Science.gov

Sample records for hydrothermal sulfide chimneys

  1. Microbial lipids reveal carbon assimilation patterns on hydrothermal sulfide chimneys.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Eoghan P; Yoshinaga, Marcos Y; Pjevac, Petra; Goldenstein, Nadine I; Peplies, Jörg; Meyerdierks, Anke; Amann, Rudolf; Bach, Wolfgang; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-11-01

    Sulfide 'chimneys' characteristic of seafloor hydrothermal venting are diverse microbial habitats. ¹³C/¹²C ratios of microbial lipids have rarely been used to assess carbon assimilation pathways on these structures, despite complementing gene- and culture-based approaches. Here, we integrate analyses of the diversity of intact polar lipids (IPL) and their side-chain δ¹³C values (δ¹³ C(lipid)) with 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny to examine microbial carbon flow on active and inactive sulfide structures from the Manus Basin. Surficial crusts of active structures, dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria, yield bacterial δ¹³C(lipid) values higher than biomass δ¹³C (total organic carbon), implicating autotrophy via the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our data also suggest δ¹³C(lipid) values vary on individual active structures without accompanying microbial diversity changes. Temperature and/or dissolved substrate effects - likely relating to variable advective-diffusive fluxes to chimney exteriors - may be responsible for differing ¹³C fractionation during assimilation. In an inactive structure, δ¹³C(lipid) values lower than biomass δ¹³C and a distinctive IPL and 16S rRNA gene diversity suggest a shift to a more diverse community and an alternate carbon assimilation pathway after venting ceases. We discuss here the potential of IPL and δ¹³C(lipid) analyses to elucidate carbon flow in hydrothermal structures when combined with other molecular tools.

  2. Diffused vs. Focused Flow - Metaproteogenomic Insights into Effects of Hydrothermal Fluid Flow on Metal-Sulfide Chimney Colonizing Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pjevac, P.; Markert, S.; Richter, M.; Gruber-Vodicka, H.; Schweder, T.; Amann, R.; Meyerdierks, A.

    2014-12-01

    At many sites of hydrothermal discharge in the deep-sea, the deposition of metal sulfides from hydrothermal fluids leads to the formation of geological structures known as hydrothermal chimneys. The mixing of reduced hydrothermal fluids with oxygenated seawater leads to the formation of steep redox gradients within the chimney walls. These gradients facilitate the co-existence of metabolically diverse microorganisms in the narrow habitable zone of hydrothermal chimney walls. However, the overall composition of chimney-associated microbial community is usually of low complexity and represents an environment suitable for metaomic-based studies. We used metagenomic and metaproteomic tools to compare microbial communities colonizing two metal-sulfide chimneys from the Manus Basin back-arc spreading center in the Bismarck Sea off Papua New Guinea. These chimneys were supplied by the same source hydrothermal fluids, but exhibited different fluid flow regimes. One chimney (RMR5) had a focused venting edifice, while the other (RMR-D) displayed diffuse fluid efflux on its entire outer surface. Although the microbial diversity of both chimneys is similar and dominated by mesophilic Epsilonproteobacteria, our results indicate a strong structuring effect of hydrothermal fluid flow regime on chimney-associated biofilms. The microbial community composition indicates a homogeneous colonization of the diffuse chimney walls. In contrast, the walls of the focused venting chimney appear to be colonized in layers reflecting different temperature tolerances of the dominant microorganisms. Sulfide-oxidation is likely the key metabolism in both chimneys, which is in line with the high sulfide content of the source hydrothermal fluid. However, preliminary metaproteome analysis indicates high activity of low-abundant methanotrophic Bacteria in the diffuser chimney walls. This finding is particularly interesting in light of the very low methane content of the source hydrothermal fluid

  3. Replacive sulfide formation in anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Catharina; Bach, Wolfgang; Plümper, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal flow within the oceanic crust is an important process for the exchange of energy and mass between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Infiltrated seawater heats up and interacts with wall rock, causing mineral replacement reactions. These play a large role in the formation of ore deposits; at the discharge zone, a hot, acidic and metal-rich potential ore fluid exits the crust. It mixes with seawater and forms chimneys, built up of sulfate minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4), which are subsequently replaced by sulfide minerals. Sulfide formation is related to fluid pathways, defined by cracks and pores in the sulfate chimney. Over time, these systems might develop into massive sulfide deposits. The big question is then: how is sulfate-sulfide replacement related to the evolution of rock porosity? To address this question, sulfide-bearing anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field (Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) were studied using X-ray tomography, EMPA, FIB-SEM and -TEM. The apparently massive anhydrite turns out highly porous on the micro scale, with sulfide minerals in anhydrite cleavage planes and along grain boundaries. The size of the sulfide grains relates to the pores they grew into, suggesting a tight coupling between dissolution (porosity generation) and growth of replacive minerals. Some of the sulfide grains are hollow and apparently used the dissolving anhydrite as a substrate to start growth in a pore. Another mode of sulfide development is aggregates of euhedral pyrite cores surrounded by colloform chalcopyrite. This occurrence implies that fluid pathways have remained open for some time to allow several stages of precipitation during fluid evolution. To start the replacement and to keep it going, porosity generation is crucial. Our samples show that dissolution of anhydrite occurred along pathways where fluid could enter, such as cleavage planes and grain boundaries. It appears that fluids ascending within the inner

  4. A novel large filamentous deltaproteobacterium on hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimneys of the Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shingo; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Unusual large filamentous bacteria (LFB) have been found on the deep seafloor environments. They play a significant role in geochemical cycling in the dark environments. However, our knowledge of the spatial distribution and phylogenetic diversity of the LFB on the deep seafloor are still limited due to the inaccessibility to these environments. Here, we report the discovery of a novel LFB on a hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimney in a deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Southern Mariana Trough. Light and electron microscopic observation showed that the width and total length of the LFB were >8 μm and >100 μm, respectively, of which morphology was similar to that of other known LFB such as "cable bacteria" of the Desulfobulbaceae. Analyses of a 16S rRNA gene clone library and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this LFB belongs to the Desulfobulbaceae. The 16S rRNA gene of the LFB showed 94% similarity to those of the reported cable bacteria and cultured deltaproteobacterial species, suggesting that the LFB is a novel cable bacterium of the Desulfobulbaceae. The novel LFB potentially play a role in sulfur cycling on sulfide chimneys at the hydrothermally ceasing or even ceased deep-sea hydrothermal fields.

  5. Compositions, growth mechanisms, and temporal realtions of hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate-silica chimneys at the northern Cleft segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Randolph A.; Jonasson, Ian R.; Kadko, David C.; Smith, Virginia K.; Wong, Florence L.

    1994-03-01

    Three active hydrothermal vents forming sulfide mounds and chimneys (Monolith, Fountain, and Pipe Organ) and more widely distributed inactive chimneys are spatially related to a system of discontinuous fissures and young sheet flow lavas at the northern Cleft segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. The formation of zoned tubular Curich chimneys (type I) on the Monolith sulfide mound is related to focused flow of high-temperature (to 328 C) fluid. Bulbous chimneys (type II or 'beehives') at the Monolith and Fountain vents are products of diffuse high-temperature (to 315 C) discharge. A broader zone of vigorous mixing between the hydrothermal fluid and seawater results in quench crystallization of anhydrite-rich shells. Columnar Zn-sulfide-rich chimneys with narrow channelways (type III) are constructed where focused and relatively low-temperature (261 C) fluid vents directly from the basalt substrate. The bulk chemistry (low Cu; high Pb, Ag, and SiO2 contents), mineralogy (pyrite-marcasite-wurtzite-amorphous silica-anglesite), colloform and filamentous textures, and oxygen isotope characteristics of inactive (type IV) chimneys indicate a low-temperature (less than 250 C) origin involving diffuse and sluggish flow patterns and conductive cooling. Seafloor observations and Pb-210 data indicate that (1) type IV chimneys are products of an earlier period of hydrothermal activity that ended no more than 60 years ago but prior to the sheet flow eruption; (2) the high-temperature Monolith and Fountain vents are manifestations of the same heating event (shallow emplacement of magma) that led to the sheet flow eruption and recent megaplumes; and (3) the Pipe Organ Vent is in a very youthful stage of development, and chimney deposition postdates the sheet flow eruption.

  6. Tin-bearing chalcopyrite and platinum-bearing bismuthinite in the active Tiger sulfide chimney, Yonaguni Knoll IV seafloor hydrothermal system, Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gena, K.; Kase, K.; Chiba, H.; Nakashima, K.

    2005-12-01

    The active submarine hydrothermal field at the Yonaguni Knoll IV is located in the southern Okinawa Trough, behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system, Japan. This field consists of seven active hydrothermal venting sites (Mosquito chimney, Carp Chimney, Abyss vent, Shallow Chimney, Tiger Chimney, Lion Chimney, Crystal Chimney) which are hosted by thick sediments and an underlying felsic volcanic rock of rhyolitic composition. The sulfides from the flank of the Tiger chimney consist of chalcopyrite, bismuthinite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite and gangue mineral of anhydrite which is slightly different to the mineral assemblage of sphalerite, pyrite, wurtzite, chalcopyrite, galena, tennanite-tetrahedrite series, stibnite, As-Sb-Tl-Hg-S bearing phase, bornite, covellite, nukundamite, alabandite and gangue minerals of barite, anhydrite, calcite, and rhodocrosite seen in the other chimneys in this field. Electron microprobe analysis of the chalcopyrite and bismuthinite from the flank of the Tiger chimney, indicates that the chalcopyrite and bismuthinite contain significantly high tin (0.51 to 2.40wt.% Sn, n = 16 ) and platinum (1.30 to 1.69 wt.% Pt, n = 9)respectively and are quite different to the sulfide chemistry of the other chimneys in this field The high Sn and Pt content in chalcopyrite and bismuthinite respectively, are significantly high and has never been reported previously for the submarine hydrothermal systems. The high Sn content in chalcopyrite confirms that the Sn enters the chalcopyrite as a solid solution towards stannite by the coupled substitution of Sn4+Fe2+ for Fe3+Fe3+ while the high Pt content in bismuthinite might indicate that Pt probably enters the bismuthinite by interstitial substitution of Pt2+Cu1+ for Bi3+ although very limited published data is available to verify this observation. Fluid inclusion data of anhydrite (297-313°C) and measured end-member temperature of the vent fluid (325°C) does not exceed 400°C. Previous experimental studies

  7. Impact of the Colonization by Paralvinella sulfincola on the Microbial Diversity Associated with a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Sulfide Chimney (Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, A.; Juniper, K.; Olagnon, M.; Alain, K.; Desrosiers, G.; Querellou, J.; Cambon-Bonavita, M.

    2002-12-01

    In the early stages of high temperature deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys growth, the walls remain porous and allow the escape of hydrothermal fluids as well as an inflow of seawater. This gradual mixing creates sharp thermal and geochemical gradients and provides potential habitats for physiologically diverse microorganisms. The annelid polychaete Paralvinella sulfincola colonizes the external surfaces of these structures, covering them with layered mucous tubes that locally alter the mixing of discharged hydrothermal fluids and surrounding seawater. Modifications of the physical and chemical conditions combined with an accumulation of elemental sulfur (S0) in P. sulfincola mucous tube are thought to be responsible for the deposition of a thin marcassite (FeS2) crust on outer surfaces of anhydrite chimneys (Juniper et al. 1992). This marcassite deposition could partly be induced by a shift in the composition of microbial communities that would to be locally associated with the presence of P. sulfincola. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the impact of the colonization by P. sulfincola on the microbial communities present at the surface of an active sulfide chimney. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes were amplified from DNA extracted from a P. sulfincola tube and from a chimney mineral sample. Using the statistical analysis demonstrated by Singleton et al. (2001), both clone libraries from the chimney sample have been shown to be significantly different from those of the P. sulfincola tube sample, even though the major phylogenetic groups of these libraries were similar. As it has been observed at other deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites, the Epsilon-Proteobacteria and the Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotic Group 1 were the dominant components of both bacterial and archaeal clone libraries. These results seem to indicate that P. sulfincola affect the microbial community composition on high temperature chimneys.

  8. Abundances of Hyperthermophilic Autotrophic Fe(III) Oxide Reducers and Heterotrophs in Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimneys of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ver Eecke, Helene C.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Holden, James F.

    2009-01-01

    The abundances of hyperthermophilic heterotrophs, methanogens, and autotrophic reducers of amorphous Fe(III) oxide in 18 samples of deep-sea hydrothermal vent sulfide chimneys of the Endeavour Segment were measured. The results indicate that conditions favor the growth of iron reducers toward the interiors of these deposits and that of heterotrophs toward the outer surfaces near high-temperature polychaete worms (Paralvinella sulfincola). PMID:18978076

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus sp. Strain ST04, Isolated from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimney on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Holden, James F.; Seo, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hakdong; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Wooki; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2012-01-01

    Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level (polysaccharide utilization at high temperature and ATP generation by a Na+ gradient), the genome of strain ST04 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence analysis results of Pyrococcus sp. ST04 and report the major findings from the genome annotation, with a focus on its saccharolytic and metabolite production potential. PMID:22843576

  10. Complete genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Holden, James F; Seo, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hakdong; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Wooki; Ryu, Sangryeol; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2012-08-01

    Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level (polysaccharide utilization at high temperature and ATP generation by a Na(+) gradient), the genome of strain ST04 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence analysis results of Pyrococcus sp. ST04 and report the major findings from the genome annotation, with a focus on its saccharolytic and metabolite production potential.

  11. Complete genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Holden, James F; Seo, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hakdong; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Wooki; Ryu, Sangryeol; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2012-08-01

    Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level (polysaccharide utilization at high temperature and ATP generation by a Na(+) gradient), the genome of strain ST04 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence analysis results of Pyrococcus sp. ST04 and report the major findings from the genome annotation, with a focus on its saccharolytic and metabolite production potential. PMID:22843576

  12. Influence of a tube-building polychaete on hydrothermal chimney mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Juniper, S.K. ); Jonasson, I.R. ); Tunnicliffe, V. ); Southward, A.J. )

    1992-10-01

    High-temperature chimneys on the Juan de Fuca Ridge are the preferred habitat of the 'sulfide worm' (Paralvinella n. sp.). An investigation of interactions between the biology of the sulfide worm and chimney mineralization has led to a hypothesis linking formation of marcasite-pyrite crusts on chimney surfaces to colonization and tube-building by the worms. Marcasite precipitation beneath worm tubes and worm migration to newly formed areas of chimney together create a moving front of biomineralization that keeps pace with chimney growth. Sulfide oxidation by this organism can potentially produce enough S to form the FeS[sub 2] crusts. The marcasite-pyrite crusts act as a sealing layer within the outer chimney wall, reducing inflow of cold seawater or outflow of hydrothermal fluid. This may enhance temperature increases within the chimney conduit and hasten replacement of the early anhydrite matrix in the chimney wall by higher temperature sulfides.

  13. Modeling microbial reaction rates in a submarine hydrothermal vent chimney wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, Douglas E.; Dale, Andrew W.; Aguilera, David R.; L'Heureux, Ivan; Amend, Jan P.; Regnier, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The fluids emanating from active submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys provide a window into subseafloor processes and, through mixing with seawater, are responsible for steep thermal and compositional gradients that provide the energetic basis for diverse biological communities. Although several models have been developed to better understand the dynamic interplay of seawater, hydrothermal fluid, minerals and microorganisms inside chimney walls, none provide a fully integrated approach to quantifying the biogeochemistry of these hydrothermal systems. In an effort to remedy this, a fully coupled biogeochemical reaction-transport model of a hydrothermal vent chimney has been developed that explicitly quantifies the rates of microbial catalysis while taking into account geochemical processes such as fluid flow, solute transport and oxidation-reduction reactions associated with fluid mixing as a function of temperature. The metabolisms included in the reaction network are methanogenesis, aerobic oxidation of hydrogen, sulfide and methane and sulfate reduction by hydrogen and methane. Model results indicate that microbial catalysis is generally fastest in the hottest habitable portion of the vent chimney (77-102 °C), and methane and sulfide oxidation peak near the seawater-side of the chimney. The fastest metabolisms are aerobic oxidation of H2 and sulfide and reduction of sulfate by H2 with maximum rates of 140, 900 and 800 pmol cm-3 d-1, respectively. The maximum rate of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is just under 0.03 pmol cm-3 d-1, the slowest of the metabolisms considered. Due to thermodynamic inhibition, there is no anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate (AOM). These simulations are consistent with vent chimney metabolic activity inferred from phylogenetic data reported in the literature. The model developed here provides a quantitative approach to describing the rates of biogeochemical transformations in hydrothermal systems and can be used to constrain the

  14. Quantifying metabolic rates in submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys: A reaction transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Dale, A.; Aguilera, D.; Amend, J. P.; Regnier, P.

    2012-12-01

    The fluids emanating from active submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys provide a window into subseafloor processes and, through mixing with seawater, are responsible for steep thermal and compositional gradients that provide the energetic basis for diverse biological communities. Although several models have been developed to better understand the dynamic interplay of seawater, hydrothermal fluid, minerals and microorganisms inside chimney walls, none provide a fully integrated approach to quantifying the biogeochemistry of these hydrothermal systems. In an effort to remedy this, a fully coupled biogeochemical reaction transport model of a hydrothermal vent chimney has been developed that explicitly quantifies the rate of microbial catalysis while taking into account geochemical processes such as fluid flow, solute transport and oxidation-reduction reactions associated with fluid mixing as a function of temperature. Methanogenesis, hydrogen oxidation by oxygen and sulfate, sulfide oxidation by oxygen and methane oxidation by oxygen and sulfate are the metabolisms included in the reaction network. Model results indicate that microbial catalysis is fastest in the hottest habitable portion of the vent chimney except for methane oxidation by oxygen, which peaks near the seawater-side of the chimney at 20 nmol /cm^3 yr. The dominant metabolisms in the chimney are hydrogen oxidation by sulfate and oxygen and sulfide oxidation at peak rates 3200 , 300 and 900 nmol /cm^3 yr, respectively. The maximum rate of hydrogenotrophic methanogensis is just under 0.07 nmol /cm^3 yr, the slowest of the metabolisms considered. Due to thermodynamic inhibition, there is no anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate (AOM). The model developed here provides a quantitative approach to understanding the rates of biogeochemical transformations in hydrothermal systems and can be used to better understand the role of microbial activity in the deep subsurface.

  15. Marine diagenesis of hydrothermal sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Moammar, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to discuss the artificial and natural oxidation and hydrolysis of hydrothermal sulfide upon interaction with normal seawater. Synthetic and natural ferrosphalerite particles used in kinetic oxidation and hydrolysis studies in seawater develop dense, crystalline coatings consisting of ordered and ferrimagnetic delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH. Due to the formation of this reactive diffusion barrier, the release of Zn into solution decreases rapidly, and sulfide oxidation is reduced to a low rate determined by the diffusion of oxygen through the oxyhydroxide film. This also acts as an efficient solvent for ions such as Zn/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and possibly Cd/sup 2 +/, which contribute to the stabilization of the delta-FeOOH structure. The oxidation of sulfide occurs in many seafloor spreading areas, such as 21/sup 0/N on the East Pacific Ridge. In these areas the old surface of the sulfide chimneys are found to be covered by an orange stain, and sediment near the base of nonactive vents is also found to consist of what has been referred to as amorphous iron oxide and hydroxide. This thesis also discusses the exceedingly low solubility of zinc in seawater, from delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH and the analogous phase (zinc-ferrihydroxide) and the zinc exchange minerals, 10-A manganate and montmorillonite. The concentrations of all four are of the same magnitude (16, 36.4, and 12 nM, respectively) as the zinc concentration in deep ocean water (approx. 10 nM), which suggests that manganates and montmorillonite with iron oxyhydroxides control zinc concentration in the deep ocean.

  16. Incidence and Diversity of Microorganisms within the Walls of an Active Deep-Sea Sulfide Chimney

    PubMed Central

    Schrenk, Matthew O.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Delaney, John R.; Baross, John A.

    2003-01-01

    A large, intact sulfide chimney, designated Finn, was recovered from the Mothra Vent Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in 1998. Finn was venting 302°C fluids on the seafloor and contained complex mineralogical zones surrounding a large open central conduit. Examination of microorganisms within these zones, followed by community analysis with oligonucleotide probes, showed that there were variations in the abundance and diversity of eubacteria and archaea from the exterior to the interior of the chimney. The microbial abundance based upon epifluorescence microscopy and quantitative fatty acid analyses varied from >108 cells/g of sulfide 2 to 10 cm within the chimney wall to <105 cells/g in interior zones. Direct microscopic observation indicated that microorganisms were attached to mineral surfaces throughout the structure. Whole-cell hybridization results revealed that there was a transition from a mixed community of eubacteria and archaea near the cool exterior of the chimney to primarily archaea near the warm interior. Archaeal diversity was examined in three zones of Finn by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of sequences from the exterior of the chimney were related to marine group I of the Crenarchaeota and uncultured Euryarchaeota from benthic marine environments. In contrast, clone libraries from interior regions of the chimney contained sequences closely related to methanogens, Thermococcales, and Archaeoglobales, in addition to uncultured crenarchaeal phylotypes obtained from deep subsurface sites. These observations of microbial communities within an active hydrothermal chimney provide insight into the microbial ecology within such structures and may facilitate follow-up exploration into expanding the known upper temperature limits of life. PMID:12788766

  17. Linkages between mineralogy, fluid chemistry, and microbial communities within hydrothermal chimneys from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. J.; Ver Eecke, H. C.; Breves, E. A.; Dyar, M. D.; Jamieson, J. W.; Hannington, M. D.; Dahle, H.; Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.; Butterfield, D. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Lilley, M. D.; Baross, J. A.; Holden, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Rock and fluid samples were collected from three hydrothermal chimneys at the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge to evaluate linkages among mineralogy, fluid chemistry, and microbial community composition within the chimneys. Mössbauer, midinfrared thermal emission, and visible-near infrared spectroscopies were utilized for the first time to characterize vent mineralogy, in addition to thin-section petrography, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analyses. A 282°C venting chimney from the Bastille edifice was composed primarily of sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite, marcasite, and sphalerite. In contrast, samples from a 300°C venting chimney from the Dante edifice and a 321°C venting chimney from the Hot Harold edifice contained a high abundance of the sulfate mineral anhydrite. Geochemical modeling of mixed vent fluids suggested the oxic-anoxic transition zone was above 100°C at all three vents, and that the thermodynamic energy available for autotrophic microbial redox reactions favored aerobic sulfide and methane oxidation. As predicted, microbes within the Dante and Hot Harold chimneys were most closely related to mesophilic and thermophilic aerobes of the Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria. However, most of the microbes within the Bastille chimney were most closely related to mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobes of the Deltaproteobacteria, especially sulfate reducers, and anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea. The predominance of anaerobes in the Bastille chimney indicated that other environmental factors promote anoxic conditions. Possibilities include the maturity or fluid flow characteristics of the chimney, abiotic Fe2+ and S2- oxidation in the vent fluids, or O2 depletion by aerobic respiration on the chimney outer wall.

  18. Phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-utilizing genes in hydrothermal chimneys from 3 middle ocean ridges.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Shao, Zongze; Li, Jiangtao; Zhang, Weipeng; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen-metabolizing genes, including nitrogenase (nifH), periplasmic nitrate reductase (napA), and cytochrome cd 1-type nitrite reductase (nirS), were collected from hydrothermal chimney sulfides on 3 middle ocean ridges and compared for the first time. There was a clear phylogenetic distinction of these nifH genes between different hydrothermal ecosystems, which supported the colonization and potential adaptation by different nitrogen fixing microbes in those sulfides. In particular, in sulfides from low-temperature hydrothermal vents of the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, the prevalence of nifH genes appears to be attributed to sulfate-reducing bacteria, suggesting their ecological significance. Phylogenetic analysis of nitrate/nitrite reductase genes indicated that nitrate was a critical electron acceptor for sulfur- or metal-oxidizing bacteria in these hydrothermal ecosystems. Our results provided information about the compositions and diversity of the 3 important genes involved in nitrogen fixation and nitrate/nitrite reduction processes in hydrothermal ecosystems and is the first comprehensive genetic repertoire of genes related to potential nitrogen fixation and denitrification processes in various hydrothermal environments. PMID:26369648

  19. Phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-utilizing genes in hydrothermal chimneys from 3 middle ocean ridges.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Shao, Zongze; Li, Jiangtao; Zhang, Weipeng; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen-metabolizing genes, including nitrogenase (nifH), periplasmic nitrate reductase (napA), and cytochrome cd 1-type nitrite reductase (nirS), were collected from hydrothermal chimney sulfides on 3 middle ocean ridges and compared for the first time. There was a clear phylogenetic distinction of these nifH genes between different hydrothermal ecosystems, which supported the colonization and potential adaptation by different nitrogen fixing microbes in those sulfides. In particular, in sulfides from low-temperature hydrothermal vents of the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, the prevalence of nifH genes appears to be attributed to sulfate-reducing bacteria, suggesting their ecological significance. Phylogenetic analysis of nitrate/nitrite reductase genes indicated that nitrate was a critical electron acceptor for sulfur- or metal-oxidizing bacteria in these hydrothermal ecosystems. Our results provided information about the compositions and diversity of the 3 important genes involved in nitrogen fixation and nitrate/nitrite reduction processes in hydrothermal ecosystems and is the first comprehensive genetic repertoire of genes related to potential nitrogen fixation and denitrification processes in various hydrothermal environments.

  20. Mackinawite and greigite in ancient alkaline hydrothermal chimneys: Identifying potential key catalysts for emergent life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Lauren M.; Bhartia, Rohit; Stucky, Galen D.; Kanik, Isik; Russell, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    One model for the emergence of life posits that ancient, low temperature, submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents, partly composed of iron-sulfides, were capable of catalyzing the synthesis of prebiotic organic molecules from CO2, H2 and CH4. Specifically, hydrothermal mackinawite (FeIIS) and greigite (FeIIFeIII2S4) have been highlighted in previous studies as analogs of the active centers of hydrogenase, ferredoxin, acetyl coenzyme-A synthase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase featured in the biochemistry of certain autotrophic prokaryotes that occupy the base of the evolutionary tree. Despite the proposed importance of iron sulfide minerals and clusters in the synthesis of abiotic organic molecules, the mechanisms for the formation of these sulfides from solution and their preservation under the anoxic and low temperature (below 100 °C) conditions expected in off-axis submarine alkaline vent systems is not well understood (Bourdoiseau et al., 2011; Rickard and Luther, 2007). To rectify this, single hydrothermal chimneys were precipitated using a unique apparatus to simulate growth at hydrothermal vents of moderate temperature under supposed Hadean ocean-bottom conditions. Iron sulfide phases were observed through Raman spectroscopy at growth temperatures ranging from 40° to 80 °C. Fe(III)-containing mackinawite is confirmed to be present with mackinawite and greigite, supporting an FeIII-mackinawite intermediate mechanism for the transformation of mackinawite to greigite below 100 °C. Raman spectroscopy of the chimneys revealed a maximum yield of greigite at 75 °C. These results suggest abiotic production of catalytically active mackinawite and greigite are possible under early Earth hydrothermal conditions as well as on other wet, rocky worlds geochemically similar to the Earth.

  1. Geochemical studies on the biodiversity and hydrothermal activity; mineralogy, chemistry, and age determination of hydrothermal chimney collected from Suiyo seamount, Izu-Bonin arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, T.; Oomori, T.; Taira, N.; Takada, J.; Urabe, T.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrothermal chimney structure has the steep environmental gradients of temperature, redox potential, pH and chemical concentration, which will provide diverse microhabitats for microbial communities (K.Takai et al. 2001, Hermie J.M. Harmsen et al. 1997). It is important for detailed understanding of the biodiversity to determine the chimney structural environment. Suiyo seamount is located 28.57° N, 140.66° E, where is suitable to compare with the Mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal field, because of few influence of terrestrial sediment. It was reported that the magma chamber below the seamount was very shallow ( ˜1 km), and high temperature hydrothermal fluid chamber was underlying just below the seafloor sealed with anhydrite and barite. Chimney samples used in this study were collected by Dive 1222-1225 of SHINKAI 2000 (JAMSTEC) in 2000. We measured the chemical composition with neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), mineral composition with X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and the precipitation age measurements ( ˜200 years) of these chimneys with γ -ray spectrometry (210Pb/Pb method, 228Th/228Ra method, and 210Pb/226Ra method). The mineral composition of the Suiyo seamount chimney were contained barite (BaSO4), sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S), pyrite (FeS2), and chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) as a major mineral constituents. The chemical composition shows that gold contents in the chimney collected from Suiyo seamount were much higher (maximum 166 ppm) than other hydrothermal field. The chronological study showed that the precipitation ages of sulfide chimney samples (ranged in 37.2-79.6 years before 2002 by 210Pb/Pb method) were older than barite chimney ((ranged in 2.9-8.2 years before 2002 by 228Th/228Ra method). We will discuss about the process of chimney formation, the temporal variation of the past hydrothermal activity and the difference from other submarine hydrothermal fields (EPR, MAR, Okinawa trough, Loihi seamount).

  2. Sulfur isotope study of chimney minerals and vent fluids from 21°N, East Pacific Rise: Hydrothermal sulfur sources and disequilibrium sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    1988-05-01

    Sulfur isotopic analyses of hydrothermal chimneys and coexisting fluids collected from hot vent areas at 21°N, East Pacific Rise, indicate δ34S values for sulfide minerals of 0.9-6.2‰ and for aqueous H2S of 1.3-5.5‰. The chemical processes resulting in mineral zoning of chimney structures are a controlling influence on 34S variation within individual chimneys. In general, coarsely crystalline chalcopyrite, which lines chimney interiors, is depleted in δ34S relative to exterior ZnS (either sphalerite or wurtzite). Chalcopyrite which formed by replacement of other sulfides has higher sulfur isotope values than chalcopyrite which precipitated directly from hydrothermal fluid. Bornite and other Cu-rich sulfides, which occur as thin layers replacing the outer margins of massive chalcopyrite zones, have the highest δ34S values of any 21°N samples, ranging from 5.2‰ to 6.2‰. The significant 34S enrichment in bornite requires reduction of isotopically heavy seawater-derived sulfate in the chimney walls. Vent fluid δ34SH2S values are similar to δ34S values of inner wall chimney sulfides for seven of 11 samples. In other samples, aqueous H2S is enriched isotopically in δ34S compared with coexisting sulfides, suggesting admixture of H2S derived from reduced seawater sulfate. The δ34S value of end-member hydrothermal fluid at 21°N is about 1.0-1.5‰, which is somewhat higher than basaltic sulfide, the main source of sulfur in the hydrothermal system. This 34S enrichment apparently is due to sulfate reduction in the deep hydrothermal system during conversion of basaltic pyrrhotite to pyrite. The South West (SW) vent field has significantly higher average δ34S values (3.1‰) compared with the other 21°N vent fields. The SW field is situated on the edge of a lava collapse structure, promoting development of an extensive feeder zone which is the site of near-surface sulfate reduction during redissolution of previously deposited anhydrite. The δ34S values for

  3. An estimate of hydrothermal fluid residence times and vent chimney growth rates based on 210Pb Pb ratios and mineralogic studies of sulfides dredged from the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kadko, D.; Koski, R.; Tatsumoto, M.; Bouse, R.

    1985-01-01

    The 210Pb Pb ratios across two sulfide samples dredged from the Juan de Fuca Ridge are used to estimate the growth rate of the sulfide material and the residence time of the hydrothermal fluid within the oceanic crust from the onset of basalt alteration. 210Pb is added to the hydrothermal fluid by two processes: (1) high-temperature alteration of basalt and (2) if the residence time of the fluid is on the order of the 22.3-year half-life of 210Pb, by in-situ growth from 222Rn (Krishnaswami and Turekian, 1982). Stable lead is derived only from the alteration of basalt. The 210Pb Pb ratio across one sample was ??? 0.5 dpm/10-6 g Pb, and across the other it was ??? 0.4 dpm/10-6 g Pb. These values are quite close to the 238U Pb ratios of basalts from the area, suggesting that the residence time of the hydrothermal fluid from the onset of basalt alteration is appreciably less than the mean life of 210Pb, i.e., the time required for ingrowth from the radon. An apparent growth rate of 1.2 cm/yr is derived from the slope of the 210Pb Pb curve for one of the samples. This is consistent with its mineralogy and texture which suggest an accretionary pattern of development. There is no obvious sequential growth pattern, and virtually no gradient in 210Pb Pb across the second sample. This is consistent with alteration of the original 210Pb Pb distribution by extensive remobilization reactions which are inferred from the mineralogic and textural relationships of the sample. ?? 1985.

  4. Distribution of trace elements including tellurium, gallium, indium, and select REE in sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are <5 μm in size, although columnar crystals up to 80 μm long have been observed. The tellurides commonly form in bands, cluster in patches, or occur along internal grain boundaries within chalcopyrite. They also are found at the contact between chalcopyrite and pyrite grains. In sulfate layers adjacent to the chalcopyrite zones tellurides can occur as inclusions in anhydrite, barite or pyrite and/or occupy void space within the chimney. One Cu

  5. Hg Isotopic Compositions of Chimneys and Pelagic Sediments at Active Submarine Hydrothermal Field in the Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Marumo, K.; Tomiyasu, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Komuro, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed and highly toxic pollutant in the environment. It is known that a submarine hydrothermal activity is one of the natural processes to emit Hg to marine environment. In order to estimate the degree to which the Hg found in the marine environment is from anthropogenic versus natural sources, it is important to characterize the Hg from the hydrothermal vents. Samples of chimneys and a ~20 cm sediment core, collected by a deep-sea remotely operated vehicle, from Iheya North hydrothermal field in Okinawa Trough, Japan, were analyzed for Hg concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions. Total Hg concentrations of chimneys range between 8.2 and 16.9 mg/kg, whereas seafloor sediment total Hg concentrations are from 3.8 to 34.8 mg/kg. Approximately 0.4 to 1.1 μg/kg of monomethyl Hg (MMHg) was detected in the top 6 cm sediment cores. Hg isotopic compositions (δ202Hg) of chimneys are between -0.30 and -0.96 ‰, whereas δ202Hg values of sediment samples range from -0.85 to -1.60 ‰. Neither chimneys nor sediment samples exhibit the significant mass independent fractionations in Hg isotopes (Δ201Hg > ± 0.10). The chimney δ202Hg values are slightly higher than the δ202Hg values of sediments. This may indicate that the heavier Hg isotopes tend to be incorporated with mercury-bearing sulfides in chimneys, and the lighter isotopes tend to be remained in the hydrothermal fluid and distributed in the surrounding sediments. Also, the sediment samples from the upper portion of cores demonstrate approximately 0.4 - 0.5 ‰ lower δ202Hg values than those from the lower part. This isotopic fractionation may be resulted from a demethylated process of MMHg by microbes. Several studies have previously demonstrated the rapid demethylation of MMHg by microbes in Hg-contaminated aquatic sediments, and range of the isotopic fractionation is similar to that of the experimentally determined isotopic fractionation of MMHg by bacterial reduction

  6. Space-time relations of hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate-silica deposits at the northern Cleft Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, R.A.; Smith, V.K. ); Embley, R.W. ); Jonasson, I.R. ); Kadko, D.C. . Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science)

    1993-04-01

    Submersible investigations along the northern Cleft Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicate that a newly erupted sheet flow and two recent megaplume events are spatially related to a NNE-trending fissure system that is now the locus for active hydrothermal venting and deposition of massive sulfide mounds and chimneys. Samples from active high-temperature vent sites located east and north of the sheet flow terrain include zoned Cu-sulfide-rich chimneys (Type 1), bulbous anhydrite-rich chimneys (Type 2), and columnar Zn-sulfide-rich chimneys (Type 3). Type 1 chimneys with large open channelways result from the focused discharge of fluid at temperatures between 310 and 328 C from the Monolith sulfide mound. Type 2 chimneys are constructed on the Monolith and Fountain mounds where discharge of fluid at temperatures between 293 and 315 C is diffuse and sluggish. Type 3 chimneys, characterized by twisting narrow channelways, are deposited from focused and relatively low-temperature fluid discharging directly from basalt substrate. Inactive sulfide chimneys (Type 4) located within 100 m of the fissure system have bulk compositions, mineral assemblages, colloform and bacteroidal textures, and oxygen isotope characteristics consistent with low-temperature (< 250 C ) deposition from less robust vents. Field relations and [sup 210]Pb ages (> 100 years) indicate that the Type 4 chimneys formed prior to the sheet flow eruption. The sulfide mounds and Type 1 and Type 2 chimneys at the Monolith and Fountain vents, however, are an expression of the same magmatic event that caused the sheet flow eruption and megaplume events.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in active deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structures.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken; Horikoshi, Koki

    2004-03-19

    The phylogenetic diversity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes occurring in active deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney structures was characterized based on the deduced amino acid sequence analysis of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene. The DSR genes were successfully amplified from microbial assemblages of the chimney structures, derived from three geographically and geologically distinct deep-sea hydrothermal systems in the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), in the Izu-Bonin Arc (IBA), and the Okinawa Trough (OT), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed seven major phylogenetic groups. More than half of the clones from the CIR chimney structure were related to DSR amino acid sequences of the hyperthermophilic archaeal members of the genus Archaeoglobus, and those of environmental DSR clones within the class Thermodesulfobacteria. From the OT chimney structure, a different group was obtained, which comprised a novel, deep lineage associated with the DSRs of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium Thermodesulfovibrio. Most of the DSR clones from the IBA chimney structure were phylogenetically associated with the delta-proteobacterial sulfate-reducing bacteria represented by the genus Desulfobulbus. Sequence analysis of DSR clones demonstrated a diverse sulfate-reducing prokaryotic community in the active deep-sea hydrothermal chimney structures.

  8. Geology, sulfide geochemistry and supercritical venting at the Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field, Cayman Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.

    2015-09-01

    The Beebe Vent Field (BVF) is the world's deepest known hydrothermal system, at 4960 m below sea level. Located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean, the BVF hosts high temperature (˜401°C) "black smoker" vents that build Cu, Zn and Au-rich sulfide mounds and chimneys. The BVF is highly gold-rich, with Au values up to 93 ppm and an average Au:Ag ratio of 0.15. Gold precipitation is directly associated with diffuse flow through "beehive" chimneys. Significant mass-wasting of sulfide material at the BVF, accompanied by changes in metal content, results in metaliferous talus and sediment deposits. Situated on very thin (2-3 km thick) oceanic crust, at an ultraslow spreading centre, the hydrothermal system circulates fluids to a depth of ˜1.8 km in a basement that is likely to include a mixture of both mafic and ultramafic lithologies. We suggest hydrothermal interaction with chalcophile-bearing sulfides in the mantle rocks, together with precipitation of Au in beehive chimney structures, has resulted in the formation of a Au-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit. With its spatial distribution of deposit materials and metal contents, the BVF represents a modern day analogue for basalt hosted, Au-rich VMS systems.

  9. Novel insights into methane cycling, lateral gene transfer, and the rare biosphere within carbonate chimneys of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazelton, W. J.; Ludwig, K. A.; Schrenk, M. O.; Kelley, D. S.; Sogin, M. L.; Baross, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field, an ultramafic-hosted system located 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has experienced at least 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity. Previous studies have shown that its carbonate chimneys form by mixing of ~90°C, pH 9-11 hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Flow of methane and hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fluids through the carbonate chimneys supports dense microbial biofilm communities. This presentation will describe recent studies using new techniques that have provided greater insight into the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of Lost City chimneys. We have investigated the archaeal and bacterial communities of Lost City carbonate chimneys that vary in age between ~30 and ~1200 years, as determined by U-Th isotope systematics. Using next-generation pyrosequencing technology, we collected >200,000 sequences of the V6 region of 16S rRNA genes. This extremely deep sequencing effort enabled detection of very rare organisms as well as abundant organisms detected by previous studies. The taxonomic composition of the archaeal and bacterial communities clearly differed in chimneys of different ages, and many of the rare sequences in young chimneys were more abundant in older chimneys, indicating that members of the rare biosphere can become dominant members of the ecosystem when environmental conditions change. These results suggest that a long history of selection over many cycles of chimney growth has resulted in numerous closely related species at Lost City, each of which is pre-adapted to a particular set of re-occurring environmental conditions. In this model, the rare biosphere can be considered a repository for genes that are not currently advantageous but have been in the past and may be again in the future. Interestingly, metagenomic sequencing at Lost City has indicated the potential for frequent lateral gene transfer among organisms inhabiting the chimney biofilms. Specifically, the Lost City metagenomic dataset

  10. Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys with contrasting chemistries

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Wang, Fengping; Guo, Lei; Chen, Zeling; Sievert, Stefan M; Meng, Jun; Huang, Guangrui; Li, Yuxin; Yan, Qingyu; Wu, Shan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shangwu; He, Guangyuan; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Anlong

    2011-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys harbor a high diversity of largely unknown microorganisms. Although the phylogenetic diversity of these microorganisms has been described previously, the adaptation and metabolic potential of the microbial communities is only beginning to be revealed. A pyrosequencing approach was used to directly obtain sequences from a fosmid library constructed from a black smoker chimney 4143-1 in the Mothra hydrothermal vent field at the Juan de Fuca Ridge. A total of 308 034 reads with an average sequence length of 227 bp were generated. Comparative genomic analyses of metagenomes from a variety of environments by two-way clustering of samples and functional gene categories demonstrated that the 4143-1 metagenome clustered most closely with that from a carbonate chimney from Lost City. Both are highly enriched in genes for mismatch repair and homologous recombination, suggesting that the microbial communities have evolved extensive DNA repair systems to cope with the extreme conditions that have potential deleterious effects on the genomes. As previously reported for the Lost City microbiome, the metagenome of chimney 4143-1 exhibited a high proportion of transposases, implying that horizontal gene transfer may be a common occurrence in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In addition, genes for chemotaxis and flagellar assembly were highly enriched in the chimney metagenomes, reflecting the adaptation of the organisms to the highly dynamic conditions present within the chimney walls. Reconstruction of the metabolic pathways revealed that the microbial community in the wall of chimney 4143-1 was mainly fueled by sulfur oxidation, putatively coupled to nitrate reduction to perform inorganic carbon fixation through the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle. On the basis of the genomic organization of the key genes of the carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways contained in the large genomic fragments, both obligate and facultative

  11. Magnetite formation from ferrihydrite by hyperthermophilic archaea from Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    PubMed

    Lin, T Jennifer; Breves, E A; Dyar, M D; Ver Eecke, H C; Jamieson, J W; Holden, J F

    2014-05-01

    Hyperthermophilic iron reducers are common in hydrothermal chimneys found along the Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean based on culture-dependent estimates. However, information on the availability of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxides within these chimneys, the types of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxides utilized by the organisms, rates and environmental constraints of hyperthermophilic iron reduction, and mineral end products is needed to determine their biogeochemical significance and are addressed in this study. Thin-section petrography on the interior of a hydrothermal chimney from the Dante edifice at Endeavour showed a thin coat of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxide associated with amorphous silica on the exposed outer surfaces of pyrrhotite, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in pore spaces, along with anhydrite precipitation in the pores that is indicative of seawater ingress. The iron sulfide minerals were likely oxidized to Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxide with increasing pH and Eh due to cooling and seawater exposure, providing reactants for bioreduction. Culture-dependent estimates of hyperthermophilic iron reducer abundances in this sample were 1740 and 10 cells per gram (dry weight) of material from the outer surface and the marcasite-sphalerite-rich interior, respectively. Two hyperthermophilic iron reducers, Hyperthermus sp. Ro04 and Pyrodictium sp. Su06, were isolated from other active hydrothermal chimneys on the Endeavour Segment. Strain Ro04 is a neutrophilic (pH opt 7-8) heterotroph, while strain Su06 is a mildly acidophilic (pH opt 5), hydrogenotrophic autotroph, both with optimal growth temperatures of 90-92 °C. Mössbauer spectroscopy of the iron oxides before and after growth demonstrated that both organisms form nanophase (<12 nm) magnetite [Fe3 O4 ] from laboratory-synthesized ferrihydrite [Fe10 O14 (OH)2 ] with no detectable mineral intermediates. They produced up to 40 mm Fe(2+) in a growth-dependent manner, while all abiotic and biotic controls produced <3 mm Fe

  12. Magnetite formation from ferrihydrite by hyperthermophilic archaea from Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    PubMed

    Lin, T Jennifer; Breves, E A; Dyar, M D; Ver Eecke, H C; Jamieson, J W; Holden, J F

    2014-05-01

    Hyperthermophilic iron reducers are common in hydrothermal chimneys found along the Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean based on culture-dependent estimates. However, information on the availability of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxides within these chimneys, the types of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxides utilized by the organisms, rates and environmental constraints of hyperthermophilic iron reduction, and mineral end products is needed to determine their biogeochemical significance and are addressed in this study. Thin-section petrography on the interior of a hydrothermal chimney from the Dante edifice at Endeavour showed a thin coat of Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxide associated with amorphous silica on the exposed outer surfaces of pyrrhotite, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in pore spaces, along with anhydrite precipitation in the pores that is indicative of seawater ingress. The iron sulfide minerals were likely oxidized to Fe(III) (oxyhydr) oxide with increasing pH and Eh due to cooling and seawater exposure, providing reactants for bioreduction. Culture-dependent estimates of hyperthermophilic iron reducer abundances in this sample were 1740 and 10 cells per gram (dry weight) of material from the outer surface and the marcasite-sphalerite-rich interior, respectively. Two hyperthermophilic iron reducers, Hyperthermus sp. Ro04 and Pyrodictium sp. Su06, were isolated from other active hydrothermal chimneys on the Endeavour Segment. Strain Ro04 is a neutrophilic (pH opt 7-8) heterotroph, while strain Su06 is a mildly acidophilic (pH opt 5), hydrogenotrophic autotroph, both with optimal growth temperatures of 90-92 °C. Mössbauer spectroscopy of the iron oxides before and after growth demonstrated that both organisms form nanophase (<12 nm) magnetite [Fe3 O4 ] from laboratory-synthesized ferrihydrite [Fe10 O14 (OH)2 ] with no detectable mineral intermediates. They produced up to 40 mm Fe(2+) in a growth-dependent manner, while all abiotic and biotic controls produced <3 mm Fe

  13. Tellurium-bearing minerals in zoned sulfide chimneys from Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposits of the Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Large, R. R.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Herrington, R. J.; Stanley, C. J.

    2013-02-01

    Tellurium-bearing minerals are generally rare in chimney material from mafic and bimodal felsic volcanic hosted massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, but are abundant in chimneys of the Urals VMS deposits located within Silurian and Devonian bimodal mafic sequences. High physicochemical gradients during chimney growth result in a wide range of telluride and sulfoarsenide assemblages including a variety of Cu-Ag-Te-S and Ag-Pb-Bi-Te solid solution series and tellurium sulfosalts. A change in chimney types from Fe-Cu to Cu-Zn-Fe to Zn-Cu is accompanied by gradual replacement of abundant Fe-, Co, Bi-, and Pb- tellurides by Hg, Ag, Au-Ag telluride and galena-fahlore with native gold assemblages. Decreasing amounts of pyrite, both colloform and pseudomorphic after pyrrhotite, isocubanite ISS and chalcopyrite in the chimneys is coupled with increasing amounts of sphalerite, quatz, barite or talc contents. This trend represents a transition from low- to high sulphidation conditions, and it is observed across a range of the Urals deposits from bimodal mafic- to bimodal felsic-hosted types: Yaman-Kasy → Molodezhnoye → Uzelga → Valentorskoye → Oktyabrskoye → Alexandrinskoye → Tash-Tau → Jusa.

  14. Microbe-Mineral Interactions in Extinct Hydrothermal Chimneys at East Pacific Rise: Spatially-Resolved Chemical and Mineralogical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, B. M.; Santelli, C. M.; Marlow, J. J.; Rouxel, O.; Edwards, K. J.

    2006-12-01

    The mid-ocean ridge system is a 60,000 km seam along the ocean floor where greater than 200 known or suspected sites of hydrothermal venting are present. Hydrothermal processes result in the precipitation of sulfide minerals, which represent an estimated 4.9 kJ (kg vented fluid)-1 of energy to microorganisms capable of growing lithotrophically via oxidation of Fe and S derived from sulfide minerals. Low-temperature seafloor weathering of sulfide minerals represents an important biogeochemical process where chemical energy may harvested from sulfide minerals by primary producers of an ecosystem that is underpinned by chemolithoautotrophy. The role of these microbial communities in deep-sea rock alteration, mineral deposition, and rock-derived primary productivity is largely unknown. Research into these areas presents significant challenges in regard to Fe and S speciation in heterogeneous materials, microbial processes at mineral surfaces, and metabolic processes of uncultured microorganisms. To overcome these challenges and conclusively link microbial processes to biogeochemical cycles, research tools must provide molecular-level chemical speciation, spatially-resolved analyses of geochemical and microbiological features at the mm-, micro-, and nm- scales, in situ measurements of microbial activity, and cultured microorganisms representative of the environment. The focus of this presentation will be on the mineralogical and Fe speciation data obtained from spatially-resolved X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of Fe oxide- encrusted biofilms associated with extinct hydrothermal chimneys at East Pacific Rise 9 o N. Special attention will be given to how this study, and future studies, may select from existing spatially-resolved techniques to describe the interactions among parent minerals, microbial growth, and secondary mineral formation. In addition, the need for methodological development in the area of microbe-mineral interactions will be

  15. Life and death of deep-sea vents: bacterial diversity and ecosystem succession on inactive hydrothermal sulfides.

    PubMed

    Sylvan, Jason B; Toner, Brandy M; Edwards, Katrina J

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal chimneys are a globally dispersed habitat on the seafloor associated with mid-ocean ridge (MOR) spreading centers. Active, hot, venting sulfide structures from MORs have been examined for microbial diversity and ecology since their discovery in the mid-1970s, and recent work has also begun to explore the microbiology of inactive sulfides--structures that persist for decades to millennia and form moderate to massive deposits at and below the seafloor. Here we used tag pyrosequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA and full-length 16S rRNA sequencing on inactive hydrothermal sulfide chimney samples from 9°N on the East Pacific Rise to learn their bacterial composition, metabolic potential, and succession from venting to nonventing (inactive) regimes. Alpha-, beta-, delta-, and gammaproteobacteria and members of the phylum Bacteroidetes dominate all inactive sulfides. Greater than 26% of the V6 tags obtained are closely related to lineages involved in sulfur, nitrogen, iron, and methane cycling. Epsilonproteobacteria represent <4% of the V6 tags recovered from inactive sulfides and 15% of the full-length clones, despite their high abundance in active chimneys. Members of the phylum Aquificae, which are common in active vents, were absent from both the V6 tags and full-length 16S rRNA data sets. In both analyses, the proportions of alphaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria, and members of the phylum Bacteroidetes were greater than those found on active hydrothermal sulfides. These shifts in bacterial population structure on inactive chimneys reveal ecological succession following cessation of venting and also imply a potential shift in microbial activity and metabolic guilds on hydrothermal sulfides, the dominant biome that results from seafloor venting. PMID:22275502

  16. Life and death of deep-sea vents: bacterial diversity and ecosystem succession on inactive hydrothermal sulfides.

    PubMed

    Sylvan, Jason B; Toner, Brandy M; Edwards, Katrina J

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal chimneys are a globally dispersed habitat on the seafloor associated with mid-ocean ridge (MOR) spreading centers. Active, hot, venting sulfide structures from MORs have been examined for microbial diversity and ecology since their discovery in the mid-1970s, and recent work has also begun to explore the microbiology of inactive sulfides--structures that persist for decades to millennia and form moderate to massive deposits at and below the seafloor. Here we used tag pyrosequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA and full-length 16S rRNA sequencing on inactive hydrothermal sulfide chimney samples from 9°N on the East Pacific Rise to learn their bacterial composition, metabolic potential, and succession from venting to nonventing (inactive) regimes. Alpha-, beta-, delta-, and gammaproteobacteria and members of the phylum Bacteroidetes dominate all inactive sulfides. Greater than 26% of the V6 tags obtained are closely related to lineages involved in sulfur, nitrogen, iron, and methane cycling. Epsilonproteobacteria represent <4% of the V6 tags recovered from inactive sulfides and 15% of the full-length clones, despite their high abundance in active chimneys. Members of the phylum Aquificae, which are common in active vents, were absent from both the V6 tags and full-length 16S rRNA data sets. In both analyses, the proportions of alphaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria, and members of the phylum Bacteroidetes were greater than those found on active hydrothermal sulfides. These shifts in bacterial population structure on inactive chimneys reveal ecological succession following cessation of venting and also imply a potential shift in microbial activity and metabolic guilds on hydrothermal sulfides, the dominant biome that results from seafloor venting.

  17. Trace element distribution, with a focus on gold, in copper-rich and zinc-rich sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Brothers volcano is a dacitic volcano located along the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, and hosts the NW Caldera hydrothermal vent field perched on part of the steep caldera walls. The field strikes for ~600 m between depths of 1550 and 1700 m and includes numerous, active, high-temperature (max 302°C) chimneys and even more dead, sulfide-rich spires. Chimney samples collected from Brothers show distinct mineralogical zonation reflecting gradients in oxidation state, temperature, and pH from the inner walls in contact with hydrothermal fluids through to the outer walls in contact with seawater. Minerals deposited from hotter fluids (e.g., chalcopyrite) are located in the interior of the chimneys and are surrounded by an external zone of minerals deposited by cooler fluids (e.g., sulfates, sphalerite). Four chimneys types are identified at Brothers volcano based on the relative proportions of chalcopyrite and sulfate layers, and the presence or absence of anhydrite. Two are Cu-rich, i.e., chalcopyrite-rich and chalcopyrite-bornite-rich chimneys, and two are Zn-rich, i.e., sphalerite-rich and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-rich. Barite and anhydrite are common to both Cu-rich chimney types whereas Zn-rich chimneys contain barite only. The main mineral phases in all the chimneys are anhydrite, barite, chalcopyrite, pyrite/marcasite, and sphalerite. Trace minerals include galena, covellite, tennantite, realgar, chalcocite, bornite, hematite, goethite, Pb-As sulfosalts, and Bi- or Au-tellurides. The vast majority of tellurides are <5 μm in size and they commonly form in bands, cluster in patches, or occur along internal grain boundaries within chalcopyrite. In sulfate layers adjacent to the chalcopyrite zones tellurides can occur as inclusions in anhydrite, barite or pyrite and/or occupy void space within the chimney. The occurrence of specular hematite and Bi- or Au-tellurides associated with chalcopyrite are consistent with magmatic contributions to the NW Caldera vent site

  18. The Guaymas Basin Hiking Guide to Hydrothermal Mounds, Chimneys, and Microbial Mats: Complex Seafloor Expressions of Subsurface Hydrothermal Circulation.

    PubMed

    Teske, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk; McKay, Luke J; Tivey, Margaret K; Biddle, Jennifer F; Hoer, Daniel; Lloyd, Karen G; Lever, Mark A; Røy, Hans; Albert, Daniel B; Mendlovitz, Howard P; MacGregor, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal mats, mounds, and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview, we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and selected geochemical data; many of these distinct habitats await characterization of their microbial communities and activities. Microprofiler deployments on microbial mats and hydrothermal sediments show their steep geochemical and thermal gradients at millimeter-scale vertical resolution. Mapping these hydrothermal features and sampling locations within the southern Guaymas Basin suggest linkages to underlying shallow sills and heat flow gradients. Recognizing the inherent spatial limitations of much current Guaymas Basin sampling calls for comprehensive surveys of the wider spreading region.

  19. The Guaymas Basin Hiking Guide to Hydrothermal Mounds, Chimneys, and Microbial Mats: Complex Seafloor Expressions of Subsurface Hydrothermal Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk; McKay, Luke J.; Tivey, Margaret K.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Hoer, Daniel; Lloyd, Karen G.; Lever, Mark A.; Røy, Hans; Albert, Daniel B.; Mendlovitz, Howard P.; MacGregor, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal mats, mounds, and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview, we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and selected geochemical data; many of these distinct habitats await characterization of their microbial communities and activities. Microprofiler deployments on microbial mats and hydrothermal sediments show their steep geochemical and thermal gradients at millimeter-scale vertical resolution. Mapping these hydrothermal features and sampling locations within the southern Guaymas Basin suggest linkages to underlying shallow sills and heat flow gradients. Recognizing the inherent spatial limitations of much current Guaymas Basin sampling calls for comprehensive surveys of the wider spreading region. PMID:26925032

  20. The Guaymas Basin Hiking Guide to Hydrothermal Mounds, Chimneys, and Microbial Mats: Complex Seafloor Expressions of Subsurface Hydrothermal Circulation.

    PubMed

    Teske, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk; McKay, Luke J; Tivey, Margaret K; Biddle, Jennifer F; Hoer, Daniel; Lloyd, Karen G; Lever, Mark A; Røy, Hans; Albert, Daniel B; Mendlovitz, Howard P; MacGregor, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal mats, mounds, and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview, we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and selected geochemical data; many of these distinct habitats await characterization of their microbial communities and activities. Microprofiler deployments on microbial mats and hydrothermal sediments show their steep geochemical and thermal gradients at millimeter-scale vertical resolution. Mapping these hydrothermal features and sampling locations within the southern Guaymas Basin suggest linkages to underlying shallow sills and heat flow gradients. Recognizing the inherent spatial limitations of much current Guaymas Basin sampling calls for comprehensive surveys of the wider spreading region. PMID:26925032

  1. Life and Death of Deep-Sea Vents: Bacterial Diversity and Ecosystem Succession on Inactive Hydrothermal Sulfides

    PubMed Central

    Sylvan, Jason B.; Toner, Brandy M.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hydrothermal chimneys are a globally dispersed habitat on the seafloor associated with mid-ocean ridge (MOR) spreading centers. Active, hot, venting sulfide structures from MORs have been examined for microbial diversity and ecology since their discovery in the mid-1970s, and recent work has also begun to explore the microbiology of inactive sulfides—structures that persist for decades to millennia and form moderate to massive deposits at and below the seafloor. Here we used tag pyrosequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA and full-length 16S rRNA sequencing on inactive hydrothermal sulfide chimney samples from 9°N on the East Pacific Rise to learn their bacterial composition, metabolic potential, and succession from venting to nonventing (inactive) regimes. Alpha-, beta-, delta-, and gammaproteobacteria and members of the phylum Bacteroidetes dominate all inactive sulfides. Greater than 26% of the V6 tags obtained are closely related to lineages involved in sulfur, nitrogen, iron, and methane cycling. Epsilonproteobacteria represent <4% of the V6 tags recovered from inactive sulfides and 15% of the full-length clones, despite their high abundance in active chimneys. Members of the phylum Aquificae, which are common in active vents, were absent from both the V6 tags and full-length 16S rRNA data sets. In both analyses, the proportions of alphaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria, and members of the phylum Bacteroidetes were greater than those found on active hydrothermal sulfides. These shifts in bacterial population structure on inactive chimneys reveal ecological succession following cessation of venting and also imply a potential shift in microbial activity and metabolic guilds on hydrothermal sulfides, the dominant biome that results from seafloor venting. PMID:22275502

  2. Biogeochemical insights into microbe-mineral-fluid interactions in hydrothermal chimneys using enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Callac, Nolwenn; Rouxel, Olivier; Lesongeur, Françoise; Liorzou, Céline; Bollinger, Claire; Pignet, Patricia; Chéron, Sandrine; Fouquet, Yves; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Godfroy, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Active hydrothermal chimneys host diverse microbial communities exhibiting various metabolisms including those involved in various biogeochemical cycles. To investigate microbe-mineral-fluid interactions in hydrothermal chimney and the driver of microbial diversity, a cultural approach using a gas-lift bioreactor was chosen. An enrichment culture was performed using crushed active chimney sample as inoculum and diluted hydrothermal fluid from the same vent as culture medium. Daily sampling provided time-series access to active microbial diversity and medium composition. Active archaeal and bacterial communities consisted mainly of sulfur, sulfate and iron reducers and hydrogen oxidizers with the detection of Thermococcus, Archaeoglobus, Geoglobus, Sulfurimonas and Thermotoga sequences. The simultaneous presence of active Geoglobus sp. and Archaeoglobus sp. argues against competition for available carbon sources and electron donors between sulfate and iron reducers at high temperature. This approach allowed the cultivation of microbial populations that were under-represented in the initial environmental sample. The microbial communities are heterogeneously distributed within the gas-lift bioreactor; it is unlikely that bulk mineralogy or fluid chemistry is the drivers of microbial community structure. Instead, we propose that micro-environmental niche characteristics, created by the interaction between the mineral grains and the fluid chemistry, are the main drivers of microbial diversity in natural systems.

  3. Drilling the Snake Pit hydrothermal sulfide deposit on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, lat 23/sup 0/22'N

    SciTech Connect

    Detrick, R.S.; Honnorez, J.; Adamson, A.C.; Brass, G.; Gillis, K.M.; Humphris, S.E.; Mevel, C.; Meyer, P.; Petersen, N.; Rautenschlein, M.; Shibata, T.; Staudigel, H.; Yamamoto, K.

    1986-12-01

    A major high-temperature hydrothermal area has been discovered in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley about 25 km south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The vent field consists of a wide area (> 40,000 m/sup 2/) of dark hydrothermal deposits, numerous sulfide chimneys and mounds, some up to 11 m high, and high-temperature black-smoker vents. Ten shallow holes, the first ever drilled in an active submarine hydrothermal area, recovered friable, unconsolidated Fe, Cu-Fe, and Zn sulfides and several large fragments of massive sulfide (mainly chalcopyrite) from the locally thick (> 13 m) hydrothermal deposits. The vents are also associated with an unusual biological community of smaller, more mobile organisms than reported from the East Pacific Rise.

  4. Archaea and bacteria with surprising microdiversity show shifts in dominance over 1,000-year time scales in hydrothermal chimneys

    PubMed Central

    Brazelton, William J.; Ludwig, Kristin A.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Andreishcheva, Ekaterina N.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Baross, John A.

    2010-01-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field, an ultramafic-hosted system located 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has experienced at least 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity. Previous studies have shown that its carbonate chimneys form by mixing of ∼90 °C, pH 9–11 hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Flow of methane and hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fluids in the porous interior chimney walls supports archaeal biofilm communities dominated by a single phylotype of Methanosarcinales. In this study, we have extensively sampled the carbonate-hosted archaeal and bacterial communities by obtaining sequences of >200,000 amplicons of the 16S rRNA V6 region and correlated the results with isotopic (230Th) ages of the chimneys over a 1,200-year period. Rare sequences in young chimneys were commonly more abundant in older chimneys, indicating that members of the rare biosphere can become dominant members of the ecosystem when environmental conditions change. These results suggest that a long history of selection over many cycles of chimney growth has resulted in numerous closely related species at Lost City, each of which is preadapted to a particular set of reoccurring environmental conditions. Because of the unique characteristics of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, these data offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the dynamics of a microbial ecosystem’s rare biosphere over a thousand-year time scale. PMID:20080654

  5. Microbial Sulfur Cycle in Two Hydrothermal Chimneys on the Southwest Indian Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huiluo; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Zeng, Xiang; Shao, Zongze; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sulfur is an important element in sustaining microbial communities present in hydrothermal vents. Sulfur oxidation has been extensively studied due to its importance in chemosynthetic pathways in hydrothermal fields; however, less is known about sulfate reduction. Here, the metagenomes of hydrothermal chimneys located on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) were pyrosequenced to elucidate the associated microbial sulfur cycle. A taxonomic summary of known genes revealed a few dominant bacteria that participated in the microbial sulfur cycle, particularly sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. The metagenomes studied contained highly abundant genes related to sulfur oxidation and reduction. Several carbon metabolic pathways, in particular the Calvin-Benson-Bassham pathway and the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycles for CO2 fixation, were identified in sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria. In contrast, highly abundant genes related to the oxidation of short-chain alkanes were grouped with sulfate-reducing bacteria, suggesting an important role for short-chain alkanes in the sulfur cycle. Furthermore, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were associated with enrichment for genes involved in the denitrification pathway, while sulfate-reducing bacteria displayed enrichment for genes responsible for hydrogen utilization. In conclusion, this study provides insights regarding major microbial metabolic activities that are driven by the sulfur cycle in low-temperature hydrothermal chimneys present on an ultraslow midocean ridge. PMID:24473131

  6. Microbial and Mineral Descriptions of the Interior Habitable Zones of Active Hydrothermal Chimneys from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J. F.; Lin, T.; Ver Eecke, H. C.; Breves, E.; Dyar, M. D.; Jamieson, J. W.; Hannington, M. D.; Butterfield, D. A.; Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Actively venting hydrothermal chimneys and their associated hydrothermal fluids were collected from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge to determine the mineralogy, chemistry and microbial community composition of their interiors. To characterize the mineralogy, Mössbauer, FTIR, VNIR and thermal emission spectroscopies were used for the first time on this type of sample in addition to thin-section petrography, x-ray diffraction and elemental analyses. A chimney from the Bastille edifice was Fe-sulfide rich and composed primarily of chalcopyrite, marcasite-sphalerite, and pyrrhotite while chimneys from the Dante and Hot Harold edifices were Fe-sulfide poor and composed primarily of anhydrite. The bulk emissivity and reflectance spectroscopies corroborated well with the petrography and XRD analyses. The microbial community in the interior of Bastille was most closely related to mesophilic-to-thermophilic anaerobes of the deltaproteobacteria and hyperthermophilic archaea while those in the interiors of Dante and Hot Harold were most closely related to mesophilic-to-thermophilic aerobes of the beta-, gamma- and epsilonproteobacteria. The fluid temperatures (282-321°C) and chemistries of the three chimneys were very similar suggesting that differences in mineralogy and microbial community compositions were more dependent on fluid flow characteristics and paragenesis within the chimney. Thin-section petrography of the interior of another hydrothermal chimney collected from the Dante edifice (emitting 336°C fluid) shows a thin coat of Fe3+ oxide associated with amorphous silica on the exposed outer surfaces of pyrrhotite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite in pore spaces, along with anhydrite precipitation in the pores that is indicative of seawater ingress. The Fe-sulfide minerals were likely oxidized to ferrihydrite with increasing pH and Eh due to cooling and seawater exposure, providing reactants for bioreduction. Culture-based most-probable-number estimates of

  7. Assessing the influence of physical, geochemical and biological factors on anaerobic microbial primary productivity within hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    PubMed

    Olins, H C; Rogers, D R; Frank, K L; Vidoudez, C; Girguis, P R

    2013-05-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity and its governing factors have not been well constrained. To better understand anaerobic primary production within massive vent deposits, we conducted a series of incubations at 4, 25, 50 and 90 °C using aggregates recovered from hydrothermal vent structures. We documented in situ geochemistry, measured autochthonous organic carbon stable isotope ratios and assessed microbial community composition and functional gene abundances in three hydrothermal vent chimney structures from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Carbon fixation rates were greatest at lower temperatures and were comparable among chimneys. Stable isotope ratios of autochthonous organic carbon were consistent with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle being the predominant mode of carbon fixation for all three chimneys. Chimneys exhibited marked differences in vent fluid geochemistry and microbial community composition, with structures being differentially dominated by gamma (γ) or epsilon (ε) proteobacteria. Similarly, qPCR analyses of functional genes representing different carbon fixation pathways showed striking differences in gene abundance among chimney structures. Carbon fixation rates showed no obvious correlation with observed in situ vent fluid geochemistry, community composition or functional gene abundance. Together, these data reveal that (i) net anaerobic carbon fixation rates among these chimneys are elevated at lower temperatures, (ii) clear differences in community composition and gene abundance exist among chimney structures, and (iii) tremendous spatial heterogeneity within these environments likely confounds efforts to relate the observed rates to in situ microbial and geochemical factors. We also posit that microbes typically thought to be mesophiles are likely active and growing at cooler temperatures, and that their activity at these temperatures comprises the

  8. Assessing the influence of physical, geochemical and biological factors on anaerobic microbial primary productivity within hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    PubMed

    Olins, H C; Rogers, D R; Frank, K L; Vidoudez, C; Girguis, P R

    2013-05-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity and its governing factors have not been well constrained. To better understand anaerobic primary production within massive vent deposits, we conducted a series of incubations at 4, 25, 50 and 90 °C using aggregates recovered from hydrothermal vent structures. We documented in situ geochemistry, measured autochthonous organic carbon stable isotope ratios and assessed microbial community composition and functional gene abundances in three hydrothermal vent chimney structures from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Carbon fixation rates were greatest at lower temperatures and were comparable among chimneys. Stable isotope ratios of autochthonous organic carbon were consistent with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle being the predominant mode of carbon fixation for all three chimneys. Chimneys exhibited marked differences in vent fluid geochemistry and microbial community composition, with structures being differentially dominated by gamma (γ) or epsilon (ε) proteobacteria. Similarly, qPCR analyses of functional genes representing different carbon fixation pathways showed striking differences in gene abundance among chimney structures. Carbon fixation rates showed no obvious correlation with observed in situ vent fluid geochemistry, community composition or functional gene abundance. Together, these data reveal that (i) net anaerobic carbon fixation rates among these chimneys are elevated at lower temperatures, (ii) clear differences in community composition and gene abundance exist among chimney structures, and (iii) tremendous spatial heterogeneity within these environments likely confounds efforts to relate the observed rates to in situ microbial and geochemical factors. We also posit that microbes typically thought to be mesophiles are likely active and growing at cooler temperatures, and that their activity at these temperatures comprises the

  9. Microbial Primary Productivity in Hydrothermal Vent Chimneys at Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olins, H. C.; Rogers, D.; Frank, K. L.; Girguis, P. R.; Vidoudez, C.

    2012-12-01

    Chemosynthetic primary productivity supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity has not been well measured. To examine the role that environmental temperature plays in controlling carbon fixation rates, and to assess the degree to which microbial community composition, in situ geochemistry, and mineralogy influence carbon fixation, we conducted a series of shipboard incubations across a range of temperatures (4, 25, 50 and 90°C) and at environmentally relevant geochemical conditions using material recovered from three hydrothermal vent chimneys in the Middle Valley hydrothermal vent field (Juan de Fuca Ridge). Net rates of carbon fixation (CFX) were greatest at lower temperatures, and were similar among structures. Rates did not correlate with the mineralogy or the geochemical composition of the high temperature fluids at each chimney. No obvious patterns of association were observed between carbon fixation rates and microbial community composition. Abundance of selected functional genes related to different carbon fixation pathway exhibited striking differences among the three study sites, but did not correlate with rates. Natural carbon isotope ratios implicate the Calvin Benson Bassham Cycle as the dominant mechanism of primary production in these systems, despite the abundance of genes related to other pathways (and presumably some degree of activity). Together these data reveal that primary productivity by endolithic communities does not exhibit much variation among these chimneys, and further reveal that microbial activity cannot easily be related to mineralogical and geochemical assessments that are made at a coarser scale. Indeed, the relationships between carbon fixation rates and community composition/functional gene abundance were also likely obfuscated by differences in scale at which these measurements were made. Regardless, these data reveal the degree to which endolithic, anaerobic carbon fixation contributes to

  10. S-33 constraints on the seawater sulfate contribution in modern seafloor hydrothermal vent sulfides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ono, Shuhei; Shanks, Wayne C.; Rouxel, O.J.; Rumble, D.

    2007-01-01

    Sulfide sulfur in mid-oceanic ridge hydrothermal vents is derived from leaching of basaltic-sulfide and seawater-derived sulfate that is reduced during high temperature water rock interaction. Conventional sulfur isotope studies, however, are inconclusive about the mass-balance between the two sources because 34S/32S ratios of vent fluid H2S and chimney sulfide minerals may reflect not only the mixing ratio but also isotope exchange between sulfate and sulfide. Here, we show that high-precision analysis of S-33 can provide a unique constraint because isotope mixing and isotope exchange result in different ??33S (?????33S-0.515 ??34S) values of up to 0.04??? even if ??34S values are identical. Detection of such small ??33S differences is technically feasible by using the SF6 dual-inlet mass-spectrometry protocol that has been improved to achieve a precision as good as 0.006??? (2??). Sulfide minerals (marcasite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite) and vent H2S collected from four active seafloor hydrothermal vent sites, East Pacific Rise (EPR) 9-10??N, 13??N, and 21??S and Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) 37??N yield ??33S values ranging from -0.002 to 0.033 and ??34S from -0.5??? to 5.3???. The combined ??34S and ??33S systematics reveal that 73 to 89% of vent sulfides are derived from leaching from basaltic sulfide and only 11 to 27% from seawater-derived sulfate. Pyrite from EPR 13??N and marcasite from MAR 37??N are in isotope disequilibrium not only in ??34S but also in ??33S with respect to associated sphalerite and chalcopyrite, suggesting non-equilibrium sulfur isotope exchange between seawater sulfate and sulfide during pyrite precipitation. Seafloor hydrothermal vent sulfides are characterized by low ??33S values compared with biogenic sulfides, suggesting little or no contribution of sulfide from microbial sulfate reduction into hydrothermal sulfides at sediment-free mid-oceanic ridge systems. We conclude that 33S is an effective new tracer for interplay among

  11. Sulfate Reduction and Sulfide Biomineralization By Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, A.; Gartman, A.; Clarke, D. R.; Girguis, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are characterized by steep temperature and chemical gradients and moderate pressures. At these sites, mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria thrive, however their significance for the formation of sulfide minerals is unknown. In this study we investigated sulfate reduction and sulfide biomineralization by the deep-sea bacterium Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis isolated from a deep-sea vent chimney at the Grandbonum vent site (13°N, East Pacific Rise, 2600 m water depth) [1]. Sulfate reduction rates were determined as a function of pressure and temperature. Biomineralization of sulfide minerals in the presence of various metal concentrations was characterized using light and electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. We seek to better understand the significance of biological sulfate reduction in deep-sea hydrothermal environments, to characterize the steps in sulfide mineral nucleation and growth, and identify the interactions between cells and minerals. [1] D. Alazard, S. Dukan, A. Urios, F. Verhe, N. Bouabida, F. Morel, P. Thomas, J.L. Garcia and B. Ollivier, Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis sp. nov., a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from hydrothermal vents, Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 53 (2003) 173-178.

  12. Microbial Diversity Associated with High Temperature Sulfide Deposits Along the East Pacific Rise Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, D.; Hoek, J.; Banta, A. B.; von Damm, K.; Reysenbach, A.

    2002-12-01

    In January 2002, hydrothermal chimneys were collected using DSV Alvin from active vents from 9° 17N to 9° 50N and 20° 49N to 20° 50N. Hydrothermal fluids were collected for end member chemistry prior to collecting the sulfide deposits. Chimney samples were sub-sectioned, separating surface and associated biofilm samples from inner chimney samples. Microbial diversity of sub-samples was assessed using culture-dependent and culturing-independent small subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA-based techniques. Initial bacterial diversity assessments using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) support the global prevalence of epsilon Proteobacteria associated with deep-sea sulfide structures. These are closely related to the sulfur-reducing isolate Nautilia lithotrophica. The biofilm communities varied in complexity with one sample containing several 16S rRNA sequences (phylotypes, OTU's) of alpha, epsilon, and gamma Proteobacteria while others contained a single phylotype of epsilon Proteobacteria. One proteobacterial phylotype was present in all but one of the surface samples, and this sample contained unique alpha and epsilon proteobacterial sequences. The inner chimney samples lacked the most common epsilon proteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences. Enrichment culturing was restricted to selecting for thermophilic chemolithoautotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing Bacteria. The widespread distribution of Persephonella spp. was confirmed, and novel enrichments of a sheathed and as yet unidentified chemolithotroph were obtained.

  13. Microbial diversity of a sulfide black smoker in main endeavour hydrothermal vent field, Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huaiyang; Li, Jiangtao; Peng, Xiaotong; Meng, Jun; Wang, Fengping; Ai, Yuncan

    2009-06-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are among the least-understood habitats on Earth but have been the intense focus of research in the past 30 years. An active hydrothermal sulfide chimney collected from the Dudley site in the Main Endeavour vent Field (MEF) of Juan de Fuca Ridge was investigated using mineralogical and molecular approaches. Mineral analysis indicated that the chimney was composed mainly of Fe-, Zn-and Cu-rich sulfides. According to phylogenetic analysis, within the Crenarchaeota, clones of the order Desulfurococcales predominated, comprising nearly 50% of archaeal clones. Euryarchaeota were composed mainly of clones belonging to Thermococcales and deep-sea hydrothermal vent Euryarchaeota (DHVE), each of which accounted for about 20% of all clones. Thermophilic or hyperthermophilic physiologies were common to the predominant archaeal groups. More than half of bacterial clones belonged to epsilon-Proteobacteria, which confirmed their prevalence in hydrothermal vent environments. Clones of Proteobacteria (gamma-, delta-, beta-), Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) and Deinococcus-Thermus occurred as well. It was remarkable that methanogens and methanotrophs were not detected in our 16S rRNA gene library. Our results indicated that sulfur-related metabolism, which included sulfur-reducing activity carried out by thermophilic archaea and sulfur-oxidizing by mesophilic bacteria, was common and crucial to the vent ecosystem in Dudley hydrothermal site. PMID:19557339

  14. The mineralogy and the isotopic composition of sulfur in hydrothermal sulfide/sulfate deposits on the East Pacific Rise, 21 deg N latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styrt, M. M.; Brackmann, A. J.; Holland, H. D.; Clark, B. C.; Pisutha-Arnond, V.; Eldridge, C. S.; Ohmoto, H.

    1981-01-01

    The mineralogy and isotopic composition of sulfur found in hydrothermal deposits associated with five groups of vents along the ridge axis of the East Pacific Rise near 21 deg N latitude are investigated. Solid samples of mixed sulfides and sulfates from mounds, chimneys and the surrounding sediment as well as fresh basaltic glass were examined with a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and electron microprobe analysis. For the three vents of exit temperature close to 350 C, the chimneys are found to be rich in copper sulfides, while for those of temperatures around 300 C, zinc sulfide is found to predominate. The major sulfides found in the chimneys include wurtzite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and cubanite, with anhydrite the dominant sulfate. Significant mineralogical differences are found between active and inactive vents. The isotopic composition of sulfur in anhydrites from active vents is observed to be close to that of sea water and consistent with a derivation from sea water sulfate. The isotopic composition of sulfur in the sulfide minerals is explained in terms of precipitation from solutions with reduced sulfur derived from basalts or basaltic magmas, and sea water sulfate. Finally, the deposits are interpreted as the results of the mixing of H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids with cold sea water near the sea floor.

  15. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems.

    PubMed

    Steen, Ida H; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B; Thorseth, Ingunn H

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  16. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Ida H.; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  17. Physico-chemical gradients within the hydrothermal chimney Roane define sharp boundaries for microbial community ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, K. L.; Kelley, D. S.; Girguis, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The unique physico-chemical gradients characteristic of hydrothermal vents provide diverse niches for prokaryotic communities. To date, our knowledge of environmental constraints on microbial colonization and metabolic activity within active sulfide structures has been limited by the lack of co-registered in situ chemistry and appropriate, taxonomic and metabolic genetic markers. Here we characterize de novo endolithic microbial colonization using a sulfide microbial incubator within the hydrothermal vent Roane during a one-year deployment, with co-registered temperature, fluid chemistry and mineralogy. Taxanomic assessment of phylogenetic diversity via 16S rDNA extracted from the outer (40-70°C) and middle (150-240°C) chambers of the incubator revealed patterns of distribution comparable to previously published observations. However, quantitative and statistical analyses of 16S rDNA sequences from two chambers revealed very distinct communities, with less than 5% of the identified operational taxonomic units common to both chambers. Analyses of metagenomic data suggest an elevated potential for motility and select biosynthetic pathways in the outer chamber community. In contrast, the middle chamber community exhibits a greater potential for quorum sensing, biofilm formation and archaeal lipid biosynthesis. Striking differences in metabolic potential were also apparent. These data suggest that the distribution, abundance and physiological capacity of these communities is strongly governed by chemical and physical variability of the environment.

  18. ESR dating of submarine hydrothermal activities using barite in sulfide deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Isono, Y.; Uchida, A.; Takamasa, A.; Nakai, S.

    2012-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation (Urabe, 1995) and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). Determining the ages of the hydrothermal deposit will provide essential information on such studies. Dating methods using disequilibrium between radioisotopes such as U-Th method (e.g. You and Bickle, 1998), 226}Ra-{210Pb and 228}Ra-{228Th method (e.g. Noguchi et al., 2011) have been applied to date submarine hydrothermal deposits. ESR (electron spin resonance) dating method is commonly applied to fossil teeth, shells, and quartz of Quaternay period where the natural accumulated dose is obtained from the intensities of the ESR signals which are created by natural radiation. The natural dose is divided by the dose rate to the mineral/sample to deduce the age. Okumura et al., (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite (BaSO4) to obtain preliminary ages, where Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. Knowing that ESR dating of barite is promising, in this paper, we will present how we have investigated each factor that contributes ESR dating of barite in submarine hydrothermal sulfide deposition. (1) The best ESR condition for measuring the SO3- signal in barite is with the microwave power of 1mW and modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. (2) As results of heating experiments, the signal was found to be stable for the dating age range of several thousands. (3) 226Ra replacing Ba in barite is the source of the radiation. The amount of radioactive elements in sulfide mineral surrounding barite is negligible. (4) The external radiation from the sea water is negligible even in the submarine hydrothermal area where the radiation level is much

  19. Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine alkaline hydrothermal chimney.

    PubMed

    Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2014-04-01

    A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain, designated FatNI3(T), grew at 15-55 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.8-8.9 (optimum 7.7). It was slightly halophilic, requiring at least 0.5 % NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0 %), and was able to grow at up to 6 % NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Growth of strain FatNI3(T) was inhibited in the presence of sulfite (2 mM) or nitrite (2 mM). Strain FatNI3(T) fermented cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, lactose, ribose, fructose, rhamnose, raffinose, xylose, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypticase. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and unknown glycolipids and phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain FatNI3(T) ( = DSM 25904 = JCM 18391) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vallitalea, for which the name Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  20. Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine alkaline hydrothermal chimney.

    PubMed

    Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2014-04-01

    A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain, designated FatNI3(T), grew at 15-55 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.8-8.9 (optimum 7.7). It was slightly halophilic, requiring at least 0.5 % NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0 %), and was able to grow at up to 6 % NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Growth of strain FatNI3(T) was inhibited in the presence of sulfite (2 mM) or nitrite (2 mM). Strain FatNI3(T) fermented cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, lactose, ribose, fructose, rhamnose, raffinose, xylose, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypticase. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and unknown glycolipids and phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain FatNI3(T) ( = DSM 25904 = JCM 18391) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vallitalea, for which the name Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24408522

  1. Contrasting sulfur isotope compositions of sulfide minerals between on-ridge and off-ridge hydrothermal fields in the southern Mariana back-arc region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakegawa, T.

    2004-12-01

    New submarine hydrothermal fields were discovered in the southern Mariana back-arc spreading region during the Yokosuka-Shinkai 6500 cruise (October, 2003). One is located on the ridge of spreading center and the other is located on the off-rige site: A low-temperature hydrothermal activity and 10 m-high sulfide chimneys were found on the ridge site and the black-smoker activity with various sulfide chimneys was found on the top of the off-ridge seamount. Both hydrothermal fields were directly drilled by the benthic-multiple coring system during the Hakurei 2 cruise (February, 2004), in order to examine the subsurface hydrothermal processes. Elemental maps of drilled core samples and surface chimneys were constructed using X-ray scanning microscope, and an alteration pattern and types of sulfide minerals were examined. Forming steps of Fe-rich clays near the seafloor were traced and vesicle-filling process by clays and sulfides were found in the examined samples. Sulfur isotope analyses were performed using EA-IRMS on the separated sulfide and sulfate minerals. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate minerals are the identical to the seawater sulfate value. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfides range from +2.9 to +8.7?n at the on-ridge site and _|3.2 to +3.6 ?n at the off-ridge site, respectively. Such regional difference in sulfur isotope compositions of sulfides is probably reflecting the difference in crustal processes: either (1) involvement of sulfate reduction near the discharge zone or (2) isotope exchange among several sulfide and sulfate phases in the deep reaction zone. Chronological change of sulfur isotope compositions was also found in each region: lighter sulfur isotope compositions were found in the younger generation of sulfides. This suggests the style of sulfur cycle in the basaltic crusts (e.g., depth and temperature change for sulfate reduction, potential biological process, etc.) are varying through the development and/or decay of each

  2. Microbial carbon cycling in Lost City hydrothermal chimneys and other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazelton, W. J.; Lang, S. Q.; Morrill, P. L.; Twing, K. I.; Crespo-Medina, M.; Morgan-Smith, D.; Früh-Green, G. L.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic rocks formed in the Earth's mantle and uplifted into the crust represent an immense but poorly described reservoir of carbon. The biological availability of this rock-hosted carbon reservoir is unknown, but the set of geochemical reactions known as serpentinization can mobilize carbon from the subsurface and trigger the growth of dense microbial communities. Serpentinite-hosted ecosystems such as the chimney biofilms of the Lost City hydrothermal field can support dense populations of bacteria and archaea fueled by the copious quantities of H2 and methane (CH4) released by serpentinization (1-5). The metabolic pathways involved, however, remain unknown, and conventional interpretations of genomic and experimental data are complicated by the unusual carbon speciation in these environments. Carbon dioxide is scarce due to the highly reducing, high pH conditions. Instead, the predominant forms of carbon are CH4 and formate (5). Despite its natural abundance, however, direct evidence for CH4-derived biomass is lacking (1,4,5), and the role of formate is potentially significant but largely unexplored (1,5). To gain a more generalized perspective of carbon cycling in serpentinite-hosted ecosystems, we have recently investigated fluids and rocks collected from serpentinizing ophiolites in California, Canada, and Italy. Our results point to potentially H2-utilizing, autotrophic Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic-anoxic transition zones and anaerobic Clostridia inhabiting anoxic, subsurface zones (1,6). The carbon sources utilized by the Clostridia are unknown, but preliminary metagenomic evidence is consistent with a fermentation-style metabolic strategy that may be conducive to an oxidant-limited, subsurface environment. Curiously, despite the abundance of H2 and CH4 in these continental springs, none of the geochemical, genomic, or experimental results obtained thus far contain any evidence for biological methanogenesis (1,6). This is in stark

  3. Dynamic character of the hydrothermal vent habitat and the nature of sulphide chimney fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, Verena; Kim Juniper, S.

    A major substratum for vent organisms on Juan de Fuca and Explorer Ridges of the northeast Pacific is the polymetallic sulphide chimney. The deposition processes and subsequent growth of such chimneys provide a dynamic and extreme habitat that changes rapidly. During initial venting stages, colonization must await stabilization of the chimney structure. As the porous anhydrite shell accumulates sulphide minerals, protection from direct hot water contact increases for organisms colonizing the outer walls while sufficient vent water still diffuses for the support of chemosynthesis. Vestimentiferan worms are found on small sulphide mounds but the active growth and collapse of anhydrite spires is a major source of disruption and mortality. High temperature venting and spire growth appear to attract alvinellid polychaetes which may be implicated in the process of strengthening and sealing the anhydrite spires. Fauna on the growing chimney is subject to changes in fluid flow patterns that can make the structure uninhabitable. Large chimneys are inhabited by more species indicating that a diversification of habitat results from variations in mineralization and fluid availability. Chimney fauna has become specialized in exploiting an unpredictable and unstable habitat in an extreme example of the control of biotic development by the physical environment.

  4. Handling temperature bursts reaching 464°C: different microbial strategies in the sisters peak hydrothermal chimney.

    PubMed

    Perner, Mirjam; Gonnella, Giorgio; Kurtz, Stefan; LaRoche, Julie

    2014-08-01

    The active venting Sisters Peak (SP) chimney on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge holds the current temperature record for the hottest ever measured hydrothermal fluids (400°C, accompanied by sudden temperature bursts reaching 464°C). Given the unprecedented temperature regime, we investigated the biome of this chimney with a focus on special microbial adaptations for thermal tolerance. The SP metagenome reveals considerable differences in the taxonomic composition from those of other hydrothermal vent and subsurface samples; these could be better explained by temperature than by other available abiotic parameters. The most common species to which SP genes were assigned were thermophilic Aciduliprofundum sp. strain MAR08-339 (11.8%), Hippea maritima (3.8%), Caldisericum exile (1.5%), and Caminibacter mediatlanticus (1.4%) as well as to the mesophilic Niastella koreensis (2.8%). A statistical analysis of associations between taxonomic and functional gene assignments revealed specific overrepresented functional categories: for Aciduliprofundum, protein biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and energy metabolism genes; for Hippea and Caminibacter, cell motility and/or DNA replication and repair system genes; and for Niastella, cell wall and membrane biogenesis genes. Cultured representatives of these organisms inhabit different thermal niches; i.e., Aciduliprofundum has an optimal growth temperature of 70°C, Hippea and Caminibacter have optimal growth temperatures around 55°C, and Niastella grows between 10 and 37°C. Therefore, we posit that the different enrichment profiles of functional categories reflect distinct microbial strategies to deal with the different impacts of the local sudden temperature bursts in disparate regions of the chimney.

  5. Handling Temperature Bursts Reaching 464°C: Different Microbial Strategies in the Sisters Peak Hydrothermal Chimney

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Stefan; LaRoche, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The active venting Sisters Peak (SP) chimney on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge holds the current temperature record for the hottest ever measured hydrothermal fluids (400°C, accompanied by sudden temperature bursts reaching 464°C). Given the unprecedented temperature regime, we investigated the biome of this chimney with a focus on special microbial adaptations for thermal tolerance. The SP metagenome reveals considerable differences in the taxonomic composition from those of other hydrothermal vent and subsurface samples; these could be better explained by temperature than by other available abiotic parameters. The most common species to which SP genes were assigned were thermophilic Aciduliprofundum sp. strain MAR08-339 (11.8%), Hippea maritima (3.8%), Caldisericum exile (1.5%), and Caminibacter mediatlanticus (1.4%) as well as to the mesophilic Niastella koreensis (2.8%). A statistical analysis of associations between taxonomic and functional gene assignments revealed specific overrepresented functional categories: for Aciduliprofundum, protein biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and energy metabolism genes; for Hippea and Caminibacter, cell motility and/or DNA replication and repair system genes; and for Niastella, cell wall and membrane biogenesis genes. Cultured representatives of these organisms inhabit different thermal niches; i.e., Aciduliprofundum has an optimal growth temperature of 70°C, Hippea and Caminibacter have optimal growth temperatures around 55°C, and Niastella grows between 10 and 37°C. Therefore, we posit that the different enrichment profiles of functional categories reflect distinct microbial strategies to deal with the different impacts of the local sudden temperature bursts in disparate regions of the chimney. PMID:24837379

  6. Microbial life associated with low-temperature hydrothermal venting and formation of barite chimneys at Loki's Castle vent field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I.; Roalkvam, I.; Dahle, H.; Stokke, R.; Rapp, H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    A low-temperature diffuse venting area with numbers of small barite chimneys is located on the flank of the large sulphide mound of the Loki’s Castle black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). White cotton-like microbial mats on top of the barite chimneys and associated siboglinid tubeworms were observed. The temperature was determined to 20°C for the surface sediment and 0°C for the white microbial mats, just above the ambient bottom seawater temperature of -0.8°C. The microbial mats were sampled using a remote operating vehicle (ROV) equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) and the chimneys using an aluminum scuffle box. Black colored interior flow channels surrounded by white outer sections of nearly pure barite, were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of mats showed numerous microbial cells and large amounts of extracellular thread-like material with attached barite crystals. Inside the chimneys microbial cells are partially embedded in barite, and individual crystals are also frequently covered by extracellular material. The microbial activity could thus have an important influence on the nucleation and growth of the barite crystals and thus on the formation of the chimneys. To reveal the microbial community structure, 16S rRNA gene sequence tag-encoded pyrosequencing (1.1 x 104 - 3.5 x 104 amplicons per library) followed by taxonomic classification of the reads using the MEGAN software, were performed. Organisms assigned to a genus of sulfide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the e-Proteobacteria were abundant in each chimney structure; the white microbial mats (86-96% of the reads), the white barite (36% of total reads); the black flow channel (9.9%). The second most dominating taxon in the white chimney barite, including 26% of the reads, was anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) of the ANME-1 clade, indicating anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) as a major microbial process. Furthermore, the novel AOM associated clade

  7. Biosignatures in chimney structures and sediment from the Loki's Castle low-temperature hydrothermal vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Andrea; Eickmann, Benjamin; Lang, Susan Q; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Strauss, Harald; Früh-Green, Gretchen L

    2014-05-01

    We investigated microbial life preserved in a hydrothermally inactive silica–barite chimney in comparison with an active barite chimney and sediment from the Loki's Castle low-temperature venting area at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) using lipid biomarkers. Carbon and sulfur isotopes were used to constrain possible metabolic pathways. Multiple sulfur (dδ34S, Δ33S) isotopes on barite over a cross section of the extinct chimney range between 21.1 and 22.5 % in δ34S, and between 0.020 and 0.034 % in Δ33S, indicating direct precipitation from seawater. Biomarker distributions within two discrete zones of this silica–barite chimney indicate a considerable difference in abundance and diversity of microorganisms from the chimney exterior to the interior. Lipids in the active and inactive chimney barite and sediment were dominated by a range of 13C-depleted unsaturated and branched fatty acids with δ13C values between -39.7 and -26.7 %, indicating the presence of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The majority of lipids (99.5 %) in the extinct chimney interior that experienced high temperatures were of archaeal origin. Unusual glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraethers (GMGT) with 0–4 rings were the dominant compounds suggesting the presence of mainly (hyper-) thermophilic archaea. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons with δ13C values as low as -46 % also indicated the presence of methanogens and possibly methanotrophs.

  8. Thermotomaculum hydrothermale gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel heterotrophic thermophile within the phylum Acidobacteria from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney in the Southern Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hiroshi; Nunoura, Takuro; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Mino, Sayaka; Toki, Tomohiro; Takai, Ken; Sako, Yoshihiko; Sawabe, Tomoo; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2012-03-01

    A novel heterotrophic, thermophilic bacterium, designated strain AC55(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney at the Hatoma Knoll in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. Cells of strain AC55(T) were non-motile, long rods (2.0- to 6.8-μm long and 0.3- to 0.6-μm wide). The strain was an obligatory anaerobic heterotroph capable of fermentative growth on complex proteinaceous substances. Elemental sulfur was reduced to hydrogen sulfide but did not stimulate growth. Growth was observed between 37 and 60°C (optimum 55°C), pH 5.5 and 8.5 (optimum pH 6.6), and in the presence of 1.5-4.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.5%, w/v). Menaquinone-7 and -8 were the major respiratory quinones. The G + C content of the genomic DNA from strain AC55(T) was 51.6 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain AC55(T) was the first cultivated representative of Acidobacteria subdivision 10. Based on the physiological and phylogenetic features of the novel isolate, the genus name Thermotomaculum gen. nov. is proposed, with Thermotomaculum hydrothermale sp. nov. as the type species. The type strain is AC55(T) (=JCM 17643(T) = DSM 24660(T) = NBRC 107904(T)).

  9. Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Janecky, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

  10. Metagenome and Metatranscriptome Revealed a Highly Active and Intensive Sulfur Cycle in an Oil-Immersed Hydrothermal Chimney in Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The hydrothermal vent system is a typical chemosynthetic ecosystem in which microorganisms play essential roles in the geobiochemical cycling. Although it has been well-recognized that the inorganic sulfur compounds are abundant and actively converted through chemosynthetic pathways, the sulfur budget in a hydrothermal vent is poorly characterized due to the complexity of microbial sulfur cycling resulting from the numerous parties involved in the processes. In this study, we performed an integrated metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis on a chimney sample from Guaymas Basin to achieve a comprehensive study of each sulfur metabolic pathway and its hosting microorganisms and constructed the microbial sulfur cycle that occurs in the site. Our results clearly illustrated the stratified sulfur oxidation and sulfate reduction at the chimney wall. Besides, sulfur metabolizing is closely interacting with carbon cycles, especially the hydrocarbon degradation process in Guaymas Basin. This work supports that the internal sulfur cycling is intensive and the net sulfur budget is low in the hydrothermal ecosystem.

  11. Modeling the Growth of Hyperthermophiles in Deep-sea Hydrothermal Diffuse Fluids and Sulfide Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ver Eecke, H. C.; Oslowski, D. M.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Holden, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008 and 2009, 534 hydrothermal fluid samples and 5 actively-venting black smoker chimneys were collected using Alvin for correlative microbiological and chemical analyses as part of the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano Geochemistry and Ecology Research (EAGER) program. Hyperthermophilic, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers, methanogens, and sulfur-reducing heterotrophs were enriched for at 85 and 95°C using most-probable-number estimates from 28 diffuse fluid and 8 chimney samples. Heterotrophs were the most abundant of the three groups in both diffuse fluids and black-smoker chimneys. Iron reducers were more abundant than methanogens, and more abundant in sulfide-hosted vents than in basalt-hosted vents. Fluid chemistry suggests that there is net biogenic methanogenesis at the Marker 113/62 diffuse vent at Axial Volcano but nowhere else sampled. The growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens and heterotrophs was modeled in the lab using pure cultures. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii grew at 82°C in a 2-liter reactor with continuous gas flow at H2 concentrations between 20 and 225 µM with a H2 km of 100 µM. Correlating H2 end-member mixing curves from vent fluids and seawater with our laboratory modeling study suggests that H2 concentrations are limiting for Methanocaldococcus growth at most Mothra, Main Field, and High Rise vent sites at Endeavour but sufficient to support growth at some Axial Volcano vents. Therefore, hyperthermophilic methanogens may depend on H2 syntrophy at low H2 sites. Twenty-one pure hyperthermophilic heterotroph strains each grew on α-1,4 and β-1,4 linked sugars and polypeptides with concomitant H2 production. The H2 production rate (cell-1 doubling-1) for Pyrococcus furiosus at 95°C without sulfur was 29 fmol, 36 fmol, and 53 fmol for growth on α-1,4 sugars, β-1,4 sugars, and peptides, respectively. The CH4 production rate for M. jannaschii was 390 fmol cell-1 doubling-1; therefore, we estimate that it would take approximately

  12. Microbial Diversity of Carbonate Chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field: Implications for Life-Sustaining Systems in Peridotite Seafloor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Cimino, P.; Kelley, D. S.; Baross, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel peridotite-hosted vent environment discovered in Dec. 2000 at 30 N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This field contains multiple large (up to 60 m), carbonate chimneys venting high pH (9-10), moderate temperature (45-75 C) fluids. The LCHF is unusual in that it is located on 1.5 my-old oceanic crust, 15 km from the nearest spreading axis. Hydrothermal flow in this system is believed to be driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions involving iron-bearing minerals in the underlying seafloor. The conditions created by such reactions, which include significant quantities of dissolved methane and hydrogen, create habitats for microbial communities specifically adapted to this unusual vent environment. Ultramafic, reducing hydrothermal environments like the LCHF may be analogous to geologic settings present on the early Earth, which have been suggested to be important for the emergence of life. Additionally, the existence of hydrothermal environments far away from an active spreading center expands the range of potential life-supporting environments elsewhere in the solar system. To study the abundance and diversity of microbial communities inhabiting the environments that characterize the LCHF, carbonate chimney samples were analyzed by microscopic and molecular methods. Cell densities of between 105 and 107 cells/g were observed within various samples collected from the chimneys. Interestingly, 4-11% of the microbial population in direct contact with vent fluids fluoresced with Flavin-420, a key coenzyme involved in methanogenesis. Enrichment culturing from chimney material under aerobic and anaerobic conditions yielded microorganisms in the thermophilic and mesophilic temperature regimes in media designed for methanogenesis, methane-oxidation, and heterotrophy. PCR analysis of chimney material indicated the presence of both Archaea and Eubacteria in the carbonate samples. SSU rDNA clone libraries constructed from the

  13. Composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralogy of associated chimney material on the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.

    2014-08-01

    The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high- and low-temperature vent fluids, and the mineralogy of associated high-temperature chimney material, for two sites at E2 (Dog’s Head and Sepia), and four sites at E9 (Black & White, Ivory Tower, Pagoda and Launch Pad). The chemistry of the fluids is highly variable between the ridge segments. Fluid temperatures were ∼350 °C at all vent sites except Black & White, which was significantly hotter (383 °C). End-member chloride concentrations in E2 fluids (532-536 mM) were close to background seawater (540 mM), whereas Cl in E9 fluids was much lower (98-220 mM) indicating that these fluids are affected by phase separation. Concentrations of the alkali elements (Na, Li, K and Cs) and the alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr and Ba) co-vary with Cl, due to charge balance constraints. Similarly, concentrations of Mn and Zn are highest in the high Cl fluids but, by contrast, Fe/Cl ratios are higher in E9 fluids (3.8-8.1 × 10-3) than they are in E2 fluids (1.5-2.4 × 10-3) and fluids with lowest Cl have highest Cu. Although both ridge segments are magmatically inflated, there is no compelling evidence for input of magmatic gases to the vent fluids. Fluid δD values range from 0.2‰ to 1.5‰, pH values (3.02-3.42) are not especially low, and F concentrations (34.6-54.4 μM) are lower than bottom seawater (62.8 μM). The uppermost sections of conjugate chimney material from E2, and from Ivory Tower and Pagoda at E9, typically exhibit inner zones of massive chalcopyrite enclosed

  14. Shallow submarine hydrothermal activity with significant contribution of magmatic water producing talc chimneys in the Wakamiko Crater of Kagoshima Bay, southern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Maeto, Kotaro; Akashi, Hironori; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Miyoshi, Youko; Okamura, Kei; Noguchi, Takuroh; Kuwahara, Yoshihiro; Toki, Tomohiro; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ura, Tamaki; Nakatani, Takeshi; Maki, Toshihiro; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    Active hydrothermal venting from shallow seafloor (200-m depth) with talc chimneys has been discovered at the Wakamiko Crater floor in the Aira Caldera, southern Kyushu, Japan. The major chemical composition of the fluids suggests that the fluids are supplied from a single reservoir. The fluid is characterized by a low chloride concentration, low δD value, and a high δ18O value, suggesting that the endmember hydrothermal fluid is a mixture of seawater and andesitic water and possibly contribution of meteoric water and/or phase separation. Such noticeable magmatic input may be supported by high helium isotopic ratio (6.77 RA) of fumarolic gas discharging from the crater. Silica and alkaline geothermometers indicate that the fluid-rock interaction in the reservoir occurs in the temperature range of 230 to 250 °C. The high alkalinity and high ammonium and dissolved organic matter concentrations in the fluid indicate interaction of the fluid with organic matter in sedimentary layers. At least three hydrothermal vents have been observed in the crater. Two of these have similar cone-shaped chimneys. The chimneys have a unique mineralogy and consist dominantly of talc (kerolite and hydrated talc) with lesser amounts of carbonate (dolomite and magnesite), anhydrite, amorphous silica, and stibnite. The precipitation temperature estimated from δ18O values of talc was almost consistent with the observed fluid temperature. Geochemical modeling calculations also support the formation of talc and carbonate upon mixing of the endmember hydrothermal fluid with seawater and suggest that the talc chimneys are currently growing from venting fluid.

  15. Exilispira thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, thermophilic spirochaete isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney.

    PubMed

    Imachi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Sanae; Hirayama, Hisako; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Horikoshi, Koki

    2008-10-01

    A novel thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium, strain RASEN(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney sample collected in the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough, Japan, at a water depth of 982 m. The cells were motile, Gram-negative and helical with hooked ends, 0.23-0.28x15-27 microm in size with an approximate wavelength of 1.1-1.5 microm. Growth of the strain was observed at 37-60 degrees C (optimum 50 degrees C), in 2.5-3.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.5-3 % NaCl) and at pH 6.0-7.5 (optimum pH 7.0). The strain grew on yeast extract only of the substrates examined in this study. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 27.1 mol%. Major fatty acids for the strain were C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)(Delta9) trans, C(18 : 0) and C(18 : 1)(Delta9) cis. Based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain RASEN(T) formed a deeply branching lineage within the phylum Spirochaetes and had only low levels of sequence similarity with other species of the phylum (range of similarity 72.1-80.6 %). Hence, we propose the name Exilispira thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Exilispira thermophila is strain RASEN(T) (=JCM 14728(T) =NBRC 103205(T) =KCTC 5595(T)).

  16. Stable isotope studies of vent fluids and chimney minerals, southern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Sodium metasomatism and seawater sulfate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks W.C. III; Seyfried W.E. Jr.

    1987-10-10

    Sulfur isotope values (delta/sup 34/S) or H/sub 2/S in vent fluids from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal sites range from 4.0 to 7.4% and are variably /sup 34/S-enriched with respect to coexisting inner wall chimney sulfides. Chimney sulfides range from 1.6 to 5.7%. The chimneys consist of Fe-sphalerite zoned to inner zinc sulfide and chalcopyrite ( +- isocubanite)-pyrrhotite lining channels. Sulfide from inner walls of type A chimneys have the lightest delta/sup 34/S values. Type B chimneys (porous, unzoned, low-Fe-sphalerite) have the isotopically heaviest chimney sulfides and occur at vent sites distal to the along-axis shallow point of the ridge crest, hence distal to the magma chamber. These variations are largely ascribed to sulfate reduction by ferrous iron in the hydrothermal fluid in chimneys of substrate mounds, probably due to transitory entrainment of ambient sulfate-bearing seawater. The delta/sup 18/O values of end-member hydrothermal fluids range from 0.6 to 0.8%, significantly lower than the delta/sup 18/O values at 21 /sup 0/N vent fluids. The deltaD values of the fluid samples range from -2.5 to 0.5%. Isotopic differences from the 21 /sup 0/N fluids may be due to slightly higher water/rock ratios, approximately 1.0, in the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal system. Admixture of a small amount of residual brine from an earlier phase separation even may have contributed water with low deltaD values.

  17. Hydrothermal sulfide accumulation along the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, J. W.; Clague, D. A.; Hannington, M. D.

    2014-06-01

    Hydrothermal sulfide deposits that form on the seafloor are often located by the detection of hydrothermal plumes in the water column, followed by exploration with deep-towed cameras, side-scan sonar imaging, and finally by visual surveys using remotely-operated vehicle or occupied submersible. Hydrothermal plume detection, however, is ineffective for finding hydrothermally-inactive sulfide deposits, which may represent a significant amount of the total sulfide accumulation on the seafloor, even in hydrothermally active settings. Here, we present results from recent high-resolution, autonomous underwater vehicle-based mapping of the hydrothermally-active Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Analysis of the ridge bathymetry resulted in the location of 581 individual sulfide deposits along 24 km of ridge length. Hydrothermal deposits were distinguished from volcanic and tectonic features based on the characteristics of their surface morphology, such as shape and slope angles. Volume calculations for each deposit results in a total volume of 372,500 m3 of hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate-silica material, for an equivalent mass of ∼1.2 Mt of hydrothermal material on the seafloor within the ridge's axial valley, assuming a density of 3.1 g/cm3. Much of this total volume is from previously undocumented inactive deposits outside the main active vent fields. Based on minimum ages of sulfide deposition, the deposits accumulated at a maximum rate of ∼400 t/yr, with a depositional efficiency (proportion of hydrothermal material that accumulates on the seafloor to the total amount hydrothermally mobilized and transported to the seafloor) of ∼5%. The calculated sulfide tonnage represents a four-fold increase over previous sulfide estimates for the Endeavour Segment that were based largely on accumulations from within the active fields. These results suggest that recent global seafloor sulfide resource estimates, which were based mostly

  18. Factors affecting the rare earth element compositions in massive sulfides from deep-sea hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhigang; Ma, Yao; Yin, Xuebo; Selby, David; Kong, Fancui; Chen, Shuai

    2015-09-01

    To reconstruct the evolution of ore-forming fluids and determine the physicochemical conditions of deposition associated with seafloor massive sulfides, we must better understand the sources of rare earth elements (REEs), the factors that affect the REE abundance in the sulfides, and the REE flux from hydrothermal fluids to the sulfides. Here we examine the REE profiles of 46 massive sulfide samples collected from seven seafloor hydrothermal systems. These profiles feature variable total REE concentrations (37.2-4092 ppb) and REE distribution patterns (LaCN/LuCN ratios = 2.00-73.8; (Eu/Eu*)CN ratios = 0.34-7.60). The majority of the REE distribution patterns in the sulfides are similar to those of vent fluids, with the sulfides also exhibiting light REE enrichment. We demonstrate that the variable REE concentrations, Eu anomalies, and fractionation between light REEs and heavy REEs in the sulfides exhibit a relationship with the REE properties of the sulfide-forming fluids and the massive sulfide chemistry. Based on the sulfide REE data, we estimate that modern seafloor sulfide deposits contain approximately 280 t of REEs. According to the flux of hydrothermal fluids at mid-ocean ridges (MORs) and an average REE concentration of 3 ng/g in these fluids, hydrothermal vents at MORs alone transport more REEs (>360 t) to the oceans over the course of just 2 years than the total quantity of REEs in seafloor sulfides. The excess REEs (i.e., the quantity not captured by massive sulfides) may be transported away from the systems and become bound in sulfate deposits and metalliferous sediments.

  19. Abundance and Distribution of Hydrothermal Chimneys and Mounds on the Endeavour Ridge Determined by 1-m Resolution AUV Multibeam Mapping Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Thompson, D.; Calarco, M.; Holden, J.; Butterfield, D.

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution seafloor mapping surveys were conducted on the Endeavour Ridge using the MBARI AUV D. Allan B. during R/V Atlantis cruise AT15-36. The four surveys had a combined bottom time of about 46 hours, collected data along 238 km of track, and mapped roughly 35 km2 with 200 kHz multibeam bathymetry and 100 kHz chirp sidescan. The bathymetry data have a 1-m lateral resolution and 0.1-m vertical precision. The surveys focused on the axial valley from 48°0.0' to 47°53.1'N or from 4.3 km south of the Mothra vent field to 0.5 km north of the Sasquatch vent field. We also mapped the western flank of the ridge between the Mothra and High Rise vent fields. The AUV is navigated using an inertial navigation system (INS) aided by Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) estimates of velocity over bottom. For these deep-water surveys, the initial AUV location derives from USBL fixes communicated to the vehicle by acoustic modem. Cross-correlation of bathymetric features in overlapping or crossing swaths allowed solution for an optimal navigation model that is internally self-consistent and accurate to the bathymetric resolution of 1 m. The surveys imaged over 800 individual chimney or hydrothermal mound structures, roughly 20% from the five main vent fields. Chimney structures occur along the entire axial valley but are less common near the southern end of the survey. In addition, chimneys occur along faults and on fault slivers bounding the deepest part of the axial valley to the east and west and to the crest on the west side of the axis. The tallest structure, at 28 m, was located at the High Rise field just south of Godzilla vent. Many of the chimneys previously mapped at Mothra were below our detection levels or combined in single pixels, so the number of chimneys identified is clearly a minimum number with many smaller deposits and chimneys excluded from our count. A hydrothermal mound 135 m in diameter and 60 m tall occurs off-axis about 2 km SSW of the Mothra vent field

  20. Zn isotope composition in hydrothermal systems on the mid-ocean ridge and its implication for oceanic cycling of Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohu; Wang, Jianqiang; Lei, Jijiang; Yu, Xing; Wang, Hao; Chu, Fengyou

    2016-04-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems play an important role on the oceanic biogeochemical cycles of Zn and its isotopes. However, for the Zn isotopic systems in hydrothermal systems we know too little of the distribution of Zn isotopes in variable hydrothermal products and its impact on modern oceanic mass balance. We have measured Zn isotopes in hydrothermal products such as oxidation products of chimney sulfides and hydrothermal sediments from the active hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in order to better understand the oceanic biogeochemical cycles of Zn isotopes. We present isotopic data for Zn in sulfides and sediments, which yield δ66Zn=+0.11±0.08‰(2SD,n=23)and range from -0.14‰ to +0.38‰.We found that δ66Zn values of our samples were lighter or similar to chimney sulfides from the high-temperature hydrothermal vent, but much lighter than hydrothermal fluids and chimney sulfides from the low-temperature hydrothermal vent. We also compared our results with δ66Zn values of the Fe-Mn crusts, nodules and oceanic carbonate as heavy Zn isotope sink, which implies that Zn isotopes output to hydrothermal sediment and oxidation products of chimney sulfides as a missing light sink can explain the heavy isotopic composition of the oceans.

  1. Blood Components Prevent Sulfide Poisoning of Respiration of the Hydrothermal Vent Tube Worm Riftia pachyptila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Mar A.; Somero, George N.

    1983-01-01

    Respiration of plume tissue of the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila is insensitive to sulfide poisoning in contrast to tissues of animals that do not inhabit vents. Permeability barriers may not be responsible for this insensitivity since plume homogenates are also resistant to sulfide poisoning. Cytochrome c oxidase of plume, however, is strongly inhibited by sulfide at concentrations less than 10 μ M. Factors present in blood, but not in cytosol, prevent sulfide from inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase. Avoidance of sulfide poisoning of respiration in Riftia pachyptila thus appears to involve a blood-borne factor having a higher sulfide affinity than that of cytochrome c oxidase, with the result that appreciable amounts of free sulfide are prevented from accumulating in the blood and entering the intracellular compartment.

  2. S- and Sr-isotopic compositions in barite-silica chimney from the Franklin Seamount, Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea: constraints on genesis and temporal variability of hydrothermal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Durbar; Banerjee, Ranadip; Balakrishnan, S.; Paropkari, Anil L.; Mukhopadhyay, Subir

    2016-08-01

    Isotopic ratios of strontium and sulfur in six layers across a horizontal section of a hydrothermal barite-silica chimney from Franklin Seamount of western Woodlark Basin have been investigated. Sr-isotopic ratios in barite samples (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70478-0.70493) are less radiogenic than seawater (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70917) indicating that substantial leaching of sub-seafloor magma was involved in the genesis of hydrothermal fluid. The SO2 of magma likely contributed a considerable amount of lighter S-isotope in fluid and responsible for the formation of barite, which is isotopically lighter (δ34S = 19.4-20.5 ‰) than modern seawater (δ34S ~ 21 ‰). The systematic changes in isotopic compositions across the chimney wall suggest temporal changes in the mode of mineral formation during the growth of the chimney. Enrichment of heavy S- and Sr-isotopes (δ34S = 20.58 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70493) in the outermost periphery of the chimney indicates that, at the initial stage of chimney development, there was a significant contribution of seawater sulfate during barite mineralization. Thereafter, thickening of chimney wall occurred due to precipitation of fluid carrying more magmatic components relative to seawater. This led to a gradual enrichment of lighter isotopes (δ34S = 20.42-19.48 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70491-0.704787) toward the inner portion of the chimney wall. In contrast, the innermost layer surrounding the fluid conduit is characterized by heavier and more radiogenic isotopes (δ34S = 20.3 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7049). This suggests there was increasing influence of percolating seawater on the mineral paragenesis at the waning phase of the chimney development.

  3. Fossils of hydrothermal vent worms from Cretaceous sulfide ores of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haymon, R.M.; Koski, R.A.; Sinclair, C.

    1984-01-01

    Fossil worm tubes of Cretaceous age preserved in the Bayda massive sulfide deposit of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, are apparently the first documented examples of fossils embedded in massive sulfide deposits from the geologic record. The geologic setting of the Bayda deposit and the distinctive mineralogic and textural features of the fossiliferous samples suggest that the Bayda sulfide deposit and fossil fauna are remnants of a Cretaceous sea-floor hydrothermal vent similar to modern hot springs on the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

  4. Shape controlled synthesis of hierarchical nickel sulfide by the hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, R; Navaneethan, M; Archana, J; Thangaraju, D; Arivanandhan, M; Hayakawa, Y

    2014-12-14

    Hierarchical structures of nickel sulfide have been grown by the hydrothermal method. Nickel nitrate hexahydrate and thiourea were used as precursor materials to synthesize nickel sulfide. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was used as a capping agent to achieve monodispersity. The different phases of nickel sulfide and its dependency on the precursor concentration were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. Transmission electron microscopy analysis was used to confirm the phase changes and morphological behavior of the synthesized material. The morphological evolution of the hierarchical structure formation was studied systematically by scanning electron microscopy. In this study, we explore a novel method to control the synthesis of nickel sulfide hierarchical structures by varying the precursor concentration. The two mixed phases enhanced the catalytic activity in the 4-nitro phenol reduction reaction. PMID:25338309

  5. Mineralization, alteration, and hydrothermal metamorphism of the ophiolite-hosted Turner-Albright sulfide deposit, southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Seyfried, W.E.; Koski, R.A.; Strickler, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Turner-Albright sulfide deposit, part of the Josephine ophiolite, formed on and below the seafloor during Late Jurassic volcanism at a back arc spreading center. Ore fluids were probably localized by faults which were active on the seafloor at the time of sulfide deposition. The uppermost massive sulfide formed on the seafloor at hydrothermal vents. The bulk of the sulfide mineralization formed below the seafloor within olivine basalt hyaloclastite erupted near the time of mineralization. Infiltration of hydrothermal fluid into the hyaloclastite altered the rock. The fluid responsible for the hydrothermal alteration was evolved seawater with low pH and Mg and high Fe. The average value of sulfide and the difference between sulfide and contemporaneous seawater sulfate values are similar to ophiolite-hosted sulfide deposits in Cyprus. Mudstone and clinopyroxene basalt above the sulfide horizons were not altered by the ore-transporting hydrothermal fluid, but these rocks were hydrothermally metamorphosed by altered seawater heated by deep circulation into hot oceanic crust. This subseafloor metamorphism produced a mineral assemblage typical of prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism. Exchange with altered seawater increased the whole-rock ??18O of the basalts to values of 9.4-11.2%. -from Authors

  6. Nature and extent of electrogenic microbial communities recovered from Juan de Fuca hydrothermal sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girguis, P. R.; Nielsen, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    Microbes have evolved a variety of metabolic strategies to survive in anaerobic environments, including extracellular electron transfer (EET). Here we present laboratory and in situ experiments revealing that hydrothermal vent microbes employ and depend upon EET to access spatially remote oxidants via semi-conductive pyrite. To simulate the physical and electrochemical conditions in vent sulfides, we constructed a two-chamber flow-through bioelectrochemical reactor in which a pyrite electrode was enclosed in one chamber and subject to simulated hydrothermal conditions. Electroactive biofilms formed solely on pyrite in electrical continuity with oxygenated water. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses revealed a diversity of autotrophic and heterotrophic archaea and bacteria, markedly different in composition from the control (pyrite without electrical continuity). To further characterize this phenomenon, we deployed a bioelectrochemical experiment in situ at the hydrothermal vent sulfide "Roane" (2200 m water depth, at the Mothra hydrothermal field, Juan de Fuca ridge). A graphite anode was inserted into a borehole drilled into the base of a hydrothermal sulfide, and connected through a potentiostat to a carbon-fiber cathode on the outside of the vent structure. The in situ experiment produced sustained current and enriched for a distinct microbial community likely associated with EET. The data presented herein reveal the nature and extent of microbial communities that use conductive minerals such as pyrite, though fully reduced, to facilitate the reduction of spatially remote oxidants while maintaining chemical discontinuity. Thus EET, by enabling sustained access to terminal electron acceptors while maintaining the functioning of strictly anaerobic metabolisms, may alleviate the limitations commonly associated with anaerobic environs, namely the depletion of oxidants.

  7. The Role of Magmatic Volatile Input, Near-surface Seawater Entrainment and Sulfide Deposition in Regulating Metal Concentrations Within Manus Basin Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, P. R.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J. S.; Rouxel, O.; Bach, W.

    2007-12-01

    Analyses of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Co and Sb in vent fluid samples from four hydrothermal systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, were carried out by ICP-MS. Vienna Woods is located on the well- defined, basalt-dominated Manus Spreading Center, while the other systems are hosted in felsic volcanics on the Pual Ridge (PACMANUS), within a caldera (DESMOS), and on volcanic cones (SuSu Knolls). Metal concentrations were coupled with other fluid data (pH, SO4, Ca, H2S) to discriminate effects of deep- seated water-rock reaction and magmatic volatile input from near surface seawater entrainment, mixing, and consequent mineral precipitation and metal remobilization. Both magmatic volatile input (e.g. SO2, HCl, HF) and sulfide precipitation can increase fluid acidity and thus affect the aqueous mobility of metals. At Vienna Woods, 280°C end-member (Mg = 0) fluids have high pH (>4.2) and low metal contents (Fe <160 uM, Cu <10 uM, Zn <40 uM) relative to most mid-ocean ridge (MOR) vent fluids. The high pH and lack of evidence for magmatic volatile input are consistent with fluid compositions regulated by subsurface seawater- basalt/andesite reactions. Despite low aqueous Zn concentrations, Zn-rich (wurtzite-lined) chimneys are common at Vienna Woods active vents, reflecting deposition from fluids characterized by low Fe and Cu and high pH. At PACMANUS, black smoker fluids (T >300°C, pH ~ 2.7) are enriched in sulfide-forming metals by an order of magnitude relative to Vienna Woods fluids. Enrichments at PACMANUS reflect efficient leaching of metals at low pH, with the lower pH likely a result of input of magmatic volatiles. In addition, some vents fluids show clear evidence for seawater entrainment, subsurface precipitation of Cu-Fe-sulfides and preferential remobilization of Zn-sulfides (lower T, non-zero Mg, lower Fe, Cu, H2S and pH (2.3-2.4), but higher Zn, Pb, Cd and Ag, compared to black smokers). The higher metal concentrations and lower pH of

  8. Hydrothermal Exploration of Mid-Ocean Ridges: Where Might the Largest Sulfide Deposits Occur?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Petersen, S.; Hannington, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We review the distribution of modern-day seafloor hydrothermal activity along the global mid-ocean ridge crest (MOR) and the mineral deposits being formed at those sites. To date, one form of hydrothermal activity - "black smoker" venting - has been prospected for along >30% of the global mid ocean ridge crest and some important trends have emerged. Submarine venting can occur along all mid-ocean ridges, of all spreading rates, in all ocean basins. While the abundance of currently active venting (from water column signals), scales linearly with seafloor spreading rate (a proxy for magmatic heat-flux) there is an "excess" of high temperature venting along slow and ultra-slow spreading ridges when compared to early predictions. Consistent with this, no more than half of the sites responsible for "black smoker" plume signals along the slow spreading Mid Atlantic Ridge are associated with magmatic systems with the other half hosted under tectonic control. The latter appear both to be longer-lived than, and to give rise to much larger sulfide deposits than, their magmatic counterparts - presumably as a result of sustained fluid flow. Where these tectonic-hosted systems also involve water-rock interaction with ultramafic sources, seafloor massive sulfide deposits exhibit highly concentrated Cu and Au in surface samples (>10wt.% average Cu content and >3ppm average Au). Intriguingly, first detailed examinations of hydrothermally active sites along ultraslow-spreading ridges seems to indicate that they may depart beyond the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge pattern. Hydrothermal plume distributions may follow the same (~50:50) distribution of "black smoker" plume signals between magmatic and tectonics settings, but the first three "black smoker" sites tracked to source have all revealed large polymetallic sulfide deposits - in both magmatic as well as tectonic settings. Could ultra-slow ridges represent the richest mineral resource potential along the global MOR?

  9. Intra-field variability in microbial community associated with phase-separation-controlled hydrothermal fluid chemistry in the Mariner field, the southern Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Ishibashi, J.; Lupton, J.; Ueno, Y.; Nunoura, T.; Hirayama, H.; Horikoshi, K.; Suzuki, R.; Hamasaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.

    2006-12-01

    A newly discovered hydrothermal field called the Mariner field at the northernmost central Valu Fa Ridge (VFR) in the Lau Basin was explored and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The hydrothermal fluid (max. 365 u^C) emitting from the most vigorous vent site (Snow chimney) was boiling just beneath the seafloor at a water depth of 1908 m and two end-members of hydrothermal fluid were identified. Mineral and fluid chemistry of typical brine-rich (Snow chimney and Monk chimney) and vapor-rich (Crab Restaurant chimney) hydrothermal fluids and the host chimney structures were analyzed. Microbial community structures in three chimney structures were also investigated by culture-dependent and - independent analyses. The 16S rRNA gene clone analysis revealed that both bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene communities at the chimney surface zones were different among three chimneys. The bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene communities of the Snow chimney surface were very similar with those in the dead chimneys, suggesting concurrence of metal sulfide deposition at the inside and weathering at the surface potentially due to its large structure and size. Cultivation analysis demonstrated the significant variation in culturability of various microbial components, particularly of thermophilic H2- and/or S-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs such as the genera Aquifex and Persephonella, among the chimney sites. The culturability of these chemolithoautotrophs might be associated with the input of gaseous energy and carbon sources like H2S, H2 and CH4 from the hydrothermal fluids, and might be affected by phase-separation- controlled fluid chemistry. In addition, inter-fields comparison of microbial community structures determined by cultivation analysis revealed novel characteristics of the microbial communities in the Mariner field of the Lau Basin among the global deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  10. Geology, mineralogy, and chemistry of sediment-hosted clastic massive sulfides in shallow cores, Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W.D.; Franklin, J.M. )

    1993-12-01

    Middle Valley is a sediment-covered rift near the northern end of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Hydrothermal fluids are presently being discharged at two vent fields about 3 km apart, Bent Hill and the area of active venting. The hydrothermally active chimneys at both Bent Hill and the area of active venting consist of anhydrite and Mg-rich silicates with minor pyrite, Cu-Fe sulfide, sphalerite, and galena. Hydrothermal discharge in these areas appears to be focused along extensional faults. At the Bent Hill massive sulfide deposit, clastic sulfide layers are interbedded with hydrothermally altered and unaltered hemipelagic and turbiditic sediment along the flanks of the sulfide mound. Sulfide textures and mineralogy suggest that the Bent Hill sulfide mound formed by the build-up and collapse of sulfide chimneys, the resedimentation of sulfide debris and the formation of clastic sulfide layers, and the infilling and replacement of clastic sulfides by hydrothermal fluids near vents. Sulfur isotope values that are consistently more positive than basaltic sulfur support the addition of seawater sulfur. Pb isotope values for the Bent Hill deposit that are transitional between midocean ridge basalt (MORB) and Middle Valley sediments indicate that the sulfides probably formed from fluids which originated in the oceanic crust but which have been modified by reaction with lower temperature (<274 C) fluids generated in the sedimentary pile, similar to those now venting in Middle Valley.

  11. Characterization of Alkaliphilus hydrothermalis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic anaerobic bacterium, isolated from a carbonaceous chimney of the Prony hydrothermal field, New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    A novel anaerobic, alkaliphilic, Gram-positive staining bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in the Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain designated FatMR1(T) grew at temperatures from 20 to 55 °C (optimum 37 °C) and at pH between 7.5 and 10.5 (optimum 8.8-9). NaCl is not required for growth (optimum 0.2-0.5%), but is tolerated up to 3%. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite are not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain FatMR1(T) fermented pyruvate, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypcase and used fructose as the only sugar. The main fermentation products from fructose and proteinaceous compounds (e.g. peptone and biotrypcase) were acetate, H2 and CO2. Crotonate was disproportionated to acetate and butyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 37.1 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic, and physiological properties, strain FatMR1(T) (=DSM 25890(T), =JCM 18390(T)) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as a novel species of the genus Alkaliphilus, A. hydrothermalis sp. nov. PMID:25319677

  12. Characterization of Alkaliphilus hydrothermalis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic anaerobic bacterium, isolated from a carbonaceous chimney of the Prony hydrothermal field, New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    A novel anaerobic, alkaliphilic, Gram-positive staining bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in the Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain designated FatMR1(T) grew at temperatures from 20 to 55 °C (optimum 37 °C) and at pH between 7.5 and 10.5 (optimum 8.8-9). NaCl is not required for growth (optimum 0.2-0.5%), but is tolerated up to 3%. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite are not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain FatMR1(T) fermented pyruvate, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypcase and used fructose as the only sugar. The main fermentation products from fructose and proteinaceous compounds (e.g. peptone and biotrypcase) were acetate, H2 and CO2. Crotonate was disproportionated to acetate and butyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 37.1 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic, and physiological properties, strain FatMR1(T) (=DSM 25890(T), =JCM 18390(T)) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as a novel species of the genus Alkaliphilus, A. hydrothermalis sp. nov.

  13. Key factors influencing rates of heterotrophic sulfate reduction in hydrothermal massive sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, K. L.; Rogers, D.; Girguis, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Despite sulfate reduction's ubiquity in marine systems, relatively little is known about how environmental or ecological factors influence rates of sulfate reduction. While numerous studies have considered how sulfate reduction and methanogenesis compete for reductants in natural and human-made systems, less is known about how temperature or metabolite concentration, such as sulfate and sulfide concentrations, affects rates of sulfate reduction. Here we use a factorial experimental design to evaluate the effects of key variables on sulfate reduction kinetics in sulfide deposits recovered from hydrothermal vents in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca ridge. Microbial sulfate reduction rates were measured by 35-S tracer techniques over a range of environmentally relevant chemical conditions (pH, H2S, SO42-, and organic carbon concentrations) and temperatures (4, 50 and 90°C). Maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50°C, and sulfate reduction rates had significant positive correlations with increasing sulfide, pH and sulfate. However, sulfate reduction rates did not correlate to exogenous dissolved organic carbon, implicating exogenous hydrogen or endogenous organic matter as the reductant (or even sulfur disproportionation). This research presents an opportunity to better understand the key variables that influence the rates of microbial sulfate reduction in hydrothermal environments and provides a framework for modeling sulfate reduction in mid-ocean ridge systems.

  14. Hydrothermal and metamorphic berthierine from the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Timmins, Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Wei-Teh, Jiang; Peacor, D.R.; Okita, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Berthierine, a 7 A?? Fe-Al member of the serpentine group, occurs in the footwall stringer zone of the Archean Kidd Creek massive sulfide deposit, associated with quartz, muscovite, chlorite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and local tourmaline, cassiterite, and halloysite. Petrographic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal different types of berthierine occurrences, including interlayers within the rims on deformed chlorite, intergrowths with muscovite and halloysite, and discrete coarse grains. This is the first reported occurrence of berthierine from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. Textural relations suggest that most of the berthierine formed as a primary hydrothermal mineral at relatively high temperatures (~350??C) in the footwall stringer zone, probably by the replacement of a pre-existing aluminous phase such as muscovite or chlorite. However, the intergrowth textures observed by SEM and TEM suggest that some of the berthierine originated by syn- or post-metamorphic replacement of chlorite. -from Authors

  15. Pb isotopes in sulfides from mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal sites

    SciTech Connect

    LeHuray, A.P.; Church, S.E.; Koski, R.A.; Bouse, R.M.

    1988-04-01

    The authors report Pb isotope ratios of sulfides deposited at seven recently active mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal vents. Sulfides from three sediment-starved sites on the Juan de Fuca Ridge contain Pb with isotope ratios identical to their local basaltic sources. Lead in two deposits from the sediment-covered Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge, is derived from the sediments and does not appear to contain any basaltic component. There is a range of isotope ratios in a Guaymas Basin deposit, consistent with a mixture of sediment and MOR basalt Pb. Lead in a Galapagos deposit differs slightly from known Galapagos basalt Pb isotope values. The faithful record of Pb isotope signatures of local sources in MOR sulfides indicates that isotope ratios from ancient analogues ca be used as accurate reflections of ancient oceanic crustal values in ophiolite-hosted deposits and continental crustal averages in sediment-hosted deposits. The preservation of primary ophiolitic or continental crustal Pb isotope signatures in ancient MOR sulfides provides a powerful tool for investigation of crustal evolution and for fingerprinting ancient terranes.

  16. Geology and hydrothermal evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, Deborah A.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Delaney, John R.

    2007-06-01

    Detailed characterization of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, the most southern and spatially extensive field on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, provides new insights into its geologic and hydrothermal development. Meter-scale bathymetry, side-scan sonar imagery, and direct dive observations show that Mothra is composed of six actively venting sulfide clusters spaced 40-200 m apart. Chimneys within each cluster have similar morphology and venting characteristics, and all clusters host a combination of active and extinct sulfide structures. Black smoker chimneys venting fluids above 300°C are rare, while more common lower-temperature, diffusely venting chimneys support dense colonies of macrofauna and bacterial mat. Hydrothermal sediment and extinct sulfide debris cover 10-15 m of the seafloor surrounding each vent cluster, obscuring the underlying basaltic substrate of light to moderately sedimented pillow, lobate, sheet, and chaotic flows, basalt talus, and collapse terrain. Extinct sulfide chimneys and debris between the clusters indicate that hydrothermal flow was once more widespread and that it has shifted spatially over time. The most prominent structural features in the axial valley at Mothra are regional (020°) trending faults and fissures and north-south trending collapse basins. The location of actively venting clusters within the field is controlled by (1) localization of fluid upflow along the western boundary fault zone, and diversion of these fluids by antithetic faults to feed vent clusters near the western valley wall, and (2) tapping of residual magmatic heat in the central part of the axial valley, which drives flow beneath vent clusters directly adjacent to the collapse basins 70-90 m east of the western valley wall. These processes form the basis for a model of axial valley and hydrothermal system development at Mothra, in which the field is initiated by an eruptive-diking episode and sustained through intense microseismicity

  17. Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of a novel deep-sea hydrothermal system at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Takai, Ken; Suzuki, Yohey; Hirayama, Hisako; Konno, Uta; Tsunogai, Urumu; Horikoshi, Koki

    2006-01-01

    Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the north-east lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc have been explored and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. White smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity centre of the field and represented the maximal temperature of 170 degrees C and the lowest pH of 1.6. The chimney structures, all consisting of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney), were also unique to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) have been investigated by culture-dependent and -independent analyses. 16S rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of 'deep-sea hydrothermal vent euryarchaeotal group'. Cultivation analysis suggested that the chemolithoautotrophs might play a significant ecological role as primary producers utilizing gas and sulfur compounds provided from hydrothermal fluids.

  18. Talc Chimneys on the Mid Cayman Rise Spreading Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, M.; Murton, B. J.; Roberts, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Von Damm Vent Field, located at a depth of 2300 metres on the Mid-Cayman Rise Spreading Centre, features an 80 metre, steep sided, conical mound. Hosted in ultramafic/mafic intrusives it is one of the few known off-axis vent sites, and is located on the Mount Dent Oceanic Core Complex. There are two main fluid orifices, which vent shimmering fluid, located at the top of the main mound with contrasting morphologies. The highest temperature fluid at 230oC is emanating from a wide-based spire approximately 3 metres high, with a wide 1-metre diameter hole on the western side of the spire, venting fluids at around 125oC. The chimneys are composed of talc (75%), silica (15%) and sufides (10%), with chalcopyrite representing the most common sulfide phase, despite the relatively low T and colourless plumes. In the chimneys, talc occurs as botryoidal and colloform masses indicating primary precipitation into pore space and is intergrown with silica in a very fine grained groundmass. Sulfides occur disseminated in both talc and silica, with minor pyrite and sphalerite present as well as the chalcopyrite. To our knowledge no other sea floor hydrothermal vent sites feature the concentrations of talc observed at Von Damm, which likely represents a third, new type of hydrothermal system after conventional black smoker systems and lower temperature, serpentinisation driven carbonate occurrences. During hydrothermal circulation of seawater at seafloor spreading centres magnesium is sequestered into clays and chlorite in the upper oceanic crust resulting in complete removal of Mg and absence of Mg in the emanating vent fluid. However, the presence of Mg-bearing silicates in mound and chimney material is not uncommon, but not in the volumes reported here, with the magnesium thought to originate from seawater, pore water, or sediments. Experimental studies confirm that on reaction with mafic and in particular pyroxene dominated lithologies, Mg is preferentially removed from the

  19. Biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of silver bismuth sulfide with nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kaowphong, Sulawan

    2012-05-15

    Silver bismuth sulfide (AgBiS{sub 2}) nanostructures were successfully prepared via a simple biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal synthesis at 200 Degree-Sign C for 12-72 h. Silver nitrate, bismuth nitrate and L-cysteine were used as starting materials. Here, the biomolecule, L-cysteine, was served as the sulfide source and a complexing agent. The products, characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were cubic AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles with a diameter range of about 20-75 nm. It was found that their crystallinity and particle size increased with increasing reaction time. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry (ICP-OES) analyses were used to confirm the stoichiometry of AgBiS{sub 2}. The optical band gap of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles, calculated from UV-vis spectra, was 3.0 eV which indicated a strong blue shift because of the quantum confinement effect. A possible formation mechanism of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: The optical band gap of the as-prepared AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles displays a strong blue shift comparing to the 2.46 eV of bulk AgBiS{sub 2} caused by the quantum confinement effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal method is developed to prepare AgBiS{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Cysteine is served as the sulfide source and a complexing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in band gap of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles attributes to the quantum confinement effects.

  20. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of orange fluorescent silver nanoclusters as a general probe for sulfides.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jing; Zhang, Pu; Wang, Ting Ting; Chang, Yong; Lie, Shao Qing; Wu, Zhu Lian; Liu, Zhong De; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2014-07-01

    Water-soluble fluorescent silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) with almost seven and nine silver atoms and a quantum yield (QY) of 5.38 ± 0.25% were successfully prepared via one-pot hydrothermal synthesis using polymethacrylic acid sodium salt (PMAA-Na) as a template. The as-prepared PMAA-AgNCs displayed a mono-distribution, they were uniform in size and the color of the fluorescence, emitting at 579 nm, was orange when excited at 502 nm. What is more, we found that the as-prepared PMAA-AgNCs could be quenched by sulfides based on the formation of a metal-ligand bond Ag-S, and thus sulfides could be sensitively detected by spectrofluorometry. As proof of concept, thiourea (TU) and other sulfides including cysteine (Cys), glutathione (GSH) and dl-methionine could be detected. For example, the color of the orange fluorescent AgNCs solutions darkened upon the addition of TU and the fluorescence of PMAA-AgNCs was quenched. The detection limit for TU was 6.10 μM in the linear range from 8.57 μM to 2.29 mM. PMID:24834451

  1. Comparison of Oceanic and Continental Ultramafic Hosted Hydrothermal Sulfide Deposits under Slow-spreading Mid-ocean Ridge Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Honglin; Li, Jianghai; Zhang, Huatian

    2013-04-01

    Recently, slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges have attracted lots of researchers, especially in the MAR (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and the Indian Ocean Ridge. People have found many hydrothermal vents or hydrothermal sulfide deposits around MAR, such as TAG, Rainbow and Lost City. The slow-spreading ridges are characterized by variations in magmatic, tectonic, and alteration processes along ridge segments. Because of the difficulties of the seafloor exploration, we need an example on the continent for compare with the hydrothermal sulfide deposits on mid-ocean ridge. So we found De'erni Cu (Co) ore deposit on the north of Tibet. De'erni Cu (Co) ore deposit is a typical VHMS developing in the north of Tibet, China. The ore body is hosted by the ultramafic rocks of the A'nyemagen ophiolite suite, which is the symbol of the residual crust of Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Through the detailed geological analysis to De'erni Cu (Co) ore deposit, lots of reminded geological records of submarine hydrothermal system, including: 1) thin-layer exhalative rock covering on the ore body; 2) the colloform structure, raspberry-like structure and breccia structure reserved in the porous-type ores; 3) the main mineral composition; 4) the calcite and felsic cement in the synchronization with the pyrite clast; 4) the ore zonality similar to the TAG hydrothermal sulfide deposit. According to the TiO2 content in the MORB basalts, the approximate half-spreading rate is 1.1-2.5cm/a, of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean represented by the De'erni ophiolite. Comparing to the mineralization processes of present mid-ocean hydrothermal sulfide deposits, we insist that De'erni Cu (Co) deposit has experienced three stages: submarine exhalation stage, cooling deposition and subduction emplacement. And the OCC (Oceanic Core Complex) may be the host setting of the submarine hydrothermal exhalation stage. Compared to other similar sulfide deposits on the continent in the world, De'erni Cu (Co) sulfide deposit has a younger age

  2. Key Factors Influencing Rates of Heterotrophic Sulfate Reduction in Hydrothermal Massive Sulfide Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, K. L.; Rogers, K. L.; Rogers, D.; Johnston, D. T.; Girguis, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep fluctuations in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, SO42-, DOC) on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in a hydrothermal flange recovered from the Grotto vent in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50°C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate reducing organisms at Grotto may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate within the complex gradients inherent to hydrothermal deposits.

  3. Sulfide binding is mediated by zinc ions discovered in the crystal structure of a hydrothermal vent tubeworm hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Flores, Jason F; Fisher, Charles R; Carney, Susan L; Green, Brian N; Freytag, John K; Schaeffer, Stephen W; Royer, William E

    2005-02-22

    Key to the remarkable ability of vestimentiferan tubeworms to thrive in the harsh conditions of hydrothermal vents are hemoglobins that permit the sequestration and delivery of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen to chemoautotrophic bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that zinc ions, not free cysteine residues, bind sulfide in vestimentiferan hemoglobins. The crystal structure of the C1 hemoglobin from the hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila has been determined to 3.15 A and revealed the unexpected presence of 12 tightly bound Zn(2+) ions near the threefold axes of this D(3) symmetric hollow sphere. Chelation experiments on R. pachyptila whole-coelomic fluid and purified hemoglobins reveal a role for Zn(2+) ions in sulfide binding. Free cysteine residues, previously proposed as sulfide-binding sites in vestimentiferan hemoglobins, are found buried in surprisingly hydrophobic pockets below the surface of the R. pachyptila C1 molecule, suggesting that access of these residues to environmental sulfide is restricted. Attempts to reduce the sulfide-binding capacities of R. pachyptila hemoglobins by addition of a thiol inhibitor were also unsuccessful. These findings challenge the currently accepted paradigm of annelid hemoglobin evolution and adaptation to reducing environments. PMID:15710902

  4. ESR dating of barite in sea-floor hydrothermal sulfide deposits at Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakai, S.; Takamasa, A.

    2013-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). With this aspect, Okumura et al. (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite to obtain preliminary ages, while Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. ESR is a method to observe radicals having unpaired electrons. As natural radiation creates unpaired electrons in minerals, the age is deduced by dividing the natural radiation dose (obtained from the amount of unpaired electrons) by the dose rate which is estimated by the amount of environmental radioactive elements. The samples were taken by the research cruises, NT12-10 and NT11-20 and NT12-06 operated by JAMSTEC from Hatoma, Yoron, Izena, North Iheya, and Yonaguni IV Knolls of Okinawa Trough. The blocks of sulfide deposits were cut into pieces, and about 2.0g was crushed. The samples were soaked in 12M hydrochloric acid, left for approximately 24 hours. Then, 13M nitric acid was added. Finally, after rinsing in distilled water, the sample was filtered and dried. Impurities were removed by handpicking. A X-ray diffraction study was made to confirm that the grains are pure barite. After γ-ray irradiation at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, they were measured at room temperature with an ESR spectrometer (JES-PX2300) with a microwave power of 1mW, and the magnetic field modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. The equivalent natural radiation doses were obtained from the increase of ESR signal intensity of SO3- by irradiation. The bulk Ra concentration was measured by the low background pure Ge gamma ray spectrometer. Assuming that Ra is populated only in barite

  5. Importance of hydrophilic pretreatment in the hydrothermal growth of amorphous molybdenum sulfide for hydrogen evolution catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bose, Ranjith; Balasingam, Suresh Kannan; Shin, Seokhee; Jin, Zhenyu; Kwon, Do Hyun; Jun, Yongseok; Min, Yo-Sep

    2015-05-12

    Amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) has been identified as an excellent catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). It is still a challenge to prepare amorphous MoSx as a more active and stable catalyst for the HER. Here the amorphous MoSx catalysts are prepared on carbon fiber paper (CFP) substrates at 200 °C by a simple hydrothermal method using molybdic acid and thioacetamide. Because the CFP is intrinsically hydrophobic due to its graphene-like carbon structure, two kinds of hydrophilic pretreatment methods [plasma pretreatment (PP) and electrochemical pretreatment (EP)] are investigated to convert the hydrophobic surface of the CFP to be hydrophilic prior to the hydrothermal growth of MoSx. In the HER catalysis, the MoSx catalysts grown on the pretreated CFPs reach a cathodic current density of 10 mA/cm(2) at a much lower overpotential of 231 mV on the MoSx/EP-CFP and 205 mV on the MoSx/PP-CFP, compared to a high overpotential of 290 mV on the MoSx of the nonpretreated CFP. Turnover frequency per site is also significantly improved when the MoSx are grown on the pretreated CFPs. However, the Tafel slopes of all amorphous MoSx catalysts are in the range of 46-50 mV/dec, suggesting the Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism as a major pathway for the HER. In addition, regardless of the presence or absence of the pretreatment, the hydrothermally grown MoSx catalyst on CFP exhibits such excellent stability that the degradation of the cathodic current density is negligible after 1000 cycles in a stability test, possibly due to the relatively high growth temperature. PMID:25879493

  6. Key Factors Influencing Rates of Heterotrophic Sulfate Reduction in Active Seafloor Hydrothermal Massive Sulfide Deposits.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kiana L; Rogers, Karyn L; Rogers, Daniel R; Johnston, David T; Girguis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep gradients in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, [Formula: see text], DOC) on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in material recovered from a hydrothermal flange from the Grotto edifice in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli, and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50°C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate-reducing organisms in Grotto flanges may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate reduction within the complex gradients inherent to seafloor hydrothermal deposits.

  7. Key Factors Influencing Rates of Heterotrophic Sulfate Reduction in Active Seafloor Hydrothermal Massive Sulfide Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kiana L.; Rogers, Karyn L.; Rogers, Daniel R.; Johnston, David T.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep gradients in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, SO42−, DOC) on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in material recovered from a hydrothermal flange from the Grotto edifice in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli, and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50°C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate-reducing organisms in Grotto flanges may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate reduction within the complex gradients inherent to seafloor hydrothermal deposits. PMID:26733984

  8. Key Factors Influencing Rates of Heterotrophic Sulfate Reduction in Active Seafloor Hydrothermal Massive Sulfide Deposits.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kiana L; Rogers, Karyn L; Rogers, Daniel R; Johnston, David T; Girguis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep gradients in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, [Formula: see text], DOC) on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in material recovered from a hydrothermal flange from the Grotto edifice in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli, and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50°C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate-reducing organisms in Grotto flanges may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate reduction within the complex gradients inherent to seafloor hydrothermal deposits. PMID:26733984

  9. Low-Temperature Weathering of Hydrothermal Sulfide Minerals at Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, B. M.; Santelli, C. M.; Rogers, D. R.; Edwards, K. J.

    2005-12-01

    Phylogenetically and metabolically diverse microbial communities have been identified in several deep ocean settings, including the seafloor at mid-ocean ridge flanks. The microorganisms present in these environments appear to participate in geochemical processes, such as mineral dissolution and mineral precipitation, over geological time scales. The purpose of our study was to characterize the initial alteration products and geochemical signatures of hydrothermal sulfide minerals exposed at the seafloor near hydrothermal venting at the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and to identify those weathering products specific to microbial metabolism. Biominerals are notoriously difficult to characterize, often possessing structural defects and small particle size, and are commonly only one of many constituents within natural particles and biofilms. Given these challenges, focused beam X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) techniques provide important capabilities for identifying microbial weathering products by (1) effectively simplifying the chemistry of the sample through examination of chemically discrete areas, (2) identifying co-occurring elements of interest, (3) providing complementary structural information from co-occurring elements, and (4) examining samples at the natural micro- to millimeter spatial scale of mineralogical heterogeneity. We collected 2-dimensional X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental maps of experimentally weathered sulfide minerals in cross section. For these experiments, fresh, unweathered sulfide minerals were incubated at low temperatures for a two month period and then collected for mineralogical and microbiological analysis. Previous work on these samples showed that abundant Fe oxide minerals (principally 2-line ferrihydrite) accumulated during weathering, and correlated with dense cell aggregates at the mineral surface. Additionally, a diverse collection of Fe oxidizing bacteria were cultured from these and other similar samples incubated or collected

  10. Hydrothermal Mineralization Along the Volcanically Active Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, C. E.; Hein, J. R.; Embley, R. W.; Stern, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    In March and April, 2004, ROPOS ROV dives took place from the R/V T.G. Thompson along the volcanically active Mariana arc to ground truth CTD data collected a year earlier that indicated hydrothermal activity. Dives took place on seven volcanoes, six of which showed hydrothermal activity. We present data on samples collected from NW Rota-1 (14° , 36'N, 144° , 46'E), E. Diamante (15° , 56'N, 145° , 41'E), and NW Eifuku (21° , 29'N, 144° , 03'E), the three sites most studied. All the hydrothermal systems found are associated with volcano summits, or with resurgent domes inside a caldera. Brimstone vent at NW Rota-1 provided a dramatic display of thick, bellowing, yellow plumes that contained ash and molten sulfur. This site occurs at 500 m water depth and clearly shows closely associated magmatic-hydrothermal discharge. Sulfur was the dominant hydrothermal mineral deposited around the vent and occurs as spheres in the surrounding volcaniclastic sediment, fracture fill and veins, and massive deposits. The Black Forest vent field at E Diamante consists of a sulfide-sulfate chimney system developed at about 650 m water depth. This is the only mature system discovered and consists of numerous tall (up to 9 m) chimneys. The measured fluid temperature of 240° C produces boiling at the depth of the vents. The chimneys and mounds are composed of varying amounts of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, barite, and anhydrite. Hydrothermal Mn oxides occur on the surface of inactive chimneys. This mineralogy contrasts with the other two systems, which deposit sulfur as the dominant hydrothermal product. The Cu-Zn-Fe-Ba mineralization is perhaps largely controlled by water/rock interaction. A unique hydrothermal field (Champagne field) was found at NW Eifuku where liquid CO2 is discharging from focused- and diffuse-flow vents at 1600 m water depth. The focused-flow vents consist of small chimneys and mounds up to a meter high that are composed of sulfur and yet to be

  11. Discovery of sublacustrine hydrothermal activity and associated massive sulfides and hydrocarbons in the north Tanganyika trough, East African Rift

    SciTech Connect

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Mondeguer, A. ); Thouin, C. ); Kalala, T. )

    1989-11-01

    Massive sulfides and carbonate mineral deposits associated with sublacustrine thermal springs were recently discovered along the Zaire side of the north Tanganyika trough, western branch of the East African Rift. This hydrothermal activity, investigated by scuba diving at a maximum depth of 20 m, is located at the intersection of major north-south normal faults and northwest-southeast faults belonging to the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi (TRM) strike-slip fault zone. The preliminary results presented here come from analyses of sulfide deposits, hydrothermal fluids, and associated hydrocarbons that result from geothermal activity in this part of the East African Rift filled by a thick pile of sediment, the north Tanganyika trough.

  12. Mineralogical and Fluid Inclusion Studies on Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents at TA25 Caldera, Tonga Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. K.; Pak, S. J.; Choi, S. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, I. K.

    2015-12-01

    The extensive hydrothermal vent field was discovered at TA25("V18s-HR" in the SO-167 cruise) caldera in the Tonga arc, southwest Pacific. The TA25 caldera is a submarine volcano of dacitic composition and hosts the NE- and NW-trending hydrothermal vent on the western caldera wall. These active hydrothermal crusters are mostly small (chimney: <0.5m in tall; sulfide mound: <3m in diameter) and immature, and emit the transparent fluids of which temperature range from 150℃ to 242℃ (average = 203℃). The hydrothermal sulfide ores, recovered by ROV and/or TV-grab, are mainly composed of sphalerite, pyrite, marcasite, galena, chalcopyrite, covellite, tennantite, enargite and sulfates such as barite, gypsum/anhydrite. It is observed that three distinct mineralogical zonation from exterior to interior of the chimneys: (1) barite-gypsum/anhydrite-pyrite-sphalerite; (2) sphalerite-pyrite-galena±chalcopyrite; (3) sphaleirte-pyrite-chalcopyrite-enargite-tennantite±galena±covellite. FeS content in sphalerite increases from chimney exterior to interior. Chalcopyrite is more abundant in the mound than in the chimney, implying fluid temperatures in mound are greater than in the chimney. The enargite assemblage (pyrite-chalcopyrite-enargite-tennantite) is indicative of high-sulfidation epithermal deposits. Fluid inclusions on barite crystals from mound samples show mono-type inclusion (two-phase liquid-rich inclusions) which is less than 20㎛ in diameter. Homogenization temperatures and salinities from fluid inclusion study range from 148℃ to 341℃ (average = 213℃) and 0.4 to 3.6 equiv. wt.% NaCl, respectively. The main mineralization temperature in mound might be greater than 200℃ since barite on fluid inclusion is early stage mineral.

  13. Catalytic Diversity in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems on Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Ryan D.; Barge, Laura; Chin, Keith B.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Flores, Erika; Hammer, Arden C.; Sobron, Pablo; Russell, Michael J.; Kanik, Isik

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal systems formed by serpentinization can create moderate-temperature, alkaline systems and it is possible that this type of vent could exist on icy worlds such as Europa which have water-rock interfaces. It has been proposed that some prebiotic chemistry responsible for the emergence of life on Earth and possibly other wet and icy worlds could occur as a result ofredox potential and pH gradients in submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents (Russell et al., 2014). Hydrothermal chimneys formed in laboratory simulations of alkaline vents under early Earth conditions have precipitate membranes that contain minerals such as iron sulfides, which are hypothesized to catalyze reduction of CO2 (Yamaguchi et al. 2014, Roldan et al. 2014) leading to further organic synthesis. This CO2 reduction process may be affected by other trace components in the chimney, e.g. nickel or organic molecules. We have conducted experiments to investigate catalytic properties of iron and iron-nickel sulfides containing organic dopants in slightly acidic ocean simulants relevant to early Earth or possibly ocean worlds. We find that the electrochemical properties of the chimney as well as the morphology/chemistry of the precipitate are affected by the concentration and type of organics present. These results imply that synthesis of organics in water-rock systems on ocean worlds may lead to hydrothermal precipitates which can incorporate these organic into the mineral matrix and may affect the role of gradients in alkaline vent systems.Therefore, further understanding on the electroactive roles of various organic species within hydrothermal chimneys will have important implications for habitability as well as prebiotic chemistry. This work is funded by NASA Astrobiology Institute JPL Icy Worlds Team and a NAI Director's Discretionary Fund award.Yamaguchi A. et al. (2014) Electrochimica Acta, 141, 311–318.Russell, M. J. et al. (2014), Astrobiology, 14, 308-43.Roldan, A. (2014) Chem. Comm

  14. Mineral-chemical studies of metamorphosed hydrothermal alteration in the Kristineberg volcanogenic massive sulfide district, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannington, Mark D.; Kjarsgaard, Ingrid M.; Galley, Alan G.; Taylor, Bruce

    2003-06-01

    The massive sulfide deposits of the Kristineberg area, Sweden, occur within a 2- to 3-km-thick succession of felsic volcaniclastic rocks belonging to the Skellefte Group. The volcanic pile is intruded by a synvolcanic Jorn-type granitoid (Viterliden intrusive complex) and is overlain by a thick sequence of metasedimentary rocks (Vargfors Group). Mineralization occurs at two main stratigraphic levels, at the base of the felsic volcanic succession and at the contact with the metasedimentary rocks of the Vargfors Group. The Kristineberg Cu-Zn mine is the largest deposit (approximately 21 Mt) and occurs at the base of the volcanic pile, close to the contact with the Viterliden intrusive complex. Four smaller deposits (Ravliden, Ravlidmyran, Horntrask and Nyliden) occur along the upper ore horizon. These deposits are thought to be related to a late intrusive phase of the Viterliden complex which cuts the altered volcanic rocks at the Kristineberg deposit. Within an area of about 50 km2 surrounding the Kristineberg deposit, felsic volcanic rocks between the two ore horizons are affected by extensive albite-destructive alteration (sodium depletion) and development of chlorite and muscovite (strong co-enrichment in magnesium and potassium). The Kristineberg deposit is enveloped by a large and partly transposed quartz-chlorite alteration zone, approximately 2 km in diameter, and a distal but coherent pyrite-quartz-muscovite alteration zone extending as far as 4 km from the deposit. Chlorite(±talc) in the mine area is notably magnesium-rich and contains anomalous F, Ba, Zn and Mn. High fluorine is also present in coexisting muscovite and phlogopite. The magnesium-rich chlorite alteration contrasts sharply with the iron enrichment observed in many other felsic, volcanic-hosted Precambrian massive sulfide deposits. This may indicate fixation of iron by large amounts of pyrite in the section or entrainment of large amounts of seawater in the hydrothermal upflow zones. Kyanite

  15. Probing the characteristics of metal- and sulfide-binding proteins in hydrothermal vent polychaetes using HPLC/IES-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Martineu, P.; Juniper, S.K.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Thompson, J.

    1995-12-31

    Alvinellids polychaetes colonizing the surfaces of black smokers from Eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents occupy extreme environments with high levels of heavy metals and sulfide. Investigations of mechanisms that enable them to tolerate these extreme conditions indicate sulfide-binding capacity in the blood serum of Paralvinella palmiformis and accumulation of heavy metals in their tissues. A need to characterize metal-binding proteins lead the authors to improve purification and separation of metallothioneins (MTs) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES/MS). A first separation step of small proteins from crude homogenates of worm tissues is performed on a size exclusion column following by accurate molecular weight identification with on-line LC-MS. This powerful technique has refined separation of isoform MT standards and weight characterization, and has provided an analytical tool to analyze metal-binding proteins from vent polychaetes. The authors are also applying this technique to separation of sulfide-binding proteins in blood serum and to identify ligands involved in sulfide detoxication and transport.

  16. Seismic properties and effects of hydrothermal alteration on Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) deposits at the Lalor Lake in Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, Khalid H.; Bellefleur, Gilles; Schetselaar, Ernst; Potter, David K.

    2015-12-01

    Borehole sonic and density logs are essential for mineral exploration at depth, but its limited availability to link rock properties of different ore forming geologic structure is a hindrance to seismic data interpretations. In situ density and velocity logs provide first order control on the reflectivity of various lithologic units. We analyzed borehole logs from 12 drill holes over and around the Lalor VMS deposits geographically located in the northern Manitoba, Canada, in an attempt to characterize lithologic units based on its seismic properties. The Lalor Lake deposit is part of the Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon Belt, and associated with an extensive hydrothermal alteration system. Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) zones are distributed in several ore lenses with relatively shallower facies comprise solid to solid sulfides, tend to be disseminated or Stringer sulfides, while deeper lenses are gold and silver enriched and occurred in the highly altered footwall region. Our analysis suggests that massive sulfide and diorite have higher acoustic impedance than other rock units, and can produce useful reflection signatures in seismic data. Bivariate distributions of P-wave velocity, density, acoustic impedance and Poisson's ratio in end-member mineral cones were used for qualitative assessment of the extent of alteration of various lithologic units. It can be inferred that hydrothermal alteration has considerably increased P-wave velocity and density of altered argillite and felsic volcanic rocks in comparison to their corresponding unaltered facies. Amphibole, garnet, kyanite, pyrite, sphalerite and staurolite are the dominant end-member alteration minerals affecting seismic rock properties at the VMS site.

  17. Quartz precipitation and fluid inclusion characteristics in sub-seafloor hydrothermal systems associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Han, Liang; Lowell, Robert P.; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2012-06-01

    Results of a numerical modeling study of quartz dissolution and precipitation in a sub-seafloor hydrothermal system have been used to predict where in the system quartz could be deposited and potentially trap fluid inclusions. The spatial distribution of zones of quartz dissolution and precipitation is complex, owing to the fact that quartz solubility depends on many inter-related factors, including temperature, fluid salinity and fluid immiscibility, and is further complicated by the fact that quartz exhibits both prograde and retrograde solubility behavior, depending on the fluid temperature and salinity. Using the PVTX properties of H2O-NaCl, the petrographic and microthermometric properties of fluid inclusions trapped at various locations within the hydrothermal system have been predicted. Vapor-rich inclusions are trapped as a result of the retrograde temperature-dependence of quartz solubility as the convecting fluid is heated in the vicinity of the magmatic heat source. Coexisting liquid-rich and vapor-rich inclusions are also trapped in this region when quartz precipitates as a result of fluid immiscibility that lowers the overall bulk quartz solubility in the system. Fluid inclusions trapped in the shallow subsurface near the seafloor vents and in the underlying stockwork are liquid-rich with homogenization temperatures of 200-400°C and salinities close to that of seawater. Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits represent the uplifted and partially eroded remnants of fossil submarine hydrothermal systems, and the relationship between fluid-inclusion properties and location within the hydrothermal system described here can be used in exploration for VMS deposits to infer the direction towards potential massive sulfide ore.

  18. Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity in the Southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Troni, G.; Wheat, C. G.; Spelz, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Active hydrothermal venting was previously unknown between Guaymas Basin and 21°N on the East Pacific Rise. MBARI AUV surveys and ROV dives in 2012 and 2015 discovered 7 hydrothermal vent sites with diverse and varied vent communities within that gap. One field in the Pescadero Basin vents clear shimmering fluids at 3685 m depth and four vigorous black smoker fields and several extinct chimney fields are between 2225 and 2400 m depth on the Alarcón Rise. Low-temperature vent sites are present on both of the Pescadero and Tamayo Transforms. The chimneys were discovered in 1-m resolution AUV bathymetric data, with some indicated to be active based on temperature anomalies in the AUV CTD data and confirmed during later ROV dives. The low-temperature vent sites on the transform faults were found on ROV dives while exploring young lava flows and sediment hills uplifted by sill intrusions. Pescadero Basin is a deep extensional basin in the southern Gulf. The smooth, subtly faulted floor is filled with at least 150 m of sediment, as determined from sub-bottom profiles collected by the AUV. Three large chimneys (named Auka by our Mexican collaborators) and several broad mounds are located on the SW margin of the basin. Temperatures to 290°C were measured, the fluids are clear, neutral pH, and contain elevated Na. The chimneys are delicate, white, predominantly Ca-carbonate; barite, sparse sulfides, and some aromatic hydrocarbons are also present. Three active vent fields (Ja Sít, Pericú, and Meyibó) at Alarcón Rise are located near the eruptive fissure of an extensive young sheet flow. The fourth field (Tzab-ek) is 1.1 km NW of the axis on older pillow lavas. The largest chimneys are in the Tzab-ek field: 31 and 33 m tall, with flanges and upside-down waterfalls. They rise from a sulfide mound, suggesting a long-lived hydrothermal system, in contrast to the near-axis fields where the chimneys grow directly on basalt. The Alarcón chimneys are Zn and Cu-rich sulfides

  19. Effect of sulfide, osmotic, and thermal stresses on taurine transporter mRNA levels in the gills of the hydrothermal vent-specific mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Kusakabe, Ikumi; Nagasaki, Toshihiro; Kinjo, Azusa; Sassa, Mieko; Koito, Tomoko; Okamura, Kei; Yamagami, Shosei; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent environmental conditions are characterized by high sulfide concentrations, fluctuating osmolality, and irregular temperature elevations caused by vent effluents. These parameters represent potential stressors for organisms that inhabit the area around hydrothermal vents. Here, we aimed to obtain a better understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of marine species to hydrothermal vent environments. Specifically, we examined the effect of sulfide, osmolality, and thermal stress on the expression of taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA in the gill of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum, which is a dominant species around hydrothermal vent sites. We analyzed TAUT mRNA levels by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the gill of mussels exposed to sulfide (0.1 or 1mg/L Na2S·9H2O), hyper- (115% seawater) and hypo- (97.5%, 95.5%, and 85% seawater) osmotic conditions, and thermal stresses (12°C and 20°C) for 24 and 48h. The results showed that mussels exposed to relatively low levels of sulfide (0.1mg/L) and moderate heat stress (12°C) exhibited higher TAUT mRNA levels than the control. Although hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress did not significantly change TAUT mRNA levels, slight induction was observed in mussels exposed to low osmolality. Our results indicate that TAUT is involved in the coping mechanism of mussels to various hydrothermal vent stresses.

  20. Effect of sulfide, osmotic, and thermal stresses on taurine transporter mRNA levels in the gills of the hydrothermal vent-specific mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Kusakabe, Ikumi; Nagasaki, Toshihiro; Kinjo, Azusa; Sassa, Mieko; Koito, Tomoko; Okamura, Kei; Yamagami, Shosei; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent environmental conditions are characterized by high sulfide concentrations, fluctuating osmolality, and irregular temperature elevations caused by vent effluents. These parameters represent potential stressors for organisms that inhabit the area around hydrothermal vents. Here, we aimed to obtain a better understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of marine species to hydrothermal vent environments. Specifically, we examined the effect of sulfide, osmolality, and thermal stress on the expression of taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA in the gill of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum, which is a dominant species around hydrothermal vent sites. We analyzed TAUT mRNA levels by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the gill of mussels exposed to sulfide (0.1 or 1mg/L Na2S·9H2O), hyper- (115% seawater) and hypo- (97.5%, 95.5%, and 85% seawater) osmotic conditions, and thermal stresses (12°C and 20°C) for 24 and 48h. The results showed that mussels exposed to relatively low levels of sulfide (0.1mg/L) and moderate heat stress (12°C) exhibited higher TAUT mRNA levels than the control. Although hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress did not significantly change TAUT mRNA levels, slight induction was observed in mussels exposed to low osmolality. Our results indicate that TAUT is involved in the coping mechanism of mussels to various hydrothermal vent stresses. PMID:26431911

  1. Submarine fissure eruptions and hydrothermal vents on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge: preliminary observations from the submersible Alvin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The submersible Alvin was used to investigate 3 active hydrothermal discharge sites along the S Juan de Fuca Ridge in September 1984. The hydrothermal zones occur within a 10-30m-deep, 30-50m-wide cleft marking the center of the axial valley. This cleft is the eruptive locus for the axial valley. The hydrothermal vents coincide with the main eruptive vents along the cleft. Each hydrothermal zone has multiple discharge sites extending as much as 500m along the cleft. Sulfide deposits occur as clusters (15-100m2 area) of small chimneys (= or <2m high) and as individual and clustered fields of large, branched chimneys (= or <10m high). Recovered sulfide samples are predominantly the tops of chimneys and spires and typically contain more than 80% sphalerite and wurtzite with minor pyrrhotite, pyrite, marcasite, isocubanite, chalcopyrite, anhydrite, anhydrite, and amorphous silica. The associated hydrothermal fluids have the highest chlorinity of any reported to date.-Authors

  2. Sulfurovum aggregans sp. nov., a hydrogen-oxidizing, thiosulfate-reducing chemolithoautotroph within the Epsilonproteobacteria isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney, and an emended description of the genus Sulfurovum.

    PubMed

    Mino, Sayaka; Kudo, Hideaki; Arai, Takayuki; Sawabe, Tomoo; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    A novel mesophilic, strictly hydrogen-oxidizing, sulfur-, nitrate- and thiosulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain Monchim33(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney at the Central Indian Ridge. The non-motile, rod-shaped cells were Gram-stain-negative and non-sporulating. Growth was observed between 15 and 37 °C (optimum 33 °C; 3.2 h doubling time) and between pH 5.4 and 8.6 (optimum pH 6.0). The isolate was a strictly anaerobic chemolithoautotroph capable of using molecular hydrogen as the sole energy source and carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel isolate belonged to the genus Sulfurovum and was closely related to Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1 and Sulfurovum lithotrophicum 42BK(T) (95.6 and 95.4 % similarity, respectively). DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the novel isolate could be differentiated genotypically from Sulfurovum sp. NBC37-1 and Sulfurovum lithotrophicum. On the basis of the molecular and physiological traits of the new isolate, the name Sulfurovum aggregans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain Monchim33(T) ( = JCM 19824(T) = DSM 27205(T)).

  3. Massive sulfide deposition and trace element remobilization in the Middle Valley sediment-hosted hydrothermal system, northern Juan de Fuca Rdge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houghton, J.L.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Seyfried, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Bent Hill massive sulfide deposit and ODP Mound deposit in Middle Valley at the northernmost end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge are two of the largest modern seafloor hydrothermal deposits yet explored. Trace metal concentrations of sulfide minerals, determined by laser-ablation ICP-MS, were used in conjunction with mineral paragenetic studies and thermodynamic calculations to deduce the history of fluid-mineral reactions during sulfide deposition. Detailed analyses of the distribution of metals in sulfides indicate significant shifts in the physical and chemical conditions responsible for the trace element variability observed in these sulfide deposits. Trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Sb, Pb, and Bi) analyzed in a representative suite of 10 thin sections from these deposits suggest differences in conditions and processes of hydrothermal alteration resulting in mass transfer of metals from the center of the deposits to the margins. Enrichments of some trace metals (Pb, Sb, Cd, Ag) in sphalerite at the margins of the deposits are best explained by dissolution/reprecipitation processes consistent with secondary remineralization. Results of reaction-path models clarify mechanisms of mass transfer during remineralization of sulfide deposits due to mixing of hydrothermal fluids with seawater. Model results are consistent with patterns of observed mineral paragenesis and help to identify conditions (pH, redox, temperature) that may be responsible for variations in trace metal concentrations in primary and secondary minerals. Differences in trace metal distributions throughout a single deposit and between nearby deposits at Middle Valley can be linked to the history of metal mobilization within this active hydrothermal system that may have broad implications for sulfide ore formation in other sedimented and unsedimented ridge systems. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Immiscibility of Fluid Phases at Magmatic-hydrothermal Transition: Formation of Various PGE-sulfide Mineralization for Layered Basic Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitova, L.; Borisenko, A.; Morgunov, K.; Zhukova, I.

    2007-12-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz of the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa) and the Chineisky Pluton (Transbaikal Region, Russia) were studied using cryometry, microthermometry, Raman-spectroscopy, LA ICP- MS, scanning electronic microscopy, gas-chromatography and isotopic methods. This allowed us to document some examples of fluid phase separation resulting in formation of different types of PGE-sulfide mineralization for layered basic intrusions. The results obtained show at least three generations of fluid separated from boiling residual alumosilicate intercumulus liquid of the Merensky Reef. The earliest fluid phase composed of homogenous high-dense methane and nitrogen gas mixture was identified in primary gas and co-existing anomalous fluid inclusions from symplectitic quartz. The next generation, heterophase fluid, composed of brines containing a free low-dense (mostly of carbon dioxide) gas phase, was observed in primary multiphase and coexisting gas-rich inclusions of miarolitic quartz crystals. The latest generation was also a heterophase fluid (low salinity water-salt solution and free low-dense methane gas phase) found in primary water-salt and syngenetic gas inclusions from peripheral zones of miarolitic quartz crystals. For the Chineisky Pluton reduced endocontact magmatogene fluids changed to oxidized low salinity hydrothermal fluids in exocontact zone. This resulted in formation of sulfide-PGE enrichment marginal zones of intrusion. The results obtained give us a possibility to suggest that: 1) Fluid phase separation is a typical feature of magmatogene fluids for layered basic intrusions. 2) Reduced fluids can extract and transport substantial PGE and sulfide concentrations. 3) Oxidation of reduced fluids is one of the most important geochemical barriers causing abundant PGE minerals and sulfides precipitation. This in turn results in both formation of PGE reefs or enriched contact zones of layered basic intrusions. This work was supported by

  5. Microbial Diversity in Samples of High Temperature Vent Chimneys From the 71 °N Hydrothermal Fields at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinsbu, B. O.; Daae, F.; Ovreaas, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    To get a first insight into the diversity of microorganisms present in the recently discovered active hydrothermal fields along the Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed with DNA extracted from the walls of active smoker pipes from different locations. Enrichments targeting different physiological groups of microorganisms were prepared both under aerobic, micro-aerobic, and strictly anaerobic conditions. Different combinations of substrates and electron acceptors, pH, and temperatures were used. The enrichment cultures were monitored by use of PCR in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Species dominating in the enrichments were isolated, and their 16S rRNA genes were analyzed. The clones obtained from DNA amplified with primers specific for Archaea represented members of the orders Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, Desulfurococcales, and Thermoproteales, as well as some unidentified groups. Three major fractions of the clones showed highest similarity to hyperthermophiles belonging to the families Pyrodictiaceae and Desulfurococcaceae, and an unidentified group which was given the name "Arctic Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Archaea" (ARHVA). The major fraction of the clones obtained by use of PCR primers specific for Bacteria affiliated with various genera of Aquificales. Clones representing Proteobacteria, Deferribacteres, Bacteroidetes, Deinococcus- Thermus, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes were also detected. Many clones were relatively distantly related to sequences in the GenBank database. Different types of both thermophiles and hyperthermophiles were enriched and isolated. The isolates were phylogenetically affiliated to Thermotogales, Thermales, Nautilales, Aquificales, Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, and Desulfurococcales. The cultivation experiments documented the presence of microorganisms mediating various metabolic processes including fermentation

  6. Sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope variations in submarine hydrothermal deposits of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, J.M.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope values were measured in sulfide, sulfate, and carbonate from hydrothermal chimney, spire, and mound samples in the southern trough of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, USA. ??34S values of sulfides range from -3.7 to 4.5%. and indicate that sulfur originated from several sources: 1. (1) dissolution of 0??? sulfide contained within basaltic rocks, 2. (2) thermal reduction of seawater sulfate during sediment alteration reactions in feeder zones to give sulfide with positive ??34S, and 3. (3) entrainment or leaching of isotopically light (negative-??34S) bacteriogenic sulfide from sediments underlying the deposits. ??34S of barite and anhydrite indicate sulfur derivation mainly from unfractionated seawater sulfate, although some samples show evidence of sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation reactions during mixing within chimneys. Oxygen isotope temperatures calculated for chimney calcites are in reasonable agreement with measured vent fluid temperatures and fluid inclusion trapping temperatures. Hydrothermal fluids that formed calcite-rich chimneys in the southern trough of Guaymas Basin were enriched in 18O with respect to seawater by about 2.4??? due to isotopic exchange with sedimentary and/or basaltic rocks. Carbon isotope values of calcite range from -9.6 to -14.0??? ??34CpDB, indicating that carbon was derived in approximately equal quantities from the dissolution of marine carbonate minerals and the oxidation of organic matter during migration of hydrothermal fluid through the underlying sediment column. Statistically significant positive, linear correlations of ??34S, ??34C, and ??18O of sulfides and calcites with geographic location within the southern trough of Guaymas Basin are best explained by variations in water/rock ( w r) ratios or sediment reactivity within subsurface alteration zones. Low w r ratios and the leaching of detrital carbonates and bacteriogenic sulfides at the southern vent sites result in relatively

  7. Evidence for Hydrothermal Vents as "Biogeobatteries" (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. E.; Girguis, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents are unique systems that play an important role in oceanic biogeochemical cycles. As chemically reduced hydrothermal fluid mixes with cold oxic seawater, minerals precipitate out of solution resulting in chimney structures composed largely of metal sulfides and anhydrite. Pyrite, which is a natural semi-conductor, is the primary sulfide mineral, but other minerals within chimneys are also conductive (e.g. chalcopyrite, wurtzite, and some iron oxides). Sulfide chimneys are also known to host an extensive endolithic microbial community. Accordingly, submarine hydrothermal systems appear to be examples of biogeobatteries, wherein conductive mineral assemblages span naturally occuring redox gradients and enable anaerobic microbes to access oxygen as an oxidant via extracellular electron transfer (or EET). To test this hypothesis, we ran a series of electrochemical laboratory experiments in which pyrite was used as an anode (in a vessel flushed with hydrothermal-like fluid). When placed in continuity with a carbon fiber cathode, pyrite was found to accept and conduct electrons from both abiotic and biological processes (microbial EET). Specifically, electrical current increased 4-fold (5 nA/m2 to 20 nA/m2) in response to inoculation with a slurry prepared from a hydrothermal vent sample. Inspection of the pyrite anode with SEM revealed ubiquitous coverage by microbes. DNA was extracted from the anodes and the inoculum, and was subjected to pyrosequencing to examine prokaryotic diversity. These data suggest that key microbial phylotypes were enriched upon the pyrite, implicating them in EET. In addition, we deployed an in situ experiment based on microbial fuel cell architecture with a graphite anode inserted into a vent wall coupled to a carbon fiber cathode outside the vent. We observed current production over the course of one year, implying microbial EET in situ. Via pyrosequencing, we observed that the microbial community on the anode was

  8. Complete genome sequence of the aerobic, heterotroph Marinithermus hydrothermalis type strain (T1(T)) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Alex; Gu, Wei; Yasawong, Montri; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Pagani, Ioanna; Tapia, Roxanne; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Pan, Chongle; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J; Sikorski, Johannes; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-03-19

    Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003 is the type species of the monotypic genus Marinithermus. M. hydrothermalis T1(T) was the first isolate within the phylum "Thermus-Deinococcus" to exhibit optimal growth under a salinity equivalent to that of sea water and to have an absolute requirement for NaCl for growth. M. hydrothermalis T1(T) is of interest because it may provide a new insight into the ecological significance of the aerobic, thermophilic decomposers in the circulation of organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Marinithermus and the seventh sequence from the family Thermaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,269,167 bp long genome with its 2,251 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  9. Complete genome sequence of the aerobic, heterotroph Marinithermus hydrothermalis type strain (T1T) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, A; Gu, Wei; Yasawong, Montri; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Pagani, Ioanna; Tapia, Roxanne; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Pan, Chongle; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian; Sikorski, Johannes; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003 is the type species of the monotypic genus Marinithermus. M. hydrothermalis T1 T was the first isolate within the phylum ThermusDeinococcus to exhibit optimal growth under a salinity equivalent to that of sea water and to have an absolute requirement for NaCl for growth. M. hydrothermalis T1 T is of interest because it may provide a new insight into the ecological significance of the aerobic, thermophilic decomposers in the circulation of organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Marinithermus and the seventh sequence from the family Thermaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,269,167 bp long genome with its 2,251 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. Mineralogy, chemical composition and structure of the MIR Mound, TAG Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, T. V.; Krasnov, S. G.; Cherkashev, G. A.

    The study of samples collected from the surface of the MIR mound (TAG Hydrothermal Field) by video-controlled hydraulic grab allowed identification of a number of mineralogical types. These include pyrite-chalcopyrite (Py-Cp), bornite-chalcopyrite-opaline (Bn-Cp-Op) and sphalerite-opaline (Sp-Op) sulfide chimneys, massive sulfides composed of pyrite (Py), chalcopyrite-pyrite (Cp-Py), marcasite-pyrite-opaline (Mc-Py-Op), sphalerite-pyrite-opaline (Sp-Py-Op) and sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite-opaline (Sp-Cp-Py-Op), as well as siliceous and Fe-Mn oxide hydrothermal deposits. Most of the minor elements (Ag, Au, Cd, Ga, Hg, Sb and Pb) are associated with Zn-rich massive sulfides, Co Bi, Pb, and As with Ferich ones, while Cu-rich sulfides are depleted of trace metals. Cu-enriched assemblages are concentrated in the northern part, Zn-enriched in the center, and siliceous rocks in the south of the MIR mound. According to paragenetic relations, the development of the mound started with the formation of quartz (originally opaline) rocks and dendritic assemblages of melnikovite-pyrite, followed by deposition of chalcopyrite and recrystallization of primary pyrite, subsequent generation of sphalerite-rich assemblages and final deposition of opaline rocks. The late renewal of hydrothermal activity led to local formation of Cu-rich chimneys enriched in Au, Ag, Hg and Pb probably due to their remobilization from inner parts of the deposit.

  11. Highly effective nickel sulfide counter electrode catalyst prepared by optimal hydrothermal treatment for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Punnoose, Dinah; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-02-01

    Nickel sulfide (NiS) thin film has been deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by a hydrothermal method using 3-mercaptopropionic acid and used as an efficient counter electrode (CE) for polysulfide redox reactions in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). NiS has low toxicity and environmental compatibility. In the present study, the size of the NiS nanoparticle increases with the hydrothermal deposition time. The performance of the QDSSCs is examined in detail using polysulfide electrolyte with the NiS CE. A TiO2/CdS/CdSe/ZnS-based QDSSC using the NiS CE shows enhanced photovoltaic performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.03%, which is superior to that of a cell with Pt CE (PCE 2.20%) under one sun illumination (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2). The improved photovoltaic performance of the NiS-based QDSSC may be attributed to a low charge transfer resistance (5.08 Ω) for the reduction of polysulfide on the CE, indicating greater electrocatalytic activity of the NiS. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and Tafel-polarization measurements were used to investigate the electrocatalytic activity of the NiS and Pt CEs.

  12. Formation of hydrothermal deposits at Kings Triple Junction, northern Lau back-arc basin, SW Pacific: The geochemical perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paropkari, Anil L.; Ray, Durbar; Balaram, V.; Surya Prakash, L.; Mirza, Imran H.; Satyanarayana, M.; Gnaneshwar Rao, T.; Kaisary, Sujata

    2010-04-01

    An inactive hydrothermal field was discovered near Kings Triple Junction (KTJ) in northern Lau back-arc basin during 19th cruise of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 1990. The field consisted of a large elongated basal platform 'the pedestal' with several 'small' chimneys on its periphery and one 'main mound' superposed over it. The surrounding region is carpeted with lava pillows having ferromanganese 'precipitate' as infillings. The adjoining second field consisted of small chimney like growths termed as 'Christmas Tree' Field. The basal pedestal, the peripheral chimneys and small 'Christmas Tree' like growths (samples collected by MIR submersibles), though parts of the same hydrothermal field, differ significantly in their mineralogy and elemental composition indicating different history of formation. The pedestal slab consisting of chalcopyrite and pyrite as major minerals and rich in Cu is likely to have formed at higher temperatures than sphalerite dominated peripheral chimney. Extremely low concentration of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta) and enrichment of light REE in these sulfides indicate prominent influence of aqueous arc-magma, rich in subduction components. The oxide growths in the 'Christmas Tree' Field have two distinct layers, Fe rich orange-red basal part which seems to have formed at very low temperature as precipitates from diffused hydrothermal flows from the seafloor whereas Mn rich black surface coating is formed from hydrothermal fluids emanated from the seafloor during another episode of hydrothermal activity. Perhaps this is for the first time such unique hydrothermal oxide growths are being reported in association with hydrothermal system. Here, we discuss the possible processes responsible for the formation of these different hydrothermal deposits based on their mineralogy and geochemistry.

  13. Copper Sulfides in the R Chondrites: Evidence of Hydrothermal Alteration in Low Petrologic Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. E.; Lauretta, D. S.; Berger, E. L.; Thompson, M. S.; Zega, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Bornite in the R chondrites formed via pre-accretionary processes. Hydrothermal alteration on the parent body between ~200° and 300°C resulted in replacement by chalcopyrite and isocubanite. These phases are found in a range of petrologic types.

  14. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably

  15. Chimney heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, I.C.

    1981-09-01

    A heat exchanger for installation on the top of a chimney of a building includes a housing having a lower end receiving the top of the chimney and an upper end with openings permitting the escape of effluent from the chimney and a heat exchanger assembly disposed in the housing including a central chamber and a spirally arranged duct network defining an effluent spiral path between the top of the chimney and the central chamber and a fresh air spiral path between an inlet disposed at the lower end of the housing and the central chamber, the effluent and fresh air spiral paths being in heat exchange relationship such that air passing through the fresh air spiral path is heated by hot effluent gases passing upward through the chimney and the effluent spiral path for use in heating the building. A pollution trap can be disposed in the central chamber of the heat exchanger assembly for removing pollutants from the effluent, the pollution trap including a rotating cage carrying pumice stones for absorbing pollutants from the effluent with the surface of the pumice gradually ground off to reveal fresh stone as the cage rotates.

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a sediment-hosted hydrothermal sulfide deposit from the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Randolph A.; Lonsdale, Peter F.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Berndt, Michael E.; Howe, Stephen S.

    1985-07-01

    Samples dredged from a 15-m-high hydrothermal mound atop the flat turbidite pond in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin consist of pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide, barite, barite + calcite, talc, and opaline silica as well as substrate material composed of fossiliferous, clay-rich ooze. An 11-m-long sediment core taken near the dredge site shows increasing hydrothermal alteration with depth; anhydrite-filled fractures near the base of the core appear to be channels for hydrothermal discharge. Oxidation of the sulfide-rich samples to an assemblage of geothite, lepidocrocite, and amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide is ubiquitous. Compared to other massive sulfide deposits on sediment-starved oceanic ridges, the hydrothermal deposit dredged in Guaymas Basin has a high pyrrhotite/pyrite ratio, a low Zn sulfide and combined ore metal (Cu + Zn + Pb + Ag + Cd) content, and a greater abundance of sulfate, carbonate, and silicate phases. Venting hydrothermal solutions are alkaline with moderately high pH; high Ca, Ba, and SiO2 content; low ƒS2 and ƒo2; and very low transition metal content. Disequilibrium assemblages of pyrrhotite and sulfate minerals form during rapid mixing of this evolved vent fluid with ambient bottom waters at the discharge site. Talc is formed at a temperature near 270°C by mixing or entrainment of Mg-rich bottom water or pore fluid with upwelling hydrothermal fluid that is saturated with silica. Calcite may precipitate from the alkaline, Ca-rich fluid during degassing of CO2. The minimum temperature range for sulfide and nonsulfide deposition is approximately 190°-326°C. The composition of hydrothermal deposits, vent solutions, and altered sediment requires that circulating fluids evolve during deep penetration into the basaltic basement complex, further interaction with the organic-and carbonate-rich sediment pile, and near-surface mixing with ambient seawater. Although the stable assemblage albite-epidote-clinochlore present at depth in the sediment

  17. The Sasquatch Hydrothermal Field: Linkages Between Seismic Activity, Hydrothermal Flow, and Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Sasquatch Hydrothermal Field is the most northern known vent field along the central Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, located 6 km north of the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) near 47° 59.8'N, 129° 4.0'W. It was discovered in 2000, after two large earthquake swarms in June 1999 and January 2000 caused increased venting temperatures in the MEF and significant changes in volatile composition along the entire axis [Johnson et al., 2000; Lilley et al., 2003; Proskurowski et al., 2004]. From 2004-2006, Sasquatch and the surrounding axial valley were comprehensively mapped with SM2000 multibeam sonar system and Imagenex scanning sonar at a resolution of 1-5 m. These data were combined with visual imagery from Alvin and ROV dives to define the eruptive, hydrothermal, and tectonic characteristics of the field and distal areas. Based on multibeam sonar results, bathymetric relief of the segment near Sasquatch is subdued. The broad axial valley is split by a central high that rises 30-40 m above the surrounding seafloor. Simple pattern analysis of the valley shows two fundamentally different regions, distinguished by low and high local variance. Areas of low variance correspond to a collapse/drainback landscape characterized by ropy sheet flow, basalt pillars, and bathtub rings capped by intact and drained lobate flows. Areas of high variance generally correspond to three types of ridge structures: 1) faulted basalt ridges composed of truncated pillow basalt, rare massive flows, and widespread pillow talus; 2) constructional basalt ridges composed of intact pillow flow fronts; and 3) extinct sulfide ridges covered by varying amounts of sulfide talus and oxidized hydrothermal sediment. Sasquatch is located in a depression among truncated pillow ridges, and is comprised of ~10, 1-6 m high, fragile sulfide chimneys that vent fluids up to 289°C. The active field extends only ~25 x 25 m, although a linear, N-S trending ridge of nearly continuous extinct sulfide

  18. Off-axis Submarine Massive Sulfide accumulation at the fault-controlled Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Christine; Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Hannington, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The largest Submarine Massive Sulfide (SMS) deposits in Mid-ocean ridge settings are found along slow-spreading ridges, where tectonic processes dominate and long-lived faults control the circulation of hydrothermal fluids through the oceanic crust. Here we combine results from 2D fluid flow simulations of the off-axis (8km), fault-controlled, high-T Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field (LHF1) at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with data on vent fluid chemistry and the associated SMS deposit, which give insights about its accumulation history. Modeled high vent temperatures of 360°C, as measured at the active LHF1, result in a total integrated mass-flow rate through the seafloor of ~36 kg/sec scaled to 28 vent orifices of 10x10cm, located in the 7 known high-T sites at the LHF1. About 42% of the vent fluids are hotter than 350°C, the minimum temperature required for efficient metal transport, with a mass-flow rate of 13 kg/sec. This corresponds to ~400 kilotons of potentially SMS-forming hydrothermal fluids leaving the vent field per year. Combined with a total H2S-SiO2-metal (Zn+Cu+Fe) concentration of 732 ppm, measured in the LHF1 vent fluids, this makes a flux of ~300 t of hydrothermal precipitates per year. The SMS deposit at LHF1 has been dated to 58.200 years and has an estimated tonnage of 135 kilotons. Applying the above modeled annual discharge rate over the dated time period, results in an SMS accumulation efficiency of ~0.8% for the SMS deposit at the Logatchev 1 field, which fits the range of estimated global average for MORs between <0.3% and 3%. Our predicted depositional efficiency is based on numerical modeling, which simulates continuous and ideal venting. Realistically, venting at LHF1 might well have been fluctuating, including periods of low temperature discharge, where metal transport is insufficient or periods of inactivity, compensated by periods with a higher depositional efficiency than 0.8%. Such fluctuations could have been caused by variations in

  19. Biogeography and biodiversity in sulfide structures of active and inactive vents at deep-sea hydrothermal fields of the Southern Mariana Trough.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Takano, Yoshinori; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Oba, Hironori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Chiyori; Utsumi, Motoo; Marumo, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Ito, Yuki; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2010-05-01

    The abundance, diversity, activity, and composition of microbial communities in sulfide structures both of active and inactive vents were investigated by culture-independent methods. These sulfide structures were collected at four hydrothermal fields, both on- and off-axis of the back-arc spreading center of the Southern Mariana Trough. The microbial abundance and activity in the samples were determined by analyzing total organic content, enzymatic activity, and copy number of the 16S rRNA gene. To assess the diversity and composition of the microbial communities, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries including bacterial and archaeal phylotypes were constructed from the sulfide structures. Despite the differences in the geological settings among the sampling points, phylotypes related to the Epsilonproteobacteria and cultured hyperthermophilic archaea were abundant in the libraries from the samples of active vents. In contrast, the relative abundance of these phylotypes was extremely low in the libraries from the samples of inactive vents. These results suggest that the composition of microbial communities within sulfide structures dramatically changes depending on the degree of hydrothermal activity, which was supported by statistical analyses. Comparative analyses suggest that the abundance, activity and diversity of microbial communities within sulfide structures of inactive vents are likely to be comparable to or higher than those in active vent structures, even though the microbial community composition is different between these two types of vents. The microbial community compositions in the sulfide structures of inactive vents were similar to those in seafloor basaltic rocks rather than those in marine sediments or the sulfide structures of active vents, suggesting that the microbial community compositions on the seafloor may be constrained by the available energy sources. Our findings provide helpful information for understanding the biogeography, biodiversity and

  20. Biogeography and biodiversity in sulfide structures of active and inactive vents at deep-sea hydrothermal fields of the Southern Mariana Trough.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Takano, Yoshinori; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Oba, Hironori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Chiyori; Utsumi, Motoo; Marumo, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Ito, Yuki; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2010-05-01

    The abundance, diversity, activity, and composition of microbial communities in sulfide structures both of active and inactive vents were investigated by culture-independent methods. These sulfide structures were collected at four hydrothermal fields, both on- and off-axis of the back-arc spreading center of the Southern Mariana Trough. The microbial abundance and activity in the samples were determined by analyzing total organic content, enzymatic activity, and copy number of the 16S rRNA gene. To assess the diversity and composition of the microbial communities, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries including bacterial and archaeal phylotypes were constructed from the sulfide structures. Despite the differences in the geological settings among the sampling points, phylotypes related to the Epsilonproteobacteria and cultured hyperthermophilic archaea were abundant in the libraries from the samples of active vents. In contrast, the relative abundance of these phylotypes was extremely low in the libraries from the samples of inactive vents. These results suggest that the composition of microbial communities within sulfide structures dramatically changes depending on the degree of hydrothermal activity, which was supported by statistical analyses. Comparative analyses suggest that the abundance, activity and diversity of microbial communities within sulfide structures of inactive vents are likely to be comparable to or higher than those in active vent structures, even though the microbial community composition is different between these two types of vents. The microbial community compositions in the sulfide structures of inactive vents were similar to those in seafloor basaltic rocks rather than those in marine sediments or the sulfide structures of active vents, suggesting that the microbial community compositions on the seafloor may be constrained by the available energy sources. Our findings provide helpful information for understanding the biogeography, biodiversity and

  1. From Geochemistry to Biochemistry: Simulating Prebiotic Chemistry Driven by Geochemical Gradients in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barge, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Planetary water-rock interfaces generate energy in the form of redox, pH, and thermal gradients, and these disequilibria are particularly focused in hydrothermal vent systems where the reducing, heated hydrothermal fluid feeds back into the more oxidizing ocean. Alkaline hydrothermal vents have been proposed as a likely location for the origin of life on the early Earth due to various factors: including the hydrothermal pH / Eh gradients that resemble the ubiquitous electrical / proton gradients in biology, the catalytic hydrothermal precipitates that resemble inorganic catalysts in enzymes, and the presence of electron donors and acceptors in hydrothermal systems (e.g. H2 + CH4 and CO2) that are thought to have been utilized in the earliest metabolisms. Of particular importance for the emergence of metabolism are the mineral "chimneys" that precipitate at the vent fluid / seawater interface. Hydrothermal chimneys are flow-through chemical reactors that form porous and permeable inorganic membranes transecting geochemical gradients; in some ways similar to biological membranes that transect proton / ion gradients and harness these disequilibria to drive metabolism. These emergent chimney structures in the far-from-equilibrium system of the alkaline vent have many properties of interest to the origin of life that can be simulated in the laboratory: for example, they can generate electrical energy and drive redox reactions, and produce catalytic minerals (in particular the metal sulfides and iron oxyhydroxides - "green rust") that can facilitate chemical reactions towards proto-metabolic cycles and biosynthesis. Many of the factors prompting interest in alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth may also have been present on early Mars, or even presently within icy worlds such as Europa or Enceladus - thus, understanding the disequilibria and resulting prebiotic chemistry in these systems can be of great use in assessing the potential for other environments in the Solar

  2. High-Temperature Hydrothermal Vent Field of Kolumbo Submarine Volcano, Aegean Sea: Site of Active Kuroko-Type Mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S.; Alexandri, M.; Vougioukalakis, G.; Croff, K.; Roman, C.; Sakellariou, D.; Anagnostou, C.; Rousakis, G.; Ioakim, C.; Gogou, A.; Ballas, D.; Misaridis, T.; Nomikou, P.

    2006-12-01

    Kolumbo submarine volcano is located 7 km north-east of the island of Santorini in the Hellenic arc (Greece), and comprises one of about twenty submarine cones in a NE-trending rift zone. Kolumbo erupted explosively in 1649-50AD, causing 70 fatalities on Santorini. Kolumbo's crater is 1700 m in diameter, with a crater rim at 10 m below sea level and crater floor at depth of 505 m. Recent marine geological investigations, using ROVs, reveal a very active high-temperature hydrothermal vent field in the northeastern part of the Kolumbo crater floor, about 25,000 m2. Vent chimneys up to 4 m high are vigorously emitting colorless gas plumes up to 10 m high in the water column. Temperatures up to 220oC are recorded in vent fluids. Some vents are in crater- like depressions, containing debris from collapsed extinct chimneys. The entire crater floor of Kolumbo is mantled by a reddish-orange bacterial mat, and bacterial filaments of a variety of colors cling to chimneys in dense clusters. Glassy tunicates and anemones are common in lower-temperature environments on the crater floor. Most chimneys show a high porosity, with a central conduit surrounded by an open and very permeable framework of sulfides and sulfates, aiding fluid flow through the chimney walls. In the sulfate-rich samples, blades of euhedral barite and anhydrite crystals coat the outside of the chimney wall, and layers of barite alternate with sulfide in the interior. The dominant sulfides are pyrite, sphalerite, wurtzite, marcasite and galena. Crusts on extinct and lower-temperature chimneys are composed of amorphous silica, goethite and halite. Sulfur isotope composition of sulfates is virtually at sea water values, whereas the sulfides are more depleted. Elevated levels of copper, gold and silver are observed in bulk composition of chimney samples. Both the structural setting, character of the vent field and sulfide/sulfate mineralogy and geochemistry indicate on-going Kuroko-type mineralization in the

  3. Suboxic deep seawater in the late Paleoproterozoic: Evidence from hematitic chert and iron formation related to seafloor-hydrothermal sulfide deposits, central Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Grenne, Tor; Bekker, A.; Rouxel, O.J.; Lindberg, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    A current model for the evolution of Proterozoic deep seawater composition involves a change from anoxic sulfide-free to sulfidic conditions 1.8??Ga. In an earlier model the deep ocean became oxic at that time. Both models are based on the secular distribution of banded iron formation (BIF) in shallow marine sequences. We here present a new model based on rare earth elements, especially redox-sensitive Ce, in hydrothermal silica-iron oxide sediments from deeper-water, open-marine settings related to volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. In contrast to Archean, Paleozoic, and modern hydrothermal iron oxide sediments, 1.74 to 1.71??Ga hematitic chert (jasper) and iron formation in central Arizona, USA, show moderate positive to small negative Ce anomalies, suggesting that the redox state of the deep ocean then was at a transitional, suboxic state with low concentrations of dissolved O2 but no H2S. The presence of jasper and/or iron formation related to VMS deposits in other volcanosedimentary sequences ca. 1.79-1.69??Ga, 1.40??Ga, and 1.24??Ga also reflects oxygenated and not sulfidic deep ocean waters during these time periods. Suboxic conditions in the deep ocean are consistent with the lack of shallow-marine BIF ??? 1.8 to 0.8??Ga, and likely limited nutrient concentrations in seawater and, consequently, may have constrained biological evolution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrothermal plume mapping as a prospecting tool for seafloor sulfide deposits: a case study at the Zouyu-1 and Zouyu-2 hydrothermal fields in the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chunhui; Chen, Sheng; Baker, Edward T.; Li, Huaiming; Liang, Jin; Liao, Shili; Chen, Yongshun John; Deng, Xianming; Zhang, Guoyin; Gu, Chunhua; Wu, Jialin

    2016-06-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal polymetallic sulfide deposits are a new type of resource, with great potential economic value and good prospect development. This paper discusses turbidity, oxidation-reduction potential, and temperature anomalies of hydrothermal plumes from the Zouyu-1 and Zouyu-2 hydrothermal fields on the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We use the known location of these vent fields and plume data collected in multiple years (2009, 2011, 2013) to demonstrate how real-time plume exploration can be used to locate active vent fields, and thus associated sulfide deposits. Turbidity anomalies can be detected 10 s of km from an active source, but the location precision is no better than a few kilometers because fine-grained particles are quasi-conservative over periods of many days. Temperature and oxidation-reduction potential anomalies provide location precision of a few hundred meters. Temperature anomalies are generally weak and difficult to reliably detect, except by chance encounters of a buoyant plume. Oxidation-reduction potential is highly sensitive (nmol concentrations of reduced hydrothermal chemicals) to discharges of all temperatures and responds immediately to a plume encounter. Real-time surveys using continuous tows of turbidity and oxidation-reduction potential sensors offer the most efficient and precise surface ship exploration presently possible.

  5. Textural, mineralogical and stable isotope studies of hydrothermal alteration in the main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe and the precious metals zone of the Sonju Lake Intrusion, Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, C.; Ripley, E.M.; Oberthur, T.; Miller, J.D.; Joslin, G.D.

    2008-01-01

    Stratigraphic offsets in the peak concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) and base-metal sulfides in the main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke and the precious metals zone of the Sonju Lake Intrusion have, in part, been attributed to the interaction between magmatic PGE-bearing base-metal sulfide assemblages and hydrothermal fluids. In this paper, we provide mineralogical and textural evidence that indicates alteration of base-metal sulfides and mobilization of metals and S during hydrothermal alteration in both mineralized intrusions. Stable isotopic data suggest that the fluids involved in the alteration were of magmatic origin in the Great Dyke but that a meteoric water component was involved in the alteration of the Sonju Lake Intrusion. The strong spatial association of platinum-group minerals, principally Pt and Pd sulfides, arsenides, and tellurides, with base-metal sulfide assemblages in the main sulfide zone of the Great Dyke is consistent with residual enrichment of Pt and Pd during hydrothermal alteration. However, such an interpretation is more tenuous for the precious metals zone of the Sonju Lake Intrusion where important Pt and Pd arsenides and antimonides occur as inclusions within individual plagioclase crystals and within alteration assemblages that are free of base-metal sulfides. Our observations suggest that Pt and Pd tellurides, antimonides, and arsenides may form during both magmatic crystallization and subsolidus hydrothermal alteration. Experimental studies of magmatic crystallization and hydrothermal transport/deposition in systems involving arsenides, tellurides, antimonides, and base metal sulfides are needed to better understand the relative importance of magmatic and hydrothermal processes in controlling the distribution of PGE in mineralized layered intrusions of this type. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  6. Large-scale synthesis of nickel sulfide micro/nanorods via a hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Peng-fei; Han, Xiang-yu; Zhou, Chao; Xia, Chuan-hui; Hu, Chun-lian; Sun, Li-li

    2015-07-01

    Rhombohedral-phase NiS micro/nanorods were synthesized on a large scale through a hydrothermal method using NiCl2·6H2O and thiourea crystals as starting precursors. Recrystallized thiourea was observed to play an important role in the formation of micro/nanosized rods and flower-like structures. The molar ratio and reaction temperature of the precursors influenced the morphology and phase of NiS products. Pure rhombohedral NiS micro/nanorods were obtained on a large scale when the molar ratio between NiCl2·6H2O and thiourea crystals was fixed at 2:1, and the mixture was heated at 250°C for 5 h. Flower-like NiS nanostructures were formed when the molar ratio between NiCl2·6H2O and thiourea crystals was maintained at 1:1. The Raman and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the as-prepared rhombohedral NiS micro/nanorods were collected, and their magnetic properties were investigated. The results showed that the FTIR absorption peaks of the as-prepared product are located at 634 cm-1 and their Raman peaks are located at 216 and 289 cm-1; the as-prepared NiS micro/nanorods exhibited weak ferromagnetic behavior due to the size effect.

  7. Magmatic-vapor expansion and the formation of high-sulfidation gold deposits: Structural controls on hydrothermal alteration and ore mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, B.R.; Henley, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    High-sulfidation copper-gold lode deposits such as Chinkuashih, Taiwan, Lepanto, Philippines, and Goldfield, Nevada, formed within 1500. m of the paleosurface in volcanic terranes. All underwent an early stage of extensive advanced argillic silica-alunite alteration followed by an abrupt change to spatially much more restricted stages of fracture-controlled sulfide-sulfosalt mineral assemblages and gold-silver mineralization. The alteration as well as ore mineralization stages of these deposits were controlled by the dynamics and history of syn-hydrothermal faulting. At the Sulfate Stage, aggressive advanced argillic alteration and silicification were consequent on the in situ formation of acidic condensate from magmatic vapor as it expanded through secondary fracture networks alongside active faults. The reduction of permeability at this stage due to alteration decreased fluid flow to the surface, and progressively developed a barrier between magmatic-vapor expansion constrained by the active faults and peripheral hydrothermal activity dominated by hot-water flow. In conjunction with the increased rock strength resulting from alteration, subsequent fault-slip inversion in response to an increase in compressional stress generated new, highly permeable fractures localized by the embrittled, altered rock. The new fractures focused magmatic-vapor expansion with much lower heat loss so that condensation occurred. Sulfide Stage sulfosalt, sulfide, and gold-silver deposition then resulted from destabilization of vapor phase metal species due to vapor decompression through the new fracture array. The switch from sulfate to sulfide assemblages is, therefore, a logical consequence of changes in structural permeability due to the coupling of alteration and fracture dynamics rather than to changes in the chemistry of the fluid phase at its magmatic source. ?? 2010.

  8. Effects of Dissolved Sulfide, pH, and Temperature on Growth and Survival of Marine Hyperthermophilic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Karen G.; Edgcomb, Virginia P.; Molyneaux, Stephen J.; Böer, Simone; Wirsen, Carl O.; Atkins, Michael S.; Teske, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The ability of metabolically diverse hyperthermophilic archaea to withstand high temperatures, low pHs, high sulfide concentrations, and the absence of carbon and energy sources was investigated. Close relatives of our study organisms, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Archaeoglobus profundus, Thermococcus fumicolans, and Pyrococcus sp. strain GB-D, are commonly found in hydrothermal vent chimney walls and hot sediments and possibly deeper in the subsurface, where highly dynamic hydrothermal flow patterns and steep chemical and temperature gradients provide an ever-changing mosaic of microhabitats. These organisms (with the possible exception of Pyrococcus strain GB-D) tolerated greater extremes of low pH, high sulfide concentration, and high temperature when actively growing and metabolizing than when starved of carbon sources and electron donors/acceptors. Therefore these organisms must be actively metabolizing in the hydrothermal vent chimneys, sediments, and subsurface in order to withstand at least 24 h of exposure to extremes of pH, sulfide, and temperature that occur in these environments. PMID:16204562

  9. Newly discovered hydrothermal system on the Alarcón Rise, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Martin, J. F.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.

    2012-12-01

    observations; 40 more were not visited but are presumed inactive, as turbid bottom waters were only observed in the vicinity of the active vents). Most are almost 10km NE of the Ja sít active field in a ridge-parallel array stretching 2.3km. These were deeper (to 2392m) and associated with older flows. Some had only recently ceased venting, as clam shell fragments and relatively fragile vent orifices were still present. Inactive chimneys are also intermingled with the active chimneys. Some of the recovered samples have abundant chalcopyrite, but most are predominantly zinc and iron sulfide. Inactive chimneys stand tall in the AUV maps but as they are no longer venting, would not be detected by traditional water-column surveys. Elsewhere, however, sulfide-bearing sediments were also recovered, evidence of prior hydrothermal activity that would not be detected in the AUV maps. Features that could be mistaken for sulfide chimneys also appear in the maps, but morphology distinguishes them as lava pillars along margins of collapsed flows, fault blocks, pressure ridges, or steep summits of pillow mounds.

  10. Fluids in early stage hydrothermal alteration of high-sulfidation epithermal systems: A view from the Vulcano active hydrothermal system (Aeolian Island, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Adrian J.; Fulignati, Paolo; Sbrana, Alessandro; Fallick, Anthony E.

    2007-10-01

    High-sulfidation (HS) epithermal systems have elements in common with passively degassing volcanoes associated with high T, acid fumarole fields or acid crater lakes. They are considered to form in two stages, the first of which involves advanced argillic alteration resulting from intense, strongly acidic fluid-rock interaction. The La Fossa hydrothermal system (Vulcano Island) represents a classic example of such an active HS system and can be considered as a modern analogue of this early stage of alteration, resulting in a core of intense silicic (90-95% pure SiO 2) alteration surrounded by alunitic alteration zones. This paper focuses on a geochemical and stable isotope study of the surficial alteration facies of Vulcano - particularly the horizon characterized by strong silicic alteration - and on deep seated xenoliths ejected during the last eruption of La Fossa volcano (1888-90) that can be considered as representative of fragments of the deep conduit system of La Fossa volcano. Using directly measured temperatures at the sites of sampling, we have calculated fluid composition in isotopic equilibrium with the alteration products. The large range of measured silica δ18O (12.3 to 29‰) reflects the wide range of formation temperatures (80-240 °C). The fluid compositions calculated for intense silicic alteration vary from - 0.9 to + 6.5‰. These are significantly heavier than local meteoric water (- 6‰), and are consistent with derivation from the condensation of high-temperature fumarolic gases, dominated by magmatic fluids and rich in acid gases (SO 2, H 2S, HCl, HF), into shallow groundwaters of meteoric origin, with dynamically variable ratios of fumarolic steam/meteoric water. The calculated δ18O and δD of water in equilibrium with alunite also suggest the mixing of magmatic and meteoric waters for the fluids involved in the genesis of advanced argillic alteration facies. The calculated δ18O of water in equilibrium with hedenbergitic clinopyroxene

  11. Discovery of Seafloor Massive Sulfides in an Andesite-Dacite Knoll Caldera off Present-Day Volcanic Front, Izu-Ogasawara Island Arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizasa, K.; Asada, A.; Lee, S.; Mizuno, K.; Katase, F.; Kojima, M.; Kurozawa, T.

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery of sulfide mounds with 20 to 30 m high sulfide chimneys in the Higashi-Aogashima hydrothermal field of a Quaternary andesite-dacite knoll caldera at the frontal arc side off Quaternary volcanic front, Izu-Ogasawara island arc, Japan. The discovery was carried out based on the systematic survey method of geological technique and a developed acoustic device using AUV. The knoll caldera 12 km east of Aogashima volcanic island is the size 10 km to 9 km of its rim and 820 m deep at its deepest caldera floor. According to the results of heavy mineral analysis for caldera sediments by a gravity corer, at least two areas were inferred to sites of potential hydrothermal activity associated with seafloor massive sulfides. After the precise acoustic survey using AUV there are many mound-like structures in the both inferred areas on the floor. Two major hydrothermal fields among them so far, which are a conical sulfide mound on the southeast flank of the central cone and a ridge-like mound on the inferred caldera boundary fault in the southeast, were confirmed based on sulfide samples recovered by a gravity corer during the next survey stage. One of them occurs at the water depth of 760 m to 770 m. It has active sulfide chimneys (ca. 20 m high) on the conical sulfide mound of about 40 m in diameter with 20 m high. Samples from the mound are composed of major sphalerite with moderate galena and barite, and minor chalcopyrite and pyrite. Another mound associated with chimneys at the water depth ranging from 740m to 770m on the southeast caldera boundary fault forms a small, east-west trend ridge-like shape. The ridge sizes more than 100 m long with 10 m wide. Chimneys are more than 30 m high. It is inferred that the mound is composed of major sphalerite and moderate barite based on samples cored at the margin of the mound. These results indicate that more than several sulfide mounds would be confirmed in the caldera floor by ROV surveys this September.

  12. Mineralogy of iron sulfides in CM1 and CI1 lithologies of the Kaidun breccia: Records of extreme to intense hydrothermal alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, Dennis; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-06-01

    The polymict Kaidun microbreccia contains lithologies of C-type chondrites with euhedral iron sulfide crystals of hydrothermal origin. Our FIB-TEM study reveals that acicular sulfides in a CM1 lithology are composed of Fe-rich pyrrhotite with nonintegral vacancy superstructures (NC-pyrrhotite), troilite, and pentlandite, all showing distinct exsolution textures. Based on phase relations in the Fe-Ni-S system, we constrain the temperature of formation of the originally homogeneous monosulfide solid solution to the range of 100-300 °C. In some crystals the exsolution of pentlandite and the microtextural equilibration was incomplete, probably due to rapid cooling. We use thermodynamic modeling to constrain the physicochemical conditions of the extreme hydrothermal alteration in this lithology. Unless the CM1 lithology was sourced from a large depth in the parent body (internal pressure >85 bar) or the temperatures were in the lower range of the interval determined, the water was likely present as vapor. Previously described light δ34S compositions of sulfides in Kaidun's CM1 lithology are likely due to the loss of 34S-enriched H2S during boiling. Platy sulfide crystals in an adjacent, intensely altered CI1 lithology are composed of Fe-poor, monoclinic 4C-pyrrhotite and NC-pyrrhotite and probably formed at lower temperatures and higher fS2 relative to the CM1 lithology. However, a better understanding of the stability of Fe-poor pyrrhotites at temperatures below 300 °C is required to better constrain these conditions.

  13. Geologic form and setting of a hydrothermal vent field at latitude 10/sup 0/56'N, East Pacific Rise: a detailed study using Angus and Alvin

    SciTech Connect

    McConachy, T.F.; Ballard, R.D.; Mottl, M.J.; Von Herzen, R.P.

    1986-04-01

    A hydrothermal vent field, here called the Feather Duster site, occurs on the eastern marginal high near the edge of a narrow (95-m) and shallow (15-20-m) axial graben, within an area dominated by sheet flows and collapse features. The sheet flows are intermediate in relative age between younger fluid-flow lavas on the floor of the axial graben and older pillow (constructional) lavas on the marginal highs. Hydrothermal activity occurs in two zones within a 65 by 45 m area. The main zone is located where a fissure system and sulfide-sulfate chimneys vent warm (9-47/sup 0/C) and hot (347/sup 0/C) hydrothermal fluids. Here, two mounds of massive sulfide totaling about 200 t are forming. One occurs at the base of a 3-m-high scarp which is the wall of a drained lava lake; the other is perched on top of the scarp. 19 references, 4 figures.

  14. Integrated Fe- and S-isotope study of seafloor hydrothermal vents at East Pacific Rise 9-10°N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouxel, O.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Bach, W.; Edwards, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we report on coupled Fe- and S-isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and sulfide deposits from the East Pacific Rise at 9–10°N to better constrain processes affecting Fe-isotope fractionation in hydrothermal environments. We aim to address three fundamental questions: (1) Is there significant Fe-isotope fractionation during sulfide precipitation? (2) Is there significant variability of Fe-isotope composition of the hydrothermal fluids reflecting sulfide precipitation in subsurface environments? (3) Are there any systematics between Fe- and S-isotopes in sulfide minerals? The results show that chalcopyrite, precipitating in the interior wall of a hydrothermal chimney displays a limited range of δ56Fe values and δ34S values, between − 0.11 to − 0.33‰ and 2.2 to 2.6‰ respectively. The δ56Fe values are, on average, slightly higher by 0.14‰ relative to coeval vent fluid composition while δ34S values suggest significant S-isotope fractionation (− 0.6 ± 0.2‰) during chalcopyrite precipitation. In contrast, systematically lower δ56Fe and δ34S values relative to hydrothermal fluids, by up to 0.91‰ and 2.0‰ respectively, are observed in pyrite and marcasite precipitating in the interior of active chimneys. These results suggest isotope disequilibrium in both Fe- and S-isotopes due to S-isotopic exchange between hydrothermal H2S and seawater SO42− followed by rapid formation of pyrite from FeS precursors, thus preserving the effects of a strong kinetic Fe-isotope fractionation during FeS precipitation. In contrast, δ56Fe and δ34S values of pyrite from inactive massive sulfides, which show evidence of extensive late-stage reworking, are essentially similar to the hydrothermal fluids. Multiple stages of remineralization of ancient chimney deposits at the seafloor appear to produce minimal Fe-isotope fractionation. Similar affects are indicated during subsurface sulfide precipitation as demonstrated by the lack of systematic

  15. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Fengping

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions. PMID:23785357

  16. PGE fractionation in seafloor hydrothermal systems: examples from mafic- and ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pašava, Jan; Vymazalová, Anna; Petersen, Sven

    2007-04-01

    The distribution of platinum group elements (PGEs) in massive sulfides and hematite-magnetite±pyrite assemblages from the recently discovered basalt-hosted Turtle Pits hydrothermal field and in massive sulfides from the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev vent field both on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was studied and compared to that from selected ancient volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits. Cu-rich samples from black smoker chimneys of both vent fields are enriched in Pd and Rh (Pd up to 227 ppb and Rh up to 149 ppb) when compared to hematite-magnetite-rich samples from Turtle Pits (Pd up to 10 ppb, Rh up to 1.9 ppb). A significant positive correlation was established between Cu and Rh in sulfide samples from Turtle Pits. PGE chondrite-normalized patterns (with a positive Rh anomaly and Pd and Au enrichment), Pd/Pt and Pd/Au ratios close to global MORB, and high values of Pd/Ir and Pt/Ir ratios indicate mafic source rock and seawater involvement in the hydrothermal system at Turtle Pits. Similarly shaped PGE chondrite-normalized patterns and high values of Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in Cu-rich sulfides at Logatchev likely reflect a similar mechanism of PGE enrichment but with involvement of ultramafic source rocks.

  17. Megafaunal distribution and assessment of total methane and sulfide consumption by mussel beds at Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent, based on geo-referenced photomosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcon, Y.; Sahling, H.; Borowski, C.; dos Santos Ferreira, C.; Thal, J.; Bohrmann, G.

    2013-05-01

    The Menez Gwen hydrothermal vents, located on the flanks of a small young volcanic structure in the axial valley of the Menez Gwen seamount, are the shallowest known vent systems on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that host chemosynthetic communities. Although visited several times by research cruises, very few images have been published of the active sites, and their spatial dimensions and morphologies remain difficult to comprehend. We visited the vents on the eastern flank of the small Menez Gwen volcano during cruises with RV Poseidon (POS402, 2010) and RV Meteor (M82/3, 2010), and used new bathymetry and imagery data to provide first detailed information on the extents, surface morphologies, spatial patterns of the hydrothermal discharge and the distribution of dominant megafauna of five active sites. The investigated sites were mostly covered by soft sediments and abundant white precipitates, and bordered by basaltic pillows. The hydrothermally-influenced areas of the sites ranged from 59 to 200 m2. Geo-referenced photomosaics and video data revealed that the symbiotic mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus was the dominant species and present at all sites. Using literature data on average body sizes and biomasses of Menez Gwen B. azoricus, we estimated that the B. azoricus populations inhabiting the eastern flank sites of the small volcano range between 28,640 and 50,120 individuals with a total biomass of 50 to 380 kg wet weight. Based on modeled rates of chemical consumption by the symbionts, the annual methane and sulfide consumption by B. azoricus could reach 1760 mol CH4 yr-1 and 11,060 mol H2S yr-1. We propose that the chemical consumption by B. azoricus over at the Menez Gwen sites is low compared to the natural release of methane and sulfide via venting fluids.

  18. Sulfur, sulfides, oxides and organic matter aggregated in submarine hydrothermal plumes at 9°50‧N East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, J. A.; Toner, B. M.; Fakra, S. C.; Marcus, M. A.; White, S. N.; Thurnherr, A. M.; German, C. R.

    2012-07-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal plume particles are known to sequester seawater trace elements and influence ocean-scale biogeochemical budgets. The relative importance of biotic versus abiotic oxidation-reduction and other particle-forming reaction, however, and the mechanisms of seawater trace element sequestration remain unknown. Suspended particulate material was collected from a non-buoyant hydrothermal plume by in situ filtration at 9°50‧N East Pacific Rise during a 3-day, 24 sample, time-series. Twenty-three samples were digested for total elemental analysis. One representative sample was selected for particle-by-particle geochemical analyses including elemental composition by X-ray fluorescence, speciation of Fe, S, and C by 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Consistent with past studies, positive linear correlations were observed for P, V, As, and Cr with Fe in the bulk chemistry. Arsenic was associated with both Fe oxyhydroxides and sulfides but not uniformly distributed among either mineral type. Particle aggregation was common. Aggregates were composed of minerals embedded in an organic matrix; the minerals ranged from <20 nm to >10 μm in diameter. The speciation of major mineral forming elements (Fe, Mn, S) was complex. Over 20 different minerals were observed, nine of which were either unpredicted by thermodynamic modeling or had no close match in the thermodynamic database. Sulfur-bearing phases consisted of polysulfides (S6, S8), and metal sulfides (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn). Four dominant species, Fe oxyhydroxide, Fe monosulfide, pyrrhotite, and pyrite, accounted for >80% of the Fe present. Particulate Mn was prevalent in both oxidized and reduced minerals. The organic matrix was: (1) always associated with minerals, (2) composed of biomolecules, and (3) rich in S. Possible sources of this S-rich organic matter include entrained near vent biomass and in situ production by S-oxidizing microorganisms. These results indicate

  19. Evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Mothra Hydrothermal Field (MHF) is a 600 m long, high-temperature hydrothermal field. It is located 2.7 km south of the Main Endeavour Field at the southern end of the central Endeavour Segment. Mothra is the most areally extensive field along the Endeavour Segment, composed of six active sulfide clusters that are 40-200 m apart. Each cluster contains rare black smokers (venting up to 319°C), numerous diffusely venting chimneys, and abundant extinct chimneys and sulfide talus. From north to south, these clusters include Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, Crab Basin, Cuchalainn, and Stonehenge. As part of the Endeavour Integrated Study Site (ISS), the MHF is a site of intensive interdisciplinary studies focused on linkages among geology, geochemistry, fluid chemistry, seismology, and microbiology. Axial valley geology at MHF is structurally complex, consisting of lightly fissured flows that abut the walls and surround a core of extensively fissured, collapsed terrain. Fissure abundance and distribution indicates that tectonism has been the dominant process controlling growth of the axial graben. Past magmatic activity is shown by the 200 m long chain of collapse basins between Crab Basin and Stonehenge, which may have held at least ~7500 m3 of lava. Assuming a flow thickness of 0.5 m, this amount of lava could cover over half the valley floor during a single volcanic event. At a local scale, MHF clusters vary in size, activity, and underlying geology. They range in size from 400-1600 m2 and consist of isolated chimneys and/or coalesced cockscomb arrays atop ramps of sulfide talus. In the northern part of the field, Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, and Crab Basin are located near the western valley wall, bounded by basalt talus and a combination of collapsed sheet flows, intermixed lobate and sulfide, disrupted terrain, and isolated pillow ridges. The southern clusters, Cuchalainn and Stonehenge, are associated with collapse basins in the central valley

  20. Nanometer-Size Iron Sulfides Biomineralized by a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Gastropod in Cooperation with Endosymbiotic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kogure, T.; Takai, K.; Tsuchida, S.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

    2003-12-01

    The _gscaly-foot_h gastropod has been discovered only from a deep-sea hydrothermal field in the Central Indian Ridge among the global Mid Ocean Ridges (MOR) and found to be peculiar, because it has scale-shaped sclerites composed of hard proteins and iron sulfides that covered the sides of the foot. As the product and mechanism of the iron sulfide biomineralization have not been elucidated in any details, yet, we conducted crystallographic and molecular phylogenetic characterizations of the sclerites._@It was revealed that nanometer-scale (1) mackinawite (FeS) + greigite (Fe3S4), (2) pyrite (FeS2) and (3) mackinawite formed in distinct strata from the outer to inner parts of the sclerites, respectively. This study demonstrated for the first time that pyrite occurred in nature as exceedingly small crystalline nanoparticles (around 3 nm in diameter) and to grow via the aggregation-based pathway._@Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes detected predominant occurrence of bacteria that have the sequences of both genes closely related to sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbus spp. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis using a probe specific to the retrieved 16S rRNA gene sequences of the Desulfobulbus-related bacteria revealed the localized occurrence of the bacteria in the most inner part of the sclerites, which represents a novel structural integration between bacteria and metazoans. The results strongly suggested the potential contribution of endosymbiotic SRB to formation of stratified nanometer-scale iron sulfides inside the gastropod_fs scaly. As mackinawite that is easily oxidized under slightly oxic conditions and persisted, pyrite seems to have formed via the strictly anoxic pathway. The results presented here may provide aid in deciphering important, but still partially understood formation mechanisms and biochemical and geochemical roles of iron sulfides.

  1. The interplay of evolved seawater and magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in the 3.24 Ga panorama volcanic-hosted massive sulfide hydrothermal system, North Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drieberg, Susan L.; Hagemann, Steffen G.; Huston, David L.; Landis, Gary; Ryan, Chris G.; Van Achterbergh, Esmé; Vennemann, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The ~3240 Ma Panorama volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) district is unusual for its high degree of exposure and low degree of postdepositional modification. In addition to typical seafloor VHMS deposits, this district contains greisen- and vein-hosted Mo-Cu-Zn-Sn mineral occurrences that are contemporaneous with VHMS orebodies and are hosted by the Strelley granite complex, which also drove VHMS circulation. Hence the Panorama district is a natural laboratory to investigate the role of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in VHMS hydrothermal systems. Regional and proximal high-temperature alteration zones in volcanic rocks underlying the VHMS deposits are dominated by chlorite-quartz ± albite assemblages, with lesser low-temperature sericite-quartz ± K-feldspar assemblages. These assemblages are typical of VHMS hydrothermal systems. In contrast, the alteration assemblages associated with granite-hosted greisens and veins include quartz-topaz-muscovite-fluorite and quartz-muscovite (sericite)-chlorite-ankerite. These vein systems generally do not extend into the overlying volcanic pile. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies suggest that the greisens were produced by high-temperature (~590°C), high-salinity (38–56 wt % NaCl equiv) fluids with high densities (>1.3 g/cm3) and high δ18O (9.3 ± 0.6‰). These fluids are compatible with the measured characteristics of magmatic fluids evolved from the Strelley granite complex. In contrast, fluids in the volcanic pile (including the VHMS ore-forming fluids) were of lower temperature (90°–270°C), lower salinity (5.0–11.2 wt % NaCl equiv), with lower densities (0.88–1.01 g/cm3) and lower δ18O (−0.8 ± 2.6‰). These fluids are compatible with evolved Paleoarchean seawater. Fluids that formed the quartz-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-cassiterite veins, which are present within the granite complex near the contact with the volcanic pile, were intermediate in temperature and isotopic composition between the greisen

  2. Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Schaeffer, P.; Frank, M.; Gutjahr, M.; Kelley, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis Massif, the LCHF is composed of carbonate-brucite chimneys that vent alkaline and low-temperature (40-90°C) hydrothermal fluids. These fluids are related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites, which together with minor gabbroic intrusions form the basement of the LCHF. Long-lived hydrothermal activity at Lost City led to extensive seawater-rock interaction in the basement rocks, as indicated by seawater-like Sr- and mantle to unradiogenic Nd-isotope compositions of the serpentinites. These high fluid fluxes in the southern part of the massif influenced the conditions of serpentinization and have obliterated the early chemical signatures in the serpentinites, especially those of carbon and sulfur. Compared to reducing conditions commonly formed during the first stages of serpentinization, serpentinization at Lost City is characterized by relatively oxidizing conditions resulting in a predominance of magnetite, the mobilization/dissolution and oxidation of igneous sulfides to secondary pyrite, and the incorporation of seawater sulfate, all leading to high bulk-rock S-isotope compositions. The Lost City hydrothermal fluids contain high concentrations in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons considered as being produced abiotically. In contrast, organic compounds in the serpentinites are dominated by the occurrences of isoprenoids (pristane, phytane, and squalane), polycyclic compounds (hopanes and steranes), and higher abundances of C16 to C20 n-alkanes indicative of a marine organic input. We

  3. Design, fabrication, and test of a hydrothermal reactor for origin-of-life experiments.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Randall E; Russell, Michael J; Wilson, Philip R; McGlynn, Shawn E; Coleman, Max; Kidd, Richard; Kanik, Isik

    2010-10-01

    We describe a continuous high-pressure flow reactor designed to simulate the unforced convective interaction of hydrothermal solutions and ocean waters with submarine crust on early Earth-conditions appropriate to those that may have led to the onset of life. The experimental operating conditions are appropriate for investigating kinetic hydrothermal processes in the early history of any sizable wet, rocky planet. Beyond the description of the fabrication, we report an initial experiment that tested the design and investigated the feasibility of sulfide and silica dissolution in alkaline solution from iron sulfide and basaltic rock, and their possible subsequent transport as HS(-) and H(2)SiO(2-)(4) in hot alkaline solutions. Delivery of hydrogen sulfide and dihydrogen silicate ions would have led to the precipitation of ferrous hydroxide, hydroxysilicates, and iron sulfides as integral mineral components of an off-ridge compartmentalized hydrothermal mound in the Hadean. Such a mound could, we contend, have acted as a natural chemical and electrochemical reactor and, ultimately, as the source of all biochemistry on our planet. In the event, we show that an average of ∼1 mM/kg of both sulfide and silica were released throughout, though over 10 mM/kg of HS(-) was recorded for ∼100 minutes in the early stages of the experiment. This alkaline effluent from the reactor was injected into a reservoir of a simulacrum of ferrous iron-bearing "Hadean Ocean" water in an experiment that demonstrated the capacity of such fluids to generate hydrothermal chimneys and a variety of contiguous inorganic microgeode precipitates bearing disseminations of discrete metal sulfides. Comparable natural composite structures may have acted as hatcheries for emergent life in the Hadean. PMID:21087160

  4. Design, fabrication, and test of a hydrothermal reactor for origin-of-life experiments.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Randall E; Russell, Michael J; Wilson, Philip R; McGlynn, Shawn E; Coleman, Max; Kidd, Richard; Kanik, Isik

    2010-10-01

    We describe a continuous high-pressure flow reactor designed to simulate the unforced convective interaction of hydrothermal solutions and ocean waters with submarine crust on early Earth-conditions appropriate to those that may have led to the onset of life. The experimental operating conditions are appropriate for investigating kinetic hydrothermal processes in the early history of any sizable wet, rocky planet. Beyond the description of the fabrication, we report an initial experiment that tested the design and investigated the feasibility of sulfide and silica dissolution in alkaline solution from iron sulfide and basaltic rock, and their possible subsequent transport as HS(-) and H(2)SiO(2-)(4) in hot alkaline solutions. Delivery of hydrogen sulfide and dihydrogen silicate ions would have led to the precipitation of ferrous hydroxide, hydroxysilicates, and iron sulfides as integral mineral components of an off-ridge compartmentalized hydrothermal mound in the Hadean. Such a mound could, we contend, have acted as a natural chemical and electrochemical reactor and, ultimately, as the source of all biochemistry on our planet. In the event, we show that an average of ∼1 mM/kg of both sulfide and silica were released throughout, though over 10 mM/kg of HS(-) was recorded for ∼100 minutes in the early stages of the experiment. This alkaline effluent from the reactor was injected into a reservoir of a simulacrum of ferrous iron-bearing "Hadean Ocean" water in an experiment that demonstrated the capacity of such fluids to generate hydrothermal chimneys and a variety of contiguous inorganic microgeode precipitates bearing disseminations of discrete metal sulfides. Comparable natural composite structures may have acted as hatcheries for emergent life in the Hadean.

  5. Lipid biomarker and microbial community of 49.6°E hydrothermal field at Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.; Chu, F.; Yu, X.; Li, X.; Tao, C.

    2012-12-01

    In 2007, Chinese Research Cruises Discovered the First Active Hydrothermal Vent Field at the Ultraslow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. This study intent to get composition, evolution and origin information of lipid compounds in SWIR, and recognize the style of lipid biomarkers which have obviously indicative significance for community structure.Soluble organic matter were extracted from geological samples (including chimney sulfide, oxide, around hydrothermal vents) in Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), and divided into hydrocarbon, fatty acid component by column chromatography. GC, GC-MS, HPLC-MS were applied for composition and abundance analysis. Lipid in hydrothermal sulfide contains obvious isoprenoidal hydrocarbon biomarkers (Sq, IS40) and GDGTs (m/z=653) that associated with methanogenic archaea which belongs to Euryarchaeota, and iso /anti-iso fatty acid (iC15:0, aiC15:0, iC17:0, aiC17:0)which may originated from sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB).Lipids extracted from hydrothermal oxide lack isoprenoidal hydrocarbon, and Ph/C18 (0.57) is much lower than sulfide (1.22). Fatty acid compound of oxide include abundant saturated fatty (C16:0, C18:0) acid and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1n7, C18:1n7), but much less iso/anti-iso was detected. Lipid composition of hydrothermal oxide showed that archaea activity was seldom in hydrothermal oxide, and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was the main microbial community.Study of Jaeschke (2010) showed that high temperature hydrothermal venting encompassed different microbial community from low temperature hydrothermal venting. Our study showed that in different stage of hydrothermal, microbial community structure may be distinct.

  6. Barite from the Saf'yanovka VMS deposit (Central Urals) and Semenov-1 and Semenov-3 hydrothermal sulfide fields (Mid-Atlantic Ridge): a comparative analysis of formation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safina, Nataliya P.; Melekestseva, Irina Yu.; Nimis, Paolo; Ankusheva, Nataliya N.; Yuminov, Anatoly M.; Kotlyarov, Vasily A.; Sadykov, Sergey A.

    2016-04-01

    Different genetic types of barite from colloform and clastic pyrite-rich ores from the weakly metamorphic Saf'yanovka volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit (Central Urals) were studied in comparison with barite from the Semenov-1 and Semenov-3 seafloor hydrothermal fields (mid-Atlantic Ridge). Hydrothermal barite generally occurs as radial aggregates of tabular crystals in contrast to compact aggregates of tabular crystals with stylolite boundaries of anadiagenetic barite from the Saf'yanovka clastic ores. The Sr content in barite shows no relationship with the genetic types. The δ34S values of hydrothermal barite from both ancient and modern colloform sulfides match those of Silurian-Devonian and contemporary seawater, respectively. The lower δ34S (avg +19.6 ‰) of hydrothermal barite from the Semenov-3 clastic sulfides indicates light sulfur contribution from oxidation of fluid H2S. The higher δ34S (avg +28.1 ‰) of anadiagenetic barite from the Saf'yanovka clastic ores reflects partial thermochemical reduction of seawater sulfate. Hydrothermal barite from the Saf'yanovka and Semenov-1 colloform ores formed from low- to moderate- T (172-194 °C and 83-233 °C, respectively) relatively low salinity (1.6-4.5 and 0.6-3.8 wt% NaCleq, respectively) fluids, which underwent phase separation. Hydrothermal barite from Semenov-3 clastic sulfides associated with chalcopyrite crystallized from higher- T (266-335 °C) higher-salinity (4.8-9.2 wt% NaCleq.) fluids. The high salinity may indicate a contribution from a magmatic fluid. Anadiagenetic barite from Saf'yanovka was formed from moderate- T (140-180 °C), low- to moderate-salinity (1.4-5.4 wt% NaCleq) pore fluids. Combining our new data with those for other seafloor hydrothermal barite occurrences, the following systematics can be defined. Barite associated with pyrite-rich sulfides forms at relatively low to moderate temperatures (<230 °C), barite associated with polymetallic-rich sulfides forms at moderately

  7. Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.R.; Robigou, V.; McDuff, R.E. ); Tivey, M.K. )

    1992-12-10

    A high-precision, high-resolution geologic map explicitly documents relationships between tectonic features and large steep-sided, sulfide-sulfate-silica deposits in the vigorously venting Endeavour hydrothermal field near the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Location of the most massive sulfide structures appears to be controlled by intersections of ridge-parallel normal faults and other fracture-fissure sets that trend oblique to, and perpendicular to the overall structural fabric of the axial valley. As presently mapped, the field is about 200 by 400 m on a side and contains at least 15 large (> 1,000 m[sup 3]) sulfide edifices and many tens of smaller, commonly inactive, sulfide structures. The larger sulfide structures are also the most vigorously venting features in the field; they are commonly more than 30 m in diameter and up to 20 m in height. Maximum venting temperatures of 375[degrees]C are associated with the smaller structures in the northern portion of the field are consistently 20[degrees]-30[degrees]C lower. Hydrothermal output from individual active sulfide features varies from no flow in the lower third of the edifice to vigorous output from fracture-controlled black smoker activity near the top of the structures. Two types of diffuse venting in the Endeavour field include a lower temperature 8[degrees]-15[degrees]C output through colonies of large tubeworms and 25[degrees]-50[degrees]C vent fluid that seems to percolate through the tops of overhanging flanges. The large size and steep-walled nature of these structures evidently results from sustained venting in a mature hydrothermal system, coupled with dual mineral depositional mechanisms involving vertical growth by accumulation of chimney sulfide debris and lateral growth by means of flange development.

  8. Sulfur isotope budget (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) in Pacific-Antarctic ridge basalts: A record of mantle source heterogeneity and hydrothermal sulfide assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labidi, J.; Cartigny, P.; Hamelin, C.; Moreira, M.; Dosso, L.

    2014-05-01

    To better address how Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) sulfur isotope composition can be modified by assimilation and/or by immiscible sulfide fractionation, we report sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl) and copper (Cu) abundances together with multiple sulfur isotope composition for 38 fresh basaltic glasses collected on the Pacific-Antarctic ridge. All the studied glasses - with the exception of 8 off-axis samples - exhibit relatively high Cl/K, as the result of pervasive Cl-rich fluid assimilation. This sample set hence offers an opportunity to document both the upper mantle S isotope composition and the effect of hydrothermal fluids assimilation on the S isotope composition of erupted basalts along segments that are devoid of plume influence.

  9. Hydrothermal mineralization at seafloor spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.

    1984-01-01

    those with large ridge-ridge offset ( > 30 km), at an advanced stage of opening, represented by stockwork sulfides exposed in the walls of equatorial fracture zones of the Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean; (4) the axial zone of volcanic extrusion at an advanced stage of opening. Local tectonic sub-settings with conditions conducive to hydrothermal mineralization at intermediate- to fast-spreading centers (half rate > 2cm y -1; length c. 22,000 km) characterized by an estimated average convective heat transfer of 11.5·10 8 cal. cm -2, relatively wide (up to 20 km at base), shallow-level (c. 1-3 km) magma chambers, and low topographic relief (< 1 km), are: (1) basins along linear sections of the axial zone of volcanic extrusion at an early stage of opening, represented by massive sulfide deposits of the Guaymas Basin of the Gulf of California; (2) the axial zone of volcanic extrusion at an advanced stage of opening, represented by individually small (c. 1·10 3 metric tons), massive sulfide mounds surmounted by chimneys of the East Pacific Rise at latitude 21°N; (3) the marginal zone of active extension at an advanced stage of opening represented by a large, massive sulfide deposit (preliminary tentative estimate c.10·10 6 metric tons) at a double-rifted section of the Galapagos Spreading Center; (4) transform faults, especially those with large ridge-ridge offset ( > 50 km) represented by manganese encrustations in a transform fault at the Galapagos Spreading Center; (5) volcanic seamounts related to persistent hot spots at spreading centers, represented by oxide and sulfide deposits on seamounts off the axis of the East Pacific Rise; (6) portions of spreading centers with anomalous configurations such as multiple, bent or extended rifts, represented by massive sulfide deposits at a double-rifted section of the Galapagos Spreading Center, suggesting the operation of a thermal-structural feedback mechanism indicative of the presence of hydrothermal mineralization; (7

  10. Potential for biogeochemical cycling of sulfur, iron and carbon within massive sulfide deposits below the seafloor.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Ikehata, Kei; Shibuya, Takazo; Urabe, Tetsuro; Ohkuma, Moriya; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2015-05-01

    Seafloor massive sulfides are a potential energy source for the support of chemosynthetic ecosystems in dark, deep-sea environments; however, little is known about microbial communities in these ecosystems, especially below the seafloor. In the present study, we performed culture-independent molecular analyses of sub-seafloor sulfide samples collected in the Southern Mariana Trough by drilling. The depth for the samples ranged from 0.52 m to 2.67 m below the seafloor. A combination of 16S rRNA and functional gene analyses suggested the presence of chemoautotrophs, sulfur-oxidizers, sulfate-reducers, iron-oxidizers and iron-reducers. In addition, mineralogical and thermodynamic analyses are consistent with chemosynthetic microbial communities sustained by sulfide minerals below the seafloor. Although distinct bacterial community compositions were found among the sub-seafloor sulfide samples and hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimneys on the seafloor collected from various areas, we also found common bacterial members at species level including the sulfur-oxidizers and sulfate-reducers, suggesting that the common members are widely distributed within massive sulfide deposits on and below the seafloor and play a key role in the ecosystem function.

  11. Sedimentary-hosted polymetallic massive sulfide deposits of the Kebrit and Shaban Deeps, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, N.; Puchelt, H.

    1991-07-01

    Massive sulfides recovered from the Kebrit Deep carbonaceous sedimentary succession represent black smoker fragments, novel to any Red Sea brine pool deposit. Chimneys, which were also observed in situ near the seawater/brine interface of the Kebrit Deep pool, are primarily comprised of Fe-, Zn- and Pb-bearing phases, and are often tar and asphalt impregnated. Cu-sulfides are virtually absent from parageneses, contrasting rift-related smoker and Red Sea metalliferous sediment deposits. Concentration of nickel in discrete bravoite points to a basalt/seawater leaching process as a source for most metals. The sedimentary package, which probably hosts Cu-mineralization in lower stockworks of the smoker deposit, is considered the major source of lead. Prevention of boiling of hydrothermal fluids, passing through a succession of organic-rich carbonate and clay horizons prior to discharge, is essential for smoker formation. Shaban Deep sedimentary-hosted massive sulfides are less frequent, with pyrite being the dominant ore mineral. Sulfur isotope data indicate both high temperature inorganic as well as biogenic sulfate (seawater and/or evaporite) reduction in sulfide-forming processes. Cogenetic sulfates formed from residual, bacteriogenically reduced seawater sulfate. Rather low sulfide/sulfate precipitation temperatures of 110 130 °C for the Kebrit brine pool and 100 °C for Shaban Deep massive sulfides are evident.

  12. Evolution of the sulfide-binding function within the globin multigenic family of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Xavier; Jollivet, Didier; Vanin, Stephano; Deutsch, Jean; Zal, Franck; Lallier, François; Toulmond, André

    2002-09-01

    The giant extracellular hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (HBL-Hb) of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila is able to transport simultaneously O(2) and H(2)S in the blood from the gills to a specific organ: the trophosome that harbors sulfide-oxidizing endosymbionts. This vascular HBL-Hb is made of 144 globins from which four globin types (A1, A2, B1, and B2) coevolve. The H(2)S is bound at a specific location (not on the heme site) onto two of these globin types. In order to understand how such a function emerged and evolved in vestimentiferans and other related annelids, six partial cDNAs corresponding to the six globins known to compose the multigenic family of R. pachyptila have been identified and sequenced. These partial sequences (ca. 120 amino acids, i.e., 80% of the entire protein) were used to reconstruct molecular phylogenies in order to trace duplication events that have led to the family organization of these globins and to locate the position of the free cysteine residues known to bind H(2)S. From these sequences, only two free cysteine residues have been found to occur, at positions Cys + 1 (i.e., 1 a.a. from the well-conserved distal histidine) and Cys + 11 (i.e., 11 a.a. from the same histidine) in globins B2 and A2, respectively. These two positions are well conserved in annelids, vestimentiferans, and pogonophorans, which live in sulfidic environments. The structural comparison of the hydrophobic environment that surrounds these cysteine residues (the sulfide-binding domain) using hydrophobic cluster analysis plots, together with the cysteine positions in paralogous strains, suggests that the sulfide-binding function might have emerged before the annelid radiation in order to detoxify this toxic compound. Moreover, globin evolutionary rates are highly different between paralogous strains. This suggests that either the two globin subfamilies involved in the sulfide-binding function (A2 and B2) have evolved under strong directional

  13. Seafloor massive sulfide deposits support unique megafaunal assemblages: Implications for seabed mining and conservation.

    PubMed

    Boschen, Rachel E; Rowden, Ashley A; Clark, Malcolm R; Pallentin, Arne; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2016-04-01

    Mining of seafloor massive sulfides (SMS) is imminent, but the ecology of assemblages at SMS deposits is poorly known. Proposed conservation strategies include protected areas to preserve biodiversity at risk from mining impacts. Determining site suitability requires biological characterisation of the mine site and protected area(s). Video survey of a proposed mine site and protected area off New Zealand revealed unique megafaunal assemblages at the mine site. Significant relationships were identified between assemblage structure and environmental conditions, including hydrothermal features. Unique assemblages occurred at both active and inactive chimneys and are particularly at risk from mining-related impacts. The occurrence of unique assemblages at the mine site suggests that the proposed protected area is insufficient alone and should instead form part of a network. These results provide support for including hydrothermally active and inactive features within networks of protected areas and emphasise the need for quantitative survey data of proposed sites.

  14. Iron Transformation Pathways and Redox Micro-Environments in Seafloor Sulfide-Mineral Deposits: Spatially Resolved Fe XAS and δ(57/54)Fe Observations.

    PubMed

    Toner, Brandy M; Rouxel, Olivier J; Santelli, Cara M; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal sulfide chimneys located along the global system of oceanic spreading centers are habitats for microbial life during active venting. Hydrothermally extinct, or inactive, sulfide deposits also host microbial communities at globally distributed sites. The main goal of this study is to describe Fe transformation pathways, through precipitation and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, and examine transformation products for signatures of biological activity using Fe mineralogy and stable isotope approaches. The study includes active and inactive sulfides from the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N vent field. First, the mineralogy of Fe(III)-bearing precipitates is investigated using microprobe X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS) and X-ray diffraction (μXRD). Second, laser-ablation (LA) and micro-drilling (MD) are used to obtain spatially-resolved Fe stable isotope analysis by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Eight Fe-bearing minerals representing three mineralogical classes are present in the samples: oxyhydroxides, secondary phyllosilicates, and sulfides. For Fe oxyhydroxides within chimney walls and layers of Si-rich material, enrichments in both heavy and light Fe isotopes relative to pyrite are observed, yielding a range of δ(57)Fe values up to 6‰. Overall, several pathways for Fe transformation are observed. Pathway 1 is characterized by precipitation of primary sulfide minerals from Fe(II)aq-rich fluids in zones of mixing between vent fluids and seawater. Pathway 2 is also consistent with zones of mixing but involves precipitation of sulfide minerals from Fe(II)aq generated by Fe(III) reduction. Pathway 3 is direct oxidation of Fe(II) aq from hydrothermal fluids to form Fe(III) precipitates. Finally, Pathway 4 involves oxidative alteration of pre-existing sulfide minerals to form Fe(III). The Fe mineralogy and isotope data do not support or refute a unique biological role in sulfide alteration. The findings

  15. Iron Transformation Pathways and Redox Micro-Environments in Seafloor Sulfide-Mineral Deposits: Spatially Resolved Fe XAS and δ(57/54)Fe Observations.

    PubMed

    Toner, Brandy M; Rouxel, Olivier J; Santelli, Cara M; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal sulfide chimneys located along the global system of oceanic spreading centers are habitats for microbial life during active venting. Hydrothermally extinct, or inactive, sulfide deposits also host microbial communities at globally distributed sites. The main goal of this study is to describe Fe transformation pathways, through precipitation and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, and examine transformation products for signatures of biological activity using Fe mineralogy and stable isotope approaches. The study includes active and inactive sulfides from the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N vent field. First, the mineralogy of Fe(III)-bearing precipitates is investigated using microprobe X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS) and X-ray diffraction (μXRD). Second, laser-ablation (LA) and micro-drilling (MD) are used to obtain spatially-resolved Fe stable isotope analysis by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Eight Fe-bearing minerals representing three mineralogical classes are present in the samples: oxyhydroxides, secondary phyllosilicates, and sulfides. For Fe oxyhydroxides within chimney walls and layers of Si-rich material, enrichments in both heavy and light Fe isotopes relative to pyrite are observed, yielding a range of δ(57)Fe values up to 6‰. Overall, several pathways for Fe transformation are observed. Pathway 1 is characterized by precipitation of primary sulfide minerals from Fe(II)aq-rich fluids in zones of mixing between vent fluids and seawater. Pathway 2 is also consistent with zones of mixing but involves precipitation of sulfide minerals from Fe(II)aq generated by Fe(III) reduction. Pathway 3 is direct oxidation of Fe(II) aq from hydrothermal fluids to form Fe(III) precipitates. Finally, Pathway 4 involves oxidative alteration of pre-existing sulfide minerals to form Fe(III). The Fe mineralogy and isotope data do not support or refute a unique biological role in sulfide alteration. The findings

  16. Iron transformation pathways and redox micro-environments in seafloor sulfide-mineral deposits: Spatially resolved Fe XAS and δ57/54Fe observations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Toner, Brandy M.; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Santelli, Cara M.; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2016-05-10

    Hydrothermal sulfide chimneys located along the global system of oceanic spreading centers are habitats for microbial life during active venting. Hydrothermally extinct, or inactive, sulfide deposits also host microbial communities at globally distributed sites. The main goal of this study is to describe Fe transformation pathways, through precipitation and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, and examine transformation products for signatures of biological activity using Fe mineralogy and stable isotope approaches. The study includes active and inactive sulfides from the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N vent field. First, the mineralogy of Fe(III)-bearing precipitates is investigated using microprobe X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS) and X-ray diffractionmore » (μXRD). Second, laser-ablation (LA) and micro-drilling (MD) are used to obtain spatially-resolved Fe stable isotope analysis by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Eight Fe-bearing minerals representing three mineralogical classes are present in the samples: oxyhydroxides, secondary phyllosilicates, and sulfides. For Fe oxyhydroxides within chimney walls and layers of Si-rich material, enrichments in both heavy and light Fe isotopes relative to pyrite are observed, yielding a range of δ57Fe values up to 6‰. Overall, several pathways for Fe transformation are observed. Pathway 1 is characterized by precipitation of primary sulfide minerals from Fe(II)aq-rich fluids in zones of mixing between vent fluids and seawater. Pathway 2 is also consistent with zones of mixing but involves precipitation of sulfide minerals from Fe(II)aq generated by Fe(III) reduction. Pathway 3 is direct oxidation of Fe(II) aq from hydrothermal fluids to form Fe(III) precipitates. Finally, Pathway 4 involves oxidative alteration of pre-existing sulfide minerals to form Fe(III). The Fe mineralogy and isotope data do not support or refute a unique biological role in sulfide alteration. The

  17. Iron Transformation Pathways and Redox Micro-Environments in Seafloor Sulfide-Mineral Deposits: Spatially Resolved Fe XAS and δ57/54Fe Observations

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Brandy M.; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Santelli, Cara M.; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal sulfide chimneys located along the global system of oceanic spreading centers are habitats for microbial life during active venting. Hydrothermally extinct, or inactive, sulfide deposits also host microbial communities at globally distributed sites. The main goal of this study is to describe Fe transformation pathways, through precipitation and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, and examine transformation products for signatures of biological activity using Fe mineralogy and stable isotope approaches. The study includes active and inactive sulfides from the East Pacific Rise 9°50′N vent field. First, the mineralogy of Fe(III)-bearing precipitates is investigated using microprobe X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS) and X-ray diffraction (μXRD). Second, laser-ablation (LA) and micro-drilling (MD) are used to obtain spatially-resolved Fe stable isotope analysis by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Eight Fe-bearing minerals representing three mineralogical classes are present in the samples: oxyhydroxides, secondary phyllosilicates, and sulfides. For Fe oxyhydroxides within chimney walls and layers of Si-rich material, enrichments in both heavy and light Fe isotopes relative to pyrite are observed, yielding a range of δ57Fe values up to 6‰. Overall, several pathways for Fe transformation are observed. Pathway 1 is characterized by precipitation of primary sulfide minerals from Fe(II)aq-rich fluids in zones of mixing between vent fluids and seawater. Pathway 2 is also consistent with zones of mixing but involves precipitation of sulfide minerals from Fe(II)aq generated by Fe(III) reduction. Pathway 3 is direct oxidation of Fe(II) aq from hydrothermal fluids to form Fe(III) precipitates. Finally, Pathway 4 involves oxidative alteration of pre-existing sulfide minerals to form Fe(III). The Fe mineralogy and isotope data do not support or refute a unique biological role in sulfide alteration. The findings

  18. Chemical processing in geothermal nuclear chimney

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1973-10-01

    A closed rubble filled nuclear chimney is provided in a subterranean geothermal formation by detonation of a nuclear explosive device therein, with reagent input and product output conduits connecting the chimney cavity with appropriate surface facilities. Such facilities will usually comprise reagent preparation, product recovery and recycle facilities. Proccsses are then conducted in the nuclear chimney which processes are facilitated by temperature, pressure, catalytic and other conditions existent or which are otherwise provided in the nuclear chimney. (auth)

  19. You're a What? Chimney Sweep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a chimney sweep--also called a "sweep"--which inspects chimneys as well as cleans them. Some inspections are for a specific purpose, such as home appraisal, but most precede cleaning. Chimney cleaning requires a certain level of dexterity, because the job includes a lot of climbing, squatting, kneeling, and…

  20. Post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry in the Iheya North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Ryota; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Takazo; Konno, Uta; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Hatada, Kenta; Hirayama, Hisako; Fujikura, Katsunori; Furushima, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Watsuji, Tomo-o.; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Takai, Ken

    2013-11-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 investigated the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough. Several post-drilling underwater vehicle investigations were conducted over 2 years to identify post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry. Drilling-induced high-temperature hydrothermal fluid vents were identified at deep holes not only near the naturally occurring NBC hydrothermal fluid vent (Site C0016) but also at the seafloor ˜450 m distal to the NBC vent (Site C0014), where no hydrothermal fluid discharge was observed prior to drilling. A chimney structure at Hole C0016A grew rapidly at the NBC mound crest, where only small chimneys had been found before drilling. A drilling-induced diffuse hydrothermal flow region spread at Site C0014, and this area was newly colonized by the galatheid crab. From a fluid chemistry perspective, the post-drilling hydrothermal fluids were enriched in Cl relative to seawater, although this fluid chemistry was not observed during the 12 years prior to drilling. The Cl-enriched fluid reservoir underlying the subseafloor impermeable layers, observed by IODP Expedition 331, is likely source for the Cl-enriched fluids discharging from the post-drilling vents. The drilling-induced physical disturbance of subseafloor hydrogeological structures would release such fluids to the seafloor. In turn, the rapid chimney growth at the NBC mound crest may also be attributed to highly turbulent fluid flow with the enlarged artificial vent of Hole C0016A, which can contribute to the retention of the fluid-seawater mixture for a sufficiently long period to precipitate sulfide/sulfate minerals on the seafloor.

  1. The connection between iron ore formations and "mud-shrimp" colonizations around sunken wood debris and hydrothermal sediments in a Lower Cretaceous continental rift basin, Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáger, Viktor; Molnár, Ferenc; Buchs, David; Koděra, Peter

    2012-09-01

    300 m (above sea level); from these volcanoes further terrestrial plant debris got into the basin. Hydrothermal vents, which periodically occurred around basaltic bodies until the Hauterivian, could have contributed to the creation of favourable temperature or nutritional conditions for some decapoda crustaceans - e.g the recently described new callianassid (Nihonotrypaea thermophila), which is known only from hydrothermally infuenced habitats. Around the intrusive pillow basalts, hydrothermal circulation of oxygenated seawater occured and thick seladonitic and goethitic fills formed along the cracks and cavities of pillowed basalts. When oxidized, sulfate-rich fluids passed into the crustacean coprolite-rich, reductive and anaerobic interpillow sediments, these fluids underwent an intensive sulfate reduction. This was primarily due to termophil sulfate reducers which as proved by the negative sulfur isotope values (- 35.9‰ and - 28.0‰ δ 34S) of sulfidic hydrothermal chimneys which contain framboidal pyrite and which were formed between the pillow basalts. The largest chimney structure reached a height of 1 m, with a mass of about 150 kg. The sulfide phase is characterized by Mo enrichments up to 511 ppm. The fluid inclusion measurements from the calcitic precipitations of the sulfide chimneys indicate low temperature (~ 129 °C) hydrothermal activity, and the salinity of the primary fluid inclusions proves the seawater origin of the hydrothermal fluids. In some thalassinid crustacean coprolite rich interpillow sediments and in the cracks of some hydrothermal calcite, there is the presence of black, lustrous bitumine (gilsonite) which is the distillation product of hydrothermal petroleum formed mainly by the coprolites. Hydrothermal circulations of oxygenated seawater caused subsequent oxidation of the sulfidic, interpillow sediments and chimneys; these were altered to form goethite. Due to the short-period of the hydrothermal activity among the intrusive

  2. Precipitation and growth of barite within hydrothermal vent deposits from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, John William; Hannington, Mark D.; Tivey, Margaret K.; Hansteen, Thor; Williamson, Nicole M.-B.; Stewart, Margaret; Fietzke, Jan; Butterfield, David; Frische, Matthias; Allen, Leigh; Cousens, Brian; Langer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent deposits form on the seafloor as a result of cooling and mixing of hot hydrothermal fluids with cold seawater. Amongst the major sulfide and sulfate minerals that are preserved at vent sites, barite (BaSO4) is unique because it requires the direct mixing of Ba-rich hydrothermal fluid with sulfate-rich seawater in order for precipitation to occur. Because of its extremely low solubility, barite crystals preserve geochemical fingerprints associated with conditions of formation. Here, we present data from petrographic and geochemical analyses of hydrothermal barite from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeast Pacific Ocean, in order to determine the physical and chemical conditions under which barite precipitates within seafloor hydrothermal vent systems. Petrographic analyses of 22 barite-rich samples show a range of barite crystal morphologies: dendritic and acicular barite forms near the exterior vent walls, whereas larger bladed and tabular crystals occur within the interior of chimneys. A two component mixing model based on Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr of both seawater and hydrothermal fluid, combined with 87Sr/86Sr data from whole rock and laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of barite crystals indicate that barite precipitates from mixtures containing as low as 17% and as high as 88% hydrothermal fluid component, relative to seawater. Geochemical modelling of the relationship between aqueous species concentrations and degree of fluid mixing indicates that Ba2+ availability is the dominant control on mineral saturation. Observations combined with model results support that dendritic barite forms from fluids of less than 40% hydrothermal component and with a saturation index greater than ∼0.6, whereas more euhedral crystals form at lower levels of supersaturation associated with greater contributions of hydrothermal fluid. Fluid inclusions within barite indicate formation temperatures of between ∼120 °C and 240 °C during

  3. Origin of magnetic highs at ultramafic hosted hydrothermal systems: Insights from the Yokoniwa site of Central Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masakazu; Okino, Kyoko; Sato, Taichi; Sato, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution vector magnetic measurements were performed on an inactive ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal vent field, called Yokoniwa Hydrothermal Field (YHF), using a deep-sea manned submersible Shinkai6500 and an autonomous underwater vehicle r2D4. The YHF has developed at a non-transform offset massif of the Central Indian Ridge. Dead chimneys were widely observed around the YHF along with a very weak venting of low-temperature fluids so that hydrothermal activity of the YHF was almost finished. The distribution of crustal magnetization from the magnetic anomaly revealed that the YHF is associated with enhanced magnetization, as seen at the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow and Ashadze-1 hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The results of rock magnetic analysis on seafloor rock samples (including basalt, dolerite, gabbro, serpentinized peridotite, and hydrothermal sulfide) showed that only highly serpentinized peridotite carries high magnetic susceptibility and that the natural remanent magnetization intensity can explain the high magnetization of Yokoniwa. These observations reflect abundant and strongly magnetized magnetite grains within the highly serpentinized peridotite. Comparisons with the Rainbow and Ashadze-1 suggest that in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems, strongly magnetized magnetite and pyrrhotite form during the progression of hydrothermal alteration of peridotite. After the completion of serpentinization and production of hydrogen, pyrrhotites convert into pyrite or nonmagnetic iron sulfides, which considerably reduces their levels of magnetization. Our results revealed origins of the magnetic high and the development of subsurface chemical processes in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems. Furthermore, the results highlight the use of near-seafloor magnetic field measurements as a powerful tool for detecting and characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  4. High temperature polymetallic sulfide deposits in back arc environment: Lau basin SW Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Fouquet, Y. ); Von Stackelberg, U. ); Herzig, P. )

    1990-06-01

    During the French-German diving cruise Nautilau, black smokers were observed for the first time in a back-arc environment. Twenty-two dives have been completed to investigate the southern Lau basin. The objectives were to understand the genesis of sulfide ores, the volcanic and tectonic activity in a back arc close to an island arc. The four diving sites in a water depth of about 2,000 m are located between 21{degree}25'S and 22{degree}40'S. Three types of hydrothermal deposits were discovered during the cruise: (1) Low temperature (40{degree}) deposits that are related to discharge through highly vesicular andesite and dacite. They are characterized by extensive deposits of Fe-Mn oxides underlaid by sulfides. (2) Medium- to high-temperature barite/sulfides mineralization was observed in many places along the ridge. The most important field, a few hundred meters in diameter and 20 m high, consists of barite chimneys and massive barite boulders mixed with massive sulfides. (3) Very high temperature black and white smokers were discovered at the central Valu Fa Ridge. The chemistry of the fluid and the plume is described elsewhere. The temperature measured at the vents (342{degree}C) and the general anomalies of the bottom seawater (up to 25{degree}C) indicate that the area is one of the most active known in the oceans at the present time. A complete cross section was sampled through a massive sulfide deposit including the stockwork.

  5. Gold enrichment and the Bi-Au association in pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide deposits, Escanaba trough, Southern Gorda Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tormanen, T.O.; Koski, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    High gold contents (to 10.1 ppm, avg 1.4 ppm, n = 34) occur in pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide samples from the sediment-covered floor of the Escanaba trough, the slow-spreading, southernmost segment of Gorda Ridge. These concentrations reflect the presence of primary gold, formed during high-temperature hydrothermal activity in mounds and chimneys, and secondary gold deposited during sea-floor weathering of massive sulfide. Primary gold occurs as fine-grained (2 ??m) secondary gold grains have a porous, flaky morphology and occur in samples in which pyrrhotite is oxidized and replaced by Fe oxyhydroxides, Fe sulfate, and sulfur. Mounds and chimneys dominated by pyrrhotite and containing lesser amounts of isocubanite, chalcopyrite, and Fe-rich sphalerite were formed by high-temperature (estimated range 325??-275??C), reduced, low-sulfur vent fluids. The mineral and fluid compositions during this main stage of hydrothermal venting reflect subsurface interaction between circulating hydrothermal fluids and turbiditic sediment containing as much as 1.1 percent organic carbon. As the deposition of pyrrhotite, Cu-Fe sulfides, and sphalerite waned, a volumetrically minor suite of sulfarsenide, arsenide, Bi, and Au minerals was deposited from highly reduced, late main-stage fluids diffusing through mounds and chimneys. The low solubility of Au as a bisulfide complex and the absence of fluid mixing during this stage of hydrothermal activity apparently inhibited the precipitation of gold directly from solution. Instead, gold precipitation is thought to be linked to elevated concentrations of Bi in the late main-stage fluids. The textural relationships of Au and Bi minerals in pyrrhotite-rich samples, low melting point of native bismuth (271.4??C), and recent experimental results on Au and Bi in hydrothermal fluids contribute to the hypothesis that gold was effectively scavenged from the Escanaba trough vent fluids by coexisting droplets of liquid bismuth. Additional phase

  6. Synthesis of flower- and rod-like nickel sulfide nanostructures by an organic-free hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Qingtao; Huang Kai; Ni Shibing; Yang Feng; He Deyan

    2008-06-03

    Well-crystalline flower- and rod-like NiS nanostructures have been synthesized by an organic-free hydrothermal process at a low temperature of 200 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the as-synthesized NiS nanostructures. The effects of temperature and reaction time on the morphology have been also investigated. The two-step flake-cracking mechanism for the formation of flower- and rod-like NiS nanostructures was discussed. The products were also investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy.

  7. On the origin of life in the Zinc world: 1. Photosynthesizing, porous edifices built of hydrothermally precipitated zinc sulfide as cradles of life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The complexity of the problem of the origin of life has spawned a large number of possible evolutionary scenarios. Their number, however, can be dramatically reduced by the simultaneous consideration of various bioenergetic, physical, and geological constraints. Results This work puts forward an evolutionary scenario that satisfies the known constraints by proposing that life on Earth emerged, powered by UV-rich solar radiation, at photosynthetically active porous edifices made of precipitated zinc sulfide (ZnS) similar to those found around modern deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Under the high pressure of the primeval, carbon dioxide-dominated atmosphere ZnS could precipitate at the surface of the first continents, within reach of solar light. It is suggested that the ZnS surfaces (1) used the solar radiation to drive carbon dioxide reduction, yielding the building blocks for the first biopolymers, (2) served as templates for the synthesis of longer biopolymers from simpler building blocks, and (3) prevented the first biopolymers from photo-dissociation, by absorbing from them the excess radiation. In addition, the UV light may have favoured the selective enrichment of photostable, RNA-like polymers. Falsification tests of this hypothesis are described in the accompanying article (A.Y. Mulkidjanian, M.Y. Galperin, Biology Direct 2009, 4:27). Conclusion The suggested "Zn world" scenario identifies the geological conditions under which photosynthesizing ZnS edifices of hydrothermal origin could emerge and persist on primordial Earth, includes a mechanism of the transient storage and utilization of solar light for the production of diverse organic compounds, and identifies the driving forces and selective factors that could have promoted the transition from the first simple, photostable polymers to more complex living organisms. Reviewers This paper was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Simon Silver (nominated by Arcady Mushegian), Antoine Danchin (nominated by

  8. Feasibility study of application of ROV-towed loop-loop EM sensor for mapping seafloor marine hydrothermal sulfide massive deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Ko, H.; Park, I.; Cho, S.; Won, I. J.; Funak, F.; Kim, H.

    2013-12-01

    Seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits have gained much attention of scientific interest since 1970s. In recent years, as demand for metallic mineral resources such as copper, zinc, gold, and other rare earth material increases, together with modern enhancement of marine technology, SMS deposits become more competing and now being recognized as commercially viable mineral resources in near future. An off-shore experiment was performed with a new marine small loop electromagnetic (EM) survey system, which was developed primarily for exploration of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. The new marine system is a multi-frequency loop EM system so that it is designed to endure high pressure in deep sea up to 2000 m. To maintain altitude of the system from the seafloor in rough seafloor topography condition, the system was connected rigidly to ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle), which then tows the whole system for survey. We performed offshore tests with the new loop EM system by keeping altitude of ROV 2 m above from the seafloor at a depth of 300 m near off-shore. The ROV position and attitude while moving (pitch, roll, yaw) and CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) data are also recorded simultaneously with electromagnetic responses. Experiments showed that EM anomaly was clearly identified at the true location of metallic object, and the pattern of the EM responses matches well with the theoretical responses from a 3-D integral equation EM modeling code. With the test in offshore, we confirmed that the method of operation of the EM survey system by ROV was readily feasible, and the system could effectively be used to map actual seafloor hydrothermal deposits in the highly conductive seafloor environment.

  9. Growth of large sulfide structures on the endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, Margaret K.; Delaney, John R.

    1986-04-01

    Mapping and sampling with DSRV "Alvin" has established that sulfide blocks 0.5 m across, dredged from the axial valley of the Endeavour Segment at 47°57'N, are samples of unusually large sulfide structures. The steep-sided structures, up to 30 m in length, 20 m in height, and 10-15 m across, are localized by venting along normal faults at the base of the western axial valley wall, and are distributed for about 200 m along strike paralleling the 020 trend of the ridge crest. High-temperature fluids (350 to more than 400°C) pass through the massive sulfide structures and enter seawater through small, concentric "nozzle-like" features projecting from the top or the sides of the larger vent structures. Diffuse, low-temperature flow is pervasive in the vicinity of the active sulfide structures, exiting from basalt and sulfide surfaces alike. Evidence of recent volcanic activity is sparse. The two largest samples taken with the dredge would not have been recoverable using the submersible. These samples represent massive, complex portions of the sulfide structures which were not closely associated with rapid high-temperature fluid flow at the time of sampling; they contain textural evidence of sealed hydrothermal fluid exit channels. Mineralogy is dominated by Fe sulfides nnd amorphous silica. Pyrite, marcasite, wurtzite, chalcopyrite, and iss are the most common sulfide phases. Pyrrhotite, galena, and sphalerite are present in trace amounts. Barite, amorphous silica, and chalcedony are the only non-sulfide phases; anhydrite is not observed in any of the dredge samples, although it is common in the chimney-like samples recovered by "Alvin". Specific mineralogical-textural zones within the dredge samples are anaoogous to individual layers in East Pacific Rise at 21°N and southern Juan de Fuca Ridge samples, with two exceptions: a coarse-grained, highly porous Fe sulfide-rich interior containing sulfidized tubeworm casts, and a 2-5 cm thick zone near the outer margin of

  10. Time Variation of Fluid Chemistry at Iheya North Seafloor Hydrothermal System, mid-Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, H.; Ishibashi, J.; Kataoka, S.; Umeki, Y.; Kouzuma, F.; Nakayama, N.; Tsunogai, U.

    2002-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal system at Iheya North, mid-Okinawa Trough, was discovered by the deep tow camera system in 1995. It is located at 27°47.2"N, 126°63.9"E and water depth of 1000m. The first fluid samples were collected by "Shinkai 2000" in 1996. Since then, fluid samples have been collected almost every year till 2002. Iheya North seafloor hydrothermal system extends about 200m in NS and 150m in EW directions. There are at least 9 hydrothermal vents in the area. Some of them are several tens meters high sulfide chimney emitting hydrothermal fluid from their top and side wall. The maximum temperature measured was 311°C at the center part of this field. The temperatures of venting fluids at the peripheral parts of the system are lower than that at the central part. The chemical compositions of hydrothermal fluids have spatial and time variations. Before 1999, salinities of hydrothermal fluids tend to be lower at the peripheral part of the system. The relationships between K and Cl concentrations lie on a single line originating from the origin. It means that the phase separation of the hydrothermal fluids under the seafloor influences the spatial variation of the hydrothermal fluids in this system. The line indicates that the chemistry of the hydrothermal fluid is K-rich compared to those of the sediment-starved mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids. It means that the fluids are reacted with hot acidic rock of the mid-Okinawa Trough. High concentrations of other components, such as NH4 and Li, indicate that the fluid is also reacted with the sediment of the mid-Okinawa Trough. After 2000, there were large decreases in salinities of the hydrothermal fluids in the southern part of this system. Hydrothermal fluid of one of the vent in southern part of the system becomes almost zero salinity. This sudden change in salinity indicates the big change in sub-seafloor hydrology in this hydrothermal system. When the hydrothermal system was aged and the path way of the

  11. Petrography, sulfide mineral chemistry, and sulfur isotope evidence for a hydrothermal imprint on Musina copper deposits, Limpopo Province, South Africa: Evidence for a breccia pipe origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumba, Jeff B.; Mundalamo, Humbulani R.; Ogola, Jason S.; Cox, J. A.; Fleisher, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Musina copper deposits are located in the Central Zone of the Limpopo orogenic belt in Limpopo Province, South Africa. We carried out a petrographic, sulfide composition, and δ34S study on samples from Artonvilla and Campbell copper deposits and a country rock granitic gneiss to Artonvilla Mine to place some constrains on the origin of these deposits. The assemblages at both Artonvilla and Campbell Mines of brecciated quartz, potassium feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, calcite, and amphibole are consistent with sericitic alteration. Quartz, amphibole, feldspars, and micas often display angular textures which are consistent with breccias. Sulfur concentrations in pyrite from Artonvilla Mine plot in a narrow range, from 50.2 wt. % to 55.7 wt. %. With the exception of a positive correlation between Fe and Cu, no well defined correlations are shown by data from the Musina copper deposits. The occurrence of sulfides both as inclusions in, or as interstitial phases in silicates, suggests that hydrothermal alteration that affected these deposits most likely helped concentrate the mineralization at the Musina copper deposits. Sulfur concentrations in chalcopyrite samples investigated vary widely whereas the copper concentrations in chalcopyrite are not unusually higher compared to those from chalcopyrite from other tectonic settings, probably indicating that either the Cu in the Musina copper deposits occurs in native form, and/or that it is hosted by other phases. This observation lends support to the Cu having been concentrated during a later hydrothermal event. One sample from Artonvilla Mine (AtCal01) yielded pyrite δ34S values of 3.1and 3.6‰ and chalcopyrite from the same sample yielded a value of 3.9‰. A country rock granitic gneiss to Artonvilla Mine yielded a δ34Spyrite value of 8.2‰. For Campbell Mine samples, one quartz vein sample has a δ34Spyrite value of 0.5‰ whereas chalcopyrite samples drilled from different areas within the same sample yielded

  12. Petrography, sulfide mineral chemistry, and sulfur isotope evidence for a hydrothermal imprint on Musina copper deposits, Limpopo Province, South Africa: Evidence for a breccia pipe origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumba, Jeff B.; Mundalamo, Humbulani R.; Ogola, Jason S.; Cox, J. A.; Fleisher, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Musina copper deposits are located in the Central Zone of the Limpopo orogenic belt in Limpopo Province, South Africa. We carried out a petrographic, sulfide composition, and δ34S study on samples from Artonvilla and Campbell copper deposits and a country rock granitic gneiss to Artonvilla Mine to place some constrains on the origin of these deposits. The assemblages at both Artonvilla and Campbell Mines of brecciated quartz, potassium feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, calcite, and amphibole are consistent with sericitic alteration. Quartz, amphibole, feldspars, and micas often display angular textures which are consistent with breccias. Sulfur concentrations in pyrite from Artonvilla Mine plot in a narrow range, from 50.2 wt. % to 55.7 wt. %. With the exception of a positive correlation between Fe and Cu, no well defined correlations are shown by data from the Musina copper deposits. The occurrence of sulfides both as inclusions in, or as interstitial phases in silicates, suggests that hydrothermal alteration that affected these deposits most likely helped concentrate the mineralization at the Musina copper deposits. Sulfur concentrations in chalcopyrite samples investigated vary widely whereas the copper concentrations in chalcopyrite are not unusually higher compared to those from chalcopyrite from other tectonic settings, probably indicating that either the Cu in the Musina copper deposits occurs in native form, and/or that it is hosted by other phases. This observation lends support to the Cu having been concentrated during a later hydrothermal event. One sample from Artonvilla Mine (AtCal01) yielded pyrite δ34S values of 3.1and 3.6‰ and chalcopyrite from the same sample yielded a value of 3.9‰. A country rock granitic gneiss to Artonvilla Mine yielded a δ34Spyrite value of 8.2‰. For Campbell Mine samples, one quartz vein sample has a δ34Spyrite value of 0.5‰ whereas chalcopyrite samples drilled from different areas within the same sample

  13. Draft genome sequence of Caminibacter mediatlanticus strain TB-2, an epsilonproteobacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Donato; Ferriera, Steven; Johnson, Justin; Kravitz, Saul; Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Ricci, Jessica; O'Brien, Charles; Voordeckers, James W; Bini, Elisabetta; Vetriani, Costantino

    2011-10-15

    Caminibacter mediatlanticus strain TB-2(T) [1], is a thermophilic, anaerobic, chemolithoautotrophic bacterium, isolated from the walls of an active deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the type strain of the species. C. mediatlanticus is a Gram-negative member of the Epsilonproteobacteria (order Nautiliales) that grows chemolithoautotrophically with H(2) as the energy source and CO(2) as the carbon source. Nitrate or sulfur is used as the terminal electron acceptor, with resulting production of ammonium and hydrogen sulfide, respectively. In view of the widespread distribution, importance and physiological characteristics of thermophilic Epsilonproteobacteria in deep-sea geothermal environments, it is likely that these organisms provide a relevant contribution to both primary productivity and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur at hydrothermal vents. Here we report the main features of the genome of C. mediatlanticus strain TB-2(T). PMID:22180817

  14. Condition assessment inspection of concrete chimneys

    SciTech Connect

    Brannen, W.F.; Kasperski, E.; Topor, T.

    1995-10-01

    Until recently, chimneys have been treated as a permanent structure requiring virtually no maintenance. Only after several catastrophic failures, has it been recognized that chimneys require routine repairs and maintenance. In order to identify the repairs needed, periodic condition assessment inspections must be performed; however, a standard condition assessment inspection procedure does not exist for the power industry. Florida Power and Light Company (FPL), has developed an inspection program for their chimneys, which includes a standard specification for chimney condition assessment inspections. This was developed with International Chimney, for a chimney consisting of a reinforced concrete shell with a brick liner, and has been successfully implemented since 1991. This paper discusses the details of this standard specification, including what should be inspected, how the inspection shall be performed, methods of examination, and the reporting format.

  15. Characterization of Large, Autotrophic Beggiatoa spp. Abundant at Hydrothermal Vents of the Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D C; Wirsen, C O; Jannasch, H W

    1989-11-01

    Filamentous bacteria, identified as members of the genus Beggiatoa by gliding motility and internal globules of elemental sulfur, occur in massive aggregations at the deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Cell aggregates covering the surface of sulfide-emanating sediments and rock chimneys were collected by DS R/V Alvin and subjected to shipboard and laboratory experiments. Each sample collected contained one to three discrete width classes of this organism usually accompanied by a small number of "flexibacteria" (width, 1.5 to 4 mum). The average widths of the Beggiatoa classes were 24 to 32, 40 to 42, and 116 to 122 mum. As indicated by electron microscopy and cell volume/protein ratios, the dominant bacteria are hollow cells, i.e., a thin layer of cytoplasm surrounding a large central liquid vacuole. Activities of Calvin-cycle enzymes indicated that at least two of the classes collected possess autotrophic potential. Judging from temperature dependence of enzyme activities and whole-cell CO(2) incorporation, the widest cells were mesophiles. The narrowest Beggiatoa sp. was either moderately thermophilic or mesophilic with unusually thermotolerant enzymes. This was consistent with its occurrence on the flanks of hot smoker chimneys with highly variable exit temperatures. In situ CO(2) fixation rates, sulfide stimulation of incorporation, and autoradiographic studies suggest that these Beggiatoa spp. contribute significantly as lithoautrophic primary producers to the Guaymas Basin vent ecosystems.

  16. Characterization of large, autotrophic Beggiatoa spp. abundant at hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.C. ); Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W. )

    1989-11-01

    Filamentous bacteria, identified as members of the genus Beggiatoa by gliding motility and internal globules of elemental sulfur, occur in massive aggregations at the deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Cell aggregates covering the surface of sulfide-emanating sediments and rock chimneys were collected by DS R/V Alvin and subjected to shipboard and laboratory experiments. Each sample collected contained one to three discrete width classes of this organism usually accompanied by a small number of flexibacteria (width, 1.5 to 4 {mu}m). The average widths of the Beggiatoa classes were 24 to 32, 40 to 42, and 116 to 122 {mu}m. As indicated by electron microscopy and cell volume/protein ratios, the dominant bacteria are hollow cells, i.e., a thin layer of cytoplasm surrounding a large central liquid vacuole. Activities of Calvin-cycle enzymes indicated that at least two of the classes collected possess autotrophic potential. Judging from temperature dependence of enzyme activities and whole-cell CO{sub 2} incorporation, the widest cells were mesophiles. The narrowest Beggiatoa sp. was either moderately thermophilic or mesophilic with unusually thermotolerant enzymes. This was consistent with its occurrence on the flanks of hot smoker chimneys with highly variable exit temperatures. In situ CO{sub 2} fixation rates, sulfide stimulation of incorporation, and autoradiographic studies suggest that these Beggiatoa spp. contribute significantly as lithoautrophic primary producers to the Guaymas Basin vent ecosystems.

  17. Survival and growth of two heterotrophic hydrothermal vent archaea, Pyrococcus strain GB-D and Thermococcus fumicolans, under low pH and high sulfide concentrations in combination with high temperature and pressure regimes.

    PubMed

    Edgcomb, Virginia P; Molyneaux, Stephen J; Böer, Simone; Wirsen, Carl O; Saito, Mak; Atkins, Michael S; Lloyd, Karen; Teske, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    Growth and survival of hyperthermophilic archaea in their extreme hydrothermal vent and subsurface environments are controlled by chemical and physical key parameters. This study examined the effects of elevated sulfide concentrations, temperature, and acidic pH on growth and survival of two hydrothermal vent archaea (Pyrococcus strain GB-D and Thermococcus fumicolans) under high temperature and pressure regimes. These two strains are members of the Thermococcales, a family of hyperthermophilic, heterotrophic, sulfur-reducing archaea that occur in high densities at vent sites. As actively growing cells, these two strains tolerated regimes of pH, pressure, and temperature that were in most cases not tolerated under severe substrate limitation. A moderate pH of 5.5-7 extends their survival and growth range over a wider range of sulfide concentrations, temperature and pressure, relative to lower pH conditions. T. fumicolans and Pyrococcus strain GB-D grew under very high pressures that exceeded in-situ pressures typical of hydrothermal vent depths, and included deep subsurface pressures. However, under the same conditions, but in the absence of carbon substrates and electron acceptors, survival was generally lower, and decreased rapidly when low pH stress was combined with high pressure and high temperature.

  18. Variability in the microbial communities and hydrothermal fluid chemistry at the newly discovered Mariner hydrothermal field, southern Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Ken; Nunoura, Takuro; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Lupton, John; Suzuki, Ryohei; Hamasaki, Hiroshi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Gamo, Toshitaka; Suzuki, Yohey; Hirayama, Hisako; Horikoshi, Koki

    2008-06-01

    A newly discovered hydrothermal field called the Mariner field on the Valu Fa Ridge in the southern Lau Basin was explored and characterized with geochemical and microbiological analyses. The hydrothermal fluid discharging from the most vigorous vent (Snow Chimney, maximum discharge temperature 365°C) was boiling at the seafloor at a depth of 1908 m, and two distinct end-member hydrothermal fluids were identified. The fluid chemistry of the typical Cl-enriched and Cl-depleted hydrothermal fluids was analyzed, as was the mineralogy of the host chimney structures. The variability in the fluid chemistry was potentially controlled by the subseafloor phase-separation (vapor loss process) and the microbial community activities. Microbial community structures in three chimney structures were investigated using culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene clone analysis revealed that both bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene communities on the chimney surfaces differed among three chimneys. Cultivation analysis demonstrated significant variation in the culturability of various microbial components among the chimneys, particularly of thermophilic H2-oxidizing (and S-oxidizing) chemolithoautotrophs such as the genera Aquifex and Persephonella. The physical and chemical environments of chimney surface habitats are still unresolved and do not directly extrapolate the environments of possible subseafloor habitats. However, the variability in microbial community found in the chimneys also provides an insight into the different biogeochemical interactions potentially affected by the phase separation of the hydrothermal fluids in the subseafloor hydrothermal habitats. In addition, comparison with other deep-sea hydrothermal systems revealed that the Mariner field microbial communities have unusual characteristics.

  19. Sulfide and silicate melt inclusions in the D. João de Castro Volcanic Seamount, a hydrothermally active area on the Terceira Rift, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. F. A.; Scott, S. D.; Madureira, P.; Rosa, C. J. P.; Lourenço, N.; Conceição, P.; TerRiftic Team

    2012-04-01

    phases that suggest exsolution from a higher temperature solid solution phase (Fe-Ni-Cu-S). Oxides rim some of the globules. Samples with no visible sulfide globules in the groundmass contain, apart from Fe-Ti oxides, coarse-grained Fe-oxides. Preliminary observations indicate that immiscible sulfide phases were present at different stages of magma evolution. This may have implications for metal mobility during pre- syn and post eruptive degassing (e.g., DJC and HIR), or even active hydrothermalism (DJC). Moreover, geochemical and textural similarities found between samples from the DJC volcanic high and HIR deep basin have implications for the understanding of the TR melting processes. [1] Lourenço, N et al, (1998) Mar.Geophys.Res. 20:141-56 [2] Vogt PR and Jung WY (2004) EPSL 218:77-90 Acknowledgments The authors thank Y. Liu, M. Gorton, C. Bray and G. Kretschmann (U of Toronto) for the technical and analytical support. EMAM (Estrutura de Missão para os Assuntos do Mar) the ROV Luso team and all the crew that participated in the cruises are gratefully acknowledged. A.F.A. Marques' research is funded by the PTDC/MAR/111306/2009 TerRiftic Project (funded by the FCT), and CREMINER/LA UI101-POSC (Co-financiado FEDER). Steve's Scott's research is funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

  20. Geochemical models of metasomatism in ultramafic systems: Serpentinization, rodingitization, and sea floor carbonate chimney precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palandri, J.L.; Reed, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    In a series of water-rock reaction simulations, we assess the processes of serpentinization of harzburgite and related calcium metasomatism resulting in rodingite-type alteration, and seafloor carbonate chimney precipitation. At temperatures from 25 to 300??C (P = 10 to 100 bar), using either fresh water or seawater, serpentinization simulations produce an assemblage commonly observed in natural systems, dominated by serpentine, magnetite, and brucite. The reacted waters in the simulations show similar trends in composition with decreasing water-rock ratios, becoming hyper-alkaline and strongly reducing, with increased dissolved calcium. At 25??C and w/r less than ???32, conditions are sufficiently reducing to yield H2 gas, nickel-iron alloy and native copper. Hyperalkalinity results from OH- production by olivine and pyroxene dissolution in the absence of counterbalancing OH- consumption by alteration mineral precipitation except at very high pH; at moderate pH there are no stable calcium minerals and only a small amount of chlorite forms, limited by aluminum, thus allowing Mg2+ and Ca2+ to accumulate in the aqueous phase in exchange for H+. The reducing conditions result from oxidation of ferrous iron in olivine and pyroxene to ferric iron in magnetite. Trace metals are computed to be nearly insoluble below 300??C, except for mercury, for which high pH stabilizes aqueous and gaseous Hg??. In serpentinization by seawater at 300??C, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt may approach ore-forming concentrations in sulfide complexes. Simulated mixing of the fluid derived from serpentinization with cold seawater produces a mineral assemblage dominated by calcite, similar to recently discovered submarine, ultramafic rock-hosted, carbonate mineral deposits precipitating at hydrothermal vents. Simulated reaction of gabbroic or basaltic rocks with the hyperalkaline calcium- and aluminum-rich fluid produced during serpentinization at 300??C yields rodingite-type mineral assemblages, including

  1. Geochemistry of hydrothermal plume in the Suiyo Seamount Caldera.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitashima, K.; Maeda, Y.

    2002-12-01

    samples were collected by taking the distance from the chimney gradually and pH change was monitored during the sampling and observing at the hydrothermal active areas. Alkalinity, pH, hydrogen sulfide, total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), chemical species of trace metals (particulate, dissolved and organic form) and nutrients in the hydrothermal plume samples were analyzed. Though DIC concentration in the hydrothermal plume sample gradually decreased with dilution and diffusion of the plume, DIC concentration in the caldera was higher than that in the seawater around the seamount. These results indicate that many chemical compounds discharged by hydrothermal activity have been remained in the caldera. According to the pH mapping of the hydrothermal area in the caldera, low pH areas in the patch state were located in each hydrothermal area. The low pH areas seem to have been formed by getting together with some hydrothermal plume. During long-term monitoring of pH at the hydrothermal active area in the caldera, the decreases of 0.3_`0.4pH in 24 hours periods correspond with the results of water current were detected.

  2. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System for Hydrothermal Deposit Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Murakami, F.; Mikada, H.; Takekawa, J.; Shimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Asakawa, K.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart, ocean basins, and hotspots. Potential new deposits of lead-zinc-copper sulfide are generated by cooling hot water around the vents. There are about ten hydrothermal deposits founded around the water depth of 1000m along Izu-Ogasawara Trench and Okinawa-Trough in Japan. The deposits often exists in very thin layer and spatially limited area surrounded by complex seabottom feature like volcanic caldera. Some hydrothermal vents form roughly cylindrical chimney structures. In order to evaluate hydrothermal deposit, we have proposed the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable recording geometry, which is named as VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). With this VCS, the following advantages will be provided for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) It achieves 3D image within limited area which is necessary for estimating the complex hydrothermal deposit Typical hydrothermal deposit extend horizontally within 1km x 1km at the water depth of around 1000m. The conventional 3D seismic is not efficient for such limited target. (2) Seabottom condition is too rough to deploy ocean bottom sensors, such as OBC or OBS. Vertical cables are located on the seabottom, but the sensors are in the marine water. This is to avoid the coupling problems. With the use of the vertical hydrophone array, wavefield is able be separated. It can separate upgoing (reflection) and downgoing wave (direct wave and ghost) and distinguish the scattered waves in complex feature in hydrothermal area. (3) Various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (air gun, water gun etc.) or marine vibrator or ocean bottom source. This paper discusses the design of the surveys that can be the best for the 3D image of the target in the most economic way. We are interested in geometry of source and receiver distribution and the resultant target coverage. The first experiment is

  3. Hydrothermal vents is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    SciTech Connect

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Pflumio, C.; Castrec, M.

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 {degrees}C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza, active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO{sub 3}-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO{sub 3} thermal fluids form lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch of the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction of 219 and 179 {degrees}C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130{degrees}N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north-south major rift trend. The sources of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  4. The Influence of High Seawater Fluxes on Sulfur Compositions of the Serpentinized Peridotites at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Kelley, D. S.

    2005-12-01

    The discovery of the actively venting carbonate chimneys at the Lost City hydrothermal vent field (LCHF) on the Atlantis Massif (MAR 30°N) has stimulated great interest in the role of serpentinization in driving hydrothermal circulation in peridotite-hosted systems and in the biological communities that may be supported in these systems. The southern wall of the massif exposes serpentinized peridotites with interspersed gabbroic rocks that have undergone several phases of serpentinization, talc-metasomatism and carbonate veining related to the uplift history and to the formation of the LCHF. We present petrological and isotope data from the serpentinized peridotites and gabbros that provide constraints on the history of seawater-rock interaction, changes in oxygen and sulfur fugacities during serpentinization, and the role of serpentinization as a sink for seawater sulfur. Sr- and Nd-isotope analyses of the basement rocks of the Atlantis Massif show large, systematic changes towards seawater compositions and indicate high seawater fluxes during successive phases of serpentinization. The consequence of these high fluid-rock ratios is a change in the sulfur mineralogy and chemistry of the rocks. Most of the analyzed basement rocks show lower sulfide-sulfur and higher sulfate-sulfur contents compared to fertile mantle. Sulfate in the serpentinites is present as barite and various hydroxysulfates. The distinct absence of anhydrite provides important constraints on upper temperature limits of late-stage serpentinization and hydrothermal activity at the LCHF. The sulfates are dominated by seawater sulfur isotope signatures, which indicate that serpentinization is an important sink of seawater sulfur at the Atlantis Massif. A few samples with lower sulfur isotope compositions suggest an additional local contribution of sulfate produced by sulfide oxidation. Sulfide assemblages are dominated by pyrite, pentlandite, pyrrhotite in the serpentinites and by pyrite, pyrrhotite

  5. Hydrothermal deposits in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California: Observations and Preliminary Results from the 2003 MBARI Dive Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakes, D. S.; Tivey, M. K.; Koski, R. A.; Ortego-Osorio, A.; Preston, C. M.; McCulloch, M. T.; Nakamura, K.; Seewald, J.; Wheat, C. G.

    2003-12-01

    During Leg 2 of the 2003 MBARI expedition to the Gulf of California, the ROV Tiburon completed eight dives to active vent fields in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin. Six venting areas were investigated in detail. Tiburon operations included (1) sampling mineral deposits that range from mini-chimneys a few centimeters high to 10-meter-tall sulfide-carbonate structures with wide flanges; (2) collection of 90C to 303C methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen-rich vent fluids in gas-tight samplers and plume-laden particulates in Niskin samplers; 3) collection of warm (up to 83C) hydrocarbon-rich sediment push cores; 4) long-term monitoring of three vent sites using thermocouple arrays (see adjacent Tivey et al poster) and osmotically-driven fluid samplers. Seventy days later, the ROV returned to recover the thermocouple arrays and ingrown chimneys. At the lowest temperature sites, fluid (up to 90C) discharged from orifices in sediment surrounded by white to yellow microbial mats. Combined Eh-ISUS (InSitu Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer) sensors mounted on Tiburon identified local increases in bisulfide and decreases in the oxidation/reduction potential (a proxy for methane and hydrogen sulfide) associated with these sites. Massive barite chimneys recovered from the margins of moderate-temperature vent sites are permeated with oil. Chimneys from higher temperature sites, in contrast, lack the liquid hydrocarbon component, and are largely composed of calcium carbonate with lesser anhydrite, amorphous silica, barite, pyrrhotite, Mg-silicate, galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. Mineral precipitation at the southernmost site (Toadstool) is characterized by the formation of carbonate-rich flanges directly above a substrate of altered diatomaceous sediment. The upper sediment crust lies above a stockwork of calcite veins. High-temperature structures at Rebecca's Roost and Broken Mushroom have pagoda-like carbonate-rich flanges trapping pools of hydrothermal fluids that

  6. The Pb-rich sulfide veins in the Boccassuolo ophiolite: Implications for the geochemical evolution of hydrothermal activity across the ocean-continent transition in the Ligurian Tethys (Northern-Apennine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garuti, Giorgio; Zaccarini, Federica; Scacchetti, Maurizio; Bartoli, Omar

    2011-06-01

    Galena bearing sulfide veins have been discovered coexisting with Fe-Cu-Zn dominated veins in the hydrothermal stockwork of the Boccassuolo ophiolite (External Ligurides, Northern Apennine, Italy). The galena-rich veins cut across a volcanic pile composed of pillow lava flows, pillow breccia, and ophiolitic sandstone. Bulk-ore analyses indicate significant enrichment in Pb giving raise to mantle normalized Pb-Ag-Au-Zn-Cu patterns with unusual negative slope, in contrast with the average flat pattern of most sulfide deposits in the Internal Liguride ophiolites which reflect the Fe-Cu-Zn assemblage of ophiolite-hosted Volcanic-associated Massive Sulfide (VMS) deposits all over the world. A wide literature shows that, in contrast with the Internal Ligurides, plutonic and volcanic rocks of the External Ligurides display less depleted and even enriched geochemical characters, not consistent with common oceanic crust at mid oceanic ridges (MOR), but probably originated in the ocean-continent transition of the Adria continental margin. In this geodynamic context, pillow basalts become locally enriched in Pb with high Pb/Cu ratios, and other crustal-compatible elements such as Mo and U. The Pb enrichment observed in the veins Boccassuolo is interpreted to be a result of leaching of such anomalous volcanics forming the ophiolitic substrate. The case of Boccassuolo supports the conclusion that the geochemical character of hydrothermal activity evolved from Cu-Zn rich in MOR-type assemblages of the Internal Ligurides, towards composition enriched in Pb in the External Liguride domain, representing the transition from the Ligurian ocean to the Adria continental margin.

  7. Mineralogy and Acid-Extractable Geochemistry from the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field, Norwegian Sea at 74 degrees N (South Knipovich Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, F. J.; Fonseca, R.; Dias, S.; Cruz, I.; Carvalho, C.; Relvas, J. M.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Loki’s Castle hydrothermal vent field was discovered in the summer of 2008 during a cruise led by the Centre of Geobiology of the University of Bergen, integrated in the H2Deep Project (Eurocores, ESF; see Pedersen et al., 2010, AGU Fall Meeting, Session OS26). Fresh volcanic glasses analyzed by EPMA are basalts. The vent site is composed of several active, over 10 m tall chimneys, producing up to 320 C fluid, at the top of a very large sulfide mound (estimated diameter 200 m). Mineralogy: The main sulfide assemblage in chimneys consists of sphalerite (Sp), pyrite (Py) and pyrrhotite, with lesser chalcopyrite (Ccp). Sulphide-poor selected samples collected at the base of chimneys are mostly composed of anhydrite (Anh), gypsum and talc (Tlc). Association of quartz, anhydrite, gypsum and barite were also found in some of the samples. The sulphide-poor samples from the base of the chimneys denote seawater interaction with the hydrothermal fluid and consequent decrease in temperature, precipitating sulfates. Sphalerite compositions are Zn(0.61-0.70)Fe(0.39-0.30)S. The variations in Fe content are consistent with those of hot, reduced hydrothermal fluids. The observed sulfide assemblage is consistent with the temperature of 320C measured in Loki’s Castle vents. Compositional zonation in sphalerites suggests different pulses of activity of the hydrothermal system, with higher contents of Zn in the center of the crystals. Geochemistry: Here we report preliminary data part of a major analytical task of sequential extraction of metals from sediments in the vicinity of Loki’s Castle, in an attempt to detect correlations with microbial populations and/or subseafloor mineralized intervals. The abundances of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn and Co in sediments were determined by aqua regia extraction on subsamples from 7 gravity cores. Several anomalous intervals were sampled, in which Cu<707ppm, Ni shows many weak peaks (<50ppm), Cr shows 6 peaks (<121ppm), Zn shows 4 well

  8. Submarine Hydrothermal Sites in Arc Volcanic-Back Arc Environment: Insight from Recent Marine Geophysical Investigations in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocchi, L.; Ligi, M.; Bortoluzzi, G.; Petersen, S.; Plunkett, S.; Muccini, F.; Canese, S.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Carmisciano, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration processes involve mineralogical and chemical changes, which are reflected in a major modification of potential field patterns observed over hydrothermal areas. Basalt-hosted hydrothermal sites exhibit characteristic responses with magnetic lows and minima of the gravity field. Near bottom AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) based potential field surveys have become a very effective technique in deep sea exploration. Here we present results of recent ship-borne and near seafloor magnetic and gravity investigations at deep (Marsili and Palinuro seamounts) and shallow (Panarea, Basiluzzo and Secca del Capo) hydrothermal sites in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea including multibeam bathymetry, seafloor reflectivity and seismic profiles. At Marsili seamount, a large Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides-rich chimney field is located at the summit (500 m depth). This site is correlated with pronounced magnetic and gravity lows (0 A/m and 2.0 g/cm3). Deep tow magnetic survey (Cruise MAVA11) revealed strong association between the complicated magnetization pattern and the main volcano-tectonic features of the ridge. Hydrothermal manifestations at Palinuro seamount occur mainly on the western sector within the rim of a caldera structure at depth of 600m. Recent AUV based magnetic surveys (Cruise POS442, 2012 using AUV "Abyss") detailed a magnetization low interpreted to represent the local distribution of subseafloor hydrothermal alteration (potentially massive sulfide deposits), and also mapped previously undiscovered inactive chimney fields. Hydrothermal sites observed at the arc-related volcanic islands (Panarea, Basiluzzo, Eolo and Secca del Capo) are confined to shallow depths (less then 300m) and associated with large ochreaceous mounds, vents and chimney fields such as those observed E of Basiluzzo Island. At this site a recent magnetic survey (Cruise PANA13_ASTREA) combined with Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) investigations revealed that the submarine geothermal

  9. Deposition of talc - kerolite-smectite - smectite at seafloor hydrothermal vent fields: Evidence from mineralogical, geochemical and oxygen isotope studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekov, V.M.; Cuadros, J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Koski, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Talc, kerolite-smectite, smectite, chlorite-smectite and chlorite samples from sediments, chimneys and massive sulfides from six seafloor hydrothermal areas have been analyzed for mineralogy, chemistry and oxygen isotopes. Samples are from both peridotite- and basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems, and basaltic systems include sediment-free and sediment-covered sites. Mg-phyllosilicates at seafloor hydrothermal sites have previously been described as talc, stevensite or saponite. In contrast, new data show tri-octahedral Mg-phyllosilicates ranging from pure talc and Fe-rich talc, through kerolite-rich kerolite-smectite to smectite-rich kerolite-smectite and tri-octahedral smectite. The most common occurrence is mixed-layer kerolite-smectite, which shows an almost complete interstratification series with 5 to 85% smectitic layers. The smectite interstratified with kerolite is mostly tri-octahedral. The degree of crystal perfection of the clay sequence decreases generally from talc to kerolite-smectite with lower crystalline perfection as the proportion of smectite layers in kerolite-smectite increases. Our studies do not support any dependence of the precipitated minerals on the type/subtype of hydrothermal system. Oxygen isotope geothermometry demonstrates that talc and kerolite-smectite precipitated in chimneys, massive sulfide mounds, at the sediment surface and in open cracks in the sediment near seafloor are high-temperature (> 250????C) phases that are most probably the result of focused fluid discharge. The other end-member of this tri-octahedral Mg-phyllosilicate sequence, smectite, is a moderate-temperature (200-250????C) phase forming deep within the sediment (??? 0.8??m). Chlorite and chlorite-smectite, which constitute the alteration sediment matrix around the hydrothermal mounds, are lower-temperature (150-200????C) phases produced by diffuse fluid discharge through the sediment around the hydrothermal conduits. In addition to temperature, other two

  10. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, K.H.

    1999-09-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H{sub 2}S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature ({approximately}320 C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital

  11. Diffuse-flow hydrothermal field in an oceanic fracture zone setting, Northeast Pacific: Deposit composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Koski, R.A.; Embley, R.W.; Reid, J.; Chang, S.-W.

    1999-01-01

    This is the first reported occurrence of an active hydrothermal field in an oceanic fracture zone setting. The hydrothermal field occurs in a pull-apart basin within the Blanco Fracture Zone (BFZ), which has four distinct mineral deposit types: (1) barite mounds and chimneys, (2) barite stockwork breccia, (3) silica-barite beds, and (4) silica, barite, and Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide in sediments. All deposit types contain minor amounts of sulfides. In barite stockwork, silica-barite beds, and mineralized sediment, Ba, Ph, Ag, S, Au, Zn, Cu, Hg, TI, As, Mo, Sb, U, Cd, and Cu are enriched relative to unmineralized rocks and sediments of the BFZ. Fe and Mn are not enriched in the barite stockwork or silica-barite beds, but along with P, Co, and Mg are enriched in the mineralized sediments. Silver contents in deposits of the hydrothermal field range up to 86 ppm, gold to 0.7 ppm, zinc to 3.2%, copper to 0.8%, and barium to 22%. Mineralization occurred by diffuse, low to intermediate temperature (mostly <250??C) discharge of hydrothermal fluids through pillow lavas and ponds of mixed volcaniclastic and biosiliceous sediments. Bacterial mats were mineralized by silica, barite, and minor Fe hydroxides, or less commonly, by Mn oxyhydroxides. Pervasive mineralization of bacterial mats resulted in formation of silica-barite beds. Silica precipitated from hydrothermal fluids by conductive cooling and mixing with seawater. Sulfate, U, and rare earth elements (REEs) in barite were derived from seawater, whereas the REE content of hydrothermal silica deposits and mineralized sediments is associated with the aluminosilicate detrital fraction. Fe-, Zn-, Cu-, Pb-, and Hg-sulfide minerals, Ba in barite, and Eu in all mineralized deposits were derived from hydrothermal fluids. Manganese oxides and associated elements (Co, Sb, Mo, W, Cl, and Cu) and Fe oxides and associated elements (Be, B, P, and Mo) precipitated as the result of mixing of hydrothermal fluids with seawater. ?? 2001 Canadian

  12. 77 FR 59275 - Establishment of the Chimney Rock National Monument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... centered in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, about 100 miles south of Chimney Rock. Chimney Rock continues to... patent under the mining laws, and from disposition under all laws relating to mineral and...

  13. New hydrothermal fields found along the SWIR during the Legs 5-7 of the Chinese DY115-20 Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.; Wu, G.; Ni, J.; Zhao, H.; Su, X.; Zhou, N.; Li, J.; Chen, Y. J.; Cui, R.; Deng, X.; Egorov, I.; Dobretsova, I. G.; Sun, G.; Qiu, Z.; Deng, X.; Zhou, J.; Gu, C.; Li, J.; Yang, J.; Zhang, K.; Wu, X.; Chen, Z.; Lei, J.; Huang, W.; Zhou, P.; Ding, T.; Jin, W.; Li, H.; Lin, J.

    2009-12-01

    Six new hydrothermal fields and two water column hydrothermal anomalies have been found along the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) during the Legs 5-7 of the Chinese DY115-20 expedition on R/V Dayangyihao from 2008 to 2009. An inactive hydrothermal field was found at 50.5°E (50.467°E, 37.658°S, 1,739m), the shallowest portion of Segment 27. Recovered samples include sulfide and opal chimneys, metalliferous sediments, basalt and relicts of hydrothermal vent-fauna. This field appears to become inactive recently. A carbonate field was found near 51°E (50.853°E, 37.650°S; 51°E, 37.608°S). This field extends about 15-km long in parallel to the ridge axis and locates at about 10-km off the ridge axis. Abundant different live and dead faunas were found. Many carbonate material and basalt samples were recovered. This new basalt-hosted carbonate field could represent a new category of ridge hydrothermal system. A hydrothermal field was found at 51.7°E (51.732°E, 37.466°S, 1,595m). Obvious Eh, Ch4 and turbidity anomalies were observed, while many alive fauna were also found. Massive sulfide and basalts were recovered, suggesting that this might be a large-scale hydrothermal field. Another hydrothermal field was found at 53.3°E (53.255°E, 36.101°S, 2,218m). Water column anomalies were observed and large amount of sponge, coral and anemone were captured. A hydrothermal field combined with ultramafic rocks was found at 63.5°E (63.541°E, 27.951°S). CH4, Eh, H2S and temperature anomalies were detected. Massive sulfide, oxidized chimney and sediment were sampled. Serpentinized ultramafic rocks were recovered at a nearby site. This would be the first ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system found at SWIR. An active hydrothermal filed was found at 63.9°E (63.923°E, 27.851°S, 2,759m) west to Mt. Joundane. Large amount of alive faunas (anemone, crab, mussel and fish) was captured. Some hydrothermal oxides and anemones were collected. Three new hydrothermal vents were

  14. Petrography and geochemistry of barite chimneys associated with hydrocarbon vents on the Gulf of Mexico slope

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, B.

    1995-10-01

    Barite chimneys up to 30 cm high were recently documented and recovered from hydrocarbon venting areas on the Louisiana Slope in the Gulf of Mexico in water depths of 510-520 m. The chimneys are dominated by barite (BaSO{sub 4}) associated with minor amounts of pyrite, iron oxide, Mg-calcite, and detrital silicates. The barites display distinct string-like and dendritic-like morphologies assembled from rosette assemblages that are typically 20 to 40 {mu}m in diameter. The interiors of chimneys, exhibit macroscopic growth layers 1 to 5 mm thick which alternate between dark-gray and light-yellow colors. Compared with barites from hydrothermal, marine, and continental settings, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) barites are more enriched in Sr(average 15.5 mol% and maximum 30 mol%) and Ca(average 2.8 mol% and maximum 4.6 mol%). Backscatter images and electron microprobe traverse analyses indicate that most barite crystals exhibit rhythmic chemical zonations because of the variation of concentrations of Sr and Ca. The {delta}{sup 34}S(from 20.30 to 28.87{per_thousand}) and {delta}{sup 18}O(from 9.5 to 13.6{per_thousand}) of GOM barites suggest that the barite chimneys may form at or above the sediment-water interface from Ba-, Sr-, and Ca-rich formation fluids dissolving the underlying Jurassic-age salt and mixing with sulfate-rich seawater. Bacterial reduction of sulfate took place in the formation of some barite chimneys.

  15. The Third Dimension of an Active Back-arc Hydrothermal System: ODP Leg 193 at PACMANUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, R.; Barriga, F.; Miller, D.

    2001-12-01

    This first sub-seafloor examination of an active hydrothermal system hosted by felsic volcanics, at a convergent margin, obtained drill core from a high-T "smoker" site (penetrated to sim200 mbsf) and a low-T site of diffuse venting (~400mbsf). We aimed to delineate the lateral and vertical variability in mineralisation and alteration patterns, so as to understand links between volcanological, structural and hydrothermal phenomena and the sources of fluids, and to establish the nature and extent of microbial activity within the system. Technological breakthroughs included deployment of a new hard-rock re-entry system, and direct comparison in a hardrock environment of structural images obtained by wireline methods and logging-while-drilling. The PACMANUS hydrothermal site, at the 1700m-deep crest of a 500m-high layered sequence of dacitic lavas, is notable for baritic massive sulfide chimneys rich in Cu, Zn, Au and Ag. Below an extensive cap 5-40m thick of fresh dacite-rhyodacite, we found unexpectedly pervasive hydrothermal alteration of vesicular and flow-banded precursors, accompanied by variably intense fracturing and anhydrite-pyrite veining. Within what appears one major hydrothermal event affecting the entire drilled sequence, there is much overprinting and repetition of distinctly allochemical argillaceous (illite-chlorite), acid-sulfate (pyrophyllite-anhydrite) and siliceous assemblages. The alteration profiles include a transition from metastable cristobalite to quartz at depth, and are similar under low-T and high-T vent sites but are vertically condensed in a manner suggesting higher thermal gradients beneath the latter. The altered rocks are surprisingly porous (average 25%). Retention of intergranular pore spaces and open vesicles at depth implies elevated hydrothermal pressures, whereas evidence from fluid inclusions and hydrothermal brecciation denotes local or sporadic phase separation. A maximum measured temperature of 313 degC measured 8 days

  16. Selenium Isotopes as Biosignatures in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouxel, O.; Ludden, J.; Fouquet, Y.

    2001-12-01

    hydrothermal fluid beneath the impermeable slabs. For δ 82Se the values range from meteoritic and magmatic values (near -1.5‰ ) to values depleted in 82Se of -5.5‰ . Se isotope values of sufides are correlated with the Se content. As Se isotopic fractionation factor between the fluid and the precipitated sulfide is likely to be very small under hydrothermal conditions (as for S isotopes), we interpreted the Se isotope signature as a result of the leaching and mixing of a fractionated Se source beneath hydrothermal chimneys with the hydrothermal fluid. For one single vent (Bairo Alto) we observed variations up to 4‰ for S isotopes and 3‰ for Se isotopes with a clear positive correlation allowing the determination of two sources for S and Se; there are (1) the "end-member" hydrothermal fluid with meteoritic Se isotopic values (-1.5‰ ) and typical hydrothermal values at 3 to 4‰ for S isotopes (due to sulfate reduction at depth) and, (2) fractionated source hosted in slab environment with sulfur at negative δ 34S values and Se likely derived from bacterial reduction of Se oxyanions. Fluid cooling and mixing with seawater in the subsurface environment may provide suitable conditions for microbial activity which is recorded by Se isotopes. Furthermore, Se isotopes have been found to be an important tool to re-interprete S isotope data suggesting that magmatic isotopic values of S isotopes does not necessarily imply a magmatic origin of S.

  17. Distribution and Sources of Trace Metals in Volcaniclastic Sediments of the SuSu Knolls Hydrothermal Field, Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrischeva, E. H.; Scott, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    Thirty-one sediment cores from the Suzette sulfide mound (renamed Solwara 1 by Nautilus Minerals Inc) in the SuSu Knolls hydrothermal field, eastern Manus back-arc basin, were studied in order to outline anomalies in metal concentrations within the mound and to explain the sources of the anomalies. The sediment cores were collected during expeditions of Nautilus Minerals Inc in 2006 and 2007. The work complements our previous study of metalliferous sediments of the SuSu Knolls and aims to provide guidelines for exploration for seafloor massive sulfide deposits in both modern and ancient back-arc environments. In contrast to mid-ocean ridges, the sedimentation in back-arc basins is more complex and involves deposition of large amount of volcaniclastic material that may mask the hydrothermal signal. The SuSu Knolls are covered by an apron of laminated dark gray volcanic sandy silts and silty sands composed of various amounts of volcanic rock fragments, volcanic glass, Ca plagioclase, pyroxene, cristobalite, Si-rich amorphous material, alunite, pyrite, barite and magnetite. In many cases the gray volcaniclastic sediments exhibit patches and layers having a black or greenish-brown color that contain fecal pellets. On the western slope of Suzette (Solwara 1), dark gray volcaniclastic sediments overlie greenish, greenish-brown and greenish-black volcaniclastic sediments containing up to 10 wt % clay-size component that comprises alteration products of volcanic glass such as smectite, chlorite and X-ray amorphous material. In most cases black and greenish-brown colored sediments contain fecal pellets at different stages of preservation. The distributions of Au (19 ppb to 2 ppm), Cu (159 ppm to 1 wt %), Zn (35 ppm to 1333 ppm), Pb (7 ppm to 977 ppm) and Ba (0.05 wt % to 2.8 wt %) outline patchy anomalies throughout the sediments of the mound. The study showed that some volcaniclastic sediments as deep as 25 cm below seafloor that are proximal to chimneys and chimney

  18. Evidence for deep sea hydrothermal fluid-mineral equilibrium from multiple S isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J.

    2010-12-01

    The multiple sulfur isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and associated sulfide mineral deposits collected in 2006 in the eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea, provide an opportunity to better understand the processes of mineral precipitation, pore fluid composition, chemosynthetic energy sources, and metal-rich ore deposition in a felsic-hosted back arc hydrothermal system. Recent advances in multiple-stable isotope analytical techniques now enable the precise determination of all four stable isotopes of sulfur in hydrothermal vent fluids and co-precipitated sulfide mineral deposits, which may be used as a tracer to distinguish between sulfide derived from igneous rock, microbial sulfate reduction, and thermochemical reduction of seawater sulfate [1]. Multiple-stable isotopes of sulfur may also help constrain the relative contribution of sulfur derived by degassing of magmatic SO2 and sedimentary sulfide mineral inputs, as either process could generate the isotopically light δ34S (< 0‰) observed in some vent fluids, chalcopyrite chimney linings, and native sulfur collected at Manus Basin. We have analyzed the sulfur isotopic composition of high temperature black smoker vent fluid and associated chalcopyrite lining the inner walls of active conduits from two vent fields within the Manus Basin, including PACMANUS, located on the neovolcanic Pual ridge, and vents on discrete volcanic domes at SuSu Knolls. Preliminary results yield vent fluid δ34SH2S values ranging from -4.89 ± 0.02 to 5.41 ± 0.01, which closely match coexisting inner wall δ34Schalcopyrite values, ranging from -4.43 ± 0.01 to 5.64 ± 0.01. These results contrast with previous studies that report systematic differences in vent fluid δ34SH2S and sulfide minerals from the inner conduits of chimney structures [1, 2, 3]. The Δ33SH2S values of vent fluids range from -0.031 ± 0.027 to 0.011 ± 0.016, and those of chalcopyrite range from -0.042 ± 0.012 to 0.012 ± 0.010. Preliminary results

  19. Multiple sources of selenium in ancient seafloor hydrothermal systems: Compositional and Se, S, and Pb isotopic evidence from volcanic-hosted and volcanic-sediment-hosted massive sulfide deposits of the Finlayson Lake District, Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Leybourne, Matthew I.; Peter, Jan M.; Scott, Steven D.; Cousens, Brian; Eglington, Bruce M.

    2013-09-01

    Volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) and volcanic-sediment-hosted massive sulfide (VSHMS; i.e., hosted by both volcanic and sedimentary rocks) deposits in the Finlayson Lake District, Yukon, Canada, provide a unique opportunity to study the influence of seafloor and sub-seafloor hydrothermal processes on the formation of Se-poor (GP4F VHMS deposit; 7 ppm Se average), intermediate (Kudz Ze Kayah—KZK VHMS deposit; 200 ppm Se average), and Se-enriched (Wolverine VSHMS deposit; 1100 ppm Se average) mineralization. All three deposits are hosted by mid-Paleozoic (˜360-346 Ma) felsic volcanic rocks, but only the Wolverine deposit has voluminous coeval carbonaceous argillites (black shales) in the host rock package. Here we report the first application of Se isotope analyses to ancient seafloor mineralization and use these data, in conjunction with Pb and S isotope analyses, to better understand the source(s) and depositional process(es) of Se within VHMS and VSHMS systems. The wide range of δ82Se (-10.2‰ to 1.3‰, relative to NIST 3149), δ34S (+2.0‰ to +12.8‰ CDT), and elevated Se contents (up to 5865 ppm) within the Wolverine deposit contrast with the narrower range of δ82Se (-3.8‰ to -0.5‰), δ34S (9.8‰ to 13.0‰), and lower Se contents (200 ppm average) of the KZK deposit. The Wolverine and KZK deposits have similar sulfide depositional histories (i.e., deposition at the seafloor, with concomitant zone refining). The Se in the KZK deposit is magmatic (leaching or degassing) in origin, whereas the Wolverine deposit requires an additional large isotopically negative Se source (i.e. ˜-15‰ δ82Se). The negative δ82Se values for the Wolverine deposit are at the extreme light end for measured terrestrial samples, and the lightest observed for hypogene sulfide minerals, but are within calculated equilibrium values of δ82Se relative to NIST 3149 (˜30‰ at 25 °C between SeO4 and Se2-). We propose that the most negative Se isotope values at the

  20. Towards Determining the Upper Temperature Limits to Life on Earth: An In-situ Sulfide-Microbial Incubator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D.; Baross, J.; Delaney, J.; Girguis, P.; Schrenk, M.

    2004-12-01

    Determining the maximum conditions under which life thrives, survives, and expires is critical to understanding how and where life might have evolved on our planet and for investigation of life in extraterrestrial environments. Submarine black smoker systems are optimal sites to study such questions because thermal gradients are extreme and accessible within the chimney walls under high-pressure conditions. Intact cells containing DNA and ribosomes have been observed even within the most extreme environments of sulfide structure walls bounded by 300\\deg C fluids. Membrane lipids from archaea have been detected in sulfide flanges and chimneys where temperatures are believed to be 200-300\\deg C. However, a balanced inquiry into the limits of life must focus on characterization of the actual conditions in a given system that favor reactions necessary to initiate and/or sustain life. At present, in-situ instrumentation of sulfide deposits is the only effective way to gain direct access to these natural high-temperature environments for documentation and experimentation. With this goal in mind, three prototype microbial incubators were developed with funding from the NSF, University of Washington, and the W.M. Keck Foundation. The incubators were deployed in 2003 in the walls of active black smoker chimneys in the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. All instruments were successfully recovered in 2004, and one was redeployed for a short time-series experiment. Each 53-cm-long titanium assembly houses 27 temperature sensors that record temperatures from 0 to 500\\deg C within three discrete incubation chambers. Data are logged in a separate housing and inductively coupled links provide access to the data loggers without removal of the instruments. During the initial deployment, data were collected from 189 to 245 days, with up to ˜478° K temperature measurements completed for an individual instrument. Temperatures within the chimney

  1. Hydrothermal ore-forming processes in the light of studies in rock- buffered systems: I. Iron-copper-zinc-lead sulfide solubility relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemley, J.J.; Cygan, G.L.; Fein, J.B.; Robinson, G.R.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental studies, using cold-seal and extraction vessel techniques, were conducted on Fe, Pb, Zn, and Cu sulfide solubilities in chloride soultions at temperatures from 300?? to 700??C and pressures from 0.5 to 2 kbars. The solutions were buffered in pH by quartz monzonite and the pure potassium feldspar-muscovite-quartz assemblage and in fS2-fO2 largely by the assemblage pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite. Solubilities increase with increasing temperature and total chloride, and decrease with increasing pressure. The effect of increasing chloride concentration on solubility reflects primarily a shift to lower pH via the silicate buffer reactions. Similarity in behaviour with respect to the temperature and pressure of Fe, Zn, and Pb sulfide solubilities points to similarity in chloride speciation, and the neutral species appear to be dominant in the high-temperature region. -from Authors

  2. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, Kéiko H.

    1999-09-01

    is usually consumed to form metal sulfides. Therefore, abundant native sulfur at Jade suggests high H 2S/metals ratios of the hydrothermal fluids. The alteration assemblages and isotopic data of hydrothermal minerals from Jade are very similar to those of Kuroko-type barite deposits of middle Miocene age, which formed from fluids of high S/metals ratios at less than 200°C. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature (˜320°C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital grains of montmorillonite in such sediments are coated with Fe-oxyhydroxides during the suspension in seawater before settling on the seafloor. The depths of such metal anomalies in sediments suggest high levels of metalliferous hydrothermal activities from 1,800 to 300 ybp.

  3. Free energy distribution and hydrothermal mineral precipitation in Hadean submarine alkaline vent systems: Importance of iron redox reactions under anoxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Takazo; Russell, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of mixing between hypothetical seawater and hydrothermal fluid in the Hadean deep ocean were carried out to predict saturation states of mineral precipitates and redox reactions that could occur in Hadean submarine alkaline hydrothermal systems associated with the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. In the calculations, the seawater was assumed to be weakly acidic (pH = 5.5) and to include carbon dioxide, ferrous iron and silica, with or without nitrate, while the Hadean hydrothermal fluid was assumed to be highly alkaline (pH = 11) and to contain abundant molecular hydrogen, methane and bisulfide, based on the Archean geologic record, the modern low-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vent fluid (Lost City field), and experimental and theoretical considerations. The modeling indicates that potential mineral precipitates in the mixing zone (hydrothermal chimney structures) could consist mainly of iron sulfides but also of ferrous serpentine and brucite, siderite, and ferric iron-bearing minerals such as goethite, hematite and/or magnetite as minor phases. The precipitation of ferric iron-bearing minerals suggests that chemical iron oxidation would be made possible by pH shift even under anoxic condition. In the mixing zone, comprising an inorganic barrier precipitated at the interface of the two contrasting solutions, various redox reactions release free energy with the potential to drive endergonic reactions, assuming the involvement of coupling inorganic protoenzymes. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis - long considered the most ancient forms of biological energy metabolisms - are able to achieve higher maximum energy yield (>0.5 kJ/kg hydrothermal fluid) than those in the modern serpentinization-associated seafloor hydrothermal systems (e.g., Kairei field). Furthermore, the recently proposed methanotrophic acetogenesis pathway was also thermodynamically investigated. It is known that methanotrophic acetogenesis would

  4. Environmental differences in hemoglobin gene expression in the hydrothermal vent tubeworm, Ridgeia piscesae.

    PubMed

    Carney, Susan L; Flores, Jason F; Orobona, Kathryn M; Butterfield, David A; Fisher, Charles R; Schaeffer, Stephen W

    2007-03-01

    Ridgeia piscesae, the siboglinid tubeworm inhabiting the hydrothermal vents of the northeast Pacific Juan de Fuca Ridge, displays a wide range of microhabitat-specific, genetically indistinguishable phenotypes. Local microhabitat conditions are hypothesized to play a role in the differentiation of R. piscesae phenotypes. Extracellular hemoglobins serve to connect the tubeworm and the surrounding vent fluid, binding environmental sulfide and oxygen for transport to endosymbionts that use the chemical energy for carbon fixation. Because hemoglobin is essential for this symbiosis, we examined its expression in two of the most extreme R. piscesae phenotypes at two levels: the mRNA encoding the globin subunits and the whole molecules in coelomic and vascular fluids. Levels of gene expression were up to 12 times greater in short-fat R. piscesae from higher temperature, sulfide chimney environments compared to long-skinny animals from a low temperature, diffuse flow basalt habitat. Gene expression levels were consistent with the relative concentrations of hemoglobin molecules in the vascular and coelomic fluids. Up to a 20-fold variation in globin gene expression was detected between the same phenotype from different sites. These data demonstrate that local environmental factors influence not only phenotype but gene expression and its resulting physiological outcome within this unique species.

  5. Nanoparticulate, sub-micron and micron sized particles emanating from hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, G. W., III; Gartman, A.; Findlay, A.; Yucel, M.; Chan, C. S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent data from Geotraces cruises over the MAR and SEPR indicate dissolved and particulate Fe enrichment in waters 1000 and 4000 km from their vent sources, respectively. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and the waters in the reactive mixing zone above vent orifices have been suggested to be an important source of fine material that can pass through normal filters (0.2 and 0.4 μm). In this work, nanoparticles are defined operationally as that which can pass through a 0.2 μm filter. We investigated two vent sites (Lau Basin and the MAR). Chimneys from both vent sites have fluids that can be sulfide rich or metal rich. We also present chemical and physical chemical data (SEM-EDS, TEM, XRD, EELS) showing some of the materials found in these (nano)particulate phases including pyrite, metal sulfides, silicate and aluminosilicate material. Enrichment of Mg and K in the latter suggest that reverse weathering may occur in the waters within 1-2 meters of the vent orifice where vent waters mix with cold oxygenated bottom waters.

  6. A dual sensor device to estimate fluid flow velocity at diffuse hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, J.; Rodier, P.; Tivey, M. K.; Singh, H.; Schultz, A.; Sarradin, P. M.

    2009-11-01

    Numerous attempts have been made over the last thirty years to estimate fluid flow rates at hydrothermal vents, either at the exit of black smoker chimneys or within diffuse flow areas. In this study, we combine two methods to accurately estimate fluid flow velocities at diffuse flow areas. While the first method uses a hot film anemometer that performs high-frequency measurements, the second allows a relatively rapid assessment of fluid flow velocity through video imagery and provides in situ data to calibrate the sensor. Measurements of flow velocities on hydrothermal diffuse flow areas were obtained on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). They range from 1.1 to 4.9 mm/s at the substratum level, in low-temperature (4.5-16.4 °C) diffuse flow areas from the Tour Eiffel sulfide edifice. A strong correlation was observed between fluid flow velocities and temperature, supporting the possible use of temperature as a proxy to estimate the flow rates in diffuse flow areas where such a simple linear flow/temperature relation is shown to dominate.

  7. Gamma ray spectrometry for recognition of hydrothermal alteration zones related to a low sulfidation epithermal gold mineralization (eastern Pontides, NE Türkiye)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maden, Nafiz; Akaryalı, Enver

    2015-11-01

    This study presents an interpretation of radiospectrometric and magnetic data of Arzular mineralization site, which is one of the best examples for epithermal gold deposits located in the southern zone of the Eastern Pontides (NE Türkiye). Potassium is generally the most useful pathfinder element for gold mineralization zones because of its high level in altered rock surrounding the deposits. Where gold is hosted within quartz veins, typically the vein is low in the radioelements, but the hydrothermally altered host rocks will usually have a distinct radioelement signature useful for exploration. In this study, magnetic, susceptibility and radiospectrometric survey data radiometric signatures associated with the host rocks favorable for the mineralization, enhancing techniques such as the ratio maps as well as potassium (%K), equivalent thorium (eTh ppm) and equivalent uranium (eU ppm) maps were utilized. Our analysis showed that the gold mineralization associated with the alteration is significantly related to increase in potassium, due to adularia, a low T K-feldspar, and decreases in uranium and thorium due to the hydrothermal alteration and magmatic intrusion processes during the regional tectonic activities.

  8. Thermophilic Sulfate Reduction in Hydrothermal Sediment of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel; Mukwaya, Gashagaza M.; Jørgensen, Bo B.

    1994-01-01

    In environments with temperatures above 60°C, thermophilic prokaryotes are the only metabolically active life-forms. By using the 35SO42- tracer technique, we studied the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in hot sediment from a hydrothermal vent site in the northern part of freshwater Lake Tanganyika (East Africa). Incubation of slurry samples at 8 to 90°C demonstrated meso- and thermophilic sulfate reduction with optimum temperatures of 34 to 45°C and 56 to 65°C, respectively, and with an upper temperature limit of 80°C. Sulfate reduction was stimulated at all temperatures by the addition of short-chain fatty acids and benzoate or complex substrates (yeast extract and peptone). A time course experiment showed that linear thermophilic sulfate consumption occurred after a lag phase (12 h) and indicated the presence of a large population of SRM in the hydrothermal sediment. Thermophilic sulfate reduction had a pH optimum of about 7 and was completely inhibited at pH 8.8 to 9.2. SRM could be enriched from hydrothermal chimney and sediment samples at 60 and 75°C. In lactate-grown enrichments, sulfide production occurred at up to 70 and 75°C, with optima at 63 and 71°C, respectively. Several sporulating thermophilic enrichments were morphologically similar to Desulfotomaculum spp. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the studied hydrothermal area of Lake Tanganyika apparently has an upper temperature limit of 80°C. PMID:16349249

  9. Hydrothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlantic, and Indian Oceans (e.g., Van Dover et al., 2002) with further evidence - from characteristic chemical anomalies in the ocean water column - of its occurrence in even the most remote and slowly spreading ocean basins ( Figure 3), from the polar seas of the Southern Ocean (German et al., 2000; Klinkhammer et al., 2001) to the extremes of the ice-covered Arctic ( Edmonds et al., 2003). (61K)Figure 3. Schematic map of the global ridge crest showing the major ridge sections along which active hydrothermal vents have already been found (red circles) or are known to exist from the detection of characteristic chemical signals in the overlying water column (orange circles). Full details of all known hydrothermally active sites and plume signals are maintained at the InterRidge web-site: http://triton.ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~intridge/wg-gdha.htm The most spectacular manifestation of seafloor hydrothermal circulation is, without doubt, the high-temperature (>400 °C) "black smokers" that expel fluids from the seafloor along all parts of the global ocean ridge crest. In addition to being visually compelling, vent fluids also exhibit important enrichments and depletions when compared to ambient seawater. Many of the dissolved chemicals released from the Earth's interior during venting precipitate upon mixing with the cold, overlying seawater, generating thick columns of black metal-sulfide and oxide mineral-rich smoke - hence the colloquial name for these vents: "black smokers" (Figure 4). In spite of their common appearance, high-temperature hydrothermal vent fluids actually exhibit a wide range of temperatures and chemical compositions, which are determined by subsurface reaction conditions. Despite their spectacular appearance, however, high-temperature vents may only represent a small fraction - perhaps as little as 10% - of the total hydrothermal heat flux close to ridge axes. A range of studies - most notably

  10. Abundance and Distribution of Diagnostic Carbon Fixation Genes in a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Gradient Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenfeld, H. N.; Kelley, D. S.; Girguis, P. R.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2010-12-01

    The walls of deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys sustain steep thermal and chemical gradients resulting from the mixing of hot (350°C+) hydrothermal fluids with cold, oxygenated seawater. The chemical disequilibrium generated from this process has the potential to drive numerous chemolithoautotrophic metabolisms, many of which have been demonstrated to be operative in microbial pure cultures. In addition to the well-known Calvin Cycle, at least five additional pathways have been discovered including the Reverse Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (rTCA), the Reductive Acetyl-CoA pathway, and the 3-hydroxyproprionate pathway. Most of the newly discovered pathways have been found in thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea, which are the well represented in microbial diversity studies of hydrothermal chimney walls. However, to date, little is known about the environmental controls that impact various carbon fixation pathways. The overlap of limited microbial diversity with distinct habitat conditions in hydrothermal chimney walls provides an ideal setting to explore these relationships. Hydrothermal chimney walls from multiple structures recovered from the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific were sub-sampled and analyzed using PCR-based assays. Earlier work showed elevated microbial abundances in the outer portions of mature chimney walls, with varying ratios of Archaea to Bacteria from the outer to inner portions of the chimneys. Common phylotypes identified in these regions included Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Desulfurococcales. Total genomic DNA was extracted from mineralogically distinct niches within these structures and queried for genes coding key regulatory enzymes for each of the well studied carbon fixation pathways. Preliminary results show the occurrence of genes representing rTCA cycle (aclB) and methyl coenzyme A reductase (mcrA) - a proxy for the Reductive Acetyl-CoA Pathway within interior portion of mature

  11. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System for Hydrothermal Deposit Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Okamoto, Taku; Sekino, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Mikada, Hitoshi; Takekawa, Junichi; Shimura, Takuya

    2010-05-01

    Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart, ocean basins, and hotspots. Potential new deposits of lead-zinc-copper sulfide are generated by cooling hot water around the vents. There are about ten hydrothermal deposits founded around the water depth of 1000m along Izu-Ogasawara Trench and Okinawa-Trough in Japan. The deposits often exists in very thin layer and spatially limited area surrounded by complex seabottom feature like volcanic caldera. Some hydrothermal vents form roughly cylindrical chimney structures. In order to evaluate hydrothermal deposit, we have proposed the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable recording geometry, which is named as VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). VCS has great advantages over conventional seismic method as follows: 1. It achieves 3D image within limited area. The target of hydrothermal deposit is within 1km x 1km around the depth of 1000m. The conventional 3D seismic is not effective. 3D image is necessary for the estimate the complex hydrothermal area. 2. Seabottom condition is too rough to deploy ocean bottom sensors, such as OBC or OBS. Vertical cables are located on the seabottom, but the sensors are in the marine water. It avoids the coupling problems. The vertical hydrophone array can separate the wavefield. It can separate upgoing (reflection) and downgoing wave (direct wave and ghost) and distinguish the scattered waves in complex feature in hydrothermal area. 3. Various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (air gun, water gun etc.), marine vibrator or ocean bottom source. These features imply that VCS is suitable for the hydrothermal deposit exploration. Our first experiment has been carried out in November in Lake Biwa, JAPAN. At first we are interested in geometry of source and receiver distribution and the resultant target coverage, then we did survey planning (2D and 3D) and data simulation. We used the

  12. Pyrophosphate synthesis in iron mineral films and membranes simulating prebiotic submarine hydrothermal precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barge, Laura M.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Russell, Michael J.; VanderVelde, David; White, Lauren M.; Stucky, Galen D.; Baum, Marc M.; Zeytounian, John; Kidd, Richard; Kanik, Isik

    2014-03-01

    Cells use three main ways of generating energy currency to drive metabolism: (i) conversion of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the proton motive force through the rotor-stator ATP synthase; (ii) the synthesis of inorganic phosphate˜phosphate bonds via proton (or sodium) pyrophosphate synthase; or (iii) substrate-level phosphorylation through the direct donation from an active phosphoryl donor. A mechanism to produce a pyrophosphate bond as “energy currency” in prebiotic systems is one of the most important considerations for origin of life research. Baltscheffsky (1996) suggests that inorganic pyrophosphate (PO74-; PPi) may have preceded ATP/ADP as an energy storage molecule in earliest life, produced by an H+ pyrophosphatase. Here we test the hypothesis that PPi could be synthesized in inorganic precipitates simulating hydrothermal chimney structures transected by thermal and/or ionic gradients. Appreciable yields of PPi were obtained via substrate phosphorylation by acetyl phosphate within the iron sulfide/silicate precipitates at temperatures expected for an alkaline hydrothermal system. The formation of PPi only occurred in the solid phase, i.e. when both Pi and the phosphoryl donor were precipitated with Fe-sulfides or Fe-silicates. The amount of Ac-Pi incorporated into the precipitate was a significant factor in the amount of PPi that could form, and phosphate species were more effectively incorporated into the precipitate at higher temperatures (⩾50 to >85 °C). Thus, we expect that the hydrothermal precipitate would be more enriched in phosphate (and especially, Ac-Pi) near the inner margins of a hydrothermal mound where PPi formation would be at a maximum. Iron sulfide and iron silicate precipitates effectively stabilized Ac-Pi and PPi against hydrolysis (relative to hydrolysis in aqueous solution). Thus it is plausible that PPi could accumulate as an energy currency up to useful concentrations for early life in a

  13. Microbial Response to High Temperature Hydrothermal Forcing: AISICS Vent (Lucky Strike, 37°N, MAR) and Prokaryote Community as Example.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, P. A.; Rommevaux, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Degboe, J.; Destrigneville, C.; Boulart, C.; Lesongeur, F.; Castillo, A.; Goodfroy, A.

    2015-12-01

    To study the hydrothermal forcing on microbial colonization, and impacts on the oceanic crust alteration, an integrated study was led at the Tour Eiffel hydrothermal site (Lucky Strike hydrothermal field, 37°N, MAR). We benefited from an annual survey between 2009 and 2011 of temperatures, along with sampling of focused and diffused fluids for chemical analysis, and chimney sampling and samples from microbial colonization experiments analyzed for prokaryotic composition and rock alteration study. The chemical composition of the fluids show an important increase in the CO2 concentration at the Eiffel Tower site between 2009 and 2010 followed by a decrease between 2010 and 2011. In 2011, several fluid samples show an important depletion in Si, suggesting that some Si was removed by interaction with the stockwork before emission. Our observations, regarding the previous studies of chemical fluid affected by a magmatic event lead us to suppose that a magmatic/tectonic event occurred under the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field between 2009 and 2010. The results of the prokaryotic communities' analysis show that a shift occurred in the dominant microbial metabolisms present in the colonizer retrieved in 2010 and the one retrieved in 2011. Archaeal communities shifted from chemolithoautotropic sulfite/thiosulfate reducers-dominated in 2010 to ammonia oxidizers-dominated in 2011. The bacterial communities also undergo a shift, from a community with diversified metabolisms in 2010 to a community strongly dominated by chemolithoautotrophic sulfide or hydrogen oxidation in 2011. Moreover, in terms of ecological preferendum, the Archaeal communities shifted from thermophilic-dominated to mesophilic-dominated. The present study underline the influence of modifications in gases compositions of hydrothermal fluids subsequently to a degassing of the magma chamber and their impact on the microbial communities living in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents at the Eiffel Tower site.

  14. The connection between iron ore formations and "mud-shrimp" colonizations around sunken wood debris and hydrothermal sediments in a Lower Cretaceous continental rift basin, Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáger, Viktor; Molnár, Ferenc; Buchs, David; Koděra, Peter

    2012-09-01

    300 m (above sea level); from these volcanoes further terrestrial plant debris got into the basin. Hydrothermal vents, which periodically occurred around basaltic bodies until the Hauterivian, could have contributed to the creation of favourable temperature or nutritional conditions for some decapoda crustaceans - e.g the recently described new callianassid (Nihonotrypaea thermophila), which is known only from hydrothermally infuenced habitats. Around the intrusive pillow basalts, hydrothermal circulation of oxygenated seawater occured and thick seladonitic and goethitic fills formed along the cracks and cavities of pillowed basalts. When oxidized, sulfate-rich fluids passed into the crustacean coprolite-rich, reductive and anaerobic interpillow sediments, these fluids underwent an intensive sulfate reduction. This was primarily due to termophil sulfate reducers which as proved by the negative sulfur isotope values (- 35.9‰ and - 28.0‰ δ 34S) of sulfidic hydrothermal chimneys which contain framboidal pyrite and which were formed between the pillow basalts. The largest chimney structure reached a height of 1 m, with a mass of about 150 kg. The sulfide phase is characterized by Mo enrichments up to 511 ppm. The fluid inclusion measurements from the calcitic precipitations of the sulfide chimneys indicate low temperature (~ 129 °C) hydrothermal activity, and the salinity of the primary fluid inclusions proves the seawater origin of the hydrothermal fluids. In some thalassinid crustacean coprolite rich interpillow sediments and in the cracks of some hydrothermal calcite, there is the presence of black, lustrous bitumine (gilsonite) which is the distillation product of hydrothermal petroleum formed mainly by the coprolites. Hydrothermal circulations of oxygenated seawater caused subsequent oxidation of the sulfidic, interpillow sediments and chimneys; these were altered to form goethite. Due to the short-period of the hydrothermal activity among the intrusive

  15. Cu- and Zn-isotope systematics of seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids from a back-arc setting (Manus Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekov, V.; Rouxel, O.

    2012-04-01

    Unique seafloor hydrothermal processes combine in back-arc basins (BAB) to produce a wide range of vent fluid chemistry and mineral deposits, which are generally considered as critically important for the genesis of volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits. While it has become apparent that volatile-rich magmatic fluids play a crucial role in many BAB hydrothermal systems, the source of metals to the vent fluids, including ore-forming metals such as Cu, Zn and precious metals such as Ag and Au, has been a matter of debate [1]. Here, we applied coupled Cu and Zn stable isotopes to delineate if metal enrichment patterns in back-arc hydrothermal systems reflect (1) water-rock reactions with felsic host rock at low pH, (2) direct input of metal-rich magmatic volatiles, (3) remobilization from previously deposited sulfide or enriched source rock compositions. We measured Cu and Zn isotope composition of hydrothermal fluids from ten vents located in the eastern Manus BAB, Papua New Guinea (cruise MLGN06MV, R/V Melville, ROV Jason II). Purified samples were measured by MC-ICP-MS (Neptune) at IFREMER and data were corrected from instrumental mass bias using internal normalization [2], with an overall precision of 0.03‰ (2s). Cu isotopic ratios were reported relative to the NIST SRM 976 standard while Zn isotopic ratios were reported relative to IRMM 3702, having a δ66Zn value of 0.3‰ relative to Lyon-JMC standard. For the first time, Cu isotope composition of seafloor hydrothermal fluids were investigated and results show systematic enrichment in heavy Cu isotopes relative to basalt values (δ65CuNIST976= 0.3‰ +/- 0.2‰, n=30). In general, the variations of δ65Cu values in hydrothermal fluids are consistent with δ65Cu values in chalcopyrite lining hydrothermal chimneys. In some case, heavier δ65Cu values of Cu-sulfides related to Cu in the fluids are interpreted to result from Cu-isotope fractionation during Cu oxidation and precipitation within local chimney

  16. 13. VIEW NORTHEAST OF BRICK CHIMNEY STACK WITH '1876' MARKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW NORTHEAST OF BRICK CHIMNEY STACK WITH '1876' MARKER EMBEDDED; CHIMNEY REMOVED EXHAUST FROM FORGES IN THE BLACKSMITH SHOP, BUILDING 11, REMNANTS OF WHICH CAN BE SEEN IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  17. 2. RICE THRESHING MILL WITH CHIMNEY STACK. Fire burned on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RICE THRESHING MILL WITH CHIMNEY STACK. Fire burned on top of water pipe at base of chimney stack and steam went thru pipes to boiler on south side of wall. - Mansfield Plantation, Rice Threshing Mill, U.S. Route 701 vicinity, Georgetown, Georgetown County, SC

  18. Hydrothermal Activity on the Mid-Cayman Rise: ROV Jason sampling and site characterization at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    In January 2012 our multi-national and multi-disciplinary team conducted a series of 10 ROV Jason dives to conduct first detailed and systematic sampling of the Mid Cayman Rise hydrothermal systems at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields. At Von Damm, hydrothermal venting is focused at and around a large conical structure that is approximately 120 m in diameter and rises at least 80m from the surrounding, largely sedimented seafloor. Clear fluids emitted from multiple sites around the flanks of the mound fall in the temperature range 110-130°C and fall on a common mixing line with hotter (>200°C) clear fluids emitted from an 8m tall spire at the summit which show clear evidence of ultramafic influence. Outcrop close to the vent-site is rare and the cone itself appear to consist of clay minerals derived from highly altered host rock. The dominant fauna at the summit of Von Damm are a new species of chemosynthetic shrimp but elsewhere the site also hosts two distinct species of chemosynthetic tube worm as well as at least one species of gastropod. The adjacent Piccard site, at ~5000m depth comprises 7 distinct sulfide mounds, 3 of which are currently active: Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods and Beebe Sea. Beebe Vents consists of 5 vigorous black smoker chimneys with maximum temperatures in the range 400-403°C while at Beebe Woods a more highly colonized thicket of up to 8m tall chimneys includes predominantly beehive diffusers with rare black smokers emitting fluids up to 353°C. Beebe Sea a diffuse site emitting fluids at 38°C Tmax, is the largest of the currently active mounds and immediately abuts a tall (8m) rift that strikes NE-SW bisecting the host Axial Volcanic Ridge. The fauna at Piccard are less diverse than at Von Damm and, predominantly, comprise the same species of MCR shrimp, a distinct gastropod species and abundant anemones.

  19. Fluid inclusion evidence for boiling at approx. 370/sup 0/C in the stockwork of the Lasail ophiolitic hydrothermal massive sulfide deposit, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Spooner, E.T.C.; Bray, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Four samples of stockwork material from DDHnumber9 through the Lasail ophiolitic massive sulfide deposit in Oman were found to contain satisfactory densities of primary fluid inclusion. Primary fluid inclusions in the latter three samples show evidence typical of boiling: (i) variable phase rations, and (ii) inclusions which homogenize into the liquid or vapor phases over the same temperature interval (360/sup 0/C-400/sup 0/C). The pooled data show two salinity populations: one with a modal composition near that of seawater, (3.5 wt.%TDS), and the other characterized by the bulk of the data concentrated between 4.9 and 6.4 equiv. wt.% NaCl (x 1.4-1.8 seawater) with values as high as 8.6 (x 2.5 seawater). The latter high salinities are interpreted to have been produced by the boiling process. For boiling conditions, fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures = trapping temperatures, with some perturbations. Hence, the mode (372/sup 0/C) and range (360/sup 0/C-400/sup 0/C) of the homogenization temperatures for the high salinity population are estimates of the fluid temperatures during ore deposition. The values are at the upper end of the measured range for black smokers. The pressure given by these boiling temperatures is approx. 230 bars, giving an estimate for original seawater depth of approx. 2-2 1/2 km; figures typical of active spreading ridges. The sample from immediately below massive ore (OM2064) shows a lower hom. T range of 330/sup 0/C-350/sup 0/C, no high salinity population, and no evidence for boiling. These observations are interpreted to reflect high level mixing with cold seawater immediately below the original sea floor.

  20. D0 Solenoid Chimney Routing Clearances

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1994-02-23

    This engineering note contains information about the measured clearances along the chimney route from the solenoid to the control dewar. This type of information is best conveyed by sketches and a few photos. Twelve photos taken on 2/17/94 are included which gIVe perspective views along the path. The detector was parked in the collision hall on this date. The CF iron was split open to the east and the South EF iron was rolled back. Also the South EndCap Calorimeter was rolled to the south on this day. This allowed personnel access and the photographic opportunity. A full set of raw dimensional sketches are included. These sketches were generated by me using a 25 foot tape measure and a note pad. The sketches are in chronological order with the most recent on top. The first sketch, 5/18/94, describes the 'tightest' location for the upward incline portion of the chimney. The sketches on 2/14/94 thru 2/16/94 are refinements of the early 1992 and 1993 sketches. They pick out quite a bit more detail of specific detector components along the path. The dimensional sketches of 1992 and 1993 gave information in not as much detail and therefore gave a more constrained clearance description. Most of the information of the early sketches was jotted down on the plan view dated 10-29-92. This sketch also had some information lifted from prints which later was superseded by the 1994 sketches. I tried to label components and give views either titled 'Elevation' or 'Plan' which refers to a top view looking down. Also where I could I jotted down direction, ie. South, East etc. Hopefully with a little effort one can decifer it. The curvature of the CC was determined from a three dimensional topographical survey. This survey information is stored in an electronic drawing file 3823.111-ME-317165, 'Solenoid-CC south face 3D shape survey'. The 'z' dimensions for the radial chimney path were picked off this drawing. A curvature was then generated knowing many points by radial and z

  1. Diversity of Meiofauna from the 9°50′N East Pacific Rise across a Gradient of Hydrothermal Fluid Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Gollner, Sabine; Riemer, Barbara; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro; Le Bris, Nadine; Bright, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Background We studied the meiofauna community at deep-sea hydrothermal vents along a gradient of vent fluid emissions in the axial summit trought (AST) of the East Pacific Rise 9°50′N region. The gradient ranged from extreme high temperatures, high sulfide concentrations, and low pH at sulfide chimneys to ambient deep-sea water conditions on bare basalt. We explore meiofauna diversity and abundance, and discuss its possible underlying ecological and evolutionary processes. Methodology/Principal Findings After sampling in five physico-chemically different habitats, the meiofauna was sorted, counted and classified. Abundances were low at all sites. A total of 52 species were identified at vent habitats. The vent community was dominated by hard substrate generalists that also lived on bare basalt at ambient deep-sea temperature in the axial summit trough (AST generalists). Some vent species were restricted to a specific vent habitat (vent specialists), but others occurred over a wide range of physico-chemical conditions (vent generalists). Additionally, 35 species were only found on cold bare basalt (basalt specialists). At vent sites, species richness and diversity clearly increased with decreasing influence of vent fluid emissions from extreme flow sulfide chimney (no fauna), high flow pompei worm (S: 4–7, H'loge: 0.11–0.45), vigorous flow tubeworm (S: 8–23; H'loge: 0.44–2.00) to low flow mussel habitats (S: 28–31; H'loge: 2.34–2.60). Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that with increasing temperature and toxic hydrogen sulfide concentrations and increasing amplitude of variation of these factors, fewer species are able to cope with these extreme conditions. This results in less diverse communities in more extreme habitats. The finding of many species being present at sites with and without vent fluid emissions points to a non endemic deep-sea hydrothermal vent meiofaunal community. This is in contrast to a mostly endemic macrofauna but similar

  2. Cu, Fe, and Zn Isotope Variations Within a High-Temperature Mid-Ocean Ridge Sulfide Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, S. M.; Nelson, B. K.; Kelley, D. S.; Nielsen, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrothermal processes at mid-ocean ridges play an important role in controlling the transition metal budget of seawater and the crust through which it circulates. Preliminary work has shown stable metal isotope variations accompany these processes. We report Cu, Zn, and Fe isotope analyses of transects through a high temperature sulfide structure ("Fin") collected during the 1998 Edifice Rex Sulfide Recovery Project. We analyzed two horizontal transects through the sulfide edifice, from inner conduit to outer surface. Transects A and F are 9 and 6 cm in length, respectively. Each displays radially zoned mineralogy progressing from a chalcopyrite (ccp) zone through zones of zinc sulfide, pyrite-anhydrite (pyr-anh) matrix, zinc sulfide-anhydrite (zns-anh) matrix, to an outer well-cemented silica (Si) zone. Additional ccp and pyr-anh zones appear in transect A resulting from a smaller breakout conduit. In transect A, Cu displays the most isotopic variation, with little variation in Fe and Zn isotopes. From the inner ccp zone outward, the Cu isotope profile shows a 0.4‰ (±0.05‰ 2σ) increase in the first pyr-anh zone over the coarse-grained ccp zone. The δ65Cu drops by 0.6‰ in the secondary ccp zone and recovers to values of the innermost wall in the following zone where it is constant until the outermost portion of the Si rich zone, which shows a 1.3‰ increase over inner zone values. The Zn isotope profile has a total variation of 0.27‰ (±0.05‰ 2σ), with a 0.2‰ increase in the first pyr- anh zone followed by a .27‰ decrease in the adjacent zone, and recovering to its heaviest values in the second pyr-anh zone. The Zn profile lacks any significant increase of the δ^{64}Zn in the outermost zones. The Fe isotope profile shows very little variation across the chimney wall, but does have a sharp 0.7‰ (±0.1‰ 2σ) increase in the δ56Fe in the well-cemented Si rich zone. In transect F, the Cu isotope profile again shows the most variation, but

  3. Rapid growth of mineral deposits at artificial seafloor hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Nagase, Toshiro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Watsuji, Tomoo; Shibuya, Takazo; Yamada, Ryoichi; Saruhashi, Tomokazu; Kyo, Masanori; Takai, Ken

    2016-02-25

    Seafloor massive sulphide deposits are potential resources for base and precious metals (Cu-Pb-Zn ± Ag ± Au), but difficulties in estimating precise reserves and assessing environmental impacts hinder exploration and commercial mining. Here, we report petrological and geochemical properties of sulphide chimneys less than 2 years old that formed where scientific boreholes vented hydrothermal fluids in the Iheya-North field, Okinawa Trough, in East China Sea. One of these infant chimneys, dominated by Cu-Pb-Zn-rich sulphide minerals, grew a height of 15 m within 25 months. Portions of infant chimneys are dominated by sulphate minerals. Some infant chimneys are sulphide-rich similar to high-grade Cu-Pb-Zn bodies on land, albeit with relatively low As and Sb concentrations. The high growth rate reaching the 15 m height within 25 months is attributed to the large hydrothermal vent more than 50 cm in diameter created by the borehole, which induced slow mixing with the ambient seawater and enhanced efficiency of sulphide deposition. These observations suggest the possibility of cultivating seafloor sulphide deposits and even controlling their growth and grades through manipulations of how to mix and quench hydrothermal fluids with the ambient seawater.

  4. Rapid growth of mineral deposits at artificial seafloor hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Nagase, Toshiro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Watsuji, Tomoo; Shibuya, Takazo; Yamada, Ryoichi; Saruhashi, Tomokazu; Kyo, Masanori; Takai, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Seafloor massive sulphide deposits are potential resources for base and precious metals (Cu-Pb-Zn ± Ag ± Au), but difficulties in estimating precise reserves and assessing environmental impacts hinder exploration and commercial mining. Here, we report petrological and geochemical properties of sulphide chimneys less than 2 years old that formed where scientific boreholes vented hydrothermal fluids in the Iheya-North field, Okinawa Trough, in East China Sea. One of these infant chimneys, dominated by Cu-Pb-Zn-rich sulphide minerals, grew a height of 15 m within 25 months. Portions of infant chimneys are dominated by sulphate minerals. Some infant chimneys are sulphide-rich similar to high-grade Cu-Pb-Zn bodies on land, albeit with relatively low As and Sb concentrations. The high growth rate reaching the 15 m height within 25 months is attributed to the large hydrothermal vent more than 50 cm in diameter created by the borehole, which induced slow mixing with the ambient seawater and enhanced efficiency of sulphide deposition. These observations suggest the possibility of cultivating seafloor sulphide deposits and even controlling their growth and grades through manipulations of how to mix and quench hydrothermal fluids with the ambient seawater.

  5. Rapid growth of mineral deposits at artificial seafloor hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Nagase, Toshiro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Watsuji, Tomoo; Shibuya, Takazo; Yamada, Ryoichi; Saruhashi, Tomokazu; Kyo, Masanori; Takai, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Seafloor massive sulphide deposits are potential resources for base and precious metals (Cu-Pb-Zn ± Ag ± Au), but difficulties in estimating precise reserves and assessing environmental impacts hinder exploration and commercial mining. Here, we report petrological and geochemical properties of sulphide chimneys less than 2 years old that formed where scientific boreholes vented hydrothermal fluids in the Iheya-North field, Okinawa Trough, in East China Sea. One of these infant chimneys, dominated by Cu-Pb-Zn-rich sulphide minerals, grew a height of 15 m within 25 months. Portions of infant chimneys are dominated by sulphate minerals. Some infant chimneys are sulphide-rich similar to high-grade Cu-Pb-Zn bodies on land, albeit with relatively low As and Sb concentrations. The high growth rate reaching the 15 m height within 25 months is attributed to the large hydrothermal vent more than 50 cm in diameter created by the borehole, which induced slow mixing with the ambient seawater and enhanced efficiency of sulphide deposition. These observations suggest the possibility of cultivating seafloor sulphide deposits and even controlling their growth and grades through manipulations of how to mix and quench hydrothermal fluids with the ambient seawater. PMID:26911272

  6. Rapid growth of mineral deposits at artificial seafloor hydrothermal vents

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Nagase, Toshiro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Watsuji, Tomoo; Shibuya, Takazo; Yamada, Ryoichi; Saruhashi, Tomokazu; Kyo, Masanori; Takai, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Seafloor massive sulphide deposits are potential resources for base and precious metals (Cu-Pb-Zn ± Ag ± Au), but difficulties in estimating precise reserves and assessing environmental impacts hinder exploration and commercial mining. Here, we report petrological and geochemical properties of sulphide chimneys less than 2 years old that formed where scientific boreholes vented hydrothermal fluids in the Iheya-North field, Okinawa Trough, in East China Sea. One of these infant chimneys, dominated by Cu-Pb-Zn-rich sulphide minerals, grew a height of 15 m within 25 months. Portions of infant chimneys are dominated by sulphate minerals. Some infant chimneys are sulphide-rich similar to high-grade Cu-Pb-Zn bodies on land, albeit with relatively low As and Sb concentrations. The high growth rate reaching the 15 m height within 25 months is attributed to the large hydrothermal vent more than 50 cm in diameter created by the borehole, which induced slow mixing with the ambient seawater and enhanced efficiency of sulphide deposition. These observations suggest the possibility of cultivating seafloor sulphide deposits and even controlling their growth and grades through manipulations of how to mix and quench hydrothermal fluids with the ambient seawater. PMID:26911272

  7. Coupled Ge/Si and Ge isotope ratios as geochemical tracers of seafloor hydrothermal systems: Case studies at Loihi Seamount and East Pacific Rise 9°50‧N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoube, Raphaelle; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Edwards, Katrina; Glazer, Brian; Donard, Olivier F. X.

    2015-10-01

    Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si) exhibit similar geochemical behavior in marine environments but are variably enriched in seafloor hydrothermal fluids relative to seawater. In this study, Ge isotope and Ge/Si ratio systematics were investigated in low temperature hydrothermal vents from Loihi Seamount (Pacific Ocean, 18°54‧N, 155°15‧W) and results were compared to high-temperature vents from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°50‧N. Loihi offers the opportunity to understand contrasting Ge and Si behavior in low temperature seafloor hydrothermal systems characterized by abundant Fe oxyhydroxide deposition at the seafloor. The results show that both Ge/Si and δ74/70Ge in hydrothermal fluids are fractionated relative to the basaltic host rocks. The enrichment in Ge vs. Si relative to fresh basalts, together with Ge isotope fractionation (Δ74/70Gefluid-basalt up to 1.15‰ at EPR 9°50‧N and 1.64‰ at Loihi) are best explained by the precipitation of minerals (e.g. quartz and Fe-sulfides) during higher temperature seawater-rock reactions in the subsurface. The study of Fe-rich hydrothermal deposits at Loihi, largely composed of Fe-oxyhydroxides, shows that Ge isotopes are also fractionated upon mineral precipitation at the seafloor. We obtained an average Ge isotope fractionation factor between Fe-oxyhydroxide (ferrihydrite) and dissolved Ge in the fluid of -2.0 ± 0.6‰ (2sd), and a maximum value of -3.6 ± 0.6‰ (2sd), which is consistent with recent theoretical and experimental studies. The study of a hydrothermal chimney at Bio 9 vent at EPR 9°50‧N also demonstrates that Ge isotopes are fractionated by approximately -5.6 ± 0.6‰ (2sd) during precipitation of metal sulfides under hydrothermal conditions. Using combined Ge/Si and estimated Ge isotope signatures of Ge sinks and sources in seawater, we propose a preliminary oceanic budget of Ge which reveals that an important sink, referred as the "missing Ge sink", may correspond to Ge sequestration

  8. Post-drilling hydrothermal vent and associated biological activities seen through artificial hydrothermal vents in the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Miyazaki, J.; Watsuji, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Nozaki, T.; Kashiwabara, T.; Shibuya, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, IODP Expedition 331 was conducted in the Iheya North Field, the Okinawa Trough and drilled several sites in hydrothermally active subseafloor. In addition, during the IODP Expedition 331, four new hydrothermal vents were created. These post-drilling artificial hydrothermal vents provide excellent opportunities to investigate the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs, and to monitor and estimate how the anthropogenic drilling behaviors affect the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. We were very much interested in the difference of hydrothermal fluid chemistry between the natural hydrothermal vents and the artificial hydrothermal vents. The IODP porewater chemistry of the cores pointed to the density-driven stratification of the phase-separated hydrothermal fluids and the natural vent fluids were likely derived only from the shallower vapor-enriched phases. However, the artificial hydrothermal vents had deeper fluid sources in the subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs composed of vapor-lost (Cl-enriched) phases. The fluids from the artificial hydrothermal vents were sampled by ROV at 5, 12 and 18 months after the IODP expedition. The artificial hydrothermal vent fluids were slightly enriched with Cl as compared to the natural hydrothermal vent fluids. Thus, the artificial hydrothermal vents successfully entrained the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluids. The newly created hydrothermal vents also hosted the very quickly grown, enormous chimney structures, of which mineral compositions were highly variable among the vents. However, the quickly grown C0016B and C0016D vent chimneys were found to be typical Kuroko ore even though the chimney growth rates in the artificial vents were extremely faster than those in the natural vents. In addition, the IODP drilling operation not only created new hydrothermal vents by deep drilling but also induced the

  9. Free-standing inflatable solar chimney: experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobieff, Peter; Mammoli, Andrea; Fathi, Nima; Putkaradze, Vakhtang

    2014-11-01

    Solar chimneys (or solar updraft towers) offer an attractive way to use solar energy for production of baseload power. In a power plant of this type, sunshine heats the air under a wide greenhouse-like roofed collector surrounding the central base of a tall chimney. The heated air drives an updraft flow through the tower, whose energy is harvested with turbines. For a sufficiently large plant of this type, the thermal mass of the heated ground under the collector is sufficient to drive the flow even when the sun is down. The primary challenge in building the solar chimney power plant is the construction of the chimney that generates the updraft, which must be very tall (hundreds of meters for a commercial-sized plant). Here we present a study of an inflatable chimney which is a self-supporting, deformable, free-standing stack of gas-filled tori. The structure is stabilized via a combination of shape, overpressure, and buoyancy. Theoretical considerations suggest that filling the tori with air rather than with a light gas may be advantageous for stability. The chimney shape is optimized for deformation under wind loading. A prototype chimney has demonstrated the viability of the concept, with experimental results in good agreement with theoretical predictions. This research is partially supported by the UNM Research Allocations Comittee (RAC) and UNM Center for Emerging Energy Technologies (CEET).

  10. Excess mortality among Swedish chimney sweeps.

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, P; Gustavsson, A; Hogstedt, C

    1987-01-01

    In a cohort study of 5464 union organised Swedish chimney sweeps employed at any time between 1918 and 1980 mortality was studied from 1951 to 1982 with national statistics used as a reference. Follow up was possible for 98.6% of the individuals: 717 deaths were observed against 540 expected. There was an increased mortality from coronary heart disease, respiratory diseases, and several types of malignant tumours. Lung cancer mortality was significantly increased and positively correlated to the number of years employed. A fivefold risk increase for oesophageal cancer and liver cancer was found. The increased mortality could be attributed to exposure to combustion products in the work environment but not to smoking habits. PMID:3689705

  11. Coupled Porosity and Chemical Evolution of Hydrothermal Circulation: Implications for the Morphology of Vents and Recharge Zones at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesi, L.; Liao, Y.; Bai, H.; Ma, Z.; Tao, R.; Syverson, D. D.; Lowell, R. P.; Fischer, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    While the clearest evidence for hydrothermal circulation resides in focused upwellings at high-temperature vents, which form chimneys, circulation also features less-understood low-temperature diffuse flow and recharge zones. Flow focusing depends on the subsurface porosity and permeability structure, which, in the reactive environment of hydrothermal circulation, is likely influenced by mineral dissolution and precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. We developed two-dimensional Finite Element models of coupled reactive flow and porosity evolution and discuss how reactions may influence flow focusing and the morphology of upwellings and downwellings. This work can also address the chemical and thermal flux provided to the ocean, and the grade and volume of metal sulfide deposition. Our coupled system (See image) considers 1) Darcy flow driven by fluid buoyancy; 2) Heat transport in a porous medium; 3) Evolution of dissolved mineral concentration; 4) Evolution of porosity and permeability in response to mineral precipitation or dissolution. We also include an "ocean" layer, which allows hot fluid to escape the system without being forced to cool dramatically as they approach the seafloor. Absent porosity evolution, hydrothermal circulation forms flame-like upwellings that bend to avoid downdrafts. The circulation varies at the time scale of decades. Assuming thermodynamic equilibrium is maintained, precipitation of amorphous silica takes place in the upwellings as they rise and cool down. When coupled with porosity and permeability evolution, silicate precipitation forces the upwellings to flatten and become diffuse. Localized recharge zones stabilize and develop an armor of low porosity rocks where high temperature fluids cooled rapidly and deposited silica as they approach the recharge zone. This morphology of localized, armored recharge zone and diffuse upwellings does not match observations at natural vent fields, which implies that a critical element of the

  12. Physicochemical characterization of the microhabitat of the epibionts associated with Alvinella pompejana, a hydrothermal vent annelid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Meo-Savoie, Carol A.; Luther, George W.; Cary, S. Craig

    2004-05-01

    Alvinella pompejana is a polychaetous annelid that inhabits narrow tubes along the walls of high-temperature hydrothermal vent chimneys. The worm hosts a rich community of epibiotic bacteria that coats its dorsal surface. Although the worm tube microhabitat is a challenging environment to sample, characterizing the thermal and geochemical regime is important for understanding the ecology of the worm and its bacteria, as the worm spends most of its time inside the tube. We characterized the physicochemical conditions of diffuse hydrothermal flow inside inhabited worm tubes using in situ analysis and wet chemical analysis of discrete water samples. Thermistor probes deployed inside worm tubes measured temperatures ranging from 28.6°C to 84.0°C, while temperatures at tube orifices ranged from 7.5°C to 40.0°C. In situ electrochemical analysis of tube fluids revealed undetectable oxygen (<5 μM) and surprisingly low levels of free H 2S (<0.2 μM), with most of the sulfide existing as aqueous FeS molecular clusters. Acid-volatile sulfide measured on discrete samples of tube fluids ranged from 62.9 to 359.3 μM, while free sulfide (H 2S) ranged from undetectable (<0.2 μM) to 46.5 μM. The pH ranged from 5.33 to 6.40, and sulfate ranged from 22.5 mM to 27.5 mM. Nitrate ranged from 13.9 to 20.0 μM, whereas ammonium ranged from 2.5 to 9.7 μM. Total Fe ranged from 72.1 to 730.2 μM. Mn, Zn, Ni, V, P, and Cu were present in micromolar amounts; Pb, Cd, Co, and Ag were present in nanomolar levels. The worm tube fluids contained between 72% to 91% of Mg concentrations typically found in deep seawater. Plots of Mg concentrations vs. other fluid components showed that the tube fluid is geochemically altered from theoretical mixing values. Values of SO 42- were enriched inside the worm tube fluids, whereas NO 3-, Sr, Mn, Fe, Zn, and acid-volatile sulfide were depleted. The geochemistry of the tube microhabitat likely influences the structure of resident microbial communities.

  13. Selenium Sulfide

    MedlinePlus

    Selenium sulfide comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium sulfide usually is used twice a week for the first ... it is irritating. Rinse off all of the lotion.Do not use this medication on children younger ...

  14. 5. March 1960 LIVING ROOM CHIMNEY BREAST SHOWING MARBLE MANTEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. March 1960 LIVING- ROOM CHIMNEY BREAST SHOWING MARBLE MANTEL AND PLASTER RUN CORNICE - Rutgers University, Doolittle-Demarest House, George Street & Seminary Place, New Brunswick, Middlesex County, NJ

  15. 53. Interior detail, parlor chamber, paneled chimney breast. As in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Interior detail, parlor chamber, paneled chimney breast. As in the parlor below, this paneling likely dates from phase I construction. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 42. Interior detail, parlor, paneled chimney breast. This paneling likely ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Interior detail, parlor, paneled chimney breast. This paneling likely dates from the house's phase I construction spanning from 1728 into the 1730's. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 10. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING FIREPLACE AND PORTION OF CHIMNEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING FIREPLACE AND PORTION OF CHIMNEY BREAST IN AREA FORMERLY A PARLOR IN THE NORTHEAST PORTION OF THE FIRST FLOOR. - Joseph D. Reinboth House, 412-414 Cooper Street, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  18. 3. Control Area, Barracks, detail of chimney and rear door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Control Area, Barracks, detail of chimney and rear door VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ELEVATION - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Control Area, Tucker Hollow Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  19. 79. Rocky Knob Recreation area housekeeping cabin with stone chimney ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Rocky Knob Recreation area housekeeping cabin with stone chimney mimicking the log cabins of the Southern Appalachians. Looking south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. AmeriFlux US-CPk Chimney Park

    SciTech Connect

    Ewers, Brent; Pendall, Elise

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-CPk Chimney Park. Site Description - High elevation, primarily lodge-pole pine forest with high amounts of Mountain Pine Bark Beetle mortality

  1. 38. DINING ROOM, THE CHIMNEY WAS SEVERELY DAMAGED BY AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DINING ROOM, THE CHIMNEY WAS SEVERELY DAMAGED BY AN EARTHQUAKE IN 1959 AND HAD TO BE RECONSTRUCTED. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  2. Hydrothermal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2011-03-11

    This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

  3. Video Observations by Telepresence Reveal Two Types of Hydrothermal Venting on Kawio Barat Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, D. A.; Holden, J. F.; Shank, T. M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Sherrin, J.; Herrera, S.; Baker, E. T.; Lovalvo, D.; Makarim, S.; Malik, M. A.; Wirasantosa, S.; Hammond, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    particles, and apparent acidic alteration. These hydrothermal features along with the widespread occurrence of volcaniclastic deposits near the summit suggest that Kawio Barat has experienced recent eruptive activity. In contrast, however, the south side of the summit has active metal sulfide chimneys venting clear to gray/black fluids. The vents seen on the south slope appear identical to vents detected by camera tow and reported by McConnachy et al. 2004. The visually dominant vent fauna is a stalked barnacle that covers much of the chimney surfaces. The apparently stable hot vents on the south flank require a reaction zone with low water/rock ratio at depth within the volcano. Some aspect of the volcanic/hydrothermal plumbing at KB produces a separation of magmatic gases (north summit slope) from circulating hydrothermal fluids (south summit slope).

  4. Southern Juan De Fuca Ridge and Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge: Comparison of hydrothermal deposits in sediment-free and sediment-covered ridge settings

    SciTech Connect

    Benninger, L.M.; Randolph, M.; Koski, A.; Zierenberg, R.A. )

    1990-06-01

    Southern Juan De Fuca Ridge (SJDF) is a low-relief, sediment-starved ridge axis that has a total opening rate of 6 cm/year and is characterized by lobate and brecciated sheet flows and pillows of MORB composition. Sulfide deposits form at {approximately}2,200 m water depth and are concentrated within a narrow graben centered within the ridge axial valley. Solitary and coalesced chimneys (0.25 to 12 m high) rise directly from the basalt basement and are composed predominantly of Zn sulfide accompanied by Fe and Cu-Fe sulfide and traces of Pb sulfide. Anhydrite occurs as a minor phase in some chimneys. Sulfide chimneys were formed by rapid-venting of high temperature ({approximately}285{degree}C) fluids. These acidic fluids (pH {approximately}3.5) are enriched in Cl, Na, and Ca and are depleted in Cu and Zn. In contrast to SJDF, Escanaba Trough (ET) is spreading at {approximately}2.3 cm/year and has the high relief and axial graben morphology typical of the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The floor of the axial valley is buried by up to 500 m of clay and terrigenous silt. Rare basement exposures reveal unbrecciated sheet flows and pillow basalts of MORB composition. Large chimney-topped sulfide mounds up to 20 m high and hundreds of meters in extent occur at {approximately}3,250 m water depth at the base of sediment hills; sulfide veins, small chimneys, and clastic deposits occur on, and within, the sediment between hills. Two distinct sulfide types occur at ET. Pyrrhotite-rich sulfide is enriched in Fe, Cu, and As and is associated with low-velocity venting of warm (<220{degree} C) alkaline (pH {approximately}5.4) fluids that are currently depositing anhydrite and barite sinter deposits on top of the sulfide mounds.

  5. Microbial Community in the Hydrothermal System at Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Itahashi, S.; Kakegawa, T.; Utsumi, M.; Maruyama, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Marumo, K.; Urabe, T.; Yamagishi, A.

    2004-12-01

    There is unique ecosystem around deep-sea hydrothermal area. Living organisms are supported by chemical free energy provided by the hydrothermal water. The ecosystem is expected to be similar to those in early stage of life history on the earth, when photosynthetic organisms have not emerged. In this study, we have analyzed the microbial diversity in the hydrothermal area at southern Mariana trough. In the "Archaean Park Project" supported by special Coordination Fund, four holes were bored and cased by titanium pipes near hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana trough in 2004. Hydrothermal fluids were collected from these cased holes and natural vents in this area. Microbial cells were collected by filtering the hydrothermal fluid in situ or in the mother sip. Filters were stored at -80C and used for DNA extraction. Chimneys at this area was also collected and stored at -80C. The filters and chimney samples were crushed and DNA was extracted. DNA samples were used for amplification of 16S rDNA fragments by PCR using archaea specific primers and universal primers. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. These PCR clones of different samples will be compared. We will extend our knowledge about microbiological diversity at Southern Mariana trough to compare the results obtained at other area.

  6. Hydrogen and thiosulfate limits for growth of a thermophilic, autotrophic Desulfurobacterium species from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy C; Llewellyn, James G; Butterfield, David A; Lilley, Marvin D; Holden, James F

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal fluids (341°C and 19°C) were collected < 1 m apart from a black smoker chimney and a tubeworm mound on the Boardwalk edifice at the Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean to study anaerobic microbial growth in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Geochemical modelling of mixed vent fluid and seawater suggests the mixture was anoxic above 55°C and that low H2 concentrations (79 μmol kg(-1) in end-member hydrothermal fluid) limit anaerobic hydrogenotrophic growth above this temperature. A thermophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfur reducer, Desulfurobacterium strain HR11, was isolated from the 19°C fluid raising questions about its H2 -dependent growth kinetics. Strain HR11 grew at 40-77°C (Topt 72-75°C), pH 5-8.5 (pHopt 6-7) and 1-5% (wt vol(-1) ) NaCl (NaClopt 3-4%). The highest growth rates occurred when S2 O3 (2-) and S° were reduced to H2 S. Modest growth occurred by NO3 (-) reduction. Monod constants for its growth were Ks of 30 μM for H2 and Ks of 20 μM for S2 O3 (2-) with a μmax of 2.0 h(-1) . The minimum H2 and S2 O3 (2-) concentrations for growth were 3 μM and 5 μM respectively. Possible sources of S2 O3 (2-) and S° are from abiotic dissolved sulfide and pyrite oxidation by O2 . PMID:26696328

  7. Hydrogen and thiosulfate limits for growth of a thermophilic, autotrophic Desulfurobacterium species from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy C; Llewellyn, James G; Butterfield, David A; Lilley, Marvin D; Holden, James F

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal fluids (341°C and 19°C) were collected < 1 m apart from a black smoker chimney and a tubeworm mound on the Boardwalk edifice at the Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean to study anaerobic microbial growth in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Geochemical modelling of mixed vent fluid and seawater suggests the mixture was anoxic above 55°C and that low H2 concentrations (79 μmol kg(-1) in end-member hydrothermal fluid) limit anaerobic hydrogenotrophic growth above this temperature. A thermophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfur reducer, Desulfurobacterium strain HR11, was isolated from the 19°C fluid raising questions about its H2 -dependent growth kinetics. Strain HR11 grew at 40-77°C (Topt 72-75°C), pH 5-8.5 (pHopt 6-7) and 1-5% (wt vol(-1) ) NaCl (NaClopt 3-4%). The highest growth rates occurred when S2 O3 (2-) and S° were reduced to H2 S. Modest growth occurred by NO3 (-) reduction. Monod constants for its growth were Ks of 30 μM for H2 and Ks of 20 μM for S2 O3 (2-) with a μmax of 2.0 h(-1) . The minimum H2 and S2 O3 (2-) concentrations for growth were 3 μM and 5 μM respectively. Possible sources of S2 O3 (2-) and S° are from abiotic dissolved sulfide and pyrite oxidation by O2 .

  8. The Acoustic Signature of High-Temperature Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, T. J.; Wilcock, W. S.; Parsons, J. D.; Barclay, A. H.

    2005-12-01

    Motivated by a desire to find new measurements that might be sensitive to flow rate variations within mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we have conducted field studies to collect passive acoustic measurements at black smoker hydrothermal vents using two versions of a simple dual-hydrophone recording device capable of collecting continuous acoustic data for about one week at sampling rates of 1000--2000 Hz. We deployed the first-generation instrument on the Sully sulfide structure in the Main Endeavour Field of the Juan de Fuca Ridge during September of 2004. We were able to collect approximately 48 hours of data before the instrument was partially destroyed by venting fluid. We are in the process of obtaining additional measurements in the same vent field with a second-generation instrument. For the 2004 deployment, the venting fluid produced an acoustic signal that was far above the background level at all measured frequencies. The acoustic spectrum contains a broadband signal that is weighted toward the low frequencies and extends to the Nyquist frequency at 500 Hz. The spectrum also contains several sharp peaks below 150 Hz. The signal is variable in time, with the broadband and peak amplitudes fluctuating by ~20 dB, and the frequencies of the sharp spectral peaks fluctuating by ~1--3 Hz. The complex nature of the acoustic signal suggests that more than one sound production mechanism is operating within the vent. The sharp peaks suggest the presence of a resonant mechanism such as pipe resonance excited by turbulent flow. The high level of the broadband signal is not predicted by theoretical investigations of low Mach number jet acoustics. It is likely that another broadband sound source is present, which could be related to phase separation or to the mixing of different density fluids. More observations will be required to fully understand the basic mechanisms of sound production within black smoker chimneys.

  9. Spatial distribution of viruses associated with planktonic and attached microbial communities in hydrothermal environments.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Takashima, Yukari; Nunoura, Takuro; Kazama, Hiromi; Noguchi, Takuroh; Inoue, Kazuhiro; Akashi, Hironori; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Toki, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Furushima, Yasuo; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Takai, Ken

    2012-03-01

    Viruses play important roles in marine surface ecosystems, but little is known about viral ecology and virus-mediated processes in deep-sea hydrothermal microbial communities. In this study, we examined virus-like particle (VLP) abundances in planktonic and attached microbial communities, which occur in physical and chemical gradients in both deep and shallow submarine hydrothermal environments (mixing waters between hydrothermal fluids and ambient seawater and dense microbial communities attached to chimney surface areas or macrofaunal bodies and colonies). We found that viruses were widely distributed in a variety of hydrothermal microbial habitats, with the exception of the interior parts of hydrothermal chimney structures. The VLP abundance and VLP-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) in the planktonic habitats increased as the ratio of hydrothermal fluid to mixing water increased. On the other hand, the VLP abundance in attached microbial communities was significantly and positively correlated with the whole prokaryotic abundance; however, the VPRs were always much lower than those for the surrounding hydrothermal waters. This is the first report to show VLP abundance in the attached microbial communities of submarine hydrothermal environments, which presented VPR values significantly lower than those in planktonic microbial communities reported before. These results suggested that viral lifestyles (e.g., lysogenic prevalence) and virus interactions with prokaryotes are significantly different among the planktonic and attached microbial communities that are developing in the submarine hydrothermal environments. PMID:22210205

  10. Spatial Distribution of Viruses Associated with Planktonic and Attached Microbial Communities in Hydrothermal Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nunoura, Takuro; Kazama, Hiromi; Noguchi, Takuroh; Inoue, Kazuhiro; Akashi, Hironori; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Toki, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Furushima, Yasuo; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Takai, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Viruses play important roles in marine surface ecosystems, but little is known about viral ecology and virus-mediated processes in deep-sea hydrothermal microbial communities. In this study, we examined virus-like particle (VLP) abundances in planktonic and attached microbial communities, which occur in physical and chemical gradients in both deep and shallow submarine hydrothermal environments (mixing waters between hydrothermal fluids and ambient seawater and dense microbial communities attached to chimney surface areas or macrofaunal bodies and colonies). We found that viruses were widely distributed in a variety of hydrothermal microbial habitats, with the exception of the interior parts of hydrothermal chimney structures. The VLP abundance and VLP-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) in the planktonic habitats increased as the ratio of hydrothermal fluid to mixing water increased. On the other hand, the VLP abundance in attached microbial communities was significantly and positively correlated with the whole prokaryotic abundance; however, the VPRs were always much lower than those for the surrounding hydrothermal waters. This is the first report to show VLP abundance in the attached microbial communities of submarine hydrothermal environments, which presented VPR values significantly lower than those in planktonic microbial communities reported before. These results suggested that viral lifestyles (e.g., lysogenic prevalence) and virus interactions with prokaryotes are significantly different among the planktonic and attached microbial communities that are developing in the submarine hydrothermal environments. PMID:22210205

  11. Chimney for enhancing flow of coolant water in natural circulation boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Oosterkamp, W.J.; Marquino, W.

    1999-01-05

    A chimney which can be reconfigured or removed during refueling to allow vertical removal of the fuel assemblies is disclosed. The chimney is designed to be collapsed or dismantled. Collapse or dismantlement of the chimney reduces the volume required for chimney storage during the refueling operation. Alternatively, the chimney has movable parts which allow reconfiguration of its structure. In a first configuration suitable for normal reactor operation, the chimney is radially constricted such that the chimney obstructs vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. In a second configuration suitable for refueling or maintenance of the fuel core, the parts of the chimney which obstruct access to the fuel assemblies are moved radially outward to positions whereas access to the fuel assemblies is not obstructed. 11 figs.

  12. Chimney for enhancing flow of coolant water in natural circulation boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Oosterkamp, Willem Jan; Marquino, Wayne

    1999-01-05

    A chimney which can be reconfigured or removed during refueling to allow vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. The chimney is designed to be collapsed or dismantled. Collapse or dismantlement of the chimney reduces the volume required for chimney storage during the refueling operation. Alternatively, the chimney has movable parts which allow reconfiguration of its structure. In a first configuration suitable for normal reactor operation, the chimney is radially constricted such that the chimney obstructs vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. In a second configuration suitable for refueling or maintenance of the fuel core, the parts of the chimney which obstruct access to the fuel assemblies are moved radially outward to positions whereat access to the fuel assemblies is not obstructed.

  13. Hydrothermal Vents in Yellowstone Lake: Chemical Fluxes, Siliceous Deposits, and Collapse Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, W. P.; Morgan, L. A.; Balistrieri, L.; Alt, J.; Meeker, G.

    2002-12-01

    The geochemistry of Yellowstone Lake is strongly influenced by sublacustrine hydrothermal vent activity. The hydrothermal source fluid is identified using Cl and dD data on water column and sublacustrine hydrothermal vent fluid samples. Silica-rich hydrothermal deposits occur on the lake bottom near active and presently inactive hydrothermal vents. Pipe- and flange-like deposits contain cemented and recrystallized diatoms and represent pathways for hydrothermal fluid migration. Another major type of hydrothermal deposit comprises hard, porous siliceous spires up to 7 m tall that occur in 15 m of water in Bridge Bay. Bridge Bay spires are hydrothermal silica deposits formed in place by growth of chimney-like features from lake-bottom hydrothermal vents. The Cl concentrations indicate that Yellowstone Lake water is about 1 percent hydrothermal source fluid and 99 percent inflowing stream water and that the flux is about 10 percent of the total hydrothermal water flux in Yellowstone National Park. With recent swath-sonar mapping studies that show numerous new hydrothermal features, Yellowstone Lake should now be considered one of the most significant hydrothermal basins in the Park. Many lake-bottom hydrothermal vents occur in small depressions that are clearly imaged on multibeam sonar, some of which are interpreted as collapse structures based on seismic reflection data. Sediments collected from such vents show chemical evidence of leaching of 60-70 wt. percent SiO2, which may result in volume reductions up to 80 percent and provides a mechanism for vent structure formation.

  14. 22. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE UPSHAFT CHIMNEY LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE UPSHAFT CHIMNEY LOOKING WEST The Duplex Conoidal Fan is a single entry disk fan (see PA 61-21 and PA 61-22) which drew air from the No. 4 (Baltimore) shaft up the air-way through the cone, seen on the right, into the centrifugal fan, pictured here. The curved metal blades forced the air from the center of the fan to the tips of the blades and out the sheet metal exhaust chimney. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  15. Carbonyl sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Carbonyl sulfide ; CASRN 463 - 58 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  16. Hydrogen sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen sulfide ; 7783 - 06 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  17. Selenium sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenium sulfide ; CASRN 7446 - 34 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  18. Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural circulation solar energy dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, O.V.; Norton, B.

    1996-02-01

    An experimental solar chimney consisted of a cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber supported by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively is reported. Issues related to the design and construction of solar chimneys for natural circulation solar energy dryers are discussed.

  19. RNA Oligomerization in Laboratory Analogues of Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems.

    PubMed

    Burcar, Bradley T; Barge, Laura M; Trail, Dustin; Watson, E Bruce; Russell, Michael J; McGown, Linda B

    2015-07-01

    Discovering pathways leading to long-chain RNA formation under feasible prebiotic conditions is an essential step toward demonstrating the viability of the RNA World hypothesis. Intensive research efforts have provided evidence of RNA oligomerization by using circular ribonucleotides, imidazole-activated ribonucleotides with montmorillonite catalyst, and ribonucleotides in the presence of lipids. Additionally, mineral surfaces such as borates, apatite, and calcite have been shown to catalyze the formation of small organic compounds from inorganic precursors (Cleaves, 2008 ), pointing to possible geological sites for the origins of life. Indeed, the catalytic properties of these particular minerals provide compelling evidence for alkaline hydrothermal vents as a potential site for the origins of life since, at these vents, large metal-rich chimney structures can form that have been shown to be energetically favorable to diverse forms of life. Here, we test the ability of iron- and sulfur-rich chimneys to support RNA oligomerization reactions using imidazole-activated and non-activated ribonucleotides. The chimneys were synthesized in the laboratory in aqueous "ocean" solutions under conditions consistent with current understanding of early Earth. Effects of elemental composition, pH, inclusion of catalytic montmorillonite clay, doping of chimneys with small organic compounds, and in situ ribonucleotide activation on RNA polymerization were investigated. These experiments, under certain conditions, showed successful dimerization by using unmodified ribonucleotides, with the generation of RNA oligomers up to 4 units in length when imidazole-activated ribonucleotides were used instead. Elemental analysis of the chimney precipitates and the reaction solutions showed that most of the metal cations that were determined were preferentially partitioned into the chimneys. PMID:26154881

  20. A NUMERICAL study of solar chimney power plants in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar F, Attig; S, Guellouz M.; M, Sahraoui; S, Kaddeche

    2015-04-01

    A 3D CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model of a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) was developed and validated through comparison with the experimental data of the Manzanares plant. Then, it was employed to study the SCPP performance for locations throughout Tunisia.

  1. Passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys

    SciTech Connect

    Mignon, G.V.; Cunningham, W.A.; Thompson, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Computer models have been developed to describe the operation of both solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Design studies are being conducted at the present time to use the towers for cooling an experimental, well instrumented, structure to study passive cooling in residential buildings. (MHR)

  2. 46. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer CHIMNEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer CHIMNEY BASE LOOKING N.E. NOTE ORIGINAL HEWN TIMBER FRAMING THE STAIR, AND BEHIND IT A LATER SAWN TIMBER FOR PRESENT STAIR. BRICK UNDERPINNING OF CELLAR WALL COMPARATIVELY RECENT. - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  3. Research on gas transport in chimneys: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hearst, J.R.

    1986-03-18

    The results of the AGRINI and TIERRA experiments have led us to study three general topics: collapse phenomenology, CO/sub 2/ content measurement, and gas transport in chimneys. Our results so far are fragmentary, but we have been able to come to some tentative conclusions: (1) a layer of strong material between depths of 24 and 32 m, and perhaps some relatively strong material deeper, may have caused the AGRINI crater shape. This layer was absent at the nearby LABAN and CROWDIE events. We were unable to locate the layer with a surface penetrometer or surface seismic methods, but it may be possible to measure strength vs depth in situ by examining the penetration depth of a projectile. (2) We can probably improve our knowledge of the in situ CO/sub 2/ content by calibrating a commercial carbon/oxygen logging system for NTS conditions. (3) It is possible to measure the response of the gas in a chimney to changes in atmospheric pressure. There can be significantly different gas transport in chimneys with the same pressure response, depending on the porosity and the distribution of the porosity. It is possible to perform an inexpensive experiment to study the gas transport in an existing chimney.

  4. 2. South elevation with bases of two massive brick chimneys ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. South elevation with bases of two massive brick chimneys flanking structure at southwest and southeast corners. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. Hydrothermal Vents and Organic Falls in the Heart of the Coral Triangle: Chemosynthetic Communities Discovered via Telepresence in the Sangihe-Talaud Region, Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, T. M.; Herrera, S.; Bors, E.; Munro, C.; Sibert, E.; Nganro, N.; Makarim, S.; Wirasantosa, S.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Holden, J. F.; Hammond, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    From June to August 2010, an international partnership of scientists and engineers from the United States, Canada, and Indonesia utilized the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and HD video from the ROV Little Herc to explore virtually unknown deep seafloor in the heart of the Coral Triangle. The INDEX-SATAL 2010 expedition bathymetrically mapped more than 39,000sq km of the Sangihe-Talaud region, including several discrete volcanic cones on the western flank of the Sangihe Arc. Twenty sites between 275m and 3650m were explored during 27 ROV dives, including the first (and only) known hydrothermally-active site (1850m) in the Indonesian region, Kawio Barat, a volcanically active seamount hosting chemosynthetic ecosystems. The dominant fauna inhabiting hydrothermally-active areas were: 1) three shrimp morpho-species resembling Opaepele sp. and Chorocaris sp., intermingling on the sides of active smokers, amongst stalked barnacles, and scraping mineral surfaces; 2) large (10cm-long) polynoid scale worms (aff Branchinotogluma sp.) meandering through diffuse venting and within barnacle assemblages; 3) discrete patches of tube-dwelling alvinellid polychaetes, and perhaps the most dominant, stalked Vulcanolepas barnacles, densely packed at the base of individual spires, as well as completely carpeting 3 to 4m-tall inactive chimneys on the summit crest of the seamount, particularly above the main group of active chimneys. Brachyuran and galatheid crabs were observed amongst stalked barnacles and in sulfide crevices. Vesicoymid-like clams (5 to 10cm long) were observed on the surface of volcanoclastic and pelagic sediment 50 to 125m down slope of the active venting. Other potentially chemosynthetic habitats were observed at several sites, including wooden logs and coconut shells. For example, the sedimented slopes of Seamount G (1926m) and flats of Memeridge (3600m) contained a notable lack of epibenthic fauna with the notable exception of frequent wood falls inhabited by a

  6. Active and relict sea-floor hydrothermal mineralization at the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Rona, P.A. . Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Labs.); Hannington, M.D. ); Raman, C.V. ); Thompson, G.; Tivey, M.K.; Humphris, S.E. ); Lalou, C. . Lab. CNRS-CEA); Petersen, S. Aachen Univ. of Technology )

    1993-12-01

    The TAG hydrothermal field is a site of major active and inactive volcanic-hosted hydrothermal mineralization in the rift valley of the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26[degree]N. The axial high is the principal locus of present magmatic intrusions. The TAG field contains three main areas of present and past hydrothermal activity: (1) an actively venting high-temperature sulfide mound; (2) two former high-temperature vent areas; (3) a zone of low-temperature venting and precipitation of Fe and Mn oxide deposits. The volcanic centers occur at the intersections between ridge axis-parallel normal faults and projected axis-transverse transfer faults. The intersections of these active fault systems may act as conduits both for magmatic intrusions from sources beneath the axial high that build the volcanic centers and for hydrothermal upwelling that taps the heat sources. Radiometric dating of sulfide samples and manganese crusts in the hydrothermal zones and dating of sediments intercalated with pillow lava flows in the volcanic center adjacent to the active sulfide mound indicate multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity throughout the field driven by heat supplied by episodic intrusions over a period of at least 140 [times] 10[sup 3] yr. The sulfide deposits are built by juxtaposition and superposition during relatively long residence times near episodic axial heat sources counterbalanced by mass wasting in the tectonically active rift valley of the slow-spreading oceanic ridge. Hydrothermal reworking of a relict hydrothermal zone by high-temperature hydrothermal episodes has recrystallized sulfides and concentrated the first visible primary gold reported in a deposit at an oceanic ridge.

  7. Mapping the Piccard Hydrothermal Field - The World's Deepest Known Vent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, J. C.; German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    We report the recent mapping and exploration of the Piccard Hydrothermal Field on the Mid-Cayman Rise. Two previous expeditions in 2009 and 2010 led to the discovery of the site, which at 5000m hosts the world's deepest known vents. The site was mapped and explored in January 2012 and the Piccard Field was found to be larger than previously appreciated. The site includes 3 separate currently active hydrothermal mounts together with 4 additional extinct depo-centers. The 3 active centers are the Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods, and Beebe Sea sites. Beebe Vents is an active black smoker system with maximum temperatures of 400-403 degrees Celsius. Beebe Woods contains a set of tall beehive smokers with temperatures of approximately 353 degrees Celsius. Beebe Sea, the largest sulfide mound in the field, contains diffuse venting together with numerous extinct chimneys that indicate significant past active focused flow. Observations of the 4 extinct mounds indicate differences in their apparent ages based on the texture and morphology of the extinct sulfides at the summit of each mound. The entire field is located on top of an axial volcanic ridge with extrusive pillow mounds prominent. A major fault traverses the mound along its long axis, from Southwest to Northeast. Beebe Woods, Beebe Sea, and extinct Beebe mound D abut this fault directly with an apparent monotonic age progression from youngest (Beebe Woods) in the SW to relict mound 'D' in the NE. Similarly, the Beebe Vents site and mound is located at the SW limit of a parallel set of mounds, offset from the fault by approximately 100m, which also ages progressively through extinct Beebe Mounds 'E', 'F' and 'G'. The major fault that bisects the axial volcanic ridge at Piccard evidently serves as a controlling mechanism for the mounds abutting that fault however the mechanism for the second line of mounds remains to be determined. Bathymetry suggests the presence of a second, smaller fault which may serve as the control

  8. Noble Gas geochemistry of the newly discovered hydrothermal fields in the Gulf of California: preliminary He-isotope ratios from the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero basin vent sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spelz, R. M.; Lupton, J. E.; Evans, L. J.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Neumann, F.; Paduan, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous submarine deep-sea hydrothermal vents related to volcanic activity of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) are situated along the Pacific margins of Mexico. Until recently, active hydrothermal venting was unknown between the Guaymas Basin and 21°N on the EPR. MBARI's recent oceanographic surveys have added 7 new active vent sites. In this study, we aimed to sample the high-temperature hydrothermal fluids emanating from two distinct vent sites, named Meyibo and Auka, located in the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero Basin, respectively. Mantle-derived He have long been identified in hydrothermal fluid releases. The presence of He in aqueous fluids with 3He/4He ratios greater than in-situ production values (~0.05 RA, where RA = air He or 1.4 x 10-6) indicates the presence of mantle-derived melts. Preliminary analyses of He-isotope ratios derived from the newly discovered Meyibo and Auka hydrothermal fields show high 3He/4He ratios (~8RA), typical of MORB's. Auka vent field, characterized by chimneys composed of light carbonate minerals and oil-like hydrocarbons, and temperatures between 250-290oC, show average values of ~7.87RA. In contrast, the black-smokers at the Meyibo field, composed of dark sulfide minerals and temperatures over 350oC, yielded a higher He ratio of ~8.24RA. Recently, it has become clear that regional maximum mantle He values correlate with the velocity structure in the mantle, therefore, He has the potential to map regions of the underlying mantle that are undergoing partial melting. Seismic records could then be compared with the geochemical He ratio signal and supply information regarding tectonics and other processes involved in the generation of these gases. The data presented here will be completing a totally new inventory of He results from hydrothermal vents in the EPR and fault-termination basins distributed along the P-NA plate boundary in the Gulf of California. The results will be further coupled with the analysis of other geochemical

  9. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  10. Aggregation and chimney formation during the solidification of ammonium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, T. H.; Hartley, R. R.; Lee, A. T.

    1999-09-01

    Experiments study large-scale pattern formation during the growth of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) from solution in a thin (Hele-Shaw) geometry. In particular a solid-liquid mixture (``mushy layer'') forms in which growing solid NH4Cl crystals form a solid network interspersed with liquid. There are different ways that the mushy layer can be formed, however. If the cell is heated from below and cooled from above, thermal convection generates large-scale recirculating flows that carry seed crystals from the upper (cold) boundary to the (warmer) side and bottom boundaries. Ballistic deposition of these seed crystals leads to aggregation patterns with significant voids (filled with liquid) with a wide range of length scales. If the cell is cooled from below with a warm environment, the solid NH4Cl grows dendritically without deposition, resulting in a compact mushy layer. Plume convection within this mushy layer produces one or two well-defined ``chimneys.'' If the environment is cool (comparable to the liquidus temperature of the solution), the mushy layer forms by a combination of dendritic growth and ballistic deposition, resulting in a more permeable mushy layer and enhanced chimney formation. The effects of ballistic deposition are enhanced if the cell is tipped, in which case the voids reappear. Plume convection and chimney formation are dramatically enhanced in this case. Additional experiments are done in which fluid flows in the system are enhanced artificially to verify that enhancements in chimney formation are due primarily to the aggregation process, and not to the increases in fluid flows due to thermal and compositional convection.

  11. GPS FOM Chimney Analysis using Generalized Extreme Value Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Rick; Frisbee, Joe; Saha, Kanan

    2004-01-01

    Many a time an objective of a statistical analysis is to estimate a limit value like 3-sigma 95% confidence upper limit from a data sample. The generalized Extreme Value Distribution method can be profitably employed in many situations for such an estimate. . .. It is well known that according to the Central Limit theorem the mean value of a large data set is normally distributed irrespective of the distribution of the data from which the mean value is derived. In a somewhat similar fashion it is observed that many times the extreme value of a data set has a distribution that can be formulated with a Generalized Distribution. In space shuttle entry with 3-string GPS navigation the Figure Of Merit (FOM) value gives a measure of GPS navigated state accuracy. A GPS navigated state with FOM of 6 or higher is deemed unacceptable and is said to form a FOM 6 or higher chimney. A FOM chimney is a period of time during which the FOM value stays higher than 5. A longer period of FOM of value 6 or higher causes navigated state to accumulate more error for a lack of state update. For an acceptable landing it is imperative that the state error remains low and hence at low altitude during entry GPS data of FOM greater than 5 must not last more than 138 seconds. I To test the GPS performAnce many entry test cases were simulated at the Avionics Development Laboratory. Only high value FoM chimneys are consequential. The extreme value statistical technique is applied to analyze high value FOM chimneys. The Maximum likelihood method is used to determine parameters that characterize the GEV distribution, and then the limit value statistics are estimated.

  12. Preparation of mesoporous cadmium sulfide nanoparticles with moderate pore size

    SciTech Connect

    Han Zhaohui Zhu, Huaiyong; Shi, Jeffrey; Parkinson, Gordon; Lu, G.Q.

    2007-03-15

    The preparation of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles that have a moderate pore size is reported. This preparation method involves a hydrothermal process that produces a precursor mixture and a following acid treatment of the precursor to get the porous material. The majority of the particles have a pore size close to 20nm, which complements and fills in the gap between the existing cadmium sulfide materials, which usually have a pore size either less than 10nm or are well above 100nm.

  13. Petroleum associated with polymetallic sulfide in sediment from Gorda Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.; Hostettler, F.D.; Morton, J.L.; King, J.D.; Claypool, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    A sediment sample, impregnated with asphaltic petroleum and polymetallic sulfide, was dredged from the southern end of Gorda Ridge (the Escanaba Trough) off northern California, within the offshore Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States. The molecular distributions of hydrocarbons in this petroleum show that it was probably derived from terrestrial organic matter in turbidite sediment filling the Escanaba Trough. Hydrothermal activity at the Gorda Ridge spreading center provided the heat for petroleum formation and was the source of fluids for sulfide mineralization.

  14. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950`s, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F{sub {mu}} factor. The calculated value of F{sub {mu}} exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F{sub {mu}} value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ``Moment Reduction Factor``, R{sub w} or F{sub {mu}} for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects.

  15. Solar chimney design: Investigating natural ventilation and cooling in offices with the aid of computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, Nikolaos

    Solar chimney design is investigated as a means of improving natural ventilation and passive cooling in office buildings. Existing scientific research and built precedents are generally limited literature review findings on various features of solar chimneys were categorised and used to develop a building simulation strategy. Using UK climatic data, simulations were performed on several computer models in order to investigate solar chimney performance during a single day period and an entire cooling season. Passive cooling with a solar chimney is possible but actual reduction in temperatures in most cases examined could be negligible. Cooling potential is increased on still, warm days, while the prospects for night cooling are further improved. A solar chimney may help reduce considerably the occurrence of resultant temperatures at or above the 25 C and 28 C thresholds. Solar chimney width, height, apertures and integral use of thermal mass are the most significant parameters for cooling. Simulation results showed that a solar chimney can increase significantly natural ventilation rates. Total ventilation rates may be increased by at least 22%. During still days a solar chimney can enhance ventilation rates by 36% or more. Stack ventilation through a solar chimney is typically 20% of cross ventilation during night time this may increase to at least 40-45% and on still days it may reach 100% of typical cross ventilation rates. Solar chimney induced stack ventilation and cross ventilation are interrelated. Resultant air flow patterns may have an important effect on convective heat transfers and thermal comfort. Climate and microclimate conditions should be an integral part of solar chimney design. Key aspects and recommendations regarding solar chimneys, passive cooling and natural ventilation are provided for design guidance and feedback in further research.

  16. Wind load analysis of tall chimneys with piled raft foundation considering the flexibility of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayalekshmi, B. R.; Jisha, S. V.; Shivashankar, R.

    2015-06-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis was carried out for tall reinforced concrete chimneys with piled raft foundation subjected to wind loads. To understand the significance of SSI, four types of soil were considered based on different material properties. Chimneys of different elevations and different ratios of height to base diameter of chimney were selected for the parametric study. The thickness of raft of piled raft foundation was also varied based on different ratios of outer diameter to thickness of raft. The chimneys were assumed to be located in open terrain and subjected to a maximum wind speed of 50 m/s. The along-wind and across-wind loads were computed according to IS: 4998 (Part 1)-1992 and applied along the height of the chimney. The analysis was carried out using three-dimensional finite element technique based on the direct method of SSI. The linear elastic material behaviour was assumed for the integrated chimney-foundation-soil system. The radial and tangential moments, lateral deflection and base moment of chimney were evaluated through SSI analysis and compared with the response obtained from chimney with fixed base. The base moment of chimney considerably reduces due to the effect of SSI. It is found that the variation of different responses in chimney due to the effect of SSI depends significantly on the geometrical properties of chimney and foundations. The response variation at base for a distance of 1/40th of the height of chimney should be considered for a safe design.

  17. Volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrence model: Chapter C in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Koski, Randolph A.; Mosier, Dan L.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Slack, John F.; Ridley, W. Ian; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Thurston, Roland

    2012-01-01

    An unusual feature of VMS deposits is the common association of stratiform "exhalative" deposits precipitated from hydrothermal fluids emanating into bottom waters. These deposits may extend well beyond the margins of massive sulfide and are typically composed of silica, iron, and manganese oxides, carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and tourmaline.

  18. Chimney damage in the greater Seattle area from the Nisqually earthquake of 28 February 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, D.B.; Wells, R.E.; Givler, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Unreinforced brick chimneys in the greater Seattle area were damaged repeatedly in the Benioff zone earthquakes of 1949, 1965, and 2001. A survey of visible chimney damage after the 28 February 2001 Nisqually earthquake evaluated approximately 60,000 chimneys through block-by-block coverage of about 50 km2, identifying a total of 1556 damaged chimneys. Chimney damage was strongly clustered in certain areas, in particular in the neighborhood of West Seattle where prior damage was also noted and evaluated after the 1965 earthquake. Our results showed that damage produced by the 2001 earthquake did not obviously correspond to distance from the earthquake epicenter, soft soils, topography, or slope orientation. Chimney damage correlates well to instrumented strong-motion measurements and compiled resident-reported ground-shaking intensities, but it offers much finer spatial resolution than these other data sources. In general, most areas of greatest chimney damage coincide with best estimated locations of strands of the Seattle fault zone. The edge of that zone also coincides with areas where chimney damage dropped abruptly over only one or two blocks' distance. The association between shaking intensity and fault-zone structure suggests that abrupt changes in the depth to bedrock, edge effects at the margin of the Seattle basin, or localized trapping of seismic waves in the Seattle fault zone may be significant contributory factors in the distribution of chimney damage.

  19. Borehole techniques identifying subsurface chimney heights in loose ground-some experiences above underground nuclear explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Lacomb, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The location of the subsurface top of the chimney formed by the collapse of the cavity resulting from an underground nuclear explosion is examined at five sites at the Nevada Test Site. The chimneys were investigated by drilling, coring, geophysical logging (density, gamma-ray, caliper), and seismic velocity surveys. The identification of the top of the chimney can be complicated by chimney termination in friable volcanic rock of relatively high porosity. The presence of an apical void in three of the five cases is confirmed as the chimney horizon by coincidence with anomalies observed in coring, caliper and gamma-ray logging (two cases), seismic velocity, and drilling. In the two cases where an apical void is not present, several of these techniques yield anomalies at identical horizons, however, the exact depth of chimney penetration is subject to some degree of uncertainty. This is due chiefly to the extent to which core recovery and seismic velocity may be affected by perturbations in the tuff above the chimney due to the explosion and collapse. The data suggest, however, that the depth uncertainty may be only of the order of 10 m if several indicators are available. Of all indicators, core recovery and seismic velocity indicate anomalous horizons in every case. Because radiation products associated with the explosion are contained within the immediate vicinity of the cavity, gamma-ray logs are generally not diagnostic of chimney penetration. In no case is the denisty log indicative of the presence of the chimney. ?? 1993.

  20. Clostridium tepidiprofundi sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Slobodkina, G B; Kolganova, T V; Tourova, T P; Kostrikina, N A; Jeanthon, C; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, E A; Slobodkin, A I

    2008-04-01

    A moderately thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium (strain SG 508T) was isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney located at 1 degrees N on the East Pacific Rise at a depth of 2650 m. Cells of strain SG 508T were straight to slightly curved rods, 0.4-0.6 microm in diameter and 2.0-3.0 microm in length. Spore formation was observed only below pH 5.5. The temperature range for growth was 22-60 degrees C, with optimum growth at 50 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 4.0-8.5, with optimum growth at pH 6.0-6.8. Growth of strain SG 508T was observed at NaCl concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 6.0 % (w/v), with optimum growth at 2.5 % (w/v). Substrates utilized by strain SG 508T included casein, peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract, starch, maltose and glucose. The products of glucose fermentation were ethanol, acetate, H2, formate and CO2. Strain SG 508T was able to reduce elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. The DNA G+C content of strain SG 508T was 30.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolated organism belonged to cluster I of the genus Clostridium. On the basis of its physiological properties and data from phylogenetic analyses, strain SG 508T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium tepidiprofundi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SG 508T (=DSM 19306T =VKM B-2459T).

  1. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  2. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  3. Tungsten enriched in submarine hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Koichi; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Okamura, Kei; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro

    2004-06-01

    Here we report the first data for W in hydrothermal vent fluids in the deep oceans. Vented hydrothermal fluids were collected from the Kairei Field, a mid ocean ridge hydrothermal field at the Rodriguez Triple Junction, Central Indian Ridge, and from arc-backarc hydrothermal systems at the Suiyo Seamount in the Izu-Bonin Arc, North Pacific Ocean and at the Hatoma and Yonaguni Knolls in the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea. While the dissolved W concentration in hydrothermal fluids linearly increased with a decrease in the Mg concentration for each system, the W concentration in endmember fluids was very different. It was 0.21 nmol/kg at the Kairei Field, 15 nmol/kg at the Suiyo Seamount, and 123 nmol/kg at the Hatoma Knoll, which was 4 orders of magnitude above the ambient level in seawater. The W concentration was not a simple function of Cl, alkalinity, B, and NH 4. The hydrothermal fields are efficiently enriched with W through reaction with fractionated calc-alkaline dacite and with terrigenous sediments. Although Mo is a chemical analogue of W in oxic seawater, the Mo concentration decreased in the hydrothermal fluids to 2-7 nmol/kg probably due to precipitation of Mo sulfide.

  4. Characteristics of Hydrothermal Mineralization in Ultraslow Spreading Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Yang, Q.; Ji, F.; Dick, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity is a major component of the processes that shape the composition and structure of the ocean crust, providing a major pathway for the exchange of heat and elements between the Earth's crust and oceans, and a locus for intense biological activity on the seafloor and underlying crust. In other hand, the structure and composition of hydrothermal systems are the result of complex interactions between heat sources, fluids, wall rocks, tectonic controls and even biological processes. Ultraslow spreading ridges, including the Southwest Indian Ridge, the Gakkel Ridge, are most remarkable end member in plate-boundary structures (Dick et al., 2003), featured with extensive tectonic amagmatic spreading and frequent exposure of peridotite and gabbro. With intensive surveys in last decades, it is suggested that ultraslow ridges are several times more effective than faster-spreading ridges in sustaining hydrothermal activities. This increased efficiency could attributed to deep mining of heat and even exothermic serpentinisation (Baker et al., 2004). Distinct from in faster spreading ridges, one characteristics of hydrothermal mineralization on seafloor in ultraslow spreading ridges, including the active Dragon Flag hydrothermal field at 49.6 degree of the Southwest Indian Ridge, is abundant and pervasive distribution of lower temperature precipitated minerals ( such as Fe-silica or silica, Mn (Fe) oxides, sepiolite, pyrite, marcasite etc. ) in hydrothermal fields. Structures formed by lower temperature activities in active and dead hydrothermal fields are also obviously. High temperature precipitated minerals such as chalcopyrite etc. are rare or very limited in hydrothermal chimneys. Distribution of diverse low temperature hydrothermal activities is consistence with the deep heating mechanisms and hydrothermal circulations in the complex background of ultraslow spreading tectonics. Meanwhile, deeper and larger mineralization at certain locations along the

  5. Comparison of microbial communities associated with phase-separation-induced hydrothermal fluids at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, the Southern Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2009-03-01

    Microbial communities associated with a variety of hydrothermal emissions at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, the southernmost Okinawa Trough, were analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. In this hydrothermal field, dozens of vent sites hosting physically and chemically distinct hydrothermal fluids were observed. Variability in the gas content and formation in the hydrothermal fluids was observed and could be controlled by the potential subseafloor phase-separation and -partition processes. The hydrogen concentration in the hydrothermal fluids was also variable (0.8-3.6 mmol kg(-1)) among the chimney sites, but was unusually high as compared with those in other Okinawa Trough hydrothermal fields. Despite the physical and chemical variabilities of the hydrothermal fluids, the microbial communities were relatively similar among the habitats. Based on both culture-dependent and -independent analyses of the microbial community structures, members of Thermococcales, Methanococcales and Desulfurococcales likely represent the predominant archaeal components, while members of Nautiliaceae and Thioreductoraceae are considered to dominate the bacterial population. Most of the abundant microbial components appear to be chemolithotrophs sustained by hydrogen oxidation. The relatively consistent microbial communities found in this study could have been because of the sufficient input of hydrogen from the hydrothermal fluids rather than other chemical properties.

  6. Hydrothermal mineralization at seafloor spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.

    1984-01-01

    The recent recognition that metallic mineral deposits are concentrated by hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers constitutes a scientific breakthrough that opens active sites at seafloor spreading centers as natural laboratories to investigate ore-forming processes of such economically useful deposits as massive sulfides in volcanogenic rocks on land, and that enhances the metallic mineral potential of oceanic crust covering two-thirds of the Earth both beneath ocean basins and exposed on land in ophiolite belts. This paper reviews our knowledge of processes of hydrothermal mineralization and the occurrence and distribution of hydrothermal mineral deposits at the global oceanic ridge-rift system. Sub-seafloor hydrothermal convection involving circulation of seawater through fractured rocks of oceanic crust driven by heat supplied by generation of new lithosphere is nearly ubiquitous at seafloor spreading centers. However, ore-forming hydrothermal systems are extremely localized where conditions of anomalously high thermal gradients and permeability increase hydrothermal activity from the ubiquitous low-intensity background level (⩽ 200°C) to high-intensity characterized by high temperatures ( > 200-c.400°C), and a rate and volume of flow sufficient to sustain chemical reactions that produce acid, reducing, metal-rich primary hydrothermal solutions. A series of mineral phases with sulfides and oxides as high- and low-temperature end members, respectively, are precipitated along the upwelling limb and in the discharge zone of single-phase systems as a function of increasing admixture of normal seawater. The occurrence of hydrothermal mineral deposits is considered in terms of spatial and temporal frames of reference. Spatial frames of reference comprise structural features along-axis (linear sections that are the loci of seafloor spreading alternating with transform faults) and perpendicular to axis (axial zone of volcanic extrusion and marginal

  7. Methane seepage in the Shenhu area of the northern South China Sea: constraints from carbonate chimneys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Hongxiang; Zhang, Mei; Mao, Shengyi; Wu, Nengyou; Lu, Hongfeng; Chen, Duofu

    2016-06-01

    Two authigenic carbonate chimneys were recovered from the Shenhu area in the northern South China Sea at approximately 400 m water depth. The chimneys' mineralogy, isotopic composition, and lipid biomarkers were studied to examine the biogeochemical process that induced the formation of the chimneys. The two chimneys are composed mostly of dolomite, whereas the internal conduits and semi-consolidated surrounding sediments are dominated by aragonite and calcite. The specific biomarker patterns (distribution of lipids and their depleted δ13C values) indicate the low occurrence of methanotrophic archaea ANME-1 responsible for the chimneys' formation via anaerobic oxidation of methane. A significant input of bacteria/planktonic algae and cyanobacteria to the carbon pool during the precipitation of the carbonate chimneys is suggested by the high contributions of short-chain n-alkanes (69% of total hydrocarbons) and long-chain n-alcohols (on average 56% of total alcohols). The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonate mixtures vary from 3.1‰ to 4.4‰ in the dolomite-rich chimneys, and from 2.1‰ to 2.5‰ in the internal conduits, which indicates that they were precipitated from seawater-derived pore waters during a long period covering the last glacial and interglacial cycles. In addition, the mixture of methane and bottom seawater dissolved inorganic carbon could be the carbon sources of the carbonate chimneys.

  8. East Pacific Rise Near 13{degrees}N: Geology of New Hydrothermal Fields.

    PubMed

    Hekinian, R; Fevrier, M; Avedik, F; Cambon, P; Charlou, J L; Needham, H D; Raillard, J; Boulegue, J; Merlivat, L; Moinet, A; Manganini, S; Lange, J

    1983-03-18

    Abundant massive sulfide deposits are present at the crest of the East Pacific Rise near 13 degrees North, where the opening rate is about 12 centimeters per year. Large manganese and helium-3 anomalies in seawater samples, evidence of intense present-day activity of hydrothermal springs, indicate that sulfides are still being produced along this segment of the rise. Massive sulfides also occur on adjacent off-axis seamounts.

  9. Treating the paravisceral aorta with parallel endografts (chimneys and snorkels).

    PubMed

    Shuja, Fahad; Kwolek, Christopher J

    2012-12-01

    While excellent results can be achieved with the open repair of juxtarenal and suprarenal aortic aneurysms in good-risk patients, the outcomes in high-risk patients are less favorable. The use of standard infrarenal endografts to treat these patients has been limited due to the absence of a suitable proximal landing zone. Using infrarenal endografts outside the instructions for use has been shown to lead to poorer outcomes with a higher incidence of type I endoleaks and graft migration. Fenestrated and branched endografts are viable options, but until recently have not been commercially available within the United States. In addition, they require meticulous preoperative planning and 4 to 6 weeks to manufacture. This makes them unsuitable for use in the urgent setting. Others have looked at the use of parallel covered stents placed alongside the main endograft body, the "chimney" or "snorkel" graft technique, to allow for continued perfusion to visceral/renal vessels. This technique allows for proximal placement of the landing zone of the main body, while maintaining blood flow to critical branches. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on chimney grafts, their efficacy, and associated morbidity and mortality.

  10. Massive sulfide metallogenesis at a late Mesozoic sediment-covered spreading axis: evidence from the Franciscan complex and contemporary analogues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, R.A.; Lamons, R.C.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Bouse, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Island Mountain deposit, an anomalous massive sulfide in the Central belt of the Franciscan complex, formed during hydrothermal activity in a sediment-dominated paleo-sea-floor environment. Although the base of the massive sulfide is juxtaposed against a 500-m-wide melange band, its gradational upper contact within a coherent sequence of sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone indicates that hydrothermal activity was concurrent with turbidite deposition. The bulk composition of sulfide samples is consistent with a hydrothermal system dominated by fluid-sediment interaction. On the basis of a comparison with possible contemporary tectonic analogues at the southern Gorda Ridge and the Chile margin triple junction, it is proposed that massive sulfide mineralization resulted from hydrothermal activity at a late Mesozoic sediment-covered ridge axis prior to collision with the North American plate. -from Authors

  11. The mechanism of formation of the seafloor massive sulfide ore body beneath the seafloor at HAKUREI Site in Izena Caldera, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, R.; Urabe, T.

    2012-12-01

    The first seafloor hydrothermal activity in northwest Pacific was found at the northeastern rim of the Izena Caldera (Jade Site), Middle Okinawa Trough in 1988 (Halbach et al.,1989). The tectonic setting of the sulfide occurrence, even though small in amount, is similar to that of Kuroko deposits which are the volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits found in volcano-sedimentary units in northern Japan. Later, large seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) ore bodies were discovered above and beneath the seafloor in the central part of the Izena Caldera (HAKUREI Site). The ore reserve is estimated to be 5million tons based on some 100 short (<20 meters), dense drillings (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), 2011), and is regarded as the biggest "proven" SMS deposit in the world. It is worthy to note that the HAKUREI ore deposit can be divided into Ore A (Upper ore bodies) and the Ore B (Lower ore bodies) which are separated by silt and pumice-rich sedimentary layer of a few meter in thickness. The Upper ore bodies are composed of sulfide "mounds" and "chimneys", which are commonly observed in hydrothermal areas. However, the nature of the Lower ore bodies remain uninvestigated. We conducted two research cruises at the HAKUREI site in 2011: TAIGA11 cruise of Exploration Vessel Hakurei-Maru NO.2 (JOGMEC) with Benthic Multicoreing System (BMS) and NT11-15 cruise of R/V Natshushima with ROV Hyper Dolphin (JAMSTEC). In the former cruise, a core (H-1) 5.4m in length was drilled to intersect both the Upper and Lower ore bodies which are separated by sediment using BMS. While, in latter cruise, volcanic rocks (aphyric rhyolite) and sulfide ores (Upper ore) were collected using Hyper Dolphin. The obtained sulfide ores were served for examination with the ore microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and heating stage for fluid inclusions in barite in ore. Sphalerite and galena dominate at upper part of the Lower ore, while chalcopyrite and covellite

  12. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  13. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOEpatents

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  14. SULFIDE MINERALS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation processes of metal sulfides in sediments, especially iron sulfides, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal sulfides (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...

  15. Comparison of microbial communities associated with three Atlantic ultramafic hydrothermal systems.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Konn, Cécile; Charlou, Jean-Luc; Donval, Jean-Pierre; Fouquet, Yves; Querellou, Joël; Prieur, Daniel; Bonavita, Marie-Anne Cambon

    2011-09-01

    The distribution of Archaea and methanogenic, methanotrophic and sulfate-reducing communities in three Atlantic ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems (Rainbow, Ashadze, Lost City) was compared using 16S rRNA gene and functional gene (mcrA, pmoA and dsrA) clone libraries. The overall archaeal community was diverse and heterogeneously distributed between the hydrothermal sites and the types of samples analyzed (seawater, hydrothermal fluid, chimney and sediment). The Lost City hydrothermal field, characterized by high alkaline warm fluids (pH>11; T<95 °C), harbored a singular archaeal diversity mostly composed of unaffiliated Methanosarcinales. The archaeal communities associated with the recently discovered Ashadze 1 site, one of the deepest active hydrothermal fields known (4100 m depth), showed significant differences between the two different vents analyzed and were characterized by putative extreme halophiles. Sequences related to the rarely detected Nanoarchaeota phylum and Methanopyrales order were also retrieved from the Rainbow and Ashadze hydrothermal fluids. However, the methanogenic Methanococcales was the most widely distributed hyper/thermophilic archaeal group among the hot and acidic ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system environments. Most of the lineages detected are linked to methane and hydrogen cycling, suggesting that in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems, large methanogenic and methanotrophic communities could be fuelled by hydrothermal fluids highly enriched in methane and hydrogen.

  16. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Torella, Francesco; Chan, Tze Y. Shaikh, Usman; England, Andrew; Fisher, Robert K.; McWilliams, Richard G.

    2015-10-15

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix{sup ®} endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible.

  17. Persistent Type I Endoleak after Endovascular Treatment with Chimney Technique

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Ana Isabel; Braga, Pedro; Rodrigues, Alberto; Ferreira, Nuno; Fonseca, Marlene; Dias, Adelaide; Gama Ribeiro, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is increasingly used in the treatment of acute type B aortic dissection. Type Ia endoleaks are a common complication of the procedure, but its clinical significance and the best treatment strategy remain poorly defined. We present a case of a type Ia endoleak following TEVAR in the treatment of acute type B aortic dissection. Chimney technique approach was used in an attempt to seal the endoleak. Although technical success was suboptimal, the patient remained clinically stable and event free. Data regarding the natural course and management of type Ia endoleaks following TEVAR for aortic dissection are sparse. Future research is required to establish the clinical and technical determinants of the need to treat these endoleaks and the best treatment strategy. PMID:27703967

  18. Chimney subsidence development in the Colorado Springs coal field, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Matheson, G.M.; Pearson, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Mining in the Colorodo Springs coal field took place from the 1880's to 1940's. The depth of mining in the coal field varied from about 10 meters to over 150 meters. Review of sequential historical aerial photographs from 1937 to 1960 indicated about 2400 chimney subsidence sinkholes had developed throughout the study area. Statistical analyses of the location and size of these sinkholes with respect to the time since mining, depth of mining, mined thickness and type of mining indicated definite trends in the time of occurrence, size, and location of these features. This data is valuable in the assessment of potential future subsidence in this and other areas of similar mining conditions.

  19. Removal of trace elements in hydrothermal plume at submarine volcanic arc hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitashima, K.

    2007-12-01

    On the study of geochemical fluxes of trace elements from the hydrothermal system, it is necessary to collect not only samples by the hydro-cast from surface ship and fluid samples using a submersible but also temporally and spatially continuous samples ranging from a fluid to a hydrothermal plume. For that purpose, the sampling method along the diluting and rising plume just after erupting from a hydrothermal vent is effective. The mini CTDT-RMS was installed onto the submersible. The hydrothermal plume samples were collected with monitoring the anomalies of temperature and turbidity by taking the distance from the hydrothermal vent gradually. Unfiltered sample for total (particulate + dissolved) trace element concentration and filtered sample for dissolved trace element concentration were analyzed on land. In V, Ni, Cu, Mo, Cd, Pb and Zn, particulate form was predominant in the fluid. The elements that are easy to form a sulfide such as Cu, Cd and Pb were removed as a sulfide precipitate from the fluid before erupting to the deep ocean. Therefore, the concentration of these trace elements in the hydrothermal plume showed superiority of a dissolved form, and was slightly high or same concentration in the deep ocean. The concentration of Fe in the fluid was extremely higher (500 - 100,000 times) than that in the deep ocean, and showed a fifty-fifty partition between dissolved form and particulate form. In the hydrothermal plume, Fe formed hydroxide mainly and was removed gradually from the plume as a particulate form in dilution and diffusion process of the plume. These hydroxides may play a role of the precipitant that coprecipitate with absorbing the other trace elements. Because Mn is hard to deposit as a sulfide, dissolved form was predominant in the fluid and Mn showed extreme high concentration same as Fe. Mn was discharged to the deep ocean as a dissolved form and removed from the plume as an oxide with increasing the particulate form gradually in dilution

  20. Fairy chimney erosion rates on Cappadocia ignimbrites, Turkey: Insights from cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarikaya, Mehmet Akif; Çiner, Attila; Zreda, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Cappadocia, in the Central Anatolian Plateau of Turkey, is famous for its unique landscape and unusual rock formations. The development of this landscape dates back to Late Miocene epoch (c. 10 million years) when volcanoes spread pyroclastic deposits over an area of about 20,000 km2. The volcanism continued for several millions of years and laid down thick and colorful ignimbrite layers. The evolution of the Cappadocian landscape starts with nearly-horizontal plateaus, which are then dissected, usually along cooling fractures, to form mushroom-like structures (hoodoos) locally known as "fairy chimneys". Different layers of ignimbrites have different resistance to erosion: softer layers (necks) are easier to erode compared to the harder ignimbrites (caps). When the chimneys are isolated, the caps play an important role in slowing further erosion of softer layers. When the caps finally drop or completely erode away, the soft necks of the chimneys are quickly destroyed. Here, for the first time, we have determined the bedrock erosion rates at the three evolution stages of fairy chimneys using the cosmogenic chlorine-36 (36Cl): the pre-chimney (plateaus) stage, the chimney stage and the post-chimney stage. The data show that the plateaus erode at a very low rate between 0.58 ± 0.02 cm/ky and 0.93 ± 0.05 cm/ky. When dissection of a plateau starts, the erosion rate increases to about 4.5 ± 0.6 cm/ky. The caps of chimneys have erosion rates between 3.21 ± 0.36 cm/ky and 3.39 ± 0.36 cm/ky. Once the chimneys disappear, erosion rates increase significantly to 28.0 ± 9.9 cm/ky.

  1. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  2. Near-bottom water column anomalies associated with active hydrothermal venting at Aeolian arc volcanoes, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. L.; Carey, S.; Bell, K. L.; Baker, E. T.; Faure, K.; Rosi, M.; Marani, M.; Nomikou, P.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrothermal deposits such as metalliferous sediments, Fe-Mn crusts, and massive sulfides are common on the submarine volcanoes of the Aeolian arc (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), but the extent and style of active hydrothermal venting is less well known. A systematic water column survey in 2007 found helium isotope ratios indicative of active venting at 6 of the 9 submarine volcanoes surveyed plus the Marsili back-arc spreading center (Lupton et al., 2011). Other plume indicators, such as turbidity and temperature anomalies were weak or not detected. In September 2011, we conducted five ROV Hercules dives at Eolo, Enarete, and Palinuro volcanoes during an E/V Nautilus expedition. Additionally, two dives explored the Casoni seamount on the southern flank of Stromboli where a dredge returned apparently warm lava in 2002 (Gamberi, 2006). Four PMEL MAPRs, with temperature, optical backscatter (particles), and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) sensors, were arrayed along the lowermost 50 m of the Hercules/Argus cable during the dives to assess the relationship between seafloor observations and water column anomalies. Active venting was observed at each of the volcanoes visited. Particle anomalies were weak or absent, consistent with the 2007 CTD surveys, but ORP anomalies were common. Venting at Eolo volcano was characterized by small, localized patches of yellow-orange bacteria; living tubeworms were observed at one location. ORP anomalies (-1 to -22 mv) were measured at several locations, primarily along the walls of the crescent-shaped collapse area (or possible caldera) east of the Eolo summit. At Enarete volcano, we found venting fluids with temperatures up to 5°C above ambient as well as small, fragile iron-oxide chimneys. The most intense ORP anomaly (-140 mv) occurred at a depth of about 495 m on the southeast side of the volcano, with smaller anomalies (-10 to -20 mv) more common as the ROV moved upslope to the summit. At Palinuro volcano, multiple dives located

  3. Gold deposition by sulfidation of ferrous Fe in the lacustrine sediments of the Pueblo Viejo district (Dominican Republic): The effect of Fe-C-S diagenesis on later hydrothermal mineralization in a Maar-Diatreme complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kettler, R.M.; Rye, R.O.; Kesler, S.E.; Meyers, P.A.; Polanco, J.; Russell, N.

    1992-01-01

    mineralization in the sedimentary rocks formed when a hydrothermal fluid encountered reactive Fe2+ in diagenetic siderite. The ensuing pyrite deposition consumed H2S and destabilized the Au (HS)-2 complex, leading to precipitation of Au. The capacity of the sedimentary rocks to consume H2S and precipitate Au was controlled by the amount of non-pyrite Fe present as siderite. The abundance of siderite was controlled by the extent of pyrite formation during diagenesis. ?? 1992.

  4. Linking geology, fluid chemistry, and microbial activity of basalt- and ultramafic-hosted deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

    PubMed

    Perner, M; Hansen, M; Seifert, R; Strauss, H; Koschinsky, A; Petersen, S

    2013-07-01

    Hydrothermal fluids passing through basaltic rocks along mid-ocean ridges are known to be enriched in sulfide, while those circulating through ultramafic mantle rocks are typically elevated in hydrogen. Therefore, it has been estimated that the maximum energy in basalt-hosted systems is available through sulfide oxidation and in ultramafic-hosted systems through hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, thermodynamic models suggest that the greatest biomass potential arises from sulfide oxidation in basalt-hosted and from hydrogen oxidation in ultramafic-hosted systems. We tested these predictions by measuring biological sulfide and hydrogen removal and subsequent autotrophic CO2 fixation in chemically distinct hydrothermal fluids from basalt-hosted and ultramafic-hosted vents. We found a large potential of microbial hydrogen oxidation in naturally hydrogen-rich (ultramafic-hosted) but also in naturally hydrogen-poor (basalt-hosted) hydrothermal fluids. Moreover, hydrogen oxidation-based primary production proved to be highly attractive under our incubation conditions regardless whether hydrothermal fluids from ultramafic-hosted or basalt-hosted sites were used. Site-specific hydrogen and sulfide availability alone did not appear to determine whether hydrogen or sulfide oxidation provides the energy for primary production by the free-living microbes in the tested hydrothermal fluids. This suggests that more complex features (e.g., a combination of oxygen, temperature, biological interactions) may play a role for determining which energy source is preferably used in chemically distinct hydrothermal vent biotopes.

  5. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal sediments from Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiannan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Fuqing; Wang, Bing; Luan, Zhendong; Chen, Chang'an; Yan, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Thirty sediment subsamples were recovered from the Iheya North hydrothermal field (with an average of 38 m away from the hydrothermal vent) in the middle Okinawa Trough. Samples were obtained by the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian during the virgin cruise of the R/V Kexue in 2014 with the application of push cores. The chemical compositions of the sediments show that the hydrothermal sediments near the hydrothermal vent are mainly composed of SO3, ZnO and Fe2O3. Moreover, the hydrothermal sediments are also highly enriched in Pb, As, Sb, Hg, Se, Ag, Ba, Mo and Cd comparing with previous analysis results. On the other hand, the concentrations of Sr, Hg and Ag in studied sediments are strongly and positively correlated, these elements can be used as an hydrothermal indicator. In addition, a factor analysis of the sediments suggested that the sediments were mainly influenced by hydrothermal origin, and terrestrial and biogenic input are limited in studied area. It is also suggested that different stages of crystallization were involved in the formation of hydrothermal chimney from factor analysis.

  6. Numerical simulation and comparison of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants: the case for Lanzhou.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fei; Li, Huashan; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) generates updraft wind through the green house effect. In this paper, the performances of two SCPP styles, that is, the conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and the sloped solar chimney power plant (SSCPP), are compared through a numerical simulation. A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is built to predict the performances of the SCPP. The model is validated through a comparison with the reported results from the Manzanares prototype. The annual performances of the CSCPP and the SSCPP are compared by taking Lanzhou as a case study. Numerical results indicate that the SSCPP holds a higher efficiency and generates smoother power than those of the CSCPP, and the effective pressure in the SSCPP is relevant to both the chimney and the collector heights.

  7. Numerical simulation and comparison of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants: the case for Lanzhou.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fei; Li, Huashan; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) generates updraft wind through the green house effect. In this paper, the performances of two SCPP styles, that is, the conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and the sloped solar chimney power plant (SSCPP), are compared through a numerical simulation. A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is built to predict the performances of the SCPP. The model is validated through a comparison with the reported results from the Manzanares prototype. The annual performances of the CSCPP and the SSCPP are compared by taking Lanzhou as a case study. Numerical results indicate that the SSCPP holds a higher efficiency and generates smoother power than those of the CSCPP, and the effective pressure in the SSCPP is relevant to both the chimney and the collector heights. PMID:24489515

  8. Interference Effects for a Group of Two Reinforced Concrete Chimneys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, H.-J.; Kasperski, M.

    1999-10-01

    Based on wind tunnel experiments in a simulated boundary layer flow, interference effects for a group of two 200 m high reinforced concrete chimneys are investigated, in particular the effect of the natural frequencies of the structure on the response. The wind induced forces are measured by a force balance which acts as a mechanical filter. This distortion has to be removed in the frequency domain. For translating the wind tunnel results to full-scale results, the measured signals have to be weighted additionally by the mechanical admittance of the real structure, taking into account the appropriate frequency scale. After correction and weighting in the frequency domain, the signals are re-transferred to the time domain to sample the extremes of the action effects, i.e., the responses, which now include the quasi-static and resonant contribution. To obtain a sufficiently high statistical stability, 60 independent runs are performed for each interference situation. The analysis of the extremes clearly shows that for interference situations the coefficient of variation of the extremes is high. Therefore, an appropriate fractile of the extremes should be used to define the design wind load. This fractile is obtained assuming a Gumbel distribution for the probability distribution of the extreme action effects. Additionally, an appropriate time scale has to be taken into account. The difference between the proposed fractile and the often applied mean value of the extremes is large, with differences up to 20%. Interference leads to a mixed excitation. Besides resonance due to the turbulence of the oncoming flow, considerable resonant excitation may occur due to wake buffeting. While in the first case a lower value of the natural frequency leads to larger action effects, resonance effects due to wake buffeting become worse for a higher value of the natural frequency. Since in the design calculations the natural frequency can be estimated only within a remaining

  9. Petroleum associated with polymetallic sulfide in sediment from gorda ridge.

    PubMed

    Kvenvolden, K A; Rapp, J B; Hostettler, F D; Morton, J L; King, J D; Claypool, G E

    1986-12-01

    A sediment sample, impregnated with asphaltic petroleum and polymetallic sulfide, was dredged from the southern end of Gorda Ridge (the Escanaba Trough) off northern California, within the offshore Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States. The molecular distributions of hydrocarbons in this petroleum show that it was probably derived from terrestrial organic matter in turbidite sediment filling the Escanaba Trough. Hydrothermal activity at the Gorda Ridge spreading center provided the heat for petroleum formation and was the source of fluids for sulfide mineralization. PMID:17778005

  10. Evidence supporting biologically mediated sulfide oxidation in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. D.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    The sulfide concentration of fluids in hydrothermal ecosystems is one of several factors determining the transition to microbial photosynthesis (Cox et al., 2011, Chem. Geol. 280, 344-351). To investigate the loss of sulfide in Yellowstone hot spring systems, measurements of total dissolved sulfide with respect to time were made in incubation experiments conducted on 0.2-micron filtered (killed controls) vs. unfiltered hot spring water at locations with three different pH:sulfide combinations (pH 2.5 with 50 μM sulfide, 5.2 with 5.6 μM sulfide, and 8.3 with 86 μM sulfide). At the higher pH values, the experiments yielded similar rates of sulfide loss in filtered and unfiltered water of approximately 0.8 (pH 5.2) and 7.6 nmol sulfide L-1s-1 (pH 8.3). At the acidic spring, the unfiltered water lost sulfide at a rate 1.6 times that of the filtered water (8.2 vs. 5 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). These results suggest that the pelagic biomass at the pH 5.2 and 8.3 springs may not affect sulfide loss, whereas in the pH 2.5 spring there appears to be an effect. In addition, the incubation of filamentous biomass with unfiltered water increased the rate of sulfide loss by approximately two-fold at a pH of 2.5 (59 vs. 31 nmol L-1s-1; Cox et al., 2011), five-fold at a pH of 5.2 (3.9 vs. 0.8 nmol sulfide L-1s-1), and barely increased the rate of sulfide loss at a pH of 8.3 (9.1 vs. 8.4 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). Sulfide is predominately present as HS- at a pH of 8.3, which may not be taken up as easily by microorganisms as the H2S (aq) that dominates sulfide speciation at pH 2.5 and 5.2. That the loss of sulfide at acidic pH is due to biotic rather than abiotic factors is further supported by studies with whole mat samples that show greater sulfide consumption than killed controls (D'Imperio et al., 2008, AEM 74, 5802-5808). Taken together, the results of these experiments suggest that the majority of sulfide oxidation occurs in the filamentous biomass of hot spring ecosystems, although

  11. Development of the lined masonry chimney oil appliance

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.; Strasser, J.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the development of the lined masonry chimney venting tables form the output of the Oil Heat Analysis Program 9OHVAP. These new tables are different from the prior format, offered in the Proceedings of the 1995 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop, paper No. 95-4. Issues expressed by representatives of the oil heat industry at last years conference during the Venting Technology Workshop resulted in subsequent discussions. A full day meeting was held, co-sponsored by BNL and the Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA), to address revision of the format of the venting tables prior to submission to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 31 Technical Committee. The resulting tables and text were submitted to NFPA during the first week of October, 1995. Since then minor changes were made reflecting the addition of data obtained by including intermediate firing rates (0.4, 0.65, and 0.85 gph) not included in the original tables which were developed in increments of 0.25 gph. The new tables address the specific question; {open_quotes}If remediation is required, what is the recommendation for the sizing of a metal liner and the appropriate firing rate range to be used with that liner?{close_quotes}

  12. Seismic-geochemical exploration mix reveals Ordovician dolomite chimneys

    SciTech Connect

    Tedesco, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Cincinnati, Findlay and Algonquin arch system extends from central Tennessee to southern Ontario, and along this trend are found shallow but prolific dolomite breccias, or chimneys, or Ordovician age. The reservoirs are difficult to explore for and, until the discovery of Stoney Point Field in 1983, were essentially found by accident. The Stoney Point Field in southern Michigan was found by an integrated approach utilizing surface geochemical and seismic methods. In southern Ontario, central Kentucky and Tennessee, the use of 2-D, 2-D swathe and, most recently, 3-D seismic surveys in conjunction with surface geochemistry has caused, sustained and increased success rates for exploration for these types of reserves. The Stoney Point Field was discovered using seismic and four surface geochemical methods. A dry hole was drilled first, and its location was based on seismic. Subsequently, a new location was drilled 100 feet to the west and encountered thick pay and is productive. These two wells and their close proximity indicate the difficulty in exploring for these reservoirs and the need for an integrated approach.

  13. Mineralization of Alvinella polychaete tubes at hydrothermal vents

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, M N; Little, C T S; Ball, A D; Glover, A G

    2015-01-01

    Alvinellid polychaete worms form multilayered organic tubes in the hottest and most rapidly growing areas of deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys. Over short periods of time, these tubes can become entirely mineralized within this environment. Documenting the nature of this process in terms of the stages of mineralization, as well as the mineral textures and end products that result, is essential for our understanding of the fossilization of polychaetes at hydrothermal vents. Here, we report in detail the full mineralization of Alvinella spp. tubes collected from the East Pacific Rise, determined through the use of a wide range of imaging and analytical techniques. We propose a new model for tube mineralization, whereby mineralization begins as templating of tube layer and sublayer surfaces and results in fully mineralized tubes comprised of multiple concentric, colloform, pyrite bands. Silica appeared to preserve organic tube layers in some samples. Fine-scale features such as protein fibres, extracellular polymeric substances and two types of filamentous microbial colonies were also found to be well preserved within a subset of the tubes. The fully mineralized Alvinella spp. tubes do not closely resemble known ancient hydrothermal vent tube fossils, corroborating molecular evidence suggesting that the alvinellids are a relatively recent polychaete lineage. We also compare pyrite and silica preservation of organic tissues within hydrothermal vents to soft tissue preservation in sediments and hot springs. PMID:25556400

  14. Mineralization of Alvinella polychaete tubes at hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, M N; Little, C T S; Ball, A D; Glover, A G

    2015-03-01

    Alvinellid polychaete worms form multilayered organic tubes in the hottest and most rapidly growing areas of deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys. Over short periods of time, these tubes can become entirely mineralized within this environment. Documenting the nature of this process in terms of the stages of mineralization, as well as the mineral textures and end products that result, is essential for our understanding of the fossilization of polychaetes at hydrothermal vents. Here, we report in detail the full mineralization of Alvinella spp. tubes collected from the East Pacific Rise, determined through the use of a wide range of imaging and analytical techniques. We propose a new model for tube mineralization, whereby mineralization begins as templating of tube layer and sublayer surfaces and results in fully mineralized tubes comprised of multiple concentric, colloform, pyrite bands. Silica appeared to preserve organic tube layers in some samples. Fine-scale features such as protein fibres, extracellular polymeric substances and two types of filamentous microbial colonies were also found to be well preserved within a subset of the tubes. The fully mineralized Alvinella spp. tubes do not closely resemble known ancient hydrothermal vent tube fossils, corroborating molecular evidence suggesting that the alvinellids are a relatively recent polychaete lineage. We also compare pyrite and silica preservation of organic tissues within hydrothermal vents to soft tissue preservation in sediments and hot springs. PMID:25556400

  15. Mineralization of Alvinella polychaete tubes at hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, M N; Little, C T S; Ball, A D; Glover, A G

    2015-03-01

    Alvinellid polychaete worms form multilayered organic tubes in the hottest and most rapidly growing areas of deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys. Over short periods of time, these tubes can become entirely mineralized within this environment. Documenting the nature of this process in terms of the stages of mineralization, as well as the mineral textures and end products that result, is essential for our understanding of the fossilization of polychaetes at hydrothermal vents. Here, we report in detail the full mineralization of Alvinella spp. tubes collected from the East Pacific Rise, determined through the use of a wide range of imaging and analytical techniques. We propose a new model for tube mineralization, whereby mineralization begins as templating of tube layer and sublayer surfaces and results in fully mineralized tubes comprised of multiple concentric, colloform, pyrite bands. Silica appeared to preserve organic tube layers in some samples. Fine-scale features such as protein fibres, extracellular polymeric substances and two types of filamentous microbial colonies were also found to be well preserved within a subset of the tubes. The fully mineralized Alvinella spp. tubes do not closely resemble known ancient hydrothermal vent tube fossils, corroborating molecular evidence suggesting that the alvinellids are a relatively recent polychaete lineage. We also compare pyrite and silica preservation of organic tissues within hydrothermal vents to soft tissue preservation in sediments and hot springs.

  16. Sulfide Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilles, John

    2007-02-01

    Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Series, Volume 61 David J. Vaughan, Editor Geochemical Society and Mineralogical Society of America; ISBN 0-939950-73-1 xiii + 714 pp.; 2006; $40. Sulfide minerals as a class represent important minor rock-forming minerals, but they are generally known as the chief sources of many economic metallic ores. In the past two decades, sulfide research has been extended to include important roles in environmental geology of sulfide weathering and resultant acid mine drainage, as well as in geomicrobiology in which bacteria make use of sulfides for metabolic energy sources. In the latter respect, sulfides played an important role in early evolution of life on Earth and in geochemical cycling of elements in the Earth's crust and hydrosphere.

  17. Vent fluid chemistry of the Rainbow hydrothermal system (36°N, MAR): Phase equilibria and in situ pH controls on subseafloor alteration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, W. E., Jr.; Pester, Nicholas J.; Ding, Kang; Rough, Mikaella

    2011-03-01

    The Rainbow hydrothermal field is located at 36°13.8'N-33°54.15'W at 2300 m depth on the western flank of a non-volcanic ridge between the South AMAR and AMAR segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The hydrothermal field consists of 10-15 active chimneys that emit high-temperature (˜365 °C) fluid. In July 2008, vent fluids were sampled during cruise KNOX18RR, providing a rich dataset that extends in time information on subseafloor chemical and physical processes controlling vent fluid chemistry at Rainbow. Data suggest that the Mg concentration of the hydrothermal end-member is not zero, but rather 1.5-2 mmol/kg. This surprising result may be caused by a combination of factors including moderately low dissolved silica, low pH, and elevated chloride of the hydrothermal fluid. Combining end-member Mg data with analogous data for dissolved Fe, Si, Al, Ca, and H 2, permits calculation of mineral saturation states for minerals thought appropriate for ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems at temperatures and pressures in keeping with constraints imposed by field observations. These data indicate that chlorite solid solution, talc, and magnetite achieve saturation in Rainbow vent fluid at a similar pH (T,P) (400 °C, 500 bar) of approximately 4.95, while higher pH values are indicated for serpentine, suggesting that serpentine may not coexist with the former assemblage at depth at Rainbow. The high Fe/Mg ratio of the Rainbow vent fluid notwithstanding, the mole fraction of clinochlore and chamosite components of chlorite solid solution at depth are predicted to be 0.78 and 0.22, respectively. In situ pH measurements made at Rainbow vents are in good agreement with pH (T,P) values estimated from mineral solubility calculations, when the in situ pH data are adjusted for temperature and pressure. Calculations further indicate that pH (T,P) and dissolved H 2 are extremely sensitive to changes in dissolved silica owing to constraints imposed by chlorite solid solution

  18. The Biogeochemistry of Sulfur in Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Mitchell; Rogers, K. L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The incorporation of sulfur into many biomolecules likely dates back to the development of the earliest metabolic strategies. Sulfur is common in enzymes and co-enzymes and is an indispensable structural component in many peptides and proteins. Early metabolism may have been heavily influenced by the abundance of sulfide minerals in hydrothermal systems. The incorporation of sulfur into many biomolecules likely dates back to the development of the earliest metabolic strategies. Sulfur is common in enzymes and co-enzymes and is an indispensable structural component in many peptides and proteins. Early metabolism may have been heavily influenced by the abundance of sulfide minerals in hydrothermal systems. Understanding how sulfur became prevalent in biochemical processes and many biomolecules requires knowledge of the reaction properties of sulfur-bearing compounds. We have previously estimated thermodynamic data for thiols, the simplest organic sulfur compounds, at elevated temperatures and pressures. If life began in hydrothermal environments, it is especially important to understand reactions at elevated temperatures among sulfur-bearing compounds and other organic molecules essential for the origin and persistence of life. Here we examine reactions that may have formed amino acids with thiols as reaction intermediates in hypothetical early Earth hydrothermal environments. (There are two amino acids, cysteine and methionine, that contain sulfur.) Our calculations suggest that significant amounts of some amino acids were produced in early Earth hydrothermal fluids, given reasonable concentrations H2, NH3, H2S and CO. For example, preliminary results indicate that glycine activities as high as 1 mmol can be reached in these systems at 100 C. Alanine formation from propanethiol is also a favorable reaction. On the other hand, the calculated equilibrium log activities of cysteine and serine from propanethiol are -21 and -19, respectively, at 100 C. These results

  19. Anhydrite precipitation in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    The composition and metal concentration of hydrothermal fluids venting at the seafloor is strongly temperature-dependent and fluids above 300°C are required to transport metals to the seafloor (Hannington et al. 2010). Ore-forming hydrothermal systems and high temperature vents in general are often associated with faults and fracture zones, i.e. zones of enhanced permeabilities that act as channels for the uprising hydrothermal fluid (Heinrich & Candela, 2014). Previous numerical models (Jupp and Schultz, 2000; Andersen et al. 2015) however have shown that high permeabilities tend to decrease fluid flow temperatures due to mixing with cold seawater and the resulting high fluid fluxes that lead to short residence times of the fluid near the heat source. A possible mechanism to reduce the permeability and thereby to focus high temperature fluid flow are mineral precipitation reactions that clog the pore space. Anhydrite for example precipitates from seawater if it is heated to temperatures above ~150°C or due to mixing of seawater with hydrothermal fluids that usually have high Calcium concentrations. We have implemented anhydrite reactions (precipitation and dissolution) in our finite element numerical models of hydrothermal circulation. The initial results show that the precipitation of anhydrite efficiently alters the permeability field, which affects the hydrothermal flow field as well as the resulting vent temperatures. C. Andersen et al. (2015), Fault geometry and permeability contrast control vent temperatures at the Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Geology, 43(1), 51-54. M. D. Hannington et al. (2010), Modern Sea-Floor Massive Sulfides and Base Metal Resources: Toward an Estimate of Global Sea-Floor Massive Sulfide Potential, in The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Innovative Exploration, and New Discoveries, edited by R. J. Goldfarb, E. E. Marsh and T. Monecke, pp. 317-338, Society of Economic Geologists

  20. Mineralizing conditions and source fluid composition of base metal sulfides in the Lon District, southeastern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, C. H.; Thomas, D.; García del Real, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Bird, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal base metal mineralization is rare in Iceland due to the scarcity of evolved magma bodies that discharge metal-rich aqueous fluids into bedrock. One exception is the Lon District of southeastern Iceland, where explosively emplaced rhyolitic breccias host base metal sulfide minerals. We performed petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses on samples collected in Lon to constrain the conditions of sulfide mineral formation. Based on outcrop and hand sample observations, hot, early-stage hydrothermal fluids precipitated sulfide minerals, quartz, and epidote in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. Cooler late-stage fluids precipitated carbonates and quartz in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. The order of precipitation of the sulfides was: galena, sphalerite, then chalcopyrite. Homogenization temperatures of liquid-dominated multi-phase fluid inclusions in hydrothermal early-stage quartz coeval with chalcopyrite cluster around 303 °C and 330 °C, indicating precipitation of metallic sulfides in two main hydrothermal fluid pulses early in the period of hydrothermal activity in the Lon District. Freezing point depression analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz show that the sulfide minerals precipitated from a solution that was 4 wt. % NaCl. The 𝛿34S values of sulfides indicate that early-stage hydrothermal sulfur was derived from igneous rocks, either through leaching by non-magmatic hydrothermal fluids or by exsolution of magmatic waters. Early stage epidote 𝛿D values were on average -65.96 per mil, about 14 per mil higher than reported values in epidotes from elsewhere in southeastern Iceland. The 𝛿13C and 𝛿18O values of late-stage carbonates indicate that late stage hydrothermal fluids were meteoric in origin. Collectively, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses suggest that early-stage aqueous fluids derived from a mixture of magmatic waters exsolved from the proximal Geitafell intrusion and meteoric

  1. Toward the Understanding and Optimization of Chimneys for Buoyantly Driven Biomass Stoves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prapas, Jason

    The vast majority of indoor combustion devices in the developed world make use of stacks (flues, vents, chimneys, smokestacks) to channel flue gases out of the operator space. In the developing world, where indoor air pollution kills several million people every year, the use of chimneys with biomass cooking and heating stoves has been met with limited success and a high level of controversy. Due to a lack of theoretical understanding, design criteria, poorly executed installation practices, and/or insufficient maintenance routines, many chimney stoves have exhibited inadequate indoor emissions reductions in addition to low thermal efficiencies. This work aims (a) shed light on the physical phenomenon of the "stack effect" as it pertains to dynamic, non-adiabatic, buoyancy-driven stoves (b) apply new understanding toward the optimization of two types of biomass chimney stoves: plancha or griddle type stoves popular in Central America and two-pot stoves common in South America. A numerical heat and fluid flow model was developed that takes into account the highly-coupled variables and dynamic nature of such systems. With a comprehensive physical model, parameter studies were conducted to determine how several field-relevant variables influence the performance of stack-outfitted systems. These parameters include, but are not limited to: power/wood consumption rate, chimney geometry, stove geometry, material properties, heat transfer, and ambient conditions. An instrumented experimental chimney was built to monitor relationships between air flow, differential pressure, gas temperatures, emissions, and thermal efficiency. The draft provided by chimneys was found to have a strong influence over the bulk air-to-fuel ratio of buoyantly-driven cookstoves, greatly affecting the stove's overall performance by affecting gas temperatures, emissions, and efficiency. Armed with new information from the modeling and experimental work, two new stoves were designed and optimized to

  2. Evidence for a Chemoautotrophically Based Food Web at Inactive Hydrothermal Vents (Manus Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dover, C. L.; Erickson, K.; Macko, S.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents are ephemeral systems. When venting shuts down, sulfide-dependent taxa die off, and non-vent taxa can colonize the hard substrata. In Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea), where active and inactive sulfide mounds are interspersed, hydroids, cladorhizid sponges, barnacles, and bamboo sponges, and other invertebrate types may occupy inactive sulfide mounds. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of animals occupying inactive sulfide mounds are consistent with nutritional dependence on either chemoautotrophically or photosynthetically produced organic material, but sulfur isotopic compositions of these animals point to a chemoautotrophic source of sulfur from dissolved sulfide in vent fluids rather than sulfur derived from seawater sulfate through photosynthesis. Given that suspension-feeding and micro- carnivorous invertebrates are the biomass dominants at inactive sulfide mounds, the primary source of chemoautotrophic nutrition is likely suspended particulates and organisms delivered from nearby active vents.

  3. Archaeal diversity and distribution along thermal and geochemical gradients in hydrothermal sediments at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field in the Southern Okinawa trough.

    PubMed

    Nunoura, Takuro; Oida, Hanako; Nakaseama, Miwako; Kosaka, Ayako; Ohkubo, Satoru B; Kikuchi, Toru; Kazama, Hiromi; Hosoi-Tanabe, Shoko; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Kinoshita, Masataka; Hirayama, Hisako; Inagaki, Fumio; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Takai, Ken

    2010-02-01

    A variety of archaeal lineages have been identified using culture-independent molecular phylogenetic surveys of microbial habitats occurring in deep-sea hydrothermal environments such as chimney structures, sediments, vent emissions, and chemosynthetic macrofauna. With the exception of a few taxa, most of these archaea have not yet been cultivated, and their physiological and metabolic traits remain unclear. In this study, phylogenetic diversity and distribution profiles of the archaeal genes encoding small subunit (SSU) rRNA, methyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase subunit A, and the ammonia monooxygenase large subunit were characterized in hydrothermally influenced sediments at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field in the Southern Okinawa Trough. Sediment cores were collected at distances of 0.5, 2, or 5 m from a vent emission (90 degrees C). A moderate temperature gradient extends both horizontally and vertically (5 to 69 degrees C), indicating the existence of moderate mixing between the hydrothermal fluid and the ambient sediment pore water. The mixing of reductive hot hydrothermal fluid and cold ambient sediment pore water establishes a wide spectrum of physical and chemical conditions in the microbial habitats that were investigated. Under these different physico-chemical conditions, variability in archaeal phylotype composition was observed. The relationship between the physical and chemical parameters and the archaeal phylotype composition provides important insight into the ecophysiological requirements of uncultivated archaeal lineages in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments, giving clues for approximating culture conditions to be used in future culturing efforts.

  4. Beryllium 10 in hydrothermal vent deposits from the East Pacific Ridges: Role of sediments in the hydrothermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Tera, F.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1987-10-10

    Beryllium 10 concentrations were determined for 31 handpicked hydrothermal sulfides, six oxyhydroxides, seven basalts, and five sediments collected from the hydrothermally active areas of the East Pacific ridges. The samples includes specimens from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 21 /sup 0/N and 13 /sup 0/N, the Galapagos Rift, the Guaymas Basin, and the Gorda and the Juan de Fuca ridges. Additional samples from massive sulfides associated with the Oman ophiolites were studied. In all samples, we obtained values ranging from 0.04 x 10/sup 6/ atoms/g to 125 x 10/sup 6/ atoms/g, with the lowest values being very close to our blank (0.015 x 10/sup 6/ atoms/g). The data show systematic variations with sample location and type. The /sup 10/Be concentrations measured for the mid-ocean basalts are of the order of 0.3 x 10/sup 6/ atoms/g and reach 3800 x 10/sup 6/ atoms/g for the pelagic deep-sea sediments collected near the EPR 21 /sup 0/N. Based on their /sup 10/Be concentrations, we can clearly distinguish two categories of sulfides: sulfides containing low /sup 10/Be concentration (<10 /sup 6/ atoms/g) sitting directly on the mid-ocean basalt (EPR of Juan de Fuca), and sulfides with high /sup 10/Be concentration (>10/sup 6/ atoms/g) located atop of a thick pile of young sediments (Guaymas Basin or Gorda Ridge).

  5. A turbulent convection model with an observational context for a deep-sea hydrothermal plume in a time-variable cross flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavelle, J. W.; Di Iorio, Daniela; Rona, Peter

    2013-11-01

    A turbulent convection model for a hydrothermal fluid discharging into a tidally modulated, stratified cross flow is used to investigate time-variable conditions in plumes, such as the one rising from Dante, a sulfide mound at ˜2175 m depth on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. That plume is the consequence of the coalescence of 10 or more small, individual plumes from chimneys discharging hot, salt-diminished fluid into the near-bottom ocean. At Dante, the discharge encounters ambient horizontal currents with speeds oscillating from near zero to a maximum of ˜7 cm s-1, speeds which can bend a plume more than 45° from the vertical. Model results are compatible with field measurements of the plume footprint size and vertical velocity both 20 m above the source when earlier estimates for Dante's heat flux of ˜50 MW drive the convection. The small-scale short period variability of velocities and properties distributions observed in the field is mimicked in model results. Plumes pool above a source during periods of weak cross flows but stream away from the source, with more diluted concentrations and lower rise heights, at other times. Plume distributions, at identical cross-flow speeds, differ whether the flow is accelerating or decelerating. Small changes in background hydrographic profiles create differences in rise heights comparable to those caused by large changes in source buoyancy flux. If put into an entrainment context, results suggest an entrainment coefficient (αEFF) that varies from ˜0.11 to ˜0.025 with increasing height (2-76 m) above the source.

  6. The chimney-graft technique for preserving supra-aortic branches: a review.

    PubMed

    Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Mylonas, Spyridon N; Dalainas, Ilias; Sfyroeras, George S; Markatis, Fotis; Kotsis, Thomas; Kakisis, John; Liapis, Christos D

    2013-05-01

    Evolution in the endovascular era has influenced the management of aortic arch pathologies. "Chimney" or "snorkel" graft technique has been used as an alternative in high risk patients unfit for open repair. We reviewed the published literature on the chimney graft technique for preservation of the supra-aortic branches in order to provide an extensive insight of its feasibility and efficacy and investigate its outcomes. 18 reports were identified, with a total of 124 patients and 136 chimney. Primary technical success was achieved in 123/124 patients (99.2%). The perioperative mortality rate was 4.8% and the stroke rate was 4%, while events of spinal cord ischemia were rare. The overall endoleak rate was 18.5%; 13 patients (10.5%) developed a type I endoleak and 10 (8%) patients a type II endoleak. During a median follow-up period of 11.4 months (range, 0.87-20.1 months) all implanted chimney grafts remained patent. From this, we conclude that endovascular aortic arch repair with chimney grafts is associated with a lower mortality rate compared to totally open or hybrid reconstruction. However, the stroke rate remains noteworthy, and requires longterm data to elucidate.

  7. Detailed Observations and Sampling of the Sea Cliff Hydrothermal Field (GR-14) on the Northern Gorda Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, J. S.; Zierenberg, R.; Clague, D. A.; Von Damm, K. L.; Davis, A.; Goffredi, S.; Mayer, N.; Orphan, V.; Olsen, E.; Ross, S. L.

    2001-12-01

    During the summer of 2000, on a research cruise of the MBARI research ship, Western Flyer, we deployed the ROV Tiburon for a series of dives at the Sea Cliff Hydrothermal site on the northern Gorda Ridge. The Sea Cliff site is near the top of a terrace on the west facing rift valley wall (fault), about 300 meters above, and 3 km east of the ridge axis. The 1996 Gorda Ridge eruption occurred on axis in the region west and south of the vent site. The vents were first predicted on the basis of water column anomalies and seafloor structure, and the field was discovered in 1988 during dives of the Sea Cliff submersible. In 2000, we made 4 dives at the site and collected a suite of rock and vent fluid samples. The high temperature water vents from as many as 10 individual chimneys. Measured vent temperatures at several of the chimneys fall in a narrow range of around 304\\deg C. The chimneys are arrayed along two low ridges that are oriented roughly perpendicular to the strike of the rift valley. Venting fluids have low salinity indicating subsurface phase separation. The waters are isotopically enriched (\\delta 18O = 1.9%), suggesting extensive water-rock interaction. The chimneys themselves are primarily anhydrite and a pale green Mg-rich clay with minor amounts of amorphous silica, pyrrhotite, wurtzite, and isocubanite. The chimneys are delicate and are surrounded by aprons (5 -10 m) of collapsed chimney material. As a result, no macro fauna were observed colonizing the high temperature vents. Silica-rich hydrothermal crust and talus cover the fault slope. A broad region of diffuse venting surrounds the active chimneys and locally supports a rich biological community that includes blue ciliate mats near the vents, that give way to tube worm fields and low tube worm mounds formed on massive barite. The Sea Cliff Hydrothermal site is unusual in that it lies off axis and above the rift valley floor. Faulting must play a role in its location and perhaps geometry, and the

  8. Fenestrated and Chimney Technique for Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysm: A Systematic Review and Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Hu, Zhongzhou; Bai, Chujie; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tao; Ge, Yangyang; Luan, Shaoliang; Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Juxtarenal aortic aneurysms (JAA) account for approximately 15% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) and chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (CH-EVAR) are both effective methods to treat JAAs, but the comparative effectiveness of these treatment modalities is unclear. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify English language articles published between January 2005 and September 2013 on management of JAA with fenestrated and chimney techniques to conduct a systematic review to compare outcomes of patients with juxtarenal aortic aneurysm (JAA) treated with the two techniques. We compared nine F-EVAR cohort studies including 542 JAA patients and 8 CH-EVAR cohorts with 158 JAA patients regarding techniques success rates, 30-day mortality, late mortality, endoleak events and secondary intervention rates. The results of this systematic review indicate that both fenestrated and chimney techniques are attractive options for JAAs treatment with encouraging early and mid-term outcomes. PMID:26869488

  9. A galactic chimney in the Perseus arm of the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Normandeau, M; Taylor, A R; Dewdney, P E

    1996-04-25

    Galaxies are surrounded by large haloes of hot gas which must be replenished as the gas cools. This has led to the concept of galactic 'chimneys'--cavities in the interstellar medium, created by multiple supernova explosions, that can act as conduits for the efficient transport of hot gas from a galaxy's disk to its halo. Here we present a high-resolution map of atomic hydrogen in the Perseus arm of our galaxy, which shows clear evidence for the existence of such a chimney. This chimney appears to have been formed by the energetic winds from a cluster of young massive stars, and may currently have reached the stage of bowing out into the halo.

  10. Microbiological production and ecological flux of northwestern subduction hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunamura, M.; Okamura, K.; Noguchi, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Fukuba, T.; Yanagawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal system is one of the most important sources for heat and chemical flux from the oceanic crust to the global ocean. The rich biological community around the hydrothermal vent shows chemolithoautotrophic microbial production are important in deep sea ecosystems. More than 99% of microbiological available chemical components in hydrothermal vent fluid, e.g. sulfide, methane, hydrogen, Fe2+, and Mn2+, is released into surrounding seawater to construct hydrothermal plume, suggesting that the chemolithoautotrophic-microbial primary production in the hydrothermal plume is huge and important in the whole hydrothermal ecosystems. To understand the impact of hydrothermal plume to a microbial ecosystem and a connectivity with zooplankton, we targeted and investigated a total of 16 hydrothermal fileds (7 sites in Okinawa trough, 3 sites in Ogasawara arc, and 6 sites in Mariana arc and back arc) and investigated in several cruises under the TAIGA project in Japan. Hydrothermal fluids in the subduction system are rich in sulfide. The hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa trough, Ogasawara arc. and Mariana trough are characterized by rich in methane, poor in other reduced chemicals, and rich in iron, respectively. The major microbial composition was a potential sulfur oxidizing microbes SUP05 in the plume ecosystems, while an aerobic methanotrophic bacteria was secondary major member in methane-rich hydrothermal systems in Okinawa trough. Microbial quantitative and spatial distribution analyses of each plume site showed that the microbial population size and community structures are influenced by original chemical components of hydrothermal fluid, e.g. sulfide, methane and iron concentration. Microbial quantitative data indicated the removal/sedimentation of microbial cells from the plume and effect of phase separation in a same vent field through construction of gas-rich or gas-poor plumes. After the correlation of plume mixing effect, we estimates that the

  11. Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria Found at Slow-Spreading Ridge: a Case Study of Capelinhos Hydrothermal Vent (Lucky Strike, MAR 37°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, P. A.; Rommevaux, C.; Lesongeur, F.; Emerson, D.; Leleu, T.; Chavagnac, V.

    2015-12-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria becomes increasingly described in different geological settings from volcanically active seamounts, coastal waters, to diffuse hydrothermal vents near seafloor spreading centers [Emerson et al., 2010]. They have been mostly identified and described in Pacific Ocean, and have been only recently found in hydrothermal systems associated to slow spreading center of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) [Scott et al., 2015]. During the MoMARSAT'13 cruise at Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (MAR), a new hydrothermal site was discovered at about 1.5 km eastward from the lava lake and from the main hydrothermal vents. This active venting site, named Capelinhos, is therefore the most distant from the volcano, features many chimneys, both focused and diffuses. The hydrothermal end-member fluids from Capelinhos are different from those of the other sites of Lucky Strike, showing the highest content of iron (Fe/Mn≈3.96) and the lowest chlorinity (270 mmol/l) [Leleu et al., 2015]. Most of the chimneys exhibit rust-color surfaces and bacterial mats near diffuse flows. During the MoMARSAT'15 cruise, an active chimney, a small inactive one, and rust-color bacterial mat near diffuse flow were sampled at Capelinhos. Observations by SEM of the hydrothermal samples revealed the presence of iron oxides in an assemblage of tubular "sheaths", assembled "stalks", helical "stalks" and amorphous aggregates. These features are similar to those described from the Loihi iron-mats deposits and argue for the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Cultures under micro-aerobic and neutral pH conditions allowed us to isolate strains from the small inactive chimney. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolates and environmental samples will soon be performed, which should confirm the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria and reveal the organization of bacterial communities in this original and newly discovered hydrothermal site of the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Emerson

  12. A Semi-Empirical Model for Tilted-Gun Planar Magnetron Sputtering Accounting for Chimney Shadowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, J. K.; Metting, C. J.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approaches to composition and thickness profiles of sputtered thin-film samples are the key to expediting materials exploration for these materials. Here, an ICME-based semi-empirical approach to modeling the thickness of thin-film samples deposited via magnetron sputtering is developed. Using Yamamura's dimensionless differential angular sputtering yield and a measured deposition rate at a point in space for a single experimental condition, the model predicts the deposition profile from planar DC sputtering sources. The model includes corrections for off-center, tilted gun geometries as well as shadowing effects from gun chimneys used in most state-of-the-art sputtering systems. The modeling algorithm was validated by comparing its results with experimental deposition rates obtained from a sputtering system utilizing sources with a multi-piece chimney assembly that consists of a lower ground shield and a removable gas chimney. Simulations were performed for gun-tilts ranging from 0° to 31.3° from the vertical with and without the gas chimney installed. The results for the predicted and experimental angular dependence of the sputtering deposition rate were found to have an average magnitude of relative error of for a 0°-31.3° gun-tilt range without the gas chimney, and for a 17.7°-31.3° gun-tilt range with the gas chimney. The continuum nature of the model renders this approach reverse-optimizable, providing a rapid tool for assisting in the understanding of the synthesis-composition-property space of novel materials.

  13. Numerical analysis of the hemodynamics of an abdominal aortic aneurysm repaired using the endovascular chimney technique.

    PubMed

    Ben Gur, Hila; Kosa, Gabor; Brand, Moshe

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the hemodynamics in an abdominal aorta (AA) with an aneurysm repaired by a stent graft (SG) system using the chimney technique. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in a model of an AA repaired with a chimney stent graft (CSG) inserted into a renal artery parallel to an aortic SG and a model of a healthy AA. Comparing the simulation results of these two cases suggests that the presence of the CSG in the AA causes changes in average wall shear stress (WSS), potentially damaging recirculation zones, and additional changes in flow patterns. PMID:26736427

  14. Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporate downdraft chimneys

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some applications.

  15. Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some application.

  16. Chimney and periscope technique for emergent treatment of spontaneous aortic rupture.

    PubMed

    Trellopoulos, George; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Pelekas, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Athanasia; Argyriou, Christos; Georgiadis, George S

    2014-07-01

    Aortic rupture comprises a potentially fatal condition necessitating emergent treatment. Endovascular sealing of the rupture site is often combined with the use of chimney- and periscope stent placement to preserve perfusion of aortic branches. We present a case of successful endovascular management of contained aortic rupture in a 78-year-old patient. The left brachial access facilitated stenting of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries, whereas the left femoral route served stenting of the renal artery. One-month follow-up confirmed complete sealing, stent patency, and absence of endograft migration. The combined periscope and chimney technique is feasible and effective in the emergency setting. PMID:24517987

  17. Liquid CO2 venting on the seafloor: Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Uta; Tsunogai, Urumu; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Nakaseama, Miwako; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nunoura, Takuro; Nakamura, Ko-ichi

    2006-08-01

    We determined the chemical and isotopic compositions of the liquid CO2 found on Yonaguni IV knoll hydrothermal site, as well as those in hydrothermal fluid venting from the surrounding chimneys. The δ13C of both CO2 and CH4 in the liquid CO2 almost coincide with those in the hydrothermal fluid, suggesting that the liquid CO2 must be derived from the hydrothermal fluid. While showing homogeneous δ13C, the hydrothermal fluids exhibit wide variation in gas contents. Active phase separation must be taking place within the conduits. Besides, H2-depletion in the liquid CO2 suggests formation of solid CO2-hydrate must also precede the venting of liquid CO2. In conclusion, liquid CO2 must be produced through following subseafloor processes: phase separation of hydrothermal fluid due to boiling, formation of solid CO2-hydrate due to cooling of vapor phase, and melting of the solid CO2-hydrate to liquid CO2 due to a temperature increase within the sedimentary layer.

  18. The hydrothermal-convection systems of Kilauea: An historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. . Federal Center); Kauahikaua, J.P. . Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    Kilauea is one of only two basaltic volcanoes in the world where geothermal power has been produced commercially. Little is known about the origin, size and longevity of its hydrothermal-convection systems. The authors review the history of scientific studies aimed at understanding these systems and describe their commercial development. Geothermal energy is a controversial issue in Hawaii, partly because of hydrogen sulfide emissions and concerns about protection of rain forests.

  19. The hydrothermal-convection systems of kilauea: an historical perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Kauahikaua, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Kilauea is one of only two basaltic volcanoes in the world where geothermal power has been produced commercially. Little is known about the origin, size and longevity of its hydrothermal-convection systems. We review the history of scientific studies aimed at understanding these systems and describe their commercial development. Geothermal energy is a controversial issue in Hawai'i, partly because of hydrogen sulfide emissions and concerns about protection of rain forests. ?? 1993.

  20. Zn, Fe and S isotope fractionation in a large hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnevin, D.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C. D.; Menuge, J. F.; Blakeman, R. J.

    2012-07-01

    The genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits is of crucial economic importance. This study investigates the extent, causes and consequences of zinc and iron isotope fractionation in a large hydrothermal system at the world-class Navan Zn-Pb orebody, Ireland. Large variations in Zn, Fe and S isotope compositions have been measured in microdrilled sphalerite (ZnS) at the millimetre scale. δ66Zn and δ56Fe display a well-defined positive correlation and both also correlate with δ34S. These relationships represent the combined effects of kinetic Zn and Fe isotope fractionation during sphalerite precipitation, and S isotope variation through mixing of hot, metal-rich hydrothermal fluids and cool, bacteriogenic sulfide-bearing brines. Combined with S isotope data, δ56Fe and δ66Zn data on mine concentrates confirm that hydrothermal sulfide is a minor component of the overall deposit signature. Our data suggest that incoming pulses of metal-rich hydrothermal fluid triggered sulfide mineralisation, and that rapid precipitation of sphalerite from hydrothermal fluids will lead to strong kinetic fractionation of Zn and Fe isotopes at very short time and length scales, thereby limiting the use of Fe and Zn isotopes as exploration tools within deposits, but revealing the possibility of detecting new deposits from isotopically heavy Zn-Fe geochemical halos.

  1. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

  2. METEORIC-HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, Robert E.; Taylor, Hugh P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the salient characteristics of meteoric-hydrothermal systems, emphasing the isotopic systematics. Discussions of permeable-medium fluid dynamics and the geology and geochemistry of modern geothermal systems are also provided, because they are essential to any understanding of hydrothermal circulation. The main focus of the paper is on regions of ancient meteoric-hydrothermal activity, which give us information about the presently inaccessible, deep-level parts of modern geothermal systems. It is shown oxygen and hydrogen isotopes provide a powerful method to discover and map fossil hydrothermal systems and to investigate diverse associated aspects of rock alteration and ore deposition.

  3. Microbial diversity in deep-sea sediments from the Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent system of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Teresa; Pinho, Diogo; Egas, Conceição; Froufe, Hugo; Altermark, Bjørn; Candeias, Carla; Santos, Ricardo S; Bettencourt, Raul

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal sediments are known to support remarkably diverse microbial consortia. Cultureindependent sequence-based technologies have extensively been used to disclose the associated microbial diversity as most of the microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain uncultured. Here we provide the first description of the microbial community diversity found on sediments from Menez Gwen vent system. We compared hydrothermally influenced sediments, retrieved from an active vent chimney at 812 m depth, with non-hydrothermally influenced sediments, from a 1400 m depth bathyal plain. Considering the enriched methane and sulfur composition of Menez Gwen vent fluids, and the sediment physicochemical properties in each sampled area, we hypothesized that the site-associated microbes would be different. To address this question, taxonomic profiles of bacterial, archaeal and micro-eukaryotic representatives were studied by rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Communities were shown to be significantly different and segregated by sediment geographical area. Specific mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaeal (e.g., Archaeoglobus, ANME-1) and bacterial (e.g., Caldithrix, Thermodesulfobacteria) taxa were highly abundant near the vent chimney. In contrast, bathyal-associated members affiliated to more ubiquitous phylogroups from deep-ocean sediments (e.g., Thaumarchaeota MGI, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria). This study provides a broader picture of the biological diversity and microbial biogeography, and represents a preliminary approach to the microbial ecology associated with the deep-sea sediments from the Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent field.

  4. Microbial diversity in deep-sea sediments from the Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent system of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Teresa; Pinho, Diogo; Egas, Conceição; Froufe, Hugo; Altermark, Bjørn; Candeias, Carla; Santos, Ricardo S; Bettencourt, Raul

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal sediments are known to support remarkably diverse microbial consortia. Cultureindependent sequence-based technologies have extensively been used to disclose the associated microbial diversity as most of the microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain uncultured. Here we provide the first description of the microbial community diversity found on sediments from Menez Gwen vent system. We compared hydrothermally influenced sediments, retrieved from an active vent chimney at 812 m depth, with non-hydrothermally influenced sediments, from a 1400 m depth bathyal plain. Considering the enriched methane and sulfur composition of Menez Gwen vent fluids, and the sediment physicochemical properties in each sampled area, we hypothesized that the site-associated microbes would be different. To address this question, taxonomic profiles of bacterial, archaeal and micro-eukaryotic representatives were studied by rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Communities were shown to be significantly different and segregated by sediment geographical area. Specific mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaeal (e.g., Archaeoglobus, ANME-1) and bacterial (e.g., Caldithrix, Thermodesulfobacteria) taxa were highly abundant near the vent chimney. In contrast, bathyal-associated members affiliated to more ubiquitous phylogroups from deep-ocean sediments (e.g., Thaumarchaeota MGI, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria). This study provides a broader picture of the biological diversity and microbial biogeography, and represents a preliminary approach to the microbial ecology associated with the deep-sea sediments from the Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent field. PMID:26375668

  5. The metatranscriptome of a deep-sea hydrothermal plume is dominated by water column methanotrophs and lithotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Lesniewski, Ryan A; Jain, Sunit; Anantharaman, Karthik; Schloss, Patrick D; Dick, Gregory J

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms mediate geochemical processes in deep-sea hydrothermal vent plumes, which are a conduit for transfer of elements and energy from the subsurface to the oceans. Despite this important microbial influence on marine geochemistry, the ecology and activity of microbial communities in hydrothermal plumes is largely unexplored. Here, we use a coordinated metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach to compare microbial communities in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal plumes to background waters above the plume and in the adjacent Carmen Basin. Despite marked increases in plume total RNA concentrations (3–4 times) and microbially mediated manganese oxidation rates (15–125 times), plume and background metatranscriptomes were dominated by the same groups of methanotrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. Abundant community members of Guaymas Basin seafloor environments (hydrothermal sediments and chimneys) were not prevalent in the plume metatranscriptome. De novo metagenomic assembly was used to reconstruct genomes of abundant populations, including Marine Group I archaea, Methylococcaceae, SAR324 Deltaproteobacteria and SUP05 Gammaproteobacteria. Mapping transcripts to these genomes revealed abundant expression of genes involved in the chemolithotrophic oxidation of ammonia (amo), methane (pmo) and sulfur (sox). Whereas amo and pmo gene transcripts were abundant in both plume and background, transcripts of sox genes for sulfur oxidation from SUP05 groups displayed a 10–20-fold increase in plumes. We conclude that the biogeochemistry of Guaymas Basin hydrothermal plumes is mediated by microorganisms that are derived from seawater rather than from seafloor hydrothermal environments such as chimneys or sediments, and that hydrothermal inputs serve as important electron donors for primary production in the deep Gulf of California. PMID:22695860

  6. The metatranscriptome of a deep-sea hydrothermal plume is dominated by water column methanotrophs and lithotrophs.

    PubMed

    Lesniewski, Ryan A; Jain, Sunit; Anantharaman, Karthik; Schloss, Patrick D; Dick, Gregory J

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms mediate geochemical processes in deep-sea hydrothermal vent plumes, which are a conduit for transfer of elements and energy from the subsurface to the oceans. Despite this important microbial influence on marine geochemistry, the ecology and activity of microbial communities in hydrothermal plumes is largely unexplored. Here, we use a coordinated metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach to compare microbial communities in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal plumes to background waters above the plume and in the adjacent Carmen Basin. Despite marked increases in plume total RNA concentrations (3-4 times) and microbially mediated manganese oxidation rates (15-125 times), plume and background metatranscriptomes were dominated by the same groups of methanotrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. Abundant community members of Guaymas Basin seafloor environments (hydrothermal sediments and chimneys) were not prevalent in the plume metatranscriptome. De novo metagenomic assembly was used to reconstruct genomes of abundant populations, including Marine Group I archaea, Methylococcaceae, SAR324 Deltaproteobacteria and SUP05 Gammaproteobacteria. Mapping transcripts to these genomes revealed abundant expression of genes involved in the chemolithotrophic oxidation of ammonia (amo), methane (pmo) and sulfur (sox). Whereas amo and pmo gene transcripts were abundant in both plume and background, transcripts of sox genes for sulfur oxidation from SUP05 groups displayed a 10-20-fold increase in plumes. We conclude that the biogeochemistry of Guaymas Basin hydrothermal plumes is mediated by microorganisms that are derived from seawater rather than from seafloor hydrothermal environments such as chimneys or sediments, and that hydrothermal inputs serve as important electron donors for primary production in the deep Gulf of California.

  7. Inorganic nitrogen reduction and stability under simulated hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Jay A; Hazen, Robert M; Yoder, Hatten S

    2008-12-01

    Availability of reduced nitrogen is considered a prerequisite for the genesis of life from prebiotic precursors. Most atmospheric and oceanic models for the Hadean Earth predict a mildly oxidizing environment that is conducive to the formation and stability of only oxidized forms of nitrogen. A possible environment where reduction of oxidized nitrogen to ammonium has been speculated to occur is aqueous hydrothermal systems. We examined a suite of transition metal oxides and sulfides for their ability to reduce nitrate and nitrite, as well as oxidize ammonia, under hot (300 degrees C) high-pressure (50-500 MPa) aqueous conditions. In general, iron sulfides exhibited the most rapid and complete conversion noted, followed by nickel and copper sulfides to a much lower degree. Of the oxides examined, only magnetite exhibited any ability to reduce NO(3)(-) or NO(2)(-). Ammonium was stable or exhibited small losses (<20%) in contact with all the mineral phases and conditions tested. The results support the idea that hydrothermal systems could have provided significant amounts of reduced nitrogen to their immediate environments. The enhanced availability of reduced nitrogen in hydrothermal systems also has important implications for prebiotic metabolic pathways where nitrogen availability is critical to the production of amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds. PMID:19191539

  8. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Deborah S; Karson, Jeffrey A; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Yoerger, Dana R; Shank, Timothy M; Butterfield, David A; Hayes, John M; Schrenk, Matthew O; Olson, Eric J; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S; Brazelton, William J; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Lilley, Marvin D; Baross, John A; Summons, Roger E; Sylva, Sean P

    2005-03-01

    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems. PMID:15746419

  9. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Deborah S; Karson, Jeffrey A; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Yoerger, Dana R; Shank, Timothy M; Butterfield, David A; Hayes, John M; Schrenk, Matthew O; Olson, Eric J; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S; Brazelton, William J; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Lilley, Marvin D; Baross, John A; Summons, Roger E; Sylva, Sean P

    2005-03-01

    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems.

  10. Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Lane, A. L.; Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a non-contact, optical life detection instrument that can detect organic chemical biosignatures in a number of different environments, including dry land, shallow aqueous, deep marine or in ice. Hence, the instrument is appropriate as a biosignature survey tool both for Mars exploration or in situ experiments in an ice-covered ocean such as one might wish to explore on Europa. Here, we report the results we obtained on an expedition aboard the Russian oceanographic vessel Akademik Mstislav Keldysh to hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean using our life detection instrument MCDUVE, a multichannel, deep ultraviolet excitation fluorescence detector. MCDUVE detected organic material distribution on rocks near the vent, as well as direct detection of organisms, both microbial and microscopic. We also were able to detect organic material issuing directly from vent chimneys, measure the organic signature of the water column as we ascended, and passively observe the emission of light directly from some vents.

  11. Geochemistry of fluid phases and sediments: Relevance to hydrothermal circulation in Middle Valley, ODP Legs 139 and 169

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gieskes, J.M.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Goodfellow, W.D.; James, R.H.; Baker, P.A.; Ishibashi, J.-I.

    2002-01-01

    Geochemical and isotopic studies of pore fluids and solid phases recovered from the Dead Dog and Bent Hill hydrothermal sites in Middle Valley (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 169) have been compared with similar data obtained previously from these sites during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 139. Although generally the hydrothermal systems reflect non-steady state conditions, the data allow an assessment of the history of the hydrothermal processes. Sediment K/A1 ratios as well as the distribution of anhydrite in the sediments suggest that the Dead Dog hydrothermal field has been, and still is, active. In contrast, similar data in the Bent Hill hydrothermal field indicate a waning of hydrothermal activity. Pore fluid and hydrothermal vent data in the Dead Dog hydrothermal field are similar in nature to the data collected during ODP Leg 139. In the area of the Bent Hill sulfide deposit, however, the pore water data indicate that recent wholesale flushing of the sediment column with relatively unaltered seawater has obliterated a previous record of hydrothermal activity in the pore fluids. Data from the deepest part of Hole 1035A in the Bent Hill locality show the presence of hydrothermal fluids at greater depths in this area. This suggests the origin of the hydrothermal fluids found to be emanating from Hole 1035F, which constitutes one of the first man made hydrothermal vents in the Middle Valley hydrothermal system. Similarly, CORKed Hole 858G, because of seal failures, has acted as a hydrothermal vent, with sulfide deposits forming inside the CORK. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thioarsenates in sulfidic waters.

    PubMed

    Stauder, S; Raue, B; Sacher, F

    2005-08-15

    It has long been recognized that the formation of soluble arsenic sulfur complexes plays a key role for the mobility and toxicity of arsenic in sulfate-reducing environments. Knowledge of the exact arsenic species is essential to understand the behavior of arsenic in sulfidic aquifers and to develop remediation strategies. In the past, monomeric and trimeric thioarsenites were assumed to be the existing species in sulfidic systems. In this study, thioarsenates were identified by IC-ICP/MS in arsenite- and sulfide-containing solutions as well as in a reduced groundwater from a contaminated site. The unexpected finding of an oxidation of As(lll) to As(V) in thioarsenates in strongly reducing systems can be explained by the high affinity between As(Ill) and sulfur. In sulfide-containing solutions without oxidant, As(lll) therefore undergoes disproportionation to thioarsenates (As(V)) and elemental arsenic. It has previously been supposed that mobility as well as toxicity of arsenic increases if the redox state decreases. For sulfidic waters, the opposite is probably the case. Thus, the formation of thioarsenates could be used in connection with remediation strategies. Thioarsenates are highly sensitive to oxygen and pH. This is important for analytical procedures. A loss of soluble arsenic as well as a conversion to arsenite and arsenate may occur if water samples containing thioarsenates are analyzed with conventional methods.

  13. Sulfur and oxygen isotope insights into sulfur cycling in shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, Milos, Greece

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-sea (5 m depth) hydrothermal venting off Milos Island provides an ideal opportunity to target transitions between igneous abiogenic sulfide inputs and biogenic sulfide production during microbial sulfate reduction. Seafloor vent features include large (>1 m2) white patches containing hydrothermal minerals (elemental sulfur and orange/yellow patches of arsenic-sulfides) and cells of sulfur oxidizing and reducing microorganisms. Sulfide-sensitive film deployed in the vent and non-vent sediments captured strong geochemical spatial patterns that varied from advective to diffusive sulfide transport from the subsurface. Despite clear visual evidence for the close association of vent organisms and hydrothermalism, the sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of pore fluids did not permit delineation of a biotic signal separate from an abiotic signal. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the free gas had uniform δ34S values (2.5 ± 0.28‰, n = 4) that were nearly identical to pore water H2S (2.7 ± 0.36‰, n = 21). In pore water sulfate, there were no paired increases in δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 as expected of microbial sulfate reduction. Instead, pore water δ34SSO4 values decreased (from approximately 21‰ to 17‰) as temperature increased (up to 97.4°C) across each hydrothermal feature. We interpret the inverse relationship between temperature and δ34SSO4 as a mixing process between oxic seawater and 34S-depleted hydrothermal inputs that are oxidized during seawater entrainment. An isotope mass balance model suggests secondary sulfate from sulfide oxidation provides at least 15% of the bulk sulfate pool. Coincident with this trend in δ34SSO4, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate tended to be 18O-enriched in low pH (<5), high temperature (>75°C) pore waters. The shift toward high δ18OSO4 is consistent with equilibrium isotope exchange under acidic and high temperature conditions. The source of H2S contained in hydrothermal fluids could not be

  14. Sulfur and oxygen isotope insights into sulfur cycling in shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, Milos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Gilhooly, William P; Fike, David A; Druschel, Gregory K; Kafantaris, Fotios-Christos A; Price, Roy E; Amend, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-sea (5 m depth) hydrothermal venting off Milos Island provides an ideal opportunity to target transitions between igneous abiogenic sulfide inputs and biogenic sulfide production during microbial sulfate reduction. Seafloor vent features include large (>1 m(2)) white patches containing hydrothermal minerals (elemental sulfur and orange/yellow patches of arsenic-sulfides) and cells of sulfur oxidizing and reducing microorganisms. Sulfide-sensitive film deployed in the vent and non-vent sediments captured strong geochemical spatial patterns that varied from advective to diffusive sulfide transport from the subsurface. Despite clear visual evidence for the close association of vent organisms and hydrothermalism, the sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of pore fluids did not permit delineation of a biotic signal separate from an abiotic signal. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the free gas had uniform δ(34)S values (2.5 ± 0.28‰, n = 4) that were nearly identical to pore water H2S (2.7 ± 0.36‰, n = 21). In pore water sulfate, there were no paired increases in δ(34)SSO4 and δ(18)OSO4 as expected of microbial sulfate reduction. Instead, pore water δ(34)SSO4 values decreased (from approximately 21‰ to 17‰) as temperature increased (up to 97.4°C) across each hydrothermal feature. We interpret the inverse relationship between temperature and δ(34)SSO4 as a mixing process between oxic seawater and (34)S-depleted hydrothermal inputs that are oxidized during seawater entrainment. An isotope mass balance model suggests secondary sulfate from sulfide oxidation provides at least 15% of the bulk sulfate pool. Coincident with this trend in δ(34)SSO4, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate tended to be (18)O-enriched in low pH (<5), high temperature (>75°C) pore waters. The shift toward high δ(18)OSO4 is consistent with equilibrium isotope exchange under acidic and high temperature conditions. The source of H2S contained in hydrothermal

  15. Hydrothermal fluid-mineral interactions within volcanic sediment layer revealed by shallow drilling in active seafloor hydrothermal fields in the mid-Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Omori, E.; Takahashi, Y.; Furuzawa, Y.; Yamanaka, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Yoshizumi, R.; Urabe, T.

    2012-12-01

    of large massive sulfide spires. The obtained core showed evidence for sulfide/sulfate mineralization below 223 cmbsf. Pore fluid from corresponding depth show enrichement in Si, K, Ca and NH4, which could be attributed to lateral intrusion of the hydrothermal component. This result suggests the mineralization is related with fluid mixing between the hydrothermal component and seawater component within the sediment layer beneath the seafloor.

  16. Historical pesticide applications coincided with an altered diet of aerially foraging insectivorous chimney swifts

    PubMed Central

    Nocera, Joseph J.; Blais, Jules M.; Beresford, David V.; Finity, Leah K.; Grooms, Christopher; Kimpe, Lynda E.; Kyser, Kurt; Michelutti, Neal; Reudink, Matthew W.; Smol, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous environmental pressures have precipitated long-term population reductions of many insect species. Population declines in aerially foraging insectivorous birds have also been detected, but the cause remains unknown partly because of a dearth of long-term monitoring data on avian diets. Chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica) are a model aerial insectivore to fill such information gaps because their roosting behaviour makes them easy to sample in large numbers over long time periods. We report a 48-year-long (1944–1992) dietary record for the chimney swift, determined from a well-preserved deposit of guano and egested insect remains in Ontario (Canada). This unique archive of palaeo-environmental data reflecting past chimney swift diets revealed a steep rise in dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, which were correlated with a decrease in Coleoptera remains and an increase in Hemiptera remains, indicating a significant change in chimney swift prey. We argue that DDT applications decimated Coleoptera populations and dramatically altered insect community structure by the 1960s, triggering nutritional consequences for swifts and other aerial insectivores. PMID:22513860

  17. Upward-migrating methane induced seismic chimney formation in the Nordland Group, Southern Viking Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Unger, Victoria; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Nordland Group in the Southern Viking Graben hosts seismic chimneys, represented by anomalies in seismic data and determined by residual methane accumulations. These seismic chimneys are generally interpreted as focused fluid flow structures, and thus pose the risk of potential fluid leakage in geological subsurface utilization. The aim of the present study was to assess two popular scientific hypotheses on seismic chimney formation in the Nordland Group. The first one assumes excess pore pressure to result from buoyancy effects caused by upward-migrating methane and the development of a gas column with a thickness of several hundred meters, whereas the second one considers the load of the Fennoscandian ice sheet to be responsible for occurrence of hydraulic fracturing. In this context, we applied coupled hydromechanical simulations to determine the mechanism inducing the formation of these potential leakage pathways. Our simulation results demonstrate that hydraulic fracturing in the Nordland Group already occurs before the maximum methane column heights develop below. Consequently, the load of the Fennoscandian ice sheet is not initiating seismic chimneys formation.

  18. Sulfidation of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, C.; Michel, F. M.; Brown, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnologies that exploit the properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) raises questions concerning the impact of Ag on the environment. Ag-NPs are currently among the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry and the amount released into the environment is expected to increase along with production (1). When present in geochemical systems, Ag-NPs may undergo a variety of changes due to varying redox, pH, and chemical conditions. Expected changes range from surface modification (e.g., oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation etc.) to complete dissolution and re-precipitation. In this context, the focus of our work is on understanding the behavior of synthetic Ag-NPs with different particle sizes under varying conditions relevant to the environment. Sulfidation of Ag-NPs is of particular interest since it among the processes most likely to occur in aqueous systems, in particular under reducing conditions. Three sizes of Ag-NPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone were produced using the polyol process (2) (7 ±1; 20 ±4, and 40 ±9 nm). Batch solutions containing the different Ag-NPs were subsequently reacted with Na2S solutions of different concentrations. The sulfidation process was followed step-wise for 24 hours and the corrosion products formed were characterized by electron microscopy (TEM/SEM), diffraction (XRD), and photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface charge (pHPZC) of the products formed during this process was also measured, as were changes in solubility and reactivity. Based on experimental observations we infer that the sulfidation process is the result of dissolution-precipitation and find that: (i) acanthite (Ag2S) is formed as a corrosion product; (ii) Ag-NPs aggregation increased with sulfidation rate; (iii) pHPZC increases with the rate of sulfidation; and (iv) the solubility of the corrosion products formed from sulfidation appears lower than that of non-sulfidated Ag-NPs. We observe size-dependent differences in

  19. Selenium content of sulfide ores related to ophiolites of Greece.

    PubMed

    Economou-Eliopoulos, M; Eliopoulos, D G

    1998-01-01

    Several deposits of sulfide mineralization have been described in the ophiolites of Greece. Based on their mineralogical and chemical composition and the host rocks, two types can be distinguished: (1) the Fe-Cu-Ni-Co type consisting of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, Co-pentlandite, pyrite, magnetite + arsenides, +/- chromite, hosted in serpentinites, gabbros or diabases, which have variable geochemical characteristics, and (2) sulfide mineralization of the Cyprus type containing variable proportions of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and sphalerite. The spatial association with shear zones and fault systems, which is a common feature in both types of mineralization, provided the necessary permeability for the circulation of the responsible mineralized hydrothermal fluids. The selenium (Se) content in representative samples of both types of mineralization from the ophiolites of Pindos (Kondro, Perivoli, and Neropriona), Othrys (Eretria and A. Theodoroi), Veria (Trilofon), and Argolis (Ermioni) shows a wide variation. The highest values of Se (130 to 1900 ppm) were found in massive Fe-Cu sulfide ores from Kondro, in particular the Cu-rich portions (average 1300 ppm Se). The average values of Se for the Othrys sulfides are low (< 40 ppm Se). The Se content in a diabase breccia pipe (50 x 200 m) with disseminated pyrite mineralization (Neropriona) ranges from < 1 to 35 ppm Se. The highest values were noted in strongly altered samples that also exhibited a significant enrichment in platinum (1 ppm Pt). Sulfide mineralization (irregular to lens-like masses and stringers) associated with magnetite, hosted in gabbros exposed in the Perivoli area (Tsouma hill), shows a content ranging from 40 to 350 ppm Se. The distribution of Se in the studied type of the sulfide mineralization may be of genetic significance, indicating that the Se level, which often is much higher than in typical magmatic sulfides related to mafic-ultramafic rocks (average 90-100 ppm Se), may positively affect

  20. Selenium content of sulfide ores related to ophiolites of Greece.

    PubMed

    Economou-Eliopoulos, M; Eliopoulos, D G

    1998-01-01

    Several deposits of sulfide mineralization have been described in the ophiolites of Greece. Based on their mineralogical and chemical composition and the host rocks, two types can be distinguished: (1) the Fe-Cu-Ni-Co type consisting of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, Co-pentlandite, pyrite, magnetite + arsenides, +/- chromite, hosted in serpentinites, gabbros or diabases, which have variable geochemical characteristics, and (2) sulfide mineralization of the Cyprus type containing variable proportions of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and sphalerite. The spatial association with shear zones and fault systems, which is a common feature in both types of mineralization, provided the necessary permeability for the circulation of the responsible mineralized hydrothermal fluids. The selenium (Se) content in representative samples of both types of mineralization from the ophiolites of Pindos (Kondro, Perivoli, and Neropriona), Othrys (Eretria and A. Theodoroi), Veria (Trilofon), and Argolis (Ermioni) shows a wide variation. The highest values of Se (130 to 1900 ppm) were found in massive Fe-Cu sulfide ores from Kondro, in particular the Cu-rich portions (average 1300 ppm Se). The average values of Se for the Othrys sulfides are low (< 40 ppm Se). The Se content in a diabase breccia pipe (50 x 200 m) with disseminated pyrite mineralization (Neropriona) ranges from < 1 to 35 ppm Se. The highest values were noted in strongly altered samples that also exhibited a significant enrichment in platinum (1 ppm Pt). Sulfide mineralization (irregular to lens-like masses and stringers) associated with magnetite, hosted in gabbros exposed in the Perivoli area (Tsouma hill), shows a content ranging from 40 to 350 ppm Se. The distribution of Se in the studied type of the sulfide mineralization may be of genetic significance, indicating that the Se level, which often is much higher than in typical magmatic sulfides related to mafic-ultramafic rocks (average 90-100 ppm Se), may positively affect

  1. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  2. Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM 10 and benzo[a]pyrene in Xuan Wei, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Linwei; Lan, Qing; Yang, Dong; He, Xingzhou; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Hammond, S. Katharine

    This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) by 66% and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM 10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM 10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

  3. Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.; Devey, Colin W.; Dyment, Jérôme; Murton, Bramley J.

    Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges presents a multidisciplinary overview of the remarkable emerging diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges in the Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic oceans. When hydrothermal systems were first found on the East Pacific Rise and other Pacific Ocean ridges beginning in the late 1970s, the community consensus held that the magma delivery rate of intermediate to fast spreading was necessary to support black smoker-type high-temperature systems and associated chemosynthetic ecosystems and polymetallic sulfide deposits. Contrary to that consensus, hydrothermal systems not only occur on slow spreading ocean ridges but, as reported in this volume, are generally larger, exhibit different chemosynthetic ecosystems, produce larger mineral deposits, and occur in a much greater diversity of geologic settings than those systems in the Pacific. The full diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges, reflected in the contributions to this volume, is only now emerging and opens an exciting new frontier for ocean ridge exploration, including • Processes of heat and chemical transfer from the Earth's mantle and crust via slow spreading ocean ridges to the oceans • The major role of detachment faulting linking crust and mantle in hydrothermal circulation • Chemical reaction products of mantle involvement including serpentinization, natural hydrogen, abiotic methane, and hydrocarbon synthesis • Generation of large polymetallic sulfide deposits hosted in ocean crust and mantle • Chemosynthetic vent communities hosted in the diverse settings The readership for this volume will include schools, universities, government laboratories, and scientific societies in developed and developing nations, including over 150 nations that have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

  4. Extreme enrichment of Se, Te, PGE and Au in Cu sulfide microdroplets: evidence from LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwell, David A.; Keays, Reid R.; McDonald, Iain; Williams, Megan R.

    2015-12-01

    The Platinova Reef, in the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, is an example of a magmatic Cu-PGE-Au sulfide deposit formed in the latter stages of magmatic differentiation. As is characteristic with such deposits, it contains a low volume of sulfide, displays peak metal offsets and is Cu rich but Ni poor. However, even for such deposits, the Platinova Reef contains extremely low volumes of sulfide and the highest Pd and Au tenor sulfides of any magmatic ore deposit. Here, we present the first LA-ICP-MS analyses of sulfide microdroplets from the Platinova Reef, which show that they have the highest Se concentrations (up to 1200 ppm) and lowest S/Se ratios (190-700) of any known magmatic sulfide deposit and have significant Te enrichment. In addition, where sulfide volume increases, there is a change from high Pd-tenor microdroplets trapped in situ to larger, low tenor sulfides. The transition between these two sulfide regimes is marked by sharp peaks in Au, and then Te concentration, followed by a wider peak in Se, which gradually decreases with height. Mineralogical evidence implies that there is no significant post-magmatic hydrothermal S loss and that the metal profiles are essentially a function of magmatic processes. We propose that to generate these extreme precious and semimetal contents, the sulfides must have formed from an anomalously metal-rich package of magma, possibly formed via the dissolution of a previously PGE-enriched sulfide. Other processes such as kinetic diffusion may have also occurred alongside this to produce the ultra-high tenors. The characteristic metal offset pattern observed is largely controlled by partitioning effects, producing offset peaks in the order Pt+Pd>Au>Te>Se>Cu that are entirely consistent with published D values. This study confirms that extreme enrichment in sulfide droplets can occur in closed-system layered intrusions in situ, but this will characteristically form ore deposits that are so low in sulfide that they do

  5. The chemistry of hydrothermal magnetite: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, Patrick; Angerer, Thomas; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; French, David; Walshe, John

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a well-recognized petrogenetic indicator and is a common accessory mineral in many ore deposits and their host rocks. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of hydrothermal magnetite for provenance studies and as a pathfinder for mineral exploration. A number of studies have investigated how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of the respective magnetite. Two fundamental questions underlie these efforts — (i) How can the composition of igneous and, more importantly, hydrothermal magnetite be used to discriminate mineralized areas from barren host rocks, and (ii) how can this assist exploration geologists to target ore deposits at greater and greater distances from the main mineralization? Similar to igneous magnetite, the most important factors that govern compositional variations in hydrothermal magnetite are (A) temperature, (B) fluid composition — element availability, (C) oxygen and sulfur fugacity, (D) silicate and sulfide activity, (E) host rock buffering, (F) re-equilibration processes, and (G) intrinsic crystallographic controls such as ionic radius and charge balance. We discuss how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of magnetite and review studies that investigate the chemistry of hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from various mineral deposits and their host rocks. Furthermore, we discuss the redox-related alteration of magnetite (martitization and mushketovitization) and mineral inclusions in magnetite and their effect on chemical analyses. Our database includes published and previously unpublished magnetite minor and trace element data for magnetite from (1) banded iron formations (BIF) and related high-grade iron ore deposits in Western Australia, India, and Brazil, (2) Ag–Pb–Zn veins of the Coeur d'Alene district, United States, (3) porphyry Cu–(Au)–(Mo) deposits and associated (4) calcic and magnesian skarn deposits in the southwestern United

  6. Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents from Three Oceanic Regions.

    PubMed

    He, Tianliang; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are considered to be one of the most spectacular ecosystems on Earth. Microorganisms form the basis of the food chain in vents controlling the vent communities. However, the diversity of bacterial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vents from different oceans remains largely unknown. In this study, the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial communities of the venting sulfide, seawater, and tubeworm trophosome from East Pacific Rise, South Atlantic Ridge, and Southwest Indian Ridge, respectively. A total of 23,767 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned into 42 different phyla. Although Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in all vents, differences of bacterial diversity were observed among different vents from three oceanic regions. The sulfides of East Pacific Rise possessed the most diverse bacterial communities. The bacterial diversities of venting seawater were much lower than those of vent sulfides. The symbiotic bacteria of tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae were included in the bacterial community of vent sulfides, suggesting their significant ecological functions as the primary producers in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. Therefore, our study presented a comprehensive view of bacterial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vents from different oceans. PMID:26626941

  7. Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents from Three Oceanic Regions.

    PubMed

    He, Tianliang; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are considered to be one of the most spectacular ecosystems on Earth. Microorganisms form the basis of the food chain in vents controlling the vent communities. However, the diversity of bacterial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vents from different oceans remains largely unknown. In this study, the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial communities of the venting sulfide, seawater, and tubeworm trophosome from East Pacific Rise, South Atlantic Ridge, and Southwest Indian Ridge, respectively. A total of 23,767 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned into 42 different phyla. Although Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in all vents, differences of bacterial diversity were observed among different vents from three oceanic regions. The sulfides of East Pacific Rise possessed the most diverse bacterial communities. The bacterial diversities of venting seawater were much lower than those of vent sulfides. The symbiotic bacteria of tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae were included in the bacterial community of vent sulfides, suggesting their significant ecological functions as the primary producers in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. Therefore, our study presented a comprehensive view of bacterial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vents from different oceans.

  8. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  9. Physical controls on mixing and transport within rising submarine hydrothermal plumes: A numerical simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Breier, John A.

    2014-10-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the turbulent flow and species transport of deep-sea high temperature hydrothermal plumes. The model solves numerically the density weighted unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation and the species transport equation. Turbulent entrainment and mixing is modeled by a k-ε turbulence closure model. The CFD model explicitly considers realistic vent chimney geometry, vent exit fluid temperature and velocity, and background stratification. The model uses field measurements as model inputs and has been validated by field data. These measurements and data, including vent temperature and plume physical structure, were made in the ABE hydrothermal field of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center. A parametric sensitivity study based on this CFD model was conducted to determine the relative importance of vent exit velocity, background stratification, and chimney height on the mixing of vent fluid and seawater. The CFD model was also used to derive several important scalings that are relevant to understanding plume impact on the ocean. These scalings include maximum plume rise height, neutrally buoyant plume height, maximum plume induced turbulent diffusivity, and total plume vertically transported water mass flux. These scaling relationships can be used for constructing simplified 1-dimensional models of geochemistry and microbial activity in hydrothermal plumes. Simulation results show that the classical entrainment assumptions, typically invoked to describe hydrothermal plume transport, only apply up to the vertical level of ~0.6 times the maximum plume rise height. Below that level, the entrainment coefficient remains relatively constant (~0.15). Above that level, the plume flow consists of a pronounced lateral spreading flow, two branches of inward flow immediately above and below the lateral spreading, and recirculation flanking the plume cap region. Both turbulent kinetic energy

  10. Banded sulfide-magnetite ores of Mauk copper massive sulfide deposit, Central Urals: Composition and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safina, N. P.; Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Kotlyarov, V. A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Large, R. R.; Blinov, I. A.

    2015-05-01

    The results of investigation of metamorphosed sulfide-magnetite ores from the Mauk deposit located within the Main Ural Fault at the junction of Tagil and Magnitogorsk massive sulfide zones are discussed. The ore-hosting sequence comprises metamorphic rocks formed from basalt, carbonaceous and carbonaceous-cherty siltstone, and lenticular serpentinized ultramafic bodies. The ores of the deposit are represented by banded varieties and less frequent breccia. The clastic origin of the banded ore is indicated by load casts at the bottom of sulfide beds, alternation of sulfide and barren beds, and the truncation of the growth zones of pyrite crystals. Pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and magnetite are the major minerals of the banded ores. The internal structure of the listed minerals testifies to the deep metamorphic recrystallization of primary hydrothermal-sedimentary ores accompanied with deformation. Cubanite, pyrrhotite, mackinawite, greigite, and gold are enclosed in metacrysts of pyrite, magnetite, and chalcopyrite. The accessory minerals of the Pb-Bi-Te, Bi-Te, and Ag-Te systems as well as uraninite have been found at the Mauk deposit for the first time. Magnetite predominantly replaces pyrite and less frequently chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and gangue minerals. It was established that the major carriers of As and Co are crystals of metamorphic pyrite. Chalcopyrite is the major carrier of Zn, Sn, Te, Pb, Bi, and Ag. Admixture of Fe and Cu is typical of sphalerite, and Se and Ni are characteristic of pyrrhotite. Ti, V, Mn, Sb, As, Ba, and U are concentrated in magnetite. The banded ores of the Mauk deposit are suggested as having been transformed in several stages: diagenesis, anadiagenesis, epidiagenesis ( t < 300°C), and amphibolite facies metamorphism ( t > 500°C).

  11. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. The origin of thiosulfate in hot spring waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Thiosulfate (S2O2-3), polythionate (SxO2-6), dissolved sulfide (H2S), and sulfate (SO2-4) concentrations in thirty-nine alkaline and acidic springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were determined. The analyses were conducted on site, using ion chromatography for thiosulfate, polythionate, and sulfate, and using colorimetry for dissolved sulfide. Thiosulfate was detected at concentrations typically less than 2 ??mol/L in neutral and alkaline chloride springs with low sulfate concentrations (C1-/SO2-4 > 25). The thiosulfate concentration levels are about one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentration of dissolved sulfide in these springs. In most acid sulfate and acid sulfate-chloride springs (Cl-/SO2-4 < 10), thiosulfate concentrations were also typically lower than 2 ??mol/L. However, in some chloride springs enriched with sulfate (Cl-/SO2-4 between 10 to 25), thiosulfate was found at concentrations ranging from 9 to 95 ??mol/L, higher than the concentrations of dissolved sulfide in these waters. Polythionate was detected only in Cinder Pool, Norris Geyser basin, at concentrations up to 8 ??mol/L, with an average S-chain-length from 4.1 to 4.9 sulfur atoms. The results indicate that no thiosulfate occurs in the deeper parts of the hydrothermal system. Thiosulfate may form, however, from (1) hydrolysis of native sulfur by hydrothermal solutions in the shallower parts (<50 m) of the system, (2) oxidation of dissolved sulfide upon mixing of a deep hydrothermal water with aerated shallow groundwater, and (3) the oxidation of dissolved sulfide by dissolved oxygen upon discharge of the hot spring. Upon discharge of a sulfide-containing hydrothermal water, oxidation proceeds rapidly as atmospheric oxygen enters the water. The transfer of oxygen is particularly effective if the hydrothermal discharge is turbulent and has a large surface area.

  12. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of hydrothermally generated petroleum from Escanaba trough, offshore Californi U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.; Hostettler, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    In 1986, three samples of sulfide-rich sediments, impregnated with hydrothermally derived, asphaltic petroleum, were recovered in a dredge and by submersible from Escanaba Trough, the sediment-covered, southern end of the Gorda Ridge spreading axis, offshore northern California. The molecular distributions of hydrocarbons in the two pyrrhotite-rich samples recovered by submersible are similar and compare well the hydrocarbon composition of the first pyrrhotite-rich samples containing petroleum discovered at a 1985 dredge site about 30 km to the south of the site of the submersible dive. In contrast, the 1986 dredge sample, composed of a polymetallic assemblage of sulfides, containes petroleum in which the distribution of hydrocarbons indicates a slightly higher of maturity relative to the other samples. The observation that petroleum of variable composition occurs with metallic sulfides at two and probably more distinct site indicates that petroleum generation may be a common process in the hydrothermally active Escanaba Trough. ?? 1990.

  13. Drilling of Submarine Shallow-water Hydrothermal Systems in Volcanic Arcs of the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S.; Augustin, N.; de Benedetti, A.; Esposito, A.; Gaertner, A.; Gemmell, B.; Gibson, H.; He, G.; Huegler, M.; Kleeberg, R.; Kuever, J.; Kummer, N. A.; Lackschewitz, K.; Lappe, F.; Monecke, T.; Perrin, K.; Peters, M.; Sharpe, R.; Simpson, K.; Smith, D.; Wan, B.

    2007-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems related to volcanic arcs are known from several localities in the Tyrrhenian Sea in water depths ranging from 650 m (Palinuro Seamount) to less than 50 m (Panarea). At Palinuro Seamount 13 holes (<5m) were drilled using Rockdrill 1 of the British Geological Survey 1 into the heavily sediment-covered deposit recovering 11 m of semi-massive to massive sulfides. Maximum recovery within a single core was 4.8 m of massive sulfides/sulfates with abundant late native sulfur overprint. The deposit is open to all sides and to depth since all drill holes ended in mineralization. Metal enrichment at the top of the deposit is evident in some cores with polymetallic (Zn, Pb, Ag) sulfides overlying more massive and dense pyritic ore. The massive sulfide mineralization at Palinuro Seamount contains a number of unusual minerals, including enargite, tennantite, luzonite, and Ag-sulfosalts, that are not commonly encountered in mid-ocean ridge massive sulfides. In analogy to epithermal deposits forming on land, the occurrence of these minerals suggests a high sulfidation state of the hydrothermal fluids during deposition implying that the mineralizing fluids were acidic and oxidizing rather than near-neutral and reducing as those forming typical base metal rich massive sulfides along mid-ocean ridges. Oxidizing conditions during sulfide deposition can probably be related to the presence of magmatic volatiles in the mineralizing fluids that may be derived from a degassing magma chamber. Elevated temperatures within sediment cores and TV-grab stations (up to 60°C) indicate present day hydrothermal fluid flow. This is also indicated by the presence of small tube-worm bushes present on top the sediment. A number of drill holes were placed around the known phreatic gas-rich vents of Panarea and recovered intense clay-alteration in some holes as well as abundant massive anhydrite/gypsum with only trace sulfides along a structural depression suggesting the

  14. Hydrothermal alteration in oceanic ridge volcanics: A detailed study at the Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridley, W.I.; Perfit, M.R.; Josnasson, I.R.; Smith, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field is composed of altered oceanic crust and extinct hydrothermal vents within the eastern Galapagos Rift between 85??49???W and 85??55???W. The discharge zone of the hydrothermal system is revealed along scarps, thus providing an opportunity to examine the uppermost mineralized, and highly altered interior parts of the crust. Altered rocks collected in situ by the submersible ALVIN show complex concentric alteration zones. Microsamples of individual zones have been analysed for major/minor, trace elements, and strontium isotopes in order to describe the complex compositional details of the hydrothermal alteration. Interlayered chlorite-smectite and chlorite with disequilibrium compositions dominate the secondary mineralogy as replacement phases of primary glass and acicular pyroxene. Phenocrysts and matrix grains of plagioclase are unaffected during alteration. Using a modification of the Gresens' equation we demonstrate that the trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively immobile, and calculate degrees of enrichment and depletion in other elements. Strontium isotopic ratios increase as Sr concentrations decrease from least-altered cores to most-altered rims and cross-cutting veins in individual samples, and can be modeled by open system behaviour under low fluid-rock ratio (< 10) conditions following a period of lower-temperature weathering of volcanics within the rift zone. The complex patterns of element enrichment and depletion and strontium isotope variations indicate mixing between pristine seawater and ascending hot fluids to produce a compositional spectrum of fluids. The precipitation of base-metal sulfides beneath the seafloor is probably a result of fluid mixing and cooling. If, as suggested here, the discharge zone alteration occurred under relatively low fluid-rock ratios, then this shallow region must play an important role in determining the exit composition of vent fluids in marine hydrothermal systems

  15. Detection of active hydrothermal vent fields in the Pescadero Basin and on the Alarcon Rise using AUV multibeam and CTD data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caress, D. W.; Troni, G.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Martin, J. F.; Thomas, H. J.; Thompson, D.; Conlin, D.; Martin, E. J.; meneses-Quiroz, E.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.; Angel Santa Rosa del Rio, M.

    2015-12-01

    The MBARI AUV D. Allan B. collected high resolution bathymetry, sidescan, and subbottom profiles along the neovolcanic zone of the Alarcon Rise and across the southern Pescadero Basin during 2012 and 2015 MBARI expeditions to the Gulf of California (GOC). The combination of high resolution multibeam bathymetry and seawater temperature data has proven effective in identifying active high temperature vent fields, as validated by inspection and sampling during ROV dives. The AUV carries a 200 kHz multibeam sonar, 110 kHz chirp sidescan sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp subbottom profiler, and a conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) sensor for ~17-hour duration missions. Flying at 5.4 km/hr at 50 m altitude, the processed AUV bathymetry has a 0.1 m vertical precision and a 1 m lateral resolution. Chimneys taller than 1.5 m are sufficiently distinctive to allow provisional identification. The CTD temperature data have a nominal 0.002°C accuracy. Following calculation of potential temperature and correcting for average local variation of potential temperature with depth, anomalies greater than 0.05 °C can be reliably identified using a spike detection filter. MBARI AUV mapping surveys are typically planned using a 150 m survey line spacing, so the CTD data may be collected as much as 75 m away from any vent plume source. Five active high temperature vent fields were discovered in the southern GOC, with the Auka Field in the southern Pescadero Basin, and the Ja Sít, Pericú, Meyibó, and Tzab-ek Fields along the Alarcon Rise. In all five cases, hydrothermal vent chimneys are readily identifiable in the multibeam bathymetry, and temperature anomalies are observed above background variability. Other apparent hydrothermal chimneys were observed in the bathmetry that did not exhibit water temperature anomalies; most of these were visited during ROV dives and confirmed to be inactive sites. The maximum water column anomalies are 0.13°C observed above the Meyibó field and 0.25

  16. Eukaryotic diversity associated with carbonates and fluid-seawater interface in Lost City hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    López-García, Purificación; Vereshchaka, Alexander; Moreira, David

    2007-02-01

    Lost City is a unique off-axis hydrothermal vent field characterized by highly alkaline and relatively low-temperature fluids that harbours huge carbonate chimneys. We have carried out a molecular survey based on 18S rDNA sequences of the eukaryotic communities associated with fluid-seawater interfaces and with carbonates from venting areas and the chimney wall. Our study reveals a variety of lineages belonging to eight major taxa: Metazoa, Fungi, Heterokonta (Stramenopiles), Alveolata, Radiolaria, Cercozoa, Heterolobosea and Euglenozoa. We detected one fungal lineage that appears to be widespread in hydrothermal systems both submarine and continental. Alveolates were the most abundant and diverse group in Lost City samples, although their distribution was very different in carbonate, where ciliates dominated, and in fluid-seawater libraries, where dinoflagellates, Group I and Group II (Syndiniales) marine alveolates were profuse. Similarly, Euglenozoa also displayed a differential distribution, kinetoplastids being present on carbonates and a novel group of diplonemids so far exclusively observed in the deep sea being dominant in fluid-seawater libraries. Protist lineages identified in this ecosystem likely correspond to grazers, decomposers and parasites, playing key roles in the food web of the Lost City ecosystem. PMID:17222152

  17. Eukaryotic diversity associated with carbonates and fluid-seawater interface in Lost City hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    López-García, Purificación; Vereshchaka, Alexander; Moreira, David

    2007-02-01

    Lost City is a unique off-axis hydrothermal vent field characterized by highly alkaline and relatively low-temperature fluids that harbours huge carbonate chimneys. We have carried out a molecular survey based on 18S rDNA sequences of the eukaryotic communities associated with fluid-seawater interfaces and with carbonates from venting areas and the chimney wall. Our study reveals a variety of lineages belonging to eight major taxa: Metazoa, Fungi, Heterokonta (Stramenopiles), Alveolata, Radiolaria, Cercozoa, Heterolobosea and Euglenozoa. We detected one fungal lineage that appears to be widespread in hydrothermal systems both submarine and continental. Alveolates were the most abundant and diverse group in Lost City samples, although their distribution was very different in carbonate, where ciliates dominated, and in fluid-seawater libraries, where dinoflagellates, Group I and Group II (Syndiniales) marine alveolates were profuse. Similarly, Euglenozoa also displayed a differential distribution, kinetoplastids being present on carbonates and a novel group of diplonemids so far exclusively observed in the deep sea being dominant in fluid-seawater libraries. Protist lineages identified in this ecosystem likely correspond to grazers, decomposers and parasites, playing key roles in the food web of the Lost City ecosystem.

  18. Electrochemical behavior of silver sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Drouven, B.U.E.

    1982-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of silver sulfide in sulfuric acid as well as in nitric acid was studied using electrodes made from synthetic silver sulfide. The primary techniques used were potentiostatic, potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and corrosion cell experiments. The cathodic reaction of silver sulfide produces silver and hydrogen sulfide. This reaction mechanism is a sequential two step charge transfer involving a single electron in each step. Silver ions are produced from silver sulfide upon applying an anodic potential. The dissolution rate of silver sulfide can be so high that the formation of silver sulfate occurs which partially covers the silver sulfide surface and inhibits a further rate increase. The sulfur from the silver sulfide will be oxidized at low overpotentials to elemental sulfur; at high overpotentials, the oxidation to sulfate or bisulfate is observed. The results suggest that the catalysis of chalcopyrite by the addition of silver ions is caused by the formation and subsequent dissolution of silver sulfide leaving a porous layer behind. The understanding of the reaction mechanism of silver sulfide dissolution and its optimization will significantly improve the economic evaluation of industrial processes using the catalyzed leaching of chalcopyrite. The present knowledge of the catalysis indicates that other ions may be substituted for silver ions which would increase the feasibility of hydrometallurgical processes.

  19. Sulfide detoxification in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Birke, Hannah; Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to animals, which release the signal molecule sulfide in small amounts from cysteine and its derivates, phototrophic eukaryotes generate sulfide as an essential intermediate of the sulfur assimilation pathway. Additionally, iron-sulfur cluster turnover and cyanide detoxification might contribute to the release of sulfide in mitochondria. However, sulfide is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria. Thus, efficient sulfide detoxification mechanisms are required in mitochondria to ensure adequate energy production and consequently survival of the plant cell. Two enzymes have been recently described to catalyze sulfide detoxification in mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana, O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase C (OAS-TL C), and the sulfur dioxygenase (SDO) ethylmalonic encephalopathy protein 1 (ETHE1). Biochemical characterization of sulfide producing and consuming enzymes in mitochondria of plants is fundamental to understand the regulatory network that enables mitochondrial sulfide homeostasis under nonstressed and stressed conditions. In this chapter, we provide established protocols to determine the activity of the sulfide releasing enzyme β-cyanoalanine synthase as well as sulfide-consuming enzymes OAS-TL and SDO. Additionally, we describe a reliable and efficient method to purify OAS-TL proteins from plant material.

  20. Physical properties of superconducting single crystal iron sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Borg, Christopher K. H.; Zhou, Xiuquan; Paglione, Johnpierre; University of Maryland Collaboration

    Recently, the simple binary tetragonal iron sulfide, FeS, was found to be a superconductor with a Tc = 5 K. We have prepared single crystals of tetragonal iron sulfide through hydrothermal de-intercalation of KxFe2-yS2. The KxFe2-yS2 single crystal precursors were grown by slow cooling of stoichiometric melts of K, Fe and S. The silver, plate-like FeS single crystals were highly crystalline with a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of 4 K. The high quality of the FeS crystals revealed highly anisotropic nature of the magnetic and electronic properties intrinsic to FeS. The physical properties and thermal stability of single crystal FeS will be discussed in detail.

  1. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented.

  2. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1981-04-01

    UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

  3. GeoChip-based analysis of metabolic diversity of microbial communities at the Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal vent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengping; Zhou, Huaiyang; Meng, Jun; Peng, Xiaotong; Jiang, Lijing; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Chuanlun; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong; Xiao, Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are one of the most unique and fascinating ecosystems on Earth. Although phylogenetic diversity of vent communities has been extensively examined, their physiological diversity is poorly understood. In this study, a GeoChip-based, high-throughput metagenomics technology revealed dramatic differences in microbial metabolic functions in a newly grown protochimney (inner section, Proto-I; outer section, Proto-O) and the outer section of a mature chimney (4143-1) at the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Very limited numbers of functional genes were detected in Proto-I (113 genes), whereas much higher numbers of genes were detected in Proto-O (504 genes) and 4143-1 (5,414 genes). Microbial functional genes/populations in Proto-O and Proto-I were substantially different (around 1% common genes), suggesting a rapid change in the microbial community composition during the growth of the chimney. Previously retrieved cbbL and cbbM genes involved in the Calvin Benson Bassham (CBB) cycle from deep-sea hydrothermal vents were predominant in Proto-O and 4143-1, whereas photosynthetic green-like cbbL genes were the major components in Proto-I. In addition, genes involved in methanogenesis, aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation (e.g., ANME1 and ANME2), nitrification, denitrification, sulfate reduction, degradation of complex carbon substrates, and metal resistance were also detected. Clone libraries supported the GeoChip results but were less effective than the microarray in delineating microbial populations of low biomass. Overall, these results suggest that the hydrothermal microbial communities are metabolically and physiologically highly diverse, and the communities appear to be undergoing rapid dynamic succession and adaptation in response to the steep temperature and chemical gradients across the chimney. PMID:19273854

  4. Group-Specific 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes To Identify Thermophilic Bacteria in Marine Hydrothermal Vents

    PubMed Central

    Harmsen, H.; Prieur, D.; Jeanthon, C.

    1997-01-01

    Four 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed for the detection of thermophilic members of the domain Bacteria known to thrive in marine hydrothermal systems. We developed and characterized probes encompassing most of the thermophilic members of the genus Bacillus, most species of the genus Thermus, the genera Thermotoga and Thermosipho, and the Aquificales order. The temperature of dissociation of each probe was determined. Probe specificities to the target groups were demonstrated by whole-cell and dot blot hybridization against a collection of target and nontarget rRNAs. Whole-cell hybridizations with the specific probes were performed on cells extracted from hydrothermal vent chimneys. One of the samples contained cells that hybridized to the probe specific to genera Thermotoga and Thermosipho. No positive signals could be detected in the samples tested with the probes whose specificities encompassed either the genus Thermus or the thermophilic members of the genus Bacillus. However, when simultaneous hybridizations with the probe specific to the order Aquificales and a probe specific to the domain Bacteria (R. I. Amann, B. Binder, R. J. Olson, S. W. Chisholm, R. Devereux, and D. A. Stahl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:1919-1925, 1990) were performed on cells extracted from the top and exterior subsamples of chimneys, positive signals were obtained from morphologically diverse bacteria representing about 40% of the bacterial population. Since specificity studies also revealed that the bacterial probe did not hybridize with the members of the order Aquificales, the detected cells may therefore correspond to a new type of bacteria. One of the observed morphotypes was similar to that of a strictly anaerobic autotrophic sulfur-reducing strain that we isolated from the chimney samples. This work demonstrates that application of whole-cell hybridization with probes specific for different phylogenetic levels is a useful tool for detailed studies of

  5. Design for the turbine of solar chimney power plant system with vertical collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Gao, B.; Dong, H. R.; Hao, K.

    2016-08-01

    Based on the design theory of the wind turbine, a turbine applied to solar chimney power plant with a vertical collector is designed, and the performance of the wind turbine is conducted by wind tunnel test. The results point out that the experimental performance is consistent with the designed performance. Then the number of blades and tip speed ratio are conducted, as well as we obtained the optimum blade number and tip speed ratio of turbine for the system.

  6. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  7. Mercury accumulation in hydrothermal vent mollusks from the southern Tonga Arc, southwestern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seyong; Kim, Se-Joo; Ju, Se-Jong; Pak, Sang-Joon; Son, Seung-Kyu; Yang, Jisook; Han, Seunghee

    2015-05-01

    We provide the mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) levels of the plume water, sulfide ore, sediment, and mollusks located at the hydrothermal vent fields of the southern Tonga Arc, where active volcanism and intense seismic activity occur frequently. Our objectives were: (1) to address the potential release of Hg from hydrothermal fluids and (2) to examine the distribution of Hg and MMHg levels in hydrothermal mollusks (mussels and snails) harboring chemotrophic bacteria. While high concentrations of Hg in the sediment and Hg, As, and Sb in the sulfide ore indicates that their source is likely hydrothermal fluids, the MMHg concentration in the sediment was orders of magnitude lower than the Hg (<0.001%). It suggests that Hg methylation may have not been favorable in the vent field sediment. In addition, Hg concentrations in the mollusks were much higher (10-100 times) than in other hydrothermal vent environments, indicating that organisms located at the Tonga Arc are exposed to exceedingly high Hg levels. While Hg concentration was higher in the gills and digestive glands than in the mantles and residues of snails and mussels, the MMHg concentrations in the gills and digestive glands were orders of magnitude lower (0.004-0.04%) than Hg concentrations. In summary, our results suggest that the release of Hg from the hydrothermal vent fields of the Tonga Arc and subsequent bioaccumulation are substantial, but not for MMHg. PMID:25748345

  8. Mercury accumulation in hydrothermal vent mollusks from the southern Tonga Arc, southwestern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seyong; Kim, Se-Joo; Ju, Se-Jong; Pak, Sang-Joon; Son, Seung-Kyu; Yang, Jisook; Han, Seunghee

    2015-05-01

    We provide the mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) levels of the plume water, sulfide ore, sediment, and mollusks located at the hydrothermal vent fields of the southern Tonga Arc, where active volcanism and intense seismic activity occur frequently. Our objectives were: (1) to address the potential release of Hg from hydrothermal fluids and (2) to examine the distribution of Hg and MMHg levels in hydrothermal mollusks (mussels and snails) harboring chemotrophic bacteria. While high concentrations of Hg in the sediment and Hg, As, and Sb in the sulfide ore indicates that their source is likely hydrothermal fluids, the MMHg concentration in the sediment was orders of magnitude lower than the Hg (<0.001%). It suggests that Hg methylation may have not been favorable in the vent field sediment. In addition, Hg concentrations in the mollusks were much higher (10-100 times) than in other hydrothermal vent environments, indicating that organisms located at the Tonga Arc are exposed to exceedingly high Hg levels. While Hg concentration was higher in the gills and digestive glands than in the mantles and residues of snails and mussels, the MMHg concentrations in the gills and digestive glands were orders of magnitude lower (0.004-0.04%) than Hg concentrations. In summary, our results suggest that the release of Hg from the hydrothermal vent fields of the Tonga Arc and subsequent bioaccumulation are substantial, but not for MMHg.

  9. Hydrothermal fountains imaged by high resolution side-scan sonar equipped on a cruising AUV, URASHIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Tsukioka, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Shitashima, K.; Yamamoto, F.; Sawa, T.; Hyakudome, T.; Kasaya, T.; Kinoshita, M.

    2007-12-01

    Mapping of an area and intensities of activity at a particular hydrothermal field has required huge effort so far, typically several tens of dives of manned submersibles and/or ROVs to obtain detailed locality map with needed resolutions. Thus, appropriate remote sensing techniques have been desired since the discovery of seafloor hydrothermal field. A series of successful trials has been performed by ABE of WHOI equipped with a Eh-sensor (Yoerger et al., Oceanography, 2007). A 100kHz side-scan sonar (SSS) equipped on a cruising AUV, URASHIMA, caught detailed structural image of hydrothermal fountains rooting active chimneys during YK07-07 Cruise off Okinawa Isl. (May 6-18, 2007). The URASHIMA AUV is a 10-m-length cylindrical-shaped one that originally optimized to long distance cruise. In the expedition, she cruised near the sea floor with 50-100 m altitude, at the area of 1000-1500 m in WD. She has currently basic oceanographic/CTD sensors, a 400kHz echo-sounder and sonars of 100400 kHz side-scan sonar and up to 6 kHz sub-bottom profiler. In this operation, pH and ORP sensors (CRIEPI) were also attached in front of AUV. On the pre-processing image of SSS, numbers of filament-shape echoes were recorded within water column zone. The reason why they should be the echo from hydrothermal plumes are as folows; 1) the echoes in the water column were limitedly recorded above the active hydrothermal field; 2) CTD and pH sensors show temperature and pH anomaly corresponding to the record of echoes; 3) some of the root of the filament-shape echoes correspond to the hydrothermal mound recognized in the detailed bathymetry obtained with SeaBat7125 MNBES. This-like technique should revolute the mapping work prior to the sampling at the particular hydrothermal site.

  10. Sulfide geochronology along the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, John W.; Hannington, Mark D.; Clague, David A.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Delaney, John R.; Holden, James F.; Tivey, Margaret K.; Kimpe, Linda E.

    2013-07-01

    Forty-nine hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate rock samples from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeastern Pacific Ocean, were dated by measuring the decay of 226Ra (half-life of 1600 years) in hydrothermal barite to provide a history of hydrothermal venting at the site over the past 6000 years. This dating method is effective for samples ranging in age from ˜200 to 20,000 years old and effectively bridges an age gap between shorter- and longer-lived U-series dating techniques for hydrothermal deposits. Results show that hydrothermal venting at the active High Rise, Sasquatch, and Main Endeavour fields began at least 850, 1450, and 2300 years ago, respectively. Barite ages of other inactive deposits on the axial valley floor are between ˜1200 and ˜2200 years old, indicating past widespread hydrothermal venting outside of the currently active vent fields. Samples from the half-graben on the eastern slope of the axial valley range in age from ˜1700 to ˜2925 years, and a single sample from outside the axial valley, near the westernmost valley fault scarp is ˜5850 ± 205 years old. The spatial relationship between hydrothermal venting and normal faulting suggests a temporal relationship, with progressive younging of sulfide deposits from the edges of the axial valley toward the center of the rift. These relationships are consistent with the inward migration of normal faulting toward the center of the valley over time and a minimum age of onset of hydrothermal activity in this region of 5850 years.

  11. Relating sulfide mineral zonation and trace element chemistry to subsurface processes in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libbey, R. B.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    The nature and distribution of sulfide minerals and their trace element chemistry in the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system was determined through the study of cuttings and core from wells that intersect different regions of the hydrothermal cell, from the near surface to depths of > 3000 m. The observed sulfide mineral zonation and trace element enrichment correlate well with the present-day thermal structure of the system. Isocubanite and pyrrhotite are confined to the deep, low permeability regions, whereas an assemblage of chalcopyrite and pyrite predominates in the main convective upflow path. The presence of marcasite in the uppermost regions of the system reflects weakly acidic conditions (pH < 5) marginal to the upflow, where outflow and downward percolating fluids have dissolved deeply exsolved CO2. The presence of "chalcopyrite disease" in sphalerite may be an indication that the system is experiencing a heating trend, following the logic of "zone-refining" in volcanogenic massive sulfide systems. Sulfide sulfur at all analyzed depths in the Reykjanes geothermal system was derived from a mixture of basaltic and reduced seawater sources. Petrographic evidence suggests that seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids have altered primary igneous sulfides in the host rocks, a process that has been proposed as a major control of aqueous sulfide production in mid-ocean ridge environments. Calculations show that igneous sulfides in the host basalts likely account for less than 5% of the total available ore metal budget in the system, however, their contribution to fluid metal budgets is probably significant because of their relatively high solubility. The processes documented by this study are likely analogous to those operating in the feeder and deep reaction zones of mid-ocean ridge seafloor hydrothermal systems. The results show that sulfide mineral zonation and trace element chemistry vary as a function of physicochemical parameters that are relevant

  12. Continuous In Situ Measurements of Near Bottom Chemistry and Sediment-Water Fluxes with the Chimney Sampler Array (CSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, C. S.; Mendlovitz, H. P.; White, B. L.; Hoer, D.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.; Wilson, R.; Lapham, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Chimney Sampler Array (CSA) was designed to measure in situ chemical and physical parameters within the benthic boundary layer plus methane and oxygen sediment-water chemical fluxes at upper slope sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The CSA can monitor temporal changes plus help to evaluate oceanographic and sub-seafloor processes that can influence the formation and stability of gas hydrates in underlying sediments. The CSA consists of vertical cylinders (chimneys) equipped with internal chemical sensors and with laboratory flume-calibrated washout rates. Chimney washout rates multiplied by chimney mean versus ambient concentrations allow calculation of net O2 and methane sediment-water fluxes. The CSA is emplaced on the seafloor by a ROVARD lander using a ROV for chimney deployments. The CSA presently includes two 30 cm diameter by 90 cm length cylinders that seal against the sediment with lead pellet beanbags; within each chimney cylinder are optode, conductivity and methane sensors. The CSA's data logger platform also includes pressure and turbidity sensors external to the chimneys along with an acoustic Doppler current meter to measure temporal variation in ambient current velocity and direction. The CSA was deployed aboard a ROVARD lander on 9/13/2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Lat. 28 51.28440, Long. 088 29.39421) on biogeochemically active sediments within Block MC-118. A ROV was utilized for chimney deployment away from the ROVARD lander. The CSA monitored temporal changes in water column physical parameters, obtained near-bottom chemical data to compare with pore fluid and sediment core measurements and measured temporal variability in oxygen and methane sediment-water fluxes at two closely spaced stations at MC-118. A continuous, three-week data set was obtained that revealed daily cycles in chemical parameters and episodic flux events. Lower than ambient chimney dissolved O2 concentrations controlled by temporal variability in washout rates

  13. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  14. Age, Episodicity and Migration of Hydrothermal Activity within the Axial Valley, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, J. W.; Hannington, M. D.; Kelley, D. S.; Clague, D. A.; Holden, J. F.; Tivey, M. K.; Delaney, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrothermal sulfide deposits record the history of high-temperature venting along the Endeavour Segment. Active venting is currently located within five discreet vent fields, with minor diffuse venting occurring between the fields. However, inactive and/or extinct sulfide structures are found throughout the entire axial valley of the ridge segment, suggesting that hydrothermal activity has been more vigorous in the past or focused venting has migrated with time. Here, we present age constraints from U-series dating of 44 sulfide samples collected by manned submersible from between the Mothra Field in the south to Sasquatch in the north. Samples are dated using 226Ra/Ba ratios from hydrothermal barite that precipitates along with the sulfide minerals. Most samples have been collected from within or near the active vent fields. Fifteen samples from the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) show a spectrum of ages from present to 2,430 years old, indicating that this field has been continuously active for at least ~2,400 years. MEF appears to be oldest currently active field. This minimum value for the age of hydrothermal activity also provides a minimum age of the axial valley itself. Ages from thirteen samples from the High-Rise Field indicate continuous venting for at least the past ~1,250 years. These age data are used in conjunction with age constraints of the volcanic flows to develop an integrated volcanic, hydrothermal and tectonic history of the Endeavour Segment. The total volume of hydrothermal sulfide within the axial valley, determined from high-resolution bathymetry, is used in conjunction with the age constraints of the sulfide material to determine the mass accumulation rates of sulfide along the Endeavour Segment. These data can be used to calibrate the efficiency of sulfide deposition from the hydrothermal vents, and provide a time-integrated history of heat, fluid and chemical fluxes at the ridge-segment scale. The comparison of time-integrated rates with

  15. Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

  16. Energy landscapes shape microbial communities in hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Håkon; Økland, Ingeborg; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pederesen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida H

    2015-07-01

    Methods developed in geochemical modelling combined with recent advances in molecular microbial ecology provide new opportunities to explore how microbial communities are shaped by their chemical surroundings. Here, we present a framework for analyses of how chemical energy availability shape chemotrophic microbial communities in hydrothermal systems through an investigation of two geochemically different basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge: the Soria Moria Vent field (SMVF) and the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). Chemical energy landscapes were evaluated through modelling of the Gibbs energy from selected redox reactions under different mixing ratios between seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Our models indicate that the sediment-influenced LCVF has a much higher potential for both anaerobic and aerobic methane oxidation, as well as aerobic ammonium and hydrogen oxidation, than the SMVF. The modelled energy landscapes were used to develop microbial community composition models, which were compared with community compositions in environmental samples inside or on the exterior of hydrothermal chimneys, as assessed by pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. We show that modelled microbial communities based solely on thermodynamic considerations can have a high predictive power and provide a framework for analyses of the link between energy availability and microbial community composition. PMID:25575309

  17. Energy landscapes shape microbial communities in hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Dahle, Håkon; Økland, Ingeborg; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pederesen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida H

    2015-01-01

    Methods developed in geochemical modelling combined with recent advances in molecular microbial ecology provide new opportunities to explore how microbial communities are shaped by their chemical surroundings. Here, we present a framework for analyses of how chemical energy availability shape chemotrophic microbial communities in hydrothermal systems through an investigation of two geochemically different basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge: the Soria Moria Vent field (SMVF) and the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). Chemical energy landscapes were evaluated through modelling of the Gibbs energy from selected redox reactions under different mixing ratios between seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Our models indicate that the sediment-influenced LCVF has a much higher potential for both anaerobic and aerobic methane oxidation, as well as aerobic ammonium and hydrogen oxidation, than the SMVF. The modelled energy landscapes were used to develop microbial community composition models, which were compared with community compositions in environmental samples inside or on the exterior of hydrothermal chimneys, as assessed by pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. We show that modelled microbial communities based solely on thermodynamic considerations can have a high predictive power and provide a framework for analyses of the link between energy availability and microbial community composition. PMID:25575309

  18. Energy landscapes shape microbial communities in hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Håkon; Økland, Ingeborg; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pederesen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida H

    2015-07-01

    Methods developed in geochemical modelling combined with recent advances in molecular microbial ecology provide new opportunities to explore how microbial communities are shaped by their chemical surroundings. Here, we present a framework for analyses of how chemical energy availability shape chemotrophic microbial communities in hydrothermal systems through an investigation of two geochemically different basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge: the Soria Moria Vent field (SMVF) and the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). Chemical energy landscapes were evaluated through modelling of the Gibbs energy from selected redox reactions under different mixing ratios between seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Our models indicate that the sediment-influenced LCVF has a much higher potential for both anaerobic and aerobic methane oxidation, as well as aerobic ammonium and hydrogen oxidation, than the SMVF. The modelled energy landscapes were used to develop microbial community composition models, which were compared with community compositions in environmental samples inside or on the exterior of hydrothermal chimneys, as assessed by pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. We show that modelled microbial communities based solely on thermodynamic considerations can have a high predictive power and provide a framework for analyses of the link between energy availability and microbial community composition.

  19. Submarine Hydrothermal Systems - No Two Fields Are Alike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Over 300 hydrothermal systems have been discovered since the first finding of Galapagos vents over three decades ago. The size, morphology, chemistry and associated biology show a rich diversity that is in part governed by their host rocks and tectonic setting. Each vent system is unique in terms of the morphology of black smoker edifices and associated diffuse flow, which suggests that local processes and feedback loops govern the nature and evolution of these dynamic systems. In fast-spreading environments (e.g. EPR), vent fields are spaced far apart and individual structures are small in number and size. In contrast, to date, the highest concentrations of fields per kilometer of ridge segment, and the largest individual black smokers occur in intermediate-spreading systems (e.g. Endeavour hosting 45 m-tall chimneys). The largest complexes occur in intermediate and slow-spreading environments (e.g. TAG at 200 m across). The highest temperature vents are transient, with temperature excursions at or above the critical point of seawater. Extremely high temperatures are associated with diking and eruptive events that likely vaporize subsurface fluids, forcing them across the two-phase boundary briefly. Along slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges, the character of vents is strongly controlled by faulting, in particular, long-lived detachment faults that expose variably deformed and altered ultramafic rocks. Here, vent systems evolve from high-temperature black smokers within the axial valley with fluids rich in CO2, to black smokers with mantle and basaltic signatures along the axial valley walls, to end member systems such as the Lost City Field with chimneys and fluid chemistries never before seen: 60 m tall limestone towers that vent 90°C, metal-poor, pH 9-11 fluids devoid of CO2, yet rich in H2, CH4 and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons formed abiotically. This relatively stable environment, free from volcanic events, promotes venting for >150,000 years.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a hazard primarily in the oil and gas industry, agriculture, sewage and animal waste handling, construction (asphalt operations and disturbing marshy terrain), and other settings where organic material decomposes under reducing conditions, and in geothermal operations. It is an insoluble gas, heavier than air, with a very low odor threshold and high toxicity, driven by concentration more than duration of exposure. Toxicity presents in a unique, reliable, and characteristic toxidrome consisting, in ascending order of exposure, of mucosal irritation, especially of the eye ("gas eye"), olfactory paralysis (not to be confused with olfactory fatigue), sudden but reversible loss of consciousness ("knockdown"), pulmonary edema (with an unusually favorable prognosis), and death (probably with apnea contributing). The risk of chronic neurcognitive changes is controversial, with the best evidence at high exposure levels and after knockdowns, which are frequently accompanied by head injury or oxygen deprivation. Treatment cannot be initiated promptly in the prehospital phase, and currently rests primarily on supportive care, hyperbaric oxygen, and nitrite administration. The mechanism of action for sublethal neurotoxicity and knockdown is clearly not inhibition of cytochrome oxidase c, as generally assumed, although this may play a role in overwhelming exposures. High levels of endogenous sulfide are found in the brain, presumably relating to the function of hydrogen sulfide as a gaseous neurotransmitter and immunomodulator. Prevention requires control of exposure and rigorous training to stop doomed rescue attempts attempted without self-contained breathing apparatus, especially in confined spaces, and in sudden release in the oil and gas sector, which result in multiple avoidable deaths. PMID:26563786

  1. Genome-resolved metagenomics reveals that sulfur metabolism dominates the microbial ecology of rising hydrothermal plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaman, K.; Breier, J. A., Jr.; Jain, S.; Reed, D. C.; Dick, G.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal plumes occur when hot fluids from hydrothermal vents replete with chemically reduced elements and compounds like sulfide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, iron and manganese mix with cold, oxic seawater. Chemosynthetic microbes use these reduced chemicals to power primary production and are pervasive throughout the deep sea, even at sites far removed from hydrothermal vents. Although neutrally-buoyant hydrothermal plumes have been well-studied, rising hydrothermal plumes have received little attention even though they represent an important interface in the deep-sea where microbial metabolism and particle formation processes control the transformation of important elements and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we used genome-resolved metagenomic analyses and thermodynamic-bioenergetic modeling to study the microbial ecology of rising hydrothermal plumes at five different hydrothermal vents spanning a range of geochemical gradients at the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) in the Western Pacific Ocean. Our analyses show that differences in the geochemistry of hydrothermal vents do not manifest in microbial diversity and community composition, both of which display only minor variance across ELSC hydrothermal plumes. Microbial metabolism is dominated by oxidation of reduced sulfur species and supports a diversity of bacteria, archaea and viruses that provide intriguing insights into metabolic plasticity and virus-mediated horizontal gene transfer in the microbial community. The manifestation of sulfur oxidation genes in hydrogen and methane oxidizing organisms hints at metabolic opportunism in deep-sea microbes that would enable them to respond to varying redox conditions in hydrothermal plumes. Finally, we infer that the abundance, diversity and metabolic versatility of microbes associated with sulfur oxidation impart functional redundancy that could allow it to persist in the dynamic settings of hydrothermal plumes.

  2. Microdistribution of Faunal Assemblages at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents in the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Linse, Katrin; Reid, William D. K.; Rogers, Alex D.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Tyler, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production by microbes supports abundant faunal assemblages at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, with zonation of invertebrate species typically occurring along physico-chemical gradients. Recently discovered vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean represent a new province of vent biogeography, but the spatial dynamics of their distinct fauna have yet to be elucidated. This study determines patterns of faunal zonation, species associations, and relationships between faunal microdistribution and hydrothermal activity in a vent field at a depth of 2,400 m on the ESR. Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives obtained high-definition imagery of three chimney structures with varying levels of hydrothermal activity, and a mosaic image of >250 m2 of seafloor co-registered with temperature measurements. Analysis of faunal microdistribution within the mosaiced seafloor reveals a consistent pattern of faunal zonation with increasing distance from vent sources and peak temperatures. Assemblages closest to vent sources are visibly dominated by a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa n. sp. (abundance >700 individuals m−2), followed by a peltospiroid gastropod (>1,500 individuals m−2), eolepadid barnacle (>1,500 individuals m−2), and carnivorous actinostolid anemone (>30 individuals m−2). Peripheral fauna are not dominated by a single taxon, but include predatory and scavenger taxa such as stichasterid seastars, pycnogonids and octopus. Variation in faunal microdistribution on chimneys with differing levels of activity suggests a possible successional sequence for vent fauna in this new biogeographic province. An increase in δ34S values of primary consumers with distance from vent sources, and variation in their δ13C values also indicate possible zonation of nutritional modes of the vent fauna. By using ROV videography to obtain a high-resolution representation of a vent environment over a greater extent than previous studies

  3. Microdistribution of faunal assemblages at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Linse, Katrin; Reid, William D K; Rogers, Alex D; Sweeting, Christopher J; Tyler, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production by microbes supports abundant faunal assemblages at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, with zonation of invertebrate species typically occurring along physico-chemical gradients. Recently discovered vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean represent a new province of vent biogeography, but the spatial dynamics of their distinct fauna have yet to be elucidated. This study determines patterns of faunal zonation, species associations, and relationships between faunal microdistribution and hydrothermal activity in a vent field at a depth of 2,400 m on the ESR. Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives obtained high-definition imagery of three chimney structures with varying levels of hydrothermal activity, and a mosaic image of >250 m(2) of seafloor co-registered with temperature measurements. Analysis of faunal microdistribution within the mosaiced seafloor reveals a consistent pattern of faunal zonation with increasing distance from vent sources and peak temperatures. Assemblages closest to vent sources are visibly dominated by a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa n. sp. (abundance >700 individuals m(-2)), followed by a peltospiroid gastropod (>1,500 individuals m(-2)), eolepadid barnacle (>1,500 individuals m(-2)), and carnivorous actinostolid anemone (>30 individuals m(-2)). Peripheral fauna are not dominated by a single taxon, but include predatory and scavenger taxa such as stichasterid seastars, pycnogonids and octopus. Variation in faunal microdistribution on chimneys with differing levels of activity suggests a possible successional sequence for vent fauna in this new biogeographic province. An increase in δ(34)S values of primary consumers with distance from vent sources, and variation in their δ(13)C values also indicate possible zonation of nutritional modes of the vent fauna. By using ROV videography to obtain a high-resolution representation of a vent environment over a greater extent than previous studies

  4. Microdistribution of faunal assemblages at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Linse, Katrin; Reid, William D K; Rogers, Alex D; Sweeting, Christopher J; Tyler, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production by microbes supports abundant faunal assemblages at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, with zonation of invertebrate species typically occurring along physico-chemical gradients. Recently discovered vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean represent a new province of vent biogeography, but the spatial dynamics of their distinct fauna have yet to be elucidated. This study determines patterns of faunal zonation, species associations, and relationships between faunal microdistribution and hydrothermal activity in a vent field at a depth of 2,400 m on the ESR. Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives obtained high-definition imagery of three chimney structures with varying levels of hydrothermal activity, and a mosaic image of >250 m(2) of seafloor co-registered with temperature measurements. Analysis of faunal microdistribution within the mosaiced seafloor reveals a consistent pattern of faunal zonation with increasing distance from vent sources and peak temperatures. Assemblages closest to vent sources are visibly dominated by a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa n. sp. (abundance >700 individuals m(-2)), followed by a peltospiroid gastropod (>1,500 individuals m(-2)), eolepadid barnacle (>1,500 individuals m(-2)), and carnivorous actinostolid anemone (>30 individuals m(-2)). Peripheral fauna are not dominated by a single taxon, but include predatory and scavenger taxa such as stichasterid seastars, pycnogonids and octopus. Variation in faunal microdistribution on chimneys with differing levels of activity suggests a possible successional sequence for vent fauna in this new biogeographic province. An increase in δ(34)S values of primary consumers with distance from vent sources, and variation in their δ(13)C values also indicate possible zonation of nutritional modes of the vent fauna. By using ROV videography to obtain a high-resolution representation of a vent environment over a greater extent than previous studies

  5. Field method for sulfide determination

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B L; Schwarser, R R; Chukwuenye, C O

    1982-01-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed for determining the total sulfide concentration in water in the field. Direct measurements were made using a silver/sulfide ion selective electrode in conjunction with a double junction reference electrode connected to an Orion Model 407A/F Specific Ion Meter. The method also made use of a sulfide anti-oxidant buffer (SAOB II) which consists of ascorbic acid, sodium hydroxide, and disodium EDTA. Preweighed sodium sulfide crystals were sealed in air tight plastic volumetric flasks which were used in standardization process in the field. Field standards were prepared by adding SAOB II to the flask containing the sulfide crystals and diluting it to the mark with deionized deaerated water. Serial dilutions of the standards were used to prepare standards of lower concentrations. Concentrations as low as 6 ppB were obtained on lake samples with a reproducibility better than +- 10%.

  6. Sulfur metabolizing microbes dominate microbial communities in Andesite-hosted shallow-sea hydrothermal systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Zihao; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Tang, Kai; Su, Jianqiang; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2012-01-01

    To determine microbial community composition, community spatial structure and possible key microbial processes in the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent systems off NE Taiwan's coast, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities of four samples collected from the water column extending over a redoxocline gradient of a yellow and four from a white hydrothermal vent. Ribosomal tag pyrosequencing based on DNA and RNA showed statistically significant differences between the bacterial and archaeal communities of the different hydrothermal plumes. The bacterial and archaeal communities from the white hydrothermal plume were dominated by sulfur-reducing Nautilia and Thermococcus, whereas the yellow hydrothermal plume and the surface water were dominated by sulfide-oxidizing Thiomicrospira and Euryarchaeota Marine Group II, respectively. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that methane (CH(4)) concentration was the only statistically significant variable that explains all community cluster patterns. However, the results of pyrosequencing showed an essential absence of methanogens and methanotrophs at the two vent fields, suggesting that CH(4) was less tied to microbial processes in this shallow-sea hydrothermal system. We speculated that mixing between hydrothermal fluids and the sea or meteoric water leads to distinctly different CH(4) concentrations and redox niches between the yellow and white vents, consequently influencing the distribution patterns of the free-living Bacteria and Archaea. We concluded that sulfur-reducing and sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs accounted for most of the primary biomass synthesis and that microbial sulfur metabolism fueled microbial energy flow and element cycling in the shallow hydrothermal systems off the coast of NE Taiwan.

  7. Sulfur metabolizing microbes dominate microbial communities in Andesite-hosted shallow-sea hydrothermal systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Zihao; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Tang, Kai; Su, Jianqiang; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2012-01-01

    To determine microbial community composition, community spatial structure and possible key microbial processes in the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent systems off NE Taiwan's coast, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities of four samples collected from the water column extending over a redoxocline gradient of a yellow and four from a white hydrothermal vent. Ribosomal tag pyrosequencing based on DNA and RNA showed statistically significant differences between the bacterial and archaeal communities of the different hydrothermal plumes. The bacterial and archaeal communities from the white hydrothermal plume were dominated by sulfur-reducing Nautilia and Thermococcus, whereas the yellow hydrothermal plume and the surface water were dominated by sulfide-oxidizing Thiomicrospira and Euryarchaeota Marine Group II, respectively. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that methane (CH(4)) concentration was the only statistically significant variable that explains all community cluster patterns. However, the results of pyrosequencing showed an essential absence of methanogens and methanotrophs at the two vent fields, suggesting that CH(4) was less tied to microbial processes in this shallow-sea hydrothermal system. We speculated that mixing between hydrothermal fluids and the sea or meteoric water leads to distinctly different CH(4) concentrations and redox niches between the yellow and white vents, consequently influencing the distribution patterns of the free-living Bacteria and Archaea. We concluded that sulfur-reducing and sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs accounted for most of the primary biomass synthesis and that microbial sulfur metabolism fueled microbial energy flow and element cycling in the shallow hydrothermal systems off the coast of NE Taiwan. PMID:22970260

  8. Hydrogeological structure of a seafloor hydrothermal system related to backarc rifting in a continental margin setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough backarc basin are considered as related to backarc rifting in a continental margin setting. Since the seafloor is dominantly covered with felsic volcaniclastic material and/or terrigenous sediment, hydrothermal circulation is expected to be distributed within sediment layers of significantly high porosity. Deep drilling through an active hydrothermal field at the Iheya North Knoll in the middle Okinawa Trough during IODP Expedition 331 provided a unique opportunity to directly access the subseafloor. While sedimentation along the slopes of the knoll was dominated by volcanic clasts of tubular pumice, intense hydrothermal alteration was recognized in the vicinity of the hydrothermal center even at very shallow depths. Detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies of hydrothermal clay minerals in the altered sediment suggest that the prevalent alteration is attributed to laterally extensive fluid intrusion and occupation within the sediment layer. Onboard measurements of physical properties of the obtained sediment revealed drastic changes of the porosity caused by hydrothermal interactions. While unaltered sediment showed porosity higher than 70%, the porosity drastically decreased in the layer of anhydrite formation. On the other hand, the porosity remained high (~50%) in the layer of only chlorite alteration. Cap rock formation caused by anhydrite precipitation would inhibit the ascent of high temperature fluids to the seafloor. Moreover, an interbedded nature of pelagic mud units and matrix-free pumice deposits may prompt formation of a tightly layered architecture of aquifers and aquicludes. This sediment architecture should be highly conducive to lateral flow pseudo-parallel to the surface topography. Occurrence of sphalerite-rich sulfides was recognized as associated with detrital and altered sediment, suggesting mineralization related to subsurface chemical processes. Moreover, the vertical profiles of

  9. Geology, petrography, geochemistry, and genesis of sulfide-rich pods in the Lac des Iles palladium deposits, western Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Charley J.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Corkery, John T.

    2016-04-01

    The Lac des Iles Pd deposits are known for their Pd-rich sulfide-poor mineralization. However, previously undocumented sulfide-rich pods also occur within the intrusion that hosts the deposits. Given the complex magmatic and hydrothermal history of the mineralization at Lac des Iles, the sulfide-rich pods could have crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids or precipitated from hydrothermal fluids. Sulfide-rich pods occur throughout the stratigraphy, in all rock types, and along comagmatic shear zones, and contain net-textured to massive sulfides. They can be divided into four main groups based on the variation in mineral assemblages: (1) pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± pyrite-chalcopyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (2) chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (3) pyrite ± pentlandite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite-ilmenite; and (4) magnetite ± ilmenite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-chalcopyrite. Whole rock metal contents and S isotopic compositions do not change with the amount of pyrite present, except for slight enrichments in As and Bi. The presence of an essentially magmatic sulfide mineral assemblage (pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± chalcopyrite) with pentlandite exsolution flames in pyrrhotite in some pods suggests that the pods crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids. The very low Cu contents of the pods suggests that they are mainly cumulates of monosulfide solid solution (MSS). We propose a model whereby sulfide liquids were concentrated into dilation zones prior to crystallizing cumulus MSS. Intermediate solid solution crystallized from the fractionated liquids at the edges of some pods leaving residual liquids enriched in Pt, Pd, Au, As, Bi, Sb, and Te. These residual liquids are no longer associated with the pods. During subsequent alteration, pyrite replaced MSS/pyrrhotite, but this did not affect the platinum-group element contents of the pods.

  10. Chemical signatures from hydrothermal venting on slow spreading ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Henrietta N.

    At least 24 sites of active venting have been confirmed on slow and ultraslow spreading ridges, with dozens more indicated on the basis of hydrothermal plume distributions and/or dredge recovery of massive sulfides. Fluid chemistry data have been published for 13 sites: 8 on the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 3 on the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and 2 on the Central Indian Ridge. Three of these 13 sites (Rainbow, Logatchev, and Lost City) are known to be hosted in ultramafic terrain, and their fluid chemistries reflect the influence of serpentinization reactions, including elevated hydrogen and methane, and low silica concentrations. This brief review presents the published fluid chemistry for all 13 sites, including time series where available, and demonstrates the diversity of chemical compositions engendered by the myriad settings (near and off axis, young volcanic to ultramafic terrain, and depths up to 4100 m) of hydrothermal systems on slow and ultraslow spreading ridges.

  11. Chemical and biological interactions in the Rose Garden hydrothermal vent field, Galapagos spreading center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Childress, James J.; Hessler, Robert R.; Sakamoto-Arnold, Carole M.; Beehler, Carl L.

    1988-10-01

    The concentrations of a suite of redox reactive chemicals were measured in the Rose Garden hydrothermal vent field of the Galapagos spreading center. Sulfide, silicate, oxygen and temperature distributions were measured in situ with a submersible chemical analyser. In addition, 15 chemical species were measured in discrete samples. Variability in the slope of the temperature-silicate plots indicates that heat is lost from these relatively low temperatures (<15°C) solutions by conduction to the solid phase. Consumption of oxygen, sulfide and nitrate from the hydrothermal solution as it flows past the vent animals is apparent from the distributions measured in situ and in the discrete samples. The fraction of sulfide and nitrate removed from the solution by consumption appears to have increased between 1979-1985. Sulfide and oxygen appear to be consumed under different conditions: sulfide is removed primarily from the warmest solutions, and oxygen is consumed only from the cold seawater. This separation may be driven primarily by the increased gradients of each chemical under these conditions. There is no evidence for the consumption of significant amounts of manganese(II) by the vent organisms. The analysis of other data sets from this vent field indicate no significant consumption of methane by the vent organisms, as well.

  12. Liquid CO2 venting on the seafloor: Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, U.; Tsunogai, U.; Nakagawa, F.; Nakaseama, M.; Ishibashi, J.; Nunoura, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2006-12-01

    In 2000, an active hydrothermal site, venting high-temperature fluid up to 300 oC, was discovered by Shinkai 6500 on the top of Yonaguni Knoll IV during YK 00-06 cruise in Okinawa Trough. During the subsequent subseafloor survey using Shinkai 6500 in 2003 (YK03-05), vents of liquid CO2 droplets were found at the site. Similar liquid CO2 droplets had previously been found at the active hydrothermal sites at JADE hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough, during the extensive seafloor survey using submersibles in 1989 [Sakai et al., 1990]. Besides, similar liquid CO2 venting has also been recognized in NW Eifuku hydrothermal site on Izu-Bonin- Mariana arc. It thus appears that liquid CO2 venting might be usual phenomenon in some submarine arc volcanoes. The detailed relation between seafloor venting liquid CO2 and the surrounding high-temperature hydrothermal fluid, however, was not clarified in their studies. Furthermore, no definite evidence was obtained for the presence of CO2-hydrate in the subsurface. In this study, in order to discuss the subseafloor processes responsible for producing liquid CO2 at the Yonaguni Knoll IV site, as well as the possibility of the occurrence of solid CO2-hydrate within the sediments, we determined the chemical and isotopic compositions of the liquid CO2 found on the site, as well as those in hydrothermal fluid venting from the surrounding chimneys. In consequence, the ^13C of both CO2 and CH4 in the liquid CO2 almost coincide with those in the hydrothermal fluid, suggesting that the liquid CO2 must be derived from the hydrothermal fluid. While showing homogeneous ^13C, the hydrothermal fluids exhibit wide variation in gas contents. Active phase separation must be taking place within the conduits. Besides, H2-depletion in the liquid CO2 suggests formation of solid CO2-hydrate must also precede the venting of liquid CO2. In conclusion, liquid CO2 must be produced through following subseafloor processes: phase separation of hydrothermal

  13. The Lassen hydrothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Clor, Laura; Evans, William C.

    2016-01-01

    The active Lassen hydrothermal system includes a central vapor-dominated zone or zones beneath the Lassen highlands underlain by ~240 °C high-chloride waters that discharge at lower elevations. It is the best-exposed and largest hydrothermal system in the Cascade Range, discharging 41 ± 10 kg/s of steam (~115 MW) and 23 ± 2 kg/s of high-chloride waters (~27 MW). The Lassen system accounts for a full 1/3 of the total high-temperature hydrothermal heat discharge in the U.S. Cascades (140/400 MW). Hydrothermal heat discharge of ~140 MW can be supported by crystallization and cooling of silicic magma at a rate of ~2400 km3/Ma, and the ongoing rates of heat and magmatic CO2 discharge are broadly consistent with a petrologic model for basalt-driven magmatic evolution. The clustering of observed seismicity at ~4–5 km depth may define zones of thermal cracking where the hydrothermal system mines heat from near-plastic rock. If so, the combined areal extent of the primary heat-transfer zones is ~5 km2, the average conductive heat flux over that area is >25 W/m2, and the conductive-boundary length <50 m. Observational records of hydrothermal discharge are likely too short to document long-term transients, whether they are intrinsic to the system or owe to various geologic events such as the eruption of Lassen Peak at 27 ka, deglaciation beginning ~18 ka, the eruptions of Chaos Crags at 1.1 ka, or the minor 1914–1917 eruption at the summit of Lassen Peak. However, there is a rich record of intermittent hydrothermal measurement over the past several decades and more-frequent measurement 2009–present. These data reveal sensitivity to climate and weather conditions, seasonal variability that owes to interaction with the shallow hydrologic system, and a transient 1.5- to twofold increase in high-chloride discharge in response to an earthquake swarm in mid-November 2014.

  14. Extraordinary 13C enrichment of diether lipids at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field indicates a carbon-limited ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Alexander S.; Hayes, John M.; Summons, Roger E.

    2009-01-01

    Active and inactive carbonate chimneys from the Lost City Hydrothermal Field contain up to 0.6% organic carbon with diverse lipid assemblages. The δ 13C values of total organic carbon range from -21.5‰ vs. VPDB at an extinct carbonate chimney to -2.8‰ at a 70 °C, actively venting carbonate chimney. Samples collected at locations with total organic carbon with δ 13C > -15‰ also contained high abundances of isoprenoidal and nonisoprenoidal diether lipids. Samples with TOC more depleted in 13C lacked or contained lower amounts of these diethers. Isoprenoidal diethers, including sn-2 hydroxyarchaeol, sn-3 hydroxyarchaeol, and putative dihydroxyarchaeol, are likely to derive from methanogenic archaea. These compounds have δ 13C values ranging from -2.9 to +6.7‰ vs. VPDB. Nonisoprenoidal diethers and monoethers are presumably derived from bacteria, and have structures similar to those produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria in culture and at cold seeps. In samples that also contai