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Sample records for hymenoptera trichogrammatidae parasitoides

  1. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  2. Susceptibility to selected insecticides and risk assessment in the insect egg parasitoid Trichogramma confusum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Liping; An, Xuehua; Jiang, Jinhua; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming; Zhao, Xueping

    2013-02-01

    The parasitoid Trichogramma confusum Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an important natural enemy of many lepidopterans throughout the world. Extensive toxicological tests have clarified the toxic effects of insecticides on trichogrammatids, but only few studies have examined these effects on T. confusum. Among the seven classes of tested chemicals, organophosphates and carbamates exhibited the highest intrinsic toxicity to the parasitoid with LC50 values ranging from 0.037 (0.030-0.046) to 0.29 (0.23-0.38) and from 0.17 (0.15-0.19) to 1.61 (1.45-1.79) mg AI L(-1), respectively. They were followed by phenylpyrazoles, avermectins, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids, which induced variable toxicity responses with LC50 values ranging from 0.63 to 45.26, 1.06-21.73, 3.89-19.36, and 0.24-754.2 mg AI L(-1), respectively. In contrast, insect growth regulators (IGRs) showed the least toxicity to the parasitoid with LC50 values ranging from 3,907 (3,432-4,531) to 10,154 (8,857-12,143) mg AI L(-1). A risk quotient analysis indicated that neonicotinoids (except thiamethoxam), avermectins, pyrethroids, IGRs, and phenylpyrazoles are safe, but organophosphates and carbamates are slightly to moderately or dangerously toxic to T. confusum. This study provides informative data for implementing both biological and chemical control strategies in integrated pest management of lepidopterans.

  3. Effects of various insecticides on the development of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Takada, Y; Kawamura, S; Tanaka, T

    2001-12-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides, acephate, methomyl, ethofenprox, cartap, chlorfluazuron, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was tested on different developmental stages of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma dendrolimi (Matsumura). Each of the insecticides tested showed different degrees of toxicity to the parasitoid, Ethofenprox showed the highest toxicity and cartap showed relatively higher toxicity compared with the other insecticides. The development of the parasitoids treated with these two insecticides was normal, similar to that of the control group. Only the emergence of adult wasps from host eggs was disturbed. Emergence of the host, Mamestra brassicae larva was reduced following treatment with ethofenprox, cartap and methomyl. However, adult female wasps, which emerged from host eggs treated with the insecticides had the ability to oviposit normally.

  4. Innate and Learned Olfactory Responses in a Wild Population of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Keaton; Woods, H Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Parasitoid insects face the fundamental problem of finding a suitable host in environments filled with competing stimuli. Many are deft sensors of olfactory cues emitted by other insects and the plants they live on, and use these cues to find hosts. Using olfactory cues from host-plants is effective because plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in response to herbivory or oviposition, that contain information about the presence of hosts. However, plant-produced cues can also be misleading because they are influenced by a variety of stimuli (abiotic variation, infection and multiple sources of induction via herbivory or oviposition). Flexible behavior is one strategy that parasitoids may use to cope with variation in olfactory cues. We examine the innate and learned responses of a natural population of wasp egg parasitoids (Trichogramma deion and Trichogramma sathon) using a series of laboratory and field Y-olfactometer experiments. Wasps typically attack eggs of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and Manduca quinquemaculata on native Datura wrightii plants in the southwestern United States. We show that Trichogramma wasps responded innately to VOCs produced by D. wrightii and could distinguish plants recently attacked by M. sexta from non-attacked plants. Furthermore, adult Trichogramma wasps were able to learn components of the VOC blend given off by D. wrightii, though they did not learn during exposure as pupae. By further exploring the behavioral ecology of a natural population of Trichogramma, we gain greater insight into how egg parasitoids function in tri-trophic systems.

  5. Innate and Learned Olfactory Responses in a Wild Population of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. Keaton; Woods, H. Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Parasitoid insects face the fundamental problem of finding a suitable host in environments filled with competing stimuli. Many are deft sensors of olfactory cues emitted by other insects and the plants they live on, and use these cues to find hosts. Using olfactory cues from host-plants is effective because plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in response to herbivory or oviposition, that contain information about the presence of hosts. However, plant-produced cues can also be misleading because they are influenced by a variety of stimuli (abiotic variation, infection and multiple sources of induction via herbivory or oviposition). Flexible behavior is one strategy that parasitoids may use to cope with variation in olfactory cues. We examine the innate and learned responses of a natural population of wasp egg parasitoids (Trichogramma deion and Trichogramma sathon) using a series of laboratory and field Y-olfactometer experiments. Wasps typically attack eggs of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and Manduca quinquemaculata on native Datura wrightii plants in the southwestern United States. We show that Trichogramma wasps responded innately to VOCs produced by D. wrightii and could distinguish plants recently attacked by M. sexta from non-attacked plants. Furthermore, adult Trichogramma wasps were able to learn components of the VOC blend given off by D. wrightii, though they did not learn during exposure as pupae. By further exploring the behavioral ecology of a natural population of Trichogramma, we gain greater insight into how egg parasitoids function in tri-trophic systems. PMID:27965403

  6. Effects of shelf architecture and parasitoid release height on biological control of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs by Trichogramma deion (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Flinn, Paul W; Nechols, James R; Campbell, James F

    2006-12-01

    The effects of shelving type, packaging, and release height on success of Trichogramma deion Pinto & Oatman (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitizing Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs was studied under laboratory conditions. In trials on multipletiered gondola-type or open shelving units, with or without packaging, foraging success was evaluated by comparing parasitism and total mortality rates of sentinel egg disks among shelves after a single point-release of T. deion. Results showed that T. deion parasitized more egg disks and killed more total eggs on open shelves than on gondola shelving. The presence of packaging had no effect on parasitoid foraging on open shelves; however, packaging did interfere with parasitism of P. interpunctella eggs on gondola shelving. Egg parasitism and mortality patterns among shelves were not as evenly distributed on gondola-type shelving compared with open shelving. On gondola shelves without packages, changing the release point of T. deion from the middle to the lowest shelf shifted the distribution of parasitism toward the floor. Gondola shelving, especially in the presence of packaging, reduced foraging efficiency of T. deion for P. interpunctella eggs. Thus, to attain adequate control of P. interpunctella, it may be necessary to use two release heights on gondola shelving.

  7. Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) of the gall-making leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Uzbekistan, with taxonomic notes on the Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea.

    PubMed

    Rakitov, Roman; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the Aphelinoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), A. (Aphelinoidea) sariq Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n., is described from Uzbekistan. Both sexes were reared from eggs of the only known truly gall-making leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste), laid inside its galls on camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Medikus; additional females were found dead inside the galls. Aphelinoidea sariq is the only known species of the nominate subgenus of Aphelinoidea whose body color is predominantly yellow. Taxonomic notes on other Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea are provided; A. scythica Fursov, syn. n. is synonymized underA. (Aphelinoidea) turanica S. Trjapitzin. Another trichogrammatid, Par-acentrobia (Paracentrobia) sp., was reared from eggs of S. viridis in much smaller numbers. Also described from the same locality and host is Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) mitjaevi Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

  8. Effect of host quality of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on performance of the egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Spitzen, J; van Huis, A

    2005-08-01

    Development and reproductive success of the solitary egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan were examined after development in eggs of the bruchid storage pest Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius reared at either low or high densities on cowpea seeds and laid at day 1 and 4 of maternal life. Both bruchid larval competition and maternal age negatively affected egg size, but the latter more than the former. Uscana lariophaga reared in small hosts developed slower, were smaller and produced fewer eggs compared to parasitoids reared in large hosts. Fecundity of the parasitoid was heavily influenced by host egg size. This was reflected in the values for the intrinsic rate of increase of U. lariophaga, which differed for wasps that developed in host eggs laid by bruchid females of different age. Wasps allocated marginally more female offspring to larger hosts.

  9. Laboratory biological parameters of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre was identified attacking Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), a serious pest of Opuntia spp. in North America, raising the possibility of using this egg parasitoid as an inundative biological control agent. Studies were conducted to assess the biological parameters of this para...

  10. Acute and population level toxicity of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate on an important egg parasitoid, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Saber, Moosa

    2011-08-01

    One focus of integrated pest management (IPM) is the use of biological and chemical control in an optimal way. The availability of selective pesticides is important as is information about both lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on biocontrol agents. Acute and sublethal effects of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate exposure were studied on adult stage of egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal and the emergence rate and life table parameters were determined. The adult wasps were exposed to field recommended concentration (FRC) of the pesticides on glass plates. Field rates of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate caused 100 and 32% adult mortality, respectively. Based on concentration-response experiments, the LC(50) values of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate were 6.25 and 1,949 ppm, respectively. The effect of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate on larvae, prepupae and pupae of the parasitoid was tested by exposing parasitized eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier or Cydia pomonella L. to the FRC. Imidacloprid and fenpyroximate reduced adult emergence by 10.7 and 29%, respectively, when S. cerealella eggs were used as the host and 10.9 and 24.9%, respectively, when C. pomonella eggs were used as the host. Population parameters of emerged adults from treated pre-imaginal stages by FRC of the pesticides were also studied. The parameters were longevity and progeny production of emergent adults and also intrinsic rate of increase (r ( m )), generation time (T) and doubling time (DT). Longevity and progeny production of the emergent adults was not affected by pesticide exposure in comparison to the control. In addition, none of population parameters such as r ( m ), T and DT were affected by pesticide exposure. The intrinsic rate of increase for the control, fenpyroximate and imidacloprid exposed populations were 0.388, 0.374, and 0.372 female offspring per female per day, respectively. Overall, results of this study suggest a relative compatibility between fenpyroximate

  11. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)-tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    PubMed

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia. Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would benefit from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitism of five Trichogramma species-strains on the pest-plant system T. absoluta-tomato, and 2) assessed various biological traits of parasitoids, mass-reared on a factitious host (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), when developing on T. absoluta. In addition, we evaluated the overall efficiency of two specific Trichogramma species when released under greenhouse conditions in combination with a common natural enemy in tomato crop, the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Parasitoids emerging from T. absoluta on tomato showed lower parasitism rates and poor biological traits, for example, wing deformations, reduced longevity, when compared with the control reared on the factitious host. Under greenhouse conditions, the parasitoids that developed on T. absoluta after initial releases contributed little to biological control of T. absoluta, and parasitism tended to be lower when the predator was present. However, a slightly higher T. absoluta control level was achieved by combining the predator and release of the parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. This study shows that Trichogramma parasitoids may not build up populations on the T. absoluta-tomato system, but that Trichogramma parasitoids can be used in combination with M. pygmaeus to enhance biological control of the pest in tomato crops.

  12. Description and biological traits of a new species of Paracentrobia (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of the sharpshooter Tapajosa rubromarginata (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of egg parasitoids of sharpshooters (Cicadellidae: Cicadellini and Proconiini), an undescribed species of Paracentrobia Howard was detected. It is here described and illustrated, and laboratory data on its life cycle are reported. Paracentrobia tapajosae sp. n. is a primary parasitoi...

  13. Temperature Effects on the Development and Reproduction of Three Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Species Reared on Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Krechemer, F. S.; Foerster, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a generalist species and an important pest of Brassicaceae worldwide. Egg parasitoids are a feasible alternative for the control of this species. We evaluated the suitability of T. ni eggs as hosts for three Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) species and their tolerance to survive and develop within a range of temperatures between 15 and 30°C under laboratory conditions. The species evaluated were Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, and Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares. Parasitism rate was affected by temperature, parasitoid species, and by the interaction between these two factors. Parasitoids developed and reproduced in the range of temperatures evaluated, but Trichog. acacioi failed to parasitize T. ni eggs at 30°C. The highest parasitism rates of Trichog. atopovirilia and Trichog. pretiosum occurred at 20 and 25°C and Trichog. acacioi at 25°C, with parasitism rate above 70% in the three species. Parasitoid emergence was not affected by temperature or species. The estimated thermal constant and lower temperature threshold were 134.6 DD and 10.6°C for Trichog. pretiosum and 130.1 DD and 11.2°C for Trichog. atopovirilia. The results demonstrated that Trichog. pretiosum and Trichog. atopovirilia are the most suitable species for the control of T. ni, as they can remain active throughout the year in subtropical regions. PMID:26160802

  14. A revision of the Indian species of Oligosita Walker (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Begum, Salma; Anis, Shoeba Binte; Khan, Mohd Talib

    2015-06-19

    The Indian species of the genus Oligosita Walker, 1851 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are revised. One new species, Oligosita aseta Begum & Anis, sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from Kerala, India. A key to the 16 Indian species of the genus is also given.

  15. Safety evaluation of eleven insecticides to Trichogramma nubilale (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Song, Min; Qi, Suzhen; Wang, Chengju

    2013-02-01

    The safety of 11 pesticides (indoxacarb, chlorfluazuron, azadirachtin, methoxyfenozide, rotenone, spinosad, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and triazophos) to Trichogramma nubilale (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in this study. The acute toxicity to the adults was investigated using dry-film method. The influences of the pesticides on both parasitic ability and different developmental stages were studied using corn leaves residual method, rice moth egg card dipping method, and T. nubilale parasitized rice moth egg dipping method. Results showed that methoxyfenozide, azadirachtin, and indoxacarb were safe for the whole life cycle of T. nubilale. Chlorfluazuron, rotenone, and acetamiprid had different levels of impacts on different developmental stages, and they should be chosen to be used according to their safety time with reduced exposure levels. Rotenone was safe for the adults but it was harmful to the other stages, whose dosage should be reduced when it was used. Acetamiprid could be applied during the pupae stage. Finally, to avoid large kill, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, triazophos, and imidacloprid should not be used as they were not safe for any development stage of T. nubilale.

  16. Acute toxicities and sublethal effects of some conventional insecticides on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Sen; He, Yu-Rong; Guo, Xiang-Ling; Luo, Yong-Li

    2012-08-01

    The acute toxicity of 10 conventional insecticides to adult of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was bioassayed by membrane method, and then their sublethal effects on the parasitoid were evaluated in the laboratory. Based on sublethal concentration (LC30) values at 8 h after treatment, we determined that adult T. chilonis were the most susceptible to chlorfenapyr, followed by fipronil, spinosad, avermectins, beta-cypermethrin, and cartap, with lethal concentration (LC)30 values of 0.3133, 0.3269, 1.5408, 3.2961, 6.1469, and 9.021 mg/liter, respectively. The field-recommended concentrations of chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, Bacillus thuringiensis, and tebufenozide caused <30% mortality of treated adults; therefore, they were used to evaluate sublethal effects on the parasitoid. After treatment with sublethal concentration of fipronil and avermectins, the longevity of treated females (1.2 and 1.6 d) was significantly shortened and fecundity (34.7 and 1.6) was remarkably decreased; consequently, the life-table parameters (R0, r(m), lambda, and T) of T. chilonis were statistically lower than those in the control. Cartap and spinosad also reduced longevity (8 and 7.9 d) and fecundity (110.77 and 117.2) of treated adults, but cartap enhanced the female percentage of F1 offspring (61.6%), resulting a statistical higher R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. In contrast, chlorfluazuron and tebufenozide increased longevity (16.4 and 15.4 d) and fecundity (248 and 256.9) of treated adults but slightly decreased the female percentage of F1 offspring (31.4 and 38.1%). Although chlorfenapyr showed no adverse influence on longevity and fecundity, it remarkably reduced the female percentage of F1 offspring (13.5%), leading to a lower R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. Indoxacarb, B. thuringiensis, and beta-cypermethrin had no obvious sublethal effects on the longevity and fecundity of treated adults. Based on these results, we consider B

  17. Effects of Kaolin on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Its Compatibility With the Natural Enemy, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Pease, Christina E; López-Olguín, Jesús F; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important grapevine pest in Europe recently encountered in America. Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is amongst the most effective parasitoids for Lepidopteran species. Studies to evaluate the effect of kaolin, an inert, nontoxic mineral, on oviposition, egg hatch, and neonate mortality of these species were carried out. Efficacy on L. botrana neonate larvae, oviposition, and egg hatch was evaluated. Effects of kaolin on parasitism and emergence of T. cacoeciae from L. botrana and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were also evaluated. Lobesia botrana egg hatch and oviposition rates were reduced, and neonate larvae mortality was significantly greater in kaolin-treated arenas and when included in synthetic neonate larvae diet. Kaolin had no effect on T. cacoeciae parasitism in both hosts. There was only a slight but statistically insignificant effect on T. cacoeciae progeny emergence from L. botrana eggs and no effect from E. kuehniella. The results involving reductions in L. botrana oviposition and egg hatch and increase in larval mortality with kaolin suggest this compound may contribute to reduction in population densities and can be considered in rational integrated pest management strategies for L. botrana. Due to the laboratory results presented on parasitoid emergence, even though field bioassays would give a more exhaustive evaluation, it appears kaolin can be compatible with T. cacoeciae in L. botrana management.

  18. First report of an egg parasitoid reared from Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Schizaeales: Lygodiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was first released in Florida as a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae), Old World climbing fern, in 2008. The first egg parasitoid, a Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was reared from N. co...

  19. Bionomics of Orasema simplex (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) a parasitoid of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological characteristics of the parasitoid Orasema simplex Heraty (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), a potential candidate for the biological control of fire ants in the United States were investigated. Female survivorship, fertility and oviposition preferences were studied in the laboratory. Naturally ...

  20. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) in Italy. 1. DipteraTachinidae and HymenopteraBraconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Loni, Augusto; Lucchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae) and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae). This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen) and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen), whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy) is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of Lobesia botrana. Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) are uncertain.

  1. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) in Italy. 1. Diptera Tachinidae and Hymenoptera Braconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Loni, Augusto; Lucchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae) and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae). This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen) and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen), whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy) is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of Lobesia botrana. Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) are uncertain. PMID:28325964

  2. [Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on alternative hosts, under different temperatures].

    PubMed

    Zago, Hugo B; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Barros, Reginaldo; Gondim, Manoel G C; Santos, Hugo J G Dos

    2007-01-01

    The successful use of Trichogramma as biocontrol agent depends on its mass production in laboratory, a fundamental step for any biological control program among other factors. This work investigated the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zuchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a new recorded Trichogramma species, parasitizing eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) and Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under the temperatures of 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 degree Celsius. Eggs of these hosts were offered to newly emerged females during 24h. This procedure was repeated daily for each female and each temperature up to female death, in order to estimate daily and accumulated parasitism, and female longevity. On both hosts, the daily parasitism decreased as function of the female age. Under all temperatures studied and both hosts the highest rate of parasitism was observed during the first 24h of host exposure, and reached 80% of total parasitism in the 4th and 3rd days when parasitizing A. kuehniella and C. cephalonica, respectively. On both hosts, the highest parasitism rate was observed under temperatures from 21 degree Celsius to 27 degree Celsius. Average longevities of T. pratissolii females deprived of food emerging from A. kuehniella and C. cephalonica lived for 1.0 and 8.9 days when reared at 15 degree Celsius e 33 degree Celsius, respectively. The results indicate that eggs of A. kuehniella and C. cephalonica and temperatures from 21 degree Celsius to 27 degree Celsius were appropriate to rear T. pratissolii.

  3. Description of a new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) living on Pennisetum setaceum, from Italy.

    PubMed

    Bella, Salvatore; Cupani, Sebastiano; D'urso, Vera; Laudonia, Stefania; Sinno, Martina; Viggiani, Gennaro

    2015-11-06

    A new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), O. balcluthae Viggiani et Laudonia n. sp., is described as a parasitoid of the eggs of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) associated with crimson fountain grass, Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae) in Italy. Morphological features and biology of the new species are discussed and illustrated. The 28S-D2 and ITS2 regions were successfully amplified and sequenced.

  4. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J; Moon, Roger D

    2009-06-01

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.

  5. Herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species parasitizing Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Leite, Germano L D; de Paulo, Paula D; Zanuncio, José C; Tavares, Wagner De S; Alvarenga, Anarelly C; Dourado, Luan R; Bispo, Edilson P R; Soares, Marcus A

    2017-01-02

    Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Parasitism by these natural enemies was allowed for 48 h and the cardboards were sprayed with the herbicide nicosulfuron at 1.50 L.ha(-1), along with the control (only distilled water). Nicosulfuron reduced the emergence rate of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 females, but increased that of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Smith, 1984 and T. annulata females. Conversely, this herbicide increased the emergence rate of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904, T. bruni, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 and Trichogramma soaresi Nagaraja, 1983 males and decreased those of T. acacioi, Trichogramma atopovilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum males. In addition, nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of T. galloi, Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, 1973 and T. pretiosum and increased that of T. acacioi, T. bruni, T. annulata, Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983, T. soaresi and T. brasiliensis. The herbicide nicosulfuron was "harmless" (class 1, <30% reduction) for females and the sex ratio of all Trichogrammatidae species based on the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) classification. The possible hormesis effect of nicosulfuron on Trichogrammatidae species and on the bacterium Wolbachia sp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was also discussed.

  6. Seasonal ecology and thermal constraints of Telenomus spp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Legault, Simon; Hébert, Christian; Blais, Julie; Berthiaume, Richard; Bauce, Eric; Brodeur, Jacques

    2012-12-01

    We describe seasonal patterns of parasitism by Telenomus coloradensis Crawford, Telenomus droozi Muesebeck, Telenomus flavotibiae Pelletier (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), and Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), after a 3-yr survey of defoliated stands in the lower St. Lawrence region (Quebec, Canada). Results from sentinel trap sampling indicate that T. coloradensis and T. droozi are the most common species, whereas parasitism by T. flavotibiae and Trichogramma spp. is rare. Telenomus coloradensis and T. droozi show similar seasonal periods of parasitism, both species being active in early spring (late April) at temperatures as low as 4°C. Using thermal threshold (T(0)) and thermal constant (K) for immature development of T. coloradensis males and females from egg to adult emergence, we estimated that the spring progeny emerges in the middle of the summer while hemlock looper eggs are absent from the forest environment. Parasitoid females would then mate and remain in the environment to 1) exploit alternate host species, 2) enter into quiescence and later parasitize eggs laid by hemlock looper females in the fall, 3) enter into a reproductive diapause and parasitize hemlock looper eggs only the next spring, or all of these. Although previous studies have shown that T. coloradensis can overwinter in its immature form within the host egg, our field and laboratory results indicate that in the lower St. Lawrence region, this species principally enters diapause as fertilized females, with a mean supercooling point of -30.6°C in the fall.

  7. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Assays were conducted by varying e...

  8. Antennal Sensilla in the Parasitoid Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Sun, Xiao; Mi, Feng; Chen, Jingyuan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Sclerodermus sp. Antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. Based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were identified: sensilla trichodea (Tr.1, Tr.2 and Tr.3), sensilla basiconica (Ba.1, Ba.2, and Ba.3), sensilla styloconica (St.1 and St.2), sensilla placodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla squamiforma, and Bohm’s bristles. Tr.2, Ba.1, and St.1 were only found in females, whereas Ba.2, Ba.3, and St.2 were only observed in males. Sensilla placodea were the most common, given that they occur on the antennae of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, whereas sensilla Tr were the most abundant, being distributed over the entire antennal surface. These sensilla are likely to have roles in the host locating and habitat searching behavior of adult Sclerodermus wasps. Therefore, our findings provide a basis for further studies of the host location behavior of this and other species of parasitic wasp. PMID:25843589

  9. Antennal sensilla in the parasitoid Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Sun, Xiao; Mi, Feng; Chen, Jingyuan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Sclerodermus sp. Antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. Based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were identified: sensilla trichodea (Tr.1, Tr.2 and Tr.3), sensilla basiconica (Ba.1, Ba.2, and Ba.3), sensilla styloconica (St.1 and St.2), sensilla placodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla squamiforma, and Bohm's bristles. Tr.2, Ba.1, and St.1 were only found in females, whereas Ba.2, Ba.3, and St.2 were only observed in males. Sensilla placodea were the most common, given that they occur on the antennae of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, whereas sensilla Tr were the most abundant, being distributed over the entire antennal surface. These sensilla are likely to have roles in the host locating and habitat searching behavior of adult Sclerodermus wasps. Therefore, our findings provide a basis for further studies of the host location behavior of this and other species of parasitic wasp.

  10. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided.

  11. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  12. Maternal Care in the Parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenjie; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Yisong; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior). In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring. PMID:23251468

  13. Maternal care in the parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenjie; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Yisong; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior). In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring.

  14. Using Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for insect pest biological control in cotton crops: an Australian perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma Westwood egg parasitoids alone generally fail to suppress heliothine pests when released in established cotton growing regions. Factors hindering their success include indiscriminate use of detrimental insecticides, compensation for minimal pest larval hatch due to their activity via re...

  15. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  16. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  17. Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as biological control agents in the Philippines: history and current practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma parasitoids have long been recognized as important and viable biological control agents against lepidopteran pests of rice, corn and sugarcane in the Philippines. We describe the history of research and use of Trichogramma spp. in the Philippines in three main areas: 1) field surveys – ...

  18. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  19. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço de; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order.

  20. [Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids of Lepidopteran eggs in Lara State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Morales, José; Vásquez, Carlos; Pérez B, Nieves L; Valera, Neicy; Ríos, Yolmar; Arrieche, Norayda; Querino, Ranyse B

    2007-01-01

    This work was conducted to determine the occurrence of Trichogramma wasp species in Lara State, Venezuela. Lepidopteran egg samples collected from various crop leaves were observed daily under laboratory conditions for emergence of Trichogramma species adult wasps. Trichogramma were also obtained from traps containing eggs from the hosts Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In the laboratory, specimens of Trichogramma species were mounted on microscope slides to show male genitalia and other morphological characters used for its identification. Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto and at El Parchal, Humocaro Bajo, Municipio Morán. T. atopovirilia also emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at Sabana Grande and from S. cerealella eggs used as traps in a pepper culture at Tintinal, Municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco. T. exiguum Pinto y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs used as traps or collected in cornfield at Totumito and at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto. T. pretiosum Riley emerged from Phthorimaea operculella Zeller eggs collected on stored potatoes at Monte Carmelo, Sanare. The identification of Trichogramma species in Lara State would be useful in the development of biological control programs for lepidopteran pests.

  1. Two new Aprostocetus species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), fortuitous parasitoids of invasive eulophid gall inducers (Tetrastichinae) on Eucalyptus and Erythrina.

    PubMed

    Yang, Man-Miao; Lin, Yu-Che; Wu, Yaojun; Fisher, Nicole; Saimanee, Titiporn; Sangtongpraow, Benjakhun; Zhu, Chaodong; Chiu, William Chien-Hsien; La Salle, John

    2014-08-01

    Two closely related new species of Aprostocetus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) are described as fortuitous parasitoids of invasive gall inducers in two other genera of Tetrastichinae, Leptocybe Fisher & LaSalle and Quadrastichus Girault. Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu is a parasitoid of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle on Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) in China and Thailand, and A. felix La Salle, Yang & Lin is a parasitoid of Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim on Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) in Taiwan. Epitetrastichus nigriventris Girault, 1913 is removed from synonymy from Aprostocetus gala (Walker), and treated as the valid species A. nigriventris (Girault). 

  2. Parasitoids of the eucalyptus gall wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Huang, Zong-You; Dong, Dan; Guo, Chun-Hui; Li, Jun; Yang, Zhen-De; Yang, Xiu-Hao; Lu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) is an invasive pest in Eucalyptus plantations throughout the world. Potential biological control agents for L. invasa were investigated in the Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Sichuan provinces of China, where Eucalyptus spp. have been severely damaged by the eucalyptus gall wasp. Three hymenopteran parasitoids of L. invasa were identified: Quadrastichus mendeli Kim & La Salle (Eulophidae), Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu (Eulophidae), and Megastigmus viggianii Narendran & Sureshan (Torymidae); M. viggianii is newly recorded in China. The percentages of parasitization by Q. mendeli, A. causalis, and M. viggianii were 2.96%–19.53%, 2.30%–26.38%, and 24.93%, respectively. The longevity and body length of females were significantly greater than for males in A. causalis and M. viggianii. No males of Q. mendeli were found in China. These parasitoids could be used as biological agents for L. invasa in China. PMID:28000590

  3. Egg parasitoids of proconiini (hemiptera: cicadellidae) in northwestern Mexico, with description of a new species of gonatocerus (hymenoptera: mymaridae).

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Bernal, Julio S

    2009-01-01

    Nine species of Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae parasitic on eggs of Proconiini sharpshooters (Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) were collected in northwestern Mexico in relation to neoclassical biological control efforts against glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), in California. Gonatocerus chula Triapitsyn and Bernal sp. n., which belongs to the ater species group of Gonatocerus Nees (Mymaridae), is described. Specimens of G. chula sp. n. were reared from eggs of the smoke-tree sharpshooter, Homalodisca liturata Ball, on jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C. K. Schneider] leaves collected in central Sonora state, Mexico. Also given are new data on other egg parasitoids of Homalodisca spp. and Oncometopia spp. in Sinaloa and Sonora states, Mexico, including Gonatocerus atriclavus Girault, G. morrilli (Howard), and G. novifasciatus Girault, and the Trichogrammatidae Burksiella sp(p)., Ittys sp., Pseudoligosita sp., Ufens ceratus Owen, and U. principalis Owen. For the first time, a species of Ittys is recorded from eggs of Proconiini, and U. principalis from Mexico. Colonies of G. atriclavus, G. novifasciatus and Pseudoligosita sp. were successfully established in a quarantine laboratory at University of California, Riverside, on eggs of the glassy-winged sharpshooter. These three parasitoid species had never been reared under laboratory conditions. In addition, seven species of Proconiini were collected in central and northwestern Mexico: Cyrtodisca major (Signoret), Homalodisca insolita (Walker), H. liturata Ball, Oncometopia sp. cf. clarior (Walker), O. sp. cf. trilobata Melichar, O. (Similitopia) sp., and Phera centrolineata (Signoret). Oncometopia sp. cf. clarior, O. sp. cf. trilobata, and O. (Similitopia) sp. appeared to be undescribed species.

  4. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  5. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  6. Methyl 6-methylsalicylate: A female-produced pheromone component of the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone-related behavior and chemistry were studied in the wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasitoid of house flies Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Males responded behaviorally to female extracts by arrestment, whereas females did not arrest to male e...

  7. Distribution of 18S rDNA sites and absence of the canonical TTAGG insect telomeric repeat in parasitoid Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Anokhin, Boris A; Kuznetsova, Valentina G

    2014-08-01

    Karyotypes of six species belonging to three main clades of parasitoid Hymenoptera, the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon amphibolus), Cynipoidea (Cynipidae: Diplolepis rosae) and Chalcidoidea (Eurytomidae: Eurytoma robusta, Eu. serratulae and Eu. compressa, and Torymidae: Torymus bedeguaris) were studied using FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Haploid karyotypes of D. rosae, Eu. robusta and Eu. serratulae carried the only 18S rDNA hybridization signal, whereas those of I. amphibolus and Eu. compressa carried three and two rDNA clusters respectively. In addition, three rDNA sites were visualized in the aneuploid female of T. bedeguaris. The number of rDNA clusters in parasitoid Hymenoptera generally correlates to the chromosome number. Apart from the overwhelming majority of the studied species of aculeate Hymenoptera, no hybridization signals were obtained from FISH with the telomeric (TTAGG)n probe in the examined parasitoid species. These data suggest absence of the canonical (TTAGG)n insect telomeric motif in the Ichneumonoidea, Cynipoidea and Chalcidoidea, and perhaps in parasitoid Hymenoptera in general.

  8. Tanzawana flavomaculata (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), a new genus and species of parasitoid of Fagineura crenativora (Tenthredinidae, Nematinae), a serious pest of beech tree.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Taniwaki, Tooru; Kasparyan, Dmitri

    2015-11-10

    We describe a new genus, and a new species, of parasitoid--Tanzawana flavomaculata Watanabe & Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae)--based on material collected in Honshu, Japan. As T. flavomaculata is found on Fagineura crenativora Vikberg & Zinovjev, 2000 (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a serious pest of beech tree, this parasitoid is an important natural enemy of F. crenativora that can be used for the biological control of this pest.

  9. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  10. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Geden, C J; Johnson, D M; Kaufman, P E; Boohene, C K

    2014-12-01

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) using house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Muscidifurax raptor had a significant impact on M. raptorellus when hosts were limiting in sequential parasitism tests. Fewer than six M. raptorellus adult progeny emerged from groups of 50 fly pupae that were parasitized by M. raptor at the same time or when M. raptor parasitism preceded M. raptorellus by 48 h, respectively, compared with 42-55 M. raptorellus progeny produced when this species was tested alone. Production of M. raptor was significantly lower when parasitism by this species was preceded by M. raptorellus (25) than when M. raptor was tested alone (43). When the two species parasitized hosts at the same time in different proportions at low host:parasitoid densities (5:1), M. raptorellus produced 13 progeny per parent female when it was the sole species present and fewer than two when M. raptor was present. No negative impact of M. raptorellus on M. raptor was observed. Neither species had a substantial effect on the success of the other at higher host:parasitoid densities.

  11. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig

    2012-06-01

    In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary

  12. Encapsulation and Self-Superparasitism of Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Luna, María G.; Desneux, Nicolas; Schneider, Marcela I.

    2016-01-01

    Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) early immature stages (egg and larva) encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and 2) to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid. Knowledge of host-parasitoid immunological interaction is crucial when evaluating the potential of an endoparasitoid as a biological control candidate. Parasitoid-exposed T. absoluta larvae were dissected in vivo under light stereoscope microscope at 24-h intervals, for five days after exposition to detect encapsulation. The preimaginal stages of P. dignus and numbers of healthy and encapsulated immature parasitoids per host were recorded. Samples of parasitoid eggs and larvae were processed for SEM visualization of encapsulation. Necropsies evidenced that only the early first larval instar of P. dignus (up to 96 h-old) was partially or completely encapsulated. A non-melanized capsule, formed by layers of granulocyte-type hemocytes enveloping around the parasitoid body, was recorded. Approximately 50% of the parasitized T. absoluta larvae had significantly only one P. dignus egg, meanwhile supernumerary parasitization yielded up to seven immature parasitoids per host. The proportion of single-early first larval instar of P. dignus reached ≈ 0.5 and decreased significantly as the number of parasitoid individuals per host increased. P. dignus encapsulation and its ability to overcome with the host immune defense through self-superparasitism indicate that T. absoluta is a semi-permissive host for this parasitoid. PMID:27732609

  13. Superparasitism in laboratory rearing of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, J; Asís, J; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Baños, L; Gayubo, S F; Beitia, F

    2012-02-01

    The frequency of superparasitism and its effects on the quality of laboratory-reared Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoids were investigated under laboratory conditions. Numerous variables were measured, such as the number of 'ovip holes' per host as a measure of superparasitism. Adult emergence and sex ratio, as well as female size, emergence ability from soil and longevity were also measured. Finally, an assessment was made of fertility and survival of adult parasitoids emerging from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae with different levels of superparasitism. A high frequency and prevalence of superparasitism under laboratory rearing conditions was observed. The number of 'ovip holes' per host ranged from one to 17, with an average (±SD) of 2.8±3.4. Sex ratios became increasingly female-biased with increasing levels of superparasitism, although overall levels of wasp emergence (male, female) declined. Nevertheless, no relationship was discerned between female size and level of superparasitism. The 'emergence ability from the soil' was higher in those parasitoids that emerged from strongly superparasitized hosts, but not related to the type of substrate in which the host pupae were buried. The level of superparasitism did not have a significant effect on the longevity, fertility and survival of female parasitoids. Our results support the hypothesis that superparasitism in S. cameroni might be adaptive, since attributes such as 'emergence ability from the soil', longevity, fertility and survival were not affected by the level of superparasitism or the presumably detrimental effects derived from physical combats among conspecific larvae. Our findings are relevant to recommendations for rearing S. cameroni for biological control releases, as well as shedding light on superparasitism under both laboratory and field conditions.

  14. Application of DNA barcoding to the identification of Hymenoptera parasitoids from the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-Song; Xi, Yu-Qiang; Yu, Fang; Zhang, Xu; Li, Xue-Jun; Liu, Chun-Lai; Niu, Ze-Qing; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Zhang, Yan-Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Aphis glycines Matsumura is an important pest of soybean in Asia and North America. Hymenoptera parasitoids play a key role in the control of the soybean aphid. The correct identification of parasitoids is a critical step that precedes the assessment of their potential biological control agents. Accurate identification of the majority of the species attacking the soybean aphid often requires elaborate specimen preparation and expert taxonomic knowledge. In this study, we facilitated the identification of soybean aphid parasitoids by applying a DNA barcoding approach following a preliminary morphological identification. We generated DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial COI gene and the D2 region of 28S rDNA to assess the genetic variation within and between parasitoid species emerging from the soybean aphid in China. Fifteen Hymenoptera parasitoid species belonging to 10 genera of five families were identified with little intra-specific variation (0.09% ± 0.06% for 28S and 0.36% ± 0.18% for COI) and large inter-specific divergence (30.46% ± 3.42% for 28S and 20.4% ± 1.20% for COI).

  15. Attraction of the Larval Parasitoid Spintherus dubius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to Feces Volatiles from the Adult Apion Weevil Host.

    PubMed

    Faraone, N; Svensson, G P; Anderbrant, O

    2017-01-01

    The behavioral response of the larval parasitoid Spintherus dubius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to volatile compounds derived from its Apion weevil hosts was investigated in two-choice bioassays. Odor source candidates were the larval and adult stages of weevils, clover flowers, and feces from adult weevils. Despite S. dubius being a larval parasitoid, the odor of weevil larvae isolated from the clover flowers was not attractive to female parasitoids. Surprisingly, S. dubius females were instead attracted by the odor from the feces of adult weevils. The female parasitoids were similarly attracted to the feces produced by the two main hosts, the red clover weevil (A. trifolii) and the white clover weevil (A. fulvipes). Chemical analysis of the volatile composition of feces produced by the two hosts revealed qualitatively similar odor profiles, correlating with the observed attraction by the parasitoid towards both odor sources. Some of the identified volatile compounds are commonly present in clover plant headspace fractions and may function as a kairomone to facilitate orientation by S. dubius to Apion-infested clover flowers. Larval and adult weevils were not attractive for parasitoid females, whereas, for the white clover weevil-plant association, infested flowers were highly attractive. These data show the use by the clover weevil parasitoid of an alternative source of olfactory information for locating its host.

  16. Towards the conservation of parasitoid wasp species in Canada: Preliminary assessment of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper is the first to consider braconid parasitoid wasps in conservation efforts in Canada. Out of the 28 genera of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) present in the country, 13 genera were studied and 16 species were identified as potential candidates to be included in the Species Candidate Lists of COSEWIC (The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). For every selected species a brief summary of its broad geographical distribution is provided, with detailed and in many cases new information of its distribution and collecting dates in Canada, hosts (Lepidoptera) if known, and color pictures of all wasp species. A preliminary assessment is made using Prioritization Criteria developed by COSEWIC, and some general recommendations are made based in those analyses. PMID:24891824

  17. Egg Parasitoids of Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Northwestern Mexico, with Description of a New Species of Gonatocerus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V.; Bernal, Julio S.

    2009-01-01

    Nine species of Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae parasitic on eggs of Proconiini sharpshooters (Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) were collected in northwestern Mexico in relation to neoclassical biological control efforts against glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), in California. Gonatocerus chula Triapitsyn and Bernal sp. n., which belongs to the ater species group of Gonatocerus Nees (Mymaridae), is described. Specimens of G. chula sp. n. were reared from eggs of the smoke-tree sharpshooter, Homalodisca liturata Ball, on jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C. K. Schneider] leaves collected in central Sonora state, Mexico. Also given are new data on other egg parasitoids of Homalodisca spp. and Oncometopia spp. in Sinaloa and Sonora states, Mexico, including Gonatocerus atriclavus Girault, G. morrilli (Howard), and G. novifasciatus Girault, and the Trichogrammatidae Burksiella sp(p)., Ittys sp., Pseudoligosita sp., Ufens ceratus Owen, and U. principalis Owen. For the first time, a species of Ittys is recorded from eggs of Proconiini, and U. principalis from Mexico. Colonies of G. atriclavus, G. novifasciatus and Pseudoligosita sp. were successfully established in a quarantine laboratory at University of California, Riverside, on eggs of the glassy-winged sharpshooter. These three parasitoid species had never been reared under laboratory conditions. In addition, seven species of Proconiini were collected in central and northwestern Mexico: Cyrtodisca major (Signoret), Homalodisca insolita (Walker), H. liturata Ball, Oncometopia sp. cf. clarior (Walker), O. sp. cf. trilobata Melichar, O. (Similitopia) sp., and Phera centrolineata (Signoret). Oncometopia sp. cf. clarior, O. sp. cf. trilobata, and O. (Similitopia) sp. appeared to be undescribed species. PMID:19611244

  18. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Loni, Augusto; Jucker, Costanza; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Lupi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world. PMID:25709526

  19. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

    2014-08-01

    The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides.

  20. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  1. Regional tritrophic relationship patterns of five aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in agroecosystem-dominated landscapes of southeastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Tomanović, Zeljko; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Starý, Petr; Stanisavljević, Ljubisa Z; Cetković, Aleksandar; Stamenković, Srdjan; Jovanović, Slobodan; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2009-06-01

    A regional survey of the complex tritrophic associations (parasitoid-aphid-plant) of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) was carried out to determine and explore the patterns of those associations in various types of environments. Here, we present trophic relationship patterns of the five aphid parasitoid species in crop and noncrop habitats in southeastern Europe, and we contrast them in a regional (Mediterranean [MED] versus continental [CNT]) context. In total, 79 aphid host taxa were identified in this survey. Forty-two of these were recorded from noncrop plants only, 21 from crop plants only, and 18 were present on both types of plants. This means that approximately 74% of all the parasitoid-aphid trophic interactions that support the persistence of the five selected parasitoids are entirely (54%) or partially (20%) associated with noncrop plants. The correspondence of parasitoid-aphid combinations among habitat/region combinations is very high and specific. Our results suggest that Mediterranean and continental regions are clearly distinguished by a contrasting pattern of trophic interactions in crop habitats, whereas the noncrop habitats contribute in lesser degree to these differences. For the crop/noncrop breakdown, the number of nonspecific interactions was larger than expected in crop habitats, whereas in noncrop habitats the abundance of partially specific and specific interactions was larger. The analysis of variance for the regional and habitat distribution of mean aphid host number per parasitoid was highly significant. When both regions were analyzed separately, the parasitoid/crop design showed significant parasitoid effects as well as interactions, whereas the habitat effect was not significant for the Mediterranean region and highly so for the continental region. This highly complex pattern suggests that the mean number of parasitized aphid species is not distributed among parasitoids, regions, and habitats in a similar manner

  2. Primary and secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Raworth, D A; Pike, K S; Tanigoshi, L K; Mathur, S; Graf, G

    2008-04-01

    Blueberry scorch virus, a commercially important Carlavirus in highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., is vectored by aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). We surveyed the aphids, primary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Braconidae), and associated secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Charipidae, Megaspilidae, Pteromalidae) on highbush blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest from 1995 to 2006, with samples concentrated in 2005 and 2006, to lay the groundwork for augmentative biological control. Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) was the principal aphid. The dominant parasitoid species were Praon unicum Smith, Aphidius n. sp., A. sp., and Aphidius ervi Haliday. Their frequency in relation to the other primary parasitoids varied significantly with geographical area; P. unicum dominated the frequency distribution in southwestern British Columbia, A. n. sp., west of the Cascades, and A. sp. and A. ervi east of the Cascades. Among the secondary parasitoids, pteromalids dominated, and their frequency in relation to the other secondary parasitoids was lowest in southwestern British Columbia. The parasitization rate for P. unicum and A. n. sp. in southwestern British Columbia increased from May or June to a maximum of 0.080 +/- 0.024 and 0.090 +/- 0.084 (SD), respectively, in late July or early August. P. unicum emerged in the spring 4 wk before A. n. sp. The parasitization rate for P. unicum was lower in conventional than organic fields. Whereas aphid density increased monotonically, P. unicum had two spring peaks. A simulation model showed that these peaks could reflect discrete generations. Releases of insectary-reared P. unicum at 150 or 450 DD above 5.6 degrees C, summing from 1 January, may effectively augment the natural spring populations by creating overlapping generations.

  3. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bi...

  4. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  5. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  6. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of northeastern Iran: aphidiine-aphid-plant associations, key and description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Rakhshani, Ehsan; Kazemzadeh, Sedigheh; Starý, Petr; Barahoei, Hossein; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Ćetković, Aleksandar; Popović, Anđelka; Bodlah, Lmran; Tomanović, Željko

    2012-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids of the subfamily Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of northeastern Iran were studied in this paper. A total of 29 species are keyed and illustrated with line drawings. The aphidiines presented in this work have been reared from 42 aphid host taxa occurring on 49 plant taxa from a total of 33 sampling sites. Sixty-six aphidiine-aphid-plant associations are presented. Trioxys metacarpalis sp. nov. from Chaitaphis tenuicaudata Nevsky (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Kochia scoparia, is described. The species diversity based on the comparative faunistic analysis is discussed.

  7. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  8. Laboratory Performance Predicts the Success of Field Releases in Inbred Lines of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Coelho, Aloisio; Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Reigada, Carolina; Stouthamer, Richard; Parra, José R P

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the relationship between the laboratory and field performance of different isofemale lines of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. In comparative assays, we used three rare mitochondrial haplotypes as genetic markers of the isofemale lines, and by introgressing these mitochondrial haplotypes into each of 15 genetically different nuclear lines, also tested the assumption that mitochondria are neutral markers. In a laboratory trial, 45 isofemale lines (15 nuclear genotypes x three mitochondrial haplotypes) were ranked in three categories (best, intermediate and worst) according to the mean offspring production and the proportion of female offspring. Subsequently, lines from each of the three categories were selected for field releases to quantify field parasitism on Ephestia kuehniella. Temporally separate releases were done in a transgenic Bt cornfield, with four plots, each with 50 points of recapture. The points of recapture consisted of trap cards with eggs of E. kuehniella collected daily. The trap cards were maintained in the laboratory at 25°C until the adult wasps emerged, and the maternal identity of the wasps was determined using qPCR and high-resolution melt curve analysis to determine the mitochondrial haplotype. The results showed that these measures of laboratory performance (fecundity and offspring sex ratio) were good predictors of field success in T. pretiosum. We also report strong evidence discrediting the assumption that mitochondria are neutral, in view of the correlation between performance and mitochondrial haplotype.

  9. Laboratory Performance Predicts the Success of Field Releases in Inbred Lines of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Aloisio; Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Reigada, Carolina; Stouthamer, Richard; Parra, José R. P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the relationship between the laboratory and field performance of different isofemale lines of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. In comparative assays, we used three rare mitochondrial haplotypes as genetic markers of the isofemale lines, and by introgressing these mitochondrial haplotypes into each of 15 genetically different nuclear lines, also tested the assumption that mitochondria are neutral markers. In a laboratory trial, 45 isofemale lines (15 nuclear genotypes x three mitochondrial haplotypes) were ranked in three categories (best, intermediate and worst) according to the mean offspring production and the proportion of female offspring. Subsequently, lines from each of the three categories were selected for field releases to quantify field parasitism on Ephestia kuehniella. Temporally separate releases were done in a transgenic Bt cornfield, with four plots, each with 50 points of recapture. The points of recapture consisted of trap cards with eggs of E. kuehniella collected daily. The trap cards were maintained in the laboratory at 25°C until the adult wasps emerged, and the maternal identity of the wasps was determined using qPCR and high-resolution melt curve analysis to determine the mitochondrial haplotype. The results showed that these measures of laboratory performance (fecundity and offspring sex ratio) were good predictors of field success in T. pretiosum. We also report strong evidence discrediting the assumption that mitochondria are neutral, in view of the correlation between performance and mitochondrial haplotype. PMID:26730735

  10. Distribution and abundance of mymarid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) of Sophonia rufofascia Kuoh and Kuoh (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, P.; Foote, D.; Alyokhin, A.V.; Lenz, L.; Messing, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The abundance of mymarid parasitoids attacking the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia [Kuoh and Kuoh]), a polyphagous pest recently adventive to Hawaii, was monitored using yellow sticky cards deployed in several areas on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii. The yellow cards captured Chaetomymar sp. nr bagicha Narayanan, Subba Rao, & Kaur and Schizophragma bicolor (Dozier), both adventive species, and Polynema sp. Haliday, which is endemic to Hawaii (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). The former two species were most abundant at all sites. On Kauai, there was a negative correlation between the captures of C. sp. nr bagicha and those of Polynema sp. Throughout the season, the increase in parasitoid numbers generally followed the increase in leafhopper numbers. C. sp. nr. bagicha and S. bicolor showed distinct habitat preferences. Removal of Myrica faya Aiton, an invasive weed that is a highly preferred two-spotted leafhopper host, decreased the overall numbers of captured parasitoids, but led to a twofold increase in the ratio of trapped parasitoids/hosts in weed-free areas. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  11. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  12. Comparison of the olfactory preferences of four species of filth fly pupal parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for hosts in equine and bovine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  13. Impact of Two Ant Species on Egg Parasitoids Released as Part of a Biological Control Program

    PubMed Central

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Basso, César; Pintureau, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid wasp, was tested in Uruguay to reduce populations of lepidopteran pests on soybeans. It was observed that the commercial parasitoid dispensers, which were made of cardboard, were vulnerable to small predators that succeeded in entering and emptying the containers of all the eggs parasitized by T. pretiosum. Observations in a soybean crop showed that the only small, common predators present were two ant species. The species responsible for the above mentioned predation was determined from the results of a laboratory experiment in which the behavior of the two common ants was tested. A modification of the dispensers to prevent introduction of this ant has been proposed and successfully tested in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:24738954

  14. Pheomelanin in the secondary sexual characters of male parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Jorge García, Alberto; Polidori, Carlo; Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence and distribution of eumelanin and pheomelanin, the most prevalent biological pigments, has been rarely investigated in insects. Particularly yellowish to brownish body parts, which in many vertebrates are associated with pheomelanin, are visible in many insects but their chemical nature was rarely examined to a similar detail. Here, by using Dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis, we found both eumelanin and pheomelanin in different body parts of male parasitoid wasps of three species of the genus Mesopolobus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), which are known to have species-specific spots and coloured stripes on the legs and/or antennae which are displayed to females during courtship. We found a strong eumelanin signal in the antennal clava of all studied Mesopolobus species and in the circular black spot or callosity and the triangular black projection on the outer apical angle of the typically expanded middle tibia of Mesopolobus tibialis and Mesopolobus xanthocerus. Eumelanin was also the predominant pigment in the black thorax of Mesopolobus and other members of the family. Pheomelanin, on the other hand, was detected as predominant only in certain body parts of M. tibialis and M. xanthocerus, precisely in a very narrow, longitudinal brownish stripe on the middle femur and, only in M. tibialis, in a brownish oval-longitudinal stripe on the middle tibia. The two melanin types co-occurred in most pigmented areas, but more often one is clearly predominant relative to the other, according to the variation of Raman signal intensity of their signature peaks. A further tibial yellowish-orange stripe present in both these species did not include melanins of any type. Pheomelanin, could be more widespread than previously known in insects. A convergent evolution of melanin-based male sexual ornaments between vertebrates (e.g. bird feathers) and wasps can be suggested, opening to a new line of comparative evolutionary studies.

  15. Parasitoids of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with description of a new species of Agiommatus Crawford, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) from India with notes on biology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M

    2016-07-01

    In rearing of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from Karnataka and Goa, India, six species of parasitoids were observed. One new species of parasitic wasp is described and illustrated: Agiommatus thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a solitary parasitoid reared from the egg of G. thyrsis on the natural host plant Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf. Three additional species of parasitic wasps were also reared: Anastatus ramakrishnai (Mani, 1935) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a solitary hyperparasitoid of A. thyrsisae n. sp.; Sympiesis thyrsisae Gupta, Gawas & Bhambure (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of G. thyrsis on the host plant Cocos nucifera L., and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) reared from pupa of G. thyrsis on the host plant D. lutescens. Additionally, two species of tachinid flies were also reared from the pupae of G. thyrsis: Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann, 1830) and an innominate species close to Blepharella spp. Gangara thyrsis is a new host record for the genus Agiommatus and for A. ramakrishnai and B. lasus. The mean percent parasitism in G. thyrsis eggs was 26.58% with an incubation period of 6-7 days. Amongst the egg parasitoids, 57.14-73.08% were females and 23.08% were males. Hyperparasitism ranged from 3.85 to 42.86%. Dypsis lutescens, a member of Arecaceae, is a new host plant record for G. thyrsis.

  16. An Old Remedy for a New Problem? Identification of Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an Egg Parasitoid of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in North America

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Houping; Mottern, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White) is a recently introduced pest of Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle in North America. Natural enemy surveys for this pest in Pennsylvania in 2016 recovered an encyrtid egg parasitoid from both field collections and laboratory rearing of field-collected L. delicatula egg masses. Both molecular and morphological data confirm that the egg parasitoids are Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) is primarily an egg parasitoid of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), and was introduced to North America in 1908 for gypsy moth biological control. Although O. kuvanae is known to attack multiple host species, to our knowledge, this is the first report of O. kuvanae as a primary parasitoid of a non-lepidopteran host. Potential of O. kuvanae in the biological control of L. delicatula in North America and research needs are discussed. PMID:28069731

  17. An Old Remedy for a New Problem? Identification of Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an Egg Parasitoid of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in North America.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houping; Mottern, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White) is a recently introduced pest of Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle in North America. Natural enemy surveys for this pest in Pennsylvania in 2016 recovered an encyrtid egg parasitoid from both field collections and laboratory rearing of field-collected L. delicatula egg masses. Both molecular and morphological data confirm that the egg parasitoids are Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) is primarily an egg parasitoid of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), and was introduced to North America in 1908 for gypsy moth biological control. Although O. kuvanae is known to attack multiple host species, to our knowledge, this is the first report of O. kuvanae as a primary parasitoid of a non-lepidopteran host. Potential of O. kuvanae in the biological control of L. delicatula in North America and research needs are discussed.

  18. Saltbush-associated Asphondylia species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in the Mediterranean Basin and their chalcidoid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea).

    PubMed

    Dorchin, Netta; Mifsud, David; Askew, Richard

    2014-10-02

    Numerous species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been recorded from saltbush (Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex) around the world but only 11 of them belong to the large cecidomyiid genus Asphondylia. Of these, two species were described in the late 19th century from complex bud galls on Atriplex halimus in the Mediterranean Basin. In the present study Asphondylia punica is redescribed, A. conglomerata is synonymized with it, and Asphondylia scopuli is described from Atriplex lanfrancoi, an endemic plant to the Maltese Islands. Descriptions are accompanied by information about the galls and life history of the gall midges, and a review of the parasitic Hymenoptera associated with A. scopuli is provided. Four species of parasitoids were found and attributed to the families Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae, of which the pteromalid Mesopolobus melitensis is described as new.

  19. Study on the Hymenoptera parasitoid associated with Lepidoptera larvae in reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste) São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A G; Silva, R B; Dias, M M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the local fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with Lepidoptera larvae in areas of reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos, SP, Brazil). Lepidoptera larvae collected with entomological umbrella were kept in the laboratory until emergence of adults or their parasitoids. From those collected in the agrosilvopastoral system, emerged 267 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids belonging to 16 genera: Braconidae, Agathidinae (Alabagrus), Braconinae (Bracon), Microgastrinae (Cotesia, Diolcogaster, Glyptapanteles, Pholetesor and Protapanteles), Orgilinae (Orgilus); Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae (Casinaria, Charops and Microcharops); Chalcididae, Chalcidinae (Brachymeria and Conura); Eulophidae, Entedoninae (Horismenus), Eulophinae (Elachertus and Euplectrus). From the Lepidoptera larvae collected in the reforestation, emerged 68 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids, belonging to 8 genera: Chalcididae, Chalcidinae (Conura); Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae (Neotheronia), Campopleginae (Charops and Microcharops) and Braconidae, Microgastrinae (Apanteles, Diolcogaster, Distatrix, Glyptapanteles and Protapanteles). The results of this study suggest the occurrence of a wide variety of Hymenoptera parasitoids in the studied environments.

  20. Persistent pods of the tree Acacia caven: a natural refuge for diverse insects including Bruchid beetles and the parasitoids Trichogrammatidae, Pteromalidae and Eulophidae.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rousse, D

    2006-01-01

    The persistent pods of the tree, Acacia caven that do not fall from the tree provide opportunities for the appearance of a diverse group of insects the following season. Such pods collected during the spring of 1999 in Chile were indehiscent with highly sclerified pod walls. In contrast, persistent pods collected in Uruguay after a wet winter and spring (2002) were partially dehiscent, inducing the deterioration of the woody pods, and consequently exposing the seeds. These persistent pods are a natural refuge for insect species, namely two bruchid beetles (Pseudopachymeria spinipes, Stator furcatus), one scolytidae (Dendroctonus sp), lepidopterous larvae, ant colonies (Camponotus sp), one species of oophagous parasitoid (Uscana espinae group senex), the gregarious larval-pupae parasitoid Monoksa dorsiplana (Pteromalidae) and two species of Horismenus spp. (Eulophidae). The patriline of M. dorsiplana is frequently formed by 1 son + 7 daughters.

  1. Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides Against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Luna-Cruz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Ortega-Arenas, Laura D; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. Its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. Because T. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study was to explore the compatibility of eight insecticides with this parasitoid. The toxicity and residual activity (persistence) of spirotetramat, spiromesifen, beta-cyfluthrin, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, abamectin, and spinosad against T. triozae adults were assessed using a method based on the residual contact activity of each insecticide on tomato leaf discs collected from treated plants growing under greenhouse conditions. All eight insecticides were toxic to T. triozae. Following the classification of the International Organization of Biological Control, the most toxic were abamectin and spinosad, which could be placed in toxicity categories 3 and 4, respectively. The least toxic were azadirachtin, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, imidacloprid, and beta-cyfluthrin, which could be placed in toxicity category 2. In terms of persistence, by day 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 24, and 41 after application, spirotetramat, azadirachtin, spiromesifen, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and spinosad could be considered harmless, that is, placed in toxicity category 1 (<25% mortality of adults). The toxicity and residual activity of some of these insecticides allow them to be considered within integrated pest management programs that include T. triozae.

  2. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-09-25

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests.

  3. Linear Dispersal of the Filth Fly Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Parasitism of Hosts at Increasing Distances.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, Erika T; Geden, Christopher J; Leppla, Norman C

    2015-01-01

    Release of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biological control agents for house flies and stable flies in livestock confinements has had variable success. In part, this may reflect a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal distance to be used between parasitoid release stations. In the current study, we assessed the effect of linear distance on host parasitism by the wasp Spalangia cameroni Perkins. In open fields at distances ranging from 1 m to 60 m from a central point, house fly puparia were placed in a mixture of pine shavings soiled with equine manure, urine, and alfalfa hay. Releases of S. cameroni then were made using a 5:1 host: parasitoid ratio. Host pupae were parasitized at all distances, with the highest rate of total parasitism (68.9%) recorded ≤ 5 m from the release site. Analyses of results using non-linear and linear models suggest that S. cameroni should be released in close proximity to host development areas. Additionally, releases may not be suitable in pasture situations where long-distance flight is required for control. However, further testing is needed to examine the effect of density-dependent dispersal and diffusion of S. cameroni.

  4. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests. PMID:26466718

  5. Linear Dispersal of the Filth Fly Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Parasitism of Hosts at Increasing Distances

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, Erika T.; Geden, Christopher J.; Leppla, Norman C.

    2015-01-01

    Release of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biological control agents for house flies and stable flies in livestock confinements has had variable success. In part, this may reflect a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal distance to be used between parasitoid release stations. In the current study, we assessed the effect of linear distance on host parasitism by the wasp Spalangia cameroni Perkins. In open fields at distances ranging from 1 m to 60 m from a central point, house fly puparia were placed in a mixture of pine shavings soiled with equine manure, urine, and alfalfa hay. Releases of S. cameroni then were made using a 5:1 host: parasitoid ratio. Host pupae were parasitized at all distances, with the highest rate of total parasitism (68.9%) recorded ≤ 5 m from the release site. Analyses of results using non-linear and linear models suggest that S. cameroni should be released in close proximity to host development areas. Additionally, releases may not be suitable in pasture situations where long-distance flight is required for control. However, further testing is needed to examine the effect of density-dependent dispersal and diffusion of S. cameroni. PMID:26061882

  6. Biology and rearing of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid for the biological control of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae).

    PubMed

    Mutitu, Eston K; Garnas, Jeffrey R; Hurley, Brett P; Wingfield, Michael J; Harney, Marlene; Bush, Samantha J; Slippers, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Cleruchoides noackae Lin and Huber (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a solitary egg parasitoid of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). The parasitoid was first described in 2009 and its biology and rearing are poorly understood. A key obstacle to the use of C. noackae as a biological control agent has been the ability to consistently rear it under quarantine conditions. This study reports on a series of experiments conducted in quarantine to rear C. noackae and to examine the effects of diet on longevity, per capita reproduction, and progeny sex ratio, as well as to determine development time, and preference and suitability of host eggs of different ages. When supplemented with honey solution, the longevity of C. noackae females increased significantly by 2.4 d and that of males by 1.7 d, relative to the unfed adults. Mean per capita reproduction for the honey-fed wasps was 7.7 offspring per female, with progeny sex ratio slightly skewed toward males. Mean percentage parasitism was 32.2%. C. noackae was capable of parasitizing and completing development from oviposition to adult eclosion within 15.7 d in host eggs between 0 and 5 d old. The ability of C. noackae to parasitize a wide range of host egg ages increases the period of vulnerability of T. peregrinus to attack, increasing its potential efficacy as a biological control agent. The methods and results reported here represent a crucial step in the ongoing efforts to develop this potential biological control system.

  7. [Susceptibility of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gómez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endoparasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10(7) conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program.

  8. Associative learning for host-induced fruit volatiles in Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a koinobiont parasitoid of tephritid flies.

    PubMed

    Canale, A; Geri, S; Benelli, G

    2014-12-01

    Parasitic wasps are fascinating organisms that rely on a wide range of communication channels to locate their hosts. Associative learning for foraging kairomones has been demonstrated for various parasitic wasps, but little is known for parasitoids of Tephritidae flies. Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a koinobiont parasitoid able to attack at least 14 tephritid pests. Females are innately attracted by some host-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), whereas others of the same bouquet are unattractive. We hypothesize that females may detect unattractive HIPVs in association with key resources, such as food and hosts, learning to respond favourably to these cues in consecutive experiences. We evaluated associative learning for HIPVs in P. concolor females, testing if they are able to associate a food reward with the presence of different dosages of three HIPVs, thus developing a preference for an odour innately unattractive. Results demonstrated that P. concolor responded favourably to the learned cue in consecutive experiences. For all tested HIPVs (nonanoic acid, decanoic acid and geranyl acetone), regardless of dosage, trained females preferred the reward-associated odour, whereas naïve did not. Both HIPV-trained and naïve females did not show consistent differences in latencies when choosing HIPVs over blank. HIPV-trained and naïve wasps did not spend more time on HIPVs over blank. Odour learning is of adaptive importance for this generalist parasitoid, since it enhances host location efficiency by reducing the time wasted on the decision of where to search for hosts. From an applied perspective, these HIPVs could be used to train mass-reared P. concolor in pre-release, to potentially improve its efficacy in the field.

  9. Interactions between Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: braconidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), larval parasitoids of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hymenopteran parasitoids introduced from China are currently being released in Michigan and surrounding states in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmare, an Asian beetle species responsible for widespread mortality of Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North A...

  10. Development and Reproduction of Brethesiella cf. abnormicornis (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a Parasitoid of the Colombian Fluted Scale, Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo & Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae).

    PubMed

    Montealegre, X; Sotelo, P; Kondo, T

    2016-04-01

    Studies on the development and reproduction of Brethesiella cf. abnormicornis (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of the Colombian fluted scale, Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo & Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae), were conducted under laboratory conditions. The duration of the life cycle, adult longevity, fecundity, and population parameters were determined. The parasitoid takes about 29 d to complete a single generation (from egg to adult). In addition, population parameters show that one female wasp is replaced by nearly 32 females, with a female-to-male sex ratio of 2:1. Population parameters estimated in this study can be considered baseline information for a mass-rearing protocol. This is the first detailed study of the biology of a species of Brethesiella, where the duration of all larval stages of the parasitoid is determined, being an important contribution for further biological studies of endoparasitoids.

  11. Seven invasive owlet moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Israel and their potential parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a 10 year period, collections from light traps placed at 88 locations throughout Israel were examined for tropical species of noctuid pest species and associated parasitoids. Tropical noctuidae pest species collected included Spodoptera mauritia (Boisduval), Trichoplusia vittata (Wallengren), A...

  12. Absence of Transgenerational Phenotypic Plasticity in Fecundity in the Parasitoid Anagrus erythroneurae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Andreazza, Felipe; Rosenheim, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    To improve biological pest control, we would like to understand the main factors that limit the reproductive success of key biological control agents, including parasitoid wasps. Previous research with proovigenic parasitoids in the genus Anagrus collected from multiple field sites revealed positive correlations between parasitoid fecundity and local host density. In this article, we test whether this variation in fecundity is a reflection of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity. We exposed females in laboratory microcosms to either low or high host densities and then quantified the fecundity of their adult daughters. Mean fecundity of daughters did not differ across host density treatments, arguing against the operation of phenotypic plasticity. Significant variation in mean fecundity across different families instead suggested the possibility that genetic variation may underlie the observed fecundity differences.

  13. Host-habitat location by the parasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, Francois J; Haubruge, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of odorant cues used during host-habitat location by the generalist parasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis Walker. Nasonia vitripennis is a common parasitoid of Dipteran pupae found in association with decaying carrion. Behavioral assays were used to investigate the host-habitat searching behavior under different scenarios. First, we demonstrated N. vitripennis to be significantly attracted toward odorant cues associated with decaying meat. The biological activity of nine of the volatile molecules constituting the odor of decaying meat was tested on the searching behavior of parasitoid females through two complementary chemoecological approaches: electroantennography (EAG) and olfactometry bioassays. Butanoic acid and butan-1-ol elicited high olfactory responses, but no attraction was induced by these two chemicals. Behavioral assays showed that, among the VOCs tested, methyldisulfanylmethane (DMDS) was the only volatile chemical to induce attraction in N. vitripennis.

  14. Fitness Effects of Food Resources on the Polyphagous Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Charles, Jennifer J; Paine, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biological control involving the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck, may include provisioning resources from a variety of plant sources. The fitness of adult A. colemani was enhanced with the provision of food resources such as floral nectar from a range of both native and introduced plant species and aphid honeydew under laboratory conditions. However, enhanced fitness appeared to be species specific rather than associated with the whether the plant was a native or an introduced species. Parasitoid survival and fecundity were enhanced significantly in response to the availability of floral nectar and honeydew compared to the response to available extrafloral nectar. These positive effects on the parasitoid's reproductive activity can improve the effectiveness of conservation biological control in nursery production systems because of the abundance and diversity of floral resources within typical production areas. Additionally, surrounding areas of invasive weeds and native vegetation could serve as both floral resources and honeydew food resources for A. colemani.

  15. Effect of temperatures and cold storage on performance of Tetrastichus brontispae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Brontispa longissima (Coleptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Kui; Fu, Buli; Lin, Jiangrong; Fu, Yueguan; Peng, Zhengqiang; Jin, Qi'an

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of temperature and cold storage on the performance of Tetrastichus brontispae (Ferriere) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), one of the major endoparasitoids against coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleptera: Chrysomelidae). The results revealed that T. brontispae could successfully parasitize host pupae under all seven tested temperatures, but no adult emergence was observed at 32°C. It was also revealed that temperatures between 24 and 26°C appeared to be the optimum temperatures for parasitism, as these temperatures resulted in the most parasitized pupae and a significantly higher emergence rate and progeny production. These measurements significantly declined at 20, 30, and 32°C. This study confirmed developmental periods of parasitoid progeny decreased as the temperature increased, and sex ratio of this female-biased parasitoid was not affected by rearing temperatures. More importantly, this study indicated that cold storage of parasitized pupae could extend up to 30 d at 10°C, and a longer storage period had a significant adverse effect on mean adult emergence and parasitism performance. Ten days might be the optimum cold-storage period at 10°C, as parasitism performance, emergence rate, and progeny production at this storage period were similar to the control of 26°C. Furthermore, the developmental period, emergence rate, and sex ratio of progeny that emerged from cold-stored parasitized pupae were not influenced by storage periods, whereas parasitism performance of progeny decreased as storage period increased. This study suggests that about 24-26°C would be the optimal temperature for mass production and release of T. brontispae for biological control of B. longissima. These results also provide novel findings that a period of 10 d at 10°C may be more suitable and acceptable for ideal cold storage of parasitized pupae of T. brontispae.

  16. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides on the Egg Parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Turchen, L M; Golin, V; Butnariu, A R; Guedes, R N C; Pereira, M J B

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide use remains controversial, and subjected to increasing environmental and health concerns, even when recent insecticide groups are considered. Neonicotinoids and even bioinsecticides are in the forefront of discussions regarding their nontarget safety. The ubiquitous focus on the lethal effects of insecticides on nontarget species has been expanding to sublethal effects, as sublethal exposure extends for a longer time and affects a broader range of (nontarget) species. Here we explored the lethal and sublethal effects of a lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxan mixture, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and the bioinsecticide azadirachtin on the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi Ashmead, an important parasitoid of stink bug Euschistus heros (F.), a key soybean pest in neotropical America. Contact with dry insecticide residue on glass surface and (parasitized and healthy) host egg immersion exposure bioassays were performed, assessing their acute lethal effects, and their potential sublethal impairment of parasitism, adult emergence, and fertility of the egg parasitoid. Both imidacloprid and the insecticide mixture exhibited high acute lethal activity toward the parasitoid under contact with dry insecticide residue. These insecticides compromised parasitism and wasp emergence when exposure took place before parasitism. In contrast, azadirachtin did not affect adult survival. However, this bioinsecticide compromised parasitism and progeny production, impairing the female parasitoid reproductive potential. Our results indicate strong negative effects of imidacloprid, and specially of the mixture lambda-cyhalthrin + thiamethoxan. However, even azadirachtin, which exhibited low acute lethality, exhibited significant negative sublethal effects on parasitism and population growth of egg parasitoid, cautioning against their use and the need of semifield and field assessments to confirm such an impact.

  17. Sex ratios in field populations of two parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of Coccus hesperidum L. (Homoptera: Coccidae).

    PubMed

    Bernal, Julio S; Luck, Robert F; Morse, J G

    1998-10-01

    We tested several assumptions and predictions of host-quality-dependent sex allocation theory (Charnov et al. 1981) with data obtained for the parasitoid Metaphycus stanleyi Compere on its host, brown soft scale (Coccus hesperidum L.), in a California citrus grove and in the laboratory. Scales ceased growing after parasitization by M. stanleyi. Thus, M. stanleyi may gauge host quality (=size) at oviposition. Host size positively influenced adult parasitoid size, and parasitoid size in turn influenced adult longevity of M. stanleyi. However, parasitoid fitness gains with host size and adult size were similar in males versus females. Sex allocation to individual hosts by M. stanleyi depended on host size; females consistently emerged from larger hosts than males. Host size was important in a relative sense; the mean host sizes of females versus males, and of solitary versus gregarious parasitoids varied with the available host size distribution. The offspring sex ratio of M. stanleyi reflected the available host size distribution; the sex ratio of emerging parasitoids varied with the available host size distribution. We did not detect a "critical host size" below which males emerged, and above which females emerged; rather, only females emerged from hosts in the upper size range, and a variable ratio of males and females emerged from hosts in the lower size range. We conclude that the sex ratio of field populations of M. stanleyi is driven largely by the available size distribution of C. hesperidum. In addition, we tested predictions resulting from theoretical analyses of sex allocation in autoparasitoids with data obtained on Coccophagus semicircularis (Förster) parasitizing brown soft scale in the field. The sex ratio of C. semicircularis was consistently and strongly female biased (ca. 90% females). Based on available theoretical analyses, we suggest that this sex ratio pattern may have resulted from a very low encounter rate of secondary hosts coupled with a

  18. Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival, Development, and Oviposition Rates of the Pupal Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-08-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged. Females constituted between 50% (at 20°C) and 100% (at 35°C) of the surviving immatures. Males developed faster than females, with the shortest developmental times at 30°C (18.18 d for males and 19.41 d for females). Longevity of adult females decreased with temperature from 80 d at 15°C to 18 d at 35°C. Total attack rate of female parasitoids was highest at 20°C (106 hosts per female), and life-time reproduction highest at 20°C and 25°C (about 60 offspring per female). Sex ratio was female biased (65% females). A generic model was used to estimate and predict the temperature effect on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproduction rate (R0), and the generation time (G). The model predicted that rm peaks at 33.5°C (rm = 0.182 d(-1)), that maximum R0 is reached at 27.2°C (R0 = 50.2), and that the shortest generation time occurs at 34.5°C (G = 21.1 d). Doubling time was 4.19 d at 33°C. In the temperature range between 20°C and 30°C, S. cameroni has the potential to be an efficient control agent against nuisance flies.

  19. Flowering plant effects on adults of the stink bug parasitoid Aridelus rufotestaceus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many parasitoids require food resources, such as nectar and pollen, besides hosts in order to optimize their life histories. This has led to interest in using these resources in pest management. Here we assess the potential effects of two floral plants, Fagopyrum esculentum and Gaillardia pulchella ...

  20. [Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)].

    PubMed

    Silva, Robson J; Bueno, Vanda H P; Sampaio, Marcus V

    2008-01-01

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, RH 70 +/- 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size.

  1. Behavior of Tamarixia triozae Females (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Attacking Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Effects of Three Pesticides on This Parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ana-Mabel; Chavarrieta, Juan-Manuel; Morales, Sinue-Isabel; Caudillo, Kiela-Briseida; Figueroa, José-Isaac; Diaz, Ovidio; Bujanos, Rafael; Gomez, Benjamín; Viñuela, Elisa; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    The parasitism and host feeding behavior of Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) females on Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) fourth instars that have infested tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) leaflets are described and quantified. Females took approximately 31.14 ± 4.39 min to search for their first suitable host. The recognition and handling times for oviposition were 2.66 ± 0.18 and 4.26 ± 0.39 min, respectively. T. triozae parasitized 4.66 ± 0.61 nymphs in a period of 6 h. The parasitoid explored and probed its host by walking along the margins of its body while antennating and repeatedly introducing the ovipositor beneath the nymph. The handling times before and during host feeding were 8.42 ± 0.67 and 8.29 ± 0.60 min, respectively. T. triozae females consumed 1.00 ± 0.00 B. cockerelli nymph after parasitizing 3.3 ± 0.48 nymphs. EPA-a refined soybean oil-imidacloprid, and abamectin caused between ~70 and 100% T. triozae adult mortality after a 48-h contact treatment with fresh pesticide residue and a 47-91% decrease (abamectin > imidacloprid > EPA) in adult emergence when parasitized B. cockerelli fourth instars were directly sprayed. These data suggest that the use of these insecticides in combination with T. triozae in integrated pest management programs should be carefully evaluated.

  2. Ooencyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, M Reza

    2016-05-31

    This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given.

  3. Comparison of the Olfactory Preferences of Four of Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoid Species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for Hosts in Equine and Bovine Manure.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J

    2015-10-01

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids, primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), can be purchased for biological control of these flies. However, little is known about the host-habitat preferences associated with host-seeking by these parasitoids. The preferences of two Spalangia and two Muscidifurax species to odors associated with house fly hosts in equine and bovine manure were investigated in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. Odor stimuli from manure without developing flies, third-instar house flies in manure, and fly host puparia in manure were evaluated. In choice tests, S. cameroni and S. endius were strongly attracted to odor associated with equine manure against clean air. Although S. cameroni was attracted to all bovine manure-containing treatments against clean air, S. endius was only attracted to the bovine manure with third-instar flies. There were no significant differences between the Spalangia species in odor responses. Neither Muscidifurax species were attracted to equine manure treatments and were only attracted to the bovine manure with puparia over clean air. In manure comparison studies, bovine treatments with developing flies were more attractive than the equivalent equine treatments to both Muscidifurax species The data suggest that coexistence between the competing pteromalid parasitoids might be promoted by different host-seeking behaviors. Additionally, manure preferences may indicate parasitoid suitability for releases on different livestock and equine facilities.

  4. Biocontrol potential of Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) against Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at low temperatures: reproduction and parasitoid-induced mortality.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lise Stengård

    2007-06-01

    Lariophagus distinguendus Forster (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) has been suggested as a biological control agent against the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.), in grain stores. Information on the effect of low temperatures prevailing in grain stores is necessary to be able to predict the potential of this parasitoid against S. granarius in temperate regions, where grain is cooled with ambient air to achieve safe storage conditions. The influence of constant temperatures of 16, 18, and 20 degrees C on life table parameters and parasitoid-induced mortality (PIM) was investigated in the laboratory. L. distinguendus is able to develop and reproduce at temperatures as low as 16 degrees C. The intrinsic rate of natural increase, rm, was 0.0182, 0.0222, and 0.0792 d(-1) at 16, 18, and 20 degrees C, respectively. The proportion of hosts killed due to parasitoid-induced mortality was highest at 20 degrees C. At this temperature, it amounted to 70% of the total mortality exerted by the parasitoid; at 18 and 16'C, it was 57 and 42% of the total, respectively. L. distinguendus is a promising biocontrol agent for grain stores in temperate regions because it is able to develop and reproduce at temperatures down to 16 degrees C; its development is quicker than that of its host, estimated from the literature; and it kills many hosts in addition to those used for reproduction.

  5. Two new species of Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with taxonomic notes on some congeneric taxa.

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Aguirre, María B; Aquino, Daniel A

    2014-09-15

    Two new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from Argentina, A. cachamai Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Córdoba, Salta and Tucumán Provinces) and A. quilmes Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Salta and Tucumán). Both new species are parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Anagyrus cachamai is a parasitoid of H. pungens Granara de Willink on Alternanthera paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. (Amaranthaceae), and also of a Hypogeococcus sp. on Cleistocactus baumannii and Hypogeococcus sp. on C. smaragdiflorus (Cactaceae). Anagyrus quilmes is a parasitoid of H. pungens on A. paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. Other biological traits of the new species are also reported. These parasitoids may be of importance as potential candidate biological control agents against a Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and identified as H. pungens, but possibly not belonging to that species. This mealybug threatens the native cacti in some Caribbean islands and Florida, USA, and is devastating the native columnar cacti in Puerto Rico. Illustrations and taxonomic notes on the type specimens of some other, little known described species of Anagyrus from Argentina and Chile are provided, and a key to females of the 14 species of Anagyrus known from Argentina is given. Anagyrus nigriceps (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized under A. bellator (De Santis). Lectotypes are designated for Paranusia bifasciata Brèthes, Philoponectroma pectinatum Brèthes, and Protanagyrus aciculatus Blanchard. 

  6. Fitness Effects of Food Resources on the Polyphagous Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Jennifer J.; Paine, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biological control involving the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck, may include provisioning resources from a variety of plant sources. The fitness of adult A. colemani was enhanced with the provision of food resources such as floral nectar from a range of both native and introduced plant species and aphid honeydew under laboratory conditions. However, enhanced fitness appeared to be species specific rather than associated with the whether the plant was a native or an introduced species. Parasitoid survival and fecundity were enhanced significantly in response to the availability of floral nectar and honeydew compared to the response to available extrafloral nectar. These positive effects on the parasitoid’s reproductive activity can improve the effectiveness of conservation biological control in nursery production systems because of the abundance and diversity of floral resources within typical production areas. Additionally, surrounding areas of invasive weeds and native vegetation could serve as both floral resources and honeydew food resources for A. colemani. PMID:26808191

  7. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  8. Cophylogenetic relationships between Anicetus parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and their scale insect hosts (Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have investigated cospeciation between parasites and their hosts, but there have been few studies concerning parasitoids and insect hosts. The high diversity and host specialization observed in Anicetus species suggest that speciation and adaptive radiation might take place with species diversification in scale insect hosts. Here we examined the evolutionary history of the association between Anicetus species and their scale insect hosts via distance-based and tree-based methods. Results A total of 94 Anicetus individuals (nine parasitoid species) and 113 scale insect individuals (seven host species) from 14 provinces in China were collected in the present study. DNA sequence data from a mitochondrial gene (COI) and a nuclear ribosomal gene (28S D2 region) were used to reconstruct the phylogenies of Anicetus species and their hosts. The distance-based analysis showed a significant fit between Anicetus species and their hosts, but tree-based analyses suggested that this significant signal could be observed only when the cost of host-switching was high, indicating the presence of parasite sorting on related host species. Conclusions This study, based on extensive rearing of parasitoids and species identification, provides strong evidence for a prevalence of sorting events and high host specificity in the genus Anicetus, offering insights into the diversification process of Anicetus species parasitizing scale insects. PMID:24365056

  9. [Quality of different aphids species as hosts for the parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)].

    PubMed

    Sidney, Lívia A; Bueno, Vanda H P; Lins, Juracy C; Silva, Diego B; Sampaio, Marcus V

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) and Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as hosts for the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday was evaluated by assessing host size, host preference, and host quality. Tests were carried out in an environmental chamber at 22±1ºC, 70±10% RH and 12h photophase. Replicates (11) consisted of one 24h-old mated female of A. ervi without a previous oviposition experience. Female was released into a Petri dish (5 cm) with 20 2nd and 3rd instars of one of each aphid species tested on a leaf disc of the host plant onto a 1% water-agar layer. Parasitoid emergency was lower in A. kondoi (78.7%) compared to M. euphorbiae (92.2%) and A. solani (91.7%). Acyrthosiphon kondoi (0.36 mm) was the smallest host. The parasitoid showed preference (74.0% parasitism) for M. euphorbiae, the largest host (hind tibia length=0.73 mm), which in turn yielded larger A. ervi females (0.75 mm).

  10. [First report of parasitism of the Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in eggs of urbanus proteus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) ( L.)].

    PubMed

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Polanczyk, Ricardo A; Dalvi, Leandro P; Da Silva, Alexandre F; De Melo, Débora F; Celestino, Flávio N

    2007-01-01

    Aiming to verify the presence of eggs parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma, for using in the biological control of insects pests, were collected eggs from long tailed skipper butterfly, a lepidopteran defoliator of snap beans, which presented eggs with parasitism characteristics (dark eggs). The eggs were taken to the laboratory were 44.9% of parasitism was verified. Viability was 96.3%, with an average of 6.6 individuals per egg and a sexual ratio of 0.93. Male specimens were identified as Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja. It is the first report of parasitism in this host and culture.

  11. [Influence of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegelé e Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)].

    PubMed

    Murta, Aline F; Ker, Fabrício T O; Costa, Dalbert B; Espírito-Santo, Mário M; Faria, Maurício L

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the natural biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) by the parasitoid Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegelé e Pointel) in Eucalyptus plantations. The number of E. apisaon eggs/leaf was higher in the center than in the edge of the plantations (23.5 +/- 7.61 vs. 14.8 +/- 3.14), but parasitism showed the reversed pattern (72.4% in the center and 80.5% in the edge). The results indicated that natural regulation exerted by T. maxacalii on populations of E. apisaon may be enhanced by the preservation of fragments of native vegetation surrounding Eucalyptus plantations.

  12. Phylogenetics and genetic diversity of the Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agents of lepidopteran stemborers.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, Kate A; Murphy, Nicholas P; Sallam, Nader; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Andrew D

    2012-06-01

    The Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are economically important for the biological control of lepidopteran stemboring pests associated with gramineous crops. Some members of the complex successfully parasitize numerous stemborer pest species, however certain geographic populations have demonstrated variation in the range of hosts that they parasitize. In addition, the morphology of the complex is highly conserved and considerable confusion surrounds the identity of species and host-associated biotypes. We generated nucleotide sequence data for two mtDNA genes (COI, 16S) and three anonymous nuclear loci (CfBN, CfCN, CfEN) for the C. flavipes complex. To analyze genetic variation and relationships among populations we used (1) concatenated mtDNA and nDNA data, (2) a nDNA multilocus network approach, and (3) two species tree inference methods, i.e. Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) and Bayesian inference of species trees from multilocus data with (*)BEAST. All phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for monophyly of the complex and the presence of at least four species, C. chilonis (from China and Japan), C. sesamiae (from Africa), C. flavipes (originating from the Indo-Asia region but introduced into Africa and the New World), and C. nonagriae (from Australia and Papua New Guinea). Haplotype diversity of geographic populations relates to historical biogeographic barriers and biological control introductions, and reflects previous reports of ecological variation in these species. Strong discordance was found between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the Papua New Guinea haplotypes, which may be an outcome of hybridization and introgression of C. flavipes and C. nonagriae. The position of Cotesia flavipes from Japan was not well supported in any analysis and was the sister taxon to C. nonagriae (mtDNA, (*)BEAST), C. flavipes (nDNA) or C. flavipes+C. nonagriae (BEST) and, may represent a cryptic species. The

  13. The rearranged mitochondrial genome of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), a parasitoid wasp of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Daniel S.; Gomes, Tiago M.F.F.; Loreto, Elgion L.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The partial mitochondrial genome sequence of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) was characterized. Illumina sequencing was used yielding 35,999,679 reads, from which 102,482 were utilized in the assembly. The length of the sequenced region of this partial mitochondrial genome is 15,417 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 21tRNA genes (the trnaM failed to be sequenced) and a partial A+T-rich region. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven protein-coding genes presented TAA stop codons, whereas ND6 and COII that presented TA, and T nucleotides, respectively. The gene pattern revealed extensive rearrangements compared to the typical pattern generally observed in insects. These rearrangements involve two protein-coding and two ribosomal genes, along with the 16 tRNA genes. This gene order is different from the pattern described for Ibalia leucospoides (Ibaliidae, Cynipoidea), suggesting that this particular gene order can be variable among Cynipoidea superfamily members. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the main groups of Apocrita was performed using amino acid sequence of 13 protein-coding genes, showing monophyly for the Cynipoidea superfamily within the Hymenoptera phylogeny. PMID:27648767

  14. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  15. A review of the New World species of the parasitoid wasp Iconella (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Triana, José L.; Cardinal, Sophie; Whitfield, James B.; Winnie Hallwachs; Smith, M. Alex; Janzenr, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of Iconella (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) are revised. Iconella andydeansi Fernández-Triana, sp. n., Iconella canadensis Fernández-Triana, sp. n., and Iconella jayjayrodriguezae Fernández-Triana, sp. n., are described as new. Iconella isolata (Muesebeck, 1955), stat. r., previously considered as a subspecies of Iconella etiellae (Viereck, 1911), is here elevated to species rank. All species have different, well defined geographic distributions and hosts. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous hardcopy versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, host records (mostly Lepidoptera: Crambidae and Pyralidae), and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. Phylogenetic analyses of the barcoding region of COI indicate the possibility that Iconella is not monophyletic and that the New World species may not form a monophyletic group; more data is needed to resolve this issue. PMID:23950690

  16. Optimal conditions to rear phorid parasitoids (Diptera: Phoridae) of Atta vollenweideri and Acromyrmex lundii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Guillade, Andrea C; Folgarait, Patricia J

    2014-04-01

    Phorid flies have been considered viable options for biological control of leaf-cutter ants because they are highly specific to these hosts, producing direct mortality and also affecting the normal functioning of colonies. Designing protocols for mass rearing of these insects requires knowing the temperature and humidity conditions that optimize their development in terms of duration, survivorship and longevity of adults. We reared Apocephalus setitarsus Brown, Eibesfeldtphora trilobata Disney, and Myrmosicarius brandaoi Disney, which are specific leaf-cutter ant parasitoids of Atta vollenweideri Forel, and Apocephalus neivai Borgmeier and Myrmosicarius catharinensis Borgmeier, which are parasitoids of Acromyrmex lundii Guérin-Méneville. Phorids were maintained under one of five different rearing conditions, 20°C high humidity (20HH), 24°C low and high humidity (24LH and 24HH), and 28°C low and high humidity (28LH and 28HH). Flies from all species could complete their development under all the conditions tested. As expected, the 20HH treatment significantly lengthened all developmental periods in all species, whereas the shortest duration was achieved under 28HH. Although pupal survivorship was highest at 24HH, the greatest longevity of adults was achieved at 20HH. Percentage of pupae obtained and pupal survivorship also exhibited the highest values at 24HH. The rearing efficiency index was highest for all species at 24HH. Therefore, we suggest this temperature and humidity combination as the most suitable for rearing these species, whereas the 20HH treatment is ideal for maintaining adults for longer periods, which would be advantageous for synchronizing matings and mass releases of adults in the field.

  17. Community dynamics of leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in a natural habitat from Central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valladares, Graciela; Salvo, Adriana

    2001-12-01

    We examined the temporal community dynamics of leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera) and their mainly polyphagous parasitoids in a natural habitat from Central Argentina. Changes in community composition are shown by changes in dominant species and similarity coefficients. Abundance of leafminers was highest in winter, and was not related to their species richness. Abundance and species richness were correlated in the parasitoid community. Temporal variation in parasitoid diversity and abundance were positively correlated with species number and density in the host community. Apparent parasitism was greater when parasitoid species richness was high and parasitoid community dominance was low.

  18. Finding Prospective Mates by the Parasitoid Wasp Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Wittman, T N; Miller, K A; King, B H

    2016-10-05

    Cues from emergence sites may be predictive of mating opportunities if potential mates are slow to disperse after emergence, and particularly if emergence sites are clumped, as in the solitary parasitoid wasp Urolepis rufipes Ashmead. Males emerge before females, and the present study suggests that males may use emergence sites of conspecific males to locate mates. In choice experiments, virgin males spent more time on a male-emerged host (a host from which a male had recently emerged) than on a female-emerged host. Relative to when no host was present, virgin males also marked more in the presence of a male-emerged host, but did not mark more in the presence of a female-emerged host. Females, but not other males, are known to be attracted to male marks. Unlike for males, there was no evidence that females distinguished between male-emerged and female-emerged hosts. Virgin females preferred areas where multiple males had marked over areas where a single male had marked. Such areas had more total marks, yet marks per male did not differ between aggregated and solitary males. Thus, through his own attraction to male-emerged hosts and by marking near other males a male may find and attract females, and with no apparent increase in the cost of attraction.

  19. Functional and nonfunctional female receptivity signals in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    King, B H; Dickenson, R M

    2008-06-01

    In many taxa, females signal during courtship when they are receptive. However, just because a female signals does not mean that the male responds to the signal. This study examines female signaling of receptivity (readiness to copulate) and male response in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius Walker. Females folded their antennae against their heads when they were receptive, and antennal folding has been shown to be effective in eliciting male copulation attempts in a confamilial. However, male S. endius did not respond to antennal folding: males did not contact the female's antennae during courtship, and how quickly a male attempted copulation was independent of whether or not the female had antennae. Males courted from on top of the female's abdomen and appeared to detect receptivity directly from the female's abdomen rising as her genital orifice opened. On females whose abdomens did not rise, initiation of male copulation attempts were delayed but not eliminated. Based on its current lack of function as a receptivity signal and on comparisons to published reports of mating behavior in confamilials, we hypothesize that female antennal folding at receptivity is a vestigial trait in S. endius.

  20. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E; Hogsette, Jerome A; Geden, Christopher J; Tenbroeck, Saundra H

    2011-06-01

    Beginning in November 2007 and continuing until December 2009, weekly stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), surveillance was conducted at four equine facilities near Ocala, FL, by using alsynite sticky traps for adults and by searching immature developmental sites for pupae. Adult stable fly trap captures were highly variable throughout the year, ranging from 0 to 1,400 flies per trap per farm. The greatest adult stable fly activity was observed during the spring months of March and April, with weekly three-trap means of 121 and 136 flies per farm, respectively. The importance of cultural control measures was most apparent on the only farm with no reported insecticide use and the lowest stable fly trap captures, where an intense daily sanitation and composting program was conducted. A survey of on-site filth fly pupae revealed that 99.9% of all parasitoids recovered were Spalangia spp., consisting of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (56.5%), Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis (34.0%), Spalangia endius Walker (5.8%), and Spalangia nigra Latreille (3.7%). The implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Finding Prospective Mates by the Parasitoid Wasp Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Wittman, T N; Miller, K A; King, B H

    2016-12-01

    Cues from emergence sites may be predictive of mating opportunities if potential mates are slow to disperse after emergence, and particularly if emergence sites are clumped, as in the solitary parasitoid wasp Urolepis rufipes Ashmead. Males emerge before females, and the present study suggests that males may use emergence sites of conspecific males to locate mates. In choice experiments, virgin males spent more time on a male-emerged host (a host from which a male had recently emerged) than on a female-emerged host. Relative to when no host was present, virgin males also marked more in the presence of a male-emerged host, but did not mark more in the presence of a female-emerged host. Females, but not other males, are known to be attracted to male marks. Unlike for males, there was no evidence that females distinguished between male-emerged and female-emerged hosts. Virgin females preferred areas where multiple males had marked over areas where a single male had marked. Such areas had more total marks, yet marks per male did not differ between aggregated and solitary males. Thus, through his own attraction to male-emerged hosts and by marking near other males a male may find and attract females, and with no apparent increase in the cost of attraction.

  2. Substrate-Borne Marking in the Parasitoid Wasp Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, J L; King, B H

    2015-06-01

    Many animals use pheromone marking as a way to identify their territory or other resources. Among insects, substrate-borne marking is frequently reported for females, which in many species make marks containing oviposition-deterring pheromone, which other females avoid. However, there are fewer reports of substrate-borne marking for males. Here, marking in males of the parasitoid wasp Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead) is described. The conditions under which males mark and whether males and females respond to the males' marks were examined using behavioral observations. Males marked by dragging the tips of their abdomens across a substrate. They marked much more after mating and after consuming honey. They also marked more when with a female, irrespective of copulation, although not when with a male. Females spent more time on or near marked substrates, and males also responded to their own marks. Although males aggressively and successfully defended areas that they had marked against other males, males did not respond to another male's marks in the conspecific's absence. In contrast to males, females did not mark, either on the surface of hosts or on other surfaces, and males showed no detectable response to surfaces which females had recently occupied.

  3. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a new parasitoid of Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zache, B; Zaché, R R C; Tavares, M T; Wilcken, C F

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)-parasitizing pupae of the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

  4. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, and Platygastridae) of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Argentina are reviewed and keyed. Newly described are Anagrus (Anagrus) empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Mymaridae, parasitoid of M. scutellaris Berg on water hyacinth, Eichhornia cras...

  5. DNA Barcoding of the parasitoid wasp subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chamela, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Arellano, Daniela; Gutiérrez-Arellano, Claudia Renata

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims. The Doryctinae is a considerably diverse, poorly studied group of parasitoid wasps and one of the most diverse subfamilies within Braconidae. Taxonomic knowledge of this group remains highly incomplete, specially in the tropics. In Mexico, it has been reported as the subfamily with the highest number of recorded genera. A preliminary Barcoding study carried out in the Chamela region, located near the Mexican pacific coast in Jalisco, identified 185 barcoding species of Dorytinae assigned to 19 identified doryctine genera. This work updates the later study, representing a three years effort to assess the species richness of this subfamily for the Chamela region. Materials and methods. Ten collecting field trips of 5 to 10 days each were carried out from June 2009 to May 2011. A 2% divergence criterion using the BIN system implemented in BOLD was followed in order to establish species boundaries among the specimens that were collected. Results and conclusions. A total of 961 specimens were collected, from which 883 COI sequences were obtained. The sequences generated corresponded to 289 barcoding species and 30 identified genera. The most speciose genera were Heterospilus Haliday (170 spp.), Ecphylus Förster (19 spp.), Allorhogas Gahan (15 spp.) and Callihormius Ashmead (14 spp.). Addition of previously collected material increased the diversity of the subfamily in the region to 34 genera and 290 species. Paraphyly of Heterospilus with respect to Neoheterospilus and Heterospathius was again recovered. Twenty new species and two new genera (Sabinita Belokobylskij, Zaldívar-Riverón et Martínez, Ficobolus Martínez, Belokobylskij et Zaldívar-Riverón) have been described so far from the material collected in this work. PMID:26023287

  6. DNA Barcoding of the parasitoid wasp subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chamela, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Arellano, Daniela; Gutiérrez-Arellano, Claudia Renata; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The Doryctinae is a considerably diverse, poorly studied group of parasitoid wasps and one of the most diverse subfamilies within Braconidae. Taxonomic knowledge of this group remains highly incomplete, specially in the tropics. In Mexico, it has been reported as the subfamily with the highest number of recorded genera. A preliminary Barcoding study carried out in the Chamela region, located near the Mexican pacific coast in Jalisco, identified 185 barcoding species of Dorytinae assigned to 19 identified doryctine genera. This work updates the later study, representing a three years effort to assess the species richness of this subfamily for the Chamela region. Materials and methods. Ten collecting field trips of 5 to 10 days each were carried out from June 2009 to May 2011. A 2% divergence criterion using the BIN system implemented in BOLD was followed in order to establish species boundaries among the specimens that were collected. Results and conclusions. A total of 961 specimens were collected, from which 883 COI sequences were obtained. The sequences generated corresponded to 289 barcoding species and 30 identified genera. The most speciose genera were Heterospilus Haliday (170 spp.), Ecphylus Förster (19 spp.), Allorhogas Gahan (15 spp.) and Callihormius Ashmead (14 spp.). Addition of previously collected material increased the diversity of the subfamily in the region to 34 genera and 290 species. Paraphyly of Heterospilus with respect to Neoheterospilus and Heterospathius was again recovered. Twenty new species and two new genera (Sabinita Belokobylskij, Zaldívar-Riverón et Martínez, Ficobolus Martínez, Belokobylskij et Zaldívar-Riverón) have been described so far from the material collected in this work.

  7. Impact of Rag1 aphid resistant soybeans on Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ghising, Kiran; Harmon, Jason P; Beauzay, Patrick B; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A; Helms, Ted C; Ode, Paul J; Knodel, Janet J

    2012-04-01

    Multiple strategies are being developed for pest management of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura; however, there has been little published research thus far to determine how such strategies may influence each other, thereby complicating their potential effectiveness. A susceptible soybean (Glycine max L.) variety without the Rag1 gene and a near isogenic resistant soybean variety with the Rag1 gene were evaluated in the laboratory for their effects on the fitness of the soybean aphid parasitoid, Binodoxys communis (Gahan). The presence or absence of the Rag1 gene was verified by quantifying soybean aphid growth. To test for fitness effects, parasitoids were allowed to attack soybean aphids on either a susceptible or resistant plant for 24 h and then aphids were kept on the same plant throughout parasitoid development. Parasitoid fitness was measured by mummy and adult parasitoid production, adult parasitoid emergence, development time, and adult size. Parasitoids that attacked soybean aphids on susceptible plants produced more mummies, more adult parasitoids, and had a higher emergence rate compared with those on resistant plants. Adult parasitoids that emerged from resistant plants took 1 d longer and were smaller compared with those from susceptible plants. This study suggests that biological control by B. communis may be compromised when host plant resistance is widely used for pest management of soybean aphids.

  8. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  9. Manure preferences and postemergence learning of two filth fly parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is a crucial determinant of the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information generated from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commerciall...

  10. Discrimination by Coptera haywardi (Hymenoptera:Diapriidae) of hosts previously attacked by conspecifies or by the larval parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coptera haywardi (Oglobin) is an endoparasitoid of fruit fly pupae that could find itself in competition with other parasitoids, both con- and heterospecific, already resident inside hosts. In choice bioassays, ovipositing C. haywardi females strongly discriminated against conspecifically parasitise...

  11. Plant vigor metrics determine spatio-temporal distribution dynamics of Oulema melanopus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its larval parasitoid, Tetrastichus julis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Kher, S V; Dosdall, L M; Cárcamo, H A

    2014-10-01

    The cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a new invasive insect pest of oat, wheat, and barley in western Canada. Biological control with its principal larval parasitoid, Tetrastichus julis Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is the primary management strategy. However, to implement control successfully, a thorough understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the interactions between these two species is important. We examined the nature of spatial associations and distribution dynamics of O. melanopus and T. julis with reference to host plant nutrients and plant vigor traits using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices. A grid design was used to understand spatial associations between O. melanopus and T. julis. Distributions of O. melanopus and T. julis indicated the presence of significant patches and gaps. Plant nutrient availability and plant vigor varied across the grid in all study years. On a spatial scale, O. melanopus and T. julis represented a tightly coupled system demonstrating the strong density-dependent nature of parasitoid dispersal. Among the factors examined, plant vigor traits significantly influenced field distributions of both O. melanopus and T. julis. Areas across grids with high plant density, greater plant height, and high availability of plant leaves indicated higher establishment of O. melanopus larvae, consequently exhibiting bottom-up effects on T. julis distributions. Maintenance of uniform plant vigor can be a critical aspect in mitigating yield losses from O. melanopus infestation.

  12. Suitability of five species of stored-product insects as hosts for development and reproduction of the parasitoid Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Mukti N; Phillips, Thomas W

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the ability of two populations of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), to parasitize and develop on late instars of five different stored-product insects that typically complete their development inside seeds of grain or legume species or other dry commodity. The host species were the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.); cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.); rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory in a no-choice design by using petri dishes (15 by 100 mm) as experimental arenas with 20 host larvae. A. calandrae females from populations originating in Georgia (GA) and Oklahoma (OK) were introduced singly into experimental arenas and allowed to sting and oviposit for 24 h. Parasitism by the OK population was greater than that for the GA population across all hosts. However, no or very low parasitism was found on Angoumois grain moth for either population in this experiment. The highest number of parasitoid progeny was recorded on cowpea weevil (15.9) followed by rice weevil (11.5) and cigarette beetle (10.8) for the OK population. A similar trend was observed in the GA population. The highest proportion of female progeny was produced on cowpea weevil (73.0%) by the OK population. Conversely, a higher proportion of female progeny was produced on rice weevil (64.6%) by the GA population than produced by the OK population. Parasitoid adults were significantly larger and heavier when they developed on cowpea weevil irrespective of parasitoid population. The possible application of these results for biological control of stored-product insects is discussed.

  13. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa

    PubMed Central

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V.; Petrice, Toby R.; Gates, Michael W.; Bauer, Leah S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). Two species, Oobius agrili Zhang & Huang and Oobius longoi (Siscaro), were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North American species that parasitize eggs of Agrilus spp. (Buprestidae) are described and illustrated from the USA: Oobius minusculus Triapitsyn & Petrice, sp. n. (Michigan), an egg parasitoid of both Agrilus subcinctus Gory on ash (Fraxinus spp.) and Agrilus egenus Gory on black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) trees, and Oobius whiteorum Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Pennsylvania), an egg parasitoid of Agrilus anxius Gory on European white birch (Betula pendula Roth). A taxonomic key and notes on the Nearctic native and introduced Oobius species are also included. PMID:25931963

  14. Juvenile and sublethal effects of selected pesticides on the leafminer parasitoids Hemiptarsenus varicornis and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Bjorksten, Tracey A; Robinson, Michelle

    2005-12-01

    The pest leafminers Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard), and Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) have spread into South East Asia and Oceania, and they are likely to reach Australia in the near future. Two translaminar pesticides, cyromazine and abamectin, currently provide effective chemical control of these pests, but because parasitoids can play an important role in controlling and preventing leafminer outbreaks, understanding the impact of pesticides on leafminer parasitoids is vital. Here, we tested larval and pupal mortality and sublethal effects of abamectin, cyromazine, and the widely used fungicide mancozeb on two common Australian leafminer parasitoids, Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Girault) and Diglyphus isaea (Walker). Abamectin caused significant mortality to larvae and pupae of both parasitoid species but cyromazine and mancozeb did not. Progeny production and longevity of H. varicornis were not affected by adult exposure to cyromazine and mancozeb, nor did direct pupal exposure decrease number of progeny produced by either parasitoid. Mortality of H. varicornis females emerging from leaves treated with abamectin was high for up to 72 h after eclosion but those surviving beyond 72 h did not differ from control females in the number of progeny produced. Mancozeb did not influence leaf residence time or parasitism by H. varicornis females. Cyromazine and the fungicide mancozeb were concluded to be compatible with the parasitoids tested and suitable for integrated pest management of leafminers should outbreaks of pest species occur in Australia. Abamectin should be used with caution because it caused significant mortality in both parasitoids tested here.

  15. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  16. Description of a new genus and species of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea:Figitidae) parasitoid of Ephydridae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrelliaeucoila egeria, a new genus and species obtained from pupae of Hydrellia sp. nov. (Diptera: Ephydridae) mining in Egeria densa Planchon (Hydrocharitaceae), is described. Diagnostic photographs and data about the biology of this parasitoid are included. ...

  17. First host record for Anteon pilicorne (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), a parasitoid of Cicadellidae, including the corn leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Virla, E G; Espinosa, M S; Moya-Raygoza, G

    2011-01-01

    For the first time the dryinid wasp Anteon pilicorne (Ogloblin) is recorded as a parasitoid of two Macrostelini leafhoppers: Balclutha rosea (Scott) and the corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott). New distributional records are presented.

  18. Effects of soybean resistance on variability in life history traits of the higher trophic level parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Li, X; Li, B; Xing, G; Meng, L

    2017-02-01

    To extrapolate the influence of plant cultivars varying in resistance levels to hosts on parasitoid life history traits, we estimated variation in parasitoid developmental and reproductive performances as a function of resistance in soybean cultivars, which were randomly chosen from a line of resistant genotypes. Our study showed that the parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis varied widely in offspring survival and lifetime fecundity, but varied slightly in development time and adult body size, in response to the soybean cultivars that varied in resistance to the host Spodoptera litura. Furthermore, the variability in survival and lifetime fecundity was different between attacking the 2nd and the 4th instar host larvae, varying more in survival but less in lifetime fecundity when attacking the 4th than 2nd instar larvae. Our study provides further evidence supporting that plant resistance to herbivorous hosts have variable effects on different life history traits of higher trophic level parasitoids.

  19. Longevity of multiple species of tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) provided exotic and sympatric-fruit based diets.

    PubMed

    Stuhl, Charles; Cicero, Lizette; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Lapointe, Stephen; Paranhos, Beatriz Jordão; Aluja, Martín

    2011-11-01

    While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae), can survive on fruit juices as they seep from injured fruit. An ability to exploit fruit juice would allow such a parasitoid to efficiently forage for hosts and food sources simultaneously. Two New World opiines, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), are also prominent Anastrepha parasitoids and are roughly sympatric. All three species were provided with: (1) pulp and juice diets derived from a highly domesticated Old World fruit (orange, Citrus sinensis L.) that is only recently sympatric with the Mexican flies and parasitoids and so offered little opportunity for the evolution of feeding-adaptations and (2) a less-domesticated New World fruit (guava, Psidium guajava L.), sympatric over evolutionary time with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. Both sexes of D. longicaudata died when provided guava pulp or juice at a rate similar to a water-only control. D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, presumably adapted to the nutrient/chemical constituents of guava, also died at a similar rate. Survival of all three species on orange pulp and juice was greater than on water, and often equaled that obtained on a honey and water solution. In confirmatory experiments in Mexico, D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, as well as other tephritid parasitoids Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) and Opius hirtus (Fisher), all died at a significantly higher rates when provided guava in comparison to a honey and water diet. Such a result is likely due to guavas being repellent, innutritious or toxic. D. longicaudata clearly consumed guava juice tagged with a colored dye. Dilutions of orange and guava juice resulted in shorter lifespans than dilutions of orange

  20. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Akutse, Komivi S; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd) and 3(rd) instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression.

  1. Effects of Endophyte Colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) Plants on the Life–History of Leafminer Parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akutse, Komivi S.; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2nd and 3rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression. PMID:25338084

  2. Sugar Diet Affects Odor Reception but Variation in Sugar Concentration Plays Minimal Role in the Response of the Parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to Host-Related Plant Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Matthew; Morawo, Tolulope; Fadamiro, Henry

    2017-03-03

    Parasitoids utilize various sugar resources in nature, and rely on odor cues from plants to locate their food and hosts. However, lack of sugar in the diet may negatively impact odor reception in parasitoids, thus affecting foraging efficiency. We used Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval endoparasitoid of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a model species to test the hypothesis that variation in sugar diet of parasitoids affects their olfactory response to host-related odors. Heliothis virescens is a major pest of cotton and other important crops. Response of female M. croceipes fed different diet treatments (i.e., 40%, 20%, 10%, or 0% sucrose/water solution [w/v]) to select cotton volatiles were tested in electroantennogram (EAG) and Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The following cotton plant odors were tested: cis-3-hexenol, α-pinene, 50/50 v/v binary mixture of cis-3-hexenol and α-pinene, and H. virescens-infested cotton. Sucrose-fed parasitoids showed higher EAG response to the binary mixture and host-infested plant volatile extract, compared with sucrose-starved (0% sucrose) parasitoids. However, there was no significant difference in EAG response of parasitoids to odor treatments among individuals fed 40%, 20%, or 10% sucrose. In a Y-tube olfactometer, female M. croceipes fed 40% sucrose were significantly more attracted to host-infested cotton than to a control (no plant). However, parasitoids were not significantly attracted to other odor stimuli. These results suggest that the availability of sugar diet affects odor reception in M. croceipes but variation in sugar concentration probably plays a minimal role in olfactory response of M. croceipes to host-related odors.

  3. Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

  4. Effect of Bt broccoli and resistant genotype of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on development and host acceptance of the parasitoid Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Onstad, David; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

    2011-08-01

    The ecological implications on biological control of insecticidal transgenic plants, which produce crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), remain a contentious issue and affect risk assessment decisions. In this study, we used a unique system of resistant insects, Bt plants and a parasitoid to critically evaluate this issue. The effects of broccoli type (normal or expressing Cry1Ac protein) and insect genotype (susceptible or Cry1Ac-resistant) of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were examined for their effects on the development and host foraging behavior of the parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) over two generations. Parasitism rate and development of D. insulare were not significantly different when different genotypes (Bt-resistant or susceptible) of insect host larvae fed on non-Bt broccoli plants. D. insulare could not discriminate between resistant and susceptible genotypes of P. xylostella, nor between Bt and normal broccoli plants with different genotypes of P. xylostella feeding on them. No D. insulare could emerge from Bt broccoli-fed susceptible and heterozygous P. xylostella larvae because these larvae were unable to survive on Bt broccoli. The parasitism rate, developmental period, pupal and adult weights of D. insulare that had developed on Bt broccoli-fed Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella larvae were not significantly different from those that developed on non-Bt broccoli-fed larvae. Female D. insulare emerged from Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella that fed on Bt plants could successfully parasitize P. xylostella larvae. The life parameters of the subsequent generation of D. insulare from P. xylostella reared on Bt broccoli were not significantly different from those from non-Bt broccoli. The Cry1Ac protein was detected in P. xylostella and in D. insulare when hosts fed on Bt broccoli. These results are the first to indicate that Cry1Ac did not harm the development or

  5. Laboratory investigation of triple marking the parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) with a fluorescent dye and two animal proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault, a parasitoid of Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), was used as a model insect to investigate triple marking a minute hymenopteran for potential use for monitoring dispersal patterns of natural enemies in the field. The triple mark contained egg albumin in chicken eggs, c...

  6. Host plants impact courtship vibration transmission and mating success of a parasitoid wasp, Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plants provide food, shelter and mating habitats for herbivorous and parasitoid insects. Yet each plant species is a distinct microhabitat and insects must adapt to its chemical and physical attributes in order to survive, mate and reproduce. Behavioral and genetic divergence between insect pop...

  7. Dispersion and movement of the Lygus spp.parasitoid Peristenus relictus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in trapcropped organic strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa trap crops can be used to manage Lygus spp. in organic strawberries on the California Central Coast. The retention of Lygus spp. in alfalfa creates aggregated distributions that provide improved opportunities for biological control by the introduced parasitoid Peristenus relictus (Ruthe). ...

  8. Comparison of host-seeking behavior of the filth fly pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, are often sold together for biological control of house flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking b...

  9. Contrasting brood-sex ratio flexibility in two opiine (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of tephritid (Diptera) fruit files

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing of fruit fly parasitoids for augmentative release would be more economical if production could be biased towards females. If sex ratios are ever to be manipulated under rearing conditions it is important to determine if, then understand why, sex ratio flexibility exists. Unequal brood-s...

  10. The parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), influences food consumption and utilization by larval Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Guilherme Duarte; Salvador, Gabriela; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis

    2014-10-01

    Parasitoids exploit host insects for food and other resources; they alter host development and physiology to optimize conditions to favor parasitoid development. Parasitoids influence their hosts by injecting eggs, along with a variety of substances, including venoms, polydnaviruses, ovarian fluids, and other maternal factors, into hosts. These factors induce profound changes in hosts, such as behavior, metabolism, endocrine events, and immune defense. Because endoparasitoids develop and consume tissues from within their hosts, it is reasonable to suggest that internal parasitization would also influence host food consumption and metabolism. We report on the effects of parasitism by Cotesia flavipes on the food consumption and utilization of its host, Diatraea saccharalis. Cotesia flavipes reduces the host food consumption, but parasitized larvae considered a unit with their parasitoid's attained the same final weight as the nonparasitized larvae. Nutritional indices, midgut activities of carbohydrases, and trypsin of parasitized and nonparasitized D. saccharalis were assessed. Parasitized larvae had reduced relative food consumption, metabolic and growth rates, coupled with higher efficiency for conversion of the digested, but not ingested, food into body mass. Parasitism also affected food flux through the gut and protein contents in the midgut of parasitized larvae. The activity of α-amylase and trehalase in parasitized host was enhanced in the first day after parasitism relative to control larvae. Saccharase activity remained unchanged during larval development. Trypsin activity was reduced from the fifth to ninth day after parasitism. We argue on the mechanisms involved in host food processing after parasitism.

  11. An acquired distaste: Sugar discrimination by the larval parasitoid Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is affected by prior sugar exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As sugar quality feeding is very important in the lives of adult parasitoids, we examined several feeding responses of Microplitis croceipes to sugars commonly found in nectar. We first examined the relationship between feeding time and consumption of sucrose, glucose, fructose and maltose by Microp...

  12. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  13. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A.; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26798295

  14. Quality of the Exotic Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Does Not Show Deleterious Effects after Inbreeding for 10 Generations

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Maíra; De Bortoli, Sergio A.; Vacari, Alessandra M.; Laurentis, Valéria L.; Ramalho, Dagmara G.

    2016-01-01

    Although the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) has proven effective in controlling sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) for many years, concern has arisen over the quality of individuals produced at large scales. The parasitoid has been reared in laboratories in Brazil for more than 40 years, with no new introductions of new populations during that period. Since the quality of the parasitoids was not verified at the time of the species' introduction in Brazil, we do not know if there has been any reduction in quality so far. However, it is possible to determine whether the parasitoid could reduce in quality in future generations. Thus, the objective of this research was to assess the quality of these insects over 10 generations and look for evidence of any loss in quality. We used two populations: one from a biofactory that has been maintained in the laboratory for over 40 years, and an inbred laboratory population. Both were bred, and compared for 10 generations. We wanted to determine what happened to the quality of the parasitoid after 10 generations in an extreme inbreeding situation. To assure inbreeding, newly emerged females were forced to mate with a sibling. Individual females were then allowed to parasitize larvae of D. saccharalis. We performed evaluations for each generation until the tenth generation, and recorded the sex ratio, percentage emergence, number of offspring/females, and longevity of both males and females. Results of the measurements of biological characteristics demonstrated random significant differences between populations; best results were obtained intermittently for both the biofactory population and the inbred population. No significant differences across generations for the same population were observed. Thus, rearing of a C. flavipes population subjected to inbreeding for 10 generations was not sufficient to reveal any deleterious effects of inbreeding. PMID:27509087

  15. Manure Preferences and Postemergence Learning of Two Filth Fly Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caitlin E; Machtinger, Erika T; Geden, Christopher J; Kramer, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae. Females from each emergence exposure were tested in a two-choice arena (house fly hosts in bovine manure versus clean pupae, equine manure versus clean pupae, and equine manure versus bovine manure) for progeny production. There was a detectable but small effect of postemergence exposure on S. cameroni, but it was not sufficient to reverse innate preferences. Females consistently produced more progeny in hosts found in any manure over clean pupae, and in equine manure over bovine manure. The effect of postemergence exposure on M. raptor was also detectable but small. Females produced equal numbers of progeny in bovine manure versus clean pupae, as opposed to preferring to oviposit in clean pupae as with all other treatments. Preferences by M. raptor were overall less marked than for S. cameroni; indeed most of the variability observed for this species did not result from the treatment design. Residual host mortality was also detectably altered by exposure in both species, but the effect was small. Thus, postemergence exposure did not consistently and effectively manipulate these parasitoids to producing progeny in different exposure manures, suggesting that microhabitat preferences are largely determined by other factors.

  16. Manure Preferences and Postemergence Learning of Two Filth Fly Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae. Females from each emergence exposure were tested in a two-choice arena (house fly hosts in bovine manure versus clean pupae, equine manure versus clean pupae, and equine manure versus bovine manure) for progeny production. There was a detectable but small effect of postemergence exposure on S. cameroni, but it was not sufficient to reverse innate preferences. Females consistently produced more progeny in hosts found in any manure over clean pupae, and in equine manure over bovine manure. The effect of postemergence exposure on M. raptor was also detectable but small. Females produced equal numbers of progeny in bovine manure versus clean pupae, as opposed to preferring to oviposit in clean pupae as with all other treatments. Preferences by M. raptor were overall less marked than for S. cameroni; indeed most of the variability observed for this species did not result from the treatment design. Residual host mortality was also detectably altered by exposure in both species, but the effect was small. Thus, postemergence exposure did not consistently and effectively manipulate these parasitoids to producing progeny in different exposure manures, suggesting that microhabitat preferences are largely determined by other factors. PMID:27936090

  17. Sperm production and mating potential of males after a cold shock on pupae of the parasitoid wasp Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Lacoume, Sandrine; Bressac, Christophe; Chevrier, Claude

    2007-10-01

    For ectothermic species, temperature is a key environmental factor influencing several aspects of their physiology and ecology, acting particularly on reproduction. To measure the consequences of a severe thermal stress during development on male reproduction, a cold shock (1h at -18 degrees C) was tested on Dinarmus basalis pupae. D. basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a parasitoid wasp in which sperm management in both male and female is of prime importance. After a cold shock, developmental success was reduced, with a quarter of cold-shocked males not emerging correctly. The stress effects were estimated at the level of sperm stock in seminal vesicles of males at different ages and on the ability of 2-day-old males to access females in single and multiple mating and in male-male competition. Cold-shocked males had a reduced sperm stock compared to control males and this difference persisted with age. The rate of sperm production was similar in both groups. The consequences of a cold shock on male reproductive ability were perceptible in multiple mating and male-male competition but not in single mating. Cold-shocked males were at a disadvantage, inseminating fewer females and copulating less frequently. Finally, male pupae of D. basalis were able to withstand severe temperature stresses and their reproductive functions were partially preserved.

  18. A new species of Stenodiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Spartina grasses (Poaceae) with notes on its biology and its parasitoid Tetrastichus bromi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    López, J Manuel Perilla; Johnson, Paul J; Gagné, Raymond J; Boe, Arvid

    2015-12-09

    Stenodiplosis spartinae Gagné new species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described from eastern South Dakota and coastal North Carolina, and compared with other American congeners. The known host plants are Spartina alterniflora and S. pectinata. The larva is a seed predator of the ovule and immature caryopsis of the host plant. Adult activity is from the early emergence of the host inflorescence through anthesis. Oviposition occurs in the floret with eggs laid under the edges of the palea and lemma. The larva apparently overwinters in dehisced spikelets in the soil among rhizomes of S. pectinata, with pupation in late spring. Laboratory emergence and field activity of the adults suggest a potentialsecond or third generation developing on late emerging inflorescences. Larval feeding does not induce external color or shape changes in the spikelet. Apparently all three instars are ectoparasitized by Tetrastichus bromi Kostyukov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) that was probably introduced to North America in the late 1800's and is inculcated into parasitoid guilds of several Stenodiplosis species. Resource partitioning appears to occur between the gall midge and early instars of Aethes spartinana Barnes and McDunnough (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) that feed on maturing caryopses. The feeding of this gall midge and the moth probably account for most of the reduced seed production in both natural and agronomic populations of S. pectinata.

  19. The leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) encapsulates its koinobiont parasitoid Halticoptera circulus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Kemmochi, T; Fujimori, S; Saito, T

    2016-06-01

    The koinobiont parasitoid Halticoptera circulus (Walker) is a potential biological control agent of leafminers, but it has only rarely been collected from the invasive leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), in Japan. To understand why this is the case, parasitism and development of H. circulus in L. trifolii was compared with parasitism and development in two indigenous leafminer species, Liriomyza chinensis Kato and Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau). There was no significant difference in parasitism rates by H. circulus in the three leafminer species and the eggs and larvae successfully developed in L. chinensis and C. horticola. However, H. circulus failed to develop in L. trifolii, where developmental stages were encapsulated by host haemocytes. This parasitoid may be a good agent to control indigenous leafminers such as L. chinensis and C. horticola but is unlikely to be useful for the biological control of the invasive L. trifolii in Japan.

  20. First record of Closterocerus chamaeleon, parasitoid of the Eucalyptus Gall Wasp Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae), in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Roger A.; Mottern, Jason L.; Pownall, Nicole G.; Waterworth, Rebeccah; Paine, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The uniparental parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault) is discovered to be fortuitously present on a population of the invasive Eucalyptus Gall Wasp Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead) in Riverside, California. This is the first report from the New World of Closterocerus chamaeleon, which has proven to be a highly effective natural enemy of Ophelimus maskelli in the Mediterranean Basin. The taxonomy and identification of Closterocerus chamaeleon is discussed. PMID:26019681

  1. The ability of selected pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate stable fly hosts in a soiled equine bedding substrate.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E; Geden, Christopher J; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2011-02-01

    The ability of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, Spalangia endius Walker, and Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner to locate and attack stable fly hosts was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Postfeeding third-instar stable fly larvae were released and allowed to pupate in two arena types: large 4.8 liter chambers containing a field-collected, soiled equine bedding substrate; or 120-ml plastic cups containing wood chips. At the time of fly pupariation, parasitoids were released and permitted 72 h to locate and attack hosts. On average, parasitism rates of freely accessible stable fly pupae in cups were not significantly different between parasitoid species. However, parasitism rates in chambers containing either Spalangia spp. were ≈50-fold more than M. raptorellus. Additional intraspecies analysis revealed that parasitism rates both by S. cameroni and S. endius were not significantly different when pupae were freely accessible or within bedding, whereas M. raptorellus attacked significantly more pupae in cups than in the larger chambers where hosts were distributed within bedding. These results suggest that Spalangia spp. are more suited to successfully locate and attack hosts in habitats created by equine husbandry in Florida. Therefore, commercially available parasitoid mixtures containing Muscidifurax spp. may be ineffective if used as a control measure at Florida equine facilities.

  2. Evolutionary History of the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ralph S; Krogmann, Lars; Mayer, Christoph; Donath, Alexander; Gunkel, Simon; Meusemann, Karen; Kozlov, Alexey; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Petersen, Malte; Lanfear, Robert; Diez, Patricia A; Heraty, John; Kjer, Karl M; Klopfstein, Seraina; Meier, Rudolf; Polidori, Carlo; Schmitt, Thomas; Liu, Shanlin; Zhou, Xin; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver

    2017-04-03

    Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, and bees) are one of four mega-diverse insect orders, comprising more than 153,000 described and possibly up to one million undescribed extant species [1, 2]. As parasitoids, predators, and pollinators, Hymenoptera play a fundamental role in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems and are of substantial economic importance [1, 3]. To understand the diversification and key evolutionary transitions of Hymenoptera, most notably from phytophagy to parasitoidism and predation (and vice versa) and from solitary to eusocial life, we inferred the phylogeny and divergence times of all major lineages of Hymenoptera by analyzing 3,256 protein-coding genes in 173 insect species. Our analyses suggest that extant Hymenoptera started to diversify around 281 million years ago (mya). The primarily ectophytophagous sawflies are found to be monophyletic. The species-rich lineages of parasitoid wasps constitute a monophyletic group as well. The little-known, species-poor Trigonaloidea are identified as the sister group of the stinging wasps (Aculeata). Finally, we located the evolutionary root of bees within the apoid wasp family "Crabronidae." Our results reveal that the extant sawfly diversity is largely the result of a previously unrecognized major radiation of phytophagous Hymenoptera that did not lead to wood-dwelling and parasitoidism. They also confirm that all primarily parasitoid wasps are descendants of a single endophytic parasitoid ancestor that lived around 247 mya. Our findings provide the basis for a natural classification of Hymenoptera and allow for future comparative analyses of Hymenoptera, including their genomes, morphology, venoms, and parasitoid and eusocial life styles.

  3. Human sting of Cephalonomia gallicola (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Yong; Shin, Chang-Seob; Sim, Seobo; Park, Jung-Won; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2014-12-01

    Hymenoptera stings can cause serious injury to humans. We report the clinical findings of 6 cases of Hymenoptera stings. All patients developed painful erythematous papules at the sting sites and had a past history of parasitoid wasp sting. This is the first clinical report of the parasitoid wasp, Cephalonomia gallicola, causing human stings in Korea.

  4. Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses.

  5. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  6. Intraspecific variability in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma chilonis: can we predict the outcome of hybridization?

    PubMed

    Benvenuto, Chiara; Tabone, Elisabeth; Vercken, Elodie; Sorbier, Nathalie; Colombel, Etty; Warot, Sylvie; Fauvergue, Xavier; Ris, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of biological control, the selection of effective natural enemies determines the final pest control. Thus, the genetic improvement of biocontrol agents could enhance the efficiency of biocontrol programs. Although promising, this approach has rarely been applied in this field. At the intraspecific level, hybridization between divergent populations of biocontrol agents is expected to promote hybrid vigor (heterosis), but it is not clear to what extent. An even more difficult task is the ability to predict the fitness of hybrids from the biological characteristics of their parents. We investigated these general questions by crossing seven populations of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Our results show different levels of mating compatibilities among populations, including asymmetric or almost complete reproductive isolation. Hybrids' performance (fitness of the F(1) generation) ranges from inbreeding depression to heterosis. It was possible, to some extent, to predict hybrid fitness from pairwise genetic and phenotypic distances among parents, in accordance with the 'dominance' hypothesis. This may provide general guidelines for the genetic improvement of biological control agents.

  7. Intraspecific variability in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma chilonis: can we predict the outcome of hybridization?

    PubMed Central

    Benvenuto, Chiara; Tabone, Elisabeth; Vercken, Elodie; Sorbier, Nathalie; Colombel, Etty; Warot, Sylvie; Fauvergue, Xavier; Ris, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of biological control, the selection of effective natural enemies determines the final pest control. Thus, the genetic improvement of biocontrol agents could enhance the efficiency of biocontrol programs. Although promising, this approach has rarely been applied in this field. At the intraspecific level, hybridization between divergent populations of biocontrol agents is expected to promote hybrid vigor (heterosis), but it is not clear to what extent. An even more difficult task is the ability to predict the fitness of hybrids from the biological characteristics of their parents. We investigated these general questions by crossing seven populations of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Our results show different levels of mating compatibilities among populations, including asymmetric or almost complete reproductive isolation. Hybrids' performance (fitness of the F1 generation) ranges from inbreeding depression to heterosis. It was possible, to some extent, to predict hybrid fitness from pairwise genetic and phenotypic distances among parents, in accordance with the ‘dominance’ hypothesis. This may provide general guidelines for the genetic improvement of biological control agents. PMID:22949925

  8. New threshold temperatures for the development of a North American diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) population and its larval parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Bahar, M H; Soroka, J J; Grenkow, L; Dosdall, L M

    2014-10-01

    The currently accepted lower threshold temperature for the development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), the world's most destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops, is around 6.0°C, and there is no known upper threshold temperature. Neither are there established threshold temperatures for diamondback moth's major natural enemy, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Laboratory studies were undertaken to determine the survival and development of a North American diamondback moth population and its parasitoid D. insulare at 20 constant temperatures ranging from 2.0 to 38.0°C. Diamondback moth completed development from second instar to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-37°C, and D. insulare completed its life cycle from egg to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-33°C. The developmental data were fitted into one linear and four nonlinear models. Using goodness-of-fit and the ability to estimate parameters of biological significance as selection criteria, the Wang model was the most acceptable among the nonlinear models to describe the relationship between temperature and development of both species. According to this model, the lower and upper threshold temperatures for diamondback moth were 2.1 and 38.0°C, respectively, and for D. insulare they were 2.1 and 34.0°C, respectively. Based on the Degree Day model, diamondback moth required 143 d above the lower threshold of 4.23°C to complete the life cycle, while D. insulare required 286 d above the lower threshold of 2.57°C. This study suggests that temperatures during the crop-growing seasons in North America are not limiting factors for development of either diamondback moth or D. insulare.

  9. Comparison of Host-Seeking Behavior of the Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J; Teal, P E; Leppla, N C

    2015-04-01

    The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, can be purchased for biological control of house flies Musca domestica L. and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking behavior of these two species, so odors associated with house flies were investigated in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. Odor stimuli from house fly host puparia, larvae, pine-shavings bedding with horse manure, and developing flies in the pine-shavings-manure substrate were evaluated in bioassays using the two pteromalid species. In choice tests, naïve female S. cameroni were strongly attracted to odor from the substrate containing house fly larvae and secondarily from the uninfested substrate and substrate with puparia versus humidified and purified air. This species also selected the substrate with larvae versus the substrate with the house fly puparia or uninfested substrate. Muscidifurax raptor was attracted to odor from the substrate containing puparia, washed puparia, and substrate with puparia removed. The data suggest that coexistence between the two pteromalid parasitoids, S. cameroni and M. raptor, might be promoted by different host-seeking behavior.

  10. Parasitoid-induced mortality of Araneus omnicolor (Araneae, Araneidae) by Hymenoepimecis sp. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Marcelo O; Sobczak, Jober F

    2007-03-01

    All species included in the Polysphincta genus-group develop as ectophagous parasitoids of active spiders, killing their hosts prior to pupation. However, little information regarding natural history and ovipositing behavior of most species are available. In this study we inspected 85 webs of Araneus omnicolor to evaluate the frequency of parasitism and host size preferences of the wasp Hymenoepimecis sp. We also described the web characteristics of normal and parasitized spiders and the wasp ovipositing behavior. About 41% of the adult females of A. omnicolor inspected were parasitized. The highest incidence of parasitism was observed among relatively small females while no egg or larva was found in large individuals. Araneus omnicolor builds a strong web composed of an orb and barrier threads, where the spider rests within a curled leaf. The parasitoid larva builds its cocoon within this refuge, and modified cocoon webs were not observed. The ovipositing behavior of Hymenoepimecis sp. was very similar to that of Hymenoepimecis argyraphaga parasitizing Leucauge argyra, including the position of the sting, the killing of a previously attached larva, and the expelling of the egg from the base of the ovipositor.

  11. The evolution of body size, antennal size and host use in parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): a phylogenetic comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Matthew R E; Elgar, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Chalcidoid wasps represent one of the most speciose superfamilies of animals known, with ca. 23,000 species described of which many are parasitoids. They are extremely diverse in body size, morphology and, among the parasitoids, insect hosts. Parasitic chalcidoids utilise a range of behavioural adaptations to facilitate exploitation of their diverse insect hosts, but how host use might influence the evolution of body size and morphology is not known in this group. We used a phylogenetic comparative analysis of 126 chalcidoid species to examine whether body size and antennal size showed evolutionary correlations with aspects of host use, including host breadth (specificity), host identity (orders of insects parasitized) and number of plant associates. Both morphological features and identity of exploited host orders show strong phylogenetic signal, but host breadth does not. Larger body size in these wasps was weakly associated with few plant genera, and with more specialised host use, and chalcidoid wasps that parasitize coleopteran hosts tend to be larger. Intriguingly, chalcidoid wasps that parasitize hemipteran hosts are both smaller in size in the case of those parasitizing the suborder Sternorrhyncha and have relatively larger antennae, particularly in those that parasitize other hemipteran suborders. These results suggest there are adaptations in chalcidoid wasps that are specifically associated with host detection and exploitation.

  12. Parasitoid-induced mortality of Araneus omnicolor (Araneae, Araneidae) by Hymenoepimecis sp. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, Marcelo O.; Sobczak, Jober F.

    2007-03-01

    All species included in the Polysphincta genus-group develop as ectophagous parasitoids of active spiders, killing their hosts prior to pupation. However, little information regarding natural history and ovipositing behavior of most species are available. In this study we inspected 85 webs of Araneus omnicolor to evaluate the frequency of parasitism and host size preferences of the wasp Hymenoepimecis sp. We also described the web characteristics of normal and parasitized spiders and the wasp ovipositing behavior. About 41% of the adult females of A. omnicolor inspected were parasitized. The highest incidence of parasitism was observed among relatively small females while no egg or larva was found in large individuals. Araneus omnicolor builds a strong web composed of an orb and barrier threads, where the spider rests within a curled leaf. The parasitoid larva builds its cocoon within this refuge, and modified cocoon webs were not observed. The ovipositing behavior of Hymenoepimecis sp. was very similar to that of Hymenoepimecis argyraphaga parasitizing Leucauge argyra, including the position of the sting, the killing of a previously attached larva, and the expelling of the egg from the base of the ovipositor.

  13. The Evolution of Body Size, Antennal Size and Host Use in Parasitoid Wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): A Phylogenetic Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Chalcidoid wasps represent one of the most speciose superfamilies of animals known, with ca. 23,000 species described of which many are parasitoids. They are extremely diverse in body size, morphology and, among the parasitoids, insect hosts. Parasitic chalcidoids utilise a range of behavioural adaptations to facilitate exploitation of their diverse insect hosts, but how host use might influence the evolution of body size and morphology is not known in this group. We used a phylogenetic comparative analysis of 126 chalcidoid species to examine whether body size and antennal size showed evolutionary correlations with aspects of host use, including host breadth (specificity), host identity (orders of insects parasitized) and number of plant associates. Both morphological features and identity of exploited host orders show strong phylogenetic signal, but host breadth does not. Larger body size in these wasps was weakly associated with few plant genera, and with more specialised host use, and chalcidoid wasps that parasitize coleopteran hosts tend to be larger. Intriguingly, chalcidoid wasps that parasitize hemipteran hosts are both smaller in size in the case of those parasitizing the suborder Sternorrhyncha and have relatively larger antennae, particularly in those that parasitize other hemipteran suborders. These results suggest there are adaptations in chalcidoid wasps that are specifically associated with host detection and exploitation. PMID:24205189

  14. Can the parasitoid Necremnus tutae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) improve existing biological control of the tomato leafminer Tuta aboluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)?

    PubMed

    Calvo, F J; Soriano, J D; Stansly, P A; Belda, J E

    2016-08-01

    Necremnus tutae is native to the Mediterranean region where it has been observed in greenhouses parasitizing the invasive Tuta absoluta on tomato. The objective of the present study was to determine whether augmentative releases of N. tutae can improve existing biological control of T. absoluta based on predation by Nesidicoris tenuis. Two experiments were carried out, of which the first evaluated different N. tutae release rates (1 and 2 N. tutae m-2 week-1). The parasitoid reduced plant and fruit damage, especially at the higher rate. However, such reduction was considered insufficient given the large numbers of parasitoids needed and still unacceptable level of fruit damage. The second experiment focused on combining the most efficient rate of N. tutae of those evaluated during the first experiment, with the pre- and post-planting release of N. tenuis and supplemental additions of Ephestia kuehniella eggs. Addition of N. tutae decreased leaf damage by T. absoluta regardless the release method for N. tenuis, but the pre-plant release of N. tenuis alone was sufficient to prevent fruit damage by T. absoluta. This suggested that the addition of N. tutae may not be necessary to obtain satisfactory control of T. absoluta following pre-plant application of N. tenuis, although different options for using N. tutae in commercial crops may still be possible.

  15. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host-plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of host-plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group size and host to parasitoid ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, newly introduced for biological control of the invasive eme...

  16. Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...

  17. The effect of larval and early adult experience on behavioural plasticity of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagra, Cristian A.; Pennacchio, Francesco; Niemeyer, Hermann M.

    2007-11-01

    The relevance of the integration of preimaginal and eclosion experiences on the subsequent habitat preferences and mate finding by the adult has been rarely tested in holometabolous insects. In this work, the effect of larval and early adult experiences on the behavioural responses of adult males of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, towards volatiles from the host-plant complex (HPC) and from conspecific females were evaluated. Two experience factors were considered: host diet (normal diet=ND; artificial diet=AD), and eclosion, i.e. extraction or non-extraction of the parasitoid larva from the parasitised aphid (extracted=EX; non-extracted=NE). Thus, four treatments were set up: ND/NE, ND/EX, AD/NE and AD/EX. Glass Y-tube olfactometers were used to investigate the responses of adult A. ervi males to the odour sources used. Males from the ND/NE treatment showed a shorter latency to the first choice of olfactometer arms, displayed a marked preference towards the HPC olfactometer arm, and spent more time in the HPC arm than males from the other treatments. Only the interaction of host diet and eclosion experiences proved to be relevant in explaining the differences in latency to first choice, time spent in olfactometers arms, and behaviours displayed in the olfactometer arms. These results show the importance of the integration of larval and eclosion experiences in the development of stereotyped responses of the adults. This process may involve memory retention from the preimaginal and emergence period, but further research is needed to disentangle the contribution of each stage. The response to conspecific females was much less affected by the treatments in relation to first arm choice and times in olfactometer arms, suggesting a pheromone-mediated behaviour, even though a prompter and more intense wing fanning courtship behaviour was registered in the ND/NE males compared to males from the AD/NE treatment. These results show that sexual behaviours are less

  18. Antennal sensilla of female Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a nymphal parasitoid of the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Wei-Jian; Niu, Li-Ming; Fu, Yue-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a minute, obligate endoparasitoid against the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus nymph. The external morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of female E. guadeloupae were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Antennae of female E. guadeloupae were geniculate in shape, which consist of scape with a radicula, pedicel, and flagellum. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in the females: nonporous sensilla chaetica (CH-NP) and nonporous sensilla trichodea (ST-NP); uniporous sensilla chaetica (CH-UP) and uniporous sensilla trichodea (ST-UP) with a tip pore, basiconic capitate peg sensilla with numerous pores open at the bottom of the grooves; multiporous sensilla placoid (MSP) with the multiporous cuticular structure; uniporous rod-like sensilla (RO-UP) with robust grooved surfaces and the tremendous apical hole; nonporous finger-like sensilla (FI-NP) with abundant pimples at the bulgy, mortar-shaped short stalk. In order to further explore the host location mechanisms and courtship behavior of E. guadeloupae, the possible roles of the antennal sensilla of this species were discussed.

  19. First instar larvae morphology of Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies. Implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Félix D; Liedo, Pablo; Nieto-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Mireles, Héctor; Barrera, Juan F; Montoya, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the first instars of the Opiinae braconids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Utetes anastrephae and Opius hirtus (the first is exotic, and the others are natives to Mexico), parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies, are described and compared. The possible implications on interspecific competition among these species are discussed. The most significant adaptations found were: (1) the mouth apparatus, where the large mandibles and fang-shaped maxillary lobes present in D. longicaudata and U. anastrephae larvae were absent in O. hirtus, D. areolatus and D. crawfordi larvae, and (2) the degree of mobility for exploration and escape, such as the lateral and caudal appendages that were only present in D. longicaudata (ventrolateral appendages in the base of the head capsule), U. anastrephae (caudal lobe with two appendages) and D. areolatus (caudal lobe with a round apex with a globular shape). The first instar larvae of the species D. longicaudata show morphological adaptations that apparently confer competitive advantages against the larvae of D. areolatus, D. crawfordi and O. hirtus. However, the first instar larvae of U. anastrephae show larger mandibles, an adaptation that could enable this species to resist competition from D. longicaudata.

  20. Sexy Mouth Odour? Male Oral Gland Pheromone in the Grain Beetle Parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    König, Kerstin; Seeger, Lucy; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, sexual pheromones are used for the attraction of mates and as courtship signals but also enable sexual isolation between species. In the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus, male courtship behaviour consisting of wing fanning, antennal stroking of the female antenna, and head nodding stimulates female receptivity leading to copulation. Recently L. distinguendus was reported to consist of two different lineages, which are sexually isolated because males fail to elicit receptivity in foreign females. It is unclear, however, which part of the courtship behaviour triggers female receptivity and therefore could be a mechanism causing sexual isolation. Here we show that in L. distinguendus a nonvolatile male oral pheromone is essential to release the female receptivity signal. In contrast, male wing fanning and antennal contact play a minor role. Additionally, the composition of the oral pheromone depends on the developmental host and females learn the composition upon emergence from the host substrate. These results will enable more detailed work on oral sexual pheromones to answer the question of how they are involved in the speciation process of L. distinguendus and other parasitoid species, for a better understanding of the huge biodiversity in this group.

  1. Hymenopteran parasitoids of the ant-eating spider Zodarion styliferum (Simon) (Araneae, Zodariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Korenko, Stanislav; Schmidt, Stefan; Schwarz, Martin; Gibson, Gary A.P.; Pekár, Stano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Calymmochilus dispar Bouček & Andriescu (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae) and Gelis apterus (Pontoppidan) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are newly recorded as parasitoids of the ant-eating spider Zodarion styliferum (Simon) (Araneae, Zodariidae). The larvae of both parasitoid species fed on juvenile spiders. The final instar larva and pupa of Calymmochilus dispar and the male of Gelis apterus are described for the first time. Both species represent new distribution records for Portugal. The biology and host associations of the parasitoids are discussed. PMID:23653512

  2. Temperature-Dependent Functional Response of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a Parasitoid of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, H; Nachman, G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of host density, temperature, and burial depths on the functional response of the synovigenic parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) attacking pupae of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) were examined. Five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C), six host densities (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 pupae per 19.64 cm(2)), and three burial depths in whole wheat grains (0, 8, and 16 cm) were used. It was demonstrated that temperature had a profound effect on the functional response, whereas burial depths of the pupae played a minor role. For all temperatures, the functional response was of type 2 with an upper asymptote that depends on the temperature. Data were fitted by a functional response model where only the maximum attack rate is temperature dependent. The model shows that the optimal temperature for S. cameroni for attacking S. calcitrans pupae is 28.6°C, where the maximum attack rate is 20.2 pupae day(-1). The lower and upper temperature thresholds for attacks were found as 8.1 and 36.6°C, respectively. The temperature range for attacks that resulted in successful parasitism was narrower, namely, 15.0 and 35.5°C. Maximum rate of successful parasitism was estimated to be 18.2 progeny day(-1) occurring at 27.9°C. The proportion of attacks resulting in successful parasitism increased steeply with temperatures >15°C and declined steeply at temperatures >30°C.

  3. Effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Wanderley, Paulo A; Malaquias, José B; Fernandes, Francisco S; Nascimento, Antônio R B; Zanuncio, José C

    2011-09-01

    This research studied the effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, an ectoparasitoid of cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis Boheman) at constant temperatures of 20, 25 and 30ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a photophase of 14 h. Females of the parasitoid produced a greater number of eggs when exposed to 25ºC (124.65 eggs) in relation to those exposed to 20 (43.40 eggs) and 30ºC (49.60 eggs). The number of parasitized larvae per female of B. vulgaris at 25ºC (71.75) was greater than at 20ºC (31.40) and 30ºC (25.15). The daily intrinsic rates of increase (r m) were - 0.007 at 20ºC, 0.07 at 25ºC and 0.03 at 30ºC, revealing that the temperature of 25ºC produced increases of 1,100 and 133% in the value r m in relation to temperatures of 20 and 30ºC, respectively. In programs of biological control of the boll weevil using innoculative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris with approximately five (at 25 or 30ºC) or 20 day old (at 20ºC) should be used; when using innundative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris , with ages between 11 and 31; 9 and 29 or 3 and 14 days, respectively, at 20, 25 or 30ºC should be used.

  4. Molecular and morphological phylogenetics of chelonine parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a critical assessment of divergence time estimations.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Rebecca N; Austin, Andrew D; Klopfstein, Seraina

    2016-08-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the subfamily Cheloninae are both species rich and poorly known. Although the taxonomy of Cheloninae appears to be relatively stable, there is no clear understanding of relationships among higher-level taxa. We here applied molecular phylogenetic analyses using three markers (COI, EF1α, 28S) and 37 morphological characters to elucidate the evolution and systematics of these wasps. Analyses were based on 83 specimens representing 13 genera. All genera except Ascogaster, Phanerotoma, and Pseudophanerotoma formed monophyletic groups; Furcidentia (stat. rev.) is raised to generic rank. Neither Chelonus (Chelonus) nor Chelonus (Microchelonus) were recovered as monophyletic, but together formed a monophyletic lineage. The tribes Chelonini and Odontosphaeropygini formed monophyletic groups, but the Phanerotomini sensu Zettel and Pseudophanerotomini were retrieved as either para- or polyphyletic. The genera comprising the former subfamily Adeliinae were confirmed as being nested within the Cheloninae. To estimate the age of the subfamily, we used 16 fossil taxa. Three approaches were compared: fixed-rate dating, node dating, and total-evidence dating, with age estimates differing greatly between the three methods. Shortcomings of each approach in relation to our dataset are discussed, and none of the age estimates is deemed sufficiently reliable. Given that most dating studies use a single method only, in most cases without presenting analyses on the sensitivity to priors, it is likely that numerous age estimates in the literature suffer from a similar lack of robustness. We argue for a more rigorous approach to dating analyses and for a faithful presentation of uncertainties in divergence time estimates. Given the results of the phylogenetic analysis the following taxonomic changes are proposed: Furcidentia Zettel (stat. rev.), previously treated as a subgenus of Pseudophanerotoma Zettel is raised to generic rank; Microchelonus Szépligeti (syn. nov

  5. Effects of Size and Age of the Host Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) on Production of the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Broski, Scott A; King, B H

    2017-02-01

    One method of control of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), and other filth flies is by repeated release of large numbers of pupal parasitoids such as Spalangia endius Walker. Rearing these parasitoids may be facilitated by understanding how host factors affect their production. Previous studies have examined the effects of host size and host age on parasitoid production, but have not examined the interaction between host size and host age or the effects with older females, which may be less capable of drilling tough hosts. Females were given hosts of a single size-age category (small young, small old, large young, or large old) for 2 wk. The effect of host size and of host age on parasitoid production depended on female age. On their first day of oviposition, females produced more offspring from large than from small hosts, but host age had no significant effect. The cumulative number of parasitoids produced in the first week was not significantly affected by host size or host age. However, the cumulative number of parasitoids produced over 2 wk was affected by both host size and host age, with the greatest number of parasitoids produced from small young hosts. Thus, not only are smaller hosts cheaper to produce, but these results suggest that their use may have no effect or a positive effect on the number of parasitoids that can be produced when females are ovipositing for a week or two.

  6. Evaluation of the host specificity of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Northeast Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-specificity determination prior to the introduction of non-native natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) is a critical component of the risk assessment for modern classical biological control programs. In the present study, we assessed the host specificity of a newly described parasitoid,...

  7. Monograph of the Afrotropical species of Scelio Latreille (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), egg parasitoids of acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Yoder, Matthew J; Valerio, Alejandro A; Polaszek, Andrew; van Noort, Simon; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F

    2014-01-01

    The genus Scelio is a cosmopolitan and speciose group of solitary parasitoids of the eggs of short-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). A number of these hosts are important pests, including plague locusts of the genus Schistocerca. Species of Scelio are recognized as potentially important biological control agents, but this possibility has yet to be fully realized, in part because the species-level taxonomy is still incompletely developed. The species of the pulchripennis group have been recently revised. As a continuation of this effort, here we revise the Afrotropical species of Scelio, excluding the pulchripennis species group. Sixty two (62) species are treated, 48 of which are new. Species are classified into the following species groups: ernstii (12 species, 9 new), howardi (23 species, 19 new), ipomeae (6 species, 5 new), irwini (4 species, 3 new), simoni (3 new species) and walkeri (12 species, 9 new). Keys to species groups and to the species within each group are provided. New species described are: S. albatus Yoder, sp. n., S. aphares Yoder, sp. n., S. apospastos Yoder, sp. n., S. ardelio Yoder, sp. n., S. aurantium Yoder, sp. n., S. balo Valerio & Yoder, sp. n., S. bayanga Yoder, sp. n., S. bubulo Yoder, sp. n., S. cano Yoder, sp. n., S. clypeatus Yoder, sp. n., S. concavus Yoder, sp. n., S. copelandi Yoder, sp. n., S. crepo Yoder, sp. n., S. destico Yoder, sp. n., S. dupondi Yoder, sp. n., S. effervesco Yoder, sp. n., S. erugatus Yoder, sp. n., S. exophthalmus Yoder, sp. n., S. fremo Valerio & Yoder, sp. n., S. gemo Yoder, sp. n., S. grunnio Yoder, sp. n., S. harinhalai Yoder, sp. n., S. igland Yoder, sp. n., S. impostor Yoder, sp. n., S. irwini Yoder, sp. n., S. janseni Yoder, sp. n., S. latro Yoder, sp. n., S. memorabilis Yoder, sp. n., S. modulus Yoder, sp. n., S. mutio Yoder, sp. n., S. ntchisii Yoder, sp. n., S. parkeri Yoder, sp. n., S. phaeoprora Yoder, sp. n., S. pilosilatus Yoder, sp. n., S. pipilo Yoder, sp. n., S. quasiclypeatus

  8. Monograph of the Afrotropical species of Scelio Latreille (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), egg parasitoids of acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae)

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Matthew J.; Valerio, Alejandro A.; Polaszek, Andrew; van Noort, Simon; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Scelio is a cosmopolitan and speciose group of solitary parasitoids of the eggs of short-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). A number of these hosts are important pests, including plague locusts of the genus Schistocerca. Species of Scelio are recognized as potentially important biological control agents, but this possibility has yet to be fully realized, in part because the species-level taxonomy is still incompletely developed. The species of the pulchripennis group have been recently revised. As a continuation of this effort, here we revise the Afrotropical species of Scelio, excluding the pulchripennis species group. Sixty two (62) species are treated, 48 of which are new. Species are classified into the following species groups: ernstii (12 species, 9 new), howardi (23 species, 19 new), ipomeae (6 species, 5 new), irwini (4 species, 3 new), simoni (3 new species) and walkeri (12 species, 9 new). Keys to species groups and to the species within each group are provided. New species described are: S. albatus Yoder, sp. n., S. aphares Yoder, sp. n., S. apospastos Yoder, sp. n., S. ardelio Yoder, sp. n., S. aurantium Yoder, sp. n., S. balo Valerio & Yoder, sp. n., S. bayanga Yoder, sp. n., S. bubulo Yoder, sp. n., S. cano Yoder, sp. n., S. clypeatus Yoder, sp. n., S. concavus Yoder, sp. n., S. copelandi Yoder, sp. n., S. crepo Yoder, sp. n., S. destico Yoder, sp. n., S. dupondi Yoder, sp. n., S. effervesco Yoder, sp. n., S. erugatus Yoder, sp. n., S. exophthalmus Yoder, sp. n., S. fremo Valerio & Yoder, sp. n., S. gemo Yoder, sp. n., S. grunnio Yoder, sp. n., S. harinhalai Yoder, sp. n., S. igland Yoder, sp. n., S. impostor Yoder, sp. n., S. irwini Yoder, sp. n., S. janseni Yoder, sp. n., S. latro Yoder, sp. n., S. memorabilis Yoder, sp. n., S. modulus Yoder, sp. n., S. mutio Yoder, sp. n., S. ntchisii Yoder, sp. n., S. parkeri Yoder, sp. n., S. phaeoprora Yoder, sp. n., S. pilosilatus Yoder, sp. n., S. pipilo Yoder, sp. n., S

  9. Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

  10. Effects of plant protease inhibitors, oryzacystatin I and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor, on the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera, Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae).

    PubMed

    Azzouz, H; Cherqui, A; Campan, E D M; Rahbé, Y; Duport, G; Jouanin, L; Kaiser, L; Giordanengo, P

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing protease inhibitors (PIs) have emerged in recent years as an alternative strategy for pest control. Beneficial insects such as parasitoids may therefore be exposed to these entomotoxins either via the host or by direct exposure to the plant itself. With the objective of assessing the effects of PIs towards aphid parasitoids, bioassays using soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (SbBBI) or oryzacystatin I (OCI) on artificial diet were performed on Macrosiphum euphorbiae-Aphelinus abdominalis system. OCI significantly reduced nymphal survival of the potato aphid M. euphorbiae and prevented aphids from reproducing. This negative effect was much more pronounced than with other aphid species. On the contrary, SbBBI did not affect nymphal viability but significantly altered adult demographic parameters. Enzymatic inhibition assays showed that digestive proteolytic activity of larvae and adults of Aphelinus abdominalis predominantly relies on serine proteases and especially on chymotrypsin-like activity. Immunoassays suggested that OCI bound to aphid proteins and accumulated in aphid tissues, whereas SbBBI remained unbound in the gut. Bioassays using M. euphorbiae reared on artificial diets supplemented with both OCI and SbBBI showed a fitness impairment of Aphelinus abdominalis that developed on intoxicated aphids. However, only SbBBI was detected in parasitoid larvae, while no PI could be detected in adult parasitoids that emerged from PI-intoxicated aphids. The potential impact of PI-expressing plants on aphid parasitoids and their combined efficiency for aphid control are discussed.

  11. How host larval age, and nutrition and density of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) influence control of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Schmale, I; Wäckers, F L; Cardona, C; Dorn, S

    2005-04-01

    Choice of the targeted host developmental stage, regulation of parasitoid numbers released and introduction of food supplements are operational factors with a potential to influence the level of biological control. In a closed laboratory storage system maintained over two generations of the host, the impact of these three parameters on the control potential of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalis Rondani was investigated for high populations of larvae of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) feeding inside dry common bean seeds Phaseolus vulgaris. The beans were already infested with immature bruchids at the beginning of the storage period to simulate harvest conditions, characterized in a previous study. Treatments resulted in a reduction of 48-75% of the bruchid population within 16 weeks of storage. The best timing of parasitoid release was at the simulated harvest, as later releases reduced the bruchid population only by about half this percentage. Host feeding is postulated to be the key factor involved in the observed difference. The effect of increasing the number of parasitoids strongly depended on host age and food supplement. Addition of vials with honey had no direct effect on the bruchid population or on the parasitoid progeny. The ecological significance of these findings and implications for biological control are discussed.

  12. Potential effects of plant protease inhibitors, oryzacystatin I and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor, on the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Azzouz, H; Campan, E D M; Cherqui, A; Saguez, J; Couty, A; Jouanin, L; Giordanengo, P; Kaiser, L

    2005-08-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) have been shown to cause lethal and sublethal effects on aphids depending on the kind of PI and aphid species. Therefore, these proteins might affect aphid parasitoids directly by inhibiting their digestive proteolysis or indirectly via their development in a less suitable host. In our study, the risk of exposure and the potential effects of soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (SbBBI) and oryzacystatin I (OCI) on the aphid endoparasitoid Aphidius ervi were investigated using artificial diet to deliver PIs. Immunoassays showed that both SbBBI and OCI were detected in the honeydew of aphids reared on artificial diet containing these recombinant proteins at 100 microg/mL. However, only SbBBI was detected in parasitoid larvae, while this PI could not be detected in adult parasitoids emerged from PI-intoxicated aphids. Enzymatic inhibition assays showed that digestive proteolytic activity of larvae and adults of A. ervi predominantly relies on serine proteases and especially on chymotrypsin-like activity. Bioassays using SbBBI and OCI on artificial diet were performed. A. ervi that developed on intoxicated aphids had impaired fitness. Thus development and parasitism success of parasitoids exposed to OCI were severely affected. On the contrary, SbBBI only altered significantly female size and sex ratio. Direct exposure to PIs through adult food intake did not affect female's longevity, while SbBBI and OCI (100 microg/mL) induced 69% and 30% inhibition of digestive protease activity, respectively. These studies made it possible to estimate the risk of exposure to plant PIs and the sensitivity of the aphid parasitoid A. ervi to these entomotoxins, by combining immunological, biochemical and biological approaches. First it pointed out that only immature stages are affected by PIs. Secondly, it documented two different modes of effect, according to the nature of the PIs and both host and parasitoid susceptibility. OCI prevented the development of A. ervi

  13. New host record for Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid of Microdon sp. larvae associated with the ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host of Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) is newly reported as Microdon sp. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a genus of obligatory myrmecophilous fly that predates ant brood, in this case Camponotus sp. aff. textor, in southern Mexico. The biology of Microdon spp. is reported as is that o...

  14. Longevity of multiple species of tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) provided exotic and sympatric-fruit based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Te...

  15. Toxicity of pesticides to Tamarixia radiata, a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen pesticides including two fungicides were evaluated for toxicity to adult Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Percentage mortality data were evaluated to generally assess IPM-com...

  16. Utilization of an introduced weed biological control agent by a native parasitoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A native parasitoid, Kalopolynema ema (Schauff and Grissell) (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae), that usually parasitizes the eggs of Megamelus davisi VanDuzee (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), has begun utilizing a new host, Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), the introduced biological control age...

  17. Egg parasitoids of Taosa spp. (Hemiptera:Dictyopharidae)in Formosa Argentina with descriptions of new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and Platygastridae) of Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) are reviewed and keyed. This planthopper feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach, and was collected in Formosa, Argentina, where some of ...

  18. Tri-trophic movement of carotenoid pigments from host plant to the parasitoid of a caterpillar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect parasitoids normally produce white-colored eggs. Habrobracon gelechiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of various caterpillars that lays yellow eggs when its larvae developed on leaf-fed Choristoneura rosaceana and Epiphyas postvittana (both Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ...

  19. Host suitability affects odor association in Cotesia marginiventris: implications in generalist parasitoid host-finding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect herbivores often induce plant volatile compounds that can attract natural enemies. Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a generalist parasitoid wasp of noctuid caterpillars and is highly attracted to Spodoptera exigua-induced plant volatiles. The plasticity of C. marginiventris...

  20. An old remedy for a new problem? Identification of Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) as egg parasitoids of spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spotted Lanternfly (SLF), Lycorma delicatula (White) is a recently introduced pest of Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle in North America. Natural enemy surveys for this pest in Pennsylvania in 2016 recovered an encyrtid egg parasitoid from both field collections and laboratory rear...

  1. Biology, life history and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazajac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the US. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus ...

  2. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead)(Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a guava orchard in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined temporal and spatial patterns of both sexes of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava orchard. Bactrocera dorsalis spatial patterns were initially random, but became high...

  3. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive biology and diapause of oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  4. Responses of multiple species of Tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Braconidae:Opiinae) to sympatric and exotic and fruit volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Opiine braconid parasitoids of tephritid pests have augmentative biological control potential, but there are no synthetic attractants to monitor their survival and dispersal following release. Adults feed on fruit juices and these could be sources of attractive compounds. While orange juice (Citrus ...

  5. Impacts of extended laboratory rearing on female fitness in Florida colonies of the parasitoid spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with an analysis of wolbachia strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni is used as a biological control agent of filth flies. These parasitoids are reared commercially, but little is known about the impact of colony age on host-seeking and life history parameters. Host-seeking in equine shavings and manure was analyzed with two colony ages established...

  6. Impact of αAI-1 expressed in genetically modified cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests.

  7. Distribution and abundance of natural parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) populations of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alvaro; Hogsette, Jerome A; Coronado, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    From September 2001 through September 2002, house fly and stable fly pupae were collected weekly from three fly habitats at the University of Florida Research dairy in northcentral Florida and evaluated for parasitism. Varying parasitism percentages were observed throughout the study but they were not affected by temperature, precipitation or fly abundance. Of the 6,222 house fly pupae and 1,660 stable fly pupae that produced either a host fly or a parasitoid, 26.9% and 26.7% were parasitized, respectively. Ten parasitoid species were recovered, with the genus Spalangia accounting for 85.7% of the total; the most common parasitoids attacking house fly and stable fly pupae were Spalangia endius Walker (33.9% and 27.3%), S. cameroni Perkins (27.9% and 40.6%), and S. nigroaenea Curtis (21.0% and 24.8%), respectively. Other parasitoids included one specimen of S. erythromera Förster and four specimens of Phygadeuon fumator Gravenhörst (Ichneumonidae). The percentage parasitism of pupae collected from bunker silos was higher than that of pupae from calf pens and open pastures. Spalangia cameroni was consistently recovered through the entire year. Spalangia nigroaenea was predominant in July, August, and September. Spalangia endius was most active from October to May with a peak of relative abundance in January.

  8. Biology and Life History of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a North American Larval Parasitoid Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a serious invasive pests of North American ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To facilitate the development of potential augmentative biocon...

  9. Developmental responses of the diamondback moth parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (Hellén) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) to temperature and host plant species.

    PubMed

    Dosdall, L M; Zalucki, M P; Tansey, J A; Furlong, M J

    2012-08-01

    Effects of constant rearing temperature and the plant species fed upon by its hosts were investigated for several developmental parameters of Diadegma semiclausum (Hellén), an important parasitoid of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Temperature had highly significant effects on all developmental parameters measured, and effects were usually both linear and quadratic with increasing temperature. Host plant species, comprising Brassica napus L., Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis and Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata, also affected development of the parasitoid, and significant interactions were observed between plant species and rearing temperature for all developmental parameters measured. Development of D. semiclausum occurred successfully on all host plant species tested for the temperature range of 10 to 25°C. However, when its P. xylostella hosts consumed leaf tissue of B. napus, no specimens survived to pupate at 30°C, whilst pupation and adult eclosion occurred at 30°C on B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and B. oleracea var. capitata. At high ambient temperatures, such as those characteristic of tropical or subtropical regions (especially at low elevations) or regions that undergo temperature increases due to climate change, P. xylostella is predicted to occur at a higher range of temperatures than its biocontrol agent, D. semiclausum. Effects of high temperatures are expected to be more profound on the parasitoid for some host plants than others, with greater developmental limitations for the parasitoid on B. napus than on B. rapa or B. oleracea.

  10. Impact of αAI-1 Expressed in Genetically Modified Cowpea on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Its Parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lüthi, Christoph; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, have been shown to be immune against several bruchid species. Effective control of such pests by growing GM cowpea could promote the spread of bruchid species that are αAI-1 tolerant. Consequently, the sustainability of bruchid pest control could be increased by combining GM seeds and hymenopteran parasitoids. However, there are concerns that αAI-1 could interfere with the biological control provided by parasitoids. Here, we assessed the impact of GM cowpea seeds expressing αAI-1 on the αAI-1-tolerant bruchid Zabrotes subfasciatus and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis. αAI-1 in cowpea seeds did not increase resistance to Z. subfasciatus or affect the mortality rate of Z. subfasciatus larvae. Parasitism of Z. subfasciatus by D. basalis and fitness of D. basalis offspring were not affected by the presence of αAI-1. Thus, αAI-1-expressing cowpeas and parasitoids should be compatible for the control of bruchid pests. PMID:23840776

  11. Establishment of papaya banker plant system for Parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphilidae) against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and other vegetable crops worldwide. To combat this pest, a non-crop banker plant system was evaluated that employs a parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) ...

  12. Distribution, host range, and climatic constraints on Centistes gasseni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a South American parasitoid of cucumber beetles, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Cabrera Walsh, G; Athanas, M M; Salles, L A B; Schroder, R F W

    2003-12-01

    The genus Diabrotica includes a large number of pest species, including some of the most important crop pests of the Americas. The parasitoid Centistes gasseni Shaw is the first braconid to be described parasitizing Diabrotica in South America, and high natural infestations are reported. Field and experimental observations on the host range, distribution and biology of this parasitoid are described. Centistes gasseniwas collected in southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, in a region comprising humid lowlands and highlands, and cool temperate to warm subtropical climates, with regular rainfall in excess of 1300 mm. Three Diabroticaspecies, D. limitata (Sahlberg), D. speciosa (Germar) and D. viridula (Fabricius) were found to host the parasitoid, with mean percent parasitism of 5.4, 2.0 and 1.0%, respectively. Diabrotica speciosa and D. viridula are the two most important pest Diabroticaspecies in South America. Laboratory experiments with field-collected beetles and parasitoid cocoons indicated that C. gasseni overwinters in adult host beetles, remaining dormant in its live host below developmental temperatures. A potential distribution of C. gasseni in North America is proposed based on its known climatic range and the distribution of the main pest species of adult overwintering North American Diabrotica.

  13. Hyperparasitism in a Generalist Ectoparasitic Pupal Parasitoid, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), on Its Own Conspecifics: When the Lack of Resource Lead to Cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; He, Zhang; Ji, Xiao-Li; Tang, Si-Ting; Hu, Hao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperparasitism is a normal behavior of parasitoids, which often happens among species. Conspecific hyperparasitism, such as some kinds of heteronomous hyperparasitic behaviors, has been only reported in some species belonging to Aphelinidae. In this article, the conspecific hyperparasitism of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae) is reported, with Drosophila puparia as hosts. Hosts were exposed to P. vindemmiae females twice to parasitism with nine, twelve, and fifteen day intervals between the two exposures. None of the infested hosts emerged more than one offspring, and emergence of parasitoid offspring occurred in two obvious events, synchronously with the exposure time intervals, which suggested that offspring emerging during the first and second events would come from the primary and secondary parasitoids, respectively, and the inference with the developmental duration of offspring also indicated this. With two P. vindemmiae strains that could be identified by a simple sequence repeat marker, the above speculation of the origin of those offspring emerging during the two events was confirmed. Dissection of hosts exposed twice revealed a cannibalism behavior of larvae from the secondary foundresses on the primary conspecific pupae. Our results suggested a conspecific hyperparasitism behavior of the secondary parasitoids on the primary conspecifics. Measures showed a reduced body size for the adults from the conspecific hyperparasitism. Foundresses from the conspecific hyperparasitism had less fitness variables than those from primary parasitism, with shorter longevity, less life time fecundity, lower values of infestation degree, and lower success rate of parasitism. However, when the parasitoids from the conspecific hyperparasitism met healthy Drosophila puparia, their offspring would recover to normal size. Frequency of the conspecific hyperparasitism behavior enhanced with the decreasing of proportion of healthy hosts in the oviposition patch. The

  14. Impact of the Egg Parasitoid, Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), on Sentinel and Wild Egg Masses of the Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Mary L; Buffington, Matthew L; Talamas, Elijah J; Gates, Michael W

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal changes in egg parasitism and predation rates on sentinel (laboratory-reared) and wild (naturally occurring) egg masses of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), were evaluated in squash fields in Maryland from June through September in 2013 and 2014. Rates of egg parasitism were significantly higher on wild egg masses than on sentinel egg masses. Squash bug nymphal emergence was significantly higher on sentinel egg masses than on wild egg masses. Between the first week of July and the first week of September of both survey years, squash bug nymphs emerged from 24.2% of wild eggs compared with 46.2% of sentinel eggs and parasitoids emerged from 55.7% of wild eggs compared with only 21.8% of sentinel eggs. Sentinel egg masses significantly underestimated the rate of natural egg parasitism. The egg parasitoid, Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead), was responsible for over 99% of parasitism of squash bug eggs. There was a significant negative correlation between parasitoid emergence and nymphal emergence, suggesting that parasitoids were able to suppress squash bug populations. The average rate of parasitoid emergence peaked on wild egg masses on the fifth week of July at 72.8%, whereas the average rate of nymphal emergence from wild egg masses was <20% from the fifth week of July until the first week of September. These results demonstrate that G. pennsylvanicum was able to efficiently track wild squash bug eggs throughout the season and that it has the potential to be an effective biological control agent of the squash bug in Maryland.

  15. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-10

    AbstractThe fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  16. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  17. Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Emilio; Giorgini, Massimo; Cascone, Pasquale; Carpenito, Simona; van Achterberg, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to D. suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for D. suzukii, biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of D. suzukii to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus Asobara Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of Asobara, of which two associated with D. suzukii, namely A. japonica and A leveri, and five new to science, namely Asobara brevicauda, A. elongata, A mesocauda, A unicolorata, A. triangulata. Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by D. suzukii. PMID:26840953

  18. A comparison of two parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the vine mealybug: rapid, non-discriminatory oviposition is favored when ants tend the host.

    PubMed

    Sime, Karen R; Daane, Kent M

    2014-08-01

    The encyrtid parasitoids Coccidoxenoides perminutus Girault and Anagyrus nr. sp. pseudococci (Girault) were compared in the laboratory as parasitoids of the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Female C. perminutus preferred second-instar P. ficus for oviposition, and produced more adult offspring (149.3 per female) than A. nr. sp. pseudococci (54.1 per female). The development time, from egg to adult emergence, of C. perminutus decreased with increasing constant temperatures between 18.5 and 30.1°C; at lower (12.0 and 15.0°C) and higher (31.1, 32.7, and 34.2°C) temperatures, the parasitoid did not develop. The lower threshold was calculated by linear methods to be 10.97°C, and the thermal constant was calculated to be 507.98 degree-days. The development times of C. perminutus were longer than those of A. nr. sp. pseudococci, and C. perminutus had narrower temperature tolerances than P. ficus or A. pseudococci. Argentine ants (Linepithema humile (Mayr)) reduced the amount of time C. perminutus foraged on mealybug-infested squash, but did not affect the number of oviposition attempts or offspring produced, whereas Argentine ants reduced A. nr. sp. pseudococci foraging time, oviposition attempts, and number of offspring obtained. Overall, the results suggest that under certain conditions, including optimal conditions of temperature and host-stage availability, C. perminutus outperforms A. nr. sp. pseudococci, and may be an effective augmentative control agent even when ants are tending the hosts. However, temperature limitations and host-stage selection behaviors would reduce C. perminutus performance in the field, and in the absence of ants, other parasitoids may be favored.

  19. Brood size and sex ratio in response to host quality and wasp traits in the gregarious parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianwei; Zhu, Liangting; Meng, Ling

    2017-01-01

    This laboratory study investigated whether the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii females adjust their brood size and sex ratio in response to body size and stage of Plutella xylostella larval hosts, as well as to their own body size and the order of oviposition. These factors were analyzed using multiple regression with simultaneous entry of them and their two-way interactions. Parasitoids brood size tended to increase with host body size at parasitism when the 4th instar larval host was attacked, but did not change when the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae were attacked. Parasitoids did not vary in brood size according to their body size, but decreased with their bouts of oviposition on a linear trend from 10 offspring adults emerged per host in the first bout of oviposition down to eight in the third. Parasitoid offspring sex ratio did not change with host instar, host body weight, wasp body size, and oviposition bout. Proportions of male offspring per brood were from 11% to 13% from attacking the 2nd to 4th instar larvae and from 13% to 16% across three successive bouts of oviposition, with a large variation for smaller host larvae and wasps. When fewer than 12 offspring were emerged from a host, one male was most frequently produced; when more than 12 offspring were emerged, two or more males were produced. Our study suggests that O. sokolowskii females may optimize their clutch size in response to body size of mature P. xylostella larvae, and their sex allocation in response to clutch size. PMID:28149691

  20. Oviposition behaviour of four ant parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae, Neoneurini and Ichneumonidae, Hybrizontinae), with the description of three new European species

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Durán, José-María; van Achterberg, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The oviposition behaviour of four ant parasitoids was observed and filmed for the first time. The movies are available from YouTube (search for Elasmosoma, Hybrizon, Kollasmosoma and Neoneurus). Two of the observed species (Neoneurus vesculus sp. n. and Kollasmosoma sentum sp. n.) are new to science. A third species (Neoneurus recticalcar sp. n.) is described from Slovakia and Norway. Keys to the Palaearctic species of the genera Neoneurus and Kollasmosoma are added. PMID:21998538

  1. Classical biological control of an invasive forest pest: a world perspective of the management of Sirex noctilio using the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae).

    PubMed

    Fischbein, D; Corley, J C

    2015-02-01

    Classical biological control is a key method for managing populations of pests in long-lived crops such as plantation forestry. The execution of biological control programmes in general, as the evaluation of potential natural enemies remains, to a large extent, an empirical endeavour. Thus, characterizing specific cases to determine patterns that may lead to more accurate predictions of success is an important goal of the much applied ecological research. We review the history of introduction, ecology and behaviour of the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides. The species is a natural enemy of Sirex noctilio, one of the most important pests of pine afforestation worldwide. We use an invasion ecology perspective given the analogy between the main stages involved in classical biological control and the biological invasion processes. We conclude that success in the establishment, a common reason of failure in biocontrol, is not a limiting factor of success by I. leucospoides. A mismatch between the spread capacity of the parasitoid and that of its host could nevertheless affect control at a regional scale. In addition, we suggest that given its known life history traits, this natural enemy may be a better regulator than suppressor of the host population. Moreover, spatial and temporal refuges of the host population that may favour the local persistence of the interaction probably reduce the degree to which S. noctilio population is suppressed by the parasitoid. We emphasize the fact that some of the biological attributes that promote establishment may negatively affect suppression levels achieved. Studies on established non-native pest-parasitoid interactions may contribute to defining selection criteria for classical biological control which may prove especially useful in integrated pest management IPM programmes of invasive forest insects.

  2. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field.

  3. Lycaenidae parasitoids from peninsular India with description of four new species of microgastrine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) along with new insights on host relationships.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Churi, Paresh V; Sengupta, Ashok; Mhatre, Sarang

    2014-07-07

    In the comprehensive rearing of lepidopterans from peninsular India, eleven species of Lycaenidae were parasitized by ten species of wasps. Four new taxa of lycaenid associated microgastrine wasps Parapanteles eros Gupta n. sp., P. arka Gupta n. sp., P. esha Gupta n. sp., and P. regale Gupta n. sp. reared from Chilades pandava (Horsfield), Curetis thetis (Drury), Prosotas dubiosa (Semper), Tajuria cippus (Fabricius), respectively, are described with diagnostic details and illustrations along with documentation of six species of wasps viz., Apanteles folia, Apanteles sp., Protapanteles sp. 01 & 02 (Braconidae), Charops obtusus obtusus Morley (Ichneumonidae), and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) (Chalcididae). This is the first record of host-parasitoid association of lycaenid butterflies with Parapanteles. Wasps from three different families were recorded: Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, and Chalcididae. The parasitoid species were reared from the following Lycaenidae hosts: Anthene lycaenina (Felder), Arhopala amantes Hewitson, Chilades pandava (Horsfield), Curetis thetis (Drury), Jamides celeno (Cramer), Prosotas dubiosa (Semper), Rathinda amor (Fabricius), Spindasis vulcanus (Fabricius), Tajuria cippus (Fabricius), Tarucus balkanicus nigra Bethune-Baker, and Tarucus callinara Butler. All lycaenids were collected from peninsular India, except T. callinara (central India). A comparative account of all newly described species is provided along with the detailed illustrated description and differences vis-à-vis its closely allied Indian species. Also a comprehensive table comprising parasitoid species, associated host, stage of parasitism, and nature of cocoon is provided.

  4. Host tracking or cryptic adaptation? Phylogeography of Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the highly invasive horse-chestnut leafminer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-López, Antonio; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Augustin, Sylvie; Lees, David C; Tomov, Rumen; Kenis, Marc; Çota, Ejup; Kullaj, Endrit; Hansson, Christer; Grabenweger, Giselher; Roques, Alain; López-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Classical biological control is often advocated as a tool for managing invasive species. However, accurate evaluations of parasitoid species complexes and assessment of host specificity are impeded by the lack of morphological variation. Here, we study the possibility of host races/species within the eulophid wasp Pediobius saulius, a pupal generalist parasitoid that parasitize the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella. We analysed the population genetic structure, host associations and phylogeographic patterns of P. saulius in Europe using the COI mitochondrial gene. This marker strongly supports a division into at least five highly differentiated parasitoid complexes, within two of which clades with differing degrees of host specialization were found: a Balkan clade that mainly (but not only) attacks C. ohridella and a more generalist European group that attacks many hosts, including C. ohridella. The divergence in COI (up to 7.6%) suggests the existence of cryptic species, although this is neither confirmed by nuclear divergence nor morphology. We do not find evidence of host tracking. The higher parasitism rates observed in the Balkans and the scarcity of the Balkan–Cameraria haplotypes out of the Balkans open the possibility of using these Balkan haplotypes as biological control agents of C. ohridella elsewhere in Europe. PMID:25568046

  5. Notes on spider (Theridiidae, Salticidae) predation of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex salinus Olsen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), and a possible parasitoid fly (Chloropidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.H. Univ. of Idaho, Moscow ); Blom, P.E. )

    1992-12-01

    Spiders are known predators of ants. Pressure exerted by consistent spider predation can alter the behavior of ant colonies (MacKay 1982) and may be a selective pressure contributing to the seed-harvesting behavior of Pogonomyrmex (MacKay and MacKay 1984). The authors observed the spider Euryopis formosa Banks (Araneae: Theridiidae) capture and transport workers of the harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex salinus Olsen [Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Myrmicinae]) in southeastern Idaho. Additional observations revealed a crab spider of the genus Xysticus preying on P. salinus and the presence of a chloropid fly (Incertella) that may have been parasitizing the moribund prey subdued by the spider.

  6. Effect of continuous rearing on courtship acoustics of five braconid parasitoids, candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The courtship acoustics of five species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae), were compared between recently colonized individuals and those continuously reared 70-148 generations. During...

  7. Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Gr...

  8. Biology, host instar suitability and susceptibility, and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biology, host stage suitability and susceptibility, and interspecific competition of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae, Anagyrus loecki, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of Paracoccus marginatus were studied in the laboratory. Compared to P. mexica...

  9. Compatibility of the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Insecticides against Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) as Evaluated by a New Index.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Edwin R; King, B H

    2015-06-01

    Various insecticides for the control of the house fly Musca domestica L. were tested for compatibility with a biological control agent, the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker. Bioassays used the mode in which each organism was expected to be harmed by the insecticides, a surface contact bioassay for S. endius and a feeding bioassay for M. domestica. A Pesticide Compatibility Index (PCI) was created that allows comparison of LC50 values when the mode of exposure to a pesticide differs. First LC50 values were converted into units of prescribed dosages (LPR=LC50-to-prescribed dosage ratio). This study used dosages from labels of granular baits. PCI is the ratio of LPRbiological control agent to LPRpest. For these PCI values, order of compatibility with S. endius was spinosad>thiamethoxam>inotefuran>methomyl>imidacloprid. That spinosad was better than imidacloprid or methomyl, both for parasitoid survival and for killing flies, is consistent with conclusions from the LC50 values. Permethrin and nitenpyram were also tested, but their PCIs were not calculated. Permethrin is prescribed as a contact insecticide against flies rather than being consumed as a bait, and nitenpyram has not been formulated as a fly insecticide. Compared with the other insecticides in terms of LC50 values, permethrin was moderately toxic to S. endius but one of the most toxic for M. domestica, whereas nitenpyram was least toxic for both S. endius and the flies.

  10. Behavior and Survival of the Filth Fly Parasitoids Spalangia endius and Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Response to Three Granular House Fly Baits and Components.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Edwin R; King, B H

    2016-12-01

    Behaviors and mortality of two filth fly parasitoid wasps, Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes Ashmead, were tested in response to granular fly baits containing one of the three active ingredients (AI): Golden Malrin (methomyl), QuickBayt (imidacloprid), or Quikstrike (dinotefuran). Behavioral responses to each of the two components of the baits, the AIs and the fly attractant pheromone (Z)-9-tricosene, were also examined independently. Spalangia endius avoided contact with bait granules, regardless of bait type. However, when S. endius contacted bait residue, the imidacloprid bait appeared to be the least harmful of the baits for S. endius, at least in the short term. Spalangia endius was attracted to imidacloprid by itself. However, S. endius avoided (Z)-9-tricosene. In contrast to S. endius' attraction to imidacloprid, S. endius neither avoided nor was attracted to methomyl or dinotefuran. For U. rufipes, the methomyl bait appeared to be especially harmful. Urolepis rufipes avoided bait granules with imidacloprid or dinotefuran but not with methomyl, died quickly in the presence of methomyl bait residue, and had a methomyl LC50 that was lower than that for S. endius The avoidance by U. rufipes of granules with imidacloprid or dinotefuran appears to be related to components other than the AIs or the (Z)-9-tricosene because U. rufipes did not avoid either individually. The behavioral avoidance of the parasitoids in the present study occurred despite no exposure recently, if ever, to these pesticides.

  11. Behavior and Survival of the Filth Fly Parasitoids Spalangia endius and Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Response to Three Granular House Fly Baits and Components.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Edwin R; King, B H

    2016-09-30

    Behaviors and mortality of two filth fly parasitoid wasps, Spalangia endius Walker and Urolepis rufipes Ashmead, were tested in response to granular fly baits containing one of the three active ingredients (AI): Golden Malrin (methomyl), QuickBayt (imidacloprid), or Quikstrike (dinotefuran). Behavioral responses to each of the two components of the baits, the AIs and the fly attractant pheromone (Z)-9-tricosene, were also examined independently. Spalangia endius avoided contact with bait granules, regardless of bait type. However, when S. endius contacted bait residue, the imidacloprid bait appeared to be the least harmful of the baits for S. endius, at least in the short term. Spalangia endius was attracted to imidacloprid by itself. However, S. endius avoided (Z)-9-tricosene. In contrast to S. endius' attraction to imidacloprid, S. endius neither avoided nor was attracted to methomyl or dinotefuran. For U. rufipes, the methomyl bait appeared to be especially harmful. Urolepis rufipes avoided bait granules with imidacloprid or dinotefuran but not with methomyl, died quickly in the presence of methomyl bait residue, and had a methomyl LC50 that was lower than that for S. endius The avoidance by U. rufipes of granules with imidacloprid or dinotefuran appears to be related to components other than the AIs or the (Z)-9-tricosene because U. rufipes did not avoid either individually. The behavioral avoidance of the parasitoids in the present study occurred despite no exposure recently, if ever, to these pesticides.

  12. Establishment of the Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) and Infestation of its Egg Sacs by a Parasitoid, Philolema latrodecti (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Marie, Jérôme; Vetter, Richard S

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents two newly established species for French Polynesia: the invasive brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, and its potential biocontrol agent, the parasitoid wasp, Philolema latrodecti (Fullaway). The brown widow spider was recorded from the island of Moorea in 2006 and, since that discovery, the occurrence of this species has expanded to two of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia including the main island of Tahiti and four of the Cook Islands. Although the tropical climate contributes to the establishment of L. geometricus, a biotic factor, P. latrodecti, may restrain population from demographic explosion. This eurytomid wasp is present in French Polynesia and is a parasitoid that has been used in biological control of the southern black widow Latrodectus mactans (F.) in Hawaii. This wasp could become a significant limiting factor for L. geometricus distribution on these islands, as it was found in 31% of the Tahitian brown widow spider egg sacs that were dissected. However, thus far, the wasp was only found on Tahiti in association with the brown widow spider. Although the brown widow is generally considered to be less toxic than its black widow relatives, it remains of medical concern in French Polynesia because reactions to its bites can, at times, be severe. The spider remains of public concern because it is a novel species; it has the word widow in its name and dark morphs are mistaken as black widows.

  13. Development and reproduction of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on the genetically modified soybean (Bt) MON 87701×MON 89788.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, O C; Silva, G V; de Freitas Bueno, A; Pomari, A F; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Carvalho, R A; Barbosa, G C

    2014-12-01

    Genetically modified crops with insect resistance genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt-plants) are increasingly being cultivated worldwide. Therefore, it is critical to improve our knowledge of their direct or indirect impact not only on target pests but also on non-target arthropods. Hence, this study evaluates comparative leaf consumption and performance of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), a species that is tolerant of the Cry1Ac protein, fed with Bt soybean, MON 87701×MON 89788 or its near [corrected] non-Bt isoline. Using this species as a model, we assessed [corrected] the comparative performance of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon on eggs of S. eridania produced from individuals that fed on these two soybean genotypes [corrected] as larvae. Results showed that Bt soybean did not affect pest foliage consumption, but did reduce larvel duration by two days despite larvae in both treatments having six instars. Nevertheless, survival of S. eridania larvae, pupal weight, sex ratio, fecundity and longevity of female moths, and egg viability did not differ between Bt and non-Bt soybeans. Adult longevity of S. eridania males was increased when caterpillars were fed with Bt soybean versus the near isoline. No adverse effects of this technology were observed for the egg parasitoid T. remus. [corrected].

  14. Influence of Constant Temperature on Development and Reproduction of Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a Parasitoid of the Spiraling Whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, J Y; Niu, L M; Li, L; Han, D Y; Fu, Y G

    2015-04-01

    Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani is an important parasitoid of Aleurodicus dispersus Russell. The effects of temperature (16, 20, 24, 28, and 32°C) on development and reproduction of this parasitoid on A. dispersus were studied in laboratory experiments. The developmental duration of E. guadeloupae varied from 14.9 (32°C) to 54.4 days (16°C). The developmental threshold and thermal constant for an entire generation were 10.52°C and 308.85 degree-days, respectively. The highest survival rate (63.8%) of immature E. guadeloupae was recorded at 28°C. The average adult longevity ranged from 6.0 (32°C) to 15.1 days (16°C). The highest fecundity was observed at 28°C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r m ), net reproduction rate (R o ), and finite rate of increase (λ) were the highest at 28°C, which were 0.18, 54.25 and 1.21, respectively. We concluded that 28°C is the most suitable temperature for development and reproduction of E. guadeloupae.

  15. Rediscovery and redescription of Centrodora damoni (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Australia, an egg parasitoid of Gonipterus spp (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), after nearly a century

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha E; Valente, Carlos; Gonçalves, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Centrodora is a relatively common and widespread genus of morphologically diverse species, and is the most polyphagous genus known within the Aphelinidae, attacking eggs of insects in addition to pupae of Diptera and Hymenoptera, and nymphs of Hemiptera (Polaszek 1991). There are currently about 60 valid species in the genus, but given its morphological and biological diversity, some elevation of species-groups and subgenera to genus-level might be useful in future. Centrodora is represented in Australia by twelve species (Noyes 2015). New information Centrodora damoni (Girault) is redescribed and diagnosed from recently collected specimens reared from the eucalyptus weevil Gonipterus sp. near scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Tasmania, Australia. A lectotype is designated from a syntype specimen. PMID:27226747

  16. Predation on pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by parasitoid, Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Ophyra spinigera larva (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Chin, Heo Chong; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Jeffery, John; Omar, Baharudin; Dhang, Chen Chee; Weng, Lau Koon; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2009-12-01

    A forensic entomological study was conducted using monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) that were placed in either an outdoor or indoor environment at a coastal area in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia during May until August 2008. We collected pupae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) from the carcasses and kept them individually. The emergence of 13 parasitic microhymenopteran, from one of the pupae occurring within a week were identified as Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Another observation was made whereby a pupa of C. rufifacies was predated by a muscid larva, Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The larva squeezed into the pupa and consumed the contents. This paper report C. rufifacies as a new host record for E. philippinensis in Malaysia and highlighted the predatory behavior of O. spinigera larva in natural environment.

  17. Revision of the world Monoctonia Starý, parasitoids of gall aphids: taxonomy, distribution, host range, and phylogeny (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Rakhshani, Ehsan; Starý, Petr; Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Čkrkić, Jelisaveta; Moghaddam, Mostafa Ghafouri; Tomanović, Snežana; Petrović, Andjeljko; Tomanović, Željko

    2015-01-14

    The present paper represents a contribution to the knowledge of the taxonomy of Monoctonia Starý aphid parasitoids obtained using the barcoding region of the mitochondrial COI gene. We discuss the phylogenetic position of the genus within the subtribe Monoctonina, redescribe known species, and describe Monoctonia japonica sp. n. from Japan in the association Pemphigus matsumurai Monzen/Populus maximowiczii. A key for species identification is provided. Also, we review and discuss the host records, origin, and geographical distribution of Monoctonia species. It is hypothesized that the genus Monoctonia evolved in Paleogene forests of the temperate (and subtropical) belt, most probably in the European part of the Mediterranean region, which is also the center of origin of their host plants. 

  18. Transcriptomics and Identification of the Chemoreceptor Superfamily of the Pupal Parasitoid of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuping; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Dunsong; Fan, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, causes serious losses to fruit production and is one of the most economically important pests in many countries, including China, Spalangia endius Walker is a pupal parasitoid of various dipteran hosts, and may be considered a potentially important ectoparasitic pupal parasitoid of B. dorsalis. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its interaction with this host. Analysis of the S. endius transcriptome is essential to extend the resources of genetic information on this species and, to support studies on S. endius on the host B. dorsalis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo assembly RNA-seq of S. endius. We obtained nearly 10 Gbp of data using a HiSeq platform, and 36319 high-quality transcripts using Trinity software. A total of 22443 (61.79%) unigenes were aligned to homologous sequences in the jewel wasp and honeybee (Apis florae) protein set from public databases. A total of 10037 protein domains were identified in 7892 S. endius transcripts using HMMER3 software. We identified expression of six gustatory receptor and 21 odorant receptor genes in the sample, with only one gene having a high expression level in each family. The other genes had a low expression level, including two genes regulated by splicing. This result may be due to the wasps being kept under laboratory conditions. Additionally, a total of 3727 SSR markers were predicted, which could facilitate the identification of polymorphisms and functional genes within wasp populations. Conclusion/Significance This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of S. endius and provides a large number of gene sequences for further study. PMID:24505315

  19. Vibration-mediated interactions in a host–parasitoid system

    PubMed Central

    Meyhöfer, R.; Casas, J.; Dorn, S.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to obtain behavioral evidence of vibration mediated interactions between the apple tentiform leafminer Phyllonorycter malella (Ger.) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and its parasitoid Sympiesis sericeicornis Nees (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). The experimental set-up allowed the simultaneous recording on video film of both the parasitoids and the hosts behavior, thus enabling us to contrast their respective responses to the leaf vibrations produced by the other party. We analysed the one step transition probabilties from one behavioral state to the following. Active larval movements had a marked influence on the parasitoid's behavior, while feeding and still had no detectable effect. We found no evidence for vibrotaxis on the part of the parasitoid. While parasitoid searching behavior on the leaf surface did not seem to alter the leafminers behavior, ovipositor insertions triggered a characteristic avoidance response. The described interactions are discussed in the context of the 'princess and monster' model developed in search and game theory.

  20. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Reared Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Glyptapanteles Ashmead 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) Associated with Lepidoptera in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; More, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    Glyptapanteles Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a cosmopolitan group of hyperdiverse parasitic wasps. The genus remains taxonomically challenging in India due to its highly speciose nature, morphological similarity amongst species and negligible host records. The Indian fauna is one of the most diverse and also the least studied. The present study is based on 60 populations reared from 35 host species, 100+ individual caterpillar rearings (1100 wasp specimens pinned and 2000 in alcohol) and from 12 different geographical locations of the country (11 states and one Union territory) that represent 26 provisional Glyptapanteles species within 8 species-groups. Out of 60 populations, phylogenetic analyses were performed on 38 based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods displayed three and four major discrete Glyptapanteles clades, respectively. In clade A very few Indian species were grouped along with Neotropical and Thailand species. The other clades B and C grouped the majority of the Indian species and showed considerable host specificity in both the trees. All parasitic wasp species were gregarious in nature, except for two populations. Three different sets of data (morphology, host records, and COI) were integrated in order to generate accurate boundaries between species/species-groups. Illustrations of all parasitized caterpillars/cocoons and 42 habitus views of Glyptapanteles spp., distributional information, and GenBank accession numbers, are presented. The present study, perhaps the most comprehensive done to date in India, suggests the presence of several additional Glyptapanteles species, which were previously unrecognized.

  1. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Reared Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Glyptapanteles Ashmead 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) Associated with Lepidoptera in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankita; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; More, Ravi P.

    2016-01-01

    Glyptapanteles Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a cosmopolitan group of hyperdiverse parasitic wasps. The genus remains taxonomically challenging in India due to its highly speciose nature, morphological similarity amongst species and negligible host records. The Indian fauna is one of the most diverse and also the least studied. The present study is based on 60 populations reared from 35 host species, 100+ individual caterpillar rearings (1100 wasp specimens pinned and 2000 in alcohol) and from 12 different geographical locations of the country (11 states and one Union territory) that represent 26 provisional Glyptapanteles species within 8 species-groups. Out of 60 populations, phylogenetic analyses were performed on 38 based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods displayed three and four major discrete Glyptapanteles clades, respectively. In clade A very few Indian species were grouped along with Neotropical and Thailand species. The other clades B and C grouped the majority of the Indian species and showed considerable host specificity in both the trees. All parasitic wasp species were gregarious in nature, except for two populations. Three different sets of data (morphology, host records, and COI) were integrated in order to generate accurate boundaries between species/species-groups. Illustrations of all parasitized caterpillars/cocoons and 42 habitus views of Glyptapanteles spp., distributional information, and GenBank accession numbers, are presented. The present study, perhaps the most comprehensive done to date in India, suggests the presence of several additional Glyptapanteles species, which were previously unrecognized. PMID:26942740

  2. A comparative cytogenetic study of Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Figitidae) using DNA-binding fluorochromes and FISH with 45S rDNA probe.

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Govind, Shubha; Muravenko, Olga V

    2016-06-01

    Karyotypes of Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979) (n = 9), L. heterotoma (Thomson, 1862) (n = 10), L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 (n = 10) and Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896) (n = 9) (Hymenoptera, Figitidae) were studied using DNA-binding ligands with different base specificity [propidium iodide (PI), chromomycin A3 (CMA3) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)], and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 45S rDNA probe. Fluorochrome staining was similar between the different fluorochromes, except for a single CMA3- and PI-positive and DAPI-negative band per haploid karyotype of each species. FISH with 45S rDNA probe detected a single rDNA site in place of the bright CMA3-positive band, thus identifying the nucleolus organizing region (NOR). Chromosomal locations of NORs were similar for both L. heterotoma and L. victoriae, but strongly differed in L. boulardi as well as in G. xanthopoda. Phylogenetic aspects of NOR localization in all studied species are briefly discussed.

  3. Caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Azusa; Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Caterpillar hairs are thought to act as a physical barrier against natural enemies, including parasitoids. However, very few studies have experimentally demonstrated how hairs protect caterpillars from parasitoid oviposition. To clarify the importance of caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence, we observed the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking both smooth and hairy caterpillars under laboratory conditions. A female Meteorus pulchricornis uses its ovipositor to inject venom and lay a single egg inside host larvae. We placed a smooth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caterpillar or a hairy Lymantria dispar japonica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) caterpillar in front of parasitoid females. We observed that 100 % and 84 % of the parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into the smooth larvae of S. litura and first instars of the hairy caterpillar L. dispar japonica, respectively. However, only 24 % of parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into second-instar L. dispar japonica. A higher rate of successful stabs (94 %) by parasitoids was obtained by cutting the hairs of second instar L. dispar japonica much shorter than the parasitoid ovipositor. The results demonstrate that the long, thick hairs of second and later instars of L. dispar japonica function as a physical barrier against parasitoid oviposition.

  4. Sequence analysis of a reovirus isolated from the winter moth Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) and its parasitoid wasp Phobocampe tempestiva (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Graham, Robert I; Rao, Shujing; Sait, Steven M; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P C; Hails, Rosemary S; Possee, Robert D

    2008-07-01

    A reovirus was isolated from Operophtera brumata (ObRV) and its parasitoid wasp Phobocampe tempestiva. Each of the 10 dsRNA genome segments of ObRV was sequenced and shown to contain a single open reading frame (ORF). Conserved motifs ([+ve] 5'-AAATAAA ...(G)/(T)AGGTT-3') were found at the termini of each segment, with the exception of Seg-6 and Seg-8, where the 5' termini were 5'-AACAAA...-3'. The putative proteins encoded by each segment were compared with those of other members of the family Reoviridae. Phylogenetic comparisons to published sequences for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes from other reoviruses indicated that ObRV is most closely related to members of the genus Cypovirus. However, unlike the cypoviruses, ObRV has a double-layered capsid structure. When the protein encoded by ObRV Seg-10 was expressed (by inserting the open reading frame into a baculovirus expression vector) no 'occlusion bodies' were observed in the recombinant baculovirus infected insect cell cultures. This suggests that unlike the cypoviruses, Seg-10 of ObRV does not contain a polyhedrin gene. Further phylogenetic comparisons also identified relationships between Seg-2 and Seg-10 of ObRV, and genes of Diadromus pulchellus Idnoreovirus 1 (DpIRV1), suggesting that ObRV represents a new species from the genus Idnoreovirus.

  5. Infection of rice plants by rice black streaked dwarf virus improves an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), of rice planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongxing; He, Xiaochan; Zheng, Xusong; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-10-01

    The effects of rice plants infected by rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) on the host preference, duration of immature stages, sex ratio, and adult longevity and parasitic capacity of an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, were evaluated. Tests of response to plant volatiles using an olfactometer showed that A. nilaparvatae preferred rice plants harboring rice brown planthopper eggs over plants free of rice brown planthopper eggs. However, both the response to plant volatiles and the host selectivity test showed no significant differences in host preference between RBSDV-infected plants and healthy plants when both contained rice brown planthopper eggs. The developmental duration at immature stage of the male A. nilaparvatae in rice brown planthopper eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants was significantly prolonged, and the parasitic capacity of rice brown planthopper eggs was significantly increased in comparison with the A. nilaparvatae parasite in rice brown planthopper eggs on healthy rice plants. There were no significant differences between RBSDV-infected rice plants and healthy rice plants in other ecological fitness parameters, including the developmental duration of female adults, female percentage, and adult longevity of A. nilaparvatae.

  6. Characteristics, phenotype, and transmission of Wolbachia in the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and its parasitoid Eretmocerus sp. nr. emiratus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    PubMed

    Chiel, Elad; Kelly, Suzanne E; Harris, Alexandre M; Gebiola, Marco; Li, Xianchun; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Hunter, Martha S

    2014-04-01

    Wolbachia is a common intracellular bacterial endosymbiont of insects, causing a variety of effects including reproductive manipulations such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). In this study, we characterized Wolbachia in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and in the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus sp. nr. emiratus. We also tested for horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between and within trophic levels, and we determined the phenotype of Wolbachia in E. sp. nr. emiratus. Using multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analyses, we found that B. tabaci and E. sp. nr. emiratus each harbor a different and unique strain of Wolbachia. Both strains belong to the phylogenetic supergroup B. No evidence for horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between and within trophic levels was found in our study system. Finally, crossing results were consistent with a CI phenotype; when Wolbachia-infected E. sp. nr. emiratus males mate with uninfected females, wasp progeny survival dropped significantly, and the number of females was halved. This is the first description of CI caused by Wolbachia in the economically important genus Eretmocerus. Our study underscores the expectation that horizontal transmission events occur rarely in the dynamics of secondary symbionts such as Wolbachia, and highlights the importance of understanding the effects of symbionts on the biology of natural enemies.

  7. Entomophytophagy ('Sequential Predatory, then Phytophagous Behaviour') in an Indian Braconid 'Parasitoid' Wasp (Hymenoptera): Specialized Larval Morphology, Biology and Description of a New Species.

    PubMed

    Ranjith, A P; Quicke, Donald L J; Saleem, U K A; Butcher, Buntika A; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Nasser, M

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of braconid wasps are parasitoids of other insects. Although a few cases of pure phytophagy (primary gall production and seed predation) are known, no previous entomophytophagous species (i.e. ones that display entomophagy and phytophagy sequentially), has been discovered among braconids. We describe the detailed biology and specialized larval morphology for the first confirmed entomophytophagous braconid species. Leaf galls on Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae) in India, induced by the psyllid, Phacopteron lentiginosum Buckton (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, Phacopteronidae) were sampled throughout a period of several months and found to suffer a high level of attack by a new species Bracon garugaphagae Ranjith & Quicke which is here described and illustrated. The wasps oviposit singly into the galls without paralysing the psyllids. The larvae first attack psyllid nymphs which they seek out within the gall, kill them with a single bite and consume them. Unique dorsal abdominal tubercles, with eversible tips present on the abdominal segments of the larvae that are used to help maintain larval position while feeding, are illustrated. After consuming all available prey, the larvae continue feeding on gall tissue until mature enough to spin cocoons and pupate. The new species illustrates, for the first time, a possible intermediate stage in the evolution of pure phytophagy within the Braconidae. Interestingly, the two unrelated seed predator Bracon species are also associated with Burseraceae, perhaps indicating that this plant family is particularly suited as a food for braconine wasps.

  8. Effect of constant temperatures on the biology, life table, and thermal requirements of Aganaspis pelleranoi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), a parasitoid of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R S; Nava, D E; Andreazza, F; Lisbôa, H; Nunes, A M; Grützmacher, A D; Valgas, R A; Maia, A H N; Pazianotto, R A A

    2014-04-01

    Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of larvae of species of the genus Anastrepha and of Ceratitis capitata. It is a candidate for use as a biological control agent, as under field conditions, it may reach a parasitism rate of 62%. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different constant temperatures on biological parameters of A. pelleranoi when parasitizing the larva of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), as well as to determine its thermal requirements. The study was conducted in environmental chambers at 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, and 30 ± 1°C; 70 ± 10% relative humidity; and a 12-h photophase. Females maintained at 18 and 20°C produced more progeny than females at other temperatures tested. The longevity of males and females was inversely proportional to temperature, ranging from 49.1 to 3.73 d for females and from 32.1 to 3.8 d for males at temperatures of 18-30°C, respectively. The duration of the biological cycle (egg-to-adult) was influenced by temperature, and ranged from 69.1 d at 18°C to 30 d at 25°C. No preimaginal development of A. pelleranoi occurred at 28 and 30°C. The relationship between temperature and the demographic parameters of A. pelleranoi showed a linear effect over the temperature range of 18-25°C. The lower temperature threshold and thermal constant were 11.69°C and 391.70 degree days, respectively.

  9. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  10. Effects of a fruit and host-derived compound on orientation and oviposition in Utetes anastrephae, a little studied opiine braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Anastrepha spp. fruit flies (Tephritidae:Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentative biological control of tephritid fruit flies would benefit from: 1) synthetic attractants to monitor the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids and 2) synthetic oviposition stimulants to more economical to produce parasitoid species that are now prohibitively costly to mass-rear....

  11. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sally V; Burrack, Hannah J; Roe, R Michael; Bacheler, Jack S; Sorenson, Clyde E

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011-2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches.

  12. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently

    PubMed Central

    Roe, R. Michael; Bacheler, Jack S.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011–2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches. PMID:26658677

  13. Effect of host decoys on the ability of the parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and Spalangia cameroni to parasitize house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) puparia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pteromalid pupal parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders and Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are commonly released on livestock farms for management of house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). To be effective, parasitoids must be able to locate live host puparia in co...

  14. The effect of linear distance on the parasitism of house fly hosts (Diptera: Muscidae) by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common pupal parasitoid of pest flies in livestock facilities. Biological control for fly control using parasitoids has had variable success. The lack of efficacy in some trials may be a consequence of the insufficient knowledge of parasi...

  15. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  16. Natural distribution of parasitoids of larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gabriela Murúa, M; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  17. Oviposition behavior and survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ectoparasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, on hosts exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina ...

  18. Matching host reactions to parasitoid wasp vibrations.

    PubMed Central

    Djemai, I; Casas, J; Magal, C

    2001-01-01

    The sensory ecology of predator detection by prey has been little studied for any arthropod prey predator system, in contrast to the sensory ecology of prey finding by predators. The aim of this study was to quantify the foraging signals produced by the parasitoid Sympiesis sericeicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and the sensory ecology of enemy detection and the avoidance behaviour of the leaf-mining host, Phyllonorycter spp. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). We used synthetic vibrations approximating the signals generated by ovipositor insertions to stimulate the host in its mine. Tothe authors' knowledge, this is the first manipulative study to describe a match in the frequency range between a parasitoid foraging stimulus and a host behavioural response. We discuss our findings in relation to other predator-prey systems for which a coevolution between prey sensitivity and predator signal has been described. PMID:11747557

  19. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  20. Taxonomic and functional responses to fire and post-fire management of a Mediterranean hymenoptera community.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  1. Interspecific competition between two generalist parasitoids that attack the leafroller Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Wratten, S; Sandhu, H; Keller, M

    2015-08-01

    Two generalist parasitoids, Dolichogenidea tasmanica (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Therophilus unimaculatus (Turner) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attack early instars of tortricid moths, including the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The two parasitoids co-exist in natural habitats, while D. tasmanica is dominant in vineyards, whereas T. unimaculatus occurs mainly in adjacent native vegetation. This difference suggests possible competition between the two species, mediated by habitat. Here, we report on the extent of interspecific differences in host discrimination and the outcome of interspecific competition between the two parasitoids. The parasitoids did not show different behavioural responses to un-parasitized hosts or those that were parasitized by the other species. Larvae of D. tasmanica out-competed those of T. unimaculatus, irrespective of the order or interval between attacks by the two species. The host larvae that were attacked by two parasitoids died more frequently before a parasitoid completed its larval development than those that were attacked by a single parasitoid. Dissection of host larvae parasitized by both species indicated that first instars of D. tasmanica attacked and killed larval T. unimaculatus.

  2. A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus labotus (Hymenopt...

  3. Liriomyza Leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Parasitoid Complex in Different Agroecological Zones, Seasons, and Host Plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Foba, C N; Salifu, D; Lagat, Z O; Gitonga, L M; Akutse, K S; Fiaboe, K K M

    2016-04-01

    Liriomyza leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are severe pests of vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Previous studies revealed low leafminer parasitism across different agroecological zones in Kenya. The present paper reports on the composition of leafminer parasitoids at different elevations, in different seasons, and on different host crops. Surveys were conducted monthly from January to November 2012, and nine parasitoid species were recovered. Total mean parasitism in the study sites was 31.23 ± 1.03% from a total of 20 different vegetable Liriomyza-infested crops belonging to seven families. Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Phaedrotoma scabriventris, a newly released parasitoid, and Opius dissitus Muesebeck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the most abundant at all elevations, accounting for 67.3, 18.6, and 9.2% of total parasitoids, respectively. Elevation, season, and host crop significantly affected the parasitoid species present and their abundance. Diglyphus isaea was more abundant at the high- and mid-elevations at all seasons compared with the low-elevation, whereas the lower-elevation favored higher abundance of P. scabriventris and O. dissitus during the long rainy season compared with the high- and mid-elevations at all seasons. Of all the host crops surveyed, parasitoids were more abundant on tomato, local kidney bean, snow pea and French bean than other crops. The total parasitism rate observed in this study suggests a considerable improvement in leafminer parasitism compared with previous surveys in Kenya. The implications of these findings for leafminer management in vegetable and ornamental production in Kenya are discussed.

  4. Partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Lanteigne, Marie-Eve; Brodeur, Jacques; Jenni, Sylvie; Boivin, Guy

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of partial plant resistance on the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a major pest of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and one of its parasitoids, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids were reared on susceptible (L. sativa variety Estival; S) or partially resistant (Lactuca serriola L. PI 491093; PR) lettuce, and next parasitized by A. ervi females. Fitness proxies were measured for both aphids and parasitoids. Developmental time to adult stage took longer for alate and apterous aphids (an average of 3.5 and 1.5 additional days, respectively) on PR than on S lettuce, and fecundity of alate aphids reared on PR lettuce was reduced by 37.8% relative to those reared on S lettuce. Size (tibia length) and weight of aphids reared on PR lettuce were lower than for aphids reared on S lettuce from the third and second instar onward, respectively. Parasitism of aphids reared on PR plants resulted in lower parasitoid offspring emergence (-49.9%), lower adult female (-30.3%) and male (-27.5%) weight, smaller adult female (-17.5%) and male (-11.9%) size, and lower female fecundity (37.8% fewer eggs) than when parasitoids developed from aphids reared on S plants. Our results demonstrate that partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects both the second and third trophic levels. Host plant resistance in cultivated lettuce may therefore create an ecological sink for aphid parasitoids.

  5. Parasitoids and ecological risk assessment: can toxicity data developed for one species be used to protect an entire guild?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitoid wasps are important control agents for a suite of economically important anthropod pests. However, it is well known that hymenoptera in general are highly vulnerable to the effects of chemical pesticides, and so represent an opportunity to better understand the compatibility of biological...

  6. Host acceptance, suitability, and effects of host deprivation on the West African egg parasitoid Telenomus isis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) reared on East African stemborers under varying temperature and relative humidity regimens.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Anani Yaovi; Schulthess, Fritz; Mueke, Jones

    2009-06-01

    Scelionid egg parasitoids of Telenomus spp. have been shown to significantly affect noctuid stemborer populations and yields of maize in western Africa. One of them, T. isis, has never been reported from eastern Africa and was introduced into the laboratories of the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Kenya. This study evaluates the biotic potential of T. isis using East African stemborers as hosts. Host acceptance was tested using 15 lepidopteran borer species. Only noctuid stemborers were accepted for oviposition by T. isis. Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre), and Busseola fusca (Fuller) were further used to study the effect of host species, host age, duration of host deprivation, temperature, and humidity on the performance of the parasitoid. In contrast to sex ratio, developmental time, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence varied significantly with host species, and the former two decreased with the age of host eggs. Female longevity increased with duration of host deprivation, whereas average lifetime fecundity decreased, probably because of oocyte resorption. T. isis successfully developed between 18 and 32 degrees C at both low (40-50%) and high (70-80%) relative humidity regimens, but temperature played a more critical role. Using the modified Logan model, the lower and upper temperature thresholds for development were estimated at 11.5 and 37.5 degrees C, respectively, with an optimum at 30.5 degrees C for both humidity regimens. Depending on temperature and relative humidity regimen, the intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)) varied from 0.077 to 0.300, net reproductive rate (R(o)) from 7.70 to 83.96, and generation time (G) from 11 to 38 d. The results of this study indicate that T. isis is likely to establish in eastern Africa.

  7. Trophic interactions between parasitoids and necrophagous flies in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Ana P; Salvo, Adriana; Battán-Horenstein, Moira

    2016-10-01

    Larvae of necrophagous flies in the families Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae are the main exploiters of decaying organic matter. Knowledge of insect species associated with each stage of decay can be used to estimate the time since death in the crime scene. Dipteran larvae are attacked by a rich community of parasitoids, including species of Braconidae, Ichneumonidae and Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Parasitica). This study examined the parasitic complex associated with flies of forensic and sanitary importance in the city of Córdoba (Argentina). Sampling was conducted at two sites with different urbanization levels from December 2012 to March 2013; parasitoids were collected using fly traps baited with beef liver. Rates of parasitism and of parasitized pupae were estimated and species composition was analyzed for both communities. Sarcophagidae was the most abundant family, represented by two species, followed by Calliphoridae. Nasonia vitripennis Ashmead (Hymenoptera) was the most abundant species and was collected from a wider variety of hosts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing accurate information about trophic interactions between calyptrate dipteran species and their hymenopteran parasitoids in central Argentina.

  8. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. PMID:19613877

  9. Mixed release of two parasitoids and a polyphagous ladybird as a potential strategy to control the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaoling; Hu, Nana; Zhang, Fan; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas; Wang, Su; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mixed species release of parasitoids is used to suppress outbreaks of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); however, this biocontrol may be inhibited by interspecific interactions. We investigated the effects of mixed releases of natural enemies of B. tabaci on predation rates, parasite performance and adult parasitoid emergence under greenhouse conditions. We tested the polyphagous predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and two whitefly-specific parasitoids, namely Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia (both, Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Harmonia axyridis exhibited the lowest rates of predation when released with each parasitoid than with both parasitoid species together and showed a significant preference for non-parasitized nymphs as prey. Both E. formosa and E. sophia parasitized more B. tabaci when released with the ladybird than when the wasps were released either alone or mixed with the other parasitoid. We also found that the presence of H. axyridis significantly reduced adult parasitoid emergence; the highest rate of adult emergence was obtained with parasitoids released alone. Our results indicate that different combinations of natural enemies can influence observed rates of predation, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence. Therefore, the combination of natural enemies to be used for a particular biological control program should depend on the specific objectives. PMID:27312174

  10. Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a potential natural enemy of corn-infesting Ulidiidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four-species complex of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) are primary sweet corn pests in Florida. Few natural enemies of these flies are known. The pupal parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was discovered in a laboratory colony of Euxesta eluta Loew (Dipte...

  11. Carabid Beetles as Parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid habit is uncommon in beetles; only 11 beetle families include parasitoid species. Three tribes of 76 in the Carabidae are known to have species in which larvae are pupal ectoparasitoids: Brachinini, Peleciini, and Lebiini. The first larval instar is the free-living, host-finding stage...

  12. Lack of lipogenesis in parasitoids: a review of physiological mechanisms and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Visser, Bertanne; Ellers, Jacintha

    2008-09-01

    The ability of organisms to adapt to fluctuating food conditions is essential for their survival and reproduction. Accumulating energy reserves, such as lipids, in anticipation of harsh conditions, will reduce negative effects of a low food supply. For Hymenoptera and Diptera, several parasitoid species lack adult lipogenesis, and are unable to store excess energy in the form of lipid reserves. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of current knowledge regarding the inability to accumulate lipids in parasitoids, leading to new insights and prospects for further research. We will emphasize physiological mechanisms underlying lack of lipogenesis, the evolution of this adaptation in parasitoids and its biological implications with regard to life history traits. We suggest the occurrence of lack of lipogenesis in parasitoids to be dependent on the extent of host exploitation through metabolic manipulation. Currently available data shows lack of lipogenesis to have evolved independently at least twice, in parasitic Hymenoptera and Diptera. The underlying genetic mechanism, however, remains to be solved. Furthermore, due to the inability to replenish adult fat reserves, parasitoids are severely constrained in resource allocation strategies, in particular the trade-off between survival and reproduction.

  13. Beyond sex allocation: the role of mating systems in sexual selection in parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, Rebecca A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the diverse array of mating systems and life histories which characterise the parasitic Hymenoptera, sexual selection and sexual conflict in this taxon have been somewhat overlooked. For instance, parasitoid mating systems have typically been studied in terms of how mating structure affects sex allocation. In the past decade, however, some studies have sought to address sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps more explicitly and found that, despite the lack of obvious secondary sexual traits, sexual selection has the potential to shape a range of aspects of parasitoid reproductive behaviour and ecology. Moreover, various characteristics fundamental to the parasitoid way of life may provide innovative new ways to investigate different processes of sexual selection. The overall aim of this review therefore is to re-examine parasitoid biology with sexual selection in mind, for both parasitoid biologists and also researchers interested in sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems more generally. We will consider aspects of particular relevance that have already been well studied including local mating structure, sex allocation and sperm depletion. We go on to review what we already know about sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps and highlight areas which may prove fruitful for further investigation. In particular, sperm depletion and the costs of inbreeding under chromosomal sex determination provide novel opportunities for testing the role of direct and indirect benefits for the evolution of mate choice. PMID:24981603

  14. Beyond sex allocation: the role of mating systems in sexual selection in parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Rebecca A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2015-05-01

    Despite the diverse array of mating systems and life histories which characterise the parasitic Hymenoptera, sexual selection and sexual conflict in this taxon have been somewhat overlooked. For instance, parasitoid mating systems have typically been studied in terms of how mating structure affects sex allocation. In the past decade, however, some studies have sought to address sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps more explicitly and found that, despite the lack of obvious secondary sexual traits, sexual selection has the potential to shape a range of aspects of parasitoid reproductive behaviour and ecology. Moreover, various characteristics fundamental to the parasitoid way of life may provide innovative new ways to investigate different processes of sexual selection. The overall aim of this review therefore is to re-examine parasitoid biology with sexual selection in mind, for both parasitoid biologists and also researchers interested in sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems more generally. We will consider aspects of particular relevance that have already been well studied including local mating structure, sex allocation and sperm depletion. We go on to review what we already know about sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps and highlight areas which may prove fruitful for further investigation. In particular, sperm depletion and the costs of inbreeding under chromosomal sex determination provide novel opportunities for testing the role of direct and indirect benefits for the evolution of mate choice.

  15. Tri-trophic movement of carotenoid pigments from host plant to the parasitoid of a caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Wallis, Christopher M; Daane, Kent M

    2014-02-01

    Insect parasitoids normally produce white colored eggs. Habrobracon gelechiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of various caterpillars. We found that adult female H. gelechiae lays yellow colored eggs when its larvae developed from host larvae of Choristoneura rosaceana and Epiphyas postvittana (both Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) that were fed green plant leaves, but white colored eggs when these same host larvae species were fed non-plant diets. This study investigated the causes of egg color in H. gelechiae and the possible consequences in terms of parasitoid fitness resulting from differential egg color. Using high-performance liquid chromatography we demonstrated that the yellow coloration resulted from the uptake of carotenoid plant pigments (mainly lutein and β-carotene) that were initially ingested by the caterpillar larvae from plant leaves, later absorbed by the parasitoid larvae (F0) feeding on the host and carried over to the adult parasitoids, and finally translocated to the eggs (F1) of the parasitoids. The amount of plant pigments consumed by the parasitoid larvae (F0) affected the intensity of the yellow color of the parasitoid's eggs (F1). Similarly, egg color was affected by the adult female parasitoids lifetime egg production and deposition rate. Further tests suggest that the observed differences in egg color did not have a genetic basis and did not affect egg viability or fitness. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of a tri-trophic and multi-stage translocation of carotenoid plant pigments in parasitoids. We discuss possible evolutionary significance and putative functions of the absorption of plant pigments by parasitoid species.

  16. Intraspecific variation of host plant and locality influence the lepidopteran-parasitoid system of Brassica oleracea crops.

    PubMed

    Santolamazza-Carbone, S; Velasco, P; Selfa, J; Soengas, P; Cartea, M E

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the attractiveness to herbivores and parasitoids of two cultivars of Brassica oleracea L., namely, B. oleracea variety acephala (kale) and B. oleracea variety capitata (cabbage), that exhibit differences of morphological and biochemical traits. To this end, field samplings were replicated at seven localities in Galicia (northwestern Spain). Three specialist and three generalist lepidopteran species were sampled. In total, 7,050 parasitoids were obtained, belonging to 18 genera and 22 species. The results showed that 1) parasitism rate and parasitoid species richness changed with locality and was higher in cabbage, although this crop had lower herbivore abundance; 2) the proportion of specialist herbivores was higher in cabbage crops, whereas generalists dominated in kale crops; 3) the abundance of the parasitoids Telenomus sp. (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae), Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and Diadegma fenestrale (Holmgren) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) was higher in kale crops; and 4) parasitism rate of Pieris rapae larvae and pupae and Mamestra brassicae eggs were higher in kale crops. In contrast with the notion that plant structural complexity provides physical refuge to the hosts and can interfere with parasitoid foraging, parasitism rate was higher on cabbage plants, which form heads of overlapped leaves. Possibly, different chemical profiles of cultivars also influenced the host-parasitoid relationship. These results suggest that top-down and bottom-up forces may enhance cabbage crops to better control herbivore pressure during the studied season. In Spain, information on natural occurring parasitoid guilds of Brassica crops is still scarce. The data provided here also represent a critical first step for conservation biological control plans of these cultivations.

  17. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Munro, James B.; Heraty, John M.; Burks, Roger A.; Hawks, David; Mottern, Jason; Cruaud, Astrid; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Jansta, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with more than 23,000 species described and over 500,000 species estimated to exist. This is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a molecular analysis of 18S and 28S ribosomal gene regions for 19 families, 72 subfamilies, 343 genera and 649 species. The 56 outgroups are comprised of Ceraphronoidea and most proctotrupomorph families, including Mymarommatidae. Data alignment and the impact of ambiguous regions are explored using a secondary structure analysis and automated (MAFFT) alignments of the core and pairing regions and regions of ambiguous alignment. Both likelihood and parsimony approaches are used to analyze the data. Overall there is no impact of alignment method, and few but substantial differences between likelihood and parsimony approaches. Monophyly of Chalcidoidea and a sister group relationship between Mymaridae and the remaining Chalcidoidea is strongly supported in all analyses. Either Mymarommatoidea or Diaprioidea are the sister group of Chalcidoidea depending on the analysis. Likelihood analyses place Rotoitidae as the sister group of the remaining Chalcidoidea after Mymaridae, whereas parsimony nests them within Chalcidoidea. Some traditional family groups are supported as monophyletic (Agaonidae, Eucharitidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Leucospidae, Mymaridae, Ormyridae, Signiphoridae, Tanaostigmatidae and Trichogrammatidae). Several other families are paraphyletic (Perilampidae) or polyphyletic (Aphelinidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Tetracampidae and Torymidae). Evolutionary scenarios discussed for Chalcidoidea include the evolution of phytophagy, egg parasitism, sternorrhynchan parasitism, hypermetamorphic development and heteronomy. PMID:22087244

  18. Immunity of an Alternative Host Can Be Overcome by Higher Densities of Its Parasitoids Palmistichus elaeisis and Trichospilus diatraeae

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Gilberto Santos; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Zanuncio, Teresinha Vinha; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Polanczyk, Ricardo Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Interactions of the parasitoids Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle and Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with its alternative host Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affect the success or failure of the mass production of these parasitoids for use in integrated pest management programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cellular defense and encapsulation ability of A. gemmatalis pupae against P. elaeisis or T. diatraeae in adult parasitoid densities of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 or 13 parasitoids/pupae. We evaluated the total quantity of circulating hemocytes and the encapsulation rate versus density. Increasing parasitoid density reduced the total number of hemocytes in the hemolymph and the encapsulation rate by parasitized pupae. Furthermore, densities of P. elaeisis above 5 parasitoids/pupae caused higher reduction in total hemocyte numbers. The encapsulation rate fell with increasing parasitoid density. However, parasitic invasion by both species induced generally similar responses. The reduction in defensive capacity of A. gemmatalis is related to the adjustment of the density of these parasitoids to their development in this host. Thus, the role of the density of P. elaeisis or T. diatraeae by pupa is induced suppression of cellular defense and encapsulation of the host, even without them possesses a co-evolutionary history. Furthermore, these findings can predict the success of P. elaeisis and T. diatraeae in the control of insect pests through the use of immunology as a tool for evaluation of natural enemies. PMID:20975929

  19. Host switching in a generalist parasitoid: contrasting transient and transgenerational costs associated with novel and original host species

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Thomas S; Bilton, Adam R; Mak, Lorraine; Sait, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoids face challenges by switching between host species that influence survival and fitness, determine their role in structuring communities, influence species invasions, and affect their importance as biocontrol agents. In the generalist parasitoid, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), we investigated the costs in encapsulation, survival, and body size on juveniles when adult parasitoids switched from their original host, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidotera, Pyralidae) to a novel host, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), over multiple generations. Switching had an initial survival cost for juvenile parasitoids in the novel host, but increased survival occurred within two generations. Conversely, mortality in the original host increased. Body size, a proxy for fecundity, also increased with the number of generations in the novel host species, reflecting adaptation or maternal effects due to the larger size of the novel host, and therefore greater resources available to the developing parasitoid. Switching to a novel host appears to have initial costs for a parasitoid, even when the novel host may be better quality, but the costs rapidly diminish. We predict that the net cost of switching to a novel host for parasitoids will be complex and will depend on the initial reduction in fitness from parasitizing a novel host versus local adaptations against parasitoids in the original host. PMID:25691971

  20. The effect of nitrogen fertilizer application to maize and sorghum on the bionomics of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the performance of its larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, N; Schulthess, F

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory and field trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of plant species (maize, sorghum), plant age (young, middle, old) and four different nitrogen fertilization levels (N0-N3) on the bionomics of the invasive crambid Chilo partellus and the performance of its braconid larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes. Plant N varied significantly between N0 and N1-N3, but the differences among the latter were not significant. Intrinsic rates of increase and net-reproductive rates of C. partellus followed the same trends: they were lowest with N0 and similar among the other treatments. On maize only, mortality of C. partellus and parasitism by C. flavipes tended to decrease with age of the plant while the percentage of borers reaching adulthood (i.e. pupation) increased. Borer mortality and parasitism was lower and pupation higher on sorghum than on maize. On both host plants, percent dry matter content of frass, which could affect ingress of the parasitoid into the borer tunnel, did not vary with nitrogen level but varied with age of the host plants: on maize, it was highest on young plants and on sorghum on old plants. Tunnels were shorter on young maize and sorghum plants; longer tunnels on older plants indicated compensatory feeding by the larva as a result of lower nutritive value of the food source. Consequently, larval weight was lower on older than younger plants. The level of nitrogen fertilization had no effect on food conversion efficiency of C. partellus. Nitrogen did not affect number of C. flavipes progeny while egg load of progeny increased significantly with nitrogen level, on both plant species. Differences in egg load between sorghum and maize were mostly not significant. It was concluded that on depleted soils only, an increase in nitrogen via mulching, rotation with a leguminous crop or fertilization would increase survival of C. partellus on both maize and sorghum and an increase in acreage of maize and in application of nitrogen fertilizer in an

  1. Relationships between parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae), fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants based on 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, and ND1 gene sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Yaakop, S.

    2013-11-01

    Opiinae is among the l0 largest subfamilies under the family Braconidae. Opiines species have great potential as natural enemies against fruit fly pests. Before using them as a biological control agent, construction of the phylogenetic trees could facilitate in the molecular identification of individual species and their relationships among members of the Opiines, as well as between Opiines and their host plants. Larval specimens of tephritids were collected from four crop species at five localities throughout the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 44 specimens of opiines had successfully emerged from the hosts, fruit fly larvae. The DNA sequences of 12S and 16S rRNA were obtained for the braconids while the mitochondrial ND1 sequences were obtained for the tephritids species through polymerase chain reaction. Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian trees were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 and MrBayes 3.1.2 to identify the relationships among the taxa. This study illustrates the phylogenetic relationships among parasitoid opiines collected and reared from parasitized fruit flies. The phylogenetic trees constructed based on the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA sequences exhibited similar topology and sequence divergence. The opiines were divided into several clades and subclades according to the genus and species. Each clade also was supported by the similar host plants with high support values. However, their pests were not specific, except for Bactrocera cucurbitae. This study has reconfirmed the associations between Opiinae, tephritids, and host plants based on molecular data.

  2. Spread and global population structure of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and its larval parasitoids Diadegma semiclausum and Diadegma fenestrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) based on mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Juric, I; Salzburger, W; Balmer, O

    2017-04-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM) (Plutella xylostella) is one of the main pests of brassicaceous crops worldwide and shows resistance against a wide range of synthetic insecticides incurring millions of dollars in control costs every year. The DBM is a prime example of the introduction of an exotic species as a consequence of globalization. In this study we analyzed the genetic population structure of the DBM and two of its parasitic wasps, Diadegma semiclausum and Diadegma fenestrale, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. We analyzed DBM samples from 13 regions worldwide (n = 278), and samples of the two wasp species from six European and African countries (n = 131), in an attempt to reconstruct the geographic origin and phylogeography of the DBM and its two parasitic wasps. We found high variability in COI sequences in the diamondback moth. Haplotype analysis showed three distinct genetic clusters, one of which could represent a cryptic species. Mismatch analysis confirmed the hypothesized recent spread of diamondback moths in North America, Australia and New Zealand. The highest genetic variability was found in African DBM samples. Our data corroborate prior claims of Africa as the most probable origin of the species but cannot preclude Asia as an alternative. No genetic variability was found in the two Diadegma species. The lack of variability in both wasp species suggests a very recent spread of bottlenecked populations, possibly facilitated by their use as biocontrol agents. Our data thus also contain no signals of host-parasitoid co-evolution.

  3. Biological control of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) in Florida by the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata in urban plantings of orange jasmine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid is an important invasive citrus pest in the United States because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. A parasitoid of the psyllid, Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was imported from Southeast Asia and re...

  4. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  5. How small can small be: the compound eye of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma evanescens (Westwood, 1833) (Hymenoptera, Hexapoda), an insect of 0.3- to 0.4-mm total body size.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Stefan; Müller, Carsten H G; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2011-07-01

    With a body length of only 0.3-0.4 mm, the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma evanescens (Westwood) is one of the smallest insects known. Yet, despite its diminutive size, it possesses compound eyes that are of oval shapes, measuring across their long axes in dorsoventral direction 63.39 and 71.11 μm in males and females, respectively. The corresponding facet diameters are 5.90 μm for males and 6.39 μm for females. Owing to the small radii of curvature of the eyes in males (34.59 μm) and females (42.82 μm), individual ommatidia are short with respective lengths of 24.29 and 34.97 μm. The eyes are of the apposition kind, and each ommatidium possesses four cone cells of the eucone type and a centrally fused rhabdom, which throughout its length is formed by no more than eight retinula cells. A ninth cell occupies the place of the eighth retinula cell in the distal third of the rhabdom. The cone is shielded by two primary and six secondary pigment cells, all with no apparent extensions to the basement membrane, unlike the case in larger hymenopterans. The regular and dense packing of the rhabdoms reflects an effective use of space. Calculations on the optics of the eyes of Trichogramma suggest that the eyes need not be diffraction limited, provided they use mostly shorter wavelengths, that is, UV light. Publications on the visual behavior of these wasps confirm Trichogramma's sensitivity to UV radiation. On the basis of our findings, some general functional conclusions for very small compound eyes are formulated.

  6. Intraspecific variation in Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associated with different hosts.

    PubMed

    Querino, R B; Zucchi, R A

    2002-11-01

    Trichogramma bruni is an insufficiently studied South American species whose limits are still not well defined. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize T. bruni taxonomically and to determine the association between morphological variations as well as host and habitat, based on morphological and biological studies. Specimens from the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ) collection, and from the University of California Riverside (UCR) and specimens collected from the vegetation of forest parks with native areas planted with eucalyptus in Piracicaba and Itatinga, State of São Paulo, were also analyzed. The holotype deposited at Univeridade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) collection was also examined. The variability in the genital capsule of T. bruni observed both among individuals of the same progeny and among specimens from different hosts is remarkable and is mainly related to the dorsal lamina. Therefore, an association of diagnostic characters rather than the dorsal lamina alone should be used for the identification of T. bruni and intraspecific variations should be considered. The intraspecific variation observed for T. bruni is a factor that should be considered for its identification, since the influence of the environment (habitat + host) and the variation among individuals itself is responsible for the plasticity observed in the genital capsule. Heliconius erato phyllis, Hamadryas feronia, Erosina hyberniata and Mechanitis lysiminia are new hosts of T. bruni.

  7. Assessment of Australian Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as control agents of stored product moths.

    PubMed

    Steidle, J L.M.; Rees, D; Wright, E J.

    2001-07-01

    Trichogramma species (T. brassicae, T. pretiosum and T. carverae) were assessed for their suitability as bio-control agents against Ephestia cautella and E. kuehniella which are important pests in food manufacturing and processing facilities in Australia. Parameters examined were longevity, fecundity on eggs of E. kuehniella, walking speed of adult wasps, reaction to moth scales, and host acceptance and host suitability of eggs of E. cautella and E. kuehniella. T. pretiosum and T. carverae performed better than T. brassicae in all traits examined apart from fecundity. T. pretiosum and T. carverae differ mainly in higher fecundity and host acceptance in T. pretiosum, and a better host-finding ability (walking speed, reaction to moth scales) in T. carverae. The suitability of the Trichogramma species for use as control agents is discussed with respect to these results.

  8. Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Rice Planthoppers to Adult and Immature Stages of Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Ko, Ko; Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Planthopper-targeting insecticides, pymetrozine, thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and nitenpyram, were tested under laboratory conditions for toxicity to adults and immatures of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, using standard tests described by International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). In the dry film residue test, all insecticides resulted in >90% mortality in T. chilonis adults and were ranked as moderately harmful. Persistent toxicity tests revealed that nitenpyram was short-lived and the other three insecticides were of slightly persistent toxicity to the wasp adults. Effects of the insecticides on egg, larval, and prepupal stages of T. chilonis were investigated with striped stem borer as host. At the three stages of T. chilonis (within the host egg), all the insecticides reduced parasitism rate, but nitenpyram and pymetrozine applied at egg stage, buprofezin and nitenpyram at larval stage, and buprofezin and thiamethoxam at prepupal stage of T. chilonis reduced parasitism by <30% in comparison with the control, and were thus ranked as harmless. Although insecticide treatment of the three immature stages of T. chilonis all reduced wasp emergence from host eggs, only thiamethoxam applied at larval stage and buprofezin at prepupal stage resulted in >30% reduction in emergence rate as compared with the control and were categorized as harmful. Immature duration of T. chilonis was only significantly extended by nitenpyram applied to egg stage than the control. Sex ratio of emerged wasps was not affected by the treatment to immature stages. The data are of significance for IPM programs incorporating inundative release of T. chilonis for control of lepidopteran rice pests where there is heavy co-occurrence of planthoppers.

  9. New species, notes and new records of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Querino, Ranyse B; Mendes, Jaci V; Costa, Valmir A; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2017-02-15

    Two new species of Trichogramma are described: Trichogramma piracicabense sp. nov. and T. valmiri sp. nov. Additionally, T. manicobai from eggs of the cassava hornworm Erinnyis ello is redescribed, and new records on the distribution and host associations of species of Trichogramma from Brazil are presented.

  10. Geographic distribution, large-scale spatial structure and diversity of parasitoids of the seed-feeding beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Wood, A; Haga, E B; Costa, V A; Rossi, M N

    2016-10-21

    Bruchine beetles are highly host-specific seed feeders during the larval stage. Although some specific parasitoid families have been recorded attacking bruchine beetles, most studies have been done at small spatial scales. Therefore, the current knowledge about the diversity and the geographic distribution of parasitoid species parasitizing bruchines is scarce, especially at a wide geographic area that extends over large distances through a latitudinal cline (i.e. large-scale spatial structure). The present study determined the species richness and evenness of parasitoids attacking the bruchine beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus feeding on Leucaena leucocephala seeds, examined their geographic distribution, and characterized the large-scale spatial structure in parasitoid species composition. A total of 1420 parasitoids (all Hymenoptera) belonging to four families, five subfamilies and eight species were collected (genera: Horismenus, Paracrias, Urosigalphus, Stenocorse, Chryseida, Eupelmus). Most parasitoid species showed wide spatial distribution, high evenness in species abundance and the species richness estimators were close to stabilization (approximately eight species). Overall, greater similarity was observed in the species composition of plant populations near to each other than those farther apart, revealing a large-scale spatial structure in parasitoid species composition.

  11. Whitefly parasitoids: distribution, life history, bionomics, and utilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Xian; Stansly, Philip A; Gerling, Dan

    2015-01-07

    Whiteflies are small hemipterans numbering more than 1,550 described species, of which about 50 are agricultural pests. Adults are free-living, whereas late first to fourth instars are sessile on the plant. All known species of whitefly parasitoids belong to Hymenoptera; two genera, Encarsia and Eretmocerus, occur worldwide, and others are mostly specific to different continents. All parasitoid eggs are laid in-or in Eretmocerus, under-the host. They develop within whitefly nymphs and emerge from the fourth instar, and in Cales, from either the third or fourth instar. Parasitized hosts are recognized by conspecifics, but super- and hyperparasitism occur. Dispersal flights are influenced by gender and mating status, but no long-range attraction to whitefly presence on leaves is known. Studies on En. formosa have laid the foundation for behavioral studies and biological control in general. We review past and ongoing studies of whitefly parasitoids worldwide, updating available information on species diversity, biology, behavior, tritrophic interactions, and utilization in pest management.

  12. The larval parasitoid Microplitis croceipes oviposits in conspecific adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasu, Keiji; Hoang Le, K.

    2007-03-01

    Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a larval parasitoid of Helicoverpa/Heliothis spp. In the course of mass rearing of M. croceipes, we found that females oviposited in the conspecific adults in rearing cages. When 20 pairs of inexperienced females and males or of experienced females and males were reared in a cage, the males lived for 14-15 days and the females for 18-20 days on average. At their death, 37-42% of the males and 50-57% of the females contained conspecific eggs or first instar larvae in their abdominal cavity. When two of inexperienced females met on a host-infested leaf of soybean, they attempted to sting each other. Of the attacked females, 30% contained a conspecific egg laid in their abdomen. In abdominal cavity of the adults parasitized by a conspecific female, the majority of the parasitoid eggs laid disappeared within 1 day after oviposition. Only 10-30% of the parasitoid eggs laid in conspecific adults hatched 3-4 days after oviposition, but those larvae never molted to second instar. When the adults were stung by one or two conspecific females, their subsequent longevity was significantly shorter than that for the control adults. Oviposition in conspecific adults may be prevalent in other parasitic wasps that quickly oviposit without intensive host examination, and have cuticle and size of abdomen to be stung by conspeicifcs.

  13. The genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with an emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (...

  14. Brachymeria koehleri (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a Hyperparasitoid of Lespesia melloi (Diptera: Tachinidae) Pupae in Thagona tibialis (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Caterpillars in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperparasitoids use the offspring of other parasitoids for their development, which can reduce the efficiency of biological control. The aim of this study was to present the first report of hyperparasitoidism by Brachymeria koehleri Blanchard, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in pupae of Lespesia s...

  15. Effects of aposymbiotic and symbiotic aphids on parasitoid progeny development and adult oviposition behavior within aphid instars.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rui-Xia; Meng, Ling; Li, Bao-Ping

    2010-04-01

    This study aims at exploring the potential relationship between aphidiine parasitoid development and the primary endosymbiont in aphids by focusing on specific aphid instars and the relative effects on parasitoid oviposition behavior and progeny development. Lysiphlebus ambiguus (Aphidiidae, Hymenoptera) is a solitary parasitoid of several species of aphids, including Aphis fabae. In this study, A. fabae was treated with antibiotic rifampicin to obtain aposymbiotic hosts and exposed to parasitism. L. ambiguus launched significantly more attacks on symbiotic L(2) (the second instar), aposymbiotic L(3) (the third instar) and L(4) (the forth instar) hosts than on the corresponding hosts at the same age. L. ambiguus also parasitized more L(1) aphids compared with adults irrespective of whether the aphid was asymbiotic or not. Pupa mortality rate of parasitoid progeny was significantly lower from aposymbiotic hosts than from the corresponding symbiotics at all stages. Female-biased parasitoid progeny was produced from aposymbiotic aphids without respect to host ages, but female progeny increased linearly with host ages at parasitism from symbiotic aphids. Body size of parasitoid progeny increased linearly with host instars at parasitism in symbiotic aphids but did not significantly change across host instars in aposymbiotic aphids. The offspring parasitoids turned out to be generally large in body size from attacking aposymbiotic aphids compared with the symbiotics. Development time of egg-to-adult of parasitoid progeny decreased with host instars in both symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids but was generally much longer in aposymbiotic aphids than in symbiotic aphids. Our study suggests that age or body size of host aphids may not be the only cue exercised by L. ambiguus to evaluate host quality and that offspring parasitoids may be able to compensate for the nutrition stress associated with disruption of primary endosymbiotc bacteria in aposymbiotic aphids.

  16. Cold storage of adult Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Mymaridae: Hymenoptera) and effects on maternal and progeny fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT Storage of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) adults at 2, 5, and 10°C showed that these parasitoids do not survive at 2°C for 5 d, and exposure to 5 and 10°C shortens their lifespan. The LT50 (i.e., length of storage time for 50% wasp survival) at 5°C was 14 d ...

  17. Trophic relationships between predators, whiteflies and their parasitoids in tomato greenhouses: a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ripoll, R; Gabarra, R; Symondson, W O C; King, R A; Agustí, N

    2012-08-01

    The whiteflies Bemisia tabaci Gennadius and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are two of the main pests in tomato crops. Their biological control in Mediterranean IPM systems is based on the predators Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae), as well as on the parasitoids Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet) and Encarsia pergandiella Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). These natural enemies may interact with each other and their joint use could interfere with the biological control of those whitefly pests. Analysis of predator-prey interactions under field conditions is therefore essential in order to optimize whitefly control. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-primers were designed to detect DNA fragments of these whiteflies and parasitoids within both predator species in tomato greenhouses. We demonstrated that both predators feed on both whitefly species, as well as on both parasitoids under greenhouse conditions. Prey molecular detection was possible where prey abundance was very low or even where predation was not observed under a microscope. Whitefly DNA detection was positively correlated with adult whitefly abundance in the crop. However, a significant relationship was not observed between parasitoid DNA detection and the abundance of parasitoid pupae, even though the predation rate on parasitoids was high. This unidirectional intraguild predation (predators on parasitoids) could potentially reduce their combined impact on their joint prey/host. Prey molecular detection provided improved detection of prey consumption in greenhouse crops, as well as the possibility to identify which prey species were consumed by each predator species present in the greenhouse, offering a blueprint with wider applicability to other food webs.

  18. Nueva dieta artificial para la producción masiva de Phymastichus Coffea (Himenóptera: Eulophidae) parasitoide de la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymastichus coffea (La Salle), (Hymenoptera: Eulophydae) is a parasitic wasp that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) when it is tunnel into the berry. In 2001 a small colony of this parasitoid was introduced from CENICAFE, Colombia into United States to develop an i...

  19. Host range of Gonatocerus sp. near tuberculifemur Clade 1 in Argentina an egg parasitoid newly associated to the glassywinged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae)and candidate for its biocontrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American egg parasitoid Gonatocerus sp. near tuberculifemur “Clade 1” (G. sp. “Clade 1”) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a new association of the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Cicadellidae) and a candidate for its biological control in California, USA. In Argenti...

  20. Evaluation of the community of native eulophid parasitoids on Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-10-01

    The parasitoid complex associated with the exotic leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), which attacks horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), was studied in the urban environment of Turin (northern Italy). The studies were carried out over 5 yr after the first detection of the pest in our region in 1999. To evaluate parasitism, 438,029 leaf mines were examined over the 5-yr period, of which 29,033 were found to be parasitized (6.6%). Also, ornamental broadleaf trees attacked by other native gracillariid leafminers and located in the proximity of the target horse chestnut trees were sampled. A total of 11 parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were recorded on C. ohridella, and the most common species were Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees), Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, and Pnigalio agraules (Walker). The first species accounted for >77.5% of all parasitoids collected. Cirrospilus talitzkii Boucek was found for the first time in 2005. The high population level of the pest and the low parasitism rate show that the parasitoid complex is currently inadequate to contain C. ohridella populations effectively. The most frequent parasitoids of the moth were also found on the most common broadleaf trees in the studied area, showing how native leafminer parasitoid species are able to switch to other hosts. These results show that both native and broadleaf plants species may potentially provide an important reservoir of parasitic wasps to help protect a simple biotope, such as the urban environment, from pests.

  1. Presence of Wolbachia in three hymenopteran species: Diprion pini (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), and Dahlbominus fuscipennis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Pistone, Dario; Bione, Alessandro; Epis, Sara; Pajoro, Massimo; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bandi, Claudio; Sassera, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Sawflies are important pests of various plant species. Diprion pini (L.) and Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) are two of the most important sawfly pests in Italy, and both species are parasitized by the hymenopteran parasitoid Dahlbominus fuscipennis (Zetterstedt). Bacterial endosymbionts are currently studied for their high potential in strategies of biocontrol in a number of insect species. In this study, we investigated the presence of symbiotic bacteria (Wolbachia and Cardinium) in the three species of hymenoptera mentioned earlier, both in wild and laboratory populations. Although all samples were negative for the presence of Cardinium, 100% prevalence for Wolbachia was detected, as all examined individuals resulted to be PCR positive. Furthermore, 16S rDNA and ftsZ gene sequencing indicated that all individuals from the three hymenopteran species are infected by a single Wolbachia strain. Additionally, we report the presence of gynandromorphic individuals in D. pini, both in wild and laboratory-reared populations. Heat treatments on D. pini colonies removed the Wolbachia symbionts, but they also prevented the development of adults.

  2. Two new species of the genus Ficobracon van Achterberg and Weiblen (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China, expanding its host range.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pan; Li, Zi; Van Achterberg, Cees; Feng, Gui; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Syconia of figs (Moraceae: Ficus spp.) harbour many wasp species, mostly belonging to several genera of chalcidoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). In contrast, only two genera of Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) with a few known species are found in syconia belonging to the subgenus Urostigma. The braconid fig wasps have an infrequent occurrence with low population density and are rarely encountered. Two new species, Ficobracon rhiknosus sp. nov. from figs of the subgenus Urostigma, and F. codonatus sp. nov. from figs of the subgenus Sycidium are described. Our previous experiments firmly support the suggestion that the Ficobracon species are parasitoids of non-pollinating chalcidoid fig wasps in the syconia.

  3. Duration of plant damage by host larvae affects attraction of two parasitoid species (Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris) to cotton: implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Morawo, Tolulope; Fadamiro, Henry

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by herbivore-damaged plants can guide parasitoids to their hosts. The quantity and quality of VOC blends emitted by plants may be affected by the duration of plant damage by herbivores, which could have potential ramifications on the recruitment of competing parasitoids. We used two parasitoid species, Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to address the question of whether duration of plant damage affects parasitoid use of plant VOCs for host location. Both wasp species are larval endoparasitoids of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important pest of cotton. Attraction of the two parasitoid species to odors emitted by undamaged (UD), fresh (6 h infestation) damage (FD), and old (24 h infestation) damage (OD) cotton plants infested by H. virescens larvae was investigated using a headspace volatile collection system coupled with four-choice olfactometer bioassay. Both sexes of M. croceipes showed a preference for FD- and OD-plant odors over UD-plants. On the other hand, more C. marginiventris females were attracted to UD- and FD-plants than to OD-plants. GC/MS analyses showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the VOC profiles of UD, FD, and OD-plants, which may explain the observed preferences of the parasitoids. These results suggest a temporal partitioning in the recruitment of M. croceipes and C. marginiventris to H. virescens-damaged cotton, and may have potential implications for interspecific competition between the two parasitoid species.

  4. Comparative GC-EAD responses of a specialist (Microplitis croceipes) and a generalist (Cotesia marginiventris) parasitoid to cotton volatiles induced by two caterpillar species.

    PubMed

    Ngumbi, Esther; Chen, Li; Fadamiro, Henry Yemisi

    2009-09-01

    Plants emit volatile blends that may be quantitatively and/or qualitatively different in response to attack by different herbivores. These differences may convey herbivore-specific information to parasitoids, and are predicted to play a role in mediating host specificity in specialist parasitoids. Here, we tested the above prediction by using as models two parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of cotton caterpillars with different degree of host specificity: Microplitis croceipes, a specialist parasitoid of Heliothis spp., and Cotesia marginiventris, a generalist parasitoid of caterpillars of several genera including Heliothis spp. and Spodoptera spp. We compared GC-EAD (coupled gas chromatography electroantennogram detection) responses of both parasitoid species to headspace volatiles of cotton plants damaged by H. virescens (a host species for both parasitoids) vs. S. exigua (a host species for C. marginiventris). Based on a recent study in which we reported differences in the EAG responses of both parasitoids to different types of host related volatiles, we hypothesized that M. croceipes (specialist) would show relatively greater GC-EAD responses to the herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) components of cotton headspace, whereas C. marginiventris (generalist) would show greater response to the green leaf volatile (GLV) components. Thirty volatile components were emitted by cotton plants in response to feeding by either of the two caterpillars, however, 18 components were significantly elevated in the headspace of H. virescens damaged plants. Sixteen consistently elicited GC-EAD responses in both parasitoids. As predicted, C. marginiventris showed significantly greater GC-EAD responses than M. croceipes to most GLV components, whereas several HIPV components elicited comparatively greater responses in M. croceipes. These results suggest that differences in the ratios of identical volatile compounds between similar volatile blends may be used by specialist

  5. Selectivity of plant extracts for Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Rampelotti-Ferreira, Fátima Terezinha; Coelho, Aloisio; Parra, José Roberto Postali; Vendramim, José Djair

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the selectivity of three plant extracts with potential insecticidal effects for the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, which is commonly used in biological pest control. The plant extracts assayed were an acetone extract of Toona ciliata M. Roem., commercial neem oil, and a nanoencapsulated formulation of neem oil (NC40). The toxicity of the plant extracts to T. pretiosum was evaluated according to the recommendations of the International Organization for Biological Control- IOBC Working Group. We assessed the susceptibility of adults of the maternal and F1 generations and immature stages of T. pretiosum to the extracts. Females exposed to egg cards treated with commercial neem oil parasitized almost 70% fewer eggs than control eggs treated with water; and this extract was therefore classified as slightly harmful. When the eggs were offered to females 24h after treatment with neem oil and aqueous NC40, the parasitism rate also decreased, and the two extracts were classified as slightly harmful. Adult emergence was lower for parasitoids that fed on host eggs offered 24h after the treatment with the T. ciliata extract, which was considered slightly harmful. The emergence of T. pretiosum from eggs, larvae and pupae treated with the different plant extracts, did not decrease compared to development stages treated with the water control. The use of T. pretiosum, combined with the application of an ethanol extract of T. ciliata and a nanoencapsulated formulation of neem, appears to be feasible in view of these low toxicity indices.

  6. NATIVE LARVAL PARASITOIDS ASSOCIATED WITH TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK) IN GREENHOUSE TOMATO CROPS OF SOUTHERN SARDINIA.

    PubMed

    Nannini, M; Atzori, F; Pisci, R; Sanna, F

    2014-01-01

    Since its first detection in Sardinia (Italy), Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been reported as a major pest of greenhouse tomatoes. In recent years, however, a tendency toward a progressive reduction of tomato borer infestation levels has been observed. The reasons behind this decline are probably diverse, including both the increase in growers' ability to manage the pest and the adaptation of native predators and parasitoids to the new prey/host. In order to assess the species composition of the parasitoid complex associated with T. absoluta larvae in Sardinian greenhouse tomatoes, a two-year (2010/11) survey was conducted in one of the island's major horticultural areas (Pula, Cagliari). An estimate of the levels of parasitism caused by native wasps was also carried out. The occurrence of larval parasitoids of T. absoluta was detected in approximately half of the crops monitored. The average parasitism rate recorded in tomato plants infested by tomato borer larvae was 1.3%. Moreover, while no parasitism was observed in 76.4% of the samples collected, only 3.0% of the samples showed a parasitism rate exceeding 10%. The highest rates were recorded in spring and summer, with a peak in July (4.8%). Of 159 adult parasitoids recovered from infested leaves, 62.9% were found to belong to a Necremnus sp. near artynes (Walker), 34.6% to a Necremnus sp. near tidius (Walker), and 2.5% to Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). These results show that some native parasitoids have adapted to T. absoluta in the study area. Although parasitoid abundance in tomato crops appeared to be low, their contribution for the control of tomato borer infestation could possibly be enhanced through the application of conservation biological control measures.

  7. Analysis of Genetic Variation across the Encapsidated Genome of Microplitis demolitor Bracovirus in Parasitoid Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Gaelen R.

    2016-01-01

    Insect parasitoids must complete part of their life cycle within or on another insect, ultimately resulting in the death of the host insect. One group of parasitoid wasps, the ‘microgastroid complex’ (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), engage in an association with beneficial symbiotic viruses that are essential for successful parasitism of hosts. These viruses, known as Bracoviruses, persist in an integrated form in the wasp genome, and activate to replicate in wasp ovaries during development to ultimately be delivered into host insects during parasitism. The lethal nature of host-parasitoid interactions, combined with the involvement of viruses in mediating these interactions, has led to the hypothesis that Bracoviruses are engaged in an arms race with hosts, resulting in recurrent adaptation in viral (and host) genes. Deep sequencing was employed to characterize sequence variation across the encapsidated Bracovirus genome within laboratory and field populations of the parasitoid wasp species Microplitis demolitor. Contrary to expectations, there was a paucity of evidence for positive directional selection among virulence genes, which generally exhibited signatures of purifying selection. These data suggest that the dynamics of host-parasite interactions may not result in recurrent rounds of adaptation, and that adaptation may be more variable in time than previously expected. PMID:27390861

  8. Identification of Key Plant-Associated Volatiles Emitted by Heliothis virescens Larvae that Attract the Parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes: Implications for Parasitoid Perception of Odor Blends.

    PubMed

    Morawo, Tolulope; Fadamiro, Henry

    2016-11-01

    Herbivores emit plant-associated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after feeding on plants. These plant-associated VOCs can be used by parasitoids to locate their hosts. It is hypothesized that certain compounds play key roles in the attractiveness of host-associated odor blends. The larval parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its herbivore host, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a major pest of cotton plant were used as model species to identify key compounds mediating attraction of parasitoids to hosts. Comparative GC/MS analyses of cotton-fed vs. artificial diet-fed hosts indicated that 12 of 17 compounds in the headspace of H. virescens larvae were exclusive to plant-fed hosts, and thus considered to be plant-associated. In order to identify key attractive compounds, a full blend of 15 commercially available synthetic compounds was modified by removing each of the 10 plant-associated compounds emitted by host larvae. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays testing parasitoid responses to modified blends, 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, (E)-β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-farnesene, and β-pinene were identified as key compounds contributing to attractiveness of the natural blend of VOCs emitted by cotton-fed hosts. The results showed that while various host-associated compounds act in concert to serve as useful host location cues, only a fraction of the natural blend mediates attraction in parasitoids. Furthermore, the role of a compound is better assessed in the context of other compounds, and odor blends are better perceived as a whole rather than as individual components.

  9. A review of unusual species of Cotesia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with the first tergite narrowing at midlength

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankita; Shaw, Mark; Cardinal, Sophie; Fernandez-Triana, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The unusual species of Cotesia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with the first tergite narrowing at midlength are reviewed. One new species, Cotesia trabalae sp. n. is described from India and compared with Cotesia pistrinariae (Wilkinson) from Africa, the only other species sharing the same character of all the described species worldwide. The generic placement of these two species, based on molecular and morphological analyses as well as parasitoid biology is discussed. PMID:27110207

  10. Host instar susceptibility and selection and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2010-10-01

    Three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae]) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied for their host instar susceptibility and sex ratio, host instar selection, and interspecific competition in the laboratory. All three parasitoids were able to develop in the second instars, third-instar females, and adult females of P. marginatus. No progeny emerged from first-instar mealybugs. The proportion of female emergence was increased with increasing host size. Parasitoids selected their host instars for oviposition when they had a choice. Between second- and third-instar hosts, A. papayae and P. mexicana had significantly higher parasitism in second-instar mealybugs, whereas A. loecki had higher parasitism in the third-instar mealybugs. When competed with either one or two parasitoid species, A. papayae was significantly more successful in second-instar hosts and A. loecki was significantly more successful in third-instar mealybugs. P. mexicana was significantly less competitive when with A. papayae in both second and third instars, with A. loecki in third instars and with both A. papayae and A. loecki in second and third instars. Overall, A. papayae provided a better control of the host, when present singly or with the other two parasitoids. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana and understanding the outcome of their recovery and establishment in field studies conducted in Florida.

  11. Description of a new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), a promising biological control agent of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, A; Noyes, J S; Poorani, J; Chong, J H

    2013-01-01

    Anagyrus amnestos sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a promising parasitoid of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is described based on material collected from India. This parasitoid was identified as Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes & Menezes in recent literature, and was initially collected in Georgia, USA. It was found to be a specific parasitoid of the Madeira mealybug and its biological attributes and potential as a biological control agent of this pest were studied. In what appears to be a case of fortuitous introduction, we detected this parasitoid in large numbers on Madeira mealybugs from the southern Indian state of Karnataka, where the mealybug is a recently introduced invasive pest. In view of its economic importance as a potential biological control agent of the Madeira mealybug, it is formally described and illustrated here. Comparative accounts of the new species vis-a-vis its close relatives in India and the Americas are provided.

  12. Interaction of the Koinobiont Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, with Two Entomopathogenic Rhabditids, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Atwa, Atwa A.; Hegazi, Esmat M.; Khafagi, Wedad E.; El-Aziz, Gehan M. Abd

    2013-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are generally considered beneficial organisms. However, they can affect beneficial insects such as parasitoids. The interaction between the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, and the parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated in the laboratory. In non-parasitized hosts, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to H. bacteriophora showed a higher percent mortality than those exposed to S. carpocapsae. Both nematodes were able to invade and propagate in non-parasitized S. littoralis larvae and those parasitized by M. rufiventris. Both nematode species reproduced in Microplitis-parasitized hosts, but there was a higher number of nematodes in non-parasitized larvae. S. carpocapsae yielded higher numbers of infective juveniles than H. bacteriophora. Generally, the number of nematodes harvested increased as their host's size increased. The interaction between the nematodes and parasitoid favored the nematodes when the nematodes were inoculated during the parasitoid egg stage or the young parasitoid larvae, thus giving the nematodes a better chance to grow and reproduce, resulting in the death of the parasitoid larvae. Conversely, when the nematodes were inoculated during the late larval instar of the parasitoid, the competition partially favored the wasp, thus giving approximately 50% of the wasps a better chance to develop, emerge, and reproduce, providing evidence that both nematodes and wasps could reproduce in the same host. Egg maturation of female wasps derived from nematode-infected hosts was not significantly different than those from control hosts. The combined application of nematodes and parasitoids may be beneficial if the detrimental effects of the nematodes on the parasitoid could be avoided by precisely timing the application strategies. It is clear that

  13. Comparative studies of the influence of relative humidity and temperature on the longevity and fecundity of the parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes.

    PubMed

    G D, Emana

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was introduced for biological control of the stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in eastern and southern African countries. The parasitoid became firmly established in Ethiopia, with varying density and distribution in various regions of the country indicating that there are factors regulating the success of the parasitoid. From previous studies, it was known that the population of the parasitoid released, the type of host, and temperature highly affect some of the biological parameters of the parasitoid. The current studies were undertaken to understand the individual and interactive effect of temperature and relative humidity on the longevity and fecundity of C. flavipes. The study was conducted on C. flavipes collected from the Melkassa Agricultural Research Center Experimental Field, Ethiopia. C. flavipes was reared in the laboratory on C. partellus feeding on pieces of sorghum stem. The longevity experiment was conducted at 10, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C, while the fecundity experiment was conducted at 20, 25, 28 and 30 degrees C. For both experiments 40-50%, 60-70% and 80-90% relative humidity regimes were used. The results obtained indicate that the interactive effect of temperature and relative humidity significantly affected the longevity, the number of oocytes, and fecundity of C. flavipes implying that the two factors play an important role in the success of the parasitoid as a biocontrol agent against C. partellus. The results obtained suggests the importance of the selection of target release sites for maximum efficiency of the parasitoid, which can have a positive impact on the on-going augmentative release of C. flavipes in Ethiopia.

  14. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  15. A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Matthew J.; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  16. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-12-29

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  17. Community Dynamics of Carrion Flies and their Parasitoids in Experimental Carcasses in Central Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Horenstein, Moira Battán; Salvo, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Insects are the predominant group regarding both species richness and abundance that develop on carrion. Among them, the most important decomposers using carrion as a source of food for their development are the immature stages of the dipteran families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae. The large numbers of their larvae in carcasses are attacked by a rich community of parasitoids, including species of Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, and Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Parasitica). The objective of this study was describing the temporal composition and dynamics of a parasitoid community in relation to their dipterans hosts in carrion in terms of number of species and specific composition, irrespective of the particular interactions between species in both trophic levels. Additionally, seasonality of the climate in the region was investigated as a factor structuring the studied communities. The experiments were undertaken in the south of Cordoba, Argentina during 2004 in a rural area. Two traps per season were placed separately approximately 300 m from each other in the study site. Each trap contained a domestic pig (Sus scrofa) of approximately 8 kg as bait. Samples were taken daily during the first four weeks and then every two or three days over the following weeks until the end of the experiment. The dipteran community was represented by 15 species in 6 families of the Calyptratae Diptera whereas parasitoids belonged to six families of the parasitic Apocrita Hymenoptera. Climatic seasonality was an important factor in determining the number of occurring species in the carcasses and community composition. The highest number of species was observed in the spring for both communities. PMID:22963038

  18. Inorganic elements in the fat bodies of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, D O; Zucchi, T D; Zucchi, O L A D; Nascimento Filho, V F; Almeida, E; Cônsoli, F L

    2010-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoids use several strategies to regulate the host's physiological processes during parasitism. Although many aspects of host-parasitoid interactions have been explored, studies that attempted to assess the effects of parasitism on the availability of inorganic elements in the host are virtually nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of parasitism on the concentrations of inorganic elements in the fat bodies of larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) during the development of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). TXRF analysis allowed comparisons of the changes in the availability of the elements P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the fat body tissues of D. saccharalis larvae parasitized by C. flavipes. Overall, the concentration of inorganic elements was higher early in parasitoid development (1 and 3days after parasitism) compared to non-parasitized larvae, but much lower towards the end of parasitoid development (7 and 9days after parasitism). Ca, K, and S were reduced after the fifth day of parasitism, which affected the total abundance of inorganic elements observed in the fat bodies of the parasitized hosts. The regulatory mechanisms or pathological effects related to the observed variation of the host inorganic elements induced by the parasitoid remain unknown, but there might be a strategy to make these elements available to the parasitoid larvae at the end of their development, when higher metabolic activity of the host fat body is required to sustain parasitoid growth. The observed variation of the host's inorganic elements could also be related to the known effects of parasitism on the host's immune response.

  19. The impact of exotic parasitoids on populations of a native Hawaiian moth assessed using life table studies.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Leyla V; Wright, Mark G

    2009-03-01

    The impact of alien species on native organisms is a cause for concern worldwide, with biological invasions commonplace today. Suppression efforts targeting many invasive species have included introductions of biological control agents. The numerous releases of biological control agents in the Hawaiian archipelago have resulted in considerable concern for non-target impacts, due to high levels of non-target parasitism observed to occur in some cases. This study investigated the impact of introduced Hymenoptera parasitoids on a Hawaiian moth. The endemic Hawaiian moth Udea stellata (Butler) has seven alien parasitoids associated with it, two purposely introduced, three adventive, and two of uncertain origin. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contribution of the seven parasitoid species to the population dynamics of U. stellata by constructing partial life tables. Marginal attack rates and associated k-values were calculated to allow comparison of mortality factors between experimental sites. Sentinel larvae were deployed on potted host plants and left in the field for 3-day intervals in open and exclusion treatments. The factors that contributed to total mortality in the open treatment were: disappearance (42.1%), death due to unknown reasons during rearing (16.5%) and parasitism (4.9%). The open treatment incurred significantly higher larval disappearance compared to the exclusion treatment (7.8%), which suggests that in large part disappearance is the result of predation. Adventive parasitoids inflicted greater total larval mortality attributable to parasitism (97.0%) than purposely introduced species (3.0%).

  20. Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2012-10-01

    Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied in the laboratory to understand the outcome of their recovery in field studies conducted in the United States. The developmental time of both male and female A. papayae and A. loecki was shorter than the developmental time of male and female P. mexicana. Male parasitoids of all three species had a shorter developmental time than their females. All parasitoids had a shorter developmental time in adult-female mealybugs than in second instars. Mating status (unmated and mated) had no effect on the male longevity. Unmated and mated females that were not allowed to oviposit had similar longevity and lived longer than those that were allowed to oviposit. Virgin females produced male only progeny with higher number of males from A. loecki or P. mexicana than from A. papayae. The number of females and the cumulative progeny was smaller for A. papayae than for A. loecki or P. mexicana. The progeny sex ratio (proportion of females) was not different among the parasitoids. A. papayae had the shortest reproductive period followed by A. loecki and P. mexicana, respectively. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency, recovery and establishment of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana.

  1. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    PubMed

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs.

  2. Multiplex PCR in Determination of Opiinae Parasitoids of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera sp., Infesting Star Fruit and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. PMID

  3. [Toxicology of Hymenoptera venoms].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Hymenoptera venom is a secretion of special poison glands of insects. It serves both as a defensive substance against aggressors, as well as weapon used to paralyze the victim during gaining food. Chemically, the venom is a mixture of biologically active substances of high-, medium-, and small molecular weight with a variety of physiological functions. Individual substances may have toxic effects on stung human contributing to certain clinical signs and symptoms of venom poisoning. In the present paper, chemical structure, physiological role and toxicity of particular components of Hymenoptera venom are described.

  4. Mexican species of the genus Exenterus Hartig (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) reared from diprionid hosts.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Cancino, Enrique; Khalaim, Andrey I

    2015-11-24

    Two new species of the tryphonine genus Exenterus from Mexico, E. durangensis Khalaim & Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov. and E. sehuerachicus Khalaim & Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov., are described. Both species belong to the group of Exenterus species characterized by the unusually short, depressed tarsi. Exenterus durangensis was reared from the sawfly Zadiprion falsus Smith and E. sehuerachicus from Neodiprion autumnalis Smith (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). This is the first record of the genus Exenterus as a parasitoid of these hosts. An identification key to separate the two Mexican species of Exenterus is provided.

  5. Ant Mimicry by an Aphid Parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum

    PubMed Central

    Rasekh, Arash; Michaud, J.P.; Kharazi-Pakdel, Aziz; Allahyari, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    In Iran, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is a uniparental parasitoid of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), that possesses various highly evolved adaptations for foraging within ant-tended aphid colonies. Direct observations and video recordings were used to analyze the behavior of individual females foraging for A. fabae on bean leaf disks in open arenas in the laboratory. Females exploited aphids as hosts and as a source of food, allocating within-patch time as follows: resting - 10.4%, grooming - 8.2%, searching - 11.5%, antennation (host recognition) - 7.5%, antennation (honeydew solicitation mimicking ants) - 31.9%, abdominal bending (attack preparation) 19.7%, probing with the ovipositor (attack) - 10.8%. The mean handling time for each aphid encountered was 2.0 ± 0.5 min. Females encountered an average of 47.4 ± 6.4 aphids per hour, but laid only 1.2 eggs per hour. The ovipositor insertion time for parasitism ranged from 2 sec to longer than a minute, but most insertions did not result in an egg being laid. A. fabae defensive behaviors included kicking, raising and swiveling the body, and attempts to smear the attacker with cornicle secretions, sometimes with lethal results. Food deprivation for 4–6 h prior to testing increased the frequency of ant mimcry by L. fabarum. Females also used ant-like antennation to reduce A. fabae defensive behavior, e.g. the frequency of kicking. L. fabarum attacks primed A. fabae to be more responsive to subsequent honeydew solicitation, such that experienced females improved their feeding success by alternating between the roles of parasitoid and ant mimic. These results reveal the possibility for mutualisms to evolve between L. fabarum and the ant species that tend A. fabae, since L. fabarum receive ant protection for their progeny and may benefit the ants by improving A. fabae responsiveness to honeydew solicitation. PMID:20879920

  6. The impact of parasitoid emergence time on host-parasitoid population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, Christina A; Roland, Jens; Lewis, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect of parasitoid phenology on host-parasitoid population cycles. Recent experimental research has shown that parasitized hosts can continue to interact with their unparasitized counterparts through competition. Parasitoid phenology, in particular the timing of emergence from the host, determines the duration of this competition. We construct a discrete-time host-parasitoid model in which within-generation dynamics associated with parasitoid timing is explicitly incorporated. We found that late-emerging parasitoids induce less severe, but more frequent, host outbreaks, independent of the choice of competition model. The competition experienced by the parasitized host reduces the parasitoids' numerical response to changes in host numbers, preventing the 'boom-bust' dynamics associated with more efficient parasitoids. We tested our findings against experimental data for the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hübner) system, where a large number of consecutive years at a high host density is synonymous with severe forest damage.

  7. Effects of Self-Superparasitism and Temperature on Biological Traits of Two Neotropical Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Species.

    PubMed

    DaSilva, C S B; Morelli, Renata; Parra, J R P

    2016-08-01

    It is common for a female trichogrammatid to lay more than one egg per host, a phenomenon known as self-superparasitism, which exposes her offspring to intraspecific, intrinsic competition (IIC) with its own siblings. Information about how often self-superparasitism occurs and how IIC interacts with abiotic factors is rare, especially regarding the Neotropical Trichogramma species. Here we determined the frequency of self-superparasitism in Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Ta) and T. pretiosum Riley (Tp), and the effects of IIC and temperature on the sex ratio, egg-to-adulthood period, and survivorship of both species' offspring. Individual females were offered eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) for 30 min. A group of parasitized hosts was then dissected for determination of the self-superparasitism frequency, while another group was incubated at 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, and 33°C. High rates of self-superparasitism were found in both Ta (0.55 ± 0.07) and Tp (0.62 ± 0.06). IIC interacted with temperature decreasing Ta and Tp's survivorship, lengthening the egg-to-adulthood period in Tp and shortening it in Ta, and balancing Ta's sex ratio. Based on survivorship rate, Ta and Tp could not be differentiated if their immatures develop in absence of IIC. However, in its presence, Tp was 3 × more likely to survive than Ta at 33°C, while at 15°C Ta survived 2× better than Tp These results show that self-superparasitism can be very common in both Ta and Tp, and that its effects on the species' biological traits and competitiveness strongly depend on the IIC-temperature interaction.

  8. Checklist of Turkish Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Beyarslan, Ahmet; Fischer, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    The Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species recorded from Turkey until the end of 2011 are listed, the present total number being 182. Changes with respect to the previous Turkish fauna are briefly annotated and the distributions for all the species in each of the 68 biogeographical provinces of Turkey are presented. After the publication of our previous fauna, 174 species have been recorded as new to Turkey. Of these, 105 species are distributed only in Asian Turkey and ten species are distributed only in European Turkey, while 73 species occur in both. The presented checklist covers synonyms, zoogeographical region(s), hosts, host plants of the host species and parasitoid data for the species. In total, 182 species belonging to ten genera are reported for Turkey. The number of species of each genus is represented by: Atormus van Achterberg, 1997: one; Biosteres Foerster, 1862: 17; Bitomus Szépligeti, 1910: three; Diachasma Foerster, 1862: one; Diachasmimorpha Viereck, 1913: one; Eurytenes Foerster, 1862: three; Indiopius Fischer, 1966: three; Opius Wesmael, 1835: 151, Psyttalia Walker, 1860: one; Sternaulopius Fischer, 1965: one.

  9. Alien dominance of the parasitoid wasp community along an elevation gradient on Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.W.; Banko, P.C.; Schwarzfeld, M.; Euaparadorn, M.; Brinck, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Through intentional and accidental introduction, more than 100 species of alien Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera) have become established in the Hawaiian Islands. The extent to which these parasitoid wasps have penetrated native wet forests was investigated over a 1,765 m elevation gradient on windward Hawai'i Island. For >1 year, malaise traps were used to continuously monitor parasitoid abundance and species richness in nine sites over three elevations. A total of 18,996 individuals from 16 subfamilies were collected. Overall, the fauna was dominated by aliens, with 44 of 58 species foreign to the Hawaiian Islands. Ichneumonidae was dominant over Braconidae in terms of both diversity and abundance, comprising 67.5% of individuals and 69.0% of species collected. Parasitoid abundance and species richness varied significantly with elevation: abundance was greater at mid and high elevations compared to low elevation while species richness increased with increasing elevation, with all three elevations differing significantly from each other. Nine species purposely introduced to control pest insects were found, but one braconid, Meteorus laphygmae, comprised 98.0% of this assemblage, or 28.3% of the entire fauna. Endemic species, primarily within the genera Spolas and Enicospilus, were collected almost exclusively at mid- and high-elevation sites, where they made up 22.1% and 36.0% of the total catch, respectively. Overall, 75.9% of species and 96.0% of individuals are inferred to parasitize Lepidoptera larvae and pupae. Our results support previous data indicating that alien parasitoids have deeply penetrated native forest habitats and may have substantial impacts on Hawaiian ecosystems. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK) and noninfected Iriomote (IR) strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females. PMID:26492411

  11. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Hirata, Makiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK) and noninfected Iriomote (IR) strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females.

  12. DNA Extraction from Museum Specimens of Parasitic Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jeremy C.; Mills, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    At the same time that molecular researchers are improving techniques to extract DNA from museum specimens, this increased demand for access to museum specimens has created tension between the need to preserve specimens for maintaining collections and morphological research and the desire to conduct molecular analyses. To address these concerns, we examined the suitability of non-invasive DNA extraction techniques on three species of parasitic Hymenoptera (Braconidae), and test the effects of body size (parasitoid species), age (time since collection), and DNA concentration from each extract on the probability of amplifying meaningful fragments of two commonly used genetic loci. We found that age was a significant factor for determining the probability of success for sequencing both 28S and COI fragments. While the size of the braconid parasitoids significantly affected the total amount of extracted DNA, neither size nor DNA concentration were significant factors for the amplification of either gene region. We also tested several primer combinations of various lengths, but were unable to amplify fragments longer than ∼150 base pairs. These short fragments of 28S and COI were however sufficient for species identification, and for the discovery of within species genetic variation. PMID:23077493

  13. A literature-based review of Hymenoptera Parasitica and Chrysidoidea from Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Muru, David; Madl, Michael; Jacquot, Maxime; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A review of the genera and species of Hymenoptera Parasitica and Chrysidoidea reported so far from Reunion Island is provided with host information. Data presented here is based on a review of the existing literature by the authors. The list includes: (1) 156 species of Ichneumonoidea belonging to 65 genera and 25 subfamilies (Braconidae: Agathidinae, Alysiinae, Aphidiinae, Braconinae, Charmontinae, Cheloninae, Doryctinae, Euphorinae, Gnamptodontinae, Microgastrinae, Opiinae; Ichneumonidae: Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Cryptinae, Diplazontinae, Ichneumoninae, Mesochorinae, Metopiinae, Ophioninae, Orthocentrinae, Pimplinae, Tersilochinae, Tryphoninae); (2) 121 species of Chalcidoidea belonging to 56 genera and 8 families (Agaonidae, Aphelinidae, Chalcididae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Ormyridae, Pteromalidae, Signophoridae, Torymidae and Trichogrammatidae); (3) seven species of Cynipoidea (family Figitidae); (4) six species of Chrysidoidea in three families (Bethylidae, Chrysididae, Dryinidae); (5) five species of Platygastroidea (families Platygastridae and Scelionidae); (6) five species of Diaprioidea (family Diapriidae); (7) four species of Ceraphronoidae (families Ceraphronidae and Megaspilidae); and (8) two species of Evanioidea (family Evaniidae). This review records a total of 306 species. PMID:28331391

  14. Transgenic cry1C(⁎) gene rough rice line T1C-19 does not change the host preferences of the non-target stored product pest, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and its parasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Yan, Miao-Jun; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-10-01

    Rough rice grains are often stored for extended periods before they are used or consumed. However, during storage, the rough rice is vulnerable to insect infestation, resulting in significant economic loss. Previous studies have shown that volatiles cues, physical characteristics, and taste chemicals on the grains could be the important key behavior factors for storage insect pests to locate the hosts and select oviposition sites. It is also well known that the transgenic Bt rough rice line T1C-19, which expresses a cry1C(⁎) gene has a high resistance to Lepidoptera pests. However, there were no evidences to show the consequences of host preference for non-target insect pests after growing Bt transgenic rice. In this study, the potential key factors of Bt rough rice were investigated for their impacts on the behaviors of non-target pest lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica, the main weevil pest of grain and its parasitic wasps Anisopteromalus calandrae, the natural enemy of the beetle. Both electronic nose and electronic tongue analyses showed that the parameters of Bt rough rice were analogous to those of the non-Bt rough rice. The volatile profiles of Bt and non-Bt rough rice examined by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were similar. For most volatile compounds, there were no significantly quantitative differences in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The densities of sclereids and trichomes on the rough rice husk surface were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The non-target pest, R. dominica, and its parasitoid wasp, A. calandrae, were attracted to both rough rice and could not distinguish the transgenic T1C-19 from the isogenic rough rice. These results demonstrated that Bt rough rice has no negative impacts on the host preference behaviors of non-target stored product pest R. dominica and its parasitoid A. calandrae.

  15. Host-parasitoid dynamics of a generalized Thompson model.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Sebastian J

    2006-06-01

    A discrete-time host-parasitoid model including host-density dependence and a generalized Thompson escape function is analyzed. This model assumes that parasitoids are egg-limited but not search-limited, and is proven to exhibit five types of dynamics: host failure in which the host goes extinct in the parasitoid's presence or absence, unconditional parasitoid failure in which the parasitoid always goes extinct while the host persists, conditional parasitoid failure in the host and the parasitoid go extinct or coexist depending on the initial host-parasitoid ratio, parasitoid driven extinction in which the parasitoid invariably drives the host to extinction, and coexistence in which the host and parasitoid coexist about a global attractor. The latter two dynamics only occur when the parasitoid's maximal rate of growth exceeds the host's maximal rate of growth. Moreover, coexistence requires parasitism events to be sufficiently aggregated. Small additive noise is proven to alter the dynamical outcomes in two ways. The addition of noise to parasitoid driven extinction results in random outbreaks of the host and parasitoid with varying intensity. Additive noise converts conditional parasitoid failure to unconditional parasitoid failure. Implications for classical biological control are discussed.

  16. Release and establishment of the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha kraussii against the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé H; McQuate, Grant T; Messing, Russell H; B Jang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was first released against Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii in March 2003. Over a three month period, eight releases, totaling 7,696 females and 3,968 males, were made in a turkeyberry, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae) patch known to have a well established B. latifrons population. The establishment of D. kraussii was assessed through fruit collections conducted over a three-year period beyond the last release. D. kraussii was recovered 2 weeks, 31 months, and 39 months after the last parasitoid release, with collections not only from the release site, but also from a control site about 5.0 km distance from the release site. Recovery from fruit collections three years after the last parasitoid release confirmed that D. kraussii had become established in Hawaii. Parasitism rates were low, only 1.0-1.4%, compared to rates of 2.8-8.7% for the earlier established egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius arisanus (Sonan).

  17. Diversity and Distribution of Braconidae, a Family of Parasitoid Wasps in the Central European Peatbogs of South Bohemia, Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Lozan, Aurel I.; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Achterberg, Cees van Van; Monaghan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    An ecological overview of seven years investigation of Braconidae, a family of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) and a tyrpho-classification of parasitoids in peatbog areas of South Bohemia, Czech Republic are given. A total of 350 species were recorded in investigated sites, but only five tyrphobionts (1.4%) are proposed: Microchelonus basalis, Microchelonus koponeni, Coloneura ate, Coloneura danica and Myiocephalus niger. All of these species have a boreal-alpine distribution that, in Central Europe, is associated only with peatbogs. Tyrphophilous behaviour is seen in at least four (1.1%) species: Microchelonus pedator, Microchelonus subpedator, Microchelonus karadagi and Microchelonus gravenhorstii; however, a number of other braconids prefer peatbogs because they were more frequently encountered within, rather than outside, the bog habitat. The rest of the braconids (342 species, 97.5%) are tyrphoneutrals, many of them being eurytopic components of various habitats throughout their current ranges. Lists of tyrphobiontic braconids and a brief commentary on species composition, distributional picture of actual ranges, and parasitoid association to bog landscape are provided. Being true refugial habitats for populations in an ever-changing world, peatbogs play a significant role in harboring insect communities. PMID:20578880

  18. Release and Establishment of the Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha kraussii Against the Tephritid Fruit Fly Bactrocera latifrons in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé H.; McQuate, Grant T.; Messing, Russell H.; B. Jang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was first released against Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii in March 2003. Over a three month period, eight releases, totaling 7,696 females and 3,968 males, were made in a turkeyberry, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae) patch known to have a well established B. latifrons population. The establishment of D. kraussii was assessed through fruit collections conducted over a three-year period beyond the last release. D. kraussii was recovered 2 weeks, 31 months, and 39 months after the last parasitoid release, with collections not only from the release site, but also from a control site about 5.0 km distance from the release site. Recovery from fruit collections three years after the last parasitoid release confirmed that D. kraussii had become established in Hawaii. Parasitism rates were low, only 1.0–1.4%, compared to rates of 2.8–8.7% for the earlier established egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius arisanus (Sonan). PMID:23879328

  19. Physiological and molecular interaction in the host-parasitoid system Heliothis virescens-Toxoneuron nigriceps: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Malva, C; Varricchio, P; Falabella, P; La Scaleia, R; Graziani, F; Pennacchio, F

    2004-02-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is an endophagous parasitoid of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Parasitized H. virescens larvae are developmentally arrested and show a complex array of pathological symptoms ranging from the suppression of the immune response to an alteration of ecdysone biosynthesis and metabolism. Most of these pathological syndromes are induced by the polydnavirus associated with T. nigriceps (TnBV). An overview of our recent research work on this system is described herein. The mechanisms involved in the disruption of the host hormonal balance have been further investigated, allowing to better define the physiological model previously proposed. A functional genomic approach has been undertaken to identify TnBV genes expressed in the host and to assess their role in the major parasitoid-induced pathologies. Some TnBV genes cloned so far are novel and do not show any similarity with genes already available in genomic databases, while others code for proteins having conserved domains, such as aspartic proteases and tyrosine phosphatases. Sequencing of the entire TnBV genome is in progress and will considerably contribute to the understanding of the molecular bases of parasitoid-induced host alterations.

  20. Electroantennogram response of the parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes to host-related odors: The discrepancy between relative abundance and level of antennal responses to volatile compound

    PubMed Central

    Morawo, Tolulope; Burrows, Matthew; Fadamiro, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Herbivores emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after feeding on plants. Parasitoids exploit these VOCs as odor cues to locate their hosts. In nature, host-related odors are emitted as blends of various compounds occurring in different proportions, and minor blend components can sometimes have profound effects on parasitoid responses. In a previous related study, we identified and quantified VOCs emitted by cotton plant-fed Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, an herbivore host of the parasitoid Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). In the present study, the olfactory response of female M. croceipes to synthetic versions of 15 previously identified compounds was tested in electroantennogram (EAG) bioassays. Using M. croceipes as a model species, we further asked the question: does the relative abundance of a volatile compound match the level of antennal response in parasitoids? Female M. croceipes showed varying EAG responses to test compounds, indicating different levels of bioactivity in the insect antenna. Eight compounds, including decanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 2-ethylhexanol, tridecane, tetradecane, α-farnesene and bisabolene, elicited EAG responses above or equal to the 50 th percentile rank of all responses. Interestingly, decanal, which represented only 1% of the total amount of odors emitted by cotton-fed hosts, elicited the highest (0.82 mV) EAG response in parasitoids. On the other hand, ( E)-β-caryophyllene, the most abundant (29%) blend component, elicited a relatively low (0.17 mV) EAG response. The results suggest that EAG response to host-related volatiles in parasitoids is probably more influenced by the ecological relevance or functional role of the compound in the blend, rather than its relative abundance. PMID:28232862

  1. Electroantennogram response of the parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes to host-related odors: The discrepancy between relative abundance and level of antennal responses to volatile compound.

    PubMed

    Morawo, Tolulope; Burrows, Matthew; Fadamiro, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after feeding on plants. Parasitoids exploit these VOCs as odor cues to locate their hosts. In nature, host-related odors are emitted as blends of various compounds occurring in different proportions, and minor blend components can sometimes have profound effects on parasitoid responses. In a previous related study, we identified and quantified VOCs emitted by cotton plant-fed Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, an herbivore host of the parasitoid Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). In the present study, the olfactory response of female M. croceipes to synthetic versions of 15 previously identified compounds was tested in electroantennogram (EAG) bioassays. Using M. croceipes as a model species, we further asked the question: does the relative abundance of a volatile compound match the level of antennal response in parasitoids? Female M. croceipes showed varying EAG responses to test compounds, indicating different levels of bioactivity in the insect antenna. Eight compounds, including decanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 2-ethylhexanol, tridecane, tetradecane, α-farnesene and bisabolene, elicited EAG responses above or equal to the 50 (th) percentile rank of all responses. Interestingly, decanal, which represented only 1% of the total amount of odors emitted by cotton-fed hosts, elicited the highest (0.82 mV) EAG response in parasitoids. On the other hand, ( E)-β-caryophyllene, the most abundant (29%) blend component, elicited a relatively low (0.17 mV) EAG response. The results suggest that EAG response to host-related volatiles in parasitoids is probably more influenced by the ecological relevance or functional role of the compound in the blend, rather than its relative abundance.

  2. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine

    PubMed Central

    Elsik, Christine G.; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M.; Unni, Deepak R.; Emery, Marianne L.; Nguyen, Hung N.; Hagen, Darren E.

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  3. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M; Unni, Deepak R; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search.

  4. Inbreeding depression in a parasitoid wasp with single-locus complementary sex determination.

    PubMed

    Vayssade, Chloé; de Fazio, Céline; Quaglietti, Bastien; Auguste, Alexandra; Ris, Nicolas; Fauvergue, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding and inbreeding depression are key processes in small or isolated populations and are therefore central concerns for the management of threatened or (re)introduced organisms. Haplodiploid species of the order Hymenoptera have a particular status with regard to inbreeding depression. Although recessive deleterious alleles that are expressed in males should be purged, an alternative form of inbreeding depression exists in species with single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD). Under sl-CSD, genetically-related parents have a high probability of producing sterile sons instead of fertile daughters. In this article, we study inbreeding depression in Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a parasitoid wasp with sl-CSD. We used a crossing design to manipulate relatedness according to three levels: within-family, between-family and between-population. For each level, several fitness components were measured on parents and female offspring. We found a 20% reduction in egg load at emergence for inbred crosses. Inbred crosses also yielded a higher proportion of males, as expected in a species with sl-CSD. Mating probability, presence of daughters among offspring, body size, symmetry and longevity were unaffected by inbreeding.

  5. Inbreeding Depression in a Parasitoid Wasp with Single-Locus Complementary Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Vayssade, Chloé; de Fazio, Céline; Quaglietti, Bastien; Auguste, Alexandra; Ris, Nicolas; Fauvergue, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding and inbreeding depression are key processes in small or isolated populations and are therefore central concerns for the management of threatened or (re)introduced organisms. Haplodiploid species of the order Hymenoptera have a particular status with regard to inbreeding depression. Although recessive deleterious alleles that are expressed in males should be purged, an alternative form of inbreeding depression exists in species with single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD). Under sl-CSD, genetically-related parents have a high probability of producing sterile sons instead of fertile daughters. In this article, we study inbreeding depression in Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a parasitoid wasp with sl-CSD. We used a crossing design to manipulate relatedness according to three levels: within-family, between-family and between-population. For each level, several fitness components were measured on parents and female offspring. We found a 20% reduction in egg load at emergence for inbred crosses. Inbred crosses also yielded a higher proportion of males, as expected in a species with sl-CSD. Mating probability, presence of daughters among offspring, body size, symmetry and longevity were unaffected by inbreeding. PMID:24892828

  6. Natural enemies of Atta vollenweideri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) leaf-cutter ants negatively affected by synthetic pesticides, chlorpyrifos and fipronil.

    PubMed

    Guillade, Andrea C; Folgarait, Patricia J

    2014-02-01

    In southern South America, Ada vollenweideri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a significant pest of several crops and forestry, also considered to reduce the carrying capacity of pastures. The most usual control method used in Latin America is the application of synthetic pesticides, mainly chlorpyrifos and fipronil. However, no studies have assessed the effects of these agrochemicals on natural enemies of ants. We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of these pesticides on leaf-cutter ants' control and to test their effect on phorid fly parasitoids. Chlorpyrifos failed to exert complete control over ant colonies in the field and was gravely detrimental to specific parasitoids, reducing their percentage of parasitism, pupal survivorship, and adult longevity. Fipronil, however, exerted complete control over the treated colonies. Laboratory tests using both pesticides, either on ants from foraging trails or on pupariae, showed that chlorpyrifos and fipronil decreased larval and pupal survivorship, as well as adult longevity of parasitoids, in comparison to controls. In conclusion, these pesticides will likely affect parasitoids with regard to their reproductive capacity, leading to the decreased levels of natural parasitism observed in the field after treatments. We discuss why neither pesticide should be taken into account for integrated pest management programs.

  7. Effects of Abiotic Factors on HIPV-Mediated Interactions between Plants and Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christine; Desneux, Nicolas; Monticelli, Lucie; Fernandez, Xavier; Michel, Thomas; Lavoir, Anne-Violette

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to constitutively emitted plant volatiles (PV), herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) are specifically emitted by plants when afflicted with herbivores. HIPV can be perceived by parasitoids and predators which parasitize or prey on the respective herbivores, including parasitic hymenoptera. HIPV act as signals and facilitate host/prey detection. They comprise a blend of compounds: main constituents are terpenoids and “green leaf volatiles.” Constitutive emission of PV is well known to be influenced by abiotic factors like temperature, light intensity, water, and nutrient availability. HIPV share biosynthetic pathways with constitutively emitted PV and might therefore likewise be affected by abiotic conditions. However, the effects of abiotic factors on HIPV-mediated biotic interactions have received only limited attention to date. HIPV being influenced by the plant's growing conditions could have major implications for pest management. Quantitative and qualitative changes in HIPV blends may improve or impair biocontrol. Enhanced emission of HIPV may attract a larger number of natural enemies. Reduced emission rates or altered compositions, however, may render blends imperceptible to parasitoides and predators. Predicting the outcome of these changes is highly important for food production and for ecosystems affected by global climate change. PMID:26788501

  8. Accidental genetic engineers: horizontal sequence transfer from parasitoid wasps to their Lepidopteran hosts.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sean E; Thomas, James H

    2014-01-01

    We show here that 105 regions in two Lepidoptera genomes appear to derive from horizontally transferred wasp DNA. We experimentally verified the presence of two of these sequences in a diverse set of silkworm (Bombyx mori) genomes. We hypothesize that these horizontal transfers are made possible by the unusual strategy many parasitoid wasps employ of injecting hosts with endosymbiotic polydnaviruses to minimize the host's defense response. Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host. Two transferred sequences code for a BEN domain, known to be associated with polydnaviruses and transcriptional regulation. These findings represent the first documented cases of horizontal transfer of genes between two organisms by a polydnavirus. This presents an interesting evolutionary paradigm in which host species can acquire new sequences from parasitoid wasps that attack them. Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera diverged ∼300 MYA, making this type of event a source of novel sequences for recipient species. Unlike many other cases of horizontal transfer between two eukaryote species, these sequence transfers can be explained without the need to invoke the sequences 'hitchhiking' on a third organism (e.g. retrovirus) capable of independent reproduction. The cellular machinery necessary for the transfer is contained entirely in the wasp genome. The work presented here is the first such discovery of what is likely to be a broader phenomenon among species affected by these wasps.

  9. Combined Non-Target Effects of Insecticide and High Temperature on the Parasitoid Bracon nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Khaled; Biondi, Antonio; Kurtulus, Alican; Ricupero, Michele; Russo, Agatino; Siscaro, Gaetano; Chermiti, Brahim; Zappalà, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We studied the acute toxicity and the sublethal effects, on reproduction and host-killing activity, of four widely used insecticides on the generalist parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a natural enemy of the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Laboratory bioassays were conducted applying maximum insecticide label rates at three constant temperatures, 25, 35 and 40°C, considered as regular, high and very high, respectively. Data on female survival and offspring production were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinetoram caused 80% mortality at 25°C and 100% at higher temperatures, while spinosad caused 100% mortality under all temperature regimes. Cyantraniliprole was slightly toxic to B. nigricans adults in terms of acute toxicity at the three temperatures, while it did not cause any sublethal effects in egg-laying and host-killing activities. The interaction between the two tested factors (insecticide and temperature) significantly influenced the number of eggs laid by the parasitoid, which was the lowest in the case of females exposed to chlorantraniliprole at 35°C. Furthermore, significantly lower B. nigricans demographic growth indexes were estimated for all the insecticides under all temperature conditions, with the exception of chlorantraniliprole at 25°C. Our findings highlight an interaction between high temperatures and insecticide exposure, which suggests a need for including natural stressors, such as temperature, in pesticide risk assessments procedures. PMID:26382245

  10. The role of geography and host abundance in the distribution of parasitoids of an alien pest.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Petra; Holuša, Jaroslav; Horák, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are probably the most effective and abundant parasitoids of the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella), an alien pest in Europe that lacks specialized enemies. We studied how the species richness and abundance of chalcids are influenced by altitude, direction of an alien spread and host abundance of C. ohridella. We quantified the numbers and species richness of chalcid wasps and the numbers of C. ohridella that emerged from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaf litter samples collected from 35 sites in the Czech Republic. Species richness of chalcids, which was considered an indicator of the possible adaptation of parasitoids to this alien host, was unrelated to C. ohridella abundance, direction of spread, or altitude. Chalcid abundance, which was considered an indicator of parasitism of the alien host, was strongly and positively related to C. ohridella abundance. Chalcid abundance was negatively related to direction of spread and positively related, although in a non-linear manner, to altitude. The relationship of chalcid abundance with direction of spread and altitude was weaker than that with C. ohridella abundance. The results provide evidence that biological control of the alien pest C. ohridella by natural enemies might develop in the future.

  11. Effects of Abiotic Factors on HIPV-Mediated Interactions between Plants and Parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Desneux, Nicolas; Monticelli, Lucie; Fernandez, Xavier; Michel, Thomas; Lavoir, Anne-Violette

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to constitutively emitted plant volatiles (PV), herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) are specifically emitted by plants when afflicted with herbivores. HIPV can be perceived by parasitoids and predators which parasitize or prey on the respective herbivores, including parasitic hymenoptera. HIPV act as signals and facilitate host/prey detection. They comprise a blend of compounds: main constituents are terpenoids and "green leaf volatiles." Constitutive emission of PV is well known to be influenced by abiotic factors like temperature, light intensity, water, and nutrient availability. HIPV share biosynthetic pathways with constitutively emitted PV and might therefore likewise be affected by abiotic conditions. However, the effects of abiotic factors on HIPV-mediated biotic interactions have received only limited attention to date. HIPV being influenced by the plant's growing conditions could have major implications for pest management. Quantitative and qualitative changes in HIPV blends may improve or impair biocontrol. Enhanced emission of HIPV may attract a larger number of natural enemies. Reduced emission rates or altered compositions, however, may render blends imperceptible to parasitoides and predators. Predicting the outcome of these changes is highly important for food production and for ecosystems affected by global climate change.

  12. The role of geography and host abundance in the distribution of parasitoids of an alien pest

    PubMed Central

    Nováková, Petra; Holuša, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are probably the most effective and abundant parasitoids of the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella), an alien pest in Europe that lacks specialized enemies. We studied how the species richness and abundance of chalcids are influenced by altitude, direction of an alien spread and host abundance of C. ohridella. We quantified the numbers and species richness of chalcid wasps and the numbers of C. ohridella that emerged from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaf litter samples collected from 35 sites in the Czech Republic. Species richness of chalcids, which was considered an indicator of the possible adaptation of parasitoids to this alien host, was unrelated to C. ohridella abundance, direction of spread, or altitude. Chalcid abundance, which was considered an indicator of parasitism of the alien host, was strongly and positively related to C. ohridella abundance. Chalcid abundance was negatively related to direction of spread and positively related, although in a non-linear manner, to altitude. The relationship of chalcid abundance with direction of spread and altitude was weaker than that with C. ohridella abundance. The results provide evidence that biological control of the alien pest C. ohridella by natural enemies might develop in the future. PMID:26819849

  13. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations.

  14. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded.

    PubMed

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  15. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded

    PubMed Central

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  16. Proteomic analysis of the venom from the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Fang, Qi; Wang, Lei; Hu, Cui; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2010-09-01

    Parasitoid venom is a complex mixture of active substances with diversified biological functions. Because of its range of activities, venom is an important resource with respect to potential application in agriculture and medicine. Only a limited number of peptides, proteins, and enzymes have been identified and characterized from parasitoid venom. Here we describe a proteomic analysis of the venom from the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Venom resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis yielded 56 protein spots with major proteins in the pI range 4-7 and molecular mass range of 25-66.2 kDa. The amino acid sequences of the proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Several venom proteins such as calreticulin, venom acid phosphatase, serine protease, arginine kinase, serine protease homolog, aminotransferase-like venom protein, and heat shock protein 70, were identified in silico based on their amino acid sequences. The full-length cDNAs of calreticulin and arginine kinase were cloned. Calreticulin showed 62% identity with calreticulin in the venom of Cotesia rubecula. Arginine kinase showed a high level of sequence identity (92%) with its counterpart in the venom of Cyphononyx dorsalis. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of calreticulin and arginine kinase were developmentally changed, suggesting a possible correlation with the oviposition process. This study contributes to our appreciation of a parasitoid wasp venom composition.

  17. Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, M.A.; Jeyaprakash, A.; Clarke-Harris, D.

    2007-03-15

    These data indicate that the population of A. citricola in Jamaica probably originated from the Australian (Thailand), rather than from the Taiwan, population. This is consistent with what is currently known about the origin of the established Ageniaspis population in Florida (Alvarez 2000). It is not known when, or how, A. citricola arrived in Jamaica, although the CLM was detected there in 1994. The fortuitous establishment of A. citricolaon the CLM in Jamaica is not the only such establishment of a natural enemy discovered during this 2004 survey of citrus. The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) was found attacking the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Hoy et al., unpublished data), and the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata Waterston was found attacking the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The fact that 3 natural enemies of 3 invasive citrus pests were found in Jamaica, none of which were purposefully imported and released, suggests that pest-infested citrus trees were imported into Jamaica without going through appropriate quarantine procedures. Because each pest arrived at different times, the parasitoids probably arrived at different times, as well. This indicates that an analysis is needed to identify the critical control points within those services in Jamaica that support border protection, and that procedures may require strengthening. (author)

  18. Recombination and Its Impact on the Genome of the Haplodiploid Parasitoid Wasp Nasonia

    PubMed Central

    Niehuis, Oliver; Gibson, Joshua D.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Pannebakker, Bart A.; Koevoets, Tosca; Judson, Andrea K.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Kennedy, Kathleen; Duggan, David; Beukeboom, Leo W.; van de Zande, Louis; Shuker, David M.; Werren, John H.; Gadau, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Homologous meiotic recombination occurs in most sexually reproducing organisms, yet its evolutionary advantages are elusive. Previous research explored recombination in the honeybee, a eusocial hymenopteran with an exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate. A comparable study in a non-social member of the Hymenoptera that would disentangle the impact of sociality from Hymenoptera-specific features such as haplodiploidy on the evolution of the high genome-wide recombination rate in social Hymenoptera is missing. Utilizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between two Nasonia parasitoid wasp genomes, we developed a SNP genotyping microarray to infer a high-density linkage map for Nasonia. The map comprises 1,255 markers with an average distance of 0.3 cM. The mapped markers enabled us to arrange 265 scaffolds of the Nasonia genome assembly 1.0 on the linkage map, representing 63.6% of the assembled N. vitripennis genome. We estimated a genome-wide recombination rate of 1.4–1.5 cM/Mb for Nasonia, which is less than one tenth of the rate reported for the honeybee. The local recombination rate in Nasonia is positively correlated with the distance to the center of the linkage groups, GC content, and the proportion of simple repeats. In contrast to the honeybee genome, gene density in the parasitoid wasp genome is positively associated with the recombination rate; regions of low recombination are characterized by fewer genes with larger introns and by a greater distance between genes. Finally, we found that genes in regions of the genome with a low recombination frequency tend to have a higher ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, likely due to the accumulation of slightly deleterious non-synonymous substitutions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that recombination reduces interference between linked sites and thereby facilitates adaptive evolution and the purging of deleterious mutations. Our results imply that the genomes

  19. Biology, immature and adult morphology, and molecular characterization of a new species of the genus Entedon (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with the invasive pest Specularius impressithorax (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) on Erythrina plants.

    PubMed

    Gumovsky, A V; Ramadan, M M

    2011-12-01

    Entedon erythrinae sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious egg-larval endoparasitoid of the Erythrina bruchine Specularius impressithorax, an invasive pest of the coral tree seeds (Erythrina spp.), is described from the Hawaiian Islands and Africa (South Africa, Tanzania and Mozambique). The biology and morphology of preimaginal stages of this new species are described in details.It is remarkable that the early embryo of the parasitoid represents a mass of undifferentiated cells surrounded by a peculiar membrane formed by the peripheral enlarged polygonal cells. The young larva developing inside this membrane corresponds morphologically to the second instar of congeneric species. Various peculiarities of the parasitoid-host relationships in gregarious and solitary Entedon parasitoids are discussed. The DNA sequences of 28S D2 (nuclear), Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI, mitochondrial) and Cytochrome B (CytB, mitochondrial) genes are provided for this new species and compared with the sequences of some other Afrotropical and Palearctic species of the genus.

  20. Inconsistent genetic structure among members of a multitrophic system: did bruchid parasitoids (Horismenus spp.) escape the effects of bean domestication?

    PubMed

    Laurin-Lemay, S; Angers, B; Benrey, B; Brodeur, J

    2013-04-01

    Anthropogenic range expansion and cultural practices have modified the distribution, abundance and genetic diversity of domesticated organisms, thereby altering multitrophic assemblages through space and time. The putative Mesoamerican domestication centre of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in Mexico allows investigating the effects of plant domestication on the genetic structure of members of a multitrophic system. The aim of this study was to compare the evolutionary history of Horismenus parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to those of their bruchid beetle hosts (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and their domesticated host plant (P. vulgaris), in the context of traditional agriculture in Mexico. We analyzed the population genetic structure of four Horismenus species in Mexico using mitochondrial COI haplotype data. The two most abundant parasitoid species were Horismenus depressus and Horismenus missouriensis. Horismenus missouriensis were infected by Wolbachia endosymbionts and had little to no population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.06). We suspect the mitochondrial history of H. missouriensis to be blurred by Wolbachia, because differentiation among infected vs. non-infected individuals exists (F(ST) = 0.11). Populations of H. depressus were found to be highly differentiated (F(ST) = 0.34), but the genetic structuring could not be explained by tested spatial components. We then compared the genetic structure observed in this parasitoid species to previously published studies on bruchid beetles and their host plants. Despite extensive human-mediated migration and likely population homogenization of its two Acanthoscelides bruchid beetle hosts, H. depressus populations are structured like its host plant, by a recent dispersal from a diverse ancestral gene pool. Distinct evolutionary dynamics may explain inconsistent patterns among trophic levels. Parasitoids likely migrate from wild bean populations and are poorly adapted to bean storage conditions similar to

  1. Trophic relationships between aphids and their primary parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imtinan A; Naeem, Muhammad; Hassan, Soaib A; Bilal, Hazrat; Ata-ul-Mohsin; Bodlah, Imran

    2012-01-01

    The present research was carried out to study the trophic relationship between aphids and their primary parasitoids in Pothwar, Pakistan during 2009-2010 in the districts of Rawalpindi, Attock, Chakwal, and Jhelum. Ten species of aphids were recorded from 17 host plants. The aphids were parasitized by 11 species of primary parasitoids. Five quantitative aphid-parasitoid food webs were constructed describing the trophic relationships between the community of aphids and their primary parasitoids.

  2. Postegression Feeding Enhances Growth, Survival, and Nutrient Acquisition in the Endoparasitoid Toxoneuron nigriceps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, R. E.; Kuriachan, I.; Vinson, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a koinobiont endoparasitoid of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), derives nutrition from the host hemolymph during the internal portion of its larval development but feeds destructively on host tissues externally after egression. To investigate the importance of this tissue-feeding phase, and to evaluate the behaviors associated with postegression feeding, T. nigriceps larvae were subjected to one of four treatments: 1) allowed to carry out normal tissue feeding, 2) deprived of tissue feeding, 3) presented with tissues scraped away from the host remains, and 4) fed tissues scraped from an unparasitized H. virescens larva. Additionally, total carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins were quantified from pre and posttissue feeding T. nigriceps larvae to examine the effect of postegression feeding on parasitoid nutritional physiology. Parasitoids that received no tissues after egression, or that received tissue from an unparasitized H. virescens larva, had significantly smaller body masses at all stages than those allowed to feed naturally or fed tissues scraped from a parasitized host. Parasitoids that underwent normal host feeding after egression also reached larger masses then those fed scraped host tissue. Parasitoids that received no tissue after egression survived to adulthood significantly less often than those that were presented with any H. virescens tissue. This suggests that postegression tissue feeding is a vital developmental step for T. nigriceps, and that T. nigriceps will not only feed when normal postegression behavior is disrupted, but will also feed on unparasitized tissue. The quantification of macronutrients in the tissues of pre and posttissue feeding T. nigriceps larvae showed significantly elevated proportions of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in the tissues of larvae that had completed feeding, with the greatest difference being in total lipids. PMID

  3. Establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in sugarcane fields of Ethiopia and origin of founding population.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Y; Mitchell, A; Conlong, D E; Muirhead, K A

    2008-06-01

    Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is used as a classical biological control agent against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious exotic pest of cereal crops in eastern and southern Africa. This parasitoid has been introduced into several African countries for the control of C. partellus in maize, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), but it has never been released in Ethiopia. It is hypothesized that it spread into Ethiopia from populations released in Kenya and Somalia to become the predominant parasitoid of C. partellus in maize and sorghum fields of the country. In recent surveys conducted in Ethiopia, C. flavipes was recovered from C. partellus in sugarcane, Saccharum L. spp. hybrids, at a site >2,000 km from the nearest known release sites in Kenya and Somalia. These findings question published hypotheses that estimate the dispersal rate of C. flavipes to be 60 km per year in Africa, and they suggest that since its release in Africa this parasitoid has developed strains adapted to searching particular host plants infested by particular stem borers. The anomalies between our results and previous reports evoked the hypothesis that C. flavipes in Ethiopian sugarcane might be a different strain. To test this hypothesis, we compared partial COI gene sequences of C. flavipes collected from sugarcane in Ethiopia and those of specimens from other African countries to determine the origin of the Ethiopian population. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for C. flavipes from other continents. The C. flavipes population established in Ethiopian sugarcane is most closely related to the populations released against C. partellus in maize in other parts of Africa, which were derived from the original population imported from Pakistan. The dispersal rate of the parasitoid was estimated to be >200 km per year.

  4. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    PubMed Central

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015–2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  5. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    PubMed

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  6. Evolution and manipulation of parasitoid egg load.

    PubMed

    Gandon, Sylvain; Varaldi, Julien; Fleury, Frédéric; Rivero, Ana

    2009-11-01

    In proovigenic parasitoids such as Leptopilina boulardi, the female emerges with a limited egg load and no further eggs are produced during its adult life. A female thus runs the risk of exhausting this limited supply of eggs before the end of her life. Given that the production of an egg is costly, what is the evolutionarily stable egg load at emergence? This question has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade. Here, we analyze a model that allows us to track both the evolution and the population dynamics of a solitary, proovigenic parasitoid. First, we show how host-parasitoid dynamics feedbacks on the evolution of parasitoid egg load. Second, we use this model to consider the situation in which the parasitoid can be infected by a virus that manipulates the oviposition behavior of the females. In particular, we model the effect of the LbFV virus in L. boulardi, a virus that is known to enhance its horizontal transmission by increasing superparasitism (i.e., the laying of eggs in a host already parasitized). Specifically, we model (1) the effect of the virus on parasitoid egg load strategies, and (2) the evolution of egg load manipulation by the virus. This analysis yields two alternative, yet not mutually exclusive, adaptive explanations for the observation that females infected by the virus harbor higher egg loads than uninfected females. Infected females could either respond plastically to the infection status, or be manipulated by the virus. Further experimental work is required to distinguish between these two hypotheses. In a broader context, we present a general theoretical framework that allows us to study the epidemiology, the evolution, the coevolution, and the evolution of manipulation of various reproductive strategies of parasitoids.

  7. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    van Noort, Simon; Buffington, Matthew L.; Forshage, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula). Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera. PMID:25878545

  8. Afrotropical cynipoidea (hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    van Noort, Simon; Buffington, Matthew L; Forshage, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula). Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera.

  9. Host-Parasitoid Dynamics and the Success of Biological Control When Parasitoids Are Prone to Allee Effects

    PubMed Central

    Bompard, Anaïs; Amat, Isabelle; Fauvergue, Xavier; Spataro, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In sexual organisms, low population density can result in mating failures and subsequently yields a low population growth rate and high chance of extinction. For species that are in tight interaction, as in host-parasitoid systems, population dynamics are primarily constrained by demographic interdependences, so that mating failures may have much more intricate consequences. Our main objective is to study the demographic consequences of parasitoid mating failures at low density and its consequences on the success of biological control. For this, we developed a deterministic host-parasitoid model with a mate-finding Allee effect, allowing to tackle interactions between the Allee effect and key determinants of host-parasitoid demography such as the distribution of parasitoid attacks and host competition. Our study shows that parasitoid mating failures at low density result in an extinction threshold and increase the domain of parasitoid deterministic extinction. When proned to mate finding difficulties, parasitoids with cyclic dynamics or low searching efficiency go extinct; parasitoids with high searching efficiency may either persist or go extinct, depending on host intraspecific competition. We show that parasitoids suitable as biocontrol agents for their ability to reduce host populations are particularly likely to suffer from mate-finding Allee effects. This study highlights novel perspectives for understanding of the dynamics observed in natural host-parasitoid systems and improving the success of parasitoid introductions. PMID:24116153

  10. Revision of the Neotropical genus Eschatocerus Mayr (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Eschatocerini) with biological notes and the first description of the terminal larva.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; San Blas, Germán

    2015-09-02

    The gall wasp genus Eschatocerus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Eschatocerini), a cynipid genus of gall inducers on Prosopis and Acacia species (Fabaceae), endemic to southern South America, is revised. Complete descriptions of the external morphology of the genus and its three known species, illustrated with scanning electron photographs, are given for the first time, and an updated key for the identification of the species is provided. The biology of the species of Eschatocerus and their galls is described. Host plant associations are given, and the terminal larva of Eschatocerus niger is described for the first time. Preliminary notes on the inquiline and parasitoid community associated with the galls of Eschatocerus species are also given.

  11. Field-Cage Methodology for Evaluating Climatic Suitability for Introduced Wood-Borer Parasitoids: Preliminary Results from the Emerald Ash Borer System

    PubMed Central

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Driesche, Roy Van

    2011-01-01

    Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well. PMID:22233133

  12. Field-cage methodology for evaluating climatic suitability for introduced wood-borer parasitoids: preliminary results from the emerald ash borer system.

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Van Driesche, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well.

  13. Larvae of Ixodiphagus wasps (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra Santos, Marcos Antônio; de Macedo, Lucia Oliveira; de Souza, Islanne Barbosa; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2017-03-21

    The biological control of ticks represents an alternative method to the chemical control, given its ecological-friendly approach. Amongst the alternatives, the use of parasitoids of the genus Ixodiphagus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) has been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to document and molecularly characterize Ixodiphagus wasps in ticks from a tropical region of Brazil. From October 2015 to March 2016, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks (n=1814) were collected from naturally infested dogs and Ixodiphagus larvae were detected by microscopic examination. In addition, adult wasps were obtained in the laboratory. Larvae and adults were molecularly identified as Ixodiphagus hookeri. These findings suggest that this type of parasitism deserves to be studied in local tick populations, in order to elucidate the role of these wasps as a potential alternative to chemical tick control.

  14. Occurrence of Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Whittle, Alice; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Parisi, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Wall, Richard; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Natural enemies of ticks include the parasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the occurrence of I. hookeri DNA in a community of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis inermis and Rhipicephalus turanicus). From May 2010 to March 2012, ticks were collected monthly by dragging and flagging, identified, and 481 adults and 305 nymphs screened molecularly for infection with I. hookeri. Of the samples tested (n=786), 3.1% (n=25) were positive for I. hookeri DNA, 7.2% (n=22) in nymphs and 0.6% (n=3) in adults. I. hookeri DNA was only detected in I. ricinus. This study shows that I. hookeri infests I. ricinus in southern Italy, with nymphs being the main developmental stage affected by this wasp.

  15. Host suitability of house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), pupae killed by high or low temperature treatment for a parastoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kohei; Ito, Katsura; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Arakawa, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a high quality progeny production system for the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), by stockpiling hosts. We performed two host killing methods before host storage: (i) heat-killed by 30 min exposure to 50°C or (ii) freeze-killed by 10 min exposure to -80°C. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from nonstored house fly pupae after heat- or freeze-killing was not significantly different from live pupae. When house fly pupae stored at -20°C after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, progeny production was significantly less than live pupae. Moreover, productivity became very low when house fly pupae refrigerated at 3°C after heat- or freeze-killing were supplied to S. endius. On the other hand, when house fly pupae stored at -80°C for 1 year after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, the average number of parasitoids that emerged was not significantly different from live pupae. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from freeze-killed hosts kept for more than 8 weeks at -80°C was significantly fewer than live pupae. Thus, this study clarified that a higher-quality host can be maintained not only by simply storing at -80°C but also by adding heat treatment before storage.

  16. Seasonal trends, sampling plans and parasitoid complex of the Chinese wax scale, Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio (Hemiptera: Coccidae), in Mediterranean citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ferrer, M T; Campos-Rivela, J M; Verdú, M J

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal trends and the parasitoid complex of Chinese wax scale (Ceroplastes sinensis) was studied from July 2010 to February 2013. Six commercial citrus groves located in northeastern Spain were sampled fortnightly. Chinese wax scale completed a single annual generation. Egg oviposition started in May and continued until mid-July. Egg hatching began in mid-June, and in the first quarter of August, the maximum percentage of hatched eggs was reached. In the same groves, the parasitoid species of C. sinensis were determined together with their seasonal trends, relative abundance and occurrence on C. sinensis. Four hymenoptera were found parasitizing C. sinensis, mainly on third instars and females: Coccophagus ceroplastae (Aphelinidae), Metaphycus helvolus (Encyrtidae), Scutellista caerulea (Pteromalidae) and Aprostocetus ceroplastae (Eulophidae). The most abundant species was A. ceroplastae, corresponding to 54% of the parasitoids emerged. Coccophagus ceroplastae and M. helvolus represented 19%, whereas S. caerulea comprised 8% of the total. This study is the first published record of C. ceroplastae in Spain and the first record of M. helvolus on C. sinensis in Spain. Concerning the economical thresholds normally used, sampling plans developed for the management of C. sinensis in citrus groves should target population densities of around 12-20% of invaded twigs, equivalent to 0.2-0.5 females per twig. The sample size necessary to achieve the desired integrated pest management precision is 90-160 twigs per grove for the enumerative plan and about 160-245 twigs per grove for the binomial plan.

  17. Checklist of Braconinae species of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Beyarslan, Ahmet

    2014-04-17

    The Braconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species recorded from Turkey are listed, the present total number being 195. Changes with respect to the previous Turkish fauna are briefly annotated and the distributions for all the species in each of the 68 biogeographical provinces are presented. After the publication of our previous fauna, 173 species have been recorded as new to Turkey. Of these, 96 species are distributed only in Asian Turkey and 14 species are distributed only in European Turkey, while 85 species occure in both. The presented checklist covers synonyms, zoogeographical region(s), hosts, host plants of host species and parasitoid data for the species.        In total, 195 species belonging 9 genera are reported for the studied regions of Turkey. The number of species of each genus is represented by: Atanycolus Foester, 1862: 4, Baryproctus Ashmead, 1900: 1, Bracon Fabricius, 1804: 149, Ceratobracon Telenga, 1936: 1, Coeloides Wesmael,1838: 2, Glyptomorpha Holmgren, 1868: 7, Iphiaulax Foerster, 1862: 9, Pseudovipio Szépligeti, 1896: 9, Vipio Latreille, 1804: 13 species. Bracon (Asiabracon) amaculatus Beyarslan, 1988 is synonymized with B. (A.) quadrimaculatus Telenga, 1936. 

  18. Thermal requirements and estimate number of generations of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in different Eucalyptus plantations regions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, F F; Zanuncio, J C; Oliveira, H N; Grance, E L V; Pastori, P L; Gava-Oliveira, M D

    2011-05-01

    To use Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in a biological control programme of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), it is necessary to study thermal requirements, because temperature can affect the metabolism and bioecological aspects. The objective was to determine the thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations of P. elaeisis in different Eucalyptus plantations regions. After 24 hours in contact with the parasitoid, the pupae was placed in 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C, 70 ± 10% of relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was reduced with the increase in the temperature. At 31 °C the parasitoid could not finish the cycle in T. arnobia pupae. The emergence of P. elaeisis was not affected by the temperature, except at 31 °C. The number of individuals was between six and 1238 per pupae, being higher at 16 °C. The thermal threshold of development (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) of this parasitoid were 3.92 °C and 478.85 degree-days (GD), respectively, allowing for the completion of 14.98 generations per year in Linhares, Espírito Santo State, 13.87 in Pompéu and 11.75 in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State and 14.10 in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  19. Competitive interactions between parasitoids provide new insight into host suppression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Yun; Yang, Nian-Wan; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of potential inter- and intraspecific competition in parasitoid communities is crucial in the screening of efficient parasitoid species and for utilization of the best parasitoid species combinations. In this respect, the host-parasitoid systems, Bemisia tabaci and two parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati (exotic) and Encarsia sophia (existing) were studied under laboratory conditions to investigate whether interference competition between the exotic and existing species occurs as well as the influence of potential interference competition on the suppression of the host B. tabaci. Studies on interspecific-, intraspecific- and self-interference competition in two parasitoid species were conducted under both rich and limited host resource conditions. Results showed that (1) both parasitoid species negatively affect the progeny production of the other under both rich and limited host resource conditions; (2) both parasitoid species interfered intraspecifically on conspecific parasitized hosts when the available hosts are scarce and; 3) the mortality of B. tabaci induced by parasitoids via parasitism, host-feeding or both parasitism and host-feeding together varied among treatments under different host resource conditions, but showed promise for optimizing control strategies. As a result of our current findings, we suggest a need to investigate the interactions between the two parasitoids on continuous generations.

  20. Biological control of livestock pests : Parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are common pests on livestock, poultry, and equine facilities. Biological control of filth flies with pupal parasitoids can be used in conjunction with other control methods as part of an integrated fly management program. ...

  1. A parasitoid wasp Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911), formerly Parachasma cereum (Gahan), is a parasitoid of Anastrepha spp. in the Neo- and subtropics (Ovruski et al. 2000). It was introduced into Florida and the Dominican Republic for control of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loe...

  2. Interspecific competition/facilitation among insect parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Competition for limited resources is a widespread ecological interaction in animals. In the case of insect parasitoids, species can compete for host resources both at the adult stage as well as at the larval stage. Interspecific competition can play a role in sizing and shaping community structures. In addition of being relevant for basic ecological studies, understanding how interspecific competition between parasitoids affects pest suppression is important for biological control. In this opinion paper we review recent advances in the field of interspecific competition among parasitoids in a biological control perspective. We first discuss adult competition, highlighting which factors are likely to play a role in the outcome of competition when adults interact either directly or indirectly. Then we focus on the interactions occurring between competing larvae that develop within the same host taking also into account the fitness consequences of competition for the larva surviving interspecific competition. We also explore the possibility of interspecific facilitation among parasitoids in those situations in which a given species may benefit from interspecific competition.

  3. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  4. Species and sexual differences in behavioural responses of a specialist and generalist parasitoid species to host-related volatiles.

    PubMed

    Ngumbi, E; Fadamiro, H

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between the degree of specialization of parasitoids and their responses to host-related volatiles is an important and current evolutionary question. Specialist parasitoids which have evolved to attack fewer host species are predicted to be more responsive to host-related volatiles than generalists. We tested the above prediction by comparing behavioural responses of both sexes of two parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with different degrees of host specificity, Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (specialist) and Cotesia marginiventris (generalist), to different suites of synthetic host-related volatile compounds. The compounds tested at two doses (1 and 100 μg) include two green leaf volatiles (GLVs: hexanal and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol) and four herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs: (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, (Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate and (E,E)-α-farnesene). Two hypotheses were tested: (i) M. croceipes (specialist) would show relatively greater behavioural responses to the HIPVs, whereas C. marginiventris (generalist) would show greater behavioural responses to the GLVs, and (ii) females of both species would show greater responses than conspecific males to the host-related volatiles. At the low dose (1 μg), females of the specialist showed significantly greater responses than females of the generalist to three of the tested HIPVs, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool and (Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate. In contrast, females of the generalist showed relatively greater responses to the GLVs. The same trends were recorded at the high dose but fewer significant differences were detected. In general, similar results were recorded for males, with the exception of linalool (an HIPV) which elicited significantly greater response in the generalist than the specialist. Comparing the sexes, females of both species showed greater responses than conspecific males to most of the tested volatiles. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed.

  5. A new cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Adachi-Hagimori, Tetsuya; Miura, Kazuki; Stouthamer, Richard

    2008-12-07

    Vertically transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia, Cardinium and Rickettsia, modify host reproduction in several ways to facilitate their own spread. One such modification results in parthenogenesis induction, where males, which are unable to transmit the bacteria, are not produced. In Hymenoptera, the mechanism of diploidization due to Wolbachia infection, known as gamete duplication, is a post-meiotic modification. During gamete duplication, the meiotic mechanism is normal, but in the first mitosis the anaphase is aborted. The two haploid sets of chromosomes do not separate and thus result in a single nucleus containing two identical sets of haploid chromosomes. Here, we outline an alternative cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera. During female gamete formation in Rickettsia-infected Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitoids, meiotic cells undergo only a single equational division followed by the expulsion of a single polar body. This absence of meiotic recombination and reduction corresponds well with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females. We conclude that diploidy in N. formosa is maintained through a functionally apomictic cloning mechanism that differs entirely from the mechanism induced by Wolbachia.

  6. Suitability of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pupae for Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan

    2015-06-01

    Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases.

  7. Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-04-01

    Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid.

  8. An endoparasitoid Cretaceous fly and the evolution of parasitoidism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Zhang, Junfeng; Feng, Yitao; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Parasitoidism is a key innovation in insect evolution, and parasitoid insects, nowadays, play a significant role in structuring ecological communities. Despite their diversity and ecological impact, little is known about the early evolution and ecology of parasitoid insects, especially parasitoid true flies (Diptera). Here, we describe a bizarre fly, Zhenia xiai gen. et sp. nov., from Late Cretaceous Burmese amber (about 99 million years old) that represents the latest occurrence of the family Eremochaetidae. Z. xiai is an endoparasitoid insect as evidenced by a highly developed, hypodermic-like ovipositor formed by abdominal tergites VIII + IX that was used for injecting eggs into hosts and enlarged tridactylous claws supposedly for clasping hosts. Our results suggest that eremochaetids are among the earliest definite records of parasitoid insects. Our findings reveal an unexpected morphological specialization of flies and broaden our understanding of the evolution and diversity of ancient parasitoid insects.

  9. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Fraser, Ivich

    2010-08-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endo-parasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The current protocol for rearing T. planipennisi involves presenting the wasps with artificially infested ash sticks made by placing field-collected larvae into shallow grooves beneath flaps of bark. Although third and fourth instars are readily accepted by T. planipennisi in these exposures, the suitability of younger or older developmental stages, which are often more readily available in the field, has not been tested. In this study, we used both artificially infested ash sticks and naturally infested ash logs to test which emerald ash borer developmental stages (second to fourth instars, J larvae [preprepupae], prepupae, and pupae) are most suitable for rearing T. planipennisi. T. planipennisi parasitized all stages except for pupae, but parasitized fewer J larvae and prepupae in naturally infested logs than in artificially infested ash sticks. This is probably because, in naturally infested ash logs, these stages were confined to pupal chambers excavated in the sapwood and may have been largely beyond the reach of ovipositing T. planipennisi. The number of T. planipennisi progeny produced was positively correlated (logarithmic) with host weight, but this relationship was stronger when J larvae and prepupae were excluded from the data set. Fourth instars yielded the most parasitoid progeny, followed by, in approximately equal numbers, J larvae, prepupae, and third instars. Second instars yielded too few parasitoid progeny to benefit rearing efforts.

  10. Apparent Acquired Resistance by a Weevil to Its Parasitoid Is Influenced by Host Plant

    PubMed Central

    Goldson, Stephen L.; Tomasetto, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Field parasitism rates of the Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are known to vary according to different host Lolium species that also differ in ploidy. To further investigate this, a laboratory study was conducted to examine parasitism rates on tetraploid Italian Lolium multiflorum, diploid Lolium perenne and diploid hybrid L. perenne ×L. multiflorum; none of which were infected by Epichloë endophyte. At the same time, the opportunity was taken to compare the results of this study with observations made during extensive laboratory-based research and parasitoid-rearing in the 1990s using the same host plant species. This made it possible to determine whether there has been any change in weevil susceptibility to the parasitoid over a 20 year period when in the presence of the tetraploid Italian, diploid perennial and hybrid host grasses that were commonly in use in the 1990’s. The incidence of parasitism in cages, in the presence of these three grasses mirrored what has recently been observed in the field. When caged, weevil parasitism rates in the presence of a tetraploid Italian ryegrass host were significantly higher (75%) than rates that occurred in the presence of either the diploid perennial (46%) or the diploid hybrid (52%) grass, which were not significantly different from each other. This is very different to laboratory parasitism rates in the 1990s when in the presence of both of the latter grasses high rates of parasitism (c. 75%) were recorded. These high rates are typical of those still found in weevils in the presence of both field and caged tetraploid Italian grasses. In contrast, the abrupt decline in weevil parasitism rates points to the possibility of evolved resistance by the weevil to the parasitoid in the diploid and hybrid grasses, but not so in the tetraploid. The orientation of plants in the laboratory cages had no significant effect

  11. Thelytokous parthenogenesis in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Rabeling, Christian; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2013-01-01

    Female parthenogenesis, or thelytoky, is particularly common in solitary Hymenoptera. Only more recently has it become clear that many eusocial species also regularly reproduce thelytokously, and here we provide a comprehensive overview. Especially in ants, thelytoky underlies a variety of idiosyncratic life histories with unique evolutionary and ecological consequences. In all eusocial species studied, thelytoky probably has a nuclear genetic basis and the underlying cytological mechanism retains high levels of heterozygosity. This is in striking contrast to many solitary wasps, in which thelytoky is often induced by cytoplasmic bacteria and results in an immediate loss of heterozygosity. These differences are likely related to differences in haplodiploid sex determination mechanisms, which in eusocial species usually require heterozygosity for female development. At the same time, haplodiploidy might account for important preadaptations that can help explain the apparent ease with which Hymenoptera transition between sexual and asexual reproduction.

  12. The relative importance of resources and natural enemies in determining herbivore abundance: thistles, tephritids and parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew; Hartley, Susan E; Jones, T Hefin

    2008-09-01

    1. The relative importance of host-plant resources and natural enemies in influencing the abundance of insect herbivores was investigated in potted plant and natural population experiments, using tephritid (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies, their host plant, creeping thistle Cirsium arvense, and their Hymenoptera parasitoids. 2. Experimental manipulation of host-plant quality (i.e. levels of host-plant nutrients) and resource availability (i.e. the number of buds) increased tephritid abundance. There was no evidence that the seed-feeding tephritid fly Xyphosia miliaria preferentially oviposited on fertilized C. arvense. 3. At low thistle densities, X. miliaria showed a constant rate of resource exploitation. At higher thistle densities, a threshold was detected, above which additional buds were not attacked. 4. Parasitism attack was variable across host (tephritid) densities but levels of parasitism were consistently higher on the fertilized thistles. 5. Experimental manipulation of host-plant quality and resource availability (quantity) not only directly affects the tephritid population but also, indirectly, leads to high rates of parasitism. Both chemical and physical characteristics of host plants affect the performance of natural enemies. 6. Both top-down and bottom-up forces act to influence tephritid abundance, with bottom-up influences appearing to be the most important.

  13. Deforestation homogenizes tropical parasitoid-host networks.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, Etienne; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2010-06-01

    Human activities drive biotic homogenization (loss of regional diversity) of many taxa. However, whether species interaction networks (e.g., food webs) can also become homogenized remains largely unexplored. Using 48 quantitative parasitoid-host networks replicated through space and time across five tropical habitats, we show that deforestation greatly homogenized network structure at a regional level, such that interaction composition became more similar across rice and pasture sites compared with forested habitats. This was not simply caused by altered consumer and resource community composition, but was associated with altered consumer foraging success, such that parasitoids were more likely to locate their hosts in deforested habitats. Furthermore, deforestation indirectly homogenized networks in time through altered mean consumer and prey body size, which decreased in deforested habitats. Similar patterns were obtained with binary networks, suggesting that interaction (link) presence-absence data may be sufficient to detect network homogenization effects. Our results show that tropical agroforestry systems can support regionally diverse parasitoid-host networks, but that removal of canopy cover greatly homogenizes the structure of these networks in space, and to a lesser degree in time. Spatiotemporal homogenization of interaction networks may alter coevolutionary outcomes and reduce ecological resilience at regional scales, but may not necessarily be predictable from community changes observed within individual trophic levels.

  14. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry: biocontrol potential of three predators and three parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish assays, both Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and A. ervi Haliday readily stung shallot aphids, with no significant difference in stinging frequency between the two species. A. ervi induced a significantly higher mortality (79.0 ± 7.2%) in terms of stung aphids compared with A. colemani (55.3 ± 4.1%); however, only a minor fraction (2.7 ± 1.8% and 7.1 ± 3.1%, respectively) of the killed aphids resulted in formation of mummies, presumably due to a physiological response to parasitism. The low percentage of mummification precludes the use of either Aphidius species in anything but inundative biocontrol. In similar set-ups, Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) killed almost half (49.6 ± 5.3%) of the exposed aphids through host feeding. In addition, 23.2 ± 7.3% of non-host-fed aphids developed into mummified aphids, and 38.1 ± 13.2% of non-host-fed aphids died from other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Third instars of all 3 predators readily preyed upon the shallot aphid in Petri dish set-ups with significant differences in daily

  15. Long term dynamics of aphelinid parasitoids attacking Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphelinid parasitoids are widely known natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci, a serious pest of agriculture globally. Here we examine pest and parasitoid interactions and dynamics in cotton from 1996–2010, during which a classical biological control program was underway. Two native species, Eremocerus e...

  16. Effects of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg age, density, and UV treatment on parasitism and development of Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Moreno, Fernando; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco, Vicente

    2009-10-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) supports the integration of all rational control methods available. Biological control is one of those control methods. Thus, the influence of Lobesia botrana Den. and Schiff. egg age, density, and sterilization by UV light on parasitism and progeny development of a Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal strain from La Rioja, Spain, was studied. Understanding this influence is important for the development of biological control programs. UV-killed eggs are widely used for mass rearing Trichogramma. Trichogramma cacoeciae preferred young eggs (0-72 h old), and the largest number of progeny were produced from these eggs, especially from 48- to 72-h-old eggs. The relationship between the number of eggs parasitized by T. cacoeciae and its density (within the range studied) was linear (R (2) adjusted = 0.93), with constant values (72.2-93.7%) for discovery rate (an estimator of searching capacity). UV treatment did not affect the number of progeny produced or parasitism tendency and was thus a helpful tool for the mass-rearing process. Based on its response to egg age and density, our T. cacoeciae strain showed potential for control of L. botrana.

  17. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer.

  18. Hydrophylita (Lutzimicron) emporos Shih & Polaszek (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from Taiwan, parasitising eggs, and phoretic on adults, of the damselfly Psolodesmus mandarinus mandarinus (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae).

    PubMed

    Shih, Yuan Tung; Ko, Chiun Cheng; Pan, Kuang Tao; Lin, Sue Cheng; Polaszek, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophylita emporos n. sp. reared from eggs of Psolodesmus mandarinus mandarinus McLachlan (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae) in Taiwan is described. This is the first species of Hydrophylita to be described from the Old World, and the first record of phoresy in the genus. Adult females were observed aggregating at the base of the female damselfly's abdomen. When the damselfly begins ovipositing, females move to the tip of the abdomen, enter the water and quickly locate eggs for parasitising. The article contains links to video footage of this process.

  19. Effects of temperature and nonionizing ultraviolet radiation treatments of eggs of five host insects on production of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for biological control applications.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma are used worldwide as biological control against insect pests, attacking eggs of over 200 species. Eggs of Spodoptera litura, Corcyra cephalonica, Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera were tested to consider the effect of temperature and radiation on parasitization, emergence of...

  20. Host finding by Uscana lariophaga (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in stored cowpea: the effect of distance, time interval, host patch size and spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Stolk, C; Ghimire, M N; Souquié, S; van der Werf, W; van Huis, A

    2005-06-01

    Host finding and parasitization by Uscana lariophaga Steffan, a potential biocontrol agent of the storage pest Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), were investigated in stored cowpea. Host finding was shown to be a function of distance, time, host patch size and the spatial position of U. lariophaga relative to the host patch. Uscana lariophaga females were able to find hosts up to 75 cm horizontal distance from the host patch, which was the largest distance tested. The probability that a host patch was found when an individual U. lariophaga female was released at 2.5 cm horizontal distance from the host patch ranged from 0.6 after 2 h foraging time to 0.9 after 8 h foraging time. At 10 cm from the host patch, host finding probability ranged from 0.2 to 0.45 at these respective foraging times. Finding probabilities doubled compared to horizontal distances when U. lariophaga was released below the host patch, and halved when it was released above the host patch. The negative geotaxic response was shown not to be an artefact of the release method. The median net displacement rate in the direction of the host patch was two beans per hour (1.4 cm h(-1)). The results suggest that U. lariophaga females start searching for hosts regardless of the quality of the olfactory information they receive. Additional observations indicated that U. lariophaga is adapted to a host with a patchy distribution, which implies that host finding over larger distances is relevant for U. lariophaga.

  1. Host Niches and Defensive Extended Phenotypes Structure Parasitoid Wasp Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard; Schönrogge, Karsten; Cook, James M.; Melika, George; Csóka, György; Thuróczy, Csaba; Stone, Graham N.

    2009-01-01

    Oak galls are spectacular extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes in host oak tissues and have evolved complex morphologies that serve, in part, to exclude parasitoid natural enemies. Parasitoids and their insect herbivore hosts have coevolved to produce diverse communities comprising about a third of all animal species. The factors structuring these communities, however, remain poorly understood. An emerging theme in community ecology is the need to consider the effects of host traits, shaped by both natural selection and phylogenetic history, on associated communities of natural enemies. Here we examine the impact of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness on 48 ecologically closed and species-rich communities of parasitoids attacking gall-inducing wasps on oaks. Gallwasps induce the development of spectacular and structurally complex galls whose species- and generation-specific morphologies are the extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes. All the associated natural enemies attack their concealed hosts through gall tissues, and several structural gall traits have been shown to enhance defence against parasitoid attack. Here we explore the significance of these and other host traits in predicting variation in parasitoid community structure across gallwasp species. In particular, we test the “Enemy Hypothesis,” which predicts that galls with similar morphology will exclude similar sets of parasitoids and therefore have similar parasitoid communities. Having controlled for phylogenetic patterning in host traits and communities, we found significant correlations between parasitoid community structure and several gall structural traits (toughness, hairiness, stickiness), supporting the Enemy Hypothesis. Parasitoid community structure was also consistently predicted by components of the hosts' spatiotemporal niche, particularly host oak taxonomy and gall location (e.g., leaf versus bud versus seed). The combined explanatory power of structural and spatiotemporal

  2. Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Hymenoptera: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kather, Ricarda; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Chemical communication is the oldest form of communication, spreading across all forms of life. In insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) function as chemical cues for the recognition of mates, species, and nest-mates in social insects. Although much is known about the function of individual hydrocarbons and their biosynthesis, a phylogenetic overview is lacking. Here, we review the CHC profiles of 241 species of Hymenoptera, one of the largest and most important insect orders, which includes the Symphyta (sawflies), the polyphyletic Parasitica (parasitoid wasps), and the Aculeata (wasps, bees, and ants). We investigated whether these taxonomic groups differed in the presence and absence of CHC classes and whether the sociality of a species (solitarily vs. social) had an effect on CHC profile complexity. We found that the main CHC classes (i.e., n-alkanes, alkenes, and methylalkanes) were all present early in the evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera, as evidenced by their presence in ancient Symphyta and primitive Parasitica wasps. Throughout all groups within the Hymenoptera, the more complex a CHC the fewer species that produce it, which may reflect the Occam's razor principle that insects' only biosynthesize the most simple compound that fulfil its needs. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the complexity of CHC profiles between social and solitary species, with some of the most complex CHC profiles belonging to the Parasitica. This profile complexity has been maintained in the ants, but some specialization in biosynthetic pathways has led to a simplification of profiles in the aculeate wasps and bees. The absence of CHC classes in some taxa or species may be due to gene silencing or down-regulation rather than gene loss, as demonstrated by sister species having highly divergent CHC profiles, and cannot be predicted by their phylogenetic history. The presence of highly complex CHC profiles prior to the vast radiation of the social Hymenoptera indicates a

  3. Resource acquisition, allocation, and utilization in parasitoid reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Jervis, Mark A; Ellers, Jacintha; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Parasitoids display remarkable inter- and intraspecific variation in their reproductive and associated traits. Adaptive explanations have been proposed for many of the between-trait relationships. We present an overview of the current knowledge of parasitoid reproductive biology, focusing on egg production strategies in females, by placing parasitoid reproduction within physiological and ecological contexts. Thus, we relate parasitoid reproduction both to inter- and intraspecific patterns of nutrient allocation, utilization, and acquisition, and to key aspects of host ecology, specifically abundance and dispersion pattern. We review the evidence that resource trade-offs underlie several key intertrait correlations and that reproductive and feeding strategies are closely integrated at both the physiological and the behavioral levels. The idea that parasitoids can be divided into capital-breeders or income-breeders is no longer tenable; such terminology is best restricted to the females' utilization of particular nutrients.

  4. Stalk-eyed wasps--review of a largely unnoticed group of morphologically bizarre chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae: Axima) .

    PubMed

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Pape, Thomas; Krogmann, Lars

    2014-09-25

    Axima Walker is a small genus of Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) exclusive to the Western Hemisphere. Some species are distinctive in having stalked eyes and Axima sidi, sp. n. is described as the third stalk-eyed species based on a single female from Colombia. A key to facilitate species identification of stalk-eyed Axima is included. The only species of Axima for which host biology is known is a primary parasitoid of dwarf carpenter bees of the genus Ceratina Latreille (Apidae: Xylocopinae). A hypothesis about the possible function of stalked eyes in Axima as devices to assist the escape of adult wasps from hosts enclosed in the soft pith of plant stems is proposed.

  5. Multifaceted defense against antagonistic microbes in developing offspring of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Katharina; Parzefall, Christopher; Herzner, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R)-(-)-mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R)-(-)-mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum). We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R)-(-)-mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several antimicrobials in solution and vapor form has apparently evolved to reliably protect the larvae themselves and their food against a broad range of antagonistic microbes.

  6. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies cause problems around horses by taking blood meals and increasing horse activity. Although this is a recognized problem, few equine studies have been conducted. Therefore scientists at the USDA-CMAVE worked cooperatively with University of Florida scientists to conduct a 26-month study ...

  7. Development of bacterial artificial chromosome library resources for parasitoid Hymenoptera (Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Torres, M C; Saski, C; Blackmon, B; Romero-Severson, J; Werren, J H

    2010-02-01

    The species of the genus Nasonia possess qualities that make them excellent candidates for genetic and genomic studies. To increase the wealth of genomic resources for the genus we constructed publicly available bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries for Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti. Libraries have 36 864 clones each, empty-vector contents of approximately 2% and average insert sizes of 113.1 and 97.7 Kb, respectively, representing 12 and 11 genome equivalents. The N. vitripennis library was used for genome sequence assembly and in efforts at positional cloning of a developmental gene. The genome assembly of N. vitripennis is currently composed on 6181 un-joined scaffolds. These BAC libraries can be used to identify and close regions between scaffolds of the genome assemblies of both species.

  8. The Attraction of Lepidoptera to flowering plants also attractive to parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering plants added to agricultural environments can provide food, shelter and alternative hosts for natural enemies and so increase crop yields. However, these same resources might be exploited by certain pests. Twelve species of plants, many of them Florida-native or established, known to attra...

  9. Multifaceted Defense against Antagonistic Microbes in Developing Offspring of the Parasitoid Wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Katharina; Parzefall, Christopher; Herzner, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R)-(-)-mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R)-(-)-mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum). We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R)-(-)-mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several antimicrobials in solution and vapor form has apparently evolved to reliably protect the larvae themselves and their food against a broad range of antagonistic microbes. PMID:24886721

  10. Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) from Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pech, L.L.; Gates, M.W.; Graham, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We collected a Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in Salt Creek Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, San Juan County, Utah. This is the first record for D. texanus in Utah. Copyright ?? 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.

  11. Laboratory Population Parameters and Field Impact of the Larval Endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on its Host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Tomato Crops in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Eliana L; Pereyra, Patricia C; Luna, María G; Medone, Paula; Sánchez, Norma E

    2015-08-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a key pest of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L., crops in Central and South America. At present it is dispersing rapidly in Africa and Eurasian continents as an invasive pest, threatening worldwide tomato production. Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an American endoparasitoid reported as the main natural enemy of T. absoluta in commercial tomato. To gain knowledge of the potential role of P. dignus in the biological control of this pest, we determined its population parameters in laboratory and the parasitoid's impact on T. absoluta in the field. In laboratory, lifetime fecundity was 193 eggs per female, and longevity was 24 and 26 d for female and male, respectively. The finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.15 per female per day and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) was 0.14. The net reproductive rate (R(0)) was found to be 51.2, and generation time (T) 28.8 d. The time for doubling the population (DT) was 5 d. Furthermore, field parasitism of T. absoluta varied between 33 and 64% in the different years studied. Population parameters estimated in this study can be considered baseline information for a mass-rearing protocol of this parasitoid. Moreover, growth rates of P. dignus, particularly r(m), and its impact on field populations of T. absoluta indicated that this parasitoid is a valuable candidate for biological control of this pest.

  12. Species and sexual differences in antennal lobe architecture and glomerular organization in two parasitoids with different degree of host specificity, Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris.

    PubMed

    Das, Prithwiraj; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2013-05-01

    The endoparasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Microplitis croceipes (specialist) and Cotesia marginiventris (generalist), are parasitoids of lepidopteran larvae and differ in their degree of host specificity. Recent studies have reported key differences between the two species in the abundance of antennal olfactory sensilla and their response to host-related volatiles. Here, we have compared antennal lobe architecture and glomerular organization in the two parasitoid species by using a combination of axonal tract tracing techniques and confocal microscopy. In M. croceipes, the medial half of the antennal lobe is larger with a greater number of glomeruli compared with the lateral half, whereas in C. marginiventris, the lateral half is larger than the median half. The volume of the antennal lobe is approximately 2.5 times greater in M. croceipes than in C. marginiventris. However, the number of glomeruli per antennal lobe is only slightly higher in M. croceipes (females: 219-222; males: 220-224) than in C. marginiventris (females: 192-194; males: 193-196). A comparison of males and females within each species demonstrated a striking sexual difference in terms of an enlarged glomerulus (macroglomerulus or MG) at the entrance of the antennal nerve and of a complex of 3-4 MG (CMG) in the posterior region of the antennal lobe of males of both species. Being specific to males, both the MG and CMG might be involved in the detection of female-related odor.

  13. Venom Proteins from Parasitoid Wasps and Their Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Sébastien J. M.; Asgari, Sassan

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are valuable biological control agents that suppress their host populations. Factors introduced by the female wasp at parasitization play significant roles in facilitating successful development of the parasitoid larva either inside (endoparasitoid) or outside (ectoparasitoid) the host. Wasp venoms consist of a complex cocktail of proteinacious and non-proteinacious components that may offer agrichemicals as well as pharmaceutical components to improve pest management or health related disorders. Undesirably, the constituents of only a small number of wasp venoms are known. In this article, we review the latest research on venom from parasitoid wasps with an emphasis on their biological function, applications and new approaches used in venom studies. PMID:26131769

  14. Venom Proteins from Parasitoid Wasps and Their Biological Functions.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Sébastien J M; Asgari, Sassan

    2015-06-26

    Parasitoid wasps are valuable biological control agents that suppress their host populations. Factors introduced by the female wasp at parasitization play significant roles in facilitating successful development of the parasitoid larva either inside (endoparasitoid) or outside (ectoparasitoid) the host. Wasp venoms consist of a complex cocktail of proteinacious and non-proteinacious components that may offer agrichemicals as well as pharmaceutical components to improve pest management or health related disorders. Undesirably, the constituents of only a small number of wasp venoms are known. In this article, we review the latest research on venom from parasitoid wasps with an emphasis on their biological function, applications and new approaches used in venom studies.

  15. Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae.

  16. Offspring production and self-superparasitism in the solitary ectoparasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in relation to host abundance.

    PubMed

    Böckmann, E A; Tormos, J; Beitia, F; Fischer, K

    2012-04-01

    Parasitoid fitness strongly depends on the availability and quality of hosts, which provide all resources required for larval development. Several factors, such as host size and previous parasitation, may affect host quality. Because self-superparasitism induces competition among a female's offspring, it should only occur if there is an imperfect recognition of self-parasitized hosts or if there is a fitness advantage to self-superparasitism. Against this background, we investigated self-superparasitism and offspring production in Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in relation to the abundance of a novel host, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Individual pairs of parasitoids were provided with either two (low host abundance) or ten (high host abundance) pupae per day. Under high host abundance, lifetime fecundity (number of eggs laid), offspring number, number of pupae parasitized and hosts killed were greater than under low host abundance, whereas the number of eggs per host was lower; and the proportion of hosts that did not produce offspring tended to be lower. The latter suggests the occurrence of ovicide, when hosts are scarce due to an at least imperfect recognition of previously self-parasitized hosts. Offspring production per parasitized pupa was higher when hosts were scarce and levels of self-superparasitism high, suggesting the existence of beneficial effects of self-superparasitism.

  17. Effect of host diet and adult parasitoid diet on egg load dynamics and egg size of braconid parasitoids attacking Anastrepha ludens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quantity and quality of host nutrients can affect fitness-related traits in hymenopteran parasitoids, including oogenesis. We predicted that increasing host quality would positively influence oogenesis-related traits in synovigenic parasitoids, and that increasing quality of adult parasitoid die...

  18. Do Biopesticides Affect the Demographic Traits of a Parasitoid Wasp and Its Biocontrol Services through Sublethal Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D.; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  19. Do biopesticides affect the demographic traits of a parasitoid wasp and its biocontrol services through sublethal effects?

    PubMed

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  20. Soil-applied imidacloprid is translocated to nectar and kills nectar-feeding Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).

    PubMed

    Krischik, Vera A; Landmark, Alyson L; Heimpel, George E

    2007-10-01

    Behavior was altered and survivorship was reduced when parasitoids, Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), were fed flowers from buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum L. (Polygonaceae), treated with soil applications of imidacloprid (Marathon 1% G). Parasitoids at 1 d had significantly reduced survivorship of 38 +/- 6.7% on label rate and 17 +/- 4.2% on twice label rate compared with 98 +/- 1.2% on untreated flowers. Parasitoids trembled 88% on label rate and 94% on twice label rate compared with 0% on untreated flowers. Residue analysis on a composite sample of 425 flowers showed that imidacloprid concentration was 6.6 +/- 1.0 ppm (16 ppb/flower) in label rate, 12.3 +/- 2.7 ppm (29 ppb/flower) in twice label rate, and 0 ppb in untreated flowers. The hydroxy metabolite concentration was 1.1 ppm (2.4 ppb/flower) in label rate, 1.9 ppm (4.4 ppb/flower) in twice label rate, and 0 ppm in untreated flowers. The olefin metabolite concentration was 0.2 ppm (0.5 ppb/flower) in label rate, 0.5 ppm (1.1 ppb/flower) in twice label rate, and 0 ppm in untreated flowers. Soil-applied imidacloprid used at flowering may be translocated to nectar in higher concentration compared with the imidacloprid seed treatment Gaucho. Considerable research has studied effects of Gaucho-treated canola, sunflower, and maize on behavior and mortality of Apis mellifera L. In our laboratory, we showed that translocation of imidacloprid to flowers reduced survivorship and altered behavior of pink lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer (Smith and Krischik 1999) and green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Rogers et al. 2007).

  1. Low Temperature Storage of Telenomus remus (Nixon) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and its Factitious Host Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Queiroz, A P; Bueno, A F; Pomari-Fernandes, A; Grande, M L M; Bortolotto, O C; Silva, D M

    2017-04-01

    We conducted three bioassays to evaluate the effect of low-temperature storage of eggs (host) and pupae and adults (parasitoid) on the biology and parasitism capacity of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Nixon) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Viable stored Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were parasitized to the same degree or even higher than fresh eggs when stored until 14 days at 5°C or until 21 days at 10°C. In contrast, the percentage of parasitized sterilized eggs was equal to the control only when stored for 7 and 14 days. Survival of T. remus pupae declined with storage time at both studied temperatures (5 and 10°C). However, after 7 days of storage, survival of pupae was still 86.3 and 64.9% at 10 and 5°C, respectively. The number of adult male survivors remained similar until the fourth storage day at both 5 and 10°C. In contrast, female survival did not differ until day 8 at 10°C or day 6 at 5°C. Parasitism capacity of stored adults was not altered by storage compared with the control. Therefore, we conclude that the maximal storage time at 10°C is 21 days for viable C. cephalonica eggs and 7 days for T. remus pupae, while parasitoid adults should not be stored for more than 4 days at either 5 or 10°C.

  2. Biology of the introduced biocontrol agent Microctonus hyperodae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Listronotus bonariensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in northern New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gary M

    2013-10-01

    The South American weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) is an important pest of pastures in New Zealand. As a component of management strategies for this pest, the South American parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was released in northern New Zealand during 1991 as a biological control agent. Over the subsequent 5-6 yr, the reproductive biology of M. hyperodae and its relationship to, and effects on, the reproductive phenology and fitness of L. bonariensis were studied at three sites. M. hyperodae was first recovered in the field in December 1991. Subsequently, the incidence of parasitism in L. bonariensis increased to seasonal maxima of 75-90%. There was variable synchrony between parasitoid generations and the two generations of its host, leading to marked seasonal variation in rates of parasitism and parasitoid abundance. Despite marked inter-year variation, abundance of host adult and egg populations declined in the presence of parasitoids. Parasitized host females had lower ovarian maturity scores, had lower egg loads, and exhibited less investment in wing muscle development than females that had escaped parasitism. There was almost complete elimination of egg maturation in parasitized females and these hosts contributed little to population recruitment. Rate of buildup and seasonal maxima in parasitism, frequency of superparasitism, adult abundances, and wing muscle development in adult L. bonariensis varied among the three sites in a manner that was only partially related to climate differences across the 1.83° gradient of latitude. Site effects were weak to absent in measures of reproductive condition in L. bonariensis females.

  3. Effects of urbanisation on the parasitoid community of a leafminer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio, María S.; Salvo, Adriana; Estallo, Elizabet L.

    2009-03-01

    Urbanisation may have detrimental effects on communities of parasitoids, affecting their species richness, abundance, and species dominance. Here we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanisation on parasitoid communities of Liriomyza commelinae (Frost) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), a leafminer of Commelina erecta L. (Commelinaceae), in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. To study changes in species richness, the specific composition of parasitic complexes and their degree of impact on the leafminer, 18 sampling sites from the centre to the outskirts of the city were selected and different variables indicative of urbanisation were quantified in each site. During January and February of 2005 and 2006, all mined leaves found in each plant patch were collected and the following variables were estimated: proportion of mined patches, abundance of the leafminer, total parasitoid species richness, total parasitism rates and parasitism due to the most abundant parasitoid species. The percentage of mined patches and leafminer abundance increased with urbanisation degree. Estimates of parasitoid species richness were not influenced by urbanisation degree but increased with species richness of mined plants. Changes in the specific composition of species along the urbanisation gradient were observed. Although parasitism by one of the species studied was higher in more urbanised sites of the city, the total parasitism rate of L. commelinae was not affected by urbanisation degree, species richness of mined plants or leafminer abundance. It appears that urbanisation benefits the herbivore species here studied but not through altering parasitoid activity. Changes in parasitoid community composition reflex dissimilar tolerance to environmental conditions displayed by different parasitoid species.

  4. Hymenopteran parasitoids of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong

    2005-04-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers.

  5. Attraction of Dibrachys cavus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to its host frass volatiles.

    PubMed

    Chuche, Julien; Xuéreb, Anne; Thiéry, Denis

    2006-12-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a polyphagous insect able to develop on grapes and wild plants. We tested the hypothesis that the parasitoid Dibrachys cavus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) uses the larval frass in its host search. A two-armed olfactometer was used to measure the attractiveness of L. botrana larvae, their silk, or their frass after larvae were fed on different host plants. Frass of three Lepidoptera (L. botrana, Eupoecillia ambiguella, Sphinx ligustri) and one Orthoptera (Chorthippus brunneus) was assayed, but only L. botrana was used to test an effect of the larval host plant (two grape cultivars and three other plant species) to D. cavus females. Larvae without frass did not attract D. cavus whatever their origin, but their frass was attractive at a dose of 2-3 days equivalent of larval frass production. The silk produced by a single larva (L. botrana) was not attractive to D. cavus. The parasitoid was most attracted to the odor of S. ligustri; the frass of L. botrana was more attractive than that of E. ambiguella, irrespective of the species on which D. cavus had been reared. There was no difference in attractiveness of frass collected from L. botrana raised on food containing different plants. Chemical extracts using five different polarity solvents (acetone, dichloromethane, hexane, methanol, and water) differed in attractiveness to D. cavus. Water and dichloromethane were the most attractive. This suggests that a complex volatile signal made from intermediate to polar volatiles may be involved in attraction. D. cavus used frass to discriminate between different potential host species. Our results revealed that the larval food of L. botrana did not modify frass attractiveness, but that the moth species did.

  6. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Cancino, Jorge; Ruiz, Lía

    2012-09-20

    The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies.

  7. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo; Cancino, Jorge; Ruiz, Lía

    2012-01-01

    The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies. PMID:26466634

  8. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity: prospects for conservation biological control in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Enkegaard, Annie; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae); phacelia, Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (Boraginaceae); and dill, Anethum graveolens L. (Apiales: Apiaceae). Dill was only tested with C. aretas. Sucrose and pollen served as positive controls, and pure water as a negative control. In a subsequent field experiment, A. comariana larval density was assessed at 1, 6, and 11 m distances from buckwheat flower strips in 3 fields. The proportion of field-collected larvae that were parasitized by C. aretas or fungi was assessed. Among the tested floral diets, buckwheat was superior for C. aretas, increasing its longevity by 1.4 times compared to water. Although buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per row of strawberry respectively. Of the collected larvae, a total of 1%, 39%, and 65% were parasitized by C. aretas, respectively. The density of A. comariana and the proportion parasitized by C. aretas were highly significantly correlated. Distance from floral strips had no significant effect on either A. comariana larval density or on the proportion of individuals parasitized by C. aretas. Few other parasitoids emerged from collected larvae, and no larvae were

  9. Effects of rearing host species on the host-feeding capacity and parasitism of the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa.

    PubMed

    Dai, Peng; Ruan, Changchun; Zang, Liansheng; Wan, Fanghao; Liu, Linzhou

    2014-01-01

    Parasitoids of the Encarsia genus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are important biological control agents against whiteflies. Some of the species in this genus not only parasitize their hosts, but also kill them through host feeding. The whitefly parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, was examined to determine whether the rearing host species affects its subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism. E. formosa wasps were reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) 'Q', and their subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism of T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci were examined. E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum were significantly larger in body size than those reared on B. tabaci, but these wasps killed a similar number of whitefly nymphs by host feeding when they attacked the same host species on which they were reared. Regardless of the species on which it was reared, E. formosa fed significantly more on the B. tabaci nymphs than on the T. vaporariorum nymphs. The number of whitefly nymphs parasitized by E. formosa differed between the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum and those reared on B. tabaci depending on which whitefly species was offered as a host. In addition, the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum parasitized significantly more on T. vaporariorum than those reared on B. tabaci. The wasps reared on B. tabaci, however, parasitized similar numbers of whiteflies of both host species. The results indicated that the host-feeding capacity of E. formosa was affected more by the host species attacked than by the rearing host species, but the parasitism was affected by the host species attacked and the rearing host species. Generally, E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum killed more T. vaporariorum nymphs by parasitism and host feeding than those reared on B. tabaci. Additionally, a similar number of B. tabaci nymphs were killed by parasitism and host feeding regardless of the rearing host species. Currently

  10. The Effect of Floral Resources on Parasitoid and Host Longevity: Prospects for Conservation Biological Control in Strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Enkegaard, Annie; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae); phacelia, Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (Boraginaceae); and dill, Anethum graveolens L. (Apiales: Apiaceae). Dill was only tested with C. aretas. Sucrose and pollen served as positive controls, and pure water as a negative control. In a subsequent field experiment, A. comariana larval density was assessed at 1, 6, and 11 m distances from buckwheat flower strips in 3 fields. The proportion of field-collected larvae that were parasitized by C. aretas or fungi was assessed. Among the tested floral diets, buckwheat was superior for C. aretas, increasing its longevity by 1.4 times compared to water. Although buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per row of strawberry respectively. Of the collected larvae, a total of 1%, 39%, and 65% were parasitized by C. aretas, respectively. The density of A. comariana and the proportion parasitized by C. aretas were highly significantly correlated. Distance from floral strips had no significant effect on either A. comariana larval density or on the proportion of individuals parasitized by C. aretas. Few other parasitoids emerged from collected larvae, and no larvae were

  11. Toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four insect parasitoids attacking citrus and cotton pests.

    PubMed

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Morse, J G; Castle, S J; Naranjo, S E; Henneberry, T J; Toscano, N C

    2007-08-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four species of adult beneficial insects representing two families of Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae (Aphytis melinus Debach, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsiaformosa Gahan) and Mymaridae (Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault) that attack California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (both E. eremicus and E. formosa); and glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), respectively. Insecticides from four pesticide classes were evaluated using a petri dish bioassay technique across a range of concentrations to develop dosage-mortality regressions. Insecticides tested included acetamiprid (neonicotinoid); chlorpyrifos (organophosphate); bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and fenpropathrin (pyrethroids); and buprofezin and pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulators [IGRs]). Chlorpyrifos was consistently the most toxic pesticide to all four species of beneficial insects tested based on LC50 values recorded 24 h posttreatment compared with 48-h LC50 values with the neonicotinoid and pyrethroids or 96 h with the IGRs. Among the three pyrethroids, fenpropathrin was usually less toxic (except similar toxicity to A. melinus) than was cyfluthrin, and it was normally less toxic (except similar toxicity with E. formosa) than was bifenthrin. Acetamiprid was generally less toxic than bifenthrin (except similar toxicity with G. ashmeadi). The IGRs buprofezin and pyriproxyfen were usually less toxic than the contact pesticides, but we did not test for possible impacts on female fecundity. For all seven pesticides tested, A. melinus was the most susceptible parasitoid of the four test species. The data presented here will provide pest managers with specific information on the compatibility of select insecticides with natural enemies attacking citrus and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., pests.

  12. Hymenoptera venom allergy in humans.

    PubMed

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Reactions to Hymenoptera stings may appear as local or systemic responses. According to European data, the incidence of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in the general population is 0.3-7.5%, with the value being 0.3-0.8% in children and 14-43% in beekeepers. The most common systemic allergic (anaphylactic) reactions are caused by honeybees (Apis mellifera), and certain species of wasps in the family Vespidae. Severe generalized immediate-type allergic (anaphylactic) reactions to insect stings are of the highest clinical importance. They affect skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and cardiovascular system. The classification of severity of anaphylactic reaction following insect stings is based on the 4-grade Mueller scale. Crucial in patomechanism of anaphylaxis are specific IgE antibodies directed against the components of the venom, which mediate the activation of mast cells, the main effector cells of anaphylaxis. Therapeutic management in insect venom allergy should be considered in the context of prophylaxis, intervention in case symptoms develop, prevention in the form of venom specific immunotherapy (VIT). There are two steps of VIT 1. Initial dose venom immunotherapy (given according to four protocols which differ the time to reach the maintenance dose) 2. Maintenance dose VIT, usually equal 100 µg. Standard treatment time should span 3-5 years. The main mechanisms of immune tolerance that are initiated by VIT are associated with: 1. a decreased reactivity of effector cells, 2. expansion of T regulatory lymphocytes with IL-10 expression. Therapeutic effectiveness amounts to 90-100% in wasp venom allergy and approximately 80% in bee venom allergy.

  13. Effect of Bt genetic engineering on indirect defense in cotton via a tritrophic interaction.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Maria Carolina Blassioli; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Aquino, Michely Ferreira Santos; Paula, Débora Pires; Borges, Miguel

    2011-02-01

    We present a tritrophic analysis of the potential non-intended pleiotropic effects of cry1Ac gene derived from Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) insertion in cotton (DeltaPine 404 Bt Bollgard® variety) on the emission of herbivore induced volatile compounds and on the attraction of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretisoum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Both the herbivore damaged Bt variety and its non-Bt isoline (DeltaPine DP4049 variety) produced volatiles in higher quantity when compared to undamaged plants and significantly attracted the egg parasitoids (T. pretiosum) when compared to undamaged plants. However, Trichogramma pretiosum did not differentiate between the transgenic and nontransgenic varieties, suggesting that the ratios between the compounds released by herbivory damaged -Bt cotton and herbivory damaged-non Bt cotton did not change significantly. Finally, no detrimental effect of the Bt genetic engineering was detected related to the volatile compounds released by Bollgard cotton on the behavior of the natural enemy studied.

  14. Host behaviour manipulation as an evolutionary route towards attenuation of parasitoid virulence.

    PubMed

    Maure, F; Doyon, J; Thomas, F; Brodeur, J

    2014-12-01

    By definition, insect parasitoids kill their host during their development. Data are presented showing that ladybirds not only can survive parasitism by Dinocampus coccinellae, but also can retain their capacity to reproduce following parasitoid emergence. We hypothesize that host behaviour manipulation constitutes a preadaptation leading to the attenuation of parasitoid virulence. Following larval development, the parasitoid egresses from the host and spins a cocoon between the ladybird's legs. Throughout parasitoid pupation, the manipulated host acts as a bodyguard to protect the parasitoid cocoon from predation. The parasitoid has evolved mechanisms to avoid killing the host prematurely so that its own survival is not compromised. Bodyguard manipulation may thus constitute a selective trait for the evolution of true parasitism in some host-parasitoid associations.

  15. A regional analysis of weather mediated competition between a parasitoid and a coccinellid predator of oleander scale.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Andrew P; Pizzamiglio, Marina A

    2007-01-01

    The regulation of an asexual population of the oleander scale [Aspidiotus nerii Bouchè (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)] on California bay tree [Umbellularia californica (Hopk. & Arn.) Nut.] by two natural enemies; an idiobiont, ectoparasitoid Aphytis chilensis Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and a coccinellid predator (Rhysobius lophanthae (Blaisd.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was examined using a general weather-driven, tri-trophic, physiologically based age-mass structured demographic model. The model is of intermediate complexity and was parameterized using extensive laboratory data and field observations from Albany, CA. Temperature-dependent physiological indices were estimated from the laboratory data and used to scale per capita growth, fecundity and survivorship rates from maximal values in a time varying environment. The tri-trophic model was integrated in a GIS (geographic information system) and the species dynamics examined across years and across the ecological zones of California. Field data and simulation results suggested the coccinellid predator was the most important regulating agent of oleander scale in the mild climate of Albany. However, multiple linear regression analysis of simulation data across all ecological zones of California shows that the parasitoid A. chilensis is the most important agent in suppressing oleander scale densities in warmer climates, while the predator R. lophanthae increases scale density an average of 9.7% across all regions.

  16. Host specificity and temporal and seasonal shifts in host preference of a web-spider parasitoid Zatypota percontatoria.

    PubMed

    Korenko, Stanislav; Michalková, Veronika; Zwakhals, Kees; Pekár, Stano

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge about polysphinctine parasite wasps' interactions with their spider hosts is very fragmented and incomplete. This study presents the host specificity of Zatypota percontatoria (Müller) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and its adaptation to varying host availability. Two years of field observations show that Z. percontatoria is a stenophagous parasitoid that parasitizes only five closely related web-building spiders of the family Theridiidae (Araneae). Within the Theridiidae it attacks only species belonging to a small group of species, here called the "Theridion" group. These hosts have a similar biology, but are available at different levels of abundance and at different sizes over the season. Laboratory experiments showed that this wasp species ignores linyphiid, araneid or dictynid spiders and accepts only theridiid spiders of the "Theridion" group. In the field study, wasp females preferred older juvenile and sub-adult female spider instars with intermediate body size. Only 5% of the parasitized spiders were males. Parasitism in the natural population of theridiid spiders was on average 1.3%. Parasitism was most frequent on two species, Theridion varians Hahn in 2007 and Neottiura bimaculata Linnaeus in 2008. The parasitization rate was positively correlated with spider abundance. The wasp responded adaptively to seasonal changes in host abundance and host body size and shifted host preference according to the availability of suitable hosts during, as well as between, seasons. In spring and summer the highest percentage of parasitism was on T. varians and in autumn it was on N. bimaculata.

  17. Cytogenetic analysis of three species of Pseudacteon (Diptera, Phoridae) parasitoids of the fire ants using standard and molecular techniques

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Pseudacteon flies, parasitoids of worker ants, are being intensively studied as potentially effective agents in the biological control of the invasive pest fire ant genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). This is the first attempt to describe the karyotype of P. curvatus Borgmeier, P. nocens Borgmeier and P. tricuspis Borgmeier. The three species possess 2n = 6; chromosomes I and II were metacentric in the three species, but chromosome pair III was subtelocentric in P. curvatus and P. tricuspis, and telocentric in P. nocens. All three species possess a C positive band in chromosome II, lack C positive heterochromatin on chromosome I, and are mostly differentiated with respect to chromosome III. P. curvatus and P. tricuspis possess a C positive band, but at different locations, whereas this band is absent in P. nocens. Heterochromatic bands are neither AT nor GC rich as revealed by fluorescent banding. In situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe revealed a signal on chromosome II in a similar location to the C positive band in the three species. The apparent lack of morphologically distinct sex chromosomes is consistent with proposals of environmental sex determination in the genus. Small differences detected in chromosome length and morphology suggests that chromosomes have been highly conserved during the evolutionary radiation of Pseudacteon. Possible mechanisms of karyotype evolution in the three species are suggested. PMID:21637448

  18. Host Specificity and Temporal and Seasonal Shifts in Host Preference of a Web-Spider Parasitoid Zatypota percontatoria

    PubMed Central

    Korenko, Stanislav; Michalková, Veronika; Zwakhals, Kees; Pekár, Stano

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge about polysphinctine parasite wasps' interactions with their spider hosts is very fragmented and incomplete. This study presents the host specificity of Zatypota percontatoria (Müller) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and its adaptation to varying host availability. Two years of field observations show that Z. percontatoria is a stenophagous parasitoid that parasitizes only five closely related web-building spiders of the family Theridiidae (Araneae). Within the Theridiidae it attacks only species belonging to a small group of species, here called the “Theridion” group. These hosts have a similar biology, but are available at different levels of abundance and at different sizes over the season. Laboratory experiments showed that this wasp species ignores linyphiid, araneid or dictynid spiders and accepts only theridiid spiders of the “Theridion” group. In the field study, wasp females preferred older juvenile and sub-adult female spider instars with intermediate body size. Only 5% of the parasitized spiders were males. Parasitism in the natural population of theridiid spiders was on average 1.3%. Parasitism was most frequent on two species, Theridion varians Hahn in 2007 and Neottiura bimaculata Linnaeus in 2008. The parasitization rate was positively correlated with spider abundance. The wasp responded adaptively to seasonal changes in host abundance and host body size and shifted host preference according to the availability of suitable hosts during, as well as between, seasons. In spring and summer the highest percentage of parasitism was on T. varians and in autumn it was on N. bimaculata. PMID:22216929

  19. Morphology, ultrastructure, and probable functions of the sense organs on the ovipositor stylets of the hymenoptran parasitoid, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst).

    PubMed

    Shah, Zahid Ali

    2012-07-01

    To help understand the mechanism of host discrimination during oviposition of a parasitoid wasp, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), the ultrastructure and morphology of the sense organs on the dorsal and ventral stylets of the ovipositor were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ovipositor stylets were scanned for sense organs, because only unsheathed ovipositors are used for probing, stabbing, and host discrimination. Five types of sensilla and secretary pores were identified. Based on their pattern of innervation, the surface-dome and pitted-dome sensilla were thought to have a gustatory function and, thus, are the best candidates for host-discrimination. The arrangements of dendrites of type I and type II campaniform sensilla suggested that these acted as pressure- and mechano-receptors, respectively. Coeloconic sensilla might act as thermo-hygroreceptors, whilst secretary pores might provide lubrication during the process of stabbing for oviposition. Surface-dome sensilla were the most numerous type found followed by secretary pores, pitted-dome sensilla, and coeloconic sensilla. Almost all the sensilla and secretary pores were more numerous on the dorsal than on the ventral stylets, and the maximum number of these sensilla and secretary pores occurred on the distal end of the ovipositor stylets and decreased toward the proximal end. The surface-dome sensilla and secretary pores occurred in alternate rows while the pitted-dome sensilla were scattered all over the surface of the ovipositor stylets, especially on the sides of the stylets.

  20. Geographic variations of life history traits and potential trade-offs in different populations of the parasitoid Leptopilina heterotoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuarin, Pauline; Allemand, Roland; Moiroux, Joffrey; van Baaren, Joan; Gibert, Patricia

    2012-11-01

    Energy allocation is determined by resource availability and trade-offs among traits, and so organisms have to give some traits priority over others to maximize their fitness according to their environment. In this study, we investigated the geographic variations in life history traits and potential trade-offs in populations of the parasitoid Leptopilina heterotoma (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) originating from the north and the south of the Rhône-Saône valley (over a gradient of 300 km, South-East France). We measured a set of traits related to reproduction, maintenance, and mobility using several estimators of each of these main functions determined at different times. We did not find any clear differences between populations from contrasting areas, whereas the southern populations, which were all assumed to be exposed to similar environmental conditions, displayed contrasting patterns of energy allocation. Thus, the most likely explanation seems to be that the evolution of the life history of L. heterotoma is probably shaped by local selective pressures, such as microclimate, microhabitats, or intensity of competition, rather than by regional ecological conditions. Using our study as an example, we discuss the interest of considering several traits and using different ways of measuring them, concluding that multiple measurements should be performed in future studies to ensure the robustness of the results.

  1. First record of the genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) in Mesoamerica, with the description of two new species from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose L; Whitfield, James B; Smith, M Alex; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    The New World genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps that includes two Nearctic and seven Neotropical species. Here two additional species, authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described from Costa Rica: V.johnnyrosalesi sp. n. from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) and V.randallgarciai sp. n. from Area de Conservación Cordillera Volcanica Central. They represent the first record of the genus for Mesoamerica. A previous key to all known Venanus (Whitfield et al. 2011) is modified to include the new species. The Costa Rican species were collected at altitudes of 1,400-1,460 m, but nothing is known of their biology. DNA barcodes were obtained for both species and are included as part of the description along with extensive photos. This paper is part of a series inventorying the diversity of Microgastrinae in ACG.

  2. First record of the genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) in Mesoamerica, with the description of two new species from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, James B; Smith, M. Alex; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The New World genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps that includes two Nearctic and seven Neotropical species. Here two additional species, authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described from Costa Rica: V. johnnyrosalesi sp. n. from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) and V. randallgarciai sp. n. from Area de Conservación Cordillera Volcanica Central. They represent the first record of the genus for Mesoamerica. A previous key to all known Venanus (Whitfield et al. 2011) is modified to include the new species. The Costa Rican species were collected at altitudes of 1,400–1,460 m, but nothing is known of their biology. DNA barcodes were obtained for both species and are included as part of the description along with extensive photos. This paper is part of a series inventorying the diversity of Microgastrinae in ACG. PMID:25425941

  3. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area.

  4. Biology of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Two Species of Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Groth, M Z; Loeck, A E; Nörnberg, S D; Bernardi, D; Nava, D E

    2016-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg-larval parasitoid used in control programs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In Brazil, C. capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) are considered the main tephritid pests of exotic and indigenous fruits. The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. arisanus in C. capitata and A. fraterculus Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F. arisanus These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg-adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. arisanus was reared in eggs of C. capitata than in those of A. fraterculus However, adults of F. arisanus from eggs of A. fraterculus were heavier and had greater longevity than those obtained from C. capitata eggs. The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. arisanus reared in eggs of C. capitata, although eggs of A. fraterculus also provided positive values for population increase.

  5. Biology of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Two Species of Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Groth, M. Z.; Loeck, A. E.; Nörnberg, S. D.; Bernardi, D.; Nava, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg–larval parasitoid used in control programs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In Brazil, C. capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) are considered the main tephritid pests of exotic and indigenous fruits. The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. arisanus in C. capitata and A. fraterculus. Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F. arisanus. These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg–adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. arisanus was reared in eggs of C. capitata than in those of A. fraterculus. However, adults of F. arisanus from eggs of A. fraterculus were heavier and had greater longevity than those obtained from C. capitata eggs. The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. arisanus reared in eggs of C. capitata, although eggs of A. fraterculus also provided positive values for population increase. PMID:27638954

  6. Baby Killers: Documentation and Evolution of Scuttle Fly (Diptera: Phoridae) Parasitism of Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Brood

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brian V.; Hash, John M.; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. New information We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest. In another remarkable example, footage from the Soltis Center, near Peñas Blancas in Costa Rica, shows adult females of an unidentified species of the Apocephalus grandipalpus Borgmeier group mounting Pheidole Westwood brood upside-down and ovipositing while the brood are being transported by workers. Analysis of evolutionary relationships (in preparation) among Apocephalus Coquillett species shows that this is a newly derived behavior within the genus, as the A. grandipalpus group arises within a group of adult ant parasitoids. In contrast, relationships of Ceratoconus Borgmeier have not been studied, and the lifestyles of the other species in the genus are largely unknown. PMID:28325980

  7. Factors affecting stem borer parasitoid species diversity and parasitism in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane

    2010-02-01

    The effects of biotic and abiotic factors on stem borer parasitoid diversity, abundance, and parasitism were studied in cultivated and natural habitats in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Comparing habitat types, we found partial support for the "natural enemy" hypothesis, whereby, across all localities, parasitoid diversity was higher in more diverse host plant communities in natural habitats, whereas parasitoid abundance was higher in cultivated habitats. For both habitats, parasitoid richness was mainly influenced by stem borer density and/or its interaction with stem borer richness, whereas parasitoid abundance was mainly affected by stem borer abundance. Parasitoid richness was higher in localities (with bimodal rainfall distribution) with increased spatial and temporal availability of host plants that harbored the borers. Across seasons, parasitoid richness was lower in both cultivated and natural habitats in the driest locality, Mtito Andei. Overall, parasitoid diversity was low in Suam and Mtito Andei, where maize cultivation was practiced on a commercial scale and intense grazing activities persist across seasons, respectively. Across localities, habitats, and seasons, stem borer parasitism was positively correlated with parasitoid richness and abundance. Furthermore, the interaction of rainfall and altitude influenced the presence and absence of parasitoids, and consequently, stem borer parasitism. Parasitism was positively and negatively correlated with temperature in cultivated and natural habitats, respectively. Overall, natural habitats seem to serve as important refugia for sustaining parasitoid diversity, which in turn can affect stem borer parasitism in the cereal cropping system.

  8. The Effects of Aphid Traits on Parasitoid Host Use and Specialist Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Gagic, Vesna; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Fründ, Jochen; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Athanassiou, Christos G.; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Željko

    2016-01-01

    Specialization is a central concept in ecology and one of the fundamental properties of parasitoids. Highly specialized parasitoids tend to be more efficient in host-use compared to generalized parasitoids, presumably owing to the trade-off between host range and host-use efficiency. However, it remains unknown how parasitoid host specificity and host-use depends on host traits related to susceptibility to parasitoid attack. To address this question, we used data from a 13-year survey of interactions among 142 aphid and 75 parasitoid species in nine European countries. We found that only aphid traits related to local resource characteristics seem to influence the trade-off between host-range and efficiency: more specialized parasitoids had an apparent advantage (higher abundance on shared hosts) on aphids with sparse colonies, ant-attendance and without concealment, and this was more evident when host relatedness was included in calculation of parasitoid specificity. More traits influenced average assemblage specialization, which was highest in aphids that are monophagous, monoecious, large, highly mobile (easily drop from a plant), without myrmecophily, habitat specialists, inhabit non-agricultural habitats and have sparse colonies. Differences in aphid wax production did not influence parasitoid host specificity and host-use. Our study is the first step in identifying host traits important for aphid parasitoid host specificity and host-use and improves our understanding of bottom-up effects of aphid traits on aphid-parasitoid food web structure. PMID:27309729

  9. Self-Injection of a Dipteran Parasitoid into a Spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overgaard Nielsen, B.; Funch, P.; Toft, S.

    A host invasion strategy hitherto unknown from other insect parasitoids was observed in the dipteran Acrocera orbicula (Fabricius) (Diptera: Acroceridae) parasitizing the wolf spider, Pardosa prativaga (L. Koch) (Araneida: Lycosidae). In laboratory experiments the free-living first instar acrocerid larvae attached themselves firmly to the spiders' integument by the mouthparts, cutting a tiny hole through the integument. No first instar larvae invaded the host. A week later the parasitoids molted, and a small, flexible, and glabrous second instar larva left each of the attached first instar exuviae and invaded the host through the attachment hole of the first instar larva. The novel host invasion pattern observed may reduce physical damage to the host in the initial phase of endoparasitism, enhancing parasitoid survival.

  10. Immature development of Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development from egg to pupation was followed for the wasp Eretmocerus mundus parasitizing the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. This, first time study covered the histological developments and changes that the different parasitoid and host tissues have undergone during parasitism. In this work we eluci...

  11. Lobesia botrana larvae develop faster in the presence of parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Thiery, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host-parasite dynamics.

  12. Lobesia botrana Larvae Develop Faster in the Presence of Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Thiery, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    To combat parasitism hosts often rely on their immune system, which is the last line of defense. However, the immune system may not always be effective, and other non-immunological defenses might be favored to reduce the cost of parasite infection. Here we report that larvae of the moth Lobesia botrana can rapidly accelerate their development and reach maturity earlier in response to cues perceived at a distance from parasitoids. Such a phenotypically plastic life history shift, induced by the perception of deadly enemies in the environment, is likely to be an adaptive defensive strategy to prevent parasitoid attack, and has important implications in host–parasite dynamics. PMID:24015260

  13. Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Whitfield, James B; Smith, M Alex; Kula, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for Pseudapantelesbrunneus, only known from a single male), and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae). DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene) were obtained for 30 species (83%), and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software) and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapantelesmoerens (Nixon, 1965), comb. n., Pseudapantelesbrunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapantelesruficollis (Cameron, 1911), and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield): alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei.

  14. Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Whitfield, James B.; Smith, M. Alex; Kula, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for Pseudapanteles brunneus, only known from a single male), and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae). DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene) were obtained for 30 species (83%), and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software) and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965), comb. n., Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911), and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield): alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei. PMID:25349512

  15. Hymenopteran parasitoids of forensic importance: host associations, seasonality, and prevalence of parasitoids of carrion flies in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Voss, Sasha C; Spafford, Helen; Dadour, Ian R

    2009-09-01

    A 2-yr survey of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with carrion-breeding flies was conducted to establish the parasitoid species of potential forensic significance in Western Australia. Host associations, seasonality, and rates of parasitism in the field were examined to assess the value of the identified parasitoids as forensic indicators of time since death. Four species of parasitoid emerged from dipteran specimens collected from carcasses: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encryptidae), Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Spilomicrus sp. (Diapriidae), and Aphaereta sp. (Braconidae). Overall parasitism of carrion-breeding flies was 11.8%. T. zealandicus and N. vitripennis were the predominant species, accounting for 86.3 and 11.5% of parasitism observed, respectively. In contrast, Aphaereta sp. and Spilomicrus sp. were intermittently collected from carcasses throughout the study and the parasitism rates of both species were low (< or = 3.0%). Our findings provide forensically important biological and behavioral data of parasitoid-host interactions within carcass environments. The cosmopolitan parasitoids T. zealandicus and N. vitripennis have the greatest potential as indicators of time since death in forensic investigations based on their broad host ranges, rates of parasitism, and seasonal prevalence. In combination, these two species are present throughout the year and they parasitized nearly all of the dipteran species that colonize carcasses. Because both are cosmopolitan species, the data presented here are applicable to regions experiencing a similar Mediterranean climate. This work reports the first incidence of T. zealandicus and N. vitripennis parasitizing the dipteran species Calliphora albifrontalis Malloch (Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart (Calliphoridae), and Hydrotaea rostrata Robineau-Desvoidy (Muscidae).

  16. Performance of diapausing parasitoid wasps, Habrobracon hebetor, after cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important potential biological control agent for lepidopterous pests of stored products. We investigated the effects of long-term cold storage of diapausing and non-diapausing H. hebetor on their performance after cold storag...

  17. Local and Landscape Drivers of Parasitoid Abundance, Richness, and Composition in Urban Gardens.

    PubMed

    Burks, Julia M; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-03-08

    Urbanization negatively affects biodiversity, yet some urban habitat features can support diversity. Parasitoid wasps, an abundant and highly diverse group of arthropods, can inhabit urban areas and do well in areas with higher host abundance, floral resources, or local or landscape complexity. Parasitoids provide biological control services in many agricultural habitats, yet few studies have examined diversity and abundance of parasitoids in urban agroecosystems to understand how to promote conservation and function. We examined the local habitat and landscape drivers of parasitoid abundance, superfamily and family richness, and parasitoid composition in urban gardens in the California central coast. Local factors included garden size, ground cover type, herbaceous plant species, and number of trees and shrubs. Landscape characteristics included land cover and landscape diversity around gardens. We found that garden size, mulch cover, and urban cover within 500 m of gardens predicted increases in parasitoid abundance within gardens. The height of herbaceous vegetation and tree and shrub richness predicted increases in superfamily and family richness whereas increases in urban cover resulted in declines in parasitoid richness. Abundance of individual superfamilies and families responded to a wide array of local and landscape factors, sometimes in opposite ways. Composition of parasitoid communities responded to changes in garden size, herbaceous plant cover, and number of flowers. Thus, both local scale management and landscape planning may impact the abundance, diversity, and community composition of parasitoids in urban gardens, and may result in differences in the effectiveness of parasitoids in biological control.

  18. Multiple ant species tending lac insect Kerria yunnanensis (Hemiptera: Kerriidae) provide asymmetric protection against parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youqing; Lu, Zhixing; Li, Qiao; Hoffmann, Benjamin D; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ant attendance on the parasitoid community and parasitism of lac insect Kerria yunnanensis aggregations in Yunnan province, China. We manipulated ant attendance to establish three treatments: (1) ant exclusion; (2) low ant attendance by several ant species; and (3) high ant attendance by Crematogaster macaoensis. Five parasitoid species were collected, with two species contributing 82.7 and 13.2% of total abundance respectively. Total parasitoid abundance was lowest in the February sample when K. yunnanensis was in its younger life stage, being significantly lower in the ant exclusion treatment. In April, all three treatments had significantly different parasitoid abundances, being highest in the ant exclusion treatment and the lowest in the high ant attendance treatment. When ants were present, there were strong negative relationships between total parasitoid abundance and ant abundance, with the relationships being dependent upon the ant species composition and abundance. The patterns of total parasitoid abundance were driven by the two most abundant parasitoid species. Parasitoid species richness did not differ among treatments or between sample times, however, multivariate analysis confirmed that overall parasitoid community structure differed significantly among treatments and between sample times, with the high ant attendance treatment differing most from the other two treatments. Interestingly the absence of ants did not result in increased parasitism from four of the five parasitoids. Ants in lac insect farming systems have a clear role for agricultural pest management. A full understanding of the asymmetric abilities of ants to influence parasitoid communities, and affect parasitism of hosts will require further experimental manipulation to assess the relative roles of 1) the abundance of each individual ant species on parasitoid access to hosts, 2) competition among parasitoids, and 3) the interaction between the

  19. Testing the habituation assumption underlying models of parasitoid foraging behavior

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Katrina; Colazza, Stefano; Peri, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    Background Habituation, a form of non-associative learning, has several well-defined characteristics that apply to a wide range of physiological and behavioral responses in many organisms. In classic patch time allocation models, habituation is considered to be a major mechanistic component of parasitoid behavioral strategies. However, parasitoid behavioral responses to host cues have not previously been tested for the known, specific characteristics of habituation. Methods In the laboratory, we tested whether the foraging behavior of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis shows specific characteristics of habituation in response to consecutive encounters with patches of host (Nezara viridula) chemical contact cues (footprints), in particular: (i) a training interval-dependent decline in response intensity, and (ii) a training interval-dependent recovery of the response. Results As would be expected of a habituated response, wasps trained at higher frequencies decreased their behavioral response to host footprints more quickly and to a greater degree than those trained at low frequencies, and subsequently showed a more rapid, although partial, recovery of their behavioral response to host footprints. This putative habituation learning could not be blocked by cold anesthesia, ingestion of an ATPase inhibitor, or ingestion of a protein synthesis inhibitor. Discussion Our study provides support for the assumption that diminishing responses of parasitoids to chemical indicators of host presence constitutes habituation as opposed to sensory fatigue, and provides a preliminary basis for exploring the underlying mechanisms. PMID:28321365

  20. Fire ant microsporidia acquired by parasitoid flies of fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microsporidium Kneallhazia (formerly Thelohania) solenopsae and parasitoid flies in the genus Pseudacteon are natural enemies of the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Pseudacteon flies oviposit into adult fire ants, where maggots that eclose from eggs migrate to the ants’ head, pupate, and...

  1. PARASITOID VENOM INDUCES METABOLIC CASCADES IN FLY HOSTS

    PubMed Central

    Mrinalini; Siebert, Aisha L.; Wright, Jeremy; Martinson, Ellen; Wheeler, David; Werren, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps inject insect hosts with a cocktail of venoms to manipulate the physiology, development, and immunity of the hosts and to promote development of the parasitoid offspring. The jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis is a model parasitoid with at least 79 venom proteins. We conducted a high-throughput analysis of Nasonia venom effects on temporal changes of 249 metabolites in pupae of the flesh fly host (Sarcophaga bullata), over a five-day time course. Our results show that venom does not simply arrest the metabolism of the fly host. Rather, it targets specific metabolic processes while keeping hosts alive for at least five days post venom injection by the wasp. We found that venom: (a) Activates the sorbitol biosynthetic pathway while maintaining stable glucose levels, (b) Causes a shift in intermediary metabolism by switching to anaerobic metabolism and blocking the tricarboxylic acid cycle, (c) Arrests chitin biosynthesis that likely reflects developmental arrest of adult fly structures, (d) Elevates the majority of free amino acids, and (e) May be increasing phospholipid degradation. Despite sharing some metabolic effects with cold treatment, diapause, and hypoxia, the venom response is distinct from these conditions. Because Nasonia venom dramatically increases sorbitol levels without changing glucose levels, it could be a useful model for studying the regulation of the sorbitol pathway, which is relevant to diabetes research. Our findings generally support the view that parasitoid venoms are a rich source of bioactive molecules with potential biomedical applications. PMID:27867325

  2. First foreign exploration for asian parasitoids of Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Dipt.: Drosophilidae), is a native of East Asia and is now widely established in North America and Europe, where it is a serious pest of small and stone fruit crops. The lack of effective indigenous parasitoids of D. suzukii in the ...

  3. Evidence for specificity in symbiont-conferred protection against parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Ailsa H. C.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Many insects harbour facultative symbiotic bacteria, some of which have been shown to provide resistance against natural enemies. One of the best-known protective symbionts is Hamiltonella defensa, which in pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) confers resistance against attack by parasitoid wasps in the genus Aphidius (Braconidae). We asked (i) whether this symbiont also confers protection against a phylogenetically distant group of parasitoids (Aphelinidae) and (ii) whether there are consistent differences in the effects of bacteria found in pea aphid biotypes adapted to different host plants. We found that some H. defensa strains do provide protection against an aphelinid parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis. Hamiltonella defensa from the Lotus biotype provided high resistance to A. abdominalis and moderate to low resistance to Aphidius ervi, while the reverse was seen from Medicago biotype isolates. Aphids from Ononis showed no evidence of symbiont-mediated protection against either wasp species and were relatively vulnerable to both. Our results may reflect the different selection pressures exerted by the parasitoid community on aphids feeding on different host plants, and could help explain the maintenance of genetic diversity in bacterial symbionts. PMID:26136451

  4. Preventive control of aphids in ornamental plants with complementary parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Dassonville, N; Thielemans, T; Ruisinger, M; Rosemeyer, V

    2012-01-01

    Biological control of aphids can be achieved with parasitoids. A parasitoid is a wasp able to parasitize aphids in a host-specific way. These natural enemies of aphids are used in organic or integrated pest management strategies. In order to apply the matching parasitoid against a given aphid species, the aphid has to be detected in the crop and subsequently identified. By the time the aphids are spotted by the grower and then identified by himself or a specialist, it is usually more difficult to gain control over an increasing aphid population. Viridaxis developed a new concept of aphid control, based not on the species identified but on the crop treated. There was a need for a product controlling the largest possible spectrum of aphid species susceptibly present in ornamental crops. As the first step of development, an inventory of the aphid species attacking ornamental crops was made in various regions. A unique cocktail of parasitoids species (OrnaProtect) controlling all these aphids was then developed. OrnaProtect contains six different species of natural aphid enemies, and is able to control all commonly appearing aphids attacking ornamental crops. The fact of mixing different species not only covers the entire spectrum of aphids, but also contributes to prolonged hatching. To reinforce this long lasting emergence, mummies of different ages are mixed, older mummies (stored at low temperature) emerging earlier after release than young mummies. With that prolonged hatching dynamics, a release every two weeks assures a permanent presence of fresh adult parasitoids in the crop. The ready-to-use units of OrnaProtect contain an integrated feeding point which contributes to longevity and efficiency of the parasitoids. Its application in the crop is much faster than even any chemical treatment. Here, we show the results of trials made with OrnaProtect in 2011 on several crops (Hydrangea macrophylla, Solanum jasminoides, Argyranthemum frutescens and Osteospermum

  5. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3–5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6–7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2–5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6–7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

  6. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  7. Effects of prior experience on host selection and host utilization by two populations of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Mukti N; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-10-01

    The effect of adult learning through an oviposition and host feeding experience was studied in two populations of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), in choice and no-choice experiments in the laboratory using last instars of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L., and lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), as hosts. In choice experiments, 20 wheat kernels infested by rice weevil and 20 by lesser grain borer were placed randomly in petri dish (15 by 100 mm) arenas. In no-choice experiments, 10 host-infested wheat kernels, either with rice weevils or with lesser grain borers, were mixed thoroughly in 500 g of uninfested wheat placed in a 0.945-liter glass jar (75 by 170 mm) arenas. A. calandrae females from a laboratory and field populations that were experienced with host larvae or naïve were introduced singly into each experimental arena and allowed to sting and oviposit for 24 h. An oviposition experience with rice weevil or lesser grain borer had a stronger effect on host preference in choice experiments compared with experiments with naïve wasps. Host-finding and parasitism rates were increased by prior experience with rice weevils in no-choice experiments. A. calandrae females clearly preferred rice weevil larvae for parasitization over larvae of lesser grain borer regardless of parasitoid population or prior experience. Also, A. calandrae females chose rice weevil larvae for producing female progeny and lesser grain borer for male progeny in choice experiments. The implications of the results of this study are discussed in relation to host preference and the selection of parasitoid populations for biological control programs in stored grains.

  8. Review of the Chinese Leucospidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin-hai; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Yue, Qi; Xu, Zai-fu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese fauna of the family Leucospidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) is reviewed and illustrated for the first time. Twelve species of Leucospis Fabricius, 1775 are recorded; of which two species are new to science: Leucospis aequidentata sp. n. and Leucospis shaanxiensis sp. n. and one species is reported new for China: Leucospis intermedia Illiger, 1807. An identification key to Chinese species is included. A lectotype is designated for Leucospis aurantiaca Shestakov, 1923. PMID:28331388

  9. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, 'Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)' comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe.

  10. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: Is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the US Southwest?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower stem weevils (Cylindrocopturus adspersus) and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states in 2003 and 2005. Native H. annuus constituted the major...

  11. New parasitoid-predator associations: female parasitoids do not avoid competition with generalist predators when sharing invasive prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Wajnberg, Eric; Zhou, Yuxiang; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Optimal habitat selection is essential for species survival in ecosystems, and interspecific competition is a key ecological mechanism for many observed species association patterns. Specialized animal species are commonly affected by resource and interference competition with generalist and/or omnivorous competitors, so avoidance behavior could be expected. We hypothesize that specialist species may exploit broad range cues from such potential resource competitors (i.e., cues possibly common to various generalist and/or omnivorous predators) to avoid costly competition regarding food or reproduction, even in new species associations. We tested this hypothesis by studying short-term interactions between a native larval parasitoid and a native generalist omnivorous predator recently sharing the same invasive host/prey, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta. We observed a strong negative effect of kleptoparasitism (food resource stealing) instead of classical intraguild predation on immature parasitoids. There was no evidence that parasitoid females avoided the omnivorous predator when searching for oviposition sites, although we studied both long- and short-range known detection mechanisms. Therefore, we conclude that broad range cue avoidance may not exist in our biological system, probably because it would lead to too much oviposition site avoidance which would not be an efficient and, thus, beneficial strategy. If confirmed in other parasitoids or specialist predators, our findings may have implications for population dynamics, especially in the current context of increasing invasive species and the resulting creation of many new species associations.

  12. Parasitism and Food Web Structure in Defoliating Lepidoptera - Parasitoid Communities on Soybean.

    PubMed

    Avalos, D S; Mangeaud, A; Valladares, G R

    2016-12-01

    Food webs are usually regarded as snapshots of community feeding interactions. Here, we describe the yearly and cumulative structure of parasitoid-caterpillar food webs on soybean in central Argentina, analyzing parasitism rates and their variability in relation to parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability in the system. Lepidoptera larvae were collected along four seasons from soybean crops and reared in laboratory to obtain and identify adults and parasitoids. Eleven species of defoliating Lepidoptera and ten parasitoid species were recorded. Food web statistics showed rather low annual variability, with most variation coefficients in the order of 0.20 and generality showing the most stable values. Parasitism showed the highest variability, which was independent of parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability, although parasitism rates were negatively related to parasitoid richness. Our study highlights the need to consider food web structure and variability in order to understand the functioning of ecological communities in general and in extensive agricultural ecosystems in particular.

  13. African parasitoid fig wasp diversification is a function of Ficus species ranges.

    PubMed

    McLeish, Michael J; van Noort, Simon; Tolley, Krystal A

    2010-10-01

    Host specificity is a fundamental property implicit in obligate insect-plant associations. Rigid life history constraints exhibited by parasitoid fig wasps are believed to select for specialization directed at fig trees and this is supported by evidence of phenotypic adaptation to figs and partial co-speciation with the fig wasps they attack. Conversely, the ability to colonize such novel communities occurs under relaxed specificity, a behavior typified by more generalist groups such as parasitoids. The specificity directed towards Ficus species by Sycoryctinae parasitoid fig wasps is important in order to understand how this form of specialization influences their diversification and interactions with other fig wasp guilds. We use genetic distance analyses and reconstruct ancestral patterns of Ficus trait association with two genera of Sycoryctinae parasitoid fig wasps to identify evolutionary conservatism in Ficus species utilization. Ancestral state reconstructions of (i) affiliate Ficus subsection and (ii) syconia diameters of natal Ficus species indicate contrasting Ficus species ranges between Arachonia and Sycoryctes parasitoid genera. This work demonstrates that parasitoid speciation is not tightly constrained to Ficus speciation and rather a function of Ficus range limitations. Ficus evolution, ecology, and functional compatibility between parasitoid and Ficus traits appear to constrain parasitoid Ficus utilization. These results suggest that contrasting ecological settings and potential number of hosts available impose different ramifications for the evolution of parasitoid host specificity and so to the species interactions within the communities to which they belong.

  14. Host instar susceptibility and selection and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococccidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acerophagus papayae, Anagyrus loecki, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana, three introduced parasitoids of Paracoccus marginatus were investigated for host stage susceptibility and sex ratio, host stage suitability, and interspecific competition. All three parasitoid species were able to develop and emer...

  15. Effects of an ascovirus (HvAV-3e) on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and evidence for virus transmission by a larval parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Michael J; Asgari, Sassan

    2010-02-01

    Ascoviruses (AVs) are pathogenic to lepidopteran larvae, and most commonly attack species in the Noctuidae. The unique pathology includes cleavage of host cells into virion-containing vesicles which leads to the milky white colouration of the hemolymph as opposed to the clear hemolymph of healthy larvae. Recently, we showed that a Heliothis virescens AV (HvAV-3e) isolate is able to induce disease in Crocidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), affecting feeding, growth and survival of infected larvae. In this study, we investigated the effect of different variants of HvAV-3e on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae, another non-noctuid host. In hemolymph inoculation bioassays fourth instar larvae showed a significant dose response to each of the HvAV-3e variants and significant differences between the virulence of the three variants were detected. Both second and fourth instars were readily infected with the virus and infected individuals demonstrated significant reductions in food consumption and growth. The majority of infected individuals died at the larval or pupal stage and individuals which developed into adults were usually deformed, less fecund than non-infected controls and died shortly after emergence. In transmission studies, Diadegmasemiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a key parasitoid of diamondback moth, infected healthy host larvae during oviposition following previous attack of HvAV-3e infected hosts. In choice tests D. semiclausum did not discriminate between infected individuals but host infection had no detectable impact on the development of immature D. semiclausum or on subsequent adults.

  16. Factors affecting the flight capacity of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a classical biological control agent of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Fahrner, Samuel J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Blaedow, Karen; Heimpel, George E; Aukema, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    The dispersal characteristics of a biological control agent can have direct implications on the ability of that agent to control populations of a target host. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a parasitic wasp native to eastern Asia that has been introduced into the United States as part of a classical biological control program against the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). We used computer-monitored flight mills to investigate the role of age, feeding status, mating status, and size on the flight capacity of female T. planipennisi over a 24-h period. We also compared flight capacity between sexes. Flight distance of female T. planipennisi representative of populations released in the biological control program averaged 1.26 km in 24 h with a maximum flight of just over 7 km. Median flight distance, however, was 422 m. The flight capacity of females fed a honey-water solution was 41× that of females provided only water, who flew very little. Larger females were capable of flying farther distances, but age did not affect the flight capacity of females up to 70 d posteclosion. Females dispersed 6× farther than did their smaller, male counterparts. The implications of our findings to host-parasitoid interactions and release protocols for distributing T. planipennisi are discussed.

  17. The preimaginal phases and development of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D; Fernández, Severiano

    2009-10-01

    The development and morphology of the immature phases of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae) using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is granulated, and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The labrum of the first instar larva does not have sensilla, and the second to fourth instar larvae have setae on the head. The mature larva is characterized by the position and number of the integumental differentiations (sensilla and setae). On completion of larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. As for the adult, the mandibles of the pupae are toothed. Five larval instars are recorded, based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles in combination with characters such as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was 18-20 days for males and 21-23 days for females at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 relative humidity, and a 16L:8D photoperiod. The results show that the eggs and different larval instars of this parasitoid can be unambiguously identified only by scanning electron microscope.

  18. Functional Response, Prey Stage Preference, and Mutual Interference of the Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Tomato and Bell Pepper.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Campos-Figueroa, Manuel; Silva, Adrian; Henne, Donald C

    2015-04-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (šulc), has been detrimental to potato, tomato, and other solanaceous crop production in many countries. Management of B. cockerelli is dominated by frequent insecticide applications, but other approaches need consideration, including biological control. The sole arrhenotokous ectoparasitoid of nymphal potato psyllids is Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Here, laboratory evaluations of host stage preference, parasitoid mutual interference, and functional response of T. triozae were conducted with varying host B. cockerelli nymphal stages and densities on both tomato and bell pepper plant leaves. Significant differences in prey stage preferences were found on both host plants. In a no-choice host stage test, significantly greater parasitism of fourth- and fifth-instar B. cockerelli nymphs occurred, and no parasitism of first or second instars was found. Similar preferences were found in a host stage choice test. Effect of mutual interference on per capita female parasitism was significant when confining two or three simultaneously ovipositing female T. triozae adults on a given host density versus solitary females. The per capita search efficiency (s) of female T. triozae was significantly and negatively correlated with T. triozae density. The functional response of T. triozae to nymphal B. cockerelli was a Type III form on both host plants. In addition, host plant type did not exert a significant bottom-up effect on either parasitism or functional response of female T. triozae. The feasibility of using bell pepper as a potential banker plant for T. triozae augmentation is also discussed.

  19. Virus-like particles in the ovaries of Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): comparison of biotypes from Morocco and Europe.

    PubMed

    Barratt, B I P; Murney, R; Easingwood, R; Ward, V K

    2006-01-01

    Virus-like particles (MaVLP) have been discovered in the ovarial epithelial cells of the solitary, koinobiont, endoparasitoid, Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) introduced to New Zealand originally from Morocco to control the lucerne pest Sitona discoideus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). MaVLP have been found in all females examined. It has been suggested, although not demonstrated, that like many other such VLP found in parasitoids, MaVLP might play a role in host immunosuppression. Since another biotype of M. aethiopoides from Ireland has been proposed for introduction to control the white clover pest, Sitona lepidus Gyllenhal, in New Zealand, it was considered that females from this biotype warranted transmission electron microscope examination for VLP. No VLP were observed in ovarian tissues of specimens collected from three different locations in Ireland. Similarly, none were found in M. aethiopoides sourced from France, Wales, and Norway. These observations are discussed in relation to quarantine host specificity tests with the Irish biotype, which found that the host range of the Irish biotype is likely to be less extensive than that of the Moroccan biotype already in New Zealand.

  20. Evaluation of Aprostocetus hagenowii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for the control of American cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) in sewers and crevices around buildings.

    PubMed

    Tee, Hui-Siang; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to control American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), in sewer manholes and in crevices around buildings. Parasitoids were released weekly for 12 wk from laboratory parasitized heat-killed oothecae, and parasitism monitored using sentinel oothecae of American cockroaches. In addition, preference of A. hagenowii for 1- to 4-wk-old oothecae was evaluated in the laboratory. A. hagenowii females showed no preference for any ootheca age. Twenty of the 30 tested females parasitized one ootheca, whereas the other 10 parasitized two oothecae. The total progeny (males, females, and total) that emerged from a single ootheca parasitized by a female was not significantly different to the total progeny that emerged from two oothecae parasitized by a female. The number of males, females, and total progeny that emerged from the second parasitized ootheca was significantly less than the number that emerged from the first parasitized ootheca. The weekly mean sentinel oothecal parasitism rate in wall crevices was 18.1 +/- 3.2% and in sewer manholes was 13.3 +/- 2.0%. The mean number of released A. hagenowii females per number of parasitized sentinel oothecae recorded in crevices was 189 +/- 18, whereas it was 428 +/- 50 in sewers. A. hagenowii females were more effective at parasitizing sentinel oothecae placed at high and middle levels in manholes than at a low level when releases were made at the midpoint of the manhole shaft.

  1. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  2. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus.

    PubMed

    Vega, Fernando E; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J; Chaves, Fabio C; Peterson, Stephen W

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  3. A new Tanaostigmodes Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Tanaostigmatidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perioto, N W; Lara, R I R

    2013-05-01

    Tanaostigmodes horacioi sp. nov. Perioto & Lara (Hymenoptera, Tanaostigmatidae) from Brazil is described and illustrated. T. horacioi is the second included species in the insculptus species group of Tanaostigmodes Ashmead, 1896. A key to species of the insculptus group is provided.

  4. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid’s immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present

  5. Describing a multitrophic plant-herbivore-parasitoid system at four spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuautle, M.; Parra-Tabla, V.

    2014-02-01

    Herbivore-parasitoid interactions must be studied using a multitrophic and multispecies approach. The strength and direction of multiple effects through trophic levels may change across spatial scales. In this work, we use the herbaceous plant Ruellia nudiflora, its moth herbivore Tripudia quadrifera, and several parasitoid morphospecies that feed on the herbivore to answer the following questions: Do herbivore and parasitoid attack levels vary depending on the spatial scale considered? With which plant characteristics are the parasitoid and the herbivore associated? Do parasitoid morphospecies vary in the magnitude of their positive indirect effect on plant reproduction? We evaluated three approximations of herbivore and parasitoid abundance (raw numbers, ratios, and attack rates) at four spatial scales: regional (three different regions which differ in terms of abiotic and biotic characteristics); population (i.e. four populations within each region); patch (four 1 m2 plots in each population); and plant level (using a number of plant characteristics). Finally, we determined whether parasitoids have a positive indirect effect on plant reproductive success (seed number). Herbivore and parasitoid numbers differed at three of the spatial scales considered. However, herbivore/fruit ratio and attack rates did not differ at the population level. Parasitoid/host ratio and attack rates did not differ at any scale, although there was a tendency of a higher attack in one region. At the plant level, herbivore and parasitoid abundances were related to different plant traits, varying the importance and the direction (positive or negative) of those traits. In addition, only one parasitoid species (Bracon sp.) had a positive effect on plant fitness saving up to 20% of the seeds in a fruit. These results underline the importance of knowing the scales that are relevant to organisms at different trophic levels and distinguish between the specific effects of species.

  6. Laterally Transferred Gene Recruited as a Venom in Parasitoid Wasps.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Ellen O; Martinson, Vincent G; Edwards, Rachel; Mrinalini; Werren, John H

    2016-04-01

    Parasitoid wasps use venom to manipulate the immunity and metabolism of their host insects in a variety of ways to provide resources for their offspring. Yet, how genes are recruited and evolve to perform venom functions remain open questions. A recently recognized source of eukaryotic genome innovation is lateral gene transfer (LGT). Glycoside hydrolase family 19 (GH19) chitinases are widespread in bacteria, microsporidia, and plants where they are used in nutrient acquisition or defense, but have previously not been known in metazoans. In this study, a GH19 chitinase LGT is described from the unicellular microsporidia/Rozella clade into parasitoid wasps of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, where it has become recruited as a venom protein. The GH19 chitinase is present in 15 species of chalcidoid wasps representing four families, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it was laterally transferred near or before the origin of Chalcidoidea (∼95 Ma). The GH19 chitinase gene is highly expressed in the venom gland of at least seven species, indicating a role in the complex host manipulations performed by parasitoid wasp venom. RNAi knockdown in the model parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis reveals that-following envenomation-the GH19 chitinase induces fly hosts to upregulate genes involved in an immune response to fungi. A second, independent LGT of GH19 chitinase from microsporidia into mosquitoes was also found, also supported by phylogenetic reconstructions. Besides these two LGT events, GH19 chitinase is not found in any other sequenced animal genome, or in any fungi outside the microsporidia/Rozella clade.

  7. Plant-mediated resource partitioning by coexisting parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xinqiang; Yang, Yangheshan; Yang, Yonghua; Segoli, Michal; Sun, Shucun

    2017-03-29

    Although it has been frequently suggested that resource partitioning of species coexisting at the same trophic level can be mediated by interactions with species at non-adjacent trophic levels, empirical evidence supporting this claim is scarce. Here we demonstrate that plants may mediate resource partitioning for two parasitoids that share the same herbivorous host. The tephritid fly Tephritis femoralis is the primary pre-dispersal seed predator of two Asteraceae species, Saussurea nigrescens and Anaphalis flavescens, both of which dominate the plant community in the alpine meadows of the Tibetan Plateau. Field surveys and molecular barcoding analyses showed that the identity of the fly's main predator depended on the plant in which the fly developed. Tephritid flies that developed in S. nigrescens were preyed upon mainly by the parasitoid wasp Pteromalus albipennis, while the parasitoid Mesopolobus sp. was the main predator of flies that developed in A. flavescens. Microcosm experiments revealed that P. albipennis could not exploit the host flies within the capitula of A. flavescens due to food limitation (capitula are too small), while Mesopolobus sp. could not exploit the host flies within the capitula of S. nigrescens due to its inability to reach the host with its ovipositor (capitula are too large). Such bottom-up control of plant species traits may facilitate the coexistence of parasitoid wasps sharing a common host in this system. We suggest that interactions between non-adjacent trophic levels may potentially promote species coexistence and diversity in biological communities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Scanning electron microscopy studies of antennal sensilla of Pteromalus cerealellae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2008-07-01

    Pteromalus cerealellae (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is an ectoparasitoid of several insect pests of stored products. In order to provide requisite background information to support our ongoing research on its host location mechanisms, we examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of this parasitoid using scanning electron microscopy. Antennae of male and female P. cerealellae are geniculate in shape, approximately 1300mum in length, and consist of 15 antennomeres. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in both sexes, including four types of the highly abundant and widely distributed sensilla trichodea (types I, II and IV are aporous while type III is multiporous), basiconic capitate peg sensilla, coeloconic sensilla, chaetica sensilla, and the most conspicuous plate-like placoid sensilla. Detailed examination of sensilla morphological features including pore presence and numbers suggest that the multiporous type III sensilla trichodea and the multiporous placoid sensilla may play a role in olfaction, whereas the uniporous chaetica sensilla may function as contact chemoreceptors. The types I and II sensilla trichodea are presumably mechanosensory, while the type IV sensilla trichodea may function as proprioceptors. The basiconic capitate peg sensilla and coeloconic sensilla probably function in thermo-hygro reception. Although the shape, structure, and size of antennae of males and female were basically similar, major differences were recorded between the sexes in the distribution of some sensilla types. The type II sensilla trichodea and the multiporous placoid sensilla are relatively more abundant in females, whereas males have greater number of the multiporous type III sensil