique probe). Polystyrene microspheres and purified human hemoglobin were used to make tissue phantoms whose scattering and absorption properties could be well controlled and theoretically predicted. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the reflectance spectra for system calibration and an iterative curve fitting that simultaneously extracted the top layer reduced scattering coefficient, thickness, bottom layer reduced scattering coefficient, and hemoglobin concentration of the phantoms. The errors of the recovered parameters ranged from 7% to 20%. The oblique probe showed higher accuracy in the extracted top layer reduced scattering coefficient and thickness than the perpendicular probe. The developed system and data analysis methods provide a feasible tool to quantify the optical properties in vivo.

  19. Remediation of nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater using a pilot-scale two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification permeable reactive barrier with spongy iron/pine bark.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoxin; Huang, Yuanying; Hu, Hongyan; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Renwei

    2015-07-01

    A novel two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (HAD) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was proposed for remediating nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater in an oxygen rich environment, which has a packing structure of an upstream pine bark layer and a downstream spongy iron and river sand mixture layer. The HAD PRB involves biological deoxygenation, heterotrophic denitrification, hydrogenotrophic denitrification, and anaerobic Fe corrosion. Column and batch experiments were performed to: (1) investigate the NO3(-)-N removal and inorganic geochemistry; (2) explore the nitrogen transformation and removal mechanisms; (3) identify the hydrogenotrophic denitrification capacity; and (4) evaluate the HAD performance by comparison with other approaches. The results showed that the HAD PRB could maintain constant high NO3(-)-N removal efficiency (>91%) before 38 pore volumes (PVs) of operation (corresponding to 504d), form little or even negative NO2(-)-N during the 45 PVs, and produce low NH4(+)-N after 10 PVs. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria played a dominant role in oxygen depletion via aerobic respiration, providing more CO2 for hydrogenotrophic denitrification. The HAD PRB significantly relied on heterotrophic denitrification. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification removed 10-20% of the initial NO3(-)-N. Effluent total organic carbon decreased from 403.44mgL(-1) at PV 1 to 9.34mgL(-1) at PV 45. Packing structure had a noticeable effect on its denitrification.

  20. Optimal estimation reconstruction of the optical properties of a two-layered tissue phantom from time-resolved single-distance measurements.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Del Bianco, Samuele; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cavalieri, Stefano; Di Ninni, Paola; Binzoni, Tiziano; Jelzow, Alexander; Macdonald, Rainer; Wabnitz, Heidrun

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we have tested the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm for the reconstruction of the optical properties of a two-layered liquid tissue phantom from time-resolved single-distance measurements. The OE allows a priori information, in particular on the range of variation of fit parameters, to be included. The purpose of the present investigations was to compare the performance of OE with the Levenberg–Marquardt method for a geometry and real experimental conditions typically used to reconstruct the optical properties of biological tissues such as muscle and brain. The absorption coefficient of the layers was varied in a range of values typical for biological tissues. The reconstructions performed demonstrate the substantial improvements achievable with the OE provided a priori information is available. We note the extreme reliability, robustness, and accuracy of the retrieved absorption coefficient of the second layer obtained with the OE that was found for up to six fit parameters, with an error in the retrieved values of less than 10%. A priori information on fit parameters and fixed forward model parameters clearly improves robustness and accuracy of the inversion procedure. PMID:26524677