Science.gov

Sample records for hymneoptera apidae hives

  1. An experiment on comb orientation by honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in traditional hives.

    PubMed

    Adgaba, Nuru; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Chernet, Mebrat H; Ali, Yahya A; Ansari, Mohammad J; Radloff, Sarah E; Howard, Randall H

    2012-06-01

    The orientation of combs in traditional beehives is extremely important for obtaining a marketable honey product. However, the factors that could determine comb orientation in traditional hives and the possibilities of inducing honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.), to construct more desirable combs have not been investigated. The goal of this experiment was to determine whether guide marks in traditional hives can induce bees to build combs of a desired orientation. Thirty-two traditional hives of uniform dimensions were used in the experiment. In 24 hives, ridges were formed on the inner surfaces of the hives with fermented mud to obtain different orientations, circular, horizontal, and spiral, with eight replicates of each treatment. In the remaining eight control hives, the inner surface was left smooth. Thirty-two well-established honey bee colonies from other traditional hives were transferred to the prepared hives. The colonies were randomly assigned to the four treatment groups. The manner of comb construction in the donor and experimental hives was recorded. The results showed that 22 (91.66%) of the 24 colonies in the treated groups built combs along the ridges provided, whereas only 2 (8.33%) did not. Comb orientation was strongly associated with the type of guide marks provided. Moreover, of the 18 colonies that randomly fell to patterns different from those of their previous nests, 17 (94.4%) followed the guide marks provided, irrespective of the comb orientation type in their previous nest. Thus, comb orientation appears to be governed by the inner surface pattern of the nest cavity. The results suggest that even in fixed-comb hives, honey bees can be guided to build combs with orientations suitable to honey harvesting, without affecting the colonies.

  2. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of the Invasive Ants in Hives of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Simoes, M R; Giannotti, E; Tofolo, V C; Pizano, M A; Firmino, E L B; Antonialli-Junior, W F; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M

    2016-02-01

    Apiculture in Brazil is quite profitable and has great potential for expansion because of the favorable climate and abundancy of plant diversity. However, the occurrence of pests, diseases, and parasites hinders the growth and profitability of beekeeping. In the interior of the state of São Paulo, apiaries are attacked by ants, especially the species Camponotus atriceps (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which use the substances produced by Apis mellifera scutellata (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), like honey, wax, pollen, and offspring as a source of nourishment for the adult and immature ants, and kill or expel the adult bees during the invasion. This study aimed to understand the invasion of C. atriceps in hives of A. m. scutellata. The individuals were classified into castes and subcastes according to morphometric analyses, and their cuticular chemical compounds were identified using Photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). The morphometric analyses were able to classify the individuals into reproductive castes (queen and gynes), workers (minor and small ants), and the soldier subcaste (medium and major ants). Identification of cuticular hydrocarbons of these individuals revealed that the eight beehives were invaded by only three colonies of C. atriceps; one of the colonies invaded only one beehive, and the other two colonies underwent a process called sociotomy and were responsible for the invasion of the other seven beehives. The lack of preventive measures and the nocturnal behavior of the ants favored the invasion and attack on the bees. PMID:26563402

  3. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of the Invasive Ants in Hives of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Simoes, M R; Giannotti, E; Tofolo, V C; Pizano, M A; Firmino, E L B; Antonialli-Junior, W F; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M

    2016-02-01

    Apiculture in Brazil is quite profitable and has great potential for expansion because of the favorable climate and abundancy of plant diversity. However, the occurrence of pests, diseases, and parasites hinders the growth and profitability of beekeeping. In the interior of the state of São Paulo, apiaries are attacked by ants, especially the species Camponotus atriceps (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which use the substances produced by Apis mellifera scutellata (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), like honey, wax, pollen, and offspring as a source of nourishment for the adult and immature ants, and kill or expel the adult bees during the invasion. This study aimed to understand the invasion of C. atriceps in hives of A. m. scutellata. The individuals were classified into castes and subcastes according to morphometric analyses, and their cuticular chemical compounds were identified using Photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). The morphometric analyses were able to classify the individuals into reproductive castes (queen and gynes), workers (minor and small ants), and the soldier subcaste (medium and major ants). Identification of cuticular hydrocarbons of these individuals revealed that the eight beehives were invaded by only three colonies of C. atriceps; one of the colonies invaded only one beehive, and the other two colonies underwent a process called sociotomy and were responsible for the invasion of the other seven beehives. The lack of preventive measures and the nocturnal behavior of the ants favored the invasion and attack on the bees.

  4. Trapping of Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) from Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies with an in-hive baited trap.

    PubMed

    Torto, Baldwyn; Arbogast, Richard T; Van Engelsdorp, Dennis; Willms, Steven; Purcell, Dusti; Boucias, Drion; Tumlinson, James H; Teal, Peter E A

    2007-10-01

    The effectiveness of two lures for trapping the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, by means of in-hive traps was tested by field trials in apiaries located in Florida, Delaware, and Pennsylvania during 2003-2005. Both lures included a mixture (pollen dough) consisting of bee pollen and commercial pollen substitute formulated with or without glycerol and honey. Before it was used in the traps, the dough was conditioned either by the feeding of adult small hive beetles or by inoculation with the yeast Kodamaea ohmeri (NRRL Y-30722). Traps baited with conditioned dough captured significantly more beetles than unbaited traps, and traps positioned under the bottom board of a hive captured significantly more beetles than traps located at the top of a hive. In fact, baited in-hive bottom board traps nearly eliminated the beetles from colonies at a pollination site in Florida. However, when these honey bee colonies were moved to an apiary, trap catch increased markedly over time, indicating a resurgence of the beetle population produced by immigration of beetles from nearby hives or emerging from the soil. In tests at three Florida apiaries during 2006, yeast-inoculated dough baited bottom board traps captured significantly more beetles than unbaited traps, showing the effectiveness of yeast-inoculated dough as a lure and its potential as a tool in managing the small hive beetle.

  5. Phenophysiological variation of a bee that regulates hive humidity, but not hive temperature.

    PubMed

    Ayton, Sasha; Tomlinson, Sean; Phillips, Ryan D; Dixon, Kingsley W; Withers, Philip C

    2016-05-15

    Seasonal acclimatisation of thermal tolerance, evaporative water loss and metabolic rate, along with regulation of the hive environment, are key ways whereby hive-based social insects mediate climatic challenges throughout the year, but the relative importance of these traits remains poorly understood. Here, we examined seasonal variation in metabolic rate and evaporative water loss of worker bees, and seasonal variation of hive temperature and relative humidity (RH), for the stingless bee Austroplebeia essingtoni (Apidae: Meliponini) in arid tropical Australia. Both water loss and metabolic rate were lower in the cooler, dry winter than in the hot, wet summer at most ambient temperatures between 20°C and 45°C. Contrary to expectation, thermal tolerance thresholds were higher in the winter than in the summer. Hives were cooler in the cooler, dry winter than in the hot, wet summer, linked to an apparent lack of hive thermoregulation. The RH of hives was regulated at approximately 65% in both seasons, which is higher than unoccupied control hives in the dry season, but less than unoccupied control hives in the wet season. Although adaptations to promote water balance appear more important for survival of A. essingtoni than traits related to temperature regulation, their capacity for water conservation is coincident with increased thermal tolerance. For these small, eusocial stingless bees in the arid tropics, where air temperatures are relatively high and stable compared with temperate areas, regulation of hive humidity appears to be of more importance than temperature for maintaining hive health. PMID:26994173

  6. Hives (Urticaria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... name for long-lasting hives — and prescribed an antihistamine to treat it. What Is Urticaria? The medical ... very itchy, the doctor may recommend taking an antihistamine medicine to block the release of histamine in ...

  7. Hives (Urticaria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoid strenuous activity. Use an over-the-counter antihistamine such as diphenhydramine or loratadine. In addition, try ... for hives include: Sleep-causing (sedating) type-1 antihistamines such as diphenhydramine or hydroxyzine Non-sleep-causing ( ...

  8. Development of a pheromone-based trapping system for the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray is a European honey bee (Apis mellifera L, Hymenoptera: Apidae) pest that can be destructive to honey bee colonies, causing damage to comb, stored honey and pollen (Hepburn and Radloff 1998). Although not a direct cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)...

  9. Hives (Urticaria) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Hives (Urticaria) KidsHealth > ...

  10. Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

  11. Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... pen tip to as large as a dinner plate. They may connect to form even larger welts. ... and Canada Residents DermCare Team Patients Patient advocates Media Advertisers Quick links About AAD Support AAD Donate ...

  12. Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  13. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever, and Hives: Comparing Effectiveness, Safety, and Price There are newer antihistamines. Antihistamines are drugs that ... prescription only, monthly costs reflect nationwide retail average prices for February 2013, rounded to the nearest dollar. ...

  14. Standard methods for small hive beetle research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are parasites and scavengers of honey bee and other social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa, where they are a minor pest only. In contrast, the beetles can be harmful parasites of European honey bee subspecies. Very rapidly after A. tumida established pop...

  15. Rediscovering the antibiotics of the hive.

    PubMed

    Boukraâ, Laïd; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2009-11-01

    Honey and other bee products were subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations during the past few decades and the most remarkable discovery was their antibacterial activity. Honey has been used since ancient times for the treatment of some diseases and for the healing of wounds but its use as an anti-infective agent was superseded by modern dressings and antibiotic therapy. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria has confounded the current use of antibiotic therapy leading to the re-examination of former remedies. Honey, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom have a strong antibacterial activity. Even antibiotic-resistant strains such as epidemic strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycine resistant Enterococcus (VRE) have been found to be as sensitive to honey as the antibiotic-sensitive strains of the same species. Sensitivity of bacteria to bee products varies considerably within the product and the varieties of the same product. Botanical origin plays a major role in its antibacterial activity. Propolis has been found to have the strongest action against bacteria. This is probably due to its richness in flavonoids. The most challenging problems of using hive products for medical purposes are dosage and safety. Honey and royal jelly produced as a food often are not well filtered, and may contain various particles. Processed for use in wound care, they are passed through fine filters which remove most of the pollen and other impurities to prevent allergies. Also, although honey does not allow vegetative bacteria to survive, it does contain viable spores, including clostridia. With the increased availability of licensed medical stuffs containing bee products, clinical use is expected to increase and further evidence will become available. Their use in professional care centres should be limited to those which are safe and with certified antibacterial activities. The present article is a short review

  16. Small hive beetles, honeybees, yeast and plants: evolution of an insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is seemingly an anomaly among Nitidulids because it thrives in honeybee hives feeding on pollen and bee brood. Attraction to bee hives is mediated by the Honeybee alarm pheromone. We have discovered that when feeding on pollen resources in bee hives the beetl...

  17. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BEE HIVE COKE OVEN SITE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BEE HIVE COKE OVEN SITE. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. EXTERIOR VIEW, BEE HIVE COKE OVEN DOOR. Pratt Coal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BEE HIVE COKE OVEN DOOR. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Coke Ovens & Railroad, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Floral odor learning within the hive affects honeybees' foraging decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2007-03-01

    Honeybees learn odor cues quickly and efficiently when visiting rewarding flowers. Memorization of these cues facilitates the localization and recognition of food sources during foraging flights. Bees can also use information gained inside the hive during social interactions with successful foragers. An important information cue that can be learned during these interactions is food odor. However, little is known about how floral odors learned in the hive affect later decisions of foragers in the field. We studied the effect of food scent on foraging preferences when this learning is acquired directly inside the hive. By using in-hive feeders that were removed 24 h before the test, we showed that foragers use the odor information acquired during a 3-day stimulation period with a scented solution during a food-choice situation outside the nest. This bias in food preference is maintained even 24 h after the replacement of all the hive combs. Thus, without being previously collected outside by foragers, food odors learned within the hive can be used during short-range foraging flights. Moreover, correct landings at a dual-choice device after replacing the storing combs suggests that long-term memories formed within the colony can be retrieved while bees search for food in the field.

  20. Vasculature of the hive: heat dissipation in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive.

    PubMed

    Bonoan, Rachael E; Goldman, Rhyan R; Wong, Peter Y; Starks, Philip T

    2014-06-01

    Eusocial insects are distinguished by their elaborate cooperative behavior and are sometimes defined as superorganisms. As a nest-bound superorganism, individuals work together to maintain favorable nest conditions. Residing in temperate environments, honey bees (Apis mellifera) work especially hard to maintain brood comb temperature between 32 and 36 °C. Heat shielding is a social homeostatic mechanism employed to combat local heat stress. Workers press the ventral side of their bodies against heated surfaces, absorb heat, and thus protect developing brood. While the absorption of heat has been characterized, the dissipation of absorbed heat has not. Our study characterized both how effectively worker bees absorb heat during heat shielding, and where worker bees dissipate absorbed heat. Hives were experimentally heated for 15 min during which internal temperatures and heat shielder counts were taken. Once the heat source was removed, hives were photographed with a thermal imaging camera for 15 min. Thermal images allowed for spatial tracking of heat flow as cooling occurred. Data indicate that honey bee workers collectively minimize heat gain during heating and accelerate heat loss during cooling. Thermal images show that heated areas temporarily increase in size in all directions and then rapidly decrease to safe levels (<37 °C). As such, heat shielding is reminiscent of bioheat removal via the cardiovascular system of mammals.

  1. Vasculature of the hive: heat dissipation in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera) hive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonoan, Rachael E.; Goldman, Rhyan R.; Wong, Peter Y.; Starks, Philip T.

    2014-06-01

    Eusocial insects are distinguished by their elaborate cooperative behavior and are sometimes defined as superorganisms. As a nest-bound superorganism, individuals work together to maintain favorable nest conditions. Residing in temperate environments, honey bees ( Apis mellifera) work especially hard to maintain brood comb temperature between 32 and 36 °C. Heat shielding is a social homeostatic mechanism employed to combat local heat stress. Workers press the ventral side of their bodies against heated surfaces, absorb heat, and thus protect developing brood. While the absorption of heat has been characterized, the dissipation of absorbed heat has not. Our study characterized both how effectively worker bees absorb heat during heat shielding, and where worker bees dissipate absorbed heat. Hives were experimentally heated for 15 min during which internal temperatures and heat shielder counts were taken. Once the heat source was removed, hives were photographed with a thermal imaging camera for 15 min. Thermal images allowed for spatial tracking of heat flow as cooling occurred. Data indicate that honey bee workers collectively minimize heat gain during heating and accelerate heat loss during cooling. Thermal images show that heated areas temporarily increase in size in all directions and then rapidly decrease to safe levels (<37 °C). As such, heat shielding is reminiscent of bioheat removal via the cardiovascular system of mammals.

  2. TheHiveDB image data management and analysis framework.

    PubMed

    Muehlboeck, J-Sebastian; Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The hive database system (theHiveDB) is a web-based brain imaging database, collaboration, and activity system which has been designed as an imaging workflow management system capable of handling cross-sectional and longitudinal multi-center studies. It can be used to organize and integrate existing data from heterogeneous projects as well as data from ongoing studies. It has been conceived to guide and assist the researcher throughout the entire research process, integrating all relevant types of data across modalities (e.g., brain imaging, clinical, and genetic data). TheHiveDB is a modern activity and resource management system capable of scheduling image processing on both private compute resources and the cloud. The activity component supports common image archival and management tasks as well as established pipeline processing (e.g., Freesurfer for extraction of scalar measures from magnetic resonance images). Furthermore, via theHiveDB activity system algorithm developers may grant access to virtual machines hosting versioned releases of their tools to collaborators and the imaging community. The application of theHiveDB is illustrated with a brief use case based on organizing, processing, and analyzing data from the publically available Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

  3. TheHiveDB image data management and analysis framework

    PubMed Central

    Muehlboeck, J-Sebastian; Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The hive database system (theHiveDB) is a web-based brain imaging database, collaboration, and activity system which has been designed as an imaging workflow management system capable of handling cross-sectional and longitudinal multi-center studies. It can be used to organize and integrate existing data from heterogeneous projects as well as data from ongoing studies. It has been conceived to guide and assist the researcher throughout the entire research process, integrating all relevant types of data across modalities (e.g., brain imaging, clinical, and genetic data). TheHiveDB is a modern activity and resource management system capable of scheduling image processing on both private compute resources and the cloud. The activity component supports common image archival and management tasks as well as established pipeline processing (e.g., Freesurfer for extraction of scalar measures from magnetic resonance images). Furthermore, via theHiveDB activity system algorithm developers may grant access to virtual machines hosting versioned releases of their tools to collaborators and the imaging community. The application of theHiveDB is illustrated with a brief use case based on organizing, processing, and analyzing data from the publically available Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. PMID:24432000

  4. TheHiveDB image data management and analysis framework.

    PubMed

    Muehlboeck, J-Sebastian; Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The hive database system (theHiveDB) is a web-based brain imaging database, collaboration, and activity system which has been designed as an imaging workflow management system capable of handling cross-sectional and longitudinal multi-center studies. It can be used to organize and integrate existing data from heterogeneous projects as well as data from ongoing studies. It has been conceived to guide and assist the researcher throughout the entire research process, integrating all relevant types of data across modalities (e.g., brain imaging, clinical, and genetic data). TheHiveDB is a modern activity and resource management system capable of scheduling image processing on both private compute resources and the cloud. The activity component supports common image archival and management tasks as well as established pipeline processing (e.g., Freesurfer for extraction of scalar measures from magnetic resonance images). Furthermore, via theHiveDB activity system algorithm developers may grant access to virtual machines hosting versioned releases of their tools to collaborators and the imaging community. The application of theHiveDB is illustrated with a brief use case based on organizing, processing, and analyzing data from the publically available Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. PMID:24432000

  5. The Similarity and Appropriate Usage of Three Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Datasets for Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Highland, Steven; James, R R

    2016-04-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have experienced profound fluctuations, especially declines, in the past few decades. Long-term datasets on honey bees are needed to identify the most important environmental and cultural factors associated with these changes. While a few such datasets exist, scientists have been hesitant to use some of these due to perceived shortcomings in the data. We compared data and trends for three datasets. Two come from the US Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board: one is the annual survey of honey-producing colonies from the Annual Bee and Honey program (ABH), and the other is colony counts from the Census of Agriculture conducted every five years. The third dataset we developed from the number of colonies registered annually by some states. We compared the long-term patterns of change in colony numbers among the datasets on a state-by-state basis. The three datasets often showed similar hive numbers and trends varied by state, with differences between datasets being greatest for those states receiving a large number of migratory colonies. Dataset comparisons provide a method to estimate the number of colonies in a state used for pollination versus honey production. Some states also had separate data for local and migratory colonies, allowing one to determine whether the migratory colonies were typically used for pollination or honey production. The Census of Agriculture should provide the most accurate long-term data on colony numbers, but only every five years. PMID:26884549

  6. The Similarity and Appropriate Usage of Three Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Datasets for Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Highland, Steven; James, R R

    2016-04-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have experienced profound fluctuations, especially declines, in the past few decades. Long-term datasets on honey bees are needed to identify the most important environmental and cultural factors associated with these changes. While a few such datasets exist, scientists have been hesitant to use some of these due to perceived shortcomings in the data. We compared data and trends for three datasets. Two come from the US Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board: one is the annual survey of honey-producing colonies from the Annual Bee and Honey program (ABH), and the other is colony counts from the Census of Agriculture conducted every five years. The third dataset we developed from the number of colonies registered annually by some states. We compared the long-term patterns of change in colony numbers among the datasets on a state-by-state basis. The three datasets often showed similar hive numbers and trends varied by state, with differences between datasets being greatest for those states receiving a large number of migratory colonies. Dataset comparisons provide a method to estimate the number of colonies in a state used for pollination versus honey production. Some states also had separate data for local and migratory colonies, allowing one to determine whether the migratory colonies were typically used for pollination or honey production. The Census of Agriculture should provide the most accurate long-term data on colony numbers, but only every five years.

  7. A Mathematical Model for the Bee Hive of Apis Mellifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Bellom, Fabio Enrici; Montabone, Andrea; Venturino, Ezio

    2010-09-01

    In this work we introduce and discuss a model for the bee hive, in which only adult bees and drones are modeled. The role that the latter have in the system is interesting, their population can retrieve even if they are totally absent from the bee hive. The feasibility and stability of the equilibria is studied numerically. A simplified version of the model shows the importance of the drones' role, in spite of the fact that it allows only a trivial equilibrium. For this simplified system, no Hopf bifurcations are shown to arise.

  8. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  9. Synergistic interactions between in-hive miticides in Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reed M; Pollock, Henry S; Berenbaum, May R

    2009-04-01

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, is a devastating pest of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., that has been primarily controlled over the last 15 yr with two in-hive miticides: the organophosphate coumaphos (Checkmite+), and the pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate (Apistan). Both coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate are lipophilic compounds that are absorbed by the wax component of the hive, where they are stable and have the potential to build up over repeated treatments such that bees could be exposed to both compounds simultaneously. Although these compounds were chosen as in-hive miticides due to their low toxicity to honey bees, that low toxicity depends, at least in part, on rapid detoxification mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes (P450s). In this laboratory study, we observed a large increase in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate to 3-d-old bees that had been treated previously with coumaphos, and a moderate increase in the toxicity of coumpahos in bees treated previously with tau-fluvalinate. The observed synergism may result from competition between miticides for access to detoxicative P450s. These results suggest that honey bee mortality may occur with the application of otherwise sublethal doses of miticide when tau-fluvalinate and coumaphos are simultaneously present in the hive. PMID:19449624

  10. Current status of small hive beetle infestation in the Philippines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of the small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida) is rapidly expanding. From sub-Saharan Africa where it is considered indigenous, SHB has successfully invaded other continents, is prevalent in Australia and North America, and has recently been introduced into Europe (summarized by FE...

  11. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH BEE HIVE COKE OVENS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH BEE HIVE COKE OVENS IN FORESTED OVERGROWTH (BOTTOM LEFT), COKE TAILINGS PILE (BOTTOM RIGHT THROUGH CENTER TOP LEFT), FORMER BIRMINGHAM SOUTHERN RAILWAY SHOPS BUILDING (TOP RIGHT). CONVICT CEMETERY IS JUST WEST OF THE TAILINGS PILE (TOP LEFT IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH). - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Convict Cemetery, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place & Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Observation system for the control of the hive environment by the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Mizue; Okada, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toshifumi; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2009-08-01

    The honeybee can control its hive environment to survive drastic changes in the field environment. To study the control of multiple environmental factors by honeybees, in this experiment, we developed a continual and simultaneous monitoring system for the temperature, moisture, and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in a honeybee hive. Changes in hive weight, CO2 production rate, and honeybee behavior were also monitored to estimate energy costs and behavioral activity for the environmental regulation. Measurements were conducted in August 2008. We found that the honeybee hive has a microclimate different from the ambient climate, and that the difference was partly accompanied by changes in honeybee activity. Our results also suggest that hive temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentrations are controlled by different mechanisms. Additional monitoring of the hive environment and honeybee behavior for longer periods would enable us to understand the mechanisms of environmental control by honeybees, which is one of the behaviors that define honeybees as social insects.

  13. HIVE-Hexagon: High-Performance, Parallelized Sequence Alignment for Next-Generation Sequencing Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Quintero, Luis; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Mazumder, Raja; Simonyan, Vahan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the size of Next-Generation Sequencing data, the computational challenge of sequence alignment has been vast. Inexact alignments can take up to 90% of total CPU time in bioinformatics pipelines. High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE), a cloud-based environment optimized for storage and analysis of extra-large data, presents an algorithmic solution: the HIVE-hexagon DNA sequence aligner. HIVE-hexagon implements novel approaches to exploit both characteristics of sequence space and CPU, RAM and Input/Output (I/O) architecture to quickly compute accurate alignments. Key components of HIVE-hexagon include non-redundification and sorting of sequences; floating diagonals of linearized dynamic programming matrices; and consideration of cross-similarity to minimize computations. Availability https://hive.biochemistry.gwu.edu/hive/ PMID:24918764

  14. Monitoring colony phenology using within-day variability in continuous weight and temperature of honey bee hives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous weight and temperature data were collected for honey bee hives in two locations in Arizona, and those data were evaluated with respect to separate measurements of hive phenology to develop methods for monitoring hives non-invasively. Both the weight and temperature data were divided into ...

  15. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives.

    PubMed

    Rokop, Z P; Horton, M A; Newton, I L G

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific "core" members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of "noncore" and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. PMID:26253685

  16. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives

    PubMed Central

    Rokop, Z. P.; Horton, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific “core” members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of “noncore” and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. PMID:26253685

  17. High-Performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) Tools and Applications for Big Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2014-01-01

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a high-throughput cloud-based infrastructure developed for the storage and analysis of genomic and associated biological data. HIVE consists of a web-accessible interface for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, share, annotate, compute and visualize Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) data in a scalable and highly efficient fashion. The platform contains a distributed storage library and a distributed computational powerhouse linked seamlessly. Resources available through the interface include algorithms, tools and applications developed exclusively for the HIVE platform, as well as commonly used external tools adapted to operate within the parallel architecture of the system. HIVE is composed of a flexible infrastructure, which allows for simple implementation of new algorithms and tools. Currently, available HIVE tools include sequence alignment and nucleotide variation profiling tools, metagenomic analyzers, phylogenetic tree-building tools using NGS data, clone discovery algorithms, and recombination analysis algorithms. In addition to tools, HIVE also provides knowledgebases that can be used in conjunction with the tools for NGS sequence and metadata analysis. PMID:25271953

  18. High-Performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) Tools and Applications for Big Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2014-09-30

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a high-throughput cloud-based infrastructure developed for the storage and analysis of genomic and associated biological data. HIVE consists of a web-accessible interface for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, share, annotate, compute and visualize Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) data in a scalable and highly efficient fashion. The platform contains a distributed storage library and a distributed computational powerhouse linked seamlessly. Resources available through the interface include algorithms, tools and applications developed exclusively for the HIVE platform, as well as commonly used external tools adapted to operate within the parallel architecture of the system. HIVE is composed of a flexible infrastructure, which allows for simple implementation of new algorithms and tools. Currently, available HIVE tools include sequence alignment and nucleotide variation profiling tools, metagenomic analyzers, phylogenetic tree-building tools using NGS data, clone discovery algorithms, and recombination analysis algorithms. In addition to tools, HIVE also provides knowledgebases that can be used in conjunction with the tools for NGS sequence and metadata analysis.

  19. High-Performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) Tools and Applications for Big Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2014-01-01

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a high-throughput cloud-based infrastructure developed for the storage and analysis of genomic and associated biological data. HIVE consists of a web-accessible interface for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, share, annotate, compute and visualize Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) data in a scalable and highly efficient fashion. The platform contains a distributed storage library and a distributed computational powerhouse linked seamlessly. Resources available through the interface include algorithms, tools and applications developed exclusively for the HIVE platform, as well as commonly used external tools adapted to operate within the parallel architecture of the system. HIVE is composed of a flexible infrastructure, which allows for simple implementation of new algorithms and tools. Currently, available HIVE tools include sequence alignment and nucleotide variation profiling tools, metagenomic analyzers, phylogenetic tree-building tools using NGS data, clone discovery algorithms, and recombination analysis algorithms. In addition to tools, HIVE also provides knowledgebases that can be used in conjunction with the tools for NGS sequence and metadata analysis. PMID:25271953

  20. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Costa Rica: population dynamics and its influence on the colony condition of Africanized honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Calderón, Rafael A; van Veen, Johan W

    2008-12-01

    The development of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) population dynamics in Africanized honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was monitored from February to July 2004 in Atenas, Costa Rica. A correlation between the mite infestation level and the colony condition was evaluated. For each colony, infestation of varroa in adult bees was measured twice a month. Sticky boards were placed on the bottom boards of each colony to collect fallen mites. The condition of the colonies was evaluated by measuring the amount of brood and adult bees. Our results consistently showed that mite infestation on adult bees increased significantly in the experimental colonies, rising to 10.0% by the end of the experiment. In addition, the mean mite fall increased significantly over the course of the study in the treated (R = 0.72, P < 0.05) and untreated colonies (R = 0.74, P < 0.05) to a level of 63.8 and 73.5 mites per day, respectively. The increase in varroa infestation coincided with a decrease in the amount of brood. Furthermore, adult bees with deformed wings or even without wings crawling in front of their hive occurred in highly infested colonies (mite infestation = 10.0% or more).

  1. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    PubMed

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  2. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    PubMed

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population. PMID:20069828

  3. How Hives Collapse: Allee Effects, Ecological Resilience, and the Honey Bee.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Brian; Kemp, William P

    2016-01-01

    We construct a mathematical model to quantify the loss of resilience in collapsing honey bee colonies due to the presence of a strong Allee effect. In the model, recruitment and mortality of adult bees have substantial social components, with recruitment enhanced and mortality reduced by additional adult bee numbers. The result is an Allee effect, a net per-individual rate of hive increase that increases as a function of adult bee numbers. The Allee effect creates a critical minimum size in adult bee numbers, below which mortality is greater than recruitment, with ensuing loss of viability of the hive. Under ordinary and favorable environmental circumstances, the critical size is low, and hives remain large, sending off viably-sized swarms (naturally or through beekeeping management) when hive numbers approach an upper stable equilibrium size (carrying capacity). However, both the lower critical size and the upper stable size depend on many parameters related to demographic rates and their enhancement by bee sociality. Any environmental factors that increase mortality, decrease recruitment, or interfere with the social moderation of these rates has the effect of exacerbating the Allee effect by increasing the lower critical size and substantially decreasing the upper stable size. As well, the basin of attraction to the upper stable size, defined by the model potential function, becomes narrower and shallower, indicating the loss of resilience as the hive becomes subjected to increased risk of falling below the critical size. Environmental effects of greater severity can cause the two equilibria to merge and the basin of attraction to the upper stable size to disappear, resulting in collapse of the hive from any initial size. The model suggests that multiple proximate causes, among them pesticides, mites, pathogens, and climate change, working singly or in combinations, could trigger hive collapse. PMID:26910061

  4. How Hives Collapse: Allee Effects, Ecological Resilience, and the Honey Bee

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Brian; Kemp, William P.

    2016-01-01

    We construct a mathematical model to quantify the loss of resilience in collapsing honey bee colonies due to the presence of a strong Allee effect. In the model, recruitment and mortality of adult bees have substantial social components, with recruitment enhanced and mortality reduced by additional adult bee numbers. The result is an Allee effect, a net per-individual rate of hive increase that increases as a function of adult bee numbers. The Allee effect creates a critical minimum size in adult bee numbers, below which mortality is greater than recruitment, with ensuing loss of viability of the hive. Under ordinary and favorable environmental circumstances, the critical size is low, and hives remain large, sending off viably-sized swarms (naturally or through beekeeping management) when hive numbers approach an upper stable equilibrium size (carrying capacity). However, both the lower critical size and the upper stable size depend on many parameters related to demographic rates and their enhancement by bee sociality. Any environmental factors that increase mortality, decrease recruitment, or interfere with the social moderation of these rates has the effect of exacerbating the Allee effect by increasing the lower critical size and substantially decreasing the upper stable size. As well, the basin of attraction to the upper stable size, defined by the model potential function, becomes narrower and shallower, indicating the loss of resilience as the hive becomes subjected to increased risk of falling below the critical size. Environmental effects of greater severity can cause the two equilibria to merge and the basin of attraction to the upper stable size to disappear, resulting in collapse of the hive from any initial size. The model suggests that multiple proximate causes, among them pesticides, mites, pathogens, and climate change, working singly or in combinations, could trigger hive collapse. PMID:26910061

  5. How Hives Collapse: Allee Effects, Ecological Resilience, and the Honey Bee.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Brian; Kemp, William P

    2016-01-01

    We construct a mathematical model to quantify the loss of resilience in collapsing honey bee colonies due to the presence of a strong Allee effect. In the model, recruitment and mortality of adult bees have substantial social components, with recruitment enhanced and mortality reduced by additional adult bee numbers. The result is an Allee effect, a net per-individual rate of hive increase that increases as a function of adult bee numbers. The Allee effect creates a critical minimum size in adult bee numbers, below which mortality is greater than recruitment, with ensuing loss of viability of the hive. Under ordinary and favorable environmental circumstances, the critical size is low, and hives remain large, sending off viably-sized swarms (naturally or through beekeeping management) when hive numbers approach an upper stable equilibrium size (carrying capacity). However, both the lower critical size and the upper stable size depend on many parameters related to demographic rates and their enhancement by bee sociality. Any environmental factors that increase mortality, decrease recruitment, or interfere with the social moderation of these rates has the effect of exacerbating the Allee effect by increasing the lower critical size and substantially decreasing the upper stable size. As well, the basin of attraction to the upper stable size, defined by the model potential function, becomes narrower and shallower, indicating the loss of resilience as the hive becomes subjected to increased risk of falling below the critical size. Environmental effects of greater severity can cause the two equilibria to merge and the basin of attraction to the upper stable size to disappear, resulting in collapse of the hive from any initial size. The model suggests that multiple proximate causes, among them pesticides, mites, pathogens, and climate change, working singly or in combinations, could trigger hive collapse.

  6. Honey loading for pollen collection: regulation of crop content in honeybee pollen foragers on leaving hive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harano, Ken-ichi; Mitsuhata-Asai, Akiko; Sasaki, Masami

    2014-07-01

    Before foraging honeybees leave the hive, each bee loads its crop with some amount of honey "fuel" depending on the distance to the food source and foraging experience. For pollen collection, there is evidence that foragers carry additional honey as "glue" to build pollen loads. This study examines whether pollen foragers of the European honeybee Apis mellifera regulate the size of the crop load according to food-source distances upon leaving the hive and how foraging experience affects load regulation. The crop contents of bees foraging on crape myrtle Lagerstroemia indica, which has no nectary, were larger than those foraging on nectar from other sources, confirming a previous finding that pollen foragers carry glue in addition to fuel honey from the hive. Crop contents of both waggle dancers and dance followers showed a significant positive correlation with waggle-run durations. These results suggest that bees carry a distance-dependent amount of fuel honey in addition to a fixed amount of glue honey. Crop contents on leaving the hive were statistically larger in dancers than followers. Based on these results, we suggest that pollen foragers use information obtained through foraging experience to adjust crop contents on leaving the hive.

  7. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of fungal isolates for use against the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analysis of DNA sequences from fungal pathogens obtained from cadavers of the small hive beetle (SHB) collected from several apiaries in Florida revealed a mixture of saprobes and two potential primary entomopathogens, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Spray tower bioassays indicate...

  8. Marking small hive beetles with thoracic notching: Effects on longevity, flight ability and fecundity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested two marking techniques for adult small hive beetles (SHB): dusting and thoracic notching. The use of blue and red chalk dusts to mark beetles was not persistent and caused early death of SHB with an average survival of 52.6 ± 23.8 and 13.9 ± 7.3 days, respectively. In contrast, notched bee...

  9. Life Inside the Hive: Creating a Space for Literacy to Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    This piece describes how a 5th grade language arts teacher employed technology to create and sustain a metaphorical, virtual, and physical figured world in her class by means of a web site called "The Hive Society." This world positioned students as intellectuals and scholars, and explored how Ms. Smith integrated 21st Century…

  10. Honeybees learn floral odors while receiving nectar from foragers within the hive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Walter M.; Grüter, Christoph; Acosta, Luis; Mc Cabe, Sofía

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies showed that nectar odors brought back by honeybee foragers can be learned associatively inside the hive. In the present study, we focused on the learning abilities of bees, which directly interact via trophallaxis with the incoming nectar foragers: the workers that perform nectar-receiving tasks inside the hive. Workers that have received food directly from foragers coming back from a feeder offering either unscented or scented sugar solution [phenylacetaldehyde (PHE) or nonanal diluted] were captured from two observational hives, and their olfactory memories were tested using the proboscis extension response paradigm. Bees that have received scented solution from incoming foragers showed significantly increased response frequencies for the corresponding solution odor in comparison with those that have received unscented solution. No differences in the response frequencies were found between food odors and colonies. The results indicate that first-order receivers learn via trophallaxis the association between the scent and the sugar solution transferred by incoming foragers. The implications of these results should be considered at three levels: the operational cohesion of bees involved in foraging-related tasks, the information propagation inside the hive related to the floral type exploited, and the putative effect of these memories on future preferences for resources.

  11. Honeybees learn floral odors while receiving nectar from foragers within the hive.

    PubMed

    Farina, Walter M; Grüter, Christoph; Acosta, Luis; Mc Cabe, Sofía

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies showed that nectar odors brought back by honeybee foragers can be learned associatively inside the hive. In the present study, we focused on the learning abilities of bees, which directly interact via trophallaxis with the incoming nectar foragers: the workers that perform nectar-receiving tasks inside the hive. Workers that have received food directly from foragers coming back from a feeder offering either unscented or scented sugar solution [phenylacetaldehyde (PHE) or nonanal diluted] were captured from two observational hives, and their olfactory memories were tested using the proboscis extension response paradigm. Bees that have received scented solution from incoming foragers showed significantly increased response frequencies for the corresponding solution odor in comparison with those that have received unscented solution. No differences in the response frequencies were found between food odors and colonies. The results indicate that first-order receivers learn via trophallaxis the association between the scent and the sugar solution transferred by incoming foragers. The implications of these results should be considered at three levels: the operational cohesion of bees involved in foraging-related tasks, the information propagation inside the hive related to the floral type exploited, and the putative effect of these memories on future preferences for resources. PMID:17021915

  12. Age and aggregation trigger mating behavior in the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to investigate the previously poorly documented reproductive behaviour of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae), a honey bee (Apis mellifera) parasite. We observed and described the mating behavior in detail, and tested the hypothesis that beetle aggregation plays a vi...

  13. eHive: An Artificial Intelligence workflow system for genomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ensembl project produces updates to its comparative genomics resources with each of its several releases per year. During each release cycle approximately two weeks are allocated to generate all the genomic alignments and the protein homology predictions. The number of calculations required for this task grows approximately quadratically with the number of species. We currently support 50 species in Ensembl and we expect the number to continue to grow in the future. Results We present eHive, a new fault tolerant distributed processing system initially designed to support comparative genomic analysis, based on blackboard systems, network distributed autonomous agents, dataflow graphs and block-branch diagrams. In the eHive system a MySQL database serves as the central blackboard and the autonomous agent, a Perl script, queries the system and runs jobs as required. The system allows us to define dataflow and branching rules to suit all our production pipelines. We describe the implementation of three pipelines: (1) pairwise whole genome alignments, (2) multiple whole genome alignments and (3) gene trees with protein homology inference. Finally, we show the efficiency of the system in real case scenarios. Conclusions eHive allows us to produce computationally demanding results in a reliable and efficient way with minimal supervision and high throughput. Further documentation is available at: http://www.ensembl.org/info/docs/eHive/. PMID:20459813

  14. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras-Ramírez, María Elena; Lara-Álvarez, Carlos; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

  15. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray

    PubMed Central

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras–Ramírez, María Elena; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg). PMID:27092938

  16. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras-Ramírez, María Elena; Lara-Álvarez, Carlos; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg). PMID:27092938

  17. In-hive Pesticide Exposome: Assessing risks to migratory honey bees from in-hive pesticide contamination in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Traynor, Kirsten S.; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Tarpy, David R.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, James L.; Frazier, Maryann; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This study measured part of the in-hive pesticide exposome by analyzing residues from live in-hive bees, stored pollen, and wax in migratory colonies over time and compared exposure to colony health. We summarized the pesticide burden using three different additive methods: (1) the hazard quotient (HQ), an estimate of pesticide exposure risk, (2) the total number of pesticide residues, and (3) the number of relevant residues. Despite being simplistic, these models attempt to summarize potential risk from multiple contaminations in real-world contexts. Colonies performing pollination services were subject to increased pesticide exposure compared to honey-production and holding yards. We found clear links between an increase in the total number of products in wax and colony mortality. In particular, we found that fungicides with particular modes of action increased disproportionally in wax within colonies that died. The occurrence of queen events, a significant risk factor for colony health and productivity, was positively associated with all three proxies of pesticide exposure. While our exposome summation models do not fully capture the complexities of pesticide exposure, they nonetheless help elucidate their risks to colony health. Implementing and improving such models can help identify potential pesticide risks, permitting preventative actions to improve pollinator health. PMID:27628343

  18. In-hive Pesticide Exposome: Assessing risks to migratory honey bees from in-hive pesticide contamination in the Eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Kirsten S; Pettis, Jeffery S; Tarpy, David R; Mullin, Christopher A; Frazier, James L; Frazier, Maryann; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This study measured part of the in-hive pesticide exposome by analyzing residues from live in-hive bees, stored pollen, and wax in migratory colonies over time and compared exposure to colony health. We summarized the pesticide burden using three different additive methods: (1) the hazard quotient (HQ), an estimate of pesticide exposure risk, (2) the total number of pesticide residues, and (3) the number of relevant residues. Despite being simplistic, these models attempt to summarize potential risk from multiple contaminations in real-world contexts. Colonies performing pollination services were subject to increased pesticide exposure compared to honey-production and holding yards. We found clear links between an increase in the total number of products in wax and colony mortality. In particular, we found that fungicides with particular modes of action increased disproportionally in wax within colonies that died. The occurrence of queen events, a significant risk factor for colony health and productivity, was positively associated with all three proxies of pesticide exposure. While our exposome summation models do not fully capture the complexities of pesticide exposure, they nonetheless help elucidate their risks to colony health. Implementing and improving such models can help identify potential pesticide risks, permitting preventative actions to improve pollinator health. PMID:27628343

  19. In-hive Pesticide Exposome: Assessing risks to migratory honey bees from in-hive pesticide contamination in the Eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Kirsten S; Pettis, Jeffery S; Tarpy, David R; Mullin, Christopher A; Frazier, James L; Frazier, Maryann; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2016-09-15

    This study measured part of the in-hive pesticide exposome by analyzing residues from live in-hive bees, stored pollen, and wax in migratory colonies over time and compared exposure to colony health. We summarized the pesticide burden using three different additive methods: (1) the hazard quotient (HQ), an estimate of pesticide exposure risk, (2) the total number of pesticide residues, and (3) the number of relevant residues. Despite being simplistic, these models attempt to summarize potential risk from multiple contaminations in real-world contexts. Colonies performing pollination services were subject to increased pesticide exposure compared to honey-production and holding yards. We found clear links between an increase in the total number of products in wax and colony mortality. In particular, we found that fungicides with particular modes of action increased disproportionally in wax within colonies that died. The occurrence of queen events, a significant risk factor for colony health and productivity, was positively associated with all three proxies of pesticide exposure. While our exposome summation models do not fully capture the complexities of pesticide exposure, they nonetheless help elucidate their risks to colony health. Implementing and improving such models can help identify potential pesticide risks, permitting preventative actions to improve pollinator health.

  20. Longevity of microwave-treated (2. 45 GHz continuous wave) honey bees in observation hives

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, N.E.; Westerdahl, B.B.

    1981-12-15

    Adult honey bees were exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz of continuous wave microwave radiation at power densities ranging from 3 to 50 mW/cm/sup 2/. After exposure, bees were returned to glass-walled observation hives, and their longevity was compared with that of control bees. No significant differences were found between microwave- and sham-treated bees at any of the power densities tested.

  1. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    PubMed

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread.

  2. Prolonged effects of in-hive monoterpenoids on the honey bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Alayrangues, Julie; Hotier, Lucie; Massou, Isabelle; Bertrand, Yolaine; Armengaud, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Honey bees are exposed in their environment to contaminants but also to biological stressors such as Varroa destructor that can weaken the colony. Preparations containing monoterpenoids that are essential oil components, can be introduced into hives to control Varroa. The long-term sublethal effects of monoterpenoids used as miticides have been poorly investigated. Analysis of behavior of free-moving bees in the laboratory is useful to evaluate the impact of chemical stressors on their cognitive functions such as vision function. Here, the walking behavior was quantified under a 200-lux light intensity. Weeks and months after introduction of the miticide (74 % thymol) into the hives, decreases of phototaxis was observed with both summer and winter bees. Curiously, in spring, bees collected in treated hives were less attracted by light in the morning than control bees. The survival of bees collected in spring was increased by treatment. After a 1-year period of observation, the colony losses were identical in treated and non-treated groups. Colony loss started earlier in the non-treated group. In public opinion, natural substances as essential oils are safer and more environmentally friendly. We demonstrated that a monoterpenoid-based treatment affects bee responses to light. The latter results have notable implications regarding the evaluation of miticides in beekeeping. PMID:26965704

  3. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L).

    PubMed

    Berry, Jennifer A; Hood, W Michael; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Delaplane, Keith S

    2013-01-01

    In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate) and Check Mite+ (coumaphos) and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  4. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Reproduction in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult.

  5. Field-Level Sublethal Effects of Approved Bee Hive Chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L)

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jennifer A.; Hood, W. Michael; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Delaplane, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate) and Check Mite+ (coumaphos) and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals. PMID:24204638

  6. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Reproduction in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult. PMID:26470208

  7. Modeling techniques in a parallelizing compiler for the B-HIVE multiprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sukil; Agrawal, Dharma P.; Mauney, Jon; Leu, Ja-Song

    1989-01-01

    The parallelizing compiler for the B-HIVE loosely-coupled multiprocessor system uses a medium grain model to minimize the communication overhead. A medium grain model is shown to be an optimum way of merging fine grain operations into parallel tasks such that the parallelism obtained at the grain level is retained and communication overhead is decreased. A new communication model is introduced in this paper, allowing additional overlap between computation and communication. Simulation results indicate that the medium grain communication model shows promise for automatic parallelization for a loosely-coupled multiprocessor system.

  8. Hives (Urticaria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies AAFA Research Grants Research Grant Awardees Research News Get Involved ...

  9. Hives (Urticaria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  10. High-performance integrated virtual environment (HIVE): a robust infrastructure for next-generation sequence data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simonyan, Vahan; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Faison, William; Goldweber, Scott; Golikov, Anton; Gulzar, Naila; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Vinh Nguyen Lam, Phuc; Maudru, Thomas; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Osipova, Ekaterina; Pan, Yang; Pschenichnov, Alexey; Rostovtsev, Alexandre; Santana-Quintero, Luis; Smith, Krista; Thompson, Elaine E.; Tkachenko, Valery; Torcivia-Rodriguez, John; Wan, Quan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Wilson, Carolyn; Mazumder, Raja

    2016-01-01

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a distributed storage and compute environment designed primarily to handle next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. This multicomponent cloud infrastructure provides secure web access for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, annotate and compute on NGS data, and to analyse the outcomes using web interface visual environments appropriately built in collaboration with research and regulatory scientists and other end users. Unlike many massively parallel computing environments, HIVE uses a cloud control server which virtualizes services, not processes. It is both very robust and flexible due to the abstraction layer introduced between computational requests and operating system processes. The novel paradigm of moving computations to the data, instead of moving data to computational nodes, has proven to be significantly less taxing for both hardware and network infrastructure. The honeycomb data model developed for HIVE integrates metadata into an object-oriented model. Its distinction from other object-oriented databases is in the additional implementation of a unified application program interface to search, view and manipulate data of all types. This model simplifies the introduction of new data types, thereby minimizing the need for database restructuring and streamlining the development of new integrated information systems. The honeycomb model employs a highly secure hierarchical access control and permission system, allowing determination of data access privileges in a finely granular manner without flooding the security subsystem with a multiplicity of rules. HIVE infrastructure will allow engineers and scientists to perform NGS analysis in a manner that is both efficient and secure. HIVE is actively supported in public and private domains, and project collaborations are welcomed. Database URL: https://hive.biochemistry.gwu.edu PMID:26989153

  11. High-performance integrated virtual environment (HIVE): a robust infrastructure for next-generation sequence data analysis.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Vahan; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Faison, William; Goldweber, Scott; Golikov, Anton; Gulzar, Naila; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Vinh Nguyen Lam, Phuc; Maudru, Thomas; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Osipova, Ekaterina; Pan, Yang; Pschenichnov, Alexey; Rostovtsev, Alexandre; Santana-Quintero, Luis; Smith, Krista; Thompson, Elaine E; Tkachenko, Valery; Torcivia-Rodriguez, John; Voskanian, Alin; Wan, Quan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Wilson, Carolyn; Mazumder, Raja

    2016-01-01

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a distributed storage and compute environment designed primarily to handle next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. This multicomponent cloud infrastructure provides secure web access for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, annotate and compute on NGS data, and to analyse the outcomes using web interface visual environments appropriately built in collaboration with research and regulatory scientists and other end users. Unlike many massively parallel computing environments, HIVE uses a cloud control server which virtualizes services, not processes. It is both very robust and flexible due to the abstraction layer introduced between computational requests and operating system processes. The novel paradigm of moving computations to the data, instead of moving data to computational nodes, has proven to be significantly less taxing for both hardware and network infrastructure.The honeycomb data model developed for HIVE integrates metadata into an object-oriented model. Its distinction from other object-oriented databases is in the additional implementation of a unified application program interface to search, view and manipulate data of all types. This model simplifies the introduction of new data types, thereby minimizing the need for database restructuring and streamlining the development of new integrated information systems. The honeycomb model employs a highly secure hierarchical access control and permission system, allowing determination of data access privileges in a finely granular manner without flooding the security subsystem with a multiplicity of rules. HIVE infrastructure will allow engineers and scientists to perform NGS analysis in a manner that is both efficient and secure. HIVE is actively supported in public and private domains, and project collaborations are welcomed. Database URL: https://hive.biochemistry.gwu.edu.

  12. High-performance integrated virtual environment (HIVE): a robust infrastructure for next-generation sequence data analysis.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Vahan; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Faison, William; Goldweber, Scott; Golikov, Anton; Gulzar, Naila; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Vinh Nguyen Lam, Phuc; Maudru, Thomas; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Osipova, Ekaterina; Pan, Yang; Pschenichnov, Alexey; Rostovtsev, Alexandre; Santana-Quintero, Luis; Smith, Krista; Thompson, Elaine E; Tkachenko, Valery; Torcivia-Rodriguez, John; Voskanian, Alin; Wan, Quan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Wilson, Carolyn; Mazumder, Raja

    2016-01-01

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a distributed storage and compute environment designed primarily to handle next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. This multicomponent cloud infrastructure provides secure web access for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, annotate and compute on NGS data, and to analyse the outcomes using web interface visual environments appropriately built in collaboration with research and regulatory scientists and other end users. Unlike many massively parallel computing environments, HIVE uses a cloud control server which virtualizes services, not processes. It is both very robust and flexible due to the abstraction layer introduced between computational requests and operating system processes. The novel paradigm of moving computations to the data, instead of moving data to computational nodes, has proven to be significantly less taxing for both hardware and network infrastructure.The honeycomb data model developed for HIVE integrates metadata into an object-oriented model. Its distinction from other object-oriented databases is in the additional implementation of a unified application program interface to search, view and manipulate data of all types. This model simplifies the introduction of new data types, thereby minimizing the need for database restructuring and streamlining the development of new integrated information systems. The honeycomb model employs a highly secure hierarchical access control and permission system, allowing determination of data access privileges in a finely granular manner without flooding the security subsystem with a multiplicity of rules. HIVE infrastructure will allow engineers and scientists to perform NGS analysis in a manner that is both efficient and secure. HIVE is actively supported in public and private domains, and project collaborations are welcomed. Database URL: https://hive.biochemistry.gwu.edu. PMID:26989153

  13. Response of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) to a blend of chemicals identified from honeybee (Apis mellifera) volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of Super Q collected worker honey bee volatiles revealed several components that elicited antennal responses by the small hive beetle Aethina tumida. However, GC-MS analysis showed that eight of these EAD-active components...

  14. Hive-stored pollen of honey bees: many lines of evidence are consistent with pollen preservation, not nutrient conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The honey bee colony is a complex homeostatic unit, filled with nutritionally rich resources and a broad spectrum of microbial microenvironments. The hive contains tree resins, wax, honey and pollen, all substances known to sterilize or inhibit microbes. Stored pollen provides the bulk of proteins, ...

  15. Transcriptomic and functional resources for the Small Hive Beetle Aethina tumida, a worldwide parasite of honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida, is a major pest of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in the United States and Australia, and an emergent threat in Europe. While strong honey bee colonies generally keep SHB populations in check, weak or stressed colonies can succumb to infestat...

  16. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood.

  17. T-38 Primary Flight Display Prototyping and HIVE Support Abstract & Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boniface, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This fall I worked in EV3 within NASA's Johnson Space Center in The HIVE (Human Integrated Vehicles & Environments). The HIVE is responsible for human in the loop testing, getting new technologies in front of astronauts, operators, and users early in the development cycle to make the interfaces more human friendly. Some projects the HIVE is working on includes user interfaces for future spacecraft, wearables to alert astronauts about important information, and test beds to simulate mock missions. During my internship I created a prototype for T-38 aircraft displays using LabVIEW, learned how to use microcontrollers, and helped out with other small tasks in the HIVE. The purpose of developing a prototype for T-38 Displays in LabVIEW is to analyze functions of the display such as navigation in a cost and time effective manner. The LabVIEW prototypes allow Ellington Field AOD to easily make adjustments to the display before hardcoding the final product. LabVIEW was used to create a user interface for simulation almost identical to the real aircraft display. Goals to begin the T-38 PFD (Primary Flight Display) prototype included creating a T-38 PFD hardware display in a software environment, designing navigation for the menu's, incorporating vertical and horizontal navigation bars, and to add a heading bug for compass controls connected to the HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator). To get started with the project, measurements of the entire display were taken. This enabled an accurate model of the hardware display to be created. Navigation of menu's required some exploration of different buttons on the display. The T-38 simulator and aircraft were used for examining the display. After one piece of the prototype was finished, another trip of to the simulator took place. This was done until all goals for the prototype were complete. Some possible integration ideas for displays in the near future are autopilot selection, touch screen displays, and crew member preferences

  18. [Pollinators of Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidales: Lecythidaceae): interactions with stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) and trophic niche].

    PubMed

    Santos, Charles F; Absy, Maria L

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the foraging behavior and interactions of Xylocopa frontalis Olivier (Apidae: Xylocopini) and Eulaema mocsaryi (Friese) (Apidae: Euglossini) in the presence of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa, the Brazilian nut. The palynological load carried by both species was also examined. This study was conducted in the farm Aruanã, Itacoatiara/ Amazonas state, Brazil, during the flowering peak of B. excelsa. The visitation by the main pollinators X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi were influenced by the presence and activities of stingless bees in the flowers of B. excelsa. Meliponini bees did not have any effect on the visits and collection of floral resources by X. frontalis, while negatively affecting the number of visits by E. mocsaryi. The stingless bees presented a variety of strategies to get access to pollen grains of B. excelsa, grouped into two categories: opportunism -Frieseomelitta trichocerata Moure, Tetragona goettei (Friese), and Tetragona kaieteurensis (Schwarz), and stealing -Trigona branneri Cockerell, Trigona fuscipennis Friese, and Trigona guianae Cockerell. The palynological analysis from X. frontalis showed that the bee collected pollen in a few species of plants, but mainly on B. excelsa. The pollen grains of B. excelsa were poorly represented in the pollen shipments of E. mocsaryi, due to its large trophic niche in the locality. PMID:21271049

  19. Hive-stored pollen of honey bees: many lines of evidence are consistent with pollen preservation, not nutrient conversion

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kirk E; Carroll, Mark J; Sheehan, Tim; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Honey bee hives are filled with stored pollen, honey, plant resins and wax, all antimicrobial to differing degrees. Stored pollen is the nutritionally rich currency used for colony growth and consists of 40–50% simple sugars. Many studies speculate that prior to consumption by bees, stored pollen undergoes long-term nutrient conversion, becoming more nutritious ‘bee bread’ as microbes predigest the pollen. We quantified both structural and functional aspects associated with this hypothesis using behavioural assays, bacterial plate counts, microscopy and 454 amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both newly collected and hive-stored pollen. We found that bees preferentially consume fresh pollen stored for <3 days. Newly collected pollen contained few bacteria, values which decreased significantly as pollen were stored >96 h. The estimated microbe to pollen grain surface area ratio was 1:1 000 000 indicating a negligible effect of microbial metabolism on hive-stored pollen. Consistent with these findings, hive-stored pollen grains did not appear compromised according to microscopy. Based on year round 454 amplicon sequencing, bacterial communities of newly collected and hive-stored pollen did not differ, indicating the lack of an emergent microbial community co-evolved to digest stored pollen. In accord with previous culturing and 16S cloning, acid resistant and osmotolerant bacteria like Lactobacillus kunkeei were found in greatest abundance in stored pollen, consistent with the harsh character of this microenvironment. We conclude that stored pollen is not evolved for microbially mediated nutrient conversion, but is a preservative environment due primarily to added honey, nectar, bee secretions and properties of pollen itself. PMID:25319366

  20. Hive-stored pollen of honey bees: many lines of evidence are consistent with pollen preservation, not nutrient conversion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirk E; Carroll, Mark J; Sheehan, Tim; Lanan, Michele C; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Honey bee hives are filled with stored pollen, honey, plant resins and wax, all antimicrobial to differing degrees. Stored pollen is the nutritionally rich currency used for colony growth and consists of 40-50% simple sugars. Many studies speculate that prior to consumption by bees, stored pollen undergoes long-term nutrient conversion, becoming more nutritious 'bee bread' as microbes predigest the pollen. We quantified both structural and functional aspects associated with this hypothesis using behavioural assays, bacterial plate counts, microscopy and 454 amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both newly collected and hive-stored pollen. We found that bees preferentially consume fresh pollen stored for <3 days. Newly collected pollen contained few bacteria, values which decreased significantly as pollen were stored >96 h. The estimated microbe to pollen grain surface area ratio was 1:1 000 000 indicating a negligible effect of microbial metabolism on hive-stored pollen. Consistent with these findings, hive-stored pollen grains did not appear compromised according to microscopy. Based on year round 454 amplicon sequencing, bacterial communities of newly collected and hive-stored pollen did not differ, indicating the lack of an emergent microbial community co-evolved to digest stored pollen. In accord with previous culturing and 16S cloning, acid resistant and osmotolerant bacteria like Lactobacillus kunkeei were found in greatest abundance in stored pollen, consistent with the harsh character of this microenvironment. We conclude that stored pollen is not evolved for microbially mediated nutrient conversion, but is a preservative environment due primarily to added honey, nectar, bee secretions and properties of pollen itself. PMID:25319366

  1. Hive-stored pollen of honey bees: many lines of evidence are consistent with pollen preservation, not nutrient conversion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirk E; Carroll, Mark J; Sheehan, Tim; Lanan, Michele C; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Honey bee hives are filled with stored pollen, honey, plant resins and wax, all antimicrobial to differing degrees. Stored pollen is the nutritionally rich currency used for colony growth and consists of 40-50% simple sugars. Many studies speculate that prior to consumption by bees, stored pollen undergoes long-term nutrient conversion, becoming more nutritious 'bee bread' as microbes predigest the pollen. We quantified both structural and functional aspects associated with this hypothesis using behavioural assays, bacterial plate counts, microscopy and 454 amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both newly collected and hive-stored pollen. We found that bees preferentially consume fresh pollen stored for <3 days. Newly collected pollen contained few bacteria, values which decreased significantly as pollen were stored >96 h. The estimated microbe to pollen grain surface area ratio was 1:1 000 000 indicating a negligible effect of microbial metabolism on hive-stored pollen. Consistent with these findings, hive-stored pollen grains did not appear compromised according to microscopy. Based on year round 454 amplicon sequencing, bacterial communities of newly collected and hive-stored pollen did not differ, indicating the lack of an emergent microbial community co-evolved to digest stored pollen. In accord with previous culturing and 16S cloning, acid resistant and osmotolerant bacteria like Lactobacillus kunkeei were found in greatest abundance in stored pollen, consistent with the harsh character of this microenvironment. We conclude that stored pollen is not evolved for microbially mediated nutrient conversion, but is a preservative environment due primarily to added honey, nectar, bee secretions and properties of pollen itself.

  2. Unique Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Hive Component-Based Communities as Detected by a Hybrid of Phospholipid Fatty-Acid and Fatty-Acid Methyl Ester Analyses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities (microbiomes) are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components. PMID:25849080

  3. Influence of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) density on the production of canola (Crucifera: Brassicacae).

    PubMed

    Sabbahi, Rachid; De Oliveira, Domingos; Marceau, Jocelyn

    2005-04-01

    Pollination is an essential step in the seed production of canola, Brassica napus L. It is achieved with the assistance of various pollen vectors, but particularly by the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Although the importance of pollination has been shown for the production of seed crops, the need to introduce bee hives in canola fields during flowering to increase oil seed yield has not yet been proven. With the purpose of showing this, hives of A. mellifera were grouped and placed in various canola fields in the Chaudière-Appalaches and Capitale-Nationale regions (nine fields; three blocks with three treatments; 0, 1.5, and 3 hives per hectare). A cage was used to exclude pollinators and bee visitations were observed in each field. After the harvest, yield analyses were done in relation to the bee density gradient created, by using pod set, number of seeds per plant, and weight of 1000 seeds. Results showed an improvement in seed yield of 46% in the presence of three honey bee hives per hectare, compared with the absence of hives. The introduction of honey bees contributed to production and consequently, these pollinators represented a beneficial and important pollen vector for the optimal yield of canola.

  4. Parasaccharibacter apium, gen. nov., sp. nov., Improves Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Resistance to Nosema.

    PubMed

    Corby-Harris, V; Snyder, L; Meador, C A D; Naldo, R; Mott, B; Anderson, K E

    2016-04-01

    The honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is host to a variety of microorganisms. The bacterial community that occupies the adult worker gut contains a core group of approximately seven taxa, while the hive environment contains its own distribution of bacteria that is in many ways distinct from the gut. Parasaccharibacter apium, gen. nov., sp. nov., is a hive bacterium found in food stores and in larvae, worker jelly, worker hypopharyngeal glands, and queens. Parasaccharibacter apium increases larval survival under laboratory conditions. To determine if this benefit is extended to colonies in the field, we tested if P. apium 1) survives and reproduces in supplemental pollen patty, 2) is distributed throughout the hive when added to pollen patty, 3) benefits colony health, and 4) increases the ability of bees to resist Nosema. Parasaccharibacter apium survived in supplemental diet and was readily consumed by bees. It was distributed throughout the hive under field conditions, moving from the pollen patty to hive larvae. While P. apium did not significantly increase colony brood production, food stores, or foraging rates, it did increase resistance to Nosema infection. Our data suggest that P. apium may positively impact honey bee health.

  5. Killing Them with Kindness? In-Hive Medications May Inhibit Xenobiotic Efflux Transporters and Endanger Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, David J.; Dively, Galen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have recently experienced higher than normal overwintering colony losses. Many factors have been evoked to explain the losses, among which are the presence of residues of pesticides and veterinary products in hives. Multiple residues are present at the same time, though most often in low concentrations so that no single product has yet been associated with losses. Involvement of a combination of residues to losses may however not be excluded. To understand the impact of an exposure to combined residues on honey bees, we propose a mechanism-based strategy, focusing here on Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) transporters as mediators of those interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings Using whole-animal bioassays, we demonstrate through inhibition by verapamil that the widely used organophosphate and pyrethroid acaricides coumaphos and τ-fluvalinate, and three neonicotinoid insecticides: imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid are substrates of one or more MDR transporters. Among the candidate inhibitors of honey bee MDR transporters is the in-hive antibiotic oxytetracycline. Bees prefed oxytetracycline were significantly sensitized to the acaricides coumaphos and τ-fluvalinate, suggesting that the antibiotic may interfere with the normal excretion or metabolism of these pesticides. Conclusions/Significance Many bee hives receive regular treatments of oxytetracycline and acaricides for prevention and treatment of disease and parasites. Our results suggest that seasonal co-application of these medicines to bee hives could increase the adverse effects of these and perhaps other pesticides. Our results also demonstrate the utility of a mechanism-based strategy. By identifying pesticides and apicultural medicines that are substrates and inhibitors of xenobiotic transporters we prioritize the testing of those chemical combinations most likely to result in adverse interactions. PMID:22073195

  6. Commercial bumblebee hives to assess an anthropogenic environment for pollinator support: a case study in the region of Ghent (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Laurian; Meeus, Ivan; Cheroutre, Lore; Mommaerts, Veerle; Louwye, Stephen; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic changes of the environment influence the distribution and abundance of pollinators such as bumblebees and have been proposed as one of the main causes in their worldwide decline. In order to evaluate the impact of expanding anthropogenic landscapes on supporting pollinator potential, reliable tools are needed. Bombus terrestris is one of the most abundant bumblebee species in Europe, and these bumblebees are known as generalist pollinators of not only wild flowers in nature but also of crops in agriculture. For more than two decades, these bumblebees have been commercially mass reared for biological pollination in greenhouses. In this project, we placed commercial hives of the bumblebee B. terrestris containing one queen and 40 workers, in three different locations in the region of Ghent (Belgium), and the performance of these hives was followed during a 4-week period in spring 2012. In parallel, we determined the floral richness and diversity index in the chosen study sites. The sites consisted of a rich urban environment with patchy green areas opposed to an urban environment with poor landscape metrics; a third rural study site showed average positive landscape metrics. The results demonstrated that the hive biomass and numbers of workers increased significantly in the rich compared to the poor environment, providing a mechanism to discriminate between study sites. In addition, the bumblebee-collected pollen showed that the flowering plants Salix spp. and Rosaceae/Prunus spp. are dominant food sources in all anthropogenic environments during early spring. Finally, the results are discussed in relation to the optimization of the experimental setup and to the use of commercial bumblebee hives in assessing local pollinator support within any given environment.

  7. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes USBombus, a large dataset that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the US was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affi...

  8. A new species of Aximopsis sensu lato ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) parasitic on Euglossa spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aximopsis masneri Gates, new species, (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected nests of Euglossa sp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Neotropical region with additional label data indicating E. variabilis and E. cybelia as hosts...

  9. Method of application of tylosin, an antibiotic for American foulbrood control, with effects on small hive beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Elzen, P J; Westervelt, D; Causey, D; Ellis, J; Hepburn, H R; Neumann, P

    2002-12-01

    The method of application of the antibiotic tylosin (Tylan) for control of oxytetracycline-resistant American foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae White) was tested in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. A powdered sugar mixture with tylosin, applied as a dust, was efficacious in eliminating American foulbrood symptoms at a rate of 200-mg Tylan per 20 g of powdered sugar, applied at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. A second method of treatment consisting of Tylan mixed with granulated sugar and vegetable shortening and applied once as a patty, at an equivalent total dose as the dust method, to diseased colonies also effectively eliminated symptoms of disease. In all colonies treated with patties, however, small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) populations significantly increased, compared with the powder sugar method or untreated controls. Bee populations in patty-treated colonies also were significantly reduced, most likely the result of the invasion and proliferation of adult and larval small hive beetles. Such reduction in colony strength was not seen in dust-treated colonies. Because of the obvious damaging populations of small hive beetles, concerns about development of disease resistance, unknown risks of residues, and lack of support by regulatory agencies for the use of the patty method, the use of the dust method of tylosin is greatly favored over the patty method.

  10. Factors affecting pupation success of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida.

    PubMed

    Meikle, W G; Diaz, R

    2012-01-01

    Survivorship of larvae of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), was measured after they were raised on one of six diets. The effects of container shape (wide and shallow vs. narrow and deep), soil depth (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 cm), and temperature (28°, 32°, or 35° C) on pupation success was measured. Diet influenced larval survivorship, but did not have a strong effect on larval weight. The larvae fed only bee brood survived the shortest period of time. The larvae that were denied pupation substrate, fed only honey and pollen, and no other food or water after 20 days, had a median survivorship of 47.6 days, with a maximum of 61 days, while those fed only brood had a median survivorship of 18.2 days. Pupation substrate was essential for successful pupation, and the depth of the substrate, not its top surface area, was the crucial factor. Pupation success in narrow and deep containers was 95.6% on average, but only 12.5% in wide and shallow containers, using the same soil volume. In narrow and deep containers, most or all larvae kept in 4-8 cm of soil pupated at all temperatures, few larvae kept at 2 cm soil depth pupated, one out of 240 kept at 1.0 cm pupated, and no larvae kept at soil depths of 0 or 0.5 cm pupated.

  11. Factors Affecting Pupation Success of the Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida

    PubMed Central

    Meikle, W.G.; Diaz, R.

    2012-01-01

    Survivorship of larvae of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), was measured after they were raised on one of six diets. The effects of container shape (wide and shallow vs. narrow and deep), soil depth (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 cm), and temperature (28°, 32°, or 35° C) on pupation success was measured. Diet influenced larval survivorship, but did not have a strong effect on larval weight. The larvae fed only bee brood survived the shortest period of time. The larvae that were denied pupation substrate, fed only honey and pollen, and no other food or water after 20 days, had a median survivorship of 47.6 days, with a maximum of 61 days, while those fed only brood had a median survivorship of 18.2 days. Pupation substrate was essential for successful pupation, and the depth of the substrate, not its top surface area, was the crucial factor. Pupation success in narrow and deep containers was 95.6% on average, but only 12.5% in wide and shallow containers, using the same soil volume. In narrow and deep containers, most or all larvae kept in 4–8 cm of soil pupated at all temperatures, few larvae kept at 2 cm soil depth pupated, one out of 240 kept at 1.0 cm pupated, and no larvae kept at soil depths of 0 or 0.5 cm pupated. PMID:23451773

  12. Comparison of within hive sampling and seasonal activity of Nosema ceranae in honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Traver, Brenna E; Williams, Matthew R; Fell, Richard D

    2012-02-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian parasite of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, that is found worldwide and in multiple Apis spp.; however, little is known about the effects of N. ceranae on A. mellifera. Previous studies using spore counts suggest that there is no longer a seasonal cycle for N. ceranae and that it is found year round with little variation in infection intensity among months. Our goal was to determine whether infection levels differ in bees collected from different areas of the hive and if there may be seasonal differences in N. ceranae infections. A multiplex species-specific real-time PCR assay was used for the detection and quantification of N. ceranae. Colonies were sampled monthly from September 2009-2010 by collecting workers from honey supers, the fringe of the brood nest, and the brood nest. We found that all bees sampled were infected with N. ceranae and that there was no significant difference in infection levels among the different groups of bees sampled (P=0.74). However, significant differences in colony infection levels were found at different times of the year (P<0.01) with the highest levels in April-June and lower levels in the fall and winter. While our study was only performed for one year, it sheds light on the fact that there may be a seasonality to N. ceranae infections. Being able to predict future N. ceranae infections can be used to better advise beekeepers on N. ceranae management.

  13. The distribution of Aspergillus spp. opportunistic parasites in hives and their pathogenicity to honey bees.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2014-03-14

    Stonebrood is a disease of honey bee larvae caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. As very few studies have focused on the epidemiological aspects of stonebrood and diseased brood may be rapidly discarded by worker bees, it is possible that a high number of cases go undetected. Aspergillus spp. fungi are ubiquitous and associated with disease in many insects, plants, animals and man. They are regarded as opportunistic pathogens that require immunocompromised hosts to establish infection. Microbiological studies have shown high prevalences of Aspergillus spp. in apiaries which occur saprophytically on hive substrates. However, the specific conditions required for pathogenicity to develop remain unknown. In this study, an apiary was screened to determine the prevalence and diversity of Aspergillus spp. fungi. A series of dose-response tests were then conducted using laboratory reared larvae to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of frequently occurring isolates. The susceptibility of adult worker bees to Aspergillus flavus was also tested. Three isolates (A. flavus, Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus phoenicis) of the ten species identified were pathogenic to honey bee larvae. Moreover, adult honey bees were also confirmed to be highly susceptible to A. flavus infection when they ingested conidia. Neither of the two Aspergillus fumigatus strains used in dose-response tests induced mortality in larvae and were the least pathogenic of the isolates tested. These results confirm the ubiquity of Aspergillus spp. in the apiary environment and highlight their potential to infect both larvae and adult bees.

  14. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

  15. Parasaccharibacter apium, gen. nov., sp. nov., improves honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) resistance to Nosema

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is host to a variety of microorganisms. The bacterial community that occupies the adult worker gut contains a core group of approximately seven taxa, while the hive environment contains its own distribution of bacteria that is in many ways distinct from the gut. Parasa...

  16. Age and aggregation trigger mating behaviour in the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Sandra G.; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Duncan, Michael; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Steidle, Johannes L. M.; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the poorly documented reproductive behaviour of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae), a honey bee ( Apis mellifera) parasite. We described the mating behaviour in detail and tested the hypothesis that beetle aggregation plays a vital role in mating in this species. Gender preference was examined in the context of age-dependency and possible chemical communication. Beetles started mating at a high frequency 18 days after emergence from the soil but only if they were aggregated ( p < 0.001); mating was infrequent when beetles were paired. Males in aggregation also tried to copulate with males and only copulated more frequently with females at 18 days after emergence from soil ( p < 0.001) in contrast to newly emerged, 7-day-old and 60-day-old beetles. Males and females spent more time in social contact with the opposite sex ( p < 0.01) when they were 18 days old in contrast to 7-day-old beetles. Filter papers which had been in contact with 21-day-old beetles were highly attractive to similar-aged beetles of the opposite sex ( p < 0.01). This suggests that chemical substances produced by the beetles themselves play a role in mating. Mating behaviour was characterised by a short pre-copulation courtship and female aggression towards other females and copulating couples. Both behaviours may be indicative of cryptic female choice. Delayed onset of reproductive behaviour is typical of many polygamous species, whilst the indispensability of aggregation for onset of sexual behaviour seems to be a feature unique to A. tumida. Both strategies support mass reproduction in this parasitic species, enabling A. tumida to overcome its honey bee host colony, and are probably triggered by chemotactic cues.

  17. Honey Bee Gut Microbiome Is Altered by In-Hive Pesticide Exposures.

    PubMed

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Reeves, Alison M; Anderson, Troy D; Rodrigues, Richard R; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens, and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g., immune system). The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, α-, β-, γ-proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation. PMID:27579024

  18. Age and aggregation trigger mating behaviour in the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae).

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sandra G; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Duncan, Michael; Pettis, Jeffery S; Steidle, Johannes L M; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the poorly documented reproductive behaviour of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae), a honey bee (Apis mellifera) parasite. We described the mating behaviour in detail and tested the hypothesis that beetle aggregation plays a vital role in mating in this species. Gender preference was examined in the context of age-dependency and possible chemical communication. Beetles started mating at a high frequency 18 days after emergence from the soil but only if they were aggregated (p < 0.001); mating was infrequent when beetles were paired. Males in aggregation also tried to copulate with males and only copulated more frequently with females at 18 days after emergence from soil (p < 0.001) in contrast to newly emerged, 7-day-old and 60-day-old beetles. Males and females spent more time in social contact with the opposite sex (p < 0.01) when they were 18 days old in contrast to 7-day-old beetles. Filter papers which had been in contact with 21-day-old beetles were highly attractive to similar-aged beetles of the opposite sex (p < 0.01). This suggests that chemical substances produced by the beetles themselves play a role in mating. Mating behaviour was characterised by a short pre-copulation courtship and female aggression towards other females and copulating couples. Both behaviours may be indicative of cryptic female choice. Delayed onset of reproductive behaviour is typical of many polygamous species, whilst the indispensability of aggregation for onset of sexual behaviour seems to be a feature unique to A. tumida. Both strategies support mass reproduction in this parasitic species, enabling A. tumida to overcome its honey bee host colony, and are probably triggered by chemotactic cues..

  19. Honey Bee Gut Microbiome Is Altered by In-Hive Pesticide Exposures.

    PubMed

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Reeves, Alison M; Anderson, Troy D; Rodrigues, Richard R; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens, and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g., immune system). The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, α-, β-, γ-proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation.

  20. Honey Bee Gut Microbiome Is Altered by In-Hive Pesticide Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L.; Reeves, Alison M.; Anderson, Troy D.; Rodrigues, Richard R.; Williams, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens, and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g., immune system). The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2–V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, α-, β-, γ-proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation. PMID:27579024

  1. Tracking Climate Effects on Plant-Pollinator Interaction Phenology with Satellites and Honey Bee Hives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, Wayne E.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Tan, Bin; Ma, Peter L.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Question/Methods: The complexity of plant-pollinator interactions, the large number of species involved, and the lack of species response functions present challenges to understanding how these critical interactions may be impacted by climate and land cover change on large scales. Given the importance of this interaction for terrestrial ecosystems, it is desirable to develop new approaches. We monitor the daily weight change of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies to record the phenology of the Honey Bee Nectar Flow (HBNF) in a volunteer network (honeybeenet.gsfc.nasa.gov). The records document the successful interaction of a generalist pollinator with a variety of plant resources. We extract useful HBNF phenology metrics for three seasons. Sites currently exist in 35 states/provinces in North America, with a concentration in the Mid-Atlantic region. HBNF metrics are compared to standard phenology metrics derived from remotely sensed vegetation indices from NASA's MODIS sensor and published results from NOAA's A VHRR. At any given time the percentage of plants producing nectar is usually a sma11 fraction of the total satellite sensor signal. We are interested in determining how well the 'bulk' satellite vegetation parameters relate to the phenology of the HBNF, and how it varies spatially on landscape to continental scales. Results/Conclusions: We found the median and peak seasonal HBNF dates to be robust, with variation between replicate scale hives of only a few days. We developed quality assessment protocols to identify abnormal colony artifacts. Temporally, the peak and median of the HBNF in the Mid-Atlantic show a significant advance of 0.58 d/y beginning about 1970, very similar to that observed by the A VHRR since 1982 (0.57 d/y). Spatially, the HBNF metrics are highly correlated with elevation and winter minimum temperature distribution, and exhibit significant but regionally coherent inter-annual variation. The relationship between median of the

  2. Pollen Bearing Honey Bee Detection in Hive Entrance Video Recorded by Remote Embedded System for Pollination Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Z.; Pilipovic, R.; Risojevic, V.; Mirjanic, G.

    2016-06-01

    Honey bees have crucial role in pollination across the world. This paper presents a simple, non-invasive, system for pollen bearing honey bee detection in surveillance video obtained at the entrance of a hive. The proposed system can be used as a part of a more complex system for tracking and counting of honey bees with remote pollination monitoring as a final goal. The proposed method is executed in real time on embedded systems co-located with a hive. Background subtraction, color segmentation and morphology methods are used for segmentation of honey bees. Classification in two classes, pollen bearing honey bees and honey bees that do not have pollen load, is performed using nearest mean classifier, with a simple descriptor consisting of color variance and eccentricity features. On in-house data set we achieved correct classification rate of 88.7% with 50 training images per class. We show that the obtained classification results are not far behind from the results of state-of-the-art image classification methods. That favors the proposed method, particularly having in mind that real time video transmission to remote high performance computing workstation is still an issue, and transfer of obtained parameters of pollination process is much easier.

  3. Transcriptomic and functional resources for the small hive beetle Aethina tumida, a worldwide parasite of honey bees.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Huang, Qiang; de Guzman, Lilia; Rinderer, Tom; Holloway, Beth; Reese, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Evans, Jay D

    2016-09-01

    The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida, is a major pest of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in the United States and Australia, and an emergent threat in Europe. While strong honey bee colonies generally keep SHB populations in check, weak or stressed colonies can succumb to infestations. This parasite has spread from a sub-Saharan Africa to three continents, leading to immense management and regulatory costs. We performed a transcriptomic analysis involving deep sequencing of multiple life stages and both sexes of this species. The assembled transcriptome appears to be nearly complete, as judged by conserved insect orthologs and the ability to find plausible homologs for 11,952 proteins described from the genome of the red flour beetle. Expressed genes include each of the major metabolic, developmental and sensory groups, along with genes for proteins involved with immune defenses and insecticide resistance. We also present a total of 23,085 high-quality SNP's for the assembled contigs. We highlight potential differences between this beetle and its honey bee hosts, and suggest mechanisms of future research into the biology and control of this species. SNP resources will allow functional genetic analyses and analyses of dispersal for this invasive pest. All resources are posted as Supplemental Tables at https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-transcriptomic-and-functional-resources-small-hive-beetle-aethina-tumida-worldwide, and at NCBI under Bioproject PRJNA256171. PMID:27453819

  4. Transcriptomic and functional resources for the small hive beetle Aethina tumida, a worldwide parasite of honey bees.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Huang, Qiang; de Guzman, Lilia; Rinderer, Tom; Holloway, Beth; Reese, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Evans, Jay D

    2016-09-01

    The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida, is a major pest of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in the United States and Australia, and an emergent threat in Europe. While strong honey bee colonies generally keep SHB populations in check, weak or stressed colonies can succumb to infestations. This parasite has spread from a sub-Saharan Africa to three continents, leading to immense management and regulatory costs. We performed a transcriptomic analysis involving deep sequencing of multiple life stages and both sexes of this species. The assembled transcriptome appears to be nearly complete, as judged by conserved insect orthologs and the ability to find plausible homologs for 11,952 proteins described from the genome of the red flour beetle. Expressed genes include each of the major metabolic, developmental and sensory groups, along with genes for proteins involved with immune defenses and insecticide resistance. We also present a total of 23,085 high-quality SNP's for the assembled contigs. We highlight potential differences between this beetle and its honey bee hosts, and suggest mechanisms of future research into the biology and control of this species. SNP resources will allow functional genetic analyses and analyses of dispersal for this invasive pest. All resources are posted as Supplemental Tables at https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-transcriptomic-and-functional-resources-small-hive-beetle-aethina-tumida-worldwide, and at NCBI under Bioproject PRJNA256171.

  5. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays.

    PubMed

    De Guzman, Zenaida M; Cervancia, Cleofas R; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Tolentino, Mitos M; Abrera, Gina B; Cobar, Ma Lucia C; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Sabino, Noel G; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C; Feliciano, Chitho P

    2011-10-01

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a ⁶⁰Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D₁₀) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10⁵- 9 × 10³ spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D(min)) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to γ-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials.

  6. Olfactory learning in the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Mc Cabe, S I; Farina, W M

    2010-07-01

    Tetragonisca angustula stingless bees are considered as solitary foragers that lack specific communication strategies. In their orientation towards a food source, these social bees use chemical cues left by co-specifics and the information obtained in previous foraging trips by the association of visual stimuli with the food reward. Here, we investigated their ability to learn the association between odors and reward (sugar solution) and the effect on learning of previous encounters with scented food either inside the hive or during foraging. During food choice experiments, when the odor associated with the food was encountered at the feeding site, the bees' choice is biased to the same odor afterwards. The same was not the case when scented food was placed inside the nest. We also performed a differential olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension response with this species for the first time. Inexperienced bees did not show significant discrimination levels. However, when they had had already interacted with scented food inside the hive, they were able to learn the association with a specific odor. Possible olfactory information circulation inside the hive and its use in their foraging strategies is discussed. PMID:20512581

  7. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  8. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  9. Gene variation, population differentiation, and sociogenetic structure of nests of Partamona seridoensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlo Rivero Moura; Martins, Celso Feitosa; Ferreira, Kátia Maria; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Gene variation and the differentiation of two populations of Partamona seridoensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) from the Caatinga biome, a semiarid ecosystem unique to Brazil, were estimated through allozymic and microsatellite analyses. These populations exhibited similar low degrees of enzyme gene variation. Observed genotype frequencies at the allozyme and microsatellite loci were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the two populations. Both markers demonstrated that the two populations are not genetically homogeneous and must be considered distinct populations. The occurrence of private alleles at the allozyme and microsatellite loci corroborates this differentiation, sustaining the hypothesis of a low level of interpopulation gene flow. The phenotypic segregations clearly demonstrated that the progeny inside each nest were the result of mating between the queen of the colony and only one male. PMID:21938561

  10. Fumagillin control of Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia:Nosematidae) infection in honey bee (Hymenoptera:Apidae) colonies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Giacobino, Agostina; Rivero, Rocio; Molineri, Ana Ines; Cagnolo, Natalia Bulacio; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Salto, Cesar; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-06-30

    Information on the long‑term consequences of Nosema ceranae to honey bee lifespan and effectiveness of Nosema control with fumagillin is scarce and not always consistent. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the antibiotic fumagillin to control N. ceranae in hives in East‑Central Argentina. Honey bee hives were assigned to 3 experimental treatments, a control group with un‑treated hives, a preventive strategy group with hives treated monthly, and a monitoring strategy group with hives treated according to a N. ceranae threshold level. Apiaries were monitored monthly during Fall‑Winter 2009 and 2010 and N. ceranae spore intensity and honey bee colony strength measures were estimated. Fumagillin‑treated colonies had reduced N. ceranae spores load in 2010 compared to control colonies. However, there was no significant difference between treated and control groups for colony strength measures including adult bee population, bee brood availability, honey, or pollen. Fumagillin treatment reduced N. ceranae intensities but had little effect on colonies. The bee population during Winter was reduced in treated as well as in control colonies. Our results clarify that fumagillin treatment should be at least reviewed and that further research should be conducted to acquire a more complete perspective of Nosemosis disease.

  11. Fumagillin control of Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia:Nosematidae) infection in honey bee (Hymenoptera:Apidae) colonies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Giacobino, Agostina; Rivero, Rocio; Molineri, Ana Ines; Cagnolo, Natalia Bulacio; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Salto, Cesar; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-06-30

    Information on the long‑term consequences of Nosema ceranae to honey bee lifespan and effectiveness of Nosema control with fumagillin is scarce and not always consistent. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the antibiotic fumagillin to control N. ceranae in hives in East‑Central Argentina. Honey bee hives were assigned to 3 experimental treatments, a control group with un‑treated hives, a preventive strategy group with hives treated monthly, and a monitoring strategy group with hives treated according to a N. ceranae threshold level. Apiaries were monitored monthly during Fall‑Winter 2009 and 2010 and N. ceranae spore intensity and honey bee colony strength measures were estimated. Fumagillin‑treated colonies had reduced N. ceranae spores load in 2010 compared to control colonies. However, there was no significant difference between treated and control groups for colony strength measures including adult bee population, bee brood availability, honey, or pollen. Fumagillin treatment reduced N. ceranae intensities but had little effect on colonies. The bee population during Winter was reduced in treated as well as in control colonies. Our results clarify that fumagillin treatment should be at least reviewed and that further research should be conducted to acquire a more complete perspective of Nosemosis disease. PMID:27393876

  12. A framework for organizing cancer-related variations from existing databases, publications and NGS data using a High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE).

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Jung; Shamsaddini, Amirhossein; Pan, Yang; Smith, Krista; Crichton, Daniel J; Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Years of sequence feature curation by UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PIR-PSD, NCBI-CDD, RefSeq and other database biocurators has led to a rich repository of information on functional sites of genes and proteins. This information along with variation-related annotation can be used to scan human short sequence reads from next-generation sequencing (NGS) pipelines for presence of non-synonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs) that affect functional sites. This and similar workflows are becoming more important because thousands of NGS data sets are being made available through projects such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and researchers want to evaluate their biomarkers in genomic data. BioMuta, an integrated sequence feature database, provides a framework for automated and manual curation and integration of cancer-related sequence features so that they can be used in NGS analysis pipelines. Sequence feature information in BioMuta is collected from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), ClinVar, UniProtKB and through biocuration of information available from publications. Additionally, nsSNVs identified through automated analysis of NGS data from TCGA are also included in the database. Because of the petabytes of data and information present in NGS primary repositories, a platform HIVE (High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment) for storing, analyzing, computing and curating NGS data and associated metadata has been developed. Using HIVE, 31 979 nsSNVs were identified in TCGA-derived NGS data from breast cancer patients. All variations identified through this process are stored in a Curated Short Read archive, and the nsSNVs from the tumor samples are included in BioMuta. Currently, BioMuta has 26 cancer types with 13 896 small-scale and 308 986 large-scale study-derived variations. Integration of variation data allows identifications of novel or common nsSNVs that can be prioritized in validation studies. Database URL: BioMuta: http://hive

  13. Responses to climatic factors by foragers of Plebeia pugnax Moure (in litt.) (Apidae, Meliponinae).

    PubMed

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Kleinert, A de M

    2001-05-01

    Flight activity of Plebeia pugnax Moure (in litt.) was studied in six colonies coming from Cunha, SP, from July to October 1994. Twice a week, from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., for 5 minutes every half-hour, all the bees entering and leaving the hives were counted. Six hundred counts were made and the materials that foragers carried were recorded. Data were analysed in relation to temperature, relative humidity, light intensity and day time. Foragers' flight activity was relatively constant in a wide range of temperature, from 22 degrees C to 34 degrees C. The minimum temperature for the beginning of flight activity was 14 degrees C. Effective flight activity (when foragers of all colonies were leaving the hives) occurred at 15 degrees C. These bees also flew within a wide range of relative humidity, from 30% to 100%, decreasing slowly after 50%. Flight activity increased as light intensity rose and it has also increased as the hours passed by, reaching a peak around midday and decreasing gradually afterwards. Pollen was collected all day long, while resin collection was relatively constant and debris transportation was slightly higher after 10:00 h. From all known Plebeia species, this one flew on the lowest temperature ever registered for this genus.

  14. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa incubated at room temperature from drones exposed to miticides.

    PubMed

    Burley, Lisa M; Fell, Richard D; Saacke, Richard G

    2008-08-01

    We conducted research to examine the potential impacts ofcoumaphos, fluvalinate, and Apilife VAR (Thymol) on drone honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), sperm viability over time. Drones were reared in colonies that had been treated with each miticide by using the dose recommended on the label. Drones from each miticide treatment were collected, and semen samples were pooled. The pooled samples from each treatment were subdivided and analyzed for periods of up to 6 wk. Random samples were taken from each treatment (n = 6 pools) over the 6-wk period. Sperm viability was measured using dual-fluorescent staining techniques. The exposure of drones to coumaphos during development and sexual maturation significantly reduced sperm viability for all 6 wk. Sperm viability significantly decreased from the initial sample to week 1 in control colonies, and a significant decrease in sperm viability was observed from week 5 to week 6 in all treatments and control. The potential impacts of these results on queen performance and failure are discussed.

  15. A Landscape Analysis to Understand Orientation of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drones in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Cardona, A; Monmany, A C; Diaz, G; Giray, T

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees [Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera)] show spatial learning behavior or orientation, in which animals make use of structured home ranges for their daily activities. Worker (female) orientation has been studied more extensively than drone (male) orientation. Given the extensive and large flight range of drones as part of their reproductive biology, the study of drone orientation may provide new insight on landscape features important for orientation. We report the return rate and orientation of drones released at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) and at the four cardinal points from an apiary located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. We used high-resolution aerial photographs to describe landscape characteristics at the releasing sites and at the apiary. Analyses of variance were used to test significance among returning times from different distances and directions. A principal components analysis was used to describe the landscape at the releasing sites and generalized linear models were used to identify landscape characteristics that influenced the returning times of drones. Our results showed for the first time that drones are able to return from as far as 4 km from the colony. Distance to drone congregation area, orientation, and tree lines were the most important landscape characteristics influencing drone return rate. We discuss the role of landscape in drone orientation.

  16. Evaluation of apicultural characteristics of first-year colonies initiated from packaged honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Strange, James P; Calderone, Nicholas W

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of six named types of package honey bees, Apis mellifera L (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from four commercial producers. We examined the effects of levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, the endoparasitic mite Acarapis woodi (Rennie), the gut parasite Nosema (species not determined) in samples from bees in 48 packages, and levels of adult drones in the same packages on corresponding levels of those same traits in the fall in colonies that developed from those 48 packages. After package installation, we measured the rate of queen failure, the removal of freeze-killed brood (an assay to assess hygienic behavior), varroa-sensitive hygiene, and short-term weight gain in all colonies. We examined the correlations among these traits and the effect of initial package conditions and package-type on the expression of these traits. In general, differences among sources were not significant, except that we did observe significant differences in the proportion of mite infected worker brood in the fall. There was no significant difference in weight gain in colonies established from nosema-infected packages versus those established from noninfected packages. Freeze-killed hygienic behavior and varroa-sensitive hygienic behavior were positively correlated, suggesting that both traits could be selected simultaneously. Neither trait was correlated with colony weight gain, suggesting that both traits could be selected without compromising honey production. PMID:19449626

  17. Sex Determination in Bees. IV. Genetic Control of Juvenile Hormone Production in MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Akahira, Yukio; Camargo, Conceição A.

    1975-01-01

    Cell number and volume of corpora allata was determined for 8 phases of development, the first prepupal stage to adults 30 days old, in the social Apidae Melipona quadrifasciata. In the second prepupal stage a strong correlation was found between cell number and body weight ( r=0.651**), and cell number and corpora allata volume in prepupal stage (r=0.535*), which indicates that juvenile hormone has a definite role in caste determination in Melipona. The distribution of the volume of corpus allatum suggest a 3:1 segregation between bees with high volume of corpora allata against low and medium volume. This implies that genes xa and xb code for an enzyme that directly participates in juvenile hormone production. It was also concluded that the number of cells in the second prepupal stage is more important than the weight of the prepupa for caste determination. A scheme summarizing the genic control of sex and caste determination in Melipona bees in the prepupal phase is given. PMID:1213273

  18. Body size limits dim-light foraging activity in stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Streinzer, Martin; Huber, Werner; Spaethe, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Stingless bees constitute a species-rich tribe of tropical and subtropical eusocial Apidae that act as important pollinators for flowering plants. Many foraging tasks rely on vision, e.g. spatial orientation and detection of food sources and nest entrances. Meliponini workers are usually small, which sets limits on eye morphology and thus quality of vision. Limitations are expected both on acuity, and thus on the ability to detect objects from a distance, as well as on sensitivity, and thus on the foraging time window at dusk and dawn. In this study, we determined light intensity thresholds for flight under dim light conditions in eight stingless bee species in relation to body size in a Neotropical lowland rainforest. Species varied in body size (0.8-1.7 mm thorax-width), and we found a strong negative correlation with light intensity thresholds (0.1-79 lx). Further, we measured eye size, ocelli diameter, ommatidia number, and facet diameter. All parameters significantly correlated with body size. A disproportionately low light intensity threshold in the minute Trigonisca pipioli, together with a large eye parameter P eye suggests specific adaptations to circumvent the optical constraints imposed by the small body size. We discuss the implications of body size in bees on foraging behavior. PMID:27495990

  19. A molecular phylogeny of the stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Nieh, James C; Quental, Tiago B; Roubik, David W; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Pierce, Naomi E

    2010-08-01

    Stingless bees (Meliponini) constitute a diverse group of highly eusocial insects that occur throughout tropical regions around the world. The meliponine genus Melipona is restricted to the New World tropics and has over 50 described species. Melipona, like Apis, possesses the remarkable ability to use representational communication to indicate the location of foraging patches. Although Melipona has been the subject of numerous behavioral, ecological, and genetic studies, the evolutionary history of this genus remains largely unexplored. Here, we implement a multigene phylogenetic approach based on nuclear, mitochondrial, and ribosomal loci, coupled with molecular clock methods, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships and antiquity of subgenera and species of Melipona. Our phylogenetic analysis resolves the relationship among subgenera and tends to agree with morphology-based classification hypotheses. Our molecular clock analysis indicates that the genus Melipona shared a most recent common ancestor at least approximately 14-17 million years (My) ago. These results provide the groundwork for future comparative analyses aimed at understanding the evolution of complex communication mechanisms in eusocial Apidae.

  20. Medium for development of bee cell cultures (Apis mellifera: Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wayne B

    2010-02-01

    A media for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was developed. Multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and modified Hert-Hunter 70 media. Cell culture systems for bees solves an impasse that has hindered efforts to isolate and screen pathogens which may be influencing or causing colony collapse disorder of bees. Multiple life stages of maturing larvae to early pupae were used to successfully establish cell cultures from the tissues of the head, thorax, and abdomen. Multiple cell types were observed which included free-floating suspensions, fibroblast-like, and epithelia-like monolayers. The final culture medium, WH2, was originally developed for hemipterans, Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, and leafhopper, Homalodisca vitripennis cell cultures but has been shown to work for a diverse range of insect species such as bees. Bee cell cultures had various doubling times at 21-23 degrees C ranging from 9-15 d. Deformed wing virus was detected in the primary explanted tissues, which tested negative by rt-PCR for Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir bee virus, acute bee paralysis virus, and black queen cell virus. Culture inoculation with IAPV from an isolate from Florida field samples, was detectable in cell cultures after two subcultures. Cell culture from hymenoptera species, such as bees, greatly advances the approaches available to the field of study on colony collapse disorders. PMID:20033792

  1. Body size limits dim-light foraging activity in stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Streinzer, Martin; Huber, Werner; Spaethe, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Stingless bees constitute a species-rich tribe of tropical and subtropical eusocial Apidae that act as important pollinators for flowering plants. Many foraging tasks rely on vision, e.g. spatial orientation and detection of food sources and nest entrances. Meliponini workers are usually small, which sets limits on eye morphology and thus quality of vision. Limitations are expected both on acuity, and thus on the ability to detect objects from a distance, as well as on sensitivity, and thus on the foraging time window at dusk and dawn. In this study, we determined light intensity thresholds for flight under dim light conditions in eight stingless bee species in relation to body size in a Neotropical lowland rainforest. Species varied in body size (0.8-1.7 mm thorax-width), and we found a strong negative correlation with light intensity thresholds (0.1-79 lx). Further, we measured eye size, ocelli diameter, ommatidia number, and facet diameter. All parameters significantly correlated with body size. A disproportionately low light intensity threshold in the minute Trigonisca pipioli, together with a large eye parameter P eye suggests specific adaptations to circumvent the optical constraints imposed by the small body size. We discuss the implications of body size in bees on foraging behavior.

  2. A Landscape Analysis to Understand Orientation of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drones in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Cardona, A; Monmany, A C; Diaz, G; Giray, T

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees [Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera)] show spatial learning behavior or orientation, in which animals make use of structured home ranges for their daily activities. Worker (female) orientation has been studied more extensively than drone (male) orientation. Given the extensive and large flight range of drones as part of their reproductive biology, the study of drone orientation may provide new insight on landscape features important for orientation. We report the return rate and orientation of drones released at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) and at the four cardinal points from an apiary located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. We used high-resolution aerial photographs to describe landscape characteristics at the releasing sites and at the apiary. Analyses of variance were used to test significance among returning times from different distances and directions. A principal components analysis was used to describe the landscape at the releasing sites and generalized linear models were used to identify landscape characteristics that influenced the returning times of drones. Our results showed for the first time that drones are able to return from as far as 4 km from the colony. Distance to drone congregation area, orientation, and tree lines were the most important landscape characteristics influencing drone return rate. We discuss the role of landscape in drone orientation. PMID:26314058

  3. A molecular phylogeny of the stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Nieh, James C; Quental, Tiago B; Roubik, David W; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Pierce, Naomi E

    2010-08-01

    Stingless bees (Meliponini) constitute a diverse group of highly eusocial insects that occur throughout tropical regions around the world. The meliponine genus Melipona is restricted to the New World tropics and has over 50 described species. Melipona, like Apis, possesses the remarkable ability to use representational communication to indicate the location of foraging patches. Although Melipona has been the subject of numerous behavioral, ecological, and genetic studies, the evolutionary history of this genus remains largely unexplored. Here, we implement a multigene phylogenetic approach based on nuclear, mitochondrial, and ribosomal loci, coupled with molecular clock methods, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships and antiquity of subgenera and species of Melipona. Our phylogenetic analysis resolves the relationship among subgenera and tends to agree with morphology-based classification hypotheses. Our molecular clock analysis indicates that the genus Melipona shared a most recent common ancestor at least approximately 14-17 million years (My) ago. These results provide the groundwork for future comparative analyses aimed at understanding the evolution of complex communication mechanisms in eusocial Apidae. PMID:20433931

  4. Conditional discrimination and response chains by worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens Cresson, Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Mirwan, Hamida B; Kevan, Peter G

    2015-09-01

    We trained worker bumblebees to discriminate arrays of artificial nectaries (one, two, and three microcentrifuge tubes inserted into artificial flowers) from which they could forage in association with their location in a three-compartmental maze. Additionally, we challenged bees to learn to accomplish three different tasks in a fixed sequence during foraging. To enter the main three-compartmented foraging arena, they had first to slide open doors in an entry box to be able to proceed to an artificial flower patch in the main arena where they had to lift covers to the artificial nectaries from which they then fed. Then, the bees had to return to the entrance way to their hive, but to actually enter, were challenged to rotate a vertically oriented disc to expose the entry hole. The bees were adept at associating the array of nectaries with their position in the compartmental maze (one nectary in compartment one, two in two, and three in three), taking about six trials to arrive at almost error-free foraging. Over all it took the bees three days of shaping to become more or less error free at the multi-step suite of sequential task performances. Thus, they had learned where they were in the chain sequence, which array and in which compartment was rewarding, how to get to the rewarding array in the appropriate compartment, and finally how to return as directly as possible to their hive entrance, open the entrance, and re-enter the hive. Our experiments were not designed to determine the specific nature of the cues the bees used, but our results strongly suggest that the tested bees developed a sense of subgoals that needed to be achieved by recognizing the array of elements in a pattern and possibly chain learning in order to achieve the ultimate goal of successfully foraging and returning to their colony. Our results also indicate that the bees had organized their learning by a hierarchy as evidenced by their proceeding to completion of the ultimate goal without

  5. Expression of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) in commercial VSH honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Danka, Robert G; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2011-06-01

    We tested six commercial sources of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), whose breeding incorporated the trait of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). VSH confers resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman by enhancing the ability of the bees to hygienically remove mite-infested brood. VSH production queens (i.e., queens commercially available for use in beekeepers' production colonies) from the six sources were established in colonies which later were measured for VSH. Their responses were compared with those of colonies with three other types of queens, as follows: VSH queens from the selected closed population maintained by USDA-ARS for research and as a source of breeding germplasm, queens from the cooperating commercial distributor of this germplasm, and queens of a commercial, mite-susceptible source. The reduction of mite infestation in brood combs exposed to test colonies for 1 wk differed significantly between groups. On average, colonies with VSH production queens reduced infestation by 44%. This group average was intermediate between the greater removal by pure ARS VSH (76%) and the cooperators' breeding colonies (64%), and the lesser removal by susceptible colonies (7%). VSH production colonies from the different sources had variable expression of hygiene against mites, with average reduced infestations ranging from 22 to 74%. In addition, infertility was high among mites that remained in infested cells in VSH breeder colonies from ARS and the commercial distributor but was lower and more variable in VSH production colonies and susceptible colonies. Commercial VSH production colonies supply mite resistance that generally seems to be useful for beekeeping. Resistance probably could be improved if more VSH drones sources were supplied when VSH production queens are being mated.

  6. Expression of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) in commercial VSH honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Danka, Robert G; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2011-06-01

    We tested six commercial sources of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), whose breeding incorporated the trait of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). VSH confers resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman by enhancing the ability of the bees to hygienically remove mite-infested brood. VSH production queens (i.e., queens commercially available for use in beekeepers' production colonies) from the six sources were established in colonies which later were measured for VSH. Their responses were compared with those of colonies with three other types of queens, as follows: VSH queens from the selected closed population maintained by USDA-ARS for research and as a source of breeding germplasm, queens from the cooperating commercial distributor of this germplasm, and queens of a commercial, mite-susceptible source. The reduction of mite infestation in brood combs exposed to test colonies for 1 wk differed significantly between groups. On average, colonies with VSH production queens reduced infestation by 44%. This group average was intermediate between the greater removal by pure ARS VSH (76%) and the cooperators' breeding colonies (64%), and the lesser removal by susceptible colonies (7%). VSH production colonies from the different sources had variable expression of hygiene against mites, with average reduced infestations ranging from 22 to 74%. In addition, infertility was high among mites that remained in infested cells in VSH breeder colonies from ARS and the commercial distributor but was lower and more variable in VSH production colonies and susceptible colonies. Commercial VSH production colonies supply mite resistance that generally seems to be useful for beekeeping. Resistance probably could be improved if more VSH drones sources were supplied when VSH production queens are being mated. PMID:21735889

  7. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S

    2016-04-01

    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. <10%). The maximum neonicotinoid residue detected in either wax or beebread was 3.9 ppb imidacloprid. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted on the residues recovered from beebread in apiaries located in commercial, urban, and rural landscapes. The calculated risk quotient based on a dietary no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) suggested low potential for negative effects on bee behavior or colony health. PMID:26791816

  8. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S

    2016-04-01

    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. <10%). The maximum neonicotinoid residue detected in either wax or beebread was 3.9 ppb imidacloprid. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted on the residues recovered from beebread in apiaries located in commercial, urban, and rural landscapes. The calculated risk quotient based on a dietary no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) suggested low potential for negative effects on bee behavior or colony health.

  9. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2011-04-01

    Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae) shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM), respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  10. Odor information transfer in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata: effect of in-hive experiences on classical conditioning of proboscis extension.

    PubMed

    Mc Cabe, Sofía I; Farina, Walter M

    2009-02-01

    A recent study showed that the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata could learn to discriminate odors in a classical conditioning of proboscis extension response (PER). Here we used this protocol to investigate the ability of these bees to use olfactory information obtained within the colony in an experimental context: the PER paradigm. We compared their success in solving a classical differential conditioning depending on the previous olfactory experiences received inside the nest. We found that M. quadrifasciata bees are capable of transferring the food-odor information acquired in the colony to a differential conditioning in the PER paradigm. Bees attained higher discrimination levels when they had previously encountered the rewarded odor associated to food inside the hive. The increase in the discrimination levels, however, was in some cases unspecific to the odor used indicating a certain degree of generalization. The influence of the food scent offered at a field feeder 24 h before the classical conditioning could also be seen in the discrimination attained by the foragers in the PER setup, detecting the presence of long-term memory. Moreover, the improved performance of recruited bees in the PER paradigm suggests the occurrence of social learning of nectar scents inside the stingless bees' hives.

  11. Native Prey and Invasive Predator Patterns of Foraging Activity: The Case of the Yellow-Legged Hornet Predation at European Honeybee Hives

    PubMed Central

    Monceau, Karine; Arca, Mariangela; Leprêtre, Lisa; Mougel, Florence; Bonnard, Olivier; Silvain, Jean-François; Maher, Nevile; Arnold, Gérard; Thiéry, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to native predators, which have co-evolved with their prey, alien predators often benefit from native prey naïveté. Vespa velutina, a honeybee predator originating from Eastern China, was introduced into France just before 2004. The present study, based on video recordings of two beehives at an early stage of the invasion process, intends to analyse the alien hornet hunting behaviour on the native prey, Apis mellifera, and to understand the interaction between the activity of the predator and the prey during the day and the season. Chasing hornets spent most of their time hovering facing the hive, to catch flying honeybees returning to the hive. The predation pressure increased during the season confirming previous study based on predator trapping. The number of honeybee captures showed a maximum peak for an intermediate number of V. velutina, unrelated to honeybee activity, suggesting the occurrence of competition between hornets. The number of honeybees caught increased during midday hours while the number of hornets did not vary, suggesting an increase in their efficacy. These results suggest that the impact of V. velutina on honeybees is limited by its own biology and behaviour and did not match the pattern of activity of its prey. Also, it could have been advantageous during the invasion, limiting resource depletion and thus favouring colonisation. This lack of synchronization may also be beneficial for honeybee colonies by giving them an opportunity to increase their activity when the hornets are less effective. PMID:23823754

  12. Integrating a hive triangle pattern with subpixel analysis for noncontact measurement of structural dynamic response by using a novel image processing scheme.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yung-Chi; Hung, Shih-Lin; Lin, Tzu-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a digital image processing approach with a unique hive triangle pattern by integrating subpixel analysis for noncontact measurement of structural dynamic response data. Feasibility of proposed approach is demonstrated based on numerical simulation of a photography experiment. According to those results, the measured time-history displacement of simulated image correlates well with the numerical solution. A small three-story frame is then mounted on a small shaker table, and a linear variation differential transformation (LVDT) is set on the second floor. Experimental results indicate that the relative error between data from LVDT and analyzed data from digital image correlation is below 0.007%, 0.0205 in terms of frequency and displacement, respectively. Additionally, the appropriate image block affects the estimation accuracy of the measurement system. Importantly, the proposed approach for evaluating pattern center and size is highly promising for use in assigning the adaptive block for a digital image correlation method. PMID:24955396

  13. Four common pesticides, their mixtures and a formulation solvent in the hive environment have high oral toxicity to honey bee larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wanyi; Schmehl, Daniel R; Mullin, Christopher A; Frazier, James L

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the widespread distribution of pesticides detected in the hive has raised serious concerns about pesticide exposure on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health. A larval rearing method was adapted to assess the chronic oral toxicity to honey bee larvae of the four most common pesticides detected in pollen and wax--fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil, and chloropyrifos--tested alone and in all combinations. All pesticides at hive-residue levels triggered a significant increase in larval mortality compared to untreated larvae by over two fold, with a strong increase after 3 days of exposure. Among these four pesticides, honey bee larvae were most sensitive to chlorothalonil compared to adults. Synergistic toxicity was observed in the binary mixture of chlorothalonil with fluvalinate at the concentrations of 34 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively; whereas, when diluted by 10 fold, the interaction switched to antagonism. Chlorothalonil at 34 mg/L was also found to synergize the miticide coumaphos at 8 mg/L. The addition of coumaphos significantly reduced the toxicity of the fluvalinate and chlorothalonil mixture, the only significant non-additive effect in all tested ternary mixtures. We also tested the common 'inert' ingredient N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone at seven concentrations, and documented its high toxicity to larval bees. We have shown that chronic dietary exposure to a fungicide, pesticide mixtures, and a formulation solvent have the potential to impact honey bee populations, and warrants further investigation. We suggest that pesticide mixtures in pollen be evaluated by adding their toxicities together, until complete data on interactions can be accumulated.

  14. Four Common Pesticides, Their Mixtures and a Formulation Solvent in the Hive Environment Have High Oral Toxicity to Honey Bee Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wanyi; Schmehl, Daniel R.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the widespread distribution of pesticides detected in the hive has raised serious concerns about pesticide exposure on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health. A larval rearing method was adapted to assess the chronic oral toxicity to honey bee larvae of the four most common pesticides detected in pollen and wax - fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil, and chloropyrifos - tested alone and in all combinations. All pesticides at hive-residue levels triggered a significant increase in larval mortality compared to untreated larvae by over two fold, with a strong increase after 3 days of exposure. Among these four pesticides, honey bee larvae were most sensitive to chlorothalonil compared to adults. Synergistic toxicity was observed in the binary mixture of chlorothalonil with fluvalinate at the concentrations of 34 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively; whereas, when diluted by 10 fold, the interaction switched to antagonism. Chlorothalonil at 34 mg/L was also found to synergize the miticide coumaphos at 8 mg/L. The addition of coumaphos significantly reduced the toxicity of the fluvalinate and chlorothalonil mixture, the only significant non-additive effect in all tested ternary mixtures. We also tested the common ‘inert’ ingredient N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone at seven concentrations, and documented its high toxicity to larval bees. We have shown that chronic dietary exposure to a fungicide, pesticide mixtures, and a formulation solvent have the potential to impact honey bee populations, and warrants further investigation. We suggest that pesticide mixtures in pollen be evaluated by adding their toxicities together, until complete data on interactions can be accumulated. PMID:24416121

  15. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: Consequences for whole-colony health and brood production in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Di, Ning; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-02-01

    Metal pollution has been increasing rapidly over the past century, and at the same time, the human population has continued to rise and produce contaminants that may negatively impact pollinators. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) forage over large areas and can collect contaminants from the environment. The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether the metal contaminants cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) can have a detrimental effect on whole-colony health in the managed pollinator A. mellifera. The authors isolated small nucleus colonies under large cages and fed them an exclusive diet of sugar syrup and pollen patty spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se or a control (no additional metal). Treatment levels were based on concentrations in honey and pollen from contaminated hives around the world. They measured whole-colony health including wax, honey, and brood production; colony weight; brood survival; and metal accumulation in various life stages. Colonies treated with Cd or Cu contained more dead pupae within capped cells compared with control, and Se-treated colonies had lower total worker weights compared to control. Lead had a minimal effect on colony performance, although many members of the hive accumulated significant quantities of the metal. By examining the honey bee as a social organism through whole-colony assessments of toxicity, the authors found that the distribution of toxicants throughout the colony varied from metal to metal, some caste members were more susceptible to certain metals, and the colony's ability to grow over time may have been reduced in the presence of Se. Apiaries residing near metal-contaminated areas may be at risk and can suffer changes in colony dynamics and survival. PMID:26448590

  16. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirk E; Sheehan, Timothy H; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Snyder, Lucy; Schwan, Melissa R; Walton, Alexander; Jones, Beryl M; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or "beebread"). We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop), midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota, and the

  17. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: Consequences for whole-colony health and brood production in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Di, Ning; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-02-01

    Metal pollution has been increasing rapidly over the past century, and at the same time, the human population has continued to rise and produce contaminants that may negatively impact pollinators. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) forage over large areas and can collect contaminants from the environment. The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether the metal contaminants cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) can have a detrimental effect on whole-colony health in the managed pollinator A. mellifera. The authors isolated small nucleus colonies under large cages and fed them an exclusive diet of sugar syrup and pollen patty spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se or a control (no additional metal). Treatment levels were based on concentrations in honey and pollen from contaminated hives around the world. They measured whole-colony health including wax, honey, and brood production; colony weight; brood survival; and metal accumulation in various life stages. Colonies treated with Cd or Cu contained more dead pupae within capped cells compared with control, and Se-treated colonies had lower total worker weights compared to control. Lead had a minimal effect on colony performance, although many members of the hive accumulated significant quantities of the metal. By examining the honey bee as a social organism through whole-colony assessments of toxicity, the authors found that the distribution of toxicants throughout the colony varied from metal to metal, some caste members were more susceptible to certain metals, and the colony's ability to grow over time may have been reduced in the presence of Se. Apiaries residing near metal-contaminated areas may be at risk and can suffer changes in colony dynamics and survival.

  18. Four common pesticides, their mixtures and a formulation solvent in the hive environment have high oral toxicity to honey bee larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wanyi; Schmehl, Daniel R; Mullin, Christopher A; Frazier, James L

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the widespread distribution of pesticides detected in the hive has raised serious concerns about pesticide exposure on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health. A larval rearing method was adapted to assess the chronic oral toxicity to honey bee larvae of the four most common pesticides detected in pollen and wax--fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil, and chloropyrifos--tested alone and in all combinations. All pesticides at hive-residue levels triggered a significant increase in larval mortality compared to untreated larvae by over two fold, with a strong increase after 3 days of exposure. Among these four pesticides, honey bee larvae were most sensitive to chlorothalonil compared to adults. Synergistic toxicity was observed in the binary mixture of chlorothalonil with fluvalinate at the concentrations of 34 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively; whereas, when diluted by 10 fold, the interaction switched to antagonism. Chlorothalonil at 34 mg/L was also found to synergize the miticide coumaphos at 8 mg/L. The addition of coumaphos significantly reduced the toxicity of the fluvalinate and chlorothalonil mixture, the only significant non-additive effect in all tested ternary mixtures. We also tested the common 'inert' ingredient N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone at seven concentrations, and documented its high toxicity to larval bees. We have shown that chronic dietary exposure to a fungicide, pesticide mixtures, and a formulation solvent have the potential to impact honey bee populations, and warrants further investigation. We suggest that pesticide mixtures in pollen be evaluated by adding their toxicities together, until complete data on interactions can be accumulated. PMID:24416121

  19. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers. PMID:25183092

  20. Mechanism of biological effects observed in honey bees (Apis mellifera, L. ) hived under extra-high-voltage transmission lines: implications derived from bee exposure to simulated intense electric fields and shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bindokas, V.P.; Gauger, J.R.; Greenberg, B.

    1988-01-01

    This work explores mechanisms for disturbance of honey bee colonies under a 765 kV, 60-Hz transmission line (electric (E) field = 7 kV/m) observed in previous studies. Proposed mechanisms fell into two categories: direct bee perception of enhanced in-hive E fields and perception of shock from induced currents. The adverse biological effects could be reproduced in simulations where only the worker bees were exposed to shock or to E field in elongated hive entranceways (= tunnels). We now report the results of full-scale experiments using the tunnel exposure scheme, which assesses the contribution of shock and intense E field to colony disturbance. Exposure of worker bees (1400 h) to 60-Hz E fields including 100 kV/m under moisture-free conditions within a nonconductive tunnel causes no deleterious affect on colony behavior. Exposure of bees in conductive (e.g., wet) tunnels produces bee disturbance, increased mortality, abnormal propolization, and possible impairment of colony growth. We propose that this substrate dependence of bee disturbance is the result of perception of shock from coupled body currents and enhanced current densities postulated to exist in the legs and thorax of bees on conductors. Similarly, disturbance occurs when bees are exposed to step-potential-induced currents. At 275-350 nA single bees are disturbed; at 600 nA bees begin abnormal propolization behavior; and stinging occurs at 900 nA. We conclude that biological effects seen in bee colonies under a transmission line are primarily the result of electric shock from induced hive currents. This evaluation is based on the limited effects of E-field exposure in tunnels, the observed disturbance thresholds caused by shocks in tunnels, and the ability of hives exposed under a transmission line to source currents 100-1,000 times the shock thresholds.

  1. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lozier, Jeffrey; Strange, James P.; Ikerd, Harold; Griswold, Terry; Cordes, Nils; Solter, Leellen; Stewart, Isaac; Cameron, Sydney A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus) are pollinators of wild and economically important flowering plants. However, at least four bumble bee species have declined significantly in population abundance and geographic range relative to historic estimates, and one species is possibly extinct. While a wealth of historic data is now available for many of the North American species found to be in decline in online databases, systematic survey data of stable species is still not publically available. The availability of contemporary survey data is critically important for the future monitoring of wild bumble bee populations. Without such data, the ability to ascertain the conservation status of bumble bees in the United States will remain challenging. New information This paper describes USBombus, a large database that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bumble bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the United States was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affinis, B. occidentalis, B. pensylvanicus, and B. terricola. Prior to our national survey of bumble bees in the United States from 2007 to 2010, there have only been regional accounts of bumble bee abundance and richness. In addition to surveying declining bumble bees, we also collected and documented a diversity of co-occuring bumble bees. However we have not yet completely reported their distribution and diversity onto a public online platform. Now, for the first time, we report the geographic distribution of bumble bees reported to be in decline (Cameron et al. 2011), as well as bumble bees that appeared to be stable on a large geographic scale in the United States (not in decline). In this database we report a total of 17,930 adult occurrence records across 397 locations and 39 species of Bombus detected in our national survey. We summarize their abundance and

  2. The Effect of Application Rate of GF-120 (Spinosad) and Malathion on the Mortality of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foragers.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Marín, Nina Vanessa; Liedo, Pablo; Sánchez, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial organisms like the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are heavily affected by pest control practices that incorporate insecticides. Safer alternatives as the spinosad-based formulation GF-120 have been developed to overcome this issue. Though both the low concentration of spinosad and the ultra-low-volume application rate of GF-120 are supposed to have a low acute toxicity in honey bee foragers, to our knowledge such claims have not been explicitly proven. We thus carried out a series of experiments to assess the effect of GF-120, malathion, and Spintor (spinosad) on honey bee foragers when applied at two concentrations (80 and 1,500 ppm) and two application rates (low density rate [LDR]—80 drops of 5 mm diameter per square meter; high density rate [HDR]—thousands of 200 -µm-diameter droplets per square meter). Interestingly, the three pesticides caused low mortality on foragers when applied at LDR-80, LDR-1,500, or HDR-80. However, HDR-1,500 caused a very high mortality. Based upon these results, we developed a computer program to estimate the average number of foragers that are exposed at LDR and HDR. We found that more foragers receive a lethal dose when exposed at HDR than at the other rates. Our results support the hypothesis that the impact of GF-120 and malathion upon honey bees is minimal when applied at LDR and that computer simulation can help greatly in understanding the effects of pesticides upon nontarget species. PMID:26739308

  3. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used in migratory beekeeping for crop pollination.

    PubMed

    Danka, Robert G; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Sylvester, H Allen; Wagener, Christine M; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2012-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated for performance when used in migratory crop pollination. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were managed without miticide treatments and compared with colonies of Italian honey bees that served as controls. Control colonies were managed as groups which either were treated twice each year against V. destructor (CT) or kept untreated (CU). Totals of 240 and 247 colonies were established initially for trials in 2008 and 2009, respectively. RHB and VSH colonies generally had adult and brood populations similar to those of the standard CT group regarding pollination requirements. For pollination of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] in February, percentages of colonies meeting the required six or more frames of adult bees were 57% (VSH), 56% (CT), 39% (RHB), and 34% (CU). RHB are known to have small colonies in early spring, but this can be overcome with appropriate feeding. For later pollination requirements in May to July, 94-100% of colonies in the four groups met pollination size requirements for apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). Infestations with V. destructor usually were lowest in CT colonies and tended to be lower in VSH colonies than in RHB and CU colonies. This study demonstrates that bees with the VSH trait and pure RHB offer alternatives for beekeepers to use for commercial crop pollination while reducing reliance on miticides. The high frequency of queen loss (only approximately one fourth of original queens survived each year) suggests that frequent requeening is necessary to maintain desired genetics.

  4. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used in migratory beekeeping for crop pollination.

    PubMed

    Danka, Robert G; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Sylvester, H Allen; Wagener, Christine M; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2012-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated for performance when used in migratory crop pollination. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were managed without miticide treatments and compared with colonies of Italian honey bees that served as controls. Control colonies were managed as groups which either were treated twice each year against V. destructor (CT) or kept untreated (CU). Totals of 240 and 247 colonies were established initially for trials in 2008 and 2009, respectively. RHB and VSH colonies generally had adult and brood populations similar to those of the standard CT group regarding pollination requirements. For pollination of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] in February, percentages of colonies meeting the required six or more frames of adult bees were 57% (VSH), 56% (CT), 39% (RHB), and 34% (CU). RHB are known to have small colonies in early spring, but this can be overcome with appropriate feeding. For later pollination requirements in May to July, 94-100% of colonies in the four groups met pollination size requirements for apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). Infestations with V. destructor usually were lowest in CT colonies and tended to be lower in VSH colonies than in RHB and CU colonies. This study demonstrates that bees with the VSH trait and pure RHB offer alternatives for beekeepers to use for commercial crop pollination while reducing reliance on miticides. The high frequency of queen loss (only approximately one fourth of original queens survived each year) suggests that frequent requeening is necessary to maintain desired genetics. PMID:22606798

  5. Minimizing the impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae): aerial ultra-low-volume application using a high-pressure nozzle system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, He; Latham, Mark; Payne, Steve; Brock, Cate

    2004-02-01

    The impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera L., was evaluated by exposing test beehives to nighttime aerial ultra-low-volume (ULV) applications using a high-pressure nozzle system. The tests were conducted during routine mosquito control missions at Manatee County, Florida, in summer 2000. Two treatment sites were sprayed a total of four times over a 10-wk period. Honey bees, which clustered outside of the hive entrances, were subjected to naled exposure during these mosquito control sprays. The highest average naled ground deposition was 2,688 microg/m2 at the Port Manatee site, which resulted in statistically significant bee mortality (118) compared with the controls. At the Terra Ceia Road site, an intermediate level of naled deposition was found (1,435 microg/m2). For this spray mission, the range of dead bees per hive at Terra Ceia was 2 to 9 before spraying and 5 to 36 after naled application. Means of all other naled ground depositions were < 850 microl/m2. We concluded that substantial bee mortality (> 100 dead bees) resulted when naled residue levels were > 2,000 kg/m2 and honey bees were clustered outside of the hive entrances during mosquito adulticide applications. Compared with the flat-fan nozzle systems currently used by most of Florida's mosquito control programs, the high-pressure nozzle system used in this experiment substantially reduced environmental insecticide contamination and lead to decreased bee mortality. Statistical analysis also showed that average honey yield at the end of the season was not significantly reduced for those hives that were exposed to the insecticide. PMID:14998120

  6. Evaluation of spring organic treatments against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Giovenazzo, Pierre; Dubreuil, Pascal

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the efficacy of two organic acid treatments, formic acid (FA) and oxalic acid (OA) for the spring control of Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Forty-eight varroa-infested colonies were randomly distributed amongst six experimental groups (n = 8 colonies per group): one control group (G1); two groups tested applications of different dosages of a 40 g OA/l sugar solution 1:1 trickled on bees (G2 and G3); three groups tested different applications of FA: 35 ml of 65% FA in an absorbent Dri-Loc(®) pad (G4); 35 ml of 65% FA poured directly on the hive bottom board (G5) and MiteAwayII™ (G6). The efficacy of treatments (varroa drop), colony development, honey yield and hive survival were monitored from May until September. Five honey bee queens died during this research, all of which were in the FA treated colonies (G4, G5 and G6). G6 colonies had significantly lower brood build-up during the beekeeping season. Brood populations at the end of summer were significantly higher in G2 colonies. Spring honey yield per colony was significantly lower in G6 and higher in G1. Summer honey flow was significantly lower in G6 and higher in G3 and G5. During the treatment period, there was an increase of mite drop in all the treated colonies. Varroa daily drop at the end of the beekeeping season (September) was significantly higher in G1 and significantly lower in G6. The average number of dead bees found in front of hives during treatment was significantly lower in G1, G2 and G3 versus G4, G5 and G6. Results suggest that varroa control is obtained from all spring treatment options. However, all groups treated with FA showed slower summer hive population build-up resulting in reduced honey flow and weaker hives at the end of summer. FA had an immediate toxic effect on bees that resulted in queen death in five colonies. The OA treatments that were tested have minimal toxic impacts on the

  7. Detoxification and stress response genes expressed in a western North American bumble bee, Bombus huntii (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Hunt bumble bee (Bombus huntii Greene, Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a holometabolous, social insect important as a pollinator in natural and agricultural ecosystems in western North America. Bumble bees spend a significant amount of time foraging on a wide variety of flowering plants, and this activity exposes them to both plant toxins and pesticides, posing a threat to individual and colony survival. Little is known about what detoxification pathways are active in bumble bees, how the expression of detoxification genes changes across life stages, or how the number of detoxification genes expressed in B. huntii compares to other insects. Results We found B. huntii expressed at least 584 genes associated with detoxification and stress responses. The expression levels of some of these genes, such as those encoding the cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and glycosidases, vary among different life stages to a greater extent than do other genes. We also found that the number of P450s, GSTs and esterase genes expressed by B. huntii is similar to the number of these genes found in the genomes of other bees, namely Bombus terrestris, Bombus impatiens, Apis mellifera and Megachile rotundata, but many fewer than are found in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions Bombus huntii has transcripts for a large number of detoxification and stress related proteins, including oxidation and reduction enzymes, conjugation enzymes, hydrolytic enzymes, ABC transporters, cadherins, and heat shock proteins. The diversity of genes expressed within some detoxification pathways varies among the life stages and castes, and we typically identified more genes in the adult females than in larvae, pupae, or adult males, for most pathways. Meanwhile, we found the numbers of detoxification and stress genes expressed by B. huntii to be more similar to other bees than to the fruit fly. The low number of detoxification genes, first noted in the honey bee, appears to be

  8. The dependence of honey-bee behaviour on weather — Shown by the results of weighing bee-hives in the period of 1969 to 1978 in the region of the Beekeepers Association of Hannover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Jutta

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of honey bee behaviour and their dependence on weather conditions. The main interest of the data evaluation was the rentability of beekeeping, especially the amount of honey produced, meteorological parameters were used to analyse the measurements. So-called “hive scale” measurements, a method used to judge the annual development of honey bees, were carried out in the region of the “Landesverband Hannoverscher Imker e. V.” by 30 to 35 observers from 1969 to 1978 under the direction of Wagener. Number of flight and forage days were collected in addition to climatic data and evaluated.

  9. Spray Toxicity and Risk Potential of 42 Commonly Used Formulations of Row Crop Pesticides to Adult Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Adamczyk, John; Rinderer, Thomas; Yao, Jianxiu; Danka, Robert; Luttrell, Randall; Gore, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    To combat an increasing abundance of sucking insect pests, >40 pesticides are currently recommended and frequently used as foliar sprays on row crops, especially cotton. Foraging honey bees may be killed when they are directly exposed to foliar sprays, or they may take contaminated pollen back to hives that maybe toxic to other adult bees and larvae. To assess acute toxicity against the honey bee, we used a modified spray tower to simulate field spray conditions to include direct whole-body exposure, inhalation, and continuing tarsal contact and oral licking after a field spray. A total of 42 formulated pesticides, including one herbicide and one fungicide, were assayed for acute spray toxicity to 4-6-d-old workers. Results showed significantly variable toxicities among pesticides, with LC50s ranging from 25 to thousands of mg/liter. Further risk assessment using the field application concentration to LC1 or LC99 ratios revealed the risk potential of the 42 pesticides. Three pesticides killed less than 1% of the worker bees, including the herbicide, a miticide, and a neonicotinoid. Twenty-six insecticides killed more than 99% of the bees, including commonly used organophosphates and neonicotinoids. The remainder of the 13 chemicals killed from 1-99% of the bees at field application rates. This study reveals a realistic acute toxicity of 42 commonly used foliar pesticides. The information is valuable for guiding insecticide selection to minimize direct killing of foraging honey bees, while maintaining effective control of field crop pests. PMID:26352753

  10. Spray Toxicity and Risk Potential of 42 Commonly Used Formulations of Row Crop Pesticides to Adult Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Adamczyk, John; Rinderer, Thomas; Yao, Jianxiu; Danka, Robert; Luttrell, Randall; Gore, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    To combat an increasing abundance of sucking insect pests, >40 pesticides are currently recommended and frequently used as foliar sprays on row crops, especially cotton. Foraging honey bees may be killed when they are directly exposed to foliar sprays, or they may take contaminated pollen back to hives that maybe toxic to other adult bees and larvae. To assess acute toxicity against the honey bee, we used a modified spray tower to simulate field spray conditions to include direct whole-body exposure, inhalation, and continuing tarsal contact and oral licking after a field spray. A total of 42 formulated pesticides, including one herbicide and one fungicide, were assayed for acute spray toxicity to 4-6-d-old workers. Results showed significantly variable toxicities among pesticides, with LC50s ranging from 25 to thousands of mg/liter. Further risk assessment using the field application concentration to LC1 or LC99 ratios revealed the risk potential of the 42 pesticides. Three pesticides killed less than 1% of the worker bees, including the herbicide, a miticide, and a neonicotinoid. Twenty-six insecticides killed more than 99% of the bees, including commonly used organophosphates and neonicotinoids. The remainder of the 13 chemicals killed from 1-99% of the bees at field application rates. This study reveals a realistic acute toxicity of 42 commonly used foliar pesticides. The information is valuable for guiding insecticide selection to minimize direct killing of foraging honey bees, while maintaining effective control of field crop pests.

  11. (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol, an important new pheromonal component from the sting of the honey bee,Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae.).

    PubMed

    Pickett, J A; Williams, I H; Martin, A P

    1982-01-01

    (Z)-11-Eicosen-1-ol was identified by GC-MS and microchemical methods as a major volatile component, ca. 5 μg per insect, secreted by the sting apparatus of the worker honey bee. When presented on moving lures at the hive entrance, (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol, like isopentyl acetate already known as an alarm pheromone, elicited stinging, and together these two compounds were as active as the natural pheromone from the sting. On stationary lures, (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol prolonged the effectiveness of isopentyl acetate. PMID:24414592

  12. Assessing Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foraging Populations and the Potential Impact of Pesticides on Eight U.S. Crops.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Maryann T; Mullin, Chris A; Frazier, Jim L; Ashcraft, Sara A; Leslie, Tim W; Mussen, Eric C; Drummond, Frank A

    2015-10-01

    Beekeepers who use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for crop pollination services, or have colonies making honey on or in close proximity to agricultural crops, are concerned about the reductions of colony foragers and ultimate weakening of their colonies. Pesticide exposure is a potential factor in the loss of foragers. During 2009-2010, we assessed changes in the field force populations of 9-10 colonies at one location per crop on each of the eight crops by counting departing foragers leaving colonies at regular intervals during the respective crop blooming periods. The number of frames of adult bees was counted before and after bloom period. For pesticide analysis, we collected dead and dying bees near the hives, returning foragers, crop flowers, trapped pollen, and corn-flowers associated with the cotton crop. The number of departing foragers changed over time in all crops except almonds; general patterns in foraging activity included declines (cotton), noticeable peaks and declines (alfalfa, blueberries, cotton, corn, and pumpkins), and increases (apples and cantaloupes). The number of adult bee frames increased or remained stable in all crops except alfalfa and cotton. A total of 53 different pesticide residues were identified in samples collected across eight crops. Hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated for the combined residues for all crop-associated samples and separately for samples of dead and dying bees. A decrease in the number of departing foragers in cotton was one of the most substantial crop-associated impacts and presented the highest pesticide risk estimated by a summed pesticide residue HQ. PMID:26453703

  13. Diversity, local knowledge and use of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas. Our study aimed at inventorying stingless bees’ species, traditional knowledge and forms of use and management of them at the municipality of Nocupetaro, Michoacán, Mexico, a region of the Balsas River Basin. Methods We inventoried the stingless bees of the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacán, México, through extensive collecting of bee specimens in different vegetation types. We then conducted semi-structured interviews to local experts in order to document their knowledge and management techniques of stingless bees’ species. Results We identified a total of eight stingless bees’ species in the study area as well as three additional unidentified taxa recognized by people through the local names. Our inventory included one new record of species for the region (Lestrimelitta chamelensis Ayala, 1999). The taxa identified are all used by local people. Scaptotrigona hellwegeri Friese, 1900; Melipona fasciata Latreille, 1811; Frieseomelitta nigra Cresson, 1878 and Geotrigona acapulconis Strand, 1919 are particularly valued as food (honey), medicinal (honey and pollen), and material for handcrafts (wax). All species recorded are wild and their products are obtained through gathering. On average, local experts were able to collect 4 nests of stingless bees per year obtaining on average 6 L of honey and 4 Kg of wax but some came to collect up 10–12 hives per year (18 L of honey and 24 Kg of wax). Conclusions Local knowledge about use, management and ecological issues on stingless bees is persistent and deep in the study area. Information about this group of bees is progressively scarcer in Mexico and significant effort should be done from ethnobiological and ecological perspectives in order to complement the national inventory of bee resources and traditional knowledge and management of them. PMID:24903644

  14. Assessing Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foraging Populations and the Potential Impact of Pesticides on Eight U.S. Crops.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Maryann T; Mullin, Chris A; Frazier, Jim L; Ashcraft, Sara A; Leslie, Tim W; Mussen, Eric C; Drummond, Frank A

    2015-10-01

    Beekeepers who use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for crop pollination services, or have colonies making honey on or in close proximity to agricultural crops, are concerned about the reductions of colony foragers and ultimate weakening of their colonies. Pesticide exposure is a potential factor in the loss of foragers. During 2009-2010, we assessed changes in the field force populations of 9-10 colonies at one location per crop on each of the eight crops by counting departing foragers leaving colonies at regular intervals during the respective crop blooming periods. The number of frames of adult bees was counted before and after bloom period. For pesticide analysis, we collected dead and dying bees near the hives, returning foragers, crop flowers, trapped pollen, and corn-flowers associated with the cotton crop. The number of departing foragers changed over time in all crops except almonds; general patterns in foraging activity included declines (cotton), noticeable peaks and declines (alfalfa, blueberries, cotton, corn, and pumpkins), and increases (apples and cantaloupes). The number of adult bee frames increased or remained stable in all crops except alfalfa and cotton. A total of 53 different pesticide residues were identified in samples collected across eight crops. Hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated for the combined residues for all crop-associated samples and separately for samples of dead and dying bees. A decrease in the number of departing foragers in cotton was one of the most substantial crop-associated impacts and presented the highest pesticide risk estimated by a summed pesticide residue HQ.

  15. Assessing Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foraging Populations and the Potential Impact of Pesticides on Eight U.S. Crops

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Maryann T.; Mullin, Chris A.; Frazier, Jim L.; Ashcraft, Sara A.; Leslie, Tim W.; Mussen, Eric C.; Drummond, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Beekeepers who use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for crop pollination services, or have colonies making honey on or in close proximity to agricultural crops, are concerned about the reductions of colony foragers and ultimate weakening of their colonies. Pesticide exposure is a potential factor in the loss of foragers. During 2009–2010, we assessed changes in the field force populations of 9–10 colonies at one location per crop on each of the eight crops by counting departing foragers leaving colonies at regular intervals during the respective crop blooming periods. The number of frames of adult bees was counted before and after bloom period. For pesticide analysis, we collected dead and dying bees near the hives, returning foragers, crop flowers, trapped pollen, and corn-flowers associated with the cotton crop. The number of departing foragers changed over time in all crops except almonds; general patterns in foraging activity included declines (cotton), noticeable peaks and declines (alfalfa, blueberries, cotton, corn, and pumpkins), and increases (apples and cantaloupes). The number of adult bee frames increased or remained stable in all crops except alfalfa and cotton. A total of 53 different pesticide residues were identified in samples collected across eight crops. Hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated for the combined residues for all crop-associated samples and separately for samples of dead and dying bees. A decrease in the number of departing foragers in cotton was one of the most substantial crop-associated impacts and presented the highest pesticide risk estimated by a summed pesticide residue HQ. PMID:26453703

  16. Effects of brood pheromone (SuperBoost) on consumption of protein supplement and growth of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies during fall in a northern temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Breece, Carolyn R

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), nutrition is vital for colony growth and maintenance of a robust immune system. Brood rearing in honey bee colonies is highly dependent on protein availability. Beekeepers in general provide protein supplement to colonies during periods of pollen dearth. Honey bee brood pheromone is a blend of methyl and ethyl fatty acid esters extractable from cuticle of honey bee larvae that communicates the presence of larvae in a colony. Honey bee brood pheromone has been shown to increase protein supplement consumption and growth of honey bee colonies in a subtropical winter climate. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synthetic brood pheromone (SuperBoost) has the potential to increase protein supplement consumption during fall in a temperate climate and thus increase colony growth. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Oregon during September and October 2009. In both the experiments, colonies receiving brood pheromone treatment consumed significantly higher protein supplement and had greater brood area and adult bees than controls. Results from this study suggest that synthetic brood pheromone may be used to stimulate honey bee colony growth by stimulating protein supplement consumption during fall in a northern temperate climate, when majority of the beekeepers feed protein supplement to their colonies.

  17. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simeão, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.

  18. Winter losses of honeybee colonies (Hymenoptera: Apidae): the role of infestations with Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Marc O; Ritter, Wolfgang; Pettis, Jeff S; Neumann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Multiple infections of managed honeybee, Apis mellifera, colonies are inevitable due to the ubiquitous ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and might be an underlying cause of winter losses. Here we investigated the role of adult small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, alone and in combination with V. destructor for winter losses and for infections with the microsporidian endoparasite Nosema ceranae. We found no significant influence of A. tumida and V. destructor alone or in combination on the numbers of N. ceranae spores. Likewise, A. tumida alone had no significant effects on winter losses, which is most likely due to the observed high winter mortality of the adult beetles. Therefore, our data suggest that A. tumida is unlikely to contribute to losses of overwintering honeybee colonies. However, high losses occurred in all groups highly infested with V. destructor, supporting the central role of the mite for colony losses.

  19. Assessing the Role of Environmental Conditions on Efficacy Rates of Heterorhabditis indica (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) for Controlling Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: a Citizen Science Approach.

    PubMed

    Hill, Elizabeth S; Smythe, Ashleigh B; Delaney, Deborah A

    2016-02-01

    Certain species of entomopathogenic nematodes, such as Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar & David, have the potential to be effective controls for Aethina tumida (Murray), or small hive beetles, when applied to the soil surrounding honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives. Despite the efficacy of H. indica, beekeepers have struggled to use them successfully as a biocontrol. It is believed that the sensitivity of H. indica to certain environmental conditions is the primary reason for this lack of success. Although research has been conducted to explore the impact of specific environmental conditions--such as soil moisture or soil temperature-on entomopathogenic nematode infectivity, no study to date has taken a comprehensive approach that considers the impact of multiple environmental conditions simultaneously. In exploring this, a multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine what environmental conditions resulted in reductions of A. tumida populations in honey bee colonies. To obtain the sample sizes necessary to run a multivariate logistic regression, this study utilized citizen scientist beekeepers and their hives from across the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Results suggest that soil moisture, soil temperatures, sunlight exposure, and groundcover contribute to the efficacy of H. indica in reducing A. tumida populations in A. mellifera colonies. The results of this study offer direction for future research on the environmental preferences of H. indica and can be used to educate beekeepers about methods for better utilizing H. indica as a biological control. PMID:26519500

  20. Assessing the Role of Environmental Conditions on Efficacy Rates of Heterorhabditis indica (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) for Controlling Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: a Citizen Science Approach.

    PubMed

    Hill, Elizabeth S; Smythe, Ashleigh B; Delaney, Deborah A

    2016-02-01

    Certain species of entomopathogenic nematodes, such as Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar & David, have the potential to be effective controls for Aethina tumida (Murray), or small hive beetles, when applied to the soil surrounding honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives. Despite the efficacy of H. indica, beekeepers have struggled to use them successfully as a biocontrol. It is believed that the sensitivity of H. indica to certain environmental conditions is the primary reason for this lack of success. Although research has been conducted to explore the impact of specific environmental conditions--such as soil moisture or soil temperature-on entomopathogenic nematode infectivity, no study to date has taken a comprehensive approach that considers the impact of multiple environmental conditions simultaneously. In exploring this, a multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine what environmental conditions resulted in reductions of A. tumida populations in honey bee colonies. To obtain the sample sizes necessary to run a multivariate logistic regression, this study utilized citizen scientist beekeepers and their hives from across the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Results suggest that soil moisture, soil temperatures, sunlight exposure, and groundcover contribute to the efficacy of H. indica in reducing A. tumida populations in A. mellifera colonies. The results of this study offer direction for future research on the environmental preferences of H. indica and can be used to educate beekeepers about methods for better utilizing H. indica as a biological control.

  1. The Potential of Bee-Generated Carbon Dioxide for Control of Varroa Mite (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Indoor Overwintering Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to manipulate ventilation rate to characterize interactions between stocks of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and ventilation setting on varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) mortality in honey bee colonies kept indoors over winter. The first experiment used colonies established from stock selected locally for wintering performance under exposure to varroa (n = 6) and unselected bees (n = 6) to assess mite and bee mortality and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) in the bee cluster when kept under a simulated winter condition at 5°C. The second experiment, used colonies from selected bees (n = 10) and unselected bees (n = 12) that were exposed to either standard ventilation (14.4 liter/min per hive) or restricted ventilation (0.24 liter/min per hive, in a Plexiglas ventilation chamber) during a 16-d treatment period to assess the influence of restricted air flow on winter mortality rates of varroa mites and honey bees. Experiment 2 was repeated in early, mid-, and late winter. The first experiment showed that under unrestricted ventilation with CO2 concentrations averaging <2% there was no correlation between CO2 and varroa mite mortality when colonies were placed under low temperature. CO2 was negatively correlated with O2 in the bee cluster in both experiments. When ventilation was restricted, mean CO2 level (3.82 ± 0.31%, range 0.43-8.44%) increased by 200% relative to standard ventilation (1.29 ± 0.31%; range 0.09-5.26%) within the 16-d treatment period. The overall mite mortality rates and the reduction in mean abundance of varroa mite over time was greater under restricted ventilation (37 ± 4.2%) than under standard ventilation (23 ± 4.2%) but not affected by stock of bees during the treatment period. Selected bees showed overall greater mite mortality relative to unselected bees in both experiments. Restricting ventilation increased mite mortality, but did not

  2. Treatment with synthetic brood pheromone (SuperBoost) enhances honey production and improves overwintering survival of package honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies.

    PubMed

    Lait, Cameron G; Borden, John H; Kovacs, Ervin; Moeri, Onour E; Campbell, Michael; Machial, Cristina M

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated a year-long treatment regime testing synthetic, 10-component, honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), brood pheromone (SuperBoost; Contech Enterprises Inc., Delta, BC, Canada) on the productivity and vigor of package bee colonies in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. Fifty-eight newlyestablished 1.3-kg (3-lb) colonies treated three times with SuperBoost at 5-wk intervals starting 30 April 2009 were compared with 52 untreated control colonies. Treated colonies produced 84.3% more honey than untreated control colonies. By 8 September 2009, SuperBoost-treated colonies had 35.4% more adults than untreated colonies. By 28 September, net survival of treated and control colonies was 72.4 and 67.3%, respectively. On 5 October, treated and control colonies were divided into two additional groups, making up four cohorts: SuperBoost-treated colonies treated again during fall and spring build-up feeding with pollen substitute diet (BeePro, Mann Lake Ltd., Hackensack, MN; TIT); controls that remained untreated throughout the year (CCC); colonies treated with SuperBoost in spring-summer 2009 but not treated thereafter (TCC); and original control colonies treated with SuperBoost during the fall and spring build-up feeding periods (CTT). There was no difference among cohorts in consumption of BeePro during fall feeding, but TTT colonies (including daughter colonies split off from parent colonies) consumed 50.8% more diet than CCC colonies during spring build-up feeding. By 21 April, the normalized percentages of the original number of colonies remaining (dead colonies partially offset by splits) were as follows: CCC, 31.4%; CTT, 43.8%; TCC, 53.59%; and TTT, 80.0%. The net benefit of placing 100 newly established package bee colonies on a year-long six-treatment regime with SuperBoost would be US$6,202 (US$62.02 per colony). We conclude that treatment with SuperBoost enhanced the productivity and survival of package bee colonies and

  3. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan

    2010-01-01

    The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi) has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee) genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania). To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control.

  4. Large-Scale Field Application of RNAi Technology Reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan

    2010-01-01

    The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi) has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee) genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania). To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control. PMID:21203478

  5. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simeão, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period. PMID:26628236

  6. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan

    2010-01-01

    The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi) has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee) genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania). To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control. PMID:21203478

  7. Indoor winter fumigation of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies infested with Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) with formic acid is a potential control alternative in northern climates.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Robyn M; Currie, Robert W

    2004-04-01

    Formic acid treatment for the control of the ectoparasitic varroa mite, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, infesting honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies is usually carried out as an in-hive outdoor treatment. This study examined the use of formic acid on wintered colonies kept indoors at 5 degrees C from 24 November 1999 to 24 March 2000. Colonies were placed in small treatment rooms that were not treated (control) or fumigated at three different concentrations of formic acid: low (mean 11.9 +/- 1.2 ppm), medium (mean 25.8 +/- 1.4 ppm), or high (mean 41.2 +/- 3.3 ppm), for 48 h on 22-24 January 2000. Queen bee, worker bee, and varroa mite mortality were monitored throughout the winter, and tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi (Rennie), prevalence and mean abundance of nosema, Nosema apis Zander, spores were assessed. This study revealed that formic acid fumigation of indoor-wintered honey bees is feasible and effective. The highest concentration significantly reduced the mean abundance of varroa mites and nosema spores without increasing bee mortality. Tracheal mite prevalence did not change significantly at any concentration, although we did not measure mortality directly. The highest concentration treatment killed 33.3% of queens compared with 4.8% loss in the control. Repeated fumigation periods at high concentrations or extended fumigation at low concentrations may increase the efficacy of this treatment method and should be tested in future studies. An understanding of the cause of queen loss and methods to prevent it must be developed for this method to be generally accepted.

  8. Disentangling multiple interactions in the hive ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Nazzi, Francesco; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    The widespread losses of honeybee colonies recorded over the past number of years in the northern hemisphere represent a major concern for the beekeeping industry and, more importantly, may have a severe impact on ecological services and biodiversity. There is now a general consensus about the multifactorial origin of colony losses, but the mechanistic basis of this complex phenomenon still remains largely elusive. In this review, we propose a functional framework for interpreting how different stress agents can interact to adversely affect bee immunity and health. This provides a new background rationale in which to develop an integrated approach to bee protection, as part of a more comprehensive strategy for the conservation of insect pollinators.

  9. Hot spots in the bee hive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujok, Brigitte; Kleinhenz, Marco; Fuchs, Stefan; Tautz, Jürgen

    2002-06-01

    Honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera) maintain temperatures of 35-36°C in their brood nest because the brood needs high and constant temperature conditions for optimal development. We show that incubation of the brood at the level of individual honeybees is done by worker bees performing a particular and not yet specified behaviour: such bees raise the brood temperature by pressing their warm thoraces firmly onto caps under which the pupae develop. The bees stay motionless in a characteristic posture and have significantly higher thoracic temperatures than bees not assuming this posture in the brood area. The surface of the brood caps against which warm bees had pressed their thorax were up to 3.2°C warmer than the surrounding area, confirming that effective thermal transfer had taken place.

  10. Disentangling multiple interactions in the hive ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Nazzi, Francesco; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    The widespread losses of honeybee colonies recorded over the past number of years in the northern hemisphere represent a major concern for the beekeeping industry and, more importantly, may have a severe impact on ecological services and biodiversity. There is now a general consensus about the multifactorial origin of colony losses, but the mechanistic basis of this complex phenomenon still remains largely elusive. In this review, we propose a functional framework for interpreting how different stress agents can interact to adversely affect bee immunity and health. This provides a new background rationale in which to develop an integrated approach to bee protection, as part of a more comprehensive strategy for the conservation of insect pollinators. PMID:25457396

  11. System, Subsystem, Hive: Boundary Problems in Computational Theories of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Tomer; van Leeuwen, Cees; Edelman, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    A computational theory of consciousness should include a quantitative measure of consciousness, or MoC, that (i) would reveal to what extent a given system is conscious, (ii) would make it possible to compare not only different systems, but also the same system at different times, and (iii) would be graded, because so is consciousness. However, unless its design is properly constrained, such an MoC gives rise to what we call the boundary problem: an MoC that labels a system as conscious will do so for some—perhaps most—of its subsystems, as well as for irrelevantly extended systems (e.g., the original system augmented with physical appendages that contribute nothing to the properties supposedly supporting consciousness), and for aggregates of individually conscious systems (e.g., groups of people). This problem suggests that the properties that are being measured are epiphenomenal to consciousness, or else it implies a bizarre proliferation of minds. We propose that a solution to the boundary problem can be found by identifying properties that are intrinsic or systemic: properties that clearly differentiate between systems whose existence is a matter of fact, as opposed to those whose existence is a matter of interpretation (in the eye of the beholder). We argue that if a putative MoC can be shown to be systemic, this ipso facto resolves any associated boundary issues. As test cases, we analyze two recent theories of consciousness in light of our definitions: the Integrated Information Theory and the Geometric Theory of consciousness. PMID:27512377

  12. Co-acquisition of pesticide resitance within the hive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Western honey bee Apis mellifera is of major economic importance for its honey production and as the main pollinator of agricultural crops. 90 percent of all commercial pollination is performed by managed colonies of honey bees making it a $15 billion industry. Globally, 87 of the leading 115 fo...

  13. System, Subsystem, Hive: Boundary Problems in Computational Theories of Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Tomer; van Leeuwen, Cees; Edelman, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    A computational theory of consciousness should include a quantitative measure of consciousness, or MoC, that (i) would reveal to what extent a given system is conscious, (ii) would make it possible to compare not only different systems, but also the same system at different times, and (iii) would be graded, because so is consciousness. However, unless its design is properly constrained, such an MoC gives rise to what we call the boundary problem: an MoC that labels a system as conscious will do so for some-perhaps most-of its subsystems, as well as for irrelevantly extended systems (e.g., the original system augmented with physical appendages that contribute nothing to the properties supposedly supporting consciousness), and for aggregates of individually conscious systems (e.g., groups of people). This problem suggests that the properties that are being measured are epiphenomenal to consciousness, or else it implies a bizarre proliferation of minds. We propose that a solution to the boundary problem can be found by identifying properties that are intrinsic or systemic: properties that clearly differentiate between systems whose existence is a matter of fact, as opposed to those whose existence is a matter of interpretation (in the eye of the beholder). We argue that if a putative MoC can be shown to be systemic, this ipso facto resolves any associated boundary issues. As test cases, we analyze two recent theories of consciousness in light of our definitions: the Integrated Information Theory and the Geometric Theory of consciousness. PMID:27512377

  14. Join the Hive: The Need for More "Hybrid" Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giusto, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Challenging the dichotomy between theory and practice in education, the author advocates a middle ground that could motivate more practicing teachers to pursue the studies necessary to become "hybrid" educators. These teacher educators would be masters of both research and practice, bringing both into teacher preparation programs in a…

  15. Simplifying Effective Treatment of Chronic Hives in Children

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  16. Nontarget effects of aerial mosquito adulticiding with water-based unsynergized pyrethroids on honey bees and other beneficial insects in an agricultural ecosystem of north Greece.

    PubMed

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas; Goras, Georgios; Tananaki, Chrysoula; Latham, Mark D; Kashefi, Javid; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G

    2014-05-01

    We assessed the nontarget effects of ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerial adulticiding with two new water-based, unsynergized pyrethroid formulations, Aqua-K-Othrine (FFAST antievaporant technology, 2% deltamethrin) and Pesguard S102 (10% d-phenothrin). A helicopter with GPS navigation technology was used. One application rate was tested per formulation that corresponded to 1.00 g (AI)/ha of deltamethrin and 7.50 g (AI)/ha of d-phenothrin. Three beneficial nontarget organisms were used: honey bees (domesticated hives), family Apidae (Apis mellifera L.); mealybug destroyers, family Coccinellidae (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant); and green lacewings, family Chrysopidae (Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)). No significant nontarget mortalities were observed. No bees exhibited signs of sublethal exposure to insecticides. Beehives exposed to the insecticidal applications remained healthy and productive, performed as well as the control hives and increased in weight (25-30%), in adult bee population (14-18%), and in brood population (15-19%).

  17. Efficacy of two fungus-based biopesticide against the honeybee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdelaal A; Abd-Elhady, Hany K

    2013-08-15

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) (Acari: Varroidae), is known as the most serious ectoparasitic mite on honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the world. Based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi, two commercial preparations; Bioranza (Metarhizium anisopliae) and Biovar (Beauveria bassiana) were evaluated through application into the hives against varroa mite. Data showed significant differences between treatments with Bioranza and Biovar, the results were significant after 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Mean a daily fallen mite individual was significantly different between the hives before and after the applications of the two biopesticides and wheat flour. Also, mites' mortality was, significantly, different between the hives before and after treatments. There were significant differences between treatments with the two biopesticides in worker's body weight. Bioranza and Biovar did not infect the honeybee in larval, prepupal, pupal and adult stages. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images showed spores and hyphae penetration through stigma and wounds on varroa. The results suggest that Bioranza and Biovar are potentially are effective biopesticides against V. destructor in honeybee colonies.

  18. Comparative toxicity of pesticides to stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Valdovinos-Núñez, Gustavo Rafael; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Ancona-Xiu, Patricia; Moo-Valle, Humberto; Carmona, Angelica; Ruiz Sanchez, Esaú

    2009-10-01

    Stingless bees are potential pollinators of commercial tropical crops and their use may increase in the short term. However, studies comparing the toxicity of pesticides to different individuals and species are lacking, making it difficult to evaluate their short- and long-term effects on colonies and populations of these insects. In this work, we tested the lethality of compounds from the main pesticide groups on stingless bees of the species Melipona beecheii Bennett, Trigona nigra Provancher, and Nannotrigona perilampoides Cresson. The LDo (in micrograms per bee) for each pesticide was calculated for callow workers and foragers of the three species as well as for gynes and drones of M. beecheii. The results showed that all species were highly susceptible to the evaluated compounds. Nicotinoid pesticides were the most toxic, followed in descending order by permethrin, diazinon, and methomyl. We found evidence of a relationship between the body weight of the species and their LD50 for permethrin and methomyl (r = 0.91 and 0.90, respectively) but not for diazinon (r = -0.089). An analysis of contingency tables showed that within each species, callow workers had higher mortalities than foragers (P < 0.01). In M. beecheii at similar pesticide dose more males died compared with females [chi2((0.0),1) = 10.16]. However, gynes were less resistant than workers [chi2((0.01),1)) = 8.11]. The potential negative consequences of pesticides to native stingless bees are discussed considering the reproductive biology of these insects. It is important to take actions to prevent damage to these key species for the ecology and agriculture of Mexico and Latin America

  19. Microsatellite loci for the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Denilce Meneses; D Silva, Filipe Oliveira; Fernandes Salomão, Tânia Maria; Campos, Lúcio Antônio D Oliveira; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2009-05-01

    Eight microsatellite primers were developed from ISSR (intersimple sequence repeats) markers for the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris. These primers were tested in 20 M. rufiventris workers, representing a single population from Minas Gerais state. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 5 (mean = 2.63) and the observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 0.44 (mean = 0.20) and from 0.05 to 0.68 (mean = 0.31), respectively. Several loci were also polymorphic in M. quadrifasciata, M. bicolor, M. mandacaia and Partamona helleri and should prove useful in population studies of other stingless bees.

  20. The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille).

    PubMed

    An, Jiandong; Huang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youquan; Zhang, Shiwen; Wang, Biao; Liu, Xinyu; Wu, Jie; Williams, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators for wild flowers and agricultural crops. North China is a region of varied geomorphology and vegetation, with plateaus, plains, mountains and deserts, and is part of the greatest hotspot of bumblebee diversity worldwide. We report on a field survey of the bumblebees of North China made between 2005-2012. A sample of 21,636 bumblebee specimens are assigned to 76 species. One older specimen held in London added one more species to this list. Together, these 77 species represent 10 subgenera of the genus Bombus. Seven species are recorded from North China for the first time: B. (St.) distinguendus, B. (Th.) anachoreta, B. (Th.) pseudobaicalensis, B. (Th.) exil, B. (Ps.) campestris, B. (Pr.) infirmus and B. (Ag.) validus. We provide identification keys for both males and females, photographs of the common colour patterns, and distribution maps for all species. We describe variation in local species richness and abundance, and list the food plants used by bumblebees in North China. The most abundant 10 bumblebee species are: B. (Ml.) pyrosoma, B. (Bo.) lantschouensis, B. (Bo.) patagiatus, B. (St.) melanurus, B. (Sb.) sibiricus, B. (Bo.) ignitus, B. (Th.) hedini, B. (Pr.) picipes, B. (Mg.) trifasciatus and B. (Mg.) longipes. Bumblebees are distributed widely within North China, from low elevations near the edge of the North-China plain to high elevations at the edge of the east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (65-4011 m). The highest species richness is found in meadows of the high elevation east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and in forests of the Qilianshan mountains in southwestern Gansu. The 337 food plant species recorded here belong to 49 families, showing that bumblebees play an important role in interconnecting agricultural and natural ecosystems in North China.  PMID:25081273

  1. Comparative toxicity of pesticides to stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Valdovinos-Núñez, Gustavo Rafael; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Ancona-Xiu, Patricia; Moo-Valle, Humberto; Carmona, Angelica; Ruiz Sanchez, Esaú

    2009-10-01

    Stingless bees are potential pollinators of commercial tropical crops and their use may increase in the short term. However, studies comparing the toxicity of pesticides to different individuals and species are lacking, making it difficult to evaluate their short- and long-term effects on colonies and populations of these insects. In this work, we tested the lethality of compounds from the main pesticide groups on stingless bees of the species Melipona beecheii Bennett, Trigona nigra Provancher, and Nannotrigona perilampoides Cresson. The LDo (in micrograms per bee) for each pesticide was calculated for callow workers and foragers of the three species as well as for gynes and drones of M. beecheii. The results showed that all species were highly susceptible to the evaluated compounds. Nicotinoid pesticides were the most toxic, followed in descending order by permethrin, diazinon, and methomyl. We found evidence of a relationship between the body weight of the species and their LD50 for permethrin and methomyl (r = 0.91 and 0.90, respectively) but not for diazinon (r = -0.089). An analysis of contingency tables showed that within each species, callow workers had higher mortalities than foragers (P < 0.01). In M. beecheii at similar pesticide dose more males died compared with females [chi2((0.0),1) = 10.16]. However, gynes were less resistant than workers [chi2((0.01),1)) = 8.11]. The potential negative consequences of pesticides to native stingless bees are discussed considering the reproductive biology of these insects. It is important to take actions to prevent damage to these key species for the ecology and agriculture of Mexico and Latin America PMID:19886436

  2. Does beekeeping reduce genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini)?

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Zilse, G A; Costa-Pinto, M F F; Nunes-Silva, C G; Kerr, W E

    2009-01-01

    Many factors have contributed to reductions in wild populations of stingless bees, such as: deforestation, displacement and destruction of nests by honey gatherers, as well as use of insecticides and other agrochemicals. All of these can potentially affect the populational structure of native species. We analyzed genetic variability and populational structure of Melipona scutellaris, based on five microsatellite loci, using heterologous primers of M. bicolor. Samples were taken from 43 meliponaries distributed among 30 sites of four northeastern states of Brazil (Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and Bahia). Thirty-one alleles were found to be well distributed among the populations, with sizes ranging from 85 to 146 bp. In general, there was a variable distribution and frequency of alleles among populations, with either exclusive and/or fixed alleles at some sites. The population of Pernambuco was the most polymorphic, followed by Bahia, Alagoas and Sergipe. The heterozygosity was Ho = 0.36 on average, much lower than what has been reported for M. bicolor (Ho = 0.65). Most populations were not under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found a higher variation within rather than among populations, indicating no genetic structuring in those bees maintained in meliponaries. This apparent homogenization may be due to intense beekeeping activity, including exchange of genetic material among beekeepers. Based on our findings, we recommend more studies of meliponaries and of wild populations in order to help orient management and conservation of these native pollinators. PMID:19681027

  3. Fertility signals in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sramkova, A.; Schulz, C.; Twele, R.; Francke, W.; Ayasse, M.

    2008-06-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, queen control over workers is probably inseparable from the mechanism of queen recognition. In primitively eusocial bumblebees ( Bombus), worker reproduction is controlled not only by the presence or absence of a dominant queen but also by other dominant workers. Furthermore, it was shown that the queen dominance is maintained by pheromonal cues. We investigated whether there is a similar odor signal released by egg-laying queens and workers that may have a function as a fertility signal. We collected cuticular surface extracts from nest-searching and breeding Bombus terrestris queens and workers that were characterized by their ovarian stages. In chemical analyses, we identified 61 compounds consisting of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, and fatty acid esters. Nest-searching queens and all groups of breeding females differed significantly in their odor bouquets. Furthermore, workers before the competition point (time point of colony development where workers start to develop ovaries and lay eggs) differed largely from queens and all other groups of workers. Breeding queens showed a unique bouquet of chemical compounds and certain queen-specific compounds, and the differences toward workers decrease with an increasing development of the workers’ ovaries, hinting the presence of a reliable fertility signal. Among the worker groups, the smallest differences were found after the competition point. Egg-laying females contained higher total amounts of chemical compounds and of relative proportions of wax-type esters and aldehydes than nest-searching queens and workers before the competition point. Therefore, these compounds may have a function as a fertility signal present in queens and workers.

  4. The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille).

    PubMed

    An, Jiandong; Huang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youquan; Zhang, Shiwen; Wang, Biao; Liu, Xinyu; Wu, Jie; Williams, Paul H

    2014-07-08

    Bumblebees are important pollinators for wild flowers and agricultural crops. North China is a region of varied geomorphology and vegetation, with plateaus, plains, mountains and deserts, and is part of the greatest hotspot of bumblebee diversity worldwide. We report on a field survey of the bumblebees of North China made between 2005-2012. A sample of 21,636 bumblebee specimens are assigned to 76 species. One older specimen held in London added one more species to this list. Together, these 77 species represent 10 subgenera of the genus Bombus. Seven species are recorded from North China for the first time: B. (St.) distinguendus, B. (Th.) anachoreta, B. (Th.) pseudobaicalensis, B. (Th.) exil, B. (Ps.) campestris, B. (Pr.) infirmus and B. (Ag.) validus. We provide identification keys for both males and females, photographs of the common colour patterns, and distribution maps for all species. We describe variation in local species richness and abundance, and list the food plants used by bumblebees in North China. The most abundant 10 bumblebee species are: B. (Ml.) pyrosoma, B. (Bo.) lantschouensis, B. (Bo.) patagiatus, B. (St.) melanurus, B. (Sb.) sibiricus, B. (Bo.) ignitus, B. (Th.) hedini, B. (Pr.) picipes, B. (Mg.) trifasciatus and B. (Mg.) longipes. Bumblebees are distributed widely within North China, from low elevations near the edge of the North-China plain to high elevations at the edge of the east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (65-4011 m). The highest species richness is found in meadows of the high elevation east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and in forests of the Qilianshan mountains in southwestern Gansu. The 337 food plant species recorded here belong to 49 families, showing that bumblebees play an important role in interconnecting agricultural and natural ecosystems in North China. 

  5. Bionomics and sociological aspects of Euglossa fimbriata (Apidae, Euglossini).

    PubMed

    Augusto, S C; Garófalo, C A

    2009-05-12

    The nesting biology and the social structure of Euglossa fimbriata were studied based on two original nests found on the campus of the University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Nest 1 contained two inseminated females, 39 sealed cells, one cell being provisioned, and six old and empty cells. Nest 2 contained three inseminated females, 45 sealed cells, one cell being provisioned, and 27 old and empty cells. The cells of nest 1 were distributed into three clusters from which three new nests were set up in the laboratory and maintained in observation boxes from August 1993 to March 1994 in order to study the behaviors performed by the bees. The males left the nest immediately after emergence and did not return. Some females left the nest within a few days of eclosing, and others stayed in their original nests and began to reactivate them. The E. fimbriata colonies were small, with semi-social and eusocial organization. In these colonies one female becomes the dominant female, usually the oldest female, and the others behave as subordinate females. The subordinate females build their cells, provision and oviposit in them, while the dominant female becomes the major guard bee, and oviposits in cells oviposited in by subordinate females. Oviposition by the dominant female is always preceded by oophagy. Irrespective of the behavior displayed, all the females that we dissected had been inseminated. The behavior displayed by the dominant female is characteristic of brood parasitism and fits the parental parasitism hypothesis developed as an alternative pathway by which insect sociality could have arisen.

  6. Efficacy of strips coated with Metarhizium anisopliae for control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee colonies in Texas and Florida.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Jones, Walker A; Gracia, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Strips coated with conidia of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff; Deuteromycetes: Hyphomycetes) to control the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) in colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were compared against the miticide, tau-fluvalinate (Apistan) in field trials in Texas and Florida (USA). Apistan and the fungal treatments resulted in successful control of mite populations in both locations. At the end of the 42-day period of the experiment in Texas, the number of mites per bee was reduced by 69-fold in bee hives treated with Apistan and 25-fold in hives treated with the fungus; however mite infestations increased by 1.3-fold in the control bee hives. Similarly, the number of mites in sealed brood was 13-fold and 3.6-fold higher in the control bee hives than in those treated with Apistan and with the fungus, respectively. Like the miticide Apistan, the fungal treatments provided a significant reduction of mite populations at the end of the experimental period. The data from the broodless colonies treated with the fungus indicated that optimum mite control could be achieved when no brood is being produced, or when brood production is low, such as in the early spring or late fall. In established colonies in Florida, honey bee colony development did not increase under either Apistan or fungal treatments at the end of the experimental period, suggesting that other factors (queen health, food source, food availability) play some major role in the growth of bee colonies. Overall, microbial control of Varroa mites with fungal pathogens could be a useful component of an integrated pest management program for the honey bee industry.

  7. Impact of the use of fluvalinate on different types of beeswax from Spanish hives.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Sabine; Lázaro, Regina; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Bayarri, Susana; Herrera, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Acaricides are applied in agriculture as phytosanitary products against pests and in apiculture to control the bee parasite Varroa destructor. Poor apicultural practices could result in an accumulation of residues in honeybees, in the environment, and in beeswax and other bee products by migration from the wax comb into stored honey through a process of diffusion and consequently constitute a potential risk for humans. In this study, six different types of beeswax samples were analysed for the determination of residues of fluvalinate, coumaphos, and bromopropylate and its metabolite 4,4'-dibromobenzophenone, all of which are the most commonly acaricides used by Spanish beekeepers against V. destructor. The analytic method consists of solid-phase extraction on a SPE Florisil cartridge and high-performance liquid chromatography separation using a photo diode array detector. The results show that fluvalinate residues were detected in 36.3% of samples, ranging from 1.2 to 6.6 microg/g wax. Residues of coumaphos, bromopropylate, and 4,4'-dibromobenzophenone were not found to be greater than their detection limits. This study indicates that the analysis of these compounds in beeswax samples could be used as bioindicators of fluvalinate sanitary treatment and handling practices applied by beekeepers. PMID:19756841

  8. Altruistic self-removal of health-compromised honey bee workers from their hive.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, O; Hayworth, M K; Ross, N P

    2010-07-01

    Social insect colonies represent distinct units of selection. Most individuals evolve by kin selection and forgo individual reproduction. Instead, they display altruistic food sharing, nest maintenance and self-sacrificial colony defence. Recently, altruistic self-removal of diseased worker ants from their colony was described as another important kin-selected behaviour. Here, we report corroborating experimental evidence from honey bee foragers and theoretical analyses. We challenged honey bee foragers with prolonged CO(2) narcosis or by feeding with the cytostatic drug hydroxyurea. Both treatments resulted in increased mortality but also caused the surviving foragers to abandon their social function and remove themselves from their colony, resulting in altruistic suicide. A simple model suggests that altruistic self-removal by sick social insect workers to prevent disease transmission is expected under most biologically plausible conditions. The combined theoretical and empirical support for altruistic self-removal suggests that it may be another important kin-selected behaviour and a potentially widespread mechanism of social immunity.

  9. Pressing an Ear Against a Hive or New Play Explorations in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bly, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Describes a drama course, which included 20 play readings and discussions as well as descriptive commentary focusing on the play's inherent strengths and the laws which govern the world of the play. Explains how, when reading a certain student play, many of those present grew impatient with the play's alleged inaccessibility. Contends that…

  10. Comparison of Varroa destructor and Worker Honeybee Microbiota Within Hives Indicates Shared Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Ledvinka, Ondrej; Kopecky, Jan; Erban, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the honeybee Apis mellifera. In a previous study, bacteria were found in the guts of mites collected from winter beehive debris and were identified using Sanger sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. In this study, community comparison and diversity analyses were performed to examine the microbiota of honeybees and mites at the population level. The microbiota of the mites and honeybees in 26 colonies in seven apiaries in Czechia was studied. Between 10 and 50 Varroa females were collected from the bottom board, and 10 worker bees were removed from the peripheral comb of the same beehive. Both bees and mites were surface sterilized. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the Varroa and honeybee microbiota. The Varroa microbiota was less diverse than was the honeybee microbiota, and the relative abundances of bacterial taxa in the mite and bee microbiota differed. The Varroa mites, but not the honeybees, were found to be inhabited by Diplorickettsia. The relative abundance of Arsenophonus, Morganella, Spiroplasma, Enterococcus, and Pseudomonas was higher in Varroa than in honeybees, and the Diplorickettsia symbiont detected in this study is specific to Varroa mites. The results demonstrated that there are shared bacteria between Varroa and honeybee populations but that these bacteria occur in different relative proportions in the honeybee and mite bacteriomes. These results support the suggestion of bacterial transfer via mites, although only some of the transferred bacteria may be harmful.

  11. Life in the Hive: Supporting Inquiry into Complexity Within the Zone of Proximal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danish, Joshua A.; Peppler, Kylie; Phelps, David; Washington, Dianna

    2011-10-01

    Research into students' understanding of complex systems typically ignores young children because of misinterpretations of young children's competencies. Furthermore, studies that do recognize young children's competencies tend to focus on what children can do in isolation. As an alternative, we propose an approach to designing for young children that is grounded in the notion of the Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky 1978) and leverages Activity Theory to design learning environments. In order to highlight the benefits of this approach, we describe our process for using Activity Theory to inform the design of new software and curricula in a way that is productive for young children to learn concepts that we might have previously considered to be "developmentally inappropriate". As an illuminative example, we then present a discussion of the design of the BeeSign simulation software and accompanying curriculum which specifically designed from an Activity Theory perspective to engage young children in learning about complex systems (Danish 2009a, b). Furthermore, to illustrate the benefits of this approach, we will present findings from a new study where 40 first- and second-grade students participated in the BeeSign curriculum to learn about how honeybees collect nectar from a complex systems perspective. We conclude with some practical suggestions for how such an approach to using Activity Theory for research and design might be adopted by other science educators and designers.

  12. Distribution of sulfathiazole in honey, beeswax, and honeybees and the persistence of residues in treated hives.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Marianna; Baggio, Alessandra; Gallina, Albino; Mutinelli, Franco

    2013-09-25

    This study was performed to evaluate the distribution and depletion of sulfathiazole in different beehive matrices: honey, honeybees, "pre-existing" honeycomb, "new" honeycomb, and capping wax. Sulfathiazole was dissolved in sugar syrup or directly powdered on the combs, the matrices were sampled at different time points, and sulfathiazole residues were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In honey, the higher concentration of sulfathiazole (180 mg kg(-1)) occurred 2 weeks after the last treatment in syrup. In beeswax, drug concentration was higher than in honey, particularly with powder administration, with a maximum level (340 mg kg(-1)) 3 days following the last treatment. The strongest contamination in honeybees (28 mg kg(-1)) was achieved with sulfathiazole administered in powder 3 days after the second treatment. The high persistence of sulfathiazole in the different beehive matrices suggests that it could be a reliable marker of previous treatments performed by beekeepers.

  13. Life in the Hive: Supporting Inquiry into Complexity within the Zone of Proximal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Joshua A.; Peppler, Kylie; Phelps, David; Washington, DiAnna

    2011-01-01

    Research into students' understanding of complex systems typically ignores young children because of misinterpretations of young children's competencies. Furthermore, studies that do recognize young children's competencies tend to focus on what children can do in isolation. As an alternative, we propose an approach to designing for young children…

  14. How hives collapse: Allee effects, ecological resilience, and the honey bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We construct a mathematical model to quantify the loss of resilience in collapsing honey bee colonies due to the presence of a strong Allee effect. In the model, recruitment and mortality of adult bees have substantial social components, with recruitment enhanced and mortality reduced by additional ...

  15. Comparison of Varroa destructor and Worker Honeybee Microbiota Within Hives Indicates Shared Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Ledvinka, Ondrej; Kopecky, Jan; Erban, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the honeybee Apis mellifera. In a previous study, bacteria were found in the guts of mites collected from winter beehive debris and were identified using Sanger sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. In this study, community comparison and diversity analyses were performed to examine the microbiota of honeybees and mites at the population level. The microbiota of the mites and honeybees in 26 colonies in seven apiaries in Czechia was studied. Between 10 and 50 Varroa females were collected from the bottom board, and 10 worker bees were removed from the peripheral comb of the same beehive. Both bees and mites were surface sterilized. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the Varroa and honeybee microbiota. The Varroa microbiota was less diverse than was the honeybee microbiota, and the relative abundances of bacterial taxa in the mite and bee microbiota differed. The Varroa mites, but not the honeybees, were found to be inhabited by Diplorickettsia. The relative abundance of Arsenophonus, Morganella, Spiroplasma, Enterococcus, and Pseudomonas was higher in Varroa than in honeybees, and the Diplorickettsia symbiont detected in this study is specific to Varroa mites. The results demonstrated that there are shared bacteria between Varroa and honeybee populations but that these bacteria occur in different relative proportions in the honeybee and mite bacteriomes. These results support the suggestion of bacterial transfer via mites, although only some of the transferred bacteria may be harmful. PMID:27129319

  16. Stingless bees (Scaptotrigona pectoralis) learn foreign trail pheromones and use them to find food.

    PubMed

    Reichle, Christian; Aguilar, Ingrid; Ayasse, Manfred; Jarau, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Foragers of several species of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Meliponini) deposit pheromone marks in the vegetation to guide nestmates to new food sources. These pheromones are produced in the labial glands and are nest and species specific. Thus, an important question is how recruited foragers recognize their nestmates' pheromone in the field. We tested whether naïve workers learn a specific trail pheromone composition while being recruited by nestmates inside the hive in the species Scaptotrigona pectoralis. We installed artificial scent trails branching off from trails deposited by recruiting foragers and registered whether newly recruited bees follow these trails. The artificial trails were baited with trail pheromones of workers collected from foreign S. pectoralis colonies. When the same foreign trail pheromone was presented inside the experimental hives while recruitment took place a significant higher number of bees followed the artificial trails than in experiments without intranidal presentation. Our results demonstrate that recruits of S. pectoralis can learn the composition of specific trail pheromone bouquets inside the nest and subsequently follow this pheromone in the field. We, therefore, suggest that trail pheromone recognition in S. pectoralis is based on a flexible learning process rather than being a genetically fixed behaviour. PMID:21052681

  17. Health from the Hive: Propolis as an Adjuvant in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis - A Clinicomicrobiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Sanghani, Nehal N; S, Savita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed at the clinical and microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of subgingivally delivered Indian propolis extract as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis presenting a minimum of two pockets (probing depth ≥5 mm) were selected. Sites were assigned randomly into control sites (n=20) which received SRP alone or test sites (n=20) which received SRP and locally delivered propolis. At selected sites, the clinical parameters were assessed and subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline, 15 days and one month. The samples were cultured anerobically for periodontal pathogens. Results: The results indicated that there was a significant improvement in both clinical and microbiological parameters (p<0.01) in the test sites compared to the control sites at the end of the study. Conclusion: Subgingival delivery of propolis showed promising results as an adjunct to SRP in patients with chronic periodontitis when assessed by clinical and microbiological parameters. PMID:25386520

  18. Unsuccessful attacks dominate a drone-preying wasp's hunting performance near stingless bee nests.

    PubMed

    Koedam, D; Slaa, E J; Biesmeijer, J C; Nogueira-Neto, P

    2009-01-01

    Bee males (drones) of stingless bees tend to congregate near entrances of conspecific nests, where they wait for virgin queens that initiate their nuptial flight. We observed that the Neotropical solitary wasp Trachypus boharti (Hymenoptera, Cabronidae) specifically preys on males of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae); these wasps captured up to 50 males per day near the entrance of a single hive. Over 90% of the wasp attacks were unsuccessful; such erroneous attacks often involved conspecific wasps and worker bees. After the capture of non-male prey, wasps almost immediately released these individuals unharmed and continued hunting. A simple behavioral experiment showed that at short distances wasps were not specifically attracted to S. postica males nor were they repelled by workers of the same species. Likely, short-range prey detection near the bees' nest is achieved mainly by vision whereas close-range prey recognition is based principally on chemical and/or mechanical cues. We argue that the dependence on the wasp's visual perception during attack and the crowded and dynamic hunting conditions caused wasps to make many preying attempts that failed. Two wasp-density-related factors, wasp-prey distance and wasp-wasp encounters, may account for the fact that the highest male capture and unsuccessful wasp bee encounter rates occurred at intermediate wasp numbers.

  19. Unsuccessful attacks dominate a drone-preying wasp's hunting performance near stingless bee nests.

    PubMed

    Koedam, D; Slaa, E J; Biesmeijer, J C; Nogueira-Neto, P

    2009-01-01

    Bee males (drones) of stingless bees tend to congregate near entrances of conspecific nests, where they wait for virgin queens that initiate their nuptial flight. We observed that the Neotropical solitary wasp Trachypus boharti (Hymenoptera, Cabronidae) specifically preys on males of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae); these wasps captured up to 50 males per day near the entrance of a single hive. Over 90% of the wasp attacks were unsuccessful; such erroneous attacks often involved conspecific wasps and worker bees. After the capture of non-male prey, wasps almost immediately released these individuals unharmed and continued hunting. A simple behavioral experiment showed that at short distances wasps were not specifically attracted to S. postica males nor were they repelled by workers of the same species. Likely, short-range prey detection near the bees' nest is achieved mainly by vision whereas close-range prey recognition is based principally on chemical and/or mechanical cues. We argue that the dependence on the wasp's visual perception during attack and the crowded and dynamic hunting conditions caused wasps to make many preying attempts that failed. Two wasp-density-related factors, wasp-prey distance and wasp-wasp encounters, may account for the fact that the highest male capture and unsuccessful wasp bee encounter rates occurred at intermediate wasp numbers. PMID:19554768

  20. The Use of Polliniferous Resources by Melipona capixaba, an Endangered Stingless Bee Species

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Bruna Danielle Vieira; da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Pollen types present in samples from corbiculae of Melipona capixaba (Moure and Camargo) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponina) worker bees were analyzed, as well as pollen samples from food pots inside the hives in three sites located at the bees’ original habitat. The aim was to find out the sources used as a trophic resource by this species. The dominant pollen grains in the spectrum of the samples belonged to the families Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae. Eucalyptus was the most frequent pollen type in the corbiculae in Conceição do Castelo municipality; Eucalyptus, Myrcia, and Melastomatacea/Combretaceae in the Fazenda do Estado district; and Eucalyptus and Myrcia in the São Paulo de Aracê district, both in the Domingos Martins municipality. Eucalyptus and Melastomataceae/Combretaceae were the predominant pollen types in the food pots. Eucalyptus was the most prevalent type all year round or most of the year. The most common pollen types in the months that Eucalyptus was not present or dominant in the samples were of remaining native forest species, “ruderal” (field) plants, fruit-bearing plants, and introduced ornamental plants. PMID:23464528

  1. A Method for Distinctly Marking Honey Bees, Apis mellifera, Originating from Multiple Apiary Locations

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, James; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R.; Deynze, Allen Van; Martin, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive and non-intrusive marking methods are essential to track natural behavior of insects for biological experiments. An inexpensive, easy to construct, and easy to install bee marking device is described in this paper. The device is mounted at the entrance of a standard honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hive and is fitted with a removable tube that dispenses a powdered marker. Marking devices were installed on 80 honey bee colonies distributed in nine separate apiaries. Each device held a tube containing one of five colored fluorescent powders, or a combination of a fluorescent powder (either green or magenta) plus one of two protein powders, resulting in nine unique marks. The powdered protein markers included egg albumin from dry chicken egg whites and casein from dry powdered milk. The efficacy of the marking procedure for each of the unique markers was assessed on honey bees exiting each apiary. Each bee was examined, first by visual inspection for the presence of colored fluorescent powder and then by egg albumin and milk casein specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Data indicated that all five of the colored fluorescent powders and both of the protein powders were effective honey bee markers. However, the fluorescent powders consistently yielded more reliable marks than the protein powders. In general, there was less than a 1% chance of obtaining a false positive colored or protein-marked bee, but the chance of obtaining a false negative marked bee was higher for “protein-marked” bees. PMID:22236037

  2. The use of polliniferous resources by Melipona capixaba, an endangered stingless bee species.

    PubMed

    Serra, Bruna Danielle Vieira; da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pollen types present in samples from corbiculae of Melipona capixaba (Moure and Camargo) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponina) worker bees were analyzed, as well as pollen samples from food pots inside the hives in three sites located at the bees' original habitat. The aim was to find out the sources used as a trophic resource by this species. The dominant pollen grains in the spectrum of the samples belonged to the families Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae. Eucalyptus was the most frequent pollen type in the corbiculae in Conceição do Castelo municipality; Eucalyptus, Myrcia, and Melastomatacea/Combretaceae in the Fazenda do Estado district; and Eucalyptus and Myrcia in the São Paulo de Aracê district, both in the Domingos Martins municipality. Eucalyptus and Melastomataceae/Combretaceae were the predominant pollen types in the food pots. Eucalyptus was the most prevalent type all year round or most of the year. The most common pollen types in the months that Eucalyptus was not present or dominant in the samples were of remaining native forest species, "ruderal" (field) plants, fruit-bearing plants, and introduced ornamental plants.

  3. A method for distinctly marking honey bees, Apis mellifera, originating from multiple apiary locations.

    PubMed

    Hagler, James; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R; Van Deynze, Allen; Martin, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive and non-intrusive marking methods are essential to track natural behavior of insects for biological experiments. An inexpensive, easy to construct, and easy to install bee marking device is described in this paper. The device is mounted at the entrance of a standard honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hive and is fitted with a removable tube that dispenses a powdered marker. Marking devices were installed on 80 honey bee colonies distributed in nine separate apiaries. Each device held a tube containing one of five colored fluorescent powders, or a combination of a fluorescent powder (either green or magenta) plus one of two protein powders, resulting in nine unique marks. The powdered protein markers included egg albumin from dry chicken egg whites and casein from dry powdered milk. The efficacy of the marking procedure for each of the unique markers was assessed on honey bees exiting each apiary. Each bee was examined, first by visual inspection for the presence of colored fluorescent powder and then by egg albumin and milk casein specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Data indicated that all five of the colored fluorescent powders and both of the protein powders were effective honey bee markers. However, the fluorescent powders consistently yielded more reliable marks than the protein powders. In general, there was less than a 1% chance of obtaining a false positive colored or protein-marked bee, but the chance of obtaining a false negative marked bee was higher for "protein-marked" bees.

  4. Programmed Cell Death in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Worker Brain Induced by Imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Ping-Li; Xu, Shu-Fa; Jia, Hui-Ru; Wang, Xing

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees are at an unavoidable risk of exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides, which are used worldwide. Compared with the well-studied roles of these pesticides in nontarget site (including midgut, ovary, or salivary glands), little has been reported in the target sites, the brain. In the current study, laboratory-reared adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were treated with sublethal doses of imidacloprid. Neuronal apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL technique for DNA labeling. We observed significantly increased apoptotic markers in dose- and time-dependent manners in brains of bees exposed to imidacloprid. Neuronal activated caspase-3 and mRNA levels of caspase-1, as detected by immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively, were significantly increased, suggesting that sublethal doses of imidacloprid may induce the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Additionally, the overlap of apoptosis and autophagy in neurons was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. It further suggests that a relationship exists between neurotoxicity and behavioral changes induced by sublethal doses of imidacloprid, and that there is a need to determine reasonable limits for imidacloprid application in the field to protect pollinators. PMID:26470287

  5. In vitro effects of thiamethoxam on larvae of Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-09-01

    Several investigations have revealed the toxic effects that neonicotinoids can have on Apis mellifera, while few studies have evaluated the impact of these insecticides can have on the larval stage of the honeybee. From the lethal concentration (LC50) of thiamethoxam for the larvae of the Africanized honeybee, we evaluated the sublethal effects of this insecticide on morphology of the brain. After determine the LC50 (14.34 ng/μL of diet) of thiamethoxam, larvae were exposed to a sublethal concentration of thiamethoxam equivalent to 1.43 ng/μL by acute and subchronic exposure. Morphological and immunocytochemistry analysis of the brains of the exposed bees, showed condensed cells and early cell death in the optic lobes. Additional dose-related effects were observed on larval development. Our results show that the sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam tested are toxic to Africanized honeybees larvae and can modulate the development and consequently could affect the maintenance and survival of the colony. These results represent the first assessment of the effects of thiamethoxam in Africanized honeybee larvae and should contribute to studies on honey bee colony decline. PMID:25985214

  6. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Chaud-Netto, J

    2000-02-01

    Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  7. New methods and media for the centrifugation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drone semen.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-02-01

    Centrifugation of Apis mellifera L. drone semen is a necessary step in the homogenization of semen pools for the enlargement of the effective breeding population, as well as in the collection of semen by the so-called washing technique. It is also of interest for the removal of cryoprotectants after cryopreservation. The adoption of methods involving semen centrifugation has been hampered by their damaging effect to sperm. Here, we tested four new diluents as well as three additives (catalase, hen egg yolk, and a protease inhibitor), using sperm motility and dual fluorescent staining as indicators of semen quality. Three of the new diluents significantly reduced motility losses after centrifugation, as compared with the literature standard. Values of motility and propidium iodide negativity obtained with two of these diluents were not different from those measured with untreated semen. The least damaging diluent, a citrate-HEPES buffer containing trehalose, was then tested in an insemination experiment with centrifuged semen. Most queens receiving this semen produced normal brood, and the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of the queen was not significantly different from that in queens receiving untreated semen. These results could improve the acceptance of techniques involving the centrifugation of drone semen. The diluent used in the insemination experiment could also serve as semen extender for applications not involving centrifugation.

  8. Cytotoxic effects of thiamethoxam in the midgut and malpighian tubules of Africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Catae, Aline Fernanda; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; De Oliveira, Regiane Alves; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2014-04-01

    Due to its expansion, agriculture has become increasingly dependent on the use of pesticides. However, the indiscriminate use of insecticides has had additional effects on the environment. These products have a broad spectrum of action, and therefore the insecticide affects not only the pests but also non-target insects such as bees, which are important pollinators of agricultural crops and natural environments. Among the most used pesticides, the neonicotinoids are particularly harmful. One of the neonicotinoids of specific concern is thiamethoxam, which is used on a wide variety of crops and is toxic to bees. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the effects of this insecticide in the midgut and Malpighian tubule cells of Africanized Apis mellifera. Newly emerged workers were exposed until 8 days to a diet containing a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam equal to 1/10 of LC₅₀ (0.0428 ng a.i./l L of diet). The bees were dissected and the organs were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that thiamethoxam is cytotoxic to midgut and Malpighian tubules. In the midgut, the damage was more evident in bees exposed to the insecticide on the first day. On the eighth day, the cells were ultrastructurally intact suggesting a recovery of this organ. The Malpighian tubules showed pronounced alterations on the eighth day of exposure of bees to the insecticide. This study demonstrates that the continuous exposure to a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam can impair organs that are used during the metabolism of the insecticide.

  9. High Royal Jelly-Producing Honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lian-Fei; Zheng, Huo-Qing; Pirk, Christian W W; Hu, Fu-Liang; Xu, Zi-Wei

    2016-04-01

    China is the largest producer and exporter of royal jelly (RJ) in the world, supplying >90% of the global market. The high production of RJ in China is principally owing to the high RJ-producing lineage of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806) established by beekeepers in the 1980s. We describe the development of high royal jelly-producing honeybees and the management of this lineage today. Previous research and recent advances in the genetic characterization of this lineage, and the molecular markers and mechanisms associated with high RJ production are summarized. The gaps in our knowledge and prospects for future research are also highlighted. PMID:26921226

  10. Hygienic behavior in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): effects of brood, food, and time of the year.

    PubMed

    Bigio, Gianluigi; Schürch, Roger; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-12-01

    Hygienic behavior in honey bees is a heritable trait of individual workers that confers colony-level resistance against various brood diseases. Hygienic workers detect and remove dead or diseased brood from sealed cells. However, this behavior is quite rare, with only c.10% of unselected colonies showing high levels of hygiene. Beekeepers can potentially increase this by screening colonies for hygiene and breeding from the best. However, the level of hygiene expressed by a colony is variable, which poses a challenge to colony selection. In this study, we systematically varied two factors thought to be of importance in influencing hygiene levels, "nectar" availability, by feeding or not feeding sucrose syrup, and brood amount, by adding or removing brood, to determine what effect they had on hygienic behavior. We tested 19 colonies repeatedly over a 4-mo period using the freeze-killed brood assay, a standard technique to quantify hygienic behavior. Two days after freeze-killed brood treatment, our colonies showed a wide range of brood removal levels, with colony means ranging from 31.7 +/- 22.5 to 93 +/- 6.9 (mean % +/- SD). Neither the food nor the brood manipulation had an effect on hygiene levels. Colony size and time of year were also nonsignificant. The only significant effect was a three-way interaction between syrup availability, amount of brood, and time of the year, resulting in reduced hygienic behavior early in the season (spring), in colonies with added brood that were not fed sucrose syrup. Overall, these results suggest that hygienic behavior is not greatly affected by environmental conditions typical of a real-life beekeeping, and that screening of colonies can be done anytime without special regard to nectar conditions or brood levels. PMID:24498725

  11. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa stored at above-freezing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Collins, A M

    2000-06-01

    The development of practical techniques for the storage of honey bee, Apis mellifera L., semen would significantly improve our ability to breed for desirable genotypes and maintain genetic diversity in populations. Artificial insemination of queens has been possible for some time, but the semen used is usually freshly collected, or held for < 1 wk at room temperature. I examined the limitations of spermatozoal survival at nonfrozen temperatures. Pooled, diluted semen was stored in sealed capillary tubes at room temperature (25 degrees C) or in a refrigerator set to 12 degrees C, for periods up to 1 yr. Survival of spermatozoa was assayed by a dual fluorescent staining technique using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide stains, which readily distinguishes live and dead cells. No significant loss of viable spermatozoa occurred within the first 6 wk. Between weeks 6 and 9, the percent live spermatozoa fell from 80 to 58%, and remained at that level until after 39 wk. By week 52, samples at room temperature, but not at 12 degrees C, fell to 18.9% live spermatozoa. Nonfrozen storage of honey bee semen has potential for short-term preservation of germplasm, however several factors need to be studied further to optimize survival rates. PMID:10902300

  12. Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Wagner Faria; De Meyer, Laurens; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a biorational insecticide commonly reported as selective to a range of beneficial insects. Nonetheless, only few studies have been carried out with pollinators, usually emphasizing the honeybee Apis mellifera and neglecting other important pollinator species such as the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here, lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin were studied on B. terrestris via oral exposure in the laboratory to bring out the potential risks of the compound to this important pollinator. The compound was tested at different concentrations above and below the maximum concentration that is used in the field (32 mg L(-1)). As most important results, azadirachtin repelled bumblebee workers in a concentration-dependent manner. The median repellence concentration (RC50) was estimated as 504 mg L(-1). Microcolonies chronically exposed to azadirachtin via treated sugar water during 11 weeks in the laboratory exhibited a high mortality ranging from 32 to 100 % with a range of concentrations between 3.2 and 320 mg L(-1). Moreover, no reproduction was scored when concentrations were higher than 3.2 mg L(-1). At 3.2 mg L(-1), azadirachtin significantly inhibited the egg-laying and, consequently, the production of drones during 6 weeks. Ovarian length decreased with the increase of the azadirachtin concentration. When azadirachtin was tested under an experimental setup in the laboratory where bumblebees need to forage for food, the sublethal effects were stronger as the numbers of drones were reduced already with a concentration of 0.64 mg L(-1). Besides, a negative correlation was found between the body mass of male offspring and azadirachtin concentration. In conclusion, our results as performed in the laboratory demonstrated that azadirachtin can affect B. terrestris with a range of sublethal effects. Taking into account that sublethal effects are as important as lethal effects for the development and survival of the colonies of B. terrestris, this study confirms the need to test compounds on their safety, especially when they have to perform complex tasks such as foraging. The latter agrees with the recent European Food Safety Authority guidelines to assess 'potentially deleterious' compounds for sublethal effects on behavior.

  13. Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus spp.) of interior Alaska: Species composition, distribution, seasonal biology, and parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the ecological and agricultural significance of bumble bees in Alaska, very little is known and published about this important group at the regional level. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on species composition, distribution, seasonal biology, and parasites of the ...

  14. Meteorological influences on swarm emergence in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as detected by crowdsourcing.

    PubMed

    Henneken, R; Helm, S; Menzel, A

    2012-12-01

    A crowdsourced dataset of 1,335 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) swarm events in Germany in 2011 was created by beekeepers, public institutions, and members of the public and analyzed with respect to prevailing weather. The emergence of swarms appeared to be influenced by temperature and rainfall. On successive warm days in May the number of swarming events increased noticeably, but during a mid-month frost event the number of swarming events dropped markedly. Swarming events also occurred only rarely on rainy days. This study showed how crowdsourcing can be used to generate large, useful, phenological datasets. PMID:23321093

  15. Nesting biology of four Tetrapedia species in trap-nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Tetrapediini).

    PubMed

    Camillo, Evandro

    2005-01-01

    The nests used in this study were obtained from trap-nests (tubes of cardboard and cut bamboo stems) placed on Santa Carlota Farm (Itaoca Section-IS, Santana Section-SS and Cerrado-Ce), Cajuru, SP, Brazil. The number of nests and corresponding species obtained were as follows: 516 nests of T. curvitarsis, 104 of T. rugulosa, 399 of T. diversipes and 98 of T. gamfaloi. The most abundant species from SS and Ce was T. curvitarsis, and from IS it was T. diversipes. In general, most nests were collected during the hot and wet season (September to April). The nests were constructed with sand and an oily substance, and a single female established them. The cells were constructed in a linear series, sometimes followed by a vestibular cell. The number of brood cells ranged from 1 to 10 in T. curvitarsis (n=200), and in T. garofaloi (n-51), from 1 to 8 (n-30) in T. rugulosa, and from 1 to 6 (n=37) in T. diversipes. The pollen mass (pollen + oily substance) contained a hollow, sometimes divided by a transverse ridge, on the exposed face of the pollen mass. The egg was vertically positioned in the lower part of the hollow. At times, the closing of a cell was initiated before provisioning was completed, with a construction of a collar at the cell limit. In some nests the final cellular partition also acted as a closure plug. Females began activities at 6:18 a.m. and ended between 3:31 and 6:26 p.m. Some females (T. curvitarsis, T. rugiulosa and T. ganrfaloi) did not spend the nights at their nests, returning to them only the following morning with additional material. In general, the development period (for males and females) was greater in nests collected near the end of the hot and wet season than it was for nests collected in other months. Sex ratios for each species were as follows: T. curvitarsis. 1:1: T. rugulosa, 1.6:1 female; T. diversipes, 1.9:1: T. garofaloi, 2.8:1. Males and females of T. diversipes exhibited statistically similar sizes and in the other three species the females were larger than the males. The mortality rates were statistically similar: 33.2% for T. curvitarsis, 25.8% for T. rugulosa, 26.8% for T. diversipes and 38.2% for T. garnfaloi. The parasitoids were: Coelioxoides exulans, Leucospis cayenensis, Anthrax sp., Coelioxys sp., Coelioxoides sp. and individuals of the family Meloidae.

  16. Nesting biology oF Centris (Hemisiella) tarsata Smith in southern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini).

    PubMed

    Buschini, M L T; Wolff, L L

    2006-11-01

    A total of 67 nests of Centris tarsata were obtained from wood trap-nests of different diameters, consisting of a linear series of brood cells built with sand mixed with oil. This species showed a preference for open habitats, since it occurred only in Swamp and Grassland areas and has never been found in the Araucaria forest. Nesting activity was bigger during the hot season, especially in December and January. The Sex ratio was of 1.48:1 (females/males), significantly different from 1:1. The females were larger than the males and these showed no dimorphism. Males were produced in the outermost cells and females in the innermost cells. C. tarsata presented a direct development without diapause in larval stage. They overwinter as adults. Development time was similar for males and females. Natural enemies are Bombyliidae Mesocheira bicolor, Coelioxys sp. and Meloidae.

  17. Phylogeography of Partamona rustica (Hymenoptera, Apidae), an Endemic Stingless Bee from the Neotropical Dry Forest Diagonal

    PubMed Central

    Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Congrains, Carlos; Carvalho, Antônio Freire; Ferreira, Kátia Maria; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The South America encompasses the highest levels of biodiversity found anywhere in the world and its rich biota is distributed among many different biogeographical regions. However, many regions of South America are still poorly studied, including its xeric environments, such as the threatened Caatinga and Cerrado phytogeographical domains. In particular, the effects of Quaternary climatic events on the demography of endemic species from xeric habitats are poorly understood. The present study uses an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Partamona rustica, an endemic stingless bee from dry forest diagonal in Brazil, in a spatial-temporal framework. In this sense, we sequenced four mitochondrial genes and genotyped eight microsatellite loci. Our results identified two population groups: one to the west and the other to the east of the São Francisco River Valley (SFRV). These groups split in the late Pleistocene, and the Approximate Bayesian Computation approach and phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that P. rustica originated in the west of the SFRV, subsequently colonising eastern region. Our tests of migration detected reduced gene flow between these groups. Finally, our results also indicated that the inferences both from the genetic data analyses and from the spatial distribution modelling are compatible with historical demographic stability. PMID:27723778

  18. Conversion of high and low pollen protein diets into protein in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Basualdo, M; Barragán, S; Vanagas, L; García, C; Solana, H; Rodríguez, E; Bedascarrasbure, E

    2013-08-01

    Adequate protein levels are necessary to maintain strong honey bee [Apis mellifera (L.)] colonies. The aim of this study was to quantify how pollens with different crude protein contents influence protein stores within individual honey bees. Caged bees were fed one of three diets, consisting of high-protein-content pollen, low-protein-content pollen, or protein-free diet as control; measurements were made based on protein content in hemolymph and fat body, fat body weight, and body weight. Vitellogenin in hemolymph was also measured. Bees fed with high crude protein diet had significantly higher levels of protein in hemolymph and fat bodies. Caged bees did not increase pollen consumption to compensate for the lower protein in the diet, and ingesting approximately 4 mg of protein per bee could achieve levels of 20 microg/microl protein in hemolymph. Worker bees fed with low crude protein diet took more time in reaching similar protein content of the bees that were fed with high crude protein diet. The data showed that fat bodies and body weight were not efficient methods of measuring the protein status of bees. The determination of total protein or vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph from 13-d-old bees and protein concentration of fat bodies from 9-d-old bees could be good indicators of nutritional status of honey bees. PMID:24020265

  19. New synonymies in the bee genus Nomada from North America (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droege, S.; Rightmyer, M.G.; Sheffield, C.S.; Brady, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    We provide diagnostic morphological characters to help distinguish males and females of the following species of Nomada: N. augustiana Mitchell, N. bethunei Cockerell, N. fervida Smith, N. fragariae Mitchell, N. lehighensis Cockerell, N. texana Cresson, and N. tiftonensis Cockerell. Based on morphological and DNA barcoding evidence we newly synonymize the following species: N. heligbrodtii Cresson (under N. texana), N. indusata Mitchell (under N. augustiana), N. kingstonensis Mitchell (under N. lehighensis), N. pseudops Cockerell (under N. bethunei), and N. wisconsinensis Graenicher (under N. fervida). We provide full descriptions of the female of N. fragariae and the male of N. lehighensis, both of which were not previously known, and newly designate the lectotype of N. wisconsinensis. We additionally provide comments on the distribution, flight times, and host associations for the treated species. Copyright ?? 2010.

  20. Pollination of rapeseed (Brassica napus) by Africanized honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on two sowing dates.

    PubMed

    Chambó, Emerson D; De Oliveira, Newton T E; Garcia, Regina C; Duarte-Júnior, José B; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia C; Toledo, Vagner A

    2014-12-01

    In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433), three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees) and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011). The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions. PMID:25590743

  1. Factors influencing Nosema bombi infections in natural populations of Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Huth-Schwarz, Anett; Settele, Josef; Moritz, Robin F A; Kraus, F Bernhard

    2012-05-01

    Bumblebees are of profound ecological importance because of the pollination services they provide in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Any decline of these pollinators is therefore of great concern for ecosystem functioning. Increased parasite pressures have been discussed as a major factor for the loss of pollinators. One of the main parasites of bumblebees is Nosema bombi, an intracellular microsporidian parasite with considerable impact on the vitality of the host. Here we study the effect of host colony density and host genetic variability on N. bombi infections in natural populations of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We sampled males and workers from six B. terrestris populations located in an agricultural landscape in Middle Sweden to determine the prevalence and degree of N. bombi infections. All individuals were genotyped with five microsatellite markers to infer the colony densities in the sampled populations and the genetic variability of the host population. We confirmed that genetic variability and sex significantly correlate with the degree of infection with N. bombi. Males and workers with lower genetic variability had significantly higher infection levels than average. Also colony density had a significant impact on the degree of infection, with high density populations having higher infected individuals.

  2. New species and previously unknown males of neotropical cleptobiotic stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Lestrimelitta)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of cleptobiotic stingless bees of the genus Lestrimelitta Friese, L. opita sp. n. and L. huilensis sp. n. from Colombia and L. catira sp. n. from Venezuela, are described and figured. The males of the Central American species L. chamelensis, L. danuncia, and L. mourei are also desc...

  3. Two new species of Paratrigona Schwarz and the male of Paratrigona ornaticeps (Schwarz) (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two distinctive new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Paratrigona Schwarz from Ecuador and Paraguay are described and figured. The Ecuadorian species, P. scapisetosa sp. n., belongs to the haeckeli-lineatifrons group and is easily distinguished from its congeners by the unique shape and...

  4. Taxonomic note on the oil-collecting bee Centris dimidiata (Olivier, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Centris dimidiata (Olivier) is currently considered an easily recognizable species widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin, mainly in Brazil. For much of its taxonomic history, C. atriventris Mocsáry and C. furcata (Fabricius) have been considered its junior subjective synonymies. Such interpretation was apparently due to the lack of a detailed study of the type specimens, misinterpretation of the original descriptions, and inability to study the apparently lost type specimen of C. dimidiata. In this paper, a neotype for C. dimidiata is designated, the species is placed in Centris (Ptilotopus), and C. denudans rubida Gribodo is proposed as its new junior synonymy. Simultaneously, as a result of a detailed study of the type material of C. atriventris and C. furcata, both species are revalidated and their placement in Centris (Melacentris) is confirmed. For all species, the female is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. A lectotype for C. atriventris is designated and new distribution records and a distribution map are provided.

  5. Lectotype designations and new synonymies in the Neotropical bee genus Centris Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Claus; Vivallo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Ten name-bearing specimens of Centris Fabricius deposited in the Hungarian Natural History Museum are examined and nine lectotypes are designated for the following species: C. atripes Mocsáry, 1899; C. flavilabris boliviensis Mocsáry, 1899; C. facialis Mocsáry, 1899; C. fusciventris Mocsáry, 1899; C. mariae Mocsáry, 1896; C. minuta Mocsáry, 1899; C. obsoleta pleuralis Friese, 1901; C. proxima Friese, 1899, and C. vidua Mocsáry, 1899. Two names are newly established as synonyms: C. nitida geminata Cockerell, 1914 syn. nov. = C. facialis Mocsáry, 1899; C. pleuralis Friese, 1901 syn. nov. = C. obsoleta Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1841. Comments on the repository of the holotype of C. horvathi Friese are also provided. 

  6. Taxonomic revision of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Epiclopus Spinola, 1851 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Ericrocidini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Epiclopus Spinola is presented. The following species are recognized: Epiclopus gayi Spinola, E. lendlianus (Friese), E. wagenknechti (Ruiz) and E. ecphorus new species from northern Chile. Floral associations, hosts, distribution records and diagnoses of both sexes based on type specimens, are given. An identification key, illustrations and an updated catalogue of the species are provided. In addition, a neotype for Mesonychium wagenknechti and lectotypes for Melissa (Epiclopus) gayi albescens Friese and M. lendliana are also designated. 

  7. Revision of the species of Centris (Xanthemisia) Moure, 1945 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini) from the Caribbean island.

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A revision of the species of Centris subgenus Xanthemisia Moure from the Caribbean islands is presented. The species identified are C. aethiops Cresson, C. domingensis Dalla Torre nom. rev. and C. caymanensis, a new species from the Cayman Islands, Lesser Antilles. Figures, morphological characters of both sexes and the description of the male of C. domingensis are given. New distribution records and an identification key for the three species of the subgenus that occur in the Caribbean islands are also provided.

  8. Programmed cell death in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Silva-Zacarin, E C M; Tomaino, G A; Brocheto-Braga, M R; Taboga, S R; De Moraes, R L M Silva

    2007-03-01

    The morphological and histochemical features of degeneration in honeybee (Apis mellifera) salivary glands were investigated in 5th instar larvae and in the pre-pupal period. The distribution and activity patterns of acid phosphatase enzyme were also analysed. As a routine,the larval salivary glands were fixed and processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.Tissue sections were subsequently stained with haematoxylin -eosin,bromophenol blue,silver,or a variant of the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) method.Ultrathin sections were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate.Glands were processed for the histochemical and cytochemical localization of acid phosphatase,as well as biochemical assay to detect its activity pattern. Acid phosphatase activity was histochemically detected in all the salivary glands analysed.The cytochemical results showed acid phosphatase in vesicles, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes during the secretory phase and,additionally, in autophagic structures and luminal secretion during the degenerative phase. These findings were in agreement with the biochemical assay. At the end of the 5th instar, the glandular cells had a vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei, and epithelial cells were shed into the glandular lumen.The transition phase from the 5th instar to the pre-pupal period was characterized by intense vacuolation of the basal cytoplasm and release of parts of the cytoplasm into the lumen by apical blebbing; these blebs contained cytoplasmic RNA, rough endoplasmic reticule and, occasionally, nuclear material. In the pre-pupal phase, the glandular epithelium showed progressive degeneration so that at the end of this phase only nuclei and remnants of the cytoplasm were observed.The nuclei were pyknotic,with peripheral chromatin and blebs. The gland remained in the haemolymph and was recycled during metamorphosis. The programmed cell death in this gland represented a morphological form intermediate between apoptosis and autophagy.

  9. Nuclear alterations associated to programmed cell death in larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Silva-Zacarin, E C M; Taboga, S R; Silva de Moraes, R L M

    2008-01-01

    The silk glands of bees are a good model for the study of cell death in insects. With the objective to detect the nuclear features during glandular regression stage, larvae at the last instar and pre-pupae were collected and their silk glands were dissected and processed for ultrastructural analysis and histologically for cytochemical and imunocytochemical analysis. The results showed that the cellular nuclei exhibited characteristics of death by atypical apoptosis as well as autophagic cell death. Among the apoptosis characteristic were: nuclear strangulation with bleb formation in some nuclei, DNA fragmentation in most of the nuclei and nucleolar fragmentation. Centripetal chromatin compaction was observed in many nuclei, forming a perichromatin halo differing from typical apoptotic nuclei. With regards to the characteristics of autophagic-programmed cell death, most relevant was the delay in the collapse of many nuclei.

  10. Conversion of high and low pollen protein diets into protein in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Basualdo, M; Barragán, S; Vanagas, L; García, C; Solana, H; Rodríguez, E; Bedascarrasbure, E

    2013-08-01

    Adequate protein levels are necessary to maintain strong honey bee [Apis mellifera (L.)] colonies. The aim of this study was to quantify how pollens with different crude protein contents influence protein stores within individual honey bees. Caged bees were fed one of three diets, consisting of high-protein-content pollen, low-protein-content pollen, or protein-free diet as control; measurements were made based on protein content in hemolymph and fat body, fat body weight, and body weight. Vitellogenin in hemolymph was also measured. Bees fed with high crude protein diet had significantly higher levels of protein in hemolymph and fat bodies. Caged bees did not increase pollen consumption to compensate for the lower protein in the diet, and ingesting approximately 4 mg of protein per bee could achieve levels of 20 microg/microl protein in hemolymph. Worker bees fed with low crude protein diet took more time in reaching similar protein content of the bees that were fed with high crude protein diet. The data showed that fat bodies and body weight were not efficient methods of measuring the protein status of bees. The determination of total protein or vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph from 13-d-old bees and protein concentration of fat bodies from 9-d-old bees could be good indicators of nutritional status of honey bees.

  11. Critical Structure for Telescopic Movement of Honey bee (Insecta: Apidae) Abdomen: Folded Intersegmental Membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z-S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. PMID:27456912

  12. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    PubMed

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  13. Brood removal influences fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hygienic removal of brood infested with Varroa destructor by Apis mellifera disrupts the reproduction of the infesting mites and exposes the foundress mites to potential removal from the colony by grooming. Using brood deliberately infested with marked Varroa, we investigated the association bet...

  14. Are there any agricultural effects on the capture rates of male euglossine bees (Apidae: Euglossini)?

    PubMed

    Sandino, Juan Carlos

    2004-03-01

    During 30 days male euglossine bees were bait-sampled at 12 sites, in the central Pacific coast of Colombia (ten days and four sites at each of three adjacent habitats: farmlands, highly disturbed forest and less disturbed forest) and 487 individuals were captured. Most captured individuals belonged to six species, five widely distributed through the American tropics and an endemic species. Two of the frequently captured species presented no different abundances between habitats, while the other four (67.97% of all the captured individuals), all of them big sized or long-tongued, were more frequently captured at the farmlands. A cluster analysis of the data matrix for the 23 captured species and the 12 sampling sites, grouped together the farmland sites, apart from the forest sites. It is proposed that male euglossine bees from generalist, long-tongued or big sized species, forage frequently at the farmlands, where fragrance or nectar resources may be clumped, less diverse, and present an access restricted by deep corollas or by microclimatic conditions of high temperature and low humidity.

  15. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Straka, Jakub; Engel, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde) are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini), a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkaisp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini) is represented by four species - Thyreus denoliisp. n., Thyreus batelkaisp. n., Thyreus schwarzisp. n., and Thyreus aistleitnerisp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius) from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of the large carpenter bees, genus Xylocopa (Hymenoptera: apidae), based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Leys, R; Cooper, S J; Schwarz, M P

    2000-12-01

    Carpenter bees, genus Xylocopa Latreille, a group of bees found on all continents, are of particular interest to behavioral ecologists because of their utility for studies of the evolution of mating strategies and sociality. This paper presents phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of two mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase 1 and cytochrome b for 22 subgenera of Xylocopa. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods were used to infer phylogenetic relationships. The analyses resulted in three resolved clades of subgenera: a South American group (including the subgenera Stenoxylocopa, Megaxylocopa, and Neoxylocopa), a group including the subgenera Xylocopa s.s. and Ctenoxylocopa, and an Ethiopean group (including the subgenera Afroxylocopa, Mesotrichia, Alloxylocopa, Platynopoda, Hoploxylocopa, and Koptortosoma). The relationships between the 11 other subgenera and the resolved clades are unclear. Within the Ethiopian group we found a clear separation of the African and the Oriental taxa and apparent polyphyly of the subgenus Koptortosoma. Using an evolutionary rate for ants, we investigated whether Gondwana vicariance or more recent dispersal events could best explain the present-day distribution of subgenera. Although some taxa show divergences that approach Gondwanan breakup times, most divergences between geographic groups are too recent to support a vicariance hypothesis.

  17. Nectar profitability, not empty honey stores, stimulate recruitment and foraging in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; de Sá Filho, Geovan Figueirêdo; Maia-Silva, Camila; Schorkopf, Martina; Hrncir, Michael; Barth, Friedrich G

    2016-10-01

    In stingless bees (Meliponini) like in many other eusocial insect colonies food hoarding plays an important role in colony survival. However, very little is known on how Meliponini, a taxon restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, respond to different store conditions. We studied the impact of honey removal on nectar foraging activity and recruitment behaviour in Melipona scutellaris and compared our results with studies of the honey bee Apis mellifera. As expected, foraging activity increased significantly during abundance of artificial nectar and when increasing its profitability. Foraging activity on colony level could thereby frequently increase by an order of magnitude. Intriguingly, however, poor honey store conditions did not induce increased nectar foraging or recruitment activity. We discuss possible reasons explaining why increasing recruitment and foraging activity are not used by meliponines to compensate for poor food conditions in the nest. Among these are meliponine specific adaptations to climatic and environmental conditions, as well as physiology and brood rearing, such as mass provisioning of the brood. PMID:27316717

  18. Tree Resin Composition, Collection Behavior and Selective Filters Shape Chemical Profiles of Tropical Bees (Apidae: Meliponini)

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Schmitt, Thomas; Blüthgen, Nico

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific “filtering” of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans. PMID:21858119

  19. Brains and brain components in African and European honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) - a volumetric comparison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if the volume of major regions of the brain and the capacity for associative learning differed between European (AHB) and African honey bees (AHB). Associative learning was measured in 14-day old workers and foragers using proboscis extension response to odor-suga...

  20. Predatory behavior in a necrophagous bee Trigona hypogea (Hymenoptera; Apidae, Meliponini)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, Sidnei; Noll, Fernando B.

    Although most bees feed on nectar and pollen, several exceptions have been reported. The strangest of all is the habit found in some neotropical stingless bees, which have completely replaced pollen-eating by eating animal protein from corpses. For more than 20 years, it was believed that carrion was the only protein source for these bees. We report that these bees feed not only off dead animals, but on the living brood of social wasps and possibly other similar sources. Using well developed prey location and foraging behaviors, necrophagous bees discover recently abandoned wasps' nests and, within a few hours, prey upon all immatures found there.

  1. Taxonomic note on the oil-collecting bee Centris dimidiata (Olivier, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Centris dimidiata (Olivier) is currently considered an easily recognizable species widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin, mainly in Brazil. For much of its taxonomic history, C. atriventris Mocsáry and C. furcata (Fabricius) have been considered its junior subjective synonymies. Such interpretation was apparently due to the lack of a detailed study of the type specimens, misinterpretation of the original descriptions, and inability to study the apparently lost type specimen of C. dimidiata. In this paper, a neotype for C. dimidiata is designated, the species is placed in Centris (Ptilotopus), and C. denudans rubida Gribodo is proposed as its new junior synonymy. Simultaneously, as a result of a detailed study of the type material of C. atriventris and C. furcata, both species are revalidated and their placement in Centris (Melacentris) is confirmed. For all species, the female is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. A lectotype for C. atriventris is designated and new distribution records and a distribution map are provided. PMID:27615988

  2. The antennal sensilla of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): a study of different sexes and castes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga; Ferreira, Ríudo de Paiva; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    The sensilla of insects are integumental units that play a role as sensory structures and are crucial for the perception of stimuli and for communication. In this study, we compared the antennal sensilla of females (workers and queens), males (haploid (n) and diploid (2n)), and queen-like males (QLMs, resulting from 2n males after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment) in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Images of the dorsal antenna surfaces were acquired using a scanning electron microscope. As reported for other hymenopterans, this species exhibits a heterogeneous sensillar distribution along the antennae. Thirteen different types of sensilla were found in the antennae of M. quadrifasciata: trichodea (subtypes I to VI), chaetica (subtypes I and II), placodea, basiconica, ampullacea, coeloconica, and coelocapitula. Sensilla trichodea I were the most abundant, followed by sensilla placodea, which might function in olfactory perception. Sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica I, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla ampullacea were found exclusively in females. In terms of the composition and size of the sensilla, the antennae of QLMs most closely resemble those of the 2n male, although QLMs exhibit a queen phenotype. This study represents the first comparative analysis of the antennal sensilla of M. quadrifasciata. The differences found in the type and amount of sensilla between the castes and sexes are discussed based on the presumed sensillary functions.

  3. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of propolis from Melipona orbignyi (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; dos Santos, Uilson Pereira; Macorini, Luis Fernando Benitez; de Melo, Adriana Mary Mestriner Felipe; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; de Picoli Souza, Kely; dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2014-03-01

    Propolis from stingless bees is well known for its biologic properties; however, few studies have demonstrated these effects. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of propolis from the stingless bee Melipona orbignyi, found in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The chemical composition of the ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) indicated the presence of aromatic acids, phenolic compounds, alcohols, terpenes and sugars. The EEP was active against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Candida albicans. The EEP showed antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and inhibiting hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. Additionally, EEP promoted cytotoxic activity and primarily necrotic death in K562 erythroleukemia cells. Taken together, these results indicate that propolis from M. orbignyi has therapeutic potential for the treatment and/or prevention of diseases related to microorganism activity, oxidative stress and tumor cell proliferation.

  4. Evaluation of the neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as pollinator of greenhouse tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Del Sarto, M C L; Peruquetti, R C; Campos, L A O

    2005-04-01

    The Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier was evaluated for pollinating tomatoes (variety Rodas; long-life hybrid) in greenhouses under plastic and with a hydroponic system and "organic concepts" in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Flowers not pollinated did not set any fruit. Pollination by bees plus manual pollination did not differ from either bee or manual pollination. Maximum fruit diameter, fruit height, and roundness (quotient between maximum fruit diameter and fruit height) were not significantly different between treatments, but fruit visited by M. quadrifasciata had 10.8% less seeds (dry mass) than manual pollination. This apparently low efficiency of M. quadrifasciata pollination was attributed to the overlap of only 30 min between highest bee foraging activity and highest flower stigma receptivity. Thus, it was concluded that M. quadrifasciata is a feasible pollinator of greenhouse tomatoes because of 1) the observed increase in fruit quality with lower mechanical injury than traditional manual pollination, 2) no significant decrease in fruit size, and 3) high price of such product in the market. Some considerations for sustainable use of M. quadrifasciata as greenhouse pollinator are presented. Although techniques for keeping captive colonies of M. quadrifasciata are currently available, the sole current method for acquiring new colonies is removing them from the forest, and if demand was created for large numbers of colonies for commercial use, techniques for captive rearing must be developed to prevent serious declines in wild populations.

  5. [Visitation of orchid by Melipona capixaba Moure & Camargo (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bee threatened with extinction].

    PubMed

    Resende, Helder C; Barros, Fábio de; Campos, Lúcio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M

    2008-01-01

    The stingless bee Melipona capixaba Moure & Camargo is a species restricted to the Atlantic forest in the Domingos Martins, Conceição do Castelo, Venda Nova do Imigrante and Afonso Cláudio County, in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Despite its cological importance as pollinator few studies have examined the ecology and biology of this bee. This note relates a case of the M. capixaba workers carrying pollinarium attached to the scuttellum. The pollinaria were identified as belonging to the orchid subtribe Maxillariinae species possibly of the genus Maxillaria sensu lato or Xylobium.

  6. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees.

  7. Physicochemical profiles of stingless bee (Apidae: Meliponini) honey from South East Asia (Thailand).

    PubMed

    Chuttong, Bajaree; Chanbang, Yaowaluk; Sringarm, Korawan; Burgett, Michael

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the physicochemical properties of stingless bee honey from SE Asia (Thailand). Twenty-eight stingless bee honey samples, from 11 stingless bee species, were examined. Results reveal an average color (67 ± 19 mm Pfund), moisture (31 ± 5.4 g/100g), ash (0.531 ± 0.632 g/100g), electrical conductivity (1.1 ± 0.780 ms/cm), pH of (3.6 ± 0.198), total acidity (164 ± 162 meq/kg), diastase activity (1.5 ± 1.6 °Gothe) and hydroxymethylfurfural (8.7 ± 12 mg/kg). The carbohydrate profile is: total sugar (51 ± 21 g/100g), fructose (17 ± 9.7 g/100g), glucose (14 ± 8.6g/100g), maltose (41 ± 15 g/100g) and sucrose (1.2 ± 2.7 g/100g). These findings are not dissimilar to those reported for stingless bee honeys from the neo-tropics. When compared with the Apis mellifera standard, stingless bee honey is characterized as possessing higher moisture content, acidity, ash and HMF but a lower level of total sugars.

  8. Toxicity of Imidacloprid to the Stingless Bee Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Soares, Hellen Maria; Jacob, Cynthia Renata Oliveira; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-06-01

    The stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica is an important pollinator of native and cultivated plants in Brazil. Among the factors affecting the survival of these insects is the indiscriminate use of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. This work determined the toxicity of imidacloprid as the topical median lethal dose (LD50) and the oral median lethal concentration (LC50) as tools for assessing the effects of this insecticide. The 24 and 48 h LD50 values were 25.2 and 24.5 ng of active ingredient (a.i.)/bee, respectively. The 24 and 48 h LC50 values were 42.5 and 14.3 ng a.i./µL of diet, respectively. Ours results show the hazard of imidacloprid and the vulnerability of stingless bees to it, providing relevant toxicological data that can used in mitigation programs to ensure the conservation of this species.

  9. Color and shape discrimination in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, D; Vandame, R

    2012-06-01

    To increase our understanding in bee vision ecology, we investigated the color and shape discrimination performance of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin. Our main goal was to describe the choice behavior of experienced foragers over time, trying to understand to what extent color and shape stimuli (separately tested) aid them to choose the rewarding option, in the presence of distracting, unrewarding stimuli. Single foragers were trained to collect sucrose solution from a target plate. Afterwards, one distracting, unrewarding plate was placed besides the target plate and eight choices were recorded. Our results showed that both color and shape stimuli assisted efficiently the trained foragers in locating the target plate. However, foragers chose significantly more often the target plate in the color experiments than in the shape experiments. In conclusion, in our experimental setup, color was of better assistance to the foragers of S. mexicana than shape to choose their rewards. This is the first study in which it is demonstrated that the choice performance over time in a stingless bee depends upon the characteristics of the resource, such as shape and color.

  10. Nerol: An alarm substance of the stingless bee,Trigona fulviventris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, L K; Wiemer, D F

    1982-09-01

    Bees of the genusTrigona and subgenusTrigona possess volatile materials in their mandibular glands, used as alarm substances and as marking pheromones. Heads of workers ofTrigona fulviventris were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The two major volatile components were nerol (∼ 50%), and octyl caproate (∼ 20%). Relative to other substances tested at a Costa Rican nest, treatments containing 20 μg of nerol attractedT. fulviventris, depressed numbers of bees leaving the nest by about 50%, and elicited wing vibration and biting. The responses were similar to those obtained with the contents of one worker head. Attraction and biting were also seen in response to captures of colony members by assassin bugs (Apiomerus pictipes) outside a nest entrance; one bee responded in about 15% of the captures. This alarm behavior, although weak, is of interest since it was thought thatT. fulviventris was unusual for its subgenus in its lack of nest defense behaviors. PMID:24413960

  11. The trail pheromone of a stingless bee, Trigona corvina (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini), varies between populations.

    PubMed

    Jarau, Stefan; Dambacher, Jochen; Twele, Robert; Aguilar, Ingrid; Francke, Wittko; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Stingless bees, like honeybees, live in highly organized, perennial colonies. Their eusocial way of life, which includes division of labor, implies that only a fraction of the workers leave the nest to forage for food. To ensure a sufficient food supply for all colony members, stingless bees have evolved different mechanisms to recruit workers to foraging or even to communicate the location of particular food sites. In some species, foragers deposit pheromone marks between food sources and their nest, which are used by recruited workers to locate the food. To date, pheromone compounds have only been described for 3 species. We have identified the trail pheromone of a further species by means of chemical and electrophysiological analyses and with bioassays testing natural gland extracts and synthetic compounds. The pheromone is a blend of wax type and terpene esters. The relative proportions of the single components showed significant differences in the pheromones of foragers form 3 different colonies. This is the first report on a trail pheromone comprised of esters of 2 different biogenetic origins proving variability of the system. Pheromone specificity may serve to avoid confusions between the trails deposited by foragers of different nests and, thus, to decrease competition at food sources.

  12. Age polyethism in Plebeia emerina (Friese) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies related to propolis handling.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Camila G; Blochtein, Betina; Megiolaro, Fernanda L; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L

    2010-01-01

    Stingless bees collect plant resins and make it into propolis, although they have a wider range of use for this material than do honey bees (Apis spp.). Plebeia spp. workers employ propolis mixed with wax (cerumen) for constructing and sealing nest structures, while they use viscous (sticky) propolis for defense by applying it onto their enemies. Isolated viscous propolis deposits are permanently maintained at the interior of their colonies, as also seen in other Meliponini species. Newly-emerged Plebeia emerina (Friese) workers were observed stuck to and unable to escape these viscous propolis stores. We examined the division of labor involved in propolis manipulation, by observing marked bees of known age in four colonies of P. emerina from southern Brazil. Activities on brood combs, the nest involucrum and food pots were observed from the first day of life of the marked bees. However, work on viscous propolis deposits did not begin until the 13th day of age and continued until the 56th day (maximum lifespan in our sample). Although worker bees begin to manipulate cerumen early, they seem to be unable to handle viscous propolis till they become older.

  13. Pollination of rapeseed (Brassica napus) by Africanized honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on two sowing dates.

    PubMed

    Chambó, Emerson D; De Oliveira, Newton T E; Garcia, Regina C; Duarte-Júnior, José B; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia C; Toledo, Vagner A

    2014-12-01

    In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433), three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees) and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011). The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  14. Programmed Cell Death in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Worker Brain Induced by Imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Ping-Li; Xu, Shu-Fa; Jia, Hui-Ru; Wang, Xing

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees are at an unavoidable risk of exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides, which are used worldwide. Compared with the well-studied roles of these pesticides in nontarget site (including midgut, ovary, or salivary glands), little has been reported in the target sites, the brain. In the current study, laboratory-reared adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were treated with sublethal doses of imidacloprid. Neuronal apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL technique for DNA labeling. We observed significantly increased apoptotic markers in dose- and time-dependent manners in brains of bees exposed to imidacloprid. Neuronal activated caspase-3 and mRNA levels of caspase-1, as detected by immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively, were significantly increased, suggesting that sublethal doses of imidacloprid may induce the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Additionally, the overlap of apoptosis and autophagy in neurons was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. It further suggests that a relationship exists between neurotoxicity and behavioral changes induced by sublethal doses of imidacloprid, and that there is a need to determine reasonable limits for imidacloprid application in the field to protect pollinators.

  15. Floral Preference of Melipona eburnea Friese (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a Colombian Andean Region.

    PubMed

    Obregon, D; Nates-Parra, G

    2014-02-01

    Melipona eburnea Friese is a stingless bee kept in some regions of Colombia, where it is reported to be vulnerable to extinction due to habitat disturbance. To contribute to raising conservation strategies, the aim of this study was to identify the floral preferences of this species using melissopalynological analysis. A total of 31 pollen pot samples and 37 honey samples were taken from March 2009 through March 2010 from four colonies in Fusagasuga, Colombia. We found 92 pollen types: 17 from pollen pot samples, 39 from honey samples (indicating the sources of nectar), and 36 in both types of samples. The most frequent pollen types in the pollen pot samples were Myrcia type (100%), Eucalyptus globulus (96.9%), and Fraxinus uhdei (96.9%). The most frequent pollen types in honey samples were E. globulus (97.4%) and Myrcia type (94.9%). The pollen types corresponded mainly to native plants (68%), trees (44.5%), plants whose sexual system is hermaphroditic (56.5%), and plants with inflorescences (76.2%). The most frequent shapes of the flowers were brush-like (type Myrtaceae) and dish-like (type Asteraceae), and the preferred flower colors were white or cream (52.2%). In general, we found that M. eburnea showed a strong preference for trees of the family Myrtaceae to obtain nectar and pollen, including native and introduced species. Some other families are contributing significantly, such as Melastomataceae for pollen collection and Asteraceae for nectar. These results highlight the key plant species for the diet of M. eburnea.

  16. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Abrahamovich, Alberto H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented. PMID:26798288

  17. Evaluation of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shao Kang; Csaki, Tamas; Doublet, Vincent; Dussaubat, Claudia; Evans, Jay D; Gajda, Anna M; Gregorc, Alex; Hamilton, Michele C; Kamler, Martin; Lecocq, Antoine; Muz, Mustafa N; Neumann, Peter; Ozkirim, Asli; Schiesser, Aygün; Sohr, Alex R; Tanner, Gina; Tozkar, Cansu Ozge; Williams, Geoffrey R; Wu, Lyman; Zheng, Huoqing; Chen, Yan Ping

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to improve cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Prevention of honey bee COlony LOSSes), on the physiology and survival of honey bees. We identified three cages that promoted good survival of honey bees. The bees from cages that exhibited greater survival had relatively lower titers of deformed wing virus, suggesting that deformed wing virus is a significant marker reflecting stress level and health status of the host. We also determined that a leak- and drip-proof feeder was an integral part of a cage system and a feeder modified from a 20-ml plastic syringe displayed the best result in providing steady food supply to bees. Finally, we also demonstrated that the addition of protein to the bees' diet could significantly increase the level ofvitellogenin gene expression and improve bees' survival. This international collaborative study represents a critical step toward improvement of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee laboratory experiments.

  18. Floral Preference of Melipona eburnea Friese (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a Colombian Andean Region.

    PubMed

    Obregon, D; Nates-Parra, G

    2014-02-01

    Melipona eburnea Friese is a stingless bee kept in some regions of Colombia, where it is reported to be vulnerable to extinction due to habitat disturbance. To contribute to raising conservation strategies, the aim of this study was to identify the floral preferences of this species using melissopalynological analysis. A total of 31 pollen pot samples and 37 honey samples were taken from March 2009 through March 2010 from four colonies in Fusagasuga, Colombia. We found 92 pollen types: 17 from pollen pot samples, 39 from honey samples (indicating the sources of nectar), and 36 in both types of samples. The most frequent pollen types in the pollen pot samples were Myrcia type (100%), Eucalyptus globulus (96.9%), and Fraxinus uhdei (96.9%). The most frequent pollen types in honey samples were E. globulus (97.4%) and Myrcia type (94.9%). The pollen types corresponded mainly to native plants (68%), trees (44.5%), plants whose sexual system is hermaphroditic (56.5%), and plants with inflorescences (76.2%). The most frequent shapes of the flowers were brush-like (type Myrtaceae) and dish-like (type Asteraceae), and the preferred flower colors were white or cream (52.2%). In general, we found that M. eburnea showed a strong preference for trees of the family Myrtaceae to obtain nectar and pollen, including native and introduced species. Some other families are contributing significantly, such as Melastomataceae for pollen collection and Asteraceae for nectar. These results highlight the key plant species for the diet of M. eburnea. PMID:27193404

  19. Three new bee species of Rhophitulus Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Protandrenini) from Argentina and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Kelli S

    2014-01-01

    This work describes three newly discovered species of Rhophitulus Ducke, 1907: R. labiosus n. sp. from Minas Gerais (Brazil), R. mimus n. sp. from Salta (Argentina), and R. xenopalpus n. sp. from Catamarca and Tucumán (Argentina). Photographs of the holotype of Rhophitulus steinbachi (Friese, 1916) are provided, and modifications in the morphology of a female of R. xenopalpus n. sp. when parasitized by Strepsiptera are recorded for the first time for the genus.  PMID:25112357

  20. A new species of Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described and figured. Geotrigona joearroyoi sp. n. belongs to the fulvohirta species group and is distinguished on the basis of color and type of pubescence on the metasomal terga. New geographical records and an updated key to the species of Geotrigona are provided. PMID:22448115

  1. New methods and media for the centrifugation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drone semen.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-02-01

    Centrifugation of Apis mellifera L. drone semen is a necessary step in the homogenization of semen pools for the enlargement of the effective breeding population, as well as in the collection of semen by the so-called washing technique. It is also of interest for the removal of cryoprotectants after cryopreservation. The adoption of methods involving semen centrifugation has been hampered by their damaging effect to sperm. Here, we tested four new diluents as well as three additives (catalase, hen egg yolk, and a protease inhibitor), using sperm motility and dual fluorescent staining as indicators of semen quality. Three of the new diluents significantly reduced motility losses after centrifugation, as compared with the literature standard. Values of motility and propidium iodide negativity obtained with two of these diluents were not different from those measured with untreated semen. The least damaging diluent, a citrate-HEPES buffer containing trehalose, was then tested in an insemination experiment with centrifuged semen. Most queens receiving this semen produced normal brood, and the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of the queen was not significantly different from that in queens receiving untreated semen. These results could improve the acceptance of techniques involving the centrifugation of drone semen. The diluent used in the insemination experiment could also serve as semen extender for applications not involving centrifugation. PMID:24665683

  2. Molecular phylogeny of the large carpenter bees, genus Xylocopa (Hymenoptera: apidae), based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Leys, R; Cooper, S J; Schwarz, M P

    2000-12-01

    Carpenter bees, genus Xylocopa Latreille, a group of bees found on all continents, are of particular interest to behavioral ecologists because of their utility for studies of the evolution of mating strategies and sociality. This paper presents phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of two mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase 1 and cytochrome b for 22 subgenera of Xylocopa. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods were used to infer phylogenetic relationships. The analyses resulted in three resolved clades of subgenera: a South American group (including the subgenera Stenoxylocopa, Megaxylocopa, and Neoxylocopa), a group including the subgenera Xylocopa s.s. and Ctenoxylocopa, and an Ethiopean group (including the subgenera Afroxylocopa, Mesotrichia, Alloxylocopa, Platynopoda, Hoploxylocopa, and Koptortosoma). The relationships between the 11 other subgenera and the resolved clades are unclear. Within the Ethiopian group we found a clear separation of the African and the Oriental taxa and apparent polyphyly of the subgenus Koptortosoma. Using an evolutionary rate for ants, we investigated whether Gondwana vicariance or more recent dispersal events could best explain the present-day distribution of subgenera. Although some taxa show divergences that approach Gondwanan breakup times, most divergences between geographic groups are too recent to support a vicariance hypothesis. PMID:11133195

  3. Effect of Number of Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Visits on Eggplant Yield.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, David M; Minor, Emily S

    2015-06-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a crop with perfect flowers capable of self-pollination. Insect pollination enhances fruit set, but little is known about how pollination success varies by number of visits from bumble bees. To quantify the efficiency of bumble bees at pollinating eggplants, we allowed 1, 2, 6, and 12 bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) to visit eggplant flowers and compared percentage of flowers that set fruit, fruit weight, and seed set after 3 wk. We compared yield from these visit numbers to eggplant flowers that were left open for unlimited visitation. Eggplant flowers set the most fruit from open-pollination and 12 visits. Larger, seedier fruits were formed in open-pollinated flowers. However, fruit characteristics in the 12 visit treatment were similar to lower visitation frequencies. We confirm B. impatiens as an efficient eggplant pollinator and document the greatest benefit from 12 bumble bee visits and open-pollinated flowers. To maintain effective eggplant pollination, local conditions must be conducive for bumble bee colony establishment and repeated pollen foraging trips. PMID:26470277

  4. Laboratory evaluation of miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae), a honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) parasite.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, C M; Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L

    2000-04-01

    A laboratory bioassay was developed to evaluate miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans), an important parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Bees and mites were exposed to applications of essential oil constituents in petri dishes (60 by 20 mm). The registered mite control agents tau-fluvalinate (Apistan) and formic acid also were evaluated as positive controls. Treatments that caused high mite mortality (> 70%) at doses that produced low bee mortality (< 30%) were considered mite selective. The six most selective of the 22 treatments tested (clove oil, benzyl acetate, thymol, carvacrol, methyl salicylate, and Magic3) were further evaluated to estimate LD50 values and selectivity ratios (A. mellifera LD50/V. jacobsoni LD50) at 24, 43, and 67 h after exposure. Tau-fluvalinate was the most selective treatment, but thymol, clove oil, Magic3, and methyl salicylate demonstrated selectivity equal to or greater than formic acid. The effect of mode of application (complete exposure versus vapor only) on bee and mite mortality was assessed for thymol, clove oil, and Magic3 by using a 2-chambered dish design. Estimated V. jacobsoni LD50 values were significantly lower for complete exposure applications of thymol and Magic3, suggesting that both vapor and topical exposure influenced mite mortality, whereas estimated values for clove oil suggested that topical exposure had little or no influence on mite mortality. These results indicate that essential oil constituents alone may not be selective enough to control Varroa under all conditions, but could be a useful component of an integrated pest management approach to parasitic mite management in honey bee colonies.

  5. Tree resin composition, collection behavior and selective filters shape chemical profiles of tropical bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Schmitt, Thomas; Blüthgen, Nico

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific "filtering" of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans.

  6. Diversity and abundance of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Euglossini) in a tropical rainforest succession.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Euglossine bee males are easily lured to chemical baits imitating natural fragrances gathered by bees, providing a widely applied measure for estimating the diversity and abundance of euglossines. In here, I report the composition of euglossine bees in three lowland rainforest habitats of Peru, a primary old forest, a reforested and managed forest, and a very disturbed forest. A total of 2,072 males of euglossine were collected, belonging to 33 species and four genera. Although a comparable diversity relative to other studies from the Amazonian region was found, no significant differences among the sampled areas were detected. Perhaps, the short time and low intensity surveys here used (< 3 months) were not good enough indicators of forest disturbance without additional data. Compared to other major studies on the euglossine bee fauna, Loreto is most similar to the species assemblage reported from lowland rainforest in Brazil (Manaus), central Peru (Panguana) and southern Peru (Tambopata). PMID:19347098

  7. Revision of the orchid bee subgenus Euglossella (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Part I, The decorata species group

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Euglossella, one of the most distinctive subgenera of orchid bees of the genus Euglossa, is composed of two characteristic assemblages of species, one of them comprising bees bearing the strongly metallic integument trademark of the genus (viridis species group), and the other consisting of bees with a brown integument shaded with metallic iridescence (decorata species group). Here we provide the first of two parts of a revision of Euglossella, providing diagnostic definitions for the subgenus, the decorata species group, and all the species included therein. Six species are included in the decorata group, one new: Euglossa (Euglossella) aurantia, sp. n.; Euglossa (Euglossella) apiformis Schrottky, resurrected status; Euglossa (Euglossella) decorata Smith, revised status; Euglossa (Euglossella) singularis Mocsáry, revised status; Euglossa (Euglossella) cosmodora Hinojosa-Díaz and Engel; and Euglossa (Euglossella) perpulchra Moure and Schlindwein. Euglossa meliponoides Ducke and Euglossa urarina Hinojosa-Díaz and Engel are newly synonymized under Euglossa decorata, Euglossa decorata ruficauda Cockerell is synonymized under Euglossa singularis, and a neotype is designated for Euglossa apiformis. PMID:22144858

  8. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Jakub; Engel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde) are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini), a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkai sp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini) is represented by four species – Thyreus denolii sp. n., Thyreus batelkai sp. n., Thyreus schwarzi sp. n., and Thyreus aistleitneri sp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius) from the islands were based on misidentifications. PMID:22977347

  9. Australian and New Guinean Stingless Bees of the Genus Austroplebeia Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae)--a revision.

    PubMed

    Dollin, Anne E; Dollin, Leslie J; Rasmussen, Claus

    2015-11-23

    The stingless bee genus Austroplebeia Moure occurring in Australia and New Guinea is revised, based on a morphological analysis of samples from 177 colonies. Five species are recognised: A. cincta (Mocsáry), A. essingtoni (Cockerell), A. australis (Friese), A. cassiae (Cockerell) and A. magna, sp. nov. Three different colour morphs of A. australis are described. Five new synonymies are proposed: A. cockerelli (Rayment), A. ornata (Rayment), A. percincta (Cockerell) and A. websteri (Rayment) = A. australis; A. symei (Rayment) = A. cassiae. Workers, males and queens are described for all species. Populations of A. cincta, recently found in Queensland, Australia, are compared with A. cincta from the type locality and other areas in New Guinea. A lectotype is designated for A. percincta (Cockerell). Provenance of type material is discussed. A key to the species, distributions and nest descriptions are provided.

  10. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Lima-Verde, L W; Freitas, B M

    2002-08-01

    The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau) and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau), in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna), cerradão (savanna forest) and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation) on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  11. Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Wagner Faria; De Meyer, Laurens; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a biorational insecticide commonly reported as selective to a range of beneficial insects. Nonetheless, only few studies have been carried out with pollinators, usually emphasizing the honeybee Apis mellifera and neglecting other important pollinator species such as the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here, lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin were studied on B. terrestris via oral exposure in the laboratory to bring out the potential risks of the compound to this important pollinator. The compound was tested at different concentrations above and below the maximum concentration that is used in the field (32 mg L(-1)). As most important results, azadirachtin repelled bumblebee workers in a concentration-dependent manner. The median repellence concentration (RC50) was estimated as 504 mg L(-1). Microcolonies chronically exposed to azadirachtin via treated sugar water during 11 weeks in the laboratory exhibited a high mortality ranging from 32 to 100 % with a range of concentrations between 3.2 and 320 mg L(-1). Moreover, no reproduction was scored when concentrations were higher than 3.2 mg L(-1). At 3.2 mg L(-1), azadirachtin significantly inhibited the egg-laying and, consequently, the production of drones during 6 weeks. Ovarian length decreased with the increase of the azadirachtin concentration. When azadirachtin was tested under an experimental setup in the laboratory where bumblebees need to forage for food, the sublethal effects were stronger as the numbers of drones were reduced already with a concentration of 0.64 mg L(-1). Besides, a negative correlation was found between the body mass of male offspring and azadirachtin concentration. In conclusion, our results as performed in the laboratory demonstrated that azadirachtin can affect B. terrestris with a range of sublethal effects. Taking into account that sublethal effects are as important as lethal effects for the development and survival of the colonies of B. terrestris, this study confirms the need to test compounds on their safety, especially when they have to perform complex tasks such as foraging. The latter agrees with the recent European Food Safety Authority guidelines to assess 'potentially deleterious' compounds for sublethal effects on behavior. PMID:25300506

  12. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa stored at above-freezing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Collins, A M

    2000-06-01

    The development of practical techniques for the storage of honey bee, Apis mellifera L., semen would significantly improve our ability to breed for desirable genotypes and maintain genetic diversity in populations. Artificial insemination of queens has been possible for some time, but the semen used is usually freshly collected, or held for < 1 wk at room temperature. I examined the limitations of spermatozoal survival at nonfrozen temperatures. Pooled, diluted semen was stored in sealed capillary tubes at room temperature (25 degrees C) or in a refrigerator set to 12 degrees C, for periods up to 1 yr. Survival of spermatozoa was assayed by a dual fluorescent staining technique using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide stains, which readily distinguishes live and dead cells. No significant loss of viable spermatozoa occurred within the first 6 wk. Between weeks 6 and 9, the percent live spermatozoa fell from 80 to 58%, and remained at that level until after 39 wk. By week 52, samples at room temperature, but not at 12 degrees C, fell to 18.9% live spermatozoa. Nonfrozen storage of honey bee semen has potential for short-term preservation of germplasm, however several factors need to be studied further to optimize survival rates.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponini) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rogelio R; Arias, Maria C; Moretto, Geraldo

    2009-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Brazilian endemic stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier ranges from Rio Grande do Sul to Minas Gerais states. The objective of the present study was to verify mtDNA polymorphisms among samples of M. q. quadrifasciata collected in southern Brazil. Twenty nine colonies from three localities (Blumenau and Mafra/SC and Prudentópolis/ PR) were sampled. Seven mtDNA regions were amplified and further digested with 15 restriction enzymes (PCR-RFLP). Five composite haplotypes were identified, with two unique to samples from Prudentópolis and the remaining three to samples from Mafra and/or Blumenau. PMID:19488509

  14. Age polyethism in Plebeia emerina (Friese) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies related to propolis handling.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Camila G; Blochtein, Betina; Megiolaro, Fernanda L; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L

    2010-01-01

    Stingless bees collect plant resins and make it into propolis, although they have a wider range of use for this material than do honey bees (Apis spp.). Plebeia spp. workers employ propolis mixed with wax (cerumen) for constructing and sealing nest structures, while they use viscous (sticky) propolis for defense by applying it onto their enemies. Isolated viscous propolis deposits are permanently maintained at the interior of their colonies, as also seen in other Meliponini species. Newly-emerged Plebeia emerina (Friese) workers were observed stuck to and unable to escape these viscous propolis stores. We examined the division of labor involved in propolis manipulation, by observing marked bees of known age in four colonies of P. emerina from southern Brazil. Activities on brood combs, the nest involucrum and food pots were observed from the first day of life of the marked bees. However, work on viscous propolis deposits did not begin until the 13th day of age and continued until the 56th day (maximum lifespan in our sample). Although worker bees begin to manipulate cerumen early, they seem to be unable to handle viscous propolis till they become older. PMID:21120374

  15. Hygienic behavior of the stingless bee Plebeia remota (Holmberg, 1903) (Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Nunes-Silva, P; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Gonçalves, L S

    2009-01-01

    We investigated hygienic behavior in 10 colonies of Plebeia remota, using the pin-killed method. After 24 h the bees had removed a mean of 69.6% of the dead brood. After 48 h, the bees had removed a mean of 96.4% of the dead brood. No significant correlation was found between the size of the brood comb and the number of dead pupae removed, and there was no apparent effect of the origin and the condition of the colony on the hygienic behavior of the bees. Plebeia remota has an efficiency of hygienic behavior superior to that of three of the other four stingless bee species studied until now. PMID:19554763

  16. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees. PMID:23885214

  17. Physicochemical profiles of stingless bee (Apidae: Meliponini) honey from South East Asia (Thailand).

    PubMed

    Chuttong, Bajaree; Chanbang, Yaowaluk; Sringarm, Korawan; Burgett, Michael

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the physicochemical properties of stingless bee honey from SE Asia (Thailand). Twenty-eight stingless bee honey samples, from 11 stingless bee species, were examined. Results reveal an average color (67 ± 19 mm Pfund), moisture (31 ± 5.4 g/100g), ash (0.531 ± 0.632 g/100g), electrical conductivity (1.1 ± 0.780 ms/cm), pH of (3.6 ± 0.198), total acidity (164 ± 162 meq/kg), diastase activity (1.5 ± 1.6 °Gothe) and hydroxymethylfurfural (8.7 ± 12 mg/kg). The carbohydrate profile is: total sugar (51 ± 21 g/100g), fructose (17 ± 9.7 g/100g), glucose (14 ± 8.6g/100g), maltose (41 ± 15 g/100g) and sucrose (1.2 ± 2.7 g/100g). These findings are not dissimilar to those reported for stingless bee honeys from the neo-tropics. When compared with the Apis mellifera standard, stingless bee honey is characterized as possessing higher moisture content, acidity, ash and HMF but a lower level of total sugars. PMID:26304332

  18. Cytogenetic characterization of two species of Frieseomelitta Ihering, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Antônio F; Costa, Marco Antônio

    2011-04-01

    The cytogenetic analysis of Frieseomelitta dispar and F. francoi revealed the chromosome numbers 2n = 30 and n = 15 and a karyotypic formula 2K = 4M+2M(t)+4A+20A(M). The number of chromosomes observed was consistent with those reported for other Frieseomelitta species. The occurrence of the M(t) chromosome and other features of the karyotype formulae suggest a close relationship between F. dispar, F. francoi and F. varia. Nevertheless, it was possible to differentiate the karyotypes of the species by DAPI/CMA(3) staining, which revealed GC-rich regions on two chromosome pairs of F. dispar: one acrocentric and one pseudoacrocentric. In F. francoi, the same kinds of regions were observed on a pair of metacentrics and on a pair of acrocentrics. Our analysis also confirmed the chromosome number conservation in Frieseomelitta and suggests that infrequent pericentric inversion could constitute a synapomorphy for the group including F. dispar, F. francoi, and F. varia. PMID:21734823

  19. A new species of the stingless bee Trichotrigona (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Pedro, Silvia R M; Cordeiro, Guaraci Duran

    2015-01-01

    Trichotrigona camargoiana sp. nov. from Candeias do Jamari, Rondônia, Brazil is described and illustrated, along with nesting and behavior, as the second species of the rare and unusual genus Trichotrigona Camargo & Moure, 1983. The new species differs from T. extranea Camargo & Moure, 1983 by having plumose setae on the face and mesepisterna, wing setae predominantly yellow and black metatibia. The diagnosis for Trichotrigona is updated. As believed for T. extranea, T. camargoiana sp. nov. apparently does not store food and is a cleptobiotic social bee associated with Frieseomelitta. PMID:26248925

  20. Two new species of Paratrigona and the male of Paratrigona ornaticeps (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Victor H; Griswold, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    Two distinctive new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Paratrigona Schwarz from Ecuador and Paraguay are described and figured. The Ecuadorian species, Paratrigona scapisetosasp. n.,belongs to the haeckeli-lineatifrons group and is easily distinguished from its congeners by the unique shape and pubescence of the antennal scape, which is distinctly convex on its outer margin and bears thick, long, simple hairs along its inner margin. The Paraguayan species, Paratrigona wasbauerisp. n.,belongs to the lineata group and is easily distinguished by the pattern of body pubescence in both sexes and male genitalic characters. The male of the Mesoamerican species Paratrigona ornaticeps (Schwarz) is described and figured. New geographical records for Paratrigona impunctata and Paratrigona opaca, and an updated key to the haeckeli-lineatifrons and lineata species groups are provided. PMID:21998520

  1. Tree resin composition, collection behavior and selective filters shape chemical profiles of tropical bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Schmitt, Thomas; Blüthgen, Nico

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific "filtering" of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans. PMID:21858119

  2. The antennal sensilla of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): a study of different sexes and castes.

    PubMed

    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga; Ferreira, Ríudo de Paiva; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    The sensilla of insects are integumental units that play a role as sensory structures and are crucial for the perception of stimuli and for communication. In this study, we compared the antennal sensilla of females (workers and queens), males (haploid (n) and diploid (2n)), and queen-like males (QLMs, resulting from 2n males after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment) in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Images of the dorsal antenna surfaces were acquired using a scanning electron microscope. As reported for other hymenopterans, this species exhibits a heterogeneous sensillar distribution along the antennae. Thirteen different types of sensilla were found in the antennae of M. quadrifasciata: trichodea (subtypes I to VI), chaetica (subtypes I and II), placodea, basiconica, ampullacea, coeloconica, and coelocapitula. Sensilla trichodea I were the most abundant, followed by sensilla placodea, which might function in olfactory perception. Sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica I, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla ampullacea were found exclusively in females. In terms of the composition and size of the sensilla, the antennae of QLMs most closely resemble those of the 2n male, although QLMs exhibit a queen phenotype. This study represents the first comparative analysis of the antennal sensilla of M. quadrifasciata. The differences found in the type and amount of sensilla between the castes and sexes are discussed based on the presumed sensillary functions. PMID:24861136

  3. Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) of the Indian subcontinent: Diversity, taxonomy and current status of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Eight named species of stingless bees are known from the Indian subcontinent: Lepidotrigona arcifera (Cockerell), Lisotrigona cacciae (Nurse), Lisotrigona mohandasi Jobiraj & Narendran, Tetragonula aff. laeviceps (Smith), Tetragonula bengalensis (Cameron), Tetragonula gressitti (Sakagami), Tetragonula iridipennis (Smith), Tetragonula praeterita (Walker), and Tetragonula ruficornis (Smith). Lectotypes are newly designated for T. bengalensis and T. ruficornis. Keys, comparative notes, and illustrations for species identification are provided. The distribution of stingless bees throughout the Indian subcontinent are summarized and concluding that they are found in most parts of the Indian subcontinent, except at higher elevation or the drier interior regions. Additional collections and studies are urgently needed to clearly define the species limits of the complex "iridipennis" species group. PMID:26295116

  4. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees. PMID:23885214

  5. Male sleeping aggregation of multiple Eucerini bee genera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hipólito, Juliana; de Oliveira, Favízia F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Males of some groups of bees have to find a place outside the nests to sleep, sometimes forming “male sleeping aggregations”. Here we report the first record of “dense” male sleeping aggregation of two different genera of Eucerini bees observed in Bahia, Brazil. We discuss the possible aim of this kind of aggregation as well the plant utilized on aggregate. PMID:25349523

  6. The identity of the Neotropical stingless bee Frieseomelitta meadewaldoi (Cockerell, 1915) (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Urban, Danúncia; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    A new study of a surviving syntype of Trigona meadewaldoi Cockerell, 1915, was undertaken and several widely employed names for Neotropical stingless bees recognized as junior synonyms. A lectotype is designated for Trigona meadewaldoi and the following new synonymies established: Tetragona francoi Moure, 1946, and Trigona (Frieseomelitta) freiremaiai Moure, 1963. These nomenclatural matters are here settled and the species thoroughly characterized in advance of a forthcoming phylogenetic consideration of the genus Frieseomelitta von Ihering, 1912. PMID:21852936

  7. A new species of Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Victor H; Engel, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described and figured. Geotrigona joearroyoisp. n. belongs to the fulvohirta species group and is distinguished on the basis of color and type of pubescence on the metasomal terga. New geographical records and an updated key to the species of Geotrigona are provided. PMID:22448115

  8. The trail pheromone of a stingless bee, Trigona corvina (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini), varies between populations.

    PubMed

    Jarau, Stefan; Dambacher, Jochen; Twele, Robert; Aguilar, Ingrid; Francke, Wittko; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Stingless bees, like honeybees, live in highly organized, perennial colonies. Their eusocial way of life, which includes division of labor, implies that only a fraction of the workers leave the nest to forage for food. To ensure a sufficient food supply for all colony members, stingless bees have evolved different mechanisms to recruit workers to foraging or even to communicate the location of particular food sites. In some species, foragers deposit pheromone marks between food sources and their nest, which are used by recruited workers to locate the food. To date, pheromone compounds have only been described for 3 species. We have identified the trail pheromone of a further species by means of chemical and electrophysiological analyses and with bioassays testing natural gland extracts and synthetic compounds. The pheromone is a blend of wax type and terpene esters. The relative proportions of the single components showed significant differences in the pheromones of foragers form 3 different colonies. This is the first report on a trail pheromone comprised of esters of 2 different biogenetic origins proving variability of the system. Pheromone specificity may serve to avoid confusions between the trails deposited by foragers of different nests and, thus, to decrease competition at food sources. PMID:20534775

  9. Interaction and behavior of virgin and physogastric queens in three Meliponini species (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Ferreira, F H; Silva-Matos, E V; Zucchi, R

    2009-01-01

    We studied the behavior of virgin queens of the stingless bee species Schwarziana quadripunctata, Paratrigona lineata and Tetragona clavipes, investigating internal nest activities, including the cell provisioning and oviposition process. We made direct observation of queen behavior, with the aid of video filming. Forty-four virgin queens of S. quadripunctata were observed; one was larger and more attractive than the others. Miniature queens were more abundant than normal-size queens; both were found in prison chambers. Agonistic behavior between virgin and physogastric queens of P. lineata was observed during attempts at queen supersedure. After the disappearance of the physogastric queen and the appearance of a virgin queen in T. clavipes nests, the brood cells were sealed with pollen alone, but no egg. In all three species, the presence of one or more virgin queens appeared to make the colonies nervous, even though constant production of virgin queens is vital to the survival of the colony and is part of the colony cycle in these bees. PMID:19554769

  10. The impact of forest exploitation on Amazonian stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Venturieri, G C

    2009-01-01

    The protocols available to sustainably exploit natural forest resources are known as "sustainable forest management". This type of management generally does not take into account the effect of timber exploitation on pollinators. Stingless bees, which include many species that play an important role as pollinators and are quite diverse in the Amazon, preferentially make their perennial nests in the base of hollow trees. Normally, during sustainable exploitation of trees, hollow trees are not cut down; however, predatory exploitation of such trees could severely affect natural populations of this pollinator group. PMID:19554767

  11. Comparative analysis of two sampling techniques for pollen gathered by Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier (Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Malagodi-Braga, K S; Kleinert, A M P

    2009-01-01

    Pollen counts from samples taken from storage pots throughout one year (from October to September) were adjusted by Tasei's volumetric correction coefficient for the determination of pollen sources exploited by two colonies of Nannotrigona testaceicornis in São Paulo, Brazil. The results obtained by this sampling technique for seven months (December to June) were compared with those from corbicula load samples taken within the same period. This species visited a large variety of plant species, but few of them were frequently used. As a rule, pollen sources that appeared at frequencies greater than 1% were found with both sampling methods and significant positive correlations (Spearman correlation coefficient) were found between their values. The pollen load sample data showed that N. testaceicornis gathered pollen throughout the external activity period. PMID:19551648

  12. Gender identification of five genera of stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini) based on wing morphology.

    PubMed

    Francoy, T M; Silva, R A O; Nunes-Silva, P; Menezes, C; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the identification of pollinators is a critical necessity of conservation programs. After it was found that features extracted from patterns of wing venation are sufficient to discriminate among insect species, various studies have focused on this structure. We examined wing venation patterns of males and workers of five stingless bee species in order to determine if there are differences between sexes and if these differences are greater within than between species. Geometric morphometric analyses were made of the forewings of males and workers of Nannotrigona testaceicornis, Melipona quadrifasciata, Frieseomelitta varia, and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis and Plebeia remota. The patterns of males and workers from the same species were more similar than the patterns of individuals of the same sex from different species, and the patterns of both males and workers, when analyzed alone, were sufficiently different to distinguish among these five species. This demonstrates that we can use this kind of analysis for the identification of stingless bee species and that the sex of the individual does not impede identification. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of bee wing images can be a useful tool for biodiversity studies and conservation programs. PMID:19283687

  13. Phenology of Bombus pennsylvanicus sonorus say (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Juan Di Trani

    2006-01-01

    We studied the seasonal activity of Bombus pennsylvanicus sonorus Say in subtropical conditions of the Mexican Central Plateau. Monthly during 1998, we recorded caste of active individuals (inferred form corporal size measured as wing length), presence and activity of reproductive individuals, and mating activity. Also, we recorded the flower plants used as resources. Subtropical conditions of the Mexican Central Plateau do not seem to modify phenological features of B. pennsylvanicus sonorus since the species presents annual colonies and a clearly defined period of inactivity. The size of individuals progressively increased between the first recorded activity period in middle April and the end of the colonies in November. Reproductive bees were observed since the second half of the year. The presence of males was recorded between July and November and queens and mating pairs were observed during November and December. Then mating queens were noted seeking hibernation places. Activity resumed in February of the following year. Seasonal activity seems to be more related to availability of floral resources (which, in turn, is related to rain regime), than to changes in temperature and day length. Some of the main food resources used by B. pennsylvanicus sonorus were Tithonia tubiformis, Cosmos bipinnatus, Anoda cristata, Solanum rostratum and Jacaranda mimosaefolia.

  14. First record of the orchid bee genus Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of orchid bee, Eufriesea aenigma Griswold and Herndon, is described from the Guadalupe Mountains of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico, USA. This is the first record for Eufriesea from the USA and extends its apparent range well beyond its previous, entirely tropical boundaries...

  15. Ultrastructure and immunofluorescence of the midgut of Bombus morio (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombini).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Wagner Gonzaga; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Barcellos, Marcelo Silva; Silva, Fernanda Pereira; Magalhães-Junior, Marcos Jorge; Zanuncio, José Cola; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    Bumblebees are widely distributed across the world and have great economic and ecological importance as pollinators in the forest as well as in agriculture. The insect midgut consists of three cell types, which play various important roles in digestion, absorption, and hormone production. The present study characterized the anterior and posterior midgut regions of the bumblebee, Bombus morio. The digestive, regenerative and endocrine cells in the midgut showed regional differences in their number, nuclear size, as well as the size of the striated border. Ultrastructurally, the digestive cells contained many mitochondria and long microvilli; however, in the anterior midgut region, these cells showed dilated basal labyrinths with a few openings for the hemocoel, whereas the labyrinths of the basal posterior region remained inverse characteristics. Thus, the characterization of the midgut of B. morio supported an ecto-endoperitrophic circulation, contributing to a better understanding of the digestive process in this bee.

  16. Patterns of range-wide genetic variation in six North American bumble bee (Apidae: Bombus) species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing evidence for population declines in bumble bee (Bombus) species worldwide has accelerated research efforts to explain losses in these important native pollinators. In North America, a number of once widespread Bombus species have suffered serious reductions in range and abundance, alt...

  17. Landscape heterogeneity predicts gene flow in a widespread polymorphic bumble bee, Bombus bifarius (Hymentoptera: Apidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bombus bifarius is a widespread bumble bee that occurs in montane regions of western North America. This species has several major color polymorphisms, and shows evidence of genetic structuring among regional populations. We test whether this structure is evidence for discrete gene flow barriers tha...

  18. Development of Multiple Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Genome-Wide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Wyatt A.; Rehan, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    The small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata (Robertson), is a widespread native pollinator across eastern North America. The behavioral ecology and nesting biology of C. calcarata has been relatively well-studied and the species is emerging as a model organism for both native pollinator and social evolution research. C. calcarata is subsocial: reproductively mature females provide extended maternal care to their brood. As such, studies of C. calcarata may also reveal patterns of relatedness and demography unique to primitively social Hymenoptera. Here, we present 21 microsatellite loci, isolated from the recently completed C. calcarata genome. Screening in 39 individuals across their distribution revealed that no loci were in linkage disequilibrium, nor did any deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg following sequential Bonferroni correction. Allele count ranged from 2 to 14, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 (mean 0.47) and 0.26 to 0.88 (mean 0.56), respectively. These markers will enable studies of population-wide genetic structuring across C. calcarata’s distribution. Such tools will also allow for exploration of between and within-colony relatedness in this subsocial native pollinator. PMID:27324584

  19. Effect of Number of Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Visits on Eggplant Yield.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, David M; Minor, Emily S

    2015-06-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a crop with perfect flowers capable of self-pollination. Insect pollination enhances fruit set, but little is known about how pollination success varies by number of visits from bumble bees. To quantify the efficiency of bumble bees at pollinating eggplants, we allowed 1, 2, 6, and 12 bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) to visit eggplant flowers and compared percentage of flowers that set fruit, fruit weight, and seed set after 3 wk. We compared yield from these visit numbers to eggplant flowers that were left open for unlimited visitation. Eggplant flowers set the most fruit from open-pollination and 12 visits. Larger, seedier fruits were formed in open-pollinated flowers. However, fruit characteristics in the 12 visit treatment were similar to lower visitation frequencies. We confirm B. impatiens as an efficient eggplant pollinator and document the greatest benefit from 12 bumble bee visits and open-pollinated flowers. To maintain effective eggplant pollination, local conditions must be conducive for bumble bee colony establishment and repeated pollen foraging trips.

  20. Patterns of range-wide genetic variation in six North American bumble bee (Apidae: Bombus) species.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Jeffrey D; Strange, James P; Stewart, Isaac J; Cameron, Sydney A

    2011-12-01

    The increasing evidence for population declines in bumble bee (Bombus) species worldwide has accelerated research efforts to explain losses in these important pollinators. In North America, a number of once widespread Bombus species have suffered serious reductions in range and abundance, although other species remain healthy. To examine whether declining and stable species exhibit different levels of genetic diversity or population fragmentation, we used microsatellite markers to genotype populations sampled across the geographic distributions of two declining (Bombus occidentalis and Bombus pensylvanicus) and four stable (Bombus bifarius; Bombus vosnesenskii; Bombus impatiens and Bombus bimaculatus) Bombus species. Populations of declining species generally have reduced levels of genetic diversity throughout their range compared to codistributed stable species. Genetic diversity can be affected by overall range size and degree of isolation of local populations, potentially confounding comparisons among species in some cases. We find no evidence for consistent differences in gene flow among stable and declining species, with all species exhibiting weak genetic differentiation over large distances (e.g. >1000 km). Populations on islands and at high elevations experience relatively strong genetic drift, suggesting that some conditions lead to genetic isolation in otherwise weakly differentiated species. B. occidentalis and B. bifarius exhibit stronger genetic differentiation than the other species, indicating greater phylogeographic structure consistent with their broader geographic distributions across topographically complex regions of western North America. Screening genetic diversity in North American Bombus should prove useful for identifying species that warrant monitoring, and developing management strategies that promote high levels of gene flow will be a key component in efforts to maintain healthy populations.

  1. Systematical studies on the species of the subgenus Bombus (Thoracobombus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus Latreille) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Barkan, N P; Aytekin, A M

    2013-11-19

    The aim of this study was to analyze the 12 species which belong to the subgenus Bombus (Thoracobombus) by identifying, collating and testing the applicability of geometrics morphometrics for distinguishing the species. This was carried out on 133 females and 42 males which were collected from various localities in Turkey. After digitizing landmarks on the right fore wings, 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinates were calculated and by Procrustes analysis the coordinates were standardized and superimposed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Canonical Variates Analysis (CVA) were performed to show the distribution of all species. Then, deformations which appeared in thin-plate splines were observed. Mean values of all the specimens were calculated and Sequential, Agglomerative, Hierarchical, and Nesting clustering method (SAHN) was performed with these data to obtain the dissimilarity trees. It can be concluded that all species were found to have consistently different wing shapes from each other. In females, the species B. armeniacus, B. mesomelas and B. pomorum which resemble each other, were also found to be similar based on their wing morphometry. Both in females and males, the subspecies B. sylvarum citrinofasciatus and B. sylvarum daghestanicus and the species B. humilis and B. laesus exposed high similarity in wing morphometry. In males, results showed that the species B. armeniacus and B. mesomelas and the species B. humilis and B. zonatus have very similar wing shape.

  2. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francinaldo S

    2012-06-01

    The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Agua e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%), Eufriesea (15.2%) and Exaerete (7.6%). The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%), Eulaema cingulara (19%) and Euglossa cordata (18.3%). Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62.5% of the individuals were collected in that period. Eufriesea species appeared at the baits only in the wet season. The hourly frequency of bees at scent baits showed a clear preference for the morning period, where 87.9% visited the baits from 07:00 to 12:00hr. The euglossine bee fauna found in the Northeastern Maranhão Cerrado is represented chiefly by species of large geographic distribution and by some forest bee species, where their occurrence is maybe related to to the environmental conditions supported by the Gallery Forest ecosystem.

  3. High Royal Jelly-Producing Honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lian-Fei; Zheng, Huo-Qing; Pirk, Christian W W; Hu, Fu-Liang; Xu, Zi-Wei

    2016-04-01

    China is the largest producer and exporter of royal jelly (RJ) in the world, supplying >90% of the global market. The high production of RJ in China is principally owing to the high RJ-producing lineage of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806) established by beekeepers in the 1980s. We describe the development of high royal jelly-producing honeybees and the management of this lineage today. Previous research and recent advances in the genetic characterization of this lineage, and the molecular markers and mechanisms associated with high RJ production are summarized. The gaps in our knowledge and prospects for future research are also highlighted.

  4. Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Apidae): an orchid bee apparently sensitive to size reduction in forest patches.

    PubMed

    Giangarelli, Douglas C; Freiria, Gabriele A; Colatreli, Olavo P; Suzuki, Karen M; Sofia, Silvia H

    2009-01-01

    Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard) is a very seasonal euglossine species, more frequently found in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil. A number of studies have revealed large variations in the abundance of males of this species present in Atlantic Forest remnants throughout both regions. In this paper, we report variations in the abundance of E. violacea males sampled in several forest patches of different sizes (ranging from 10 to 580 ha), and we propose that this species is possibly sensitive to the reduction in size of forest remnants. Surveys were carried out in nine forest remnants of Atlantic rainforest located in northern Paraná State, southern Brazil. Male euglossine bees were collected with an entomological net when visiting scent-baits, between 10:00 am and 1:00 pm, from October to December of 2001 and 2006. A total of 360 E. violacea males were captured in the nine forest fragments studied. The number of bees attracted to scent baits in each forest patch varied from zero to 261. A very high association (r = 0.993) was detected between the forest patch size and the visitation rate of E. violacea males at different sites, with the highest mean number of males visiting baits/sampling (43.5) being observed for bees from the largest forest remnant. Although alternative hypothesis should not be discharged for the decline in the abundance or absence of E. violacea in small forest patches, our results indicate that populations of this euglossine species need larger forest areas for existing. PMID:19943008

  5. Development of Multiple Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Genome-Wide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shell, Wyatt A; Rehan, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    The small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata (Robertson), is a widespread native pollinator across eastern North America. The behavioral ecology and nesting biology of C. calcarata has been relatively well-studied and the species is emerging as a model organism for both native pollinator and social evolution research. C. calcarata is subsocial: reproductively mature females provide extended maternal care to their brood. As such, studies of C. calcarata may also reveal patterns of relatedness and demography unique to primitively social Hymenoptera. Here, we present 21 microsatellite loci, isolated from the recently completed C. calcarata genome. Screening in 39 individuals across their distribution revealed that no loci were in linkage disequilibrium, nor did any deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg following sequential Bonferroni correction. Allele count ranged from 2 to 14, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 (mean 0.47) and 0.26 to 0.88 (mean 0.56), respectively. These markers will enable studies of population-wide genetic structuring across C. calcarata's distribution. Such tools will also allow for exploration of between and within-colony relatedness in this subsocial native pollinator. PMID:27324584

  6. Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus spp.) of Interior Alaska: Species Composition, Distribution, Seasonal Biology, and Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Pampell, Rehanon; Pantoja, Alberto; Holloway, Patricia; Knight, Charles; Ranft, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the ecological and agricultural significance of bumble bees in Alaska, very little is known and published about this important group at the regional level. The objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on species composition, distribution, seasonal biology, and parasites of the genus Bombus at three major agricultural locations within Alaska: Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Palmer, to lay the groundwork for future research on bumble bee pollination in Alaska. New information A total of 8,250 bumble bees representing 18 species was collected from agricultural settings near Delta Junction, Fairbanks, and Palmer, Alaska in 2009 and 2010. Of the 8,250 specimens, 51% were queens, 32.7% were workers, and 16.2% were males. The species composition and relative abundances varied among sites and years. Delta Junction had the highest relative abundance of bumble bees, representing 51.6% of the specimens collected; the other two locations, Fairbanks and Palmer represented 26.5% and 21.8% of the overall catch respectively. The species collected were: Bombus bohemicus Seidl 1837 (= B. ashtoni (Cresson 1864)), B. balteatus Dahlbom 1832, B. bifarius Cresson 1878, B. centralis Cresson 1864, B. cryptarum (Fabricius 1775) (=B. moderatus Cresson 1863), B. distinguendus Morawitz 1869, B. flavidus Eversmann 1852 (=B. fernaldae Franklin 1911), B. flavifrons Cresson 1863, B. frigidus Smith 1854, B. insularis (Smith 1861), B. jonellus (Kirby 1802), B. melanopygus Nylander 1848, B. mixtus Cresson 1878, B. neoboreus Sladen 1919, B. occidentalis Greene 1858, B. perplexus Cresson 1863, B. rufocinctus Cresson 1863, and B. sylvicola Kirby 1837. Overall, the most common bumble bees near agricultural lands were B. centralis, B. frigidus, B. jonellus, B. melanopygus, B. mixtus, and B. occidentalis. Species' relative population densities and local diversity were highly variable from year to year. Bombus occidentalis, believed to be in decline in the Pacific Northwest states, represented 10.4% of the overall specimens collected from the three sites studied. Bumble bees were found to be infected by Nosema and nematodes with infection rates up to 2.1% and 16.7% respectively. Of the eight species infected by parasites, B. occidentalis displayed the highest Nosema infection, while B. centralis was the species with the highest infection of nematodes. To our knowledge this represents the first multi-year study on bumble bees from the main agricultural areas of Alaska to provide baseline data on species composition, distribution, seasonal biology, and parasites of the genus Bombus. PMID:25977613

  7. Nectar profitability, not empty honey stores, stimulate recruitment and foraging in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; de Sá Filho, Geovan Figueirêdo; Maia-Silva, Camila; Schorkopf, Martina; Hrncir, Michael; Barth, Friedrich G

    2016-10-01

    In stingless bees (Meliponini) like in many other eusocial insect colonies food hoarding plays an important role in colony survival. However, very little is known on how Meliponini, a taxon restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, respond to different store conditions. We studied the impact of honey removal on nectar foraging activity and recruitment behaviour in Melipona scutellaris and compared our results with studies of the honey bee Apis mellifera. As expected, foraging activity increased significantly during abundance of artificial nectar and when increasing its profitability. Foraging activity on colony level could thereby frequently increase by an order of magnitude. Intriguingly, however, poor honey store conditions did not induce increased nectar foraging or recruitment activity. We discuss possible reasons explaining why increasing recruitment and foraging activity are not used by meliponines to compensate for poor food conditions in the nest. Among these are meliponine specific adaptations to climatic and environmental conditions, as well as physiology and brood rearing, such as mass provisioning of the brood.

  8. Pollination value of male bees: the specialist bee Peponapis pruinosa (Apidae) at summer squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Cane, James H; Sampson, Blair J; Miller, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Male bees can be abundant at flowers, particularly floral hosts of those bee species whose females are taxonomic pollen specialists (oligolecty). Contributions of male bees to host pollination are rarely studied directly despite their prevalence in a number of pollination guilds, including those of some crop plants. In this study, males of the oligolectic bee, Peponapis pruinosa Say, were shown to be effective pollinators of summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. Seven sequential visits from male P. pruinosa maximized squash fruit set and growth. This number of male visits accumulated during the first hour of their foraging and mate searching at flowers soon after sunrise. Pollination efficacy of male P. pruinosa and their abundances at squash flowers were sufficient to account for most summer squash production at our study sites, and by extrapolation, to two-thirds of all 87 North American farms and market gardens growing squashes that were surveyed for pollinators by collaborators in the Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey. We posit that the substantial pollination value of male Peponapis bees is a consequence of their species' oligolecty, their mate seeking strategy, and some extreme traits of Cucurbita flowers (massive rewards, flower size, phenology).

  9. Assessing hygienic behavior of Apis mellifera unicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the endemic honey bee from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rasolofoarivao, H; Delatte, H; Raveloson Ravaomanarivo, L H; Reynaud, B; Clémencet, J

    2015-06-01

    Hygienic behavior (HB) is one of the natural mechanisms of honey bee for limiting the spread of brood diseases and Varroa destructor parasitic mite. Objective of our study was to measure HB of Apis mellifera unicolor colonies (N = 403) from three geographic regions (one infested and two free of V. destructor) in Madagascar. The pin-killing method was used for evaluation of the HB. Responses were measured from 3 h 30 min to 7 h after perforation of the cells. Colonies were very effective in detecting perforated cells. In the first 4 h, on average, they detected at least 50% of the pin-killed brood. Six hours after cell perforation, colonies tested (N = 91) showed a wide range of uncapped (0 to 100%) and cleaned cells (0 to 82%). Global distribution of the rate of cleaned cells at 6 h was multimodal and hygienic responses could be split in three classes. Colonies from the three regions showed a significant difference in HB responses. Three hypotheses (geographic, genetic traits, presence of V. destructor) are further discussed to explain variability of HB responses among the regions. Levels of HB efficiency of A. mellifera unicolor colonies are among the greatest levels reported for A. mellifera subspecies. Presence of highly hygienic colonies is a great opportunity for future breeding program in selection for HB.

  10. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francinaldo S

    2012-06-01

    The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Agua e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%), Eufriesea (15.2%) and Exaerete (7.6%). The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%), Eulaema cingulara (19%) and Euglossa cordata (18.3%). Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62.5% of the individuals were collected in that period. Eufriesea species appeared at the baits only in the wet season. The hourly frequency of bees at scent baits showed a clear preference for the morning period, where 87.9% visited the baits from 07:00 to 12:00hr. The euglossine bee fauna found in the Northeastern Maranhão Cerrado is represented chiefly by species of large geographic distribution and by some forest bee species, where their occurrence is maybe related to to the environmental conditions supported by the Gallery Forest ecosystem. PMID:23894934

  11. Nesting biology oF Centris (Hemisiella) tarsata Smith in southern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini).

    PubMed

    Buschini, M L T; Wolff, L L

    2006-11-01

    A total of 67 nests of Centris tarsata were obtained from wood trap-nests of different diameters, consisting of a linear series of brood cells built with sand mixed with oil. This species showed a preference for open habitats, since it occurred only in Swamp and Grassland areas and has never been found in the Araucaria forest. Nesting activity was bigger during the hot season, especially in December and January. The Sex ratio was of 1.48:1 (females/males), significantly different from 1:1. The females were larger than the males and these showed no dimorphism. Males were produced in the outermost cells and females in the innermost cells. C. tarsata presented a direct development without diapause in larval stage. They overwinter as adults. Development time was similar for males and females. Natural enemies are Bombyliidae Mesocheira bicolor, Coelioxys sp. and Meloidae. PMID:17299945

  12. Nesting biology of four Tetrapedia species in trap-nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Tetrapediini).

    PubMed

    Camillo, Evandro

    2005-01-01

    The nests used in this study were obtained from trap-nests (tubes of cardboard and cut bamboo stems) placed on Santa Carlota Farm (Itaoca Section-IS, Santana Section-SS and Cerrado-Ce), Cajuru, SP, Brazil. The number of nests and corresponding species obtained were as follows: 516 nests of T. curvitarsis, 104 of T. rugulosa, 399 of T. diversipes and 98 of T. gamfaloi. The most abundant species from SS and Ce was T. curvitarsis, and from IS it was T. diversipes. In general, most nests were collected during the hot and wet season (September to April). The nests were constructed with sand and an oily substance, and a single female established them. The cells were constructed in a linear series, sometimes followed by a vestibular cell. The number of brood cells ranged from 1 to 10 in T. curvitarsis (n=200), and in T. garofaloi (n-51), from 1 to 8 (n-30) in T. rugulosa, and from 1 to 6 (n=37) in T. diversipes. The pollen mass (pollen + oily substance) contained a hollow, sometimes divided by a transverse ridge, on the exposed face of the pollen mass. The egg was vertically positioned in the lower part of the hollow. At times, the closing of a cell was initiated before provisioning was completed, with a construction of a collar at the cell limit. In some nests the final cellular partition also acted as a closure plug. Females began activities at 6:18 a.m. and ended between 3:31 and 6:26 p.m. Some females (T. curvitarsis, T. rugiulosa and T. ganrfaloi) did not spend the nights at their nests, returning to them only the following morning with additional material. In general, the development period (for males and females) was greater in nests collected near the end of the hot and wet season than it was for nests collected in other months. Sex ratios for each species were as follows: T. curvitarsis. 1:1: T. rugulosa, 1.6:1 female; T. diversipes, 1.9:1: T. garofaloi, 2.8:1. Males and females of T. diversipes exhibited statistically similar sizes and in the other three species the females were larger than the males. The mortality rates were statistically similar: 33.2% for T. curvitarsis, 25.8% for T. rugulosa, 26.8% for T. diversipes and 38.2% for T. garnfaloi. The parasitoids were: Coelioxoides exulans, Leucospis cayenensis, Anthrax sp., Coelioxys sp., Coelioxoides sp. and individuals of the family Meloidae. PMID:17354430

  13. Critical Structure for Telescopic Movement of Honey bee (Insecta: Apidae) Abdomen: Folded Intersegmental Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z–S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. PMID:27456912

  14. Nasonov pheromone of the honeybee.Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) : IV. Comparative electroantennogram responses.

    PubMed

    Williams, I H; Pickett, J A; Martin, A P

    1982-02-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) responses from worker honeybee antennae were obtained for each Nasonov component. Response amplitudes to 10 μg of components correlated well with reported relative abilities to attract foragers in the field. EAG responses of worker, queen, and drone antennae to natural pheromone were consistently greater than to synthetic pheromone, a difference only partly explained by enzymic conversion of geraniol to (E)-citral during preparation of natural extracts.

  15. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Almanza, Maria Teresa; Cutler, G Christopher; Fischer, David L; Hinarejos, Silvia; Lewis, Gavin; Nigro, Daniel; Olmstead, Allen; Overmyer, Jay; Potter, Daniel A; Raine, Nigel E; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Thompson, Helen; van der Steen, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, diseases, parasites, and pesticides, potentially plays a role in causing these declines, pesticides have received considerable attention and scrutiny. In response, regulatory agencies have introduced more stringent pollinator testing requirements for registration and reregistration of pesticides, to ensure that the risks to pollinators are minimized. In this context, guidelines for testing bumble bees (Bombus spp.) in regulatory studies are not yet available, and a pressing need exists to develop suitable protocols for routine higher-tier studies with these non-Apis sp., social bees. To meet this need, Bayer CropScience LP, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC US, and Valent USA. Corporation organized a workshop bringing together a group of global experts on bumble bee behavior, ecology, and ecotoxicology to discuss and develop draft protocols for both semi-field (Tier II) and field (Tier III) studies. The workshop was held May 8-9, 2014, at the Bayer Bee Care Center, North Carolina, USA. The participants represented academic, consulting, and industry scientists from Europe, Canada, the United States, and Brazil. The workshop identified a clear protection goal and generated proposals for basic experimental designs, relevant measurements, and endpoints for both semifield (tunnel) and field tests. These initial recommendations are intended to form the basis of discussions to help advance the development of appropriate protocol guidelines.

  16. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: Bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen that are either vertically inherited or acquired from the environment. While the core bacteria of the honey bee gut is becoming evident, the influence of the pollination environment on honey bee-associated microbial p...

  17. Four years of the speleothem Forschergruppe DAPHNE (DAted sPeleothems: arcHives of the paleoeNvironmEnt) - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangini, Augusto; Crew, The Daphne

    2010-05-01

    The first three years were mainly used for the investigation of the principle mechanisms controlling speleothem growth and their stable isotope records. For this purpose, we performed an extensive monitoring program in two caves north and south of the alpine watershed (Bunker Höhle and Ernesto Cave) in parallel with experiments with synthetic carbonates and modelled the record of stable isotopes in stalagmites. Whereas the monitoring program in situ records the natural processes, the laboratory experiments allows varying the same parameters systematically under controlled conditions. On the basis of 14C-measurements on selected samples with precise Th/U-chronology we obtained information on processes occurring in the unsaturated soil zone above the caves. This allowed quantifying the influence of the CO2 production in the soil on the δ13C signals in speleothems. In parallel we developed a method for measuring noble gases included in fluid inclusions to derive direct information about cave temperatures from noble gas concentrations. During the second part of DAPHNE, the focus is on modelling of the transport of stable isotope signals (δ18O, δ13C) through the soil zone, better understanding the forcing of past climate variability, in close collaboration with climate modellers, and reconstructing Holocene precipitation and temperature from the stable isotope signals of speleothems from a European Transect. I will give an overview about model results and their application.

  18. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  19. A scientific note on Bombus (Psithyrus) insularis invasions of bumble bee nests and honey bee hives in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bumble bees (genus Bombus) are critical pollinators of flowering plants, yet some species are obligate social parasites that do little pollinating and reduce the fitness of the colonies they invade. In 2012 we observed an outbreak of the parasitic Bombus insularis in the Cache Valley of Northern Ut...

  20. Regular dorsal dimples and damaged mites of Varroa destructor in some Iranian honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Masoud M; Ebadi, Rahim; Tahmasbi, Gholamhossein

    2011-07-01

    The frequency of damaged Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) found on the bottom board of hives of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) has been used as an indicator of the degree of tolerance or resistance of honey bee colonies against mites. However, it is not clear that this measure is adequate. These injuries should be separated from regular dorsal dimples that have a developmental origin. To investigate damage to Varroa mites and regular dorsal dimples, 32 honey bee (A. mellifera) colonies were selected from four Iranian provinces: Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, and Tehran. These colonies were part of the National Honey bee Breeding Program that resulted in province-specific races. In April, Varroa mites were collected from heavily infested colonies and used to infest the 32 experimental colonies. In August, 20 of these colonies were selected (five colonies from each province). Adult bees from these colonies were placed in cages and after introducing mites, damaged mites were collected from each cage every day. The average percentage of injured mites ranged from 0.6 to 3.0% in four provinces. The results did not show any statistical differences between the colonies within provinces for injuries to mites, but there were some differences among province-specific lines. Two kinds of injuries to the mites were observed: injuries to legs and pedipalps, and injuries to other parts of the body. There were also some regular dorsal dimples on dorsal idiosoma of the mites that were placed in categories separate from mites damaged by bees. This type of classification helps identifying damage to mites and comparing them with developmental origin symptoms, and may provide criteria for selecting bees tolerant or resistant to this mite.

  1. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Carmelina Flavia; Simpson, Jack Bruce; Powell, Daniel; Brooks, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees (Apis mellifera, Apidae). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C. The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, Carmelina Flavia; Simpson, Jack Bruce; Powell, Daniel; Brooks, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees ( Apis mellifera, Apidae). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C. The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL-1 against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and

  3. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Carmelina Flavia; Simpson, Jack Bruce; Powell, Daniel; Brooks, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees (Apis mellifera, Apidae). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C. The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and

  4. Uptake of Neonicotinoid Insecticides by Water-Foraging Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Through Guttation Fluid of Winter Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Reetz, J E; Schulz, W; Seitz, W; Spiteller, M; Zühlke, S; Armbruster, W; Wallner, K

    2016-02-01

    The water-foraging activity of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) on guttation fluid of seed-coated crops, such as winter oilseed rape (WOR; Brassica napus L.), has not yet been evaluated. We analyzed the uptake of active substances (a.s.) in guttation fluid by evaluating residues of honey-sac contents. In autumn, insecticide residues of up to 130 µg a.s. per liter were released in WOR guttation fluid; this concentration is noticeably lower than levels reported in guttation fluid of seed-coated maize. Until winter dormancy, the concentrations declined to <30 µg a.s. per liter. In spring, residues were linked to prewintered plants and declined steadily until flowering. The maximum release of residues in guttation fluid of seed-coated WOR occurs on the first leaves in autumn when the colonies' water demand decreases. For the first time, proof for the uptake of guttation fluid from seed-coated WOR by honey bees was provided by measuring residues in individual honey-sac contents. In total, 38 out of 204 samples (19%) showed residues of thiamethoxam at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 0.95 µg per liter while the corresponding concentrations in guttation fluid of WOR varied between 3.6 to 12.9 µg thiamethoxam per liter. The amounts of thiamethoxam we found in the honey sacs of water-foraging honey bees were therefore below the thresholds in nectar and pollen that are considered to have negative effects on honey bees after chronic exposure. PMID:26516090

  5. Detoxification and stress response genes expressed in a western North American bumble bee, Bombus huntii (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bumble bees are generalist floral visitors, meaning they pollinate a wide variety of plants. Their pollination activities expose them to both plant toxins and pesticides, yet little is known about what detoxification pathways are active in bumble bees, how the expression of detoxification genes chan...

  6. Effect of a fungicide and spray adjuvant on queen-rearing success in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reed M; Percel, Eric G

    2013-10-01

    Commercial producers of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.) have reported unexplained loss of immature queens during the larval or pupal stage. Many affected queen-rearing operations are situated among the almond orchards of California and report these losses in weeks after almond trees bloom. Almond flowers are a rich foraging resource for bees, but are often treated with fungicides, insecticides, and spray adjuvants during bloom. Anecdotal reports by queen producers associate problems in queen development with application of the fungicide Pristine (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) and spray adjuvants that are tank-mixed with it. To test the effect of these compounds on queen development, a new bioassay was developed in which queens are reared in closed swarm boxes for 4 d, until capping, with nurse bees fed exclusively on artificially contaminated pollen. Pollen was treated with four concentrations of formulated Pristine (0.4, 4, 40, and 400 ppm), a spray adjuvant (Break-Thru, 200 ppm), the combination of Pristine and spray adjuvant (400:200 ppm), the insect growth regulator insecticide diflubenzuron (100 ppm) as a positive control, or water as negative control. Chemical analysis revealed that low concentrations of pyraclostrobin (50 ppb), but no boscalid, were detectable in royal jelly secreted by nurse bees feeding on treated pollen. No significant difference in queen development or survival was observed between any of the experimental treatments and the negative control. Only diflubenzuron, the positive control, caused a substantial reduction in survival of immature queens.

  7. Side-effects of thiamethoxam on the brain andmidgut of the africanized honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenopptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Regiane Alves; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Malaspina, Osmar

    2014-10-01

    The development of agricultural activities coincides with the increased use of pesticides to control pests, which can also be harmful to nontarget insects such as bees. Thus, the goal of this work was assess the toxic effects of thiamethoxam on newly emerged worker bees of Apis mellifera (africanized honeybee-AHB). Initially, we determined that the lethal concentration 50 (LC50 ) of thiamethoxam was 4.28 ng a.i./μL of diet. To determine the lethal time 50 (LT50 ), a survival assay was conducted using diets containing sublethal doses of thiamethoxam equal to 1/10 and 1/100 of the LC50. The group of bees exposed to 1/10 of the LC50 had a 41.2% reduction of lifespan. When AHB samples were analyzed by morphological technique we found the presence of condensed cells in the mushroom bodies and optical lobes in exposed honeybees. Through Xylidine Ponceau technique, we found cells which stained more intensely in groups exposed to thiamethoxam. The digestive and regenerative cells of the midgut from exposed bees also showed morphological and histochemical alterations, like cytoplasm vacuolization, increased apocrine secretion and increased cell elimination. Thus, intoxication with a sublethal doses of thiamethoxam can cause impairment in the brain and midgut of AHB and contribute to the honeybee lifespan reduction.

  8. [The gallery forests of the São Francisco river as corridors for Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from tropical rainforests].

    PubMed

    Moura, Debora C; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Euglossini are typical bees of Neotropical rainforests and only a few species occur in the Caatinga. The São Francisco river, which is the only permanent river in the semi-arid NE-Brazil, is bordered by a gallery forest with evergreen leaves. This environment offers flooral rewards along the year. Surveys of euglossine bees by attracting males to scent baits showed that species of the Atlantic Rainforest like Euglossa imperialis Cockerel, E. truncata Moure and Eulaema cingulata Fabricius occur in the gallery forest of the São Francisco river under the semi-arid climate of the caatinga region. These bees are restricted to the gallery forests which function as bio-corridors, and are absent at places where the forests were cut down. This emphasizes the need to protect the threatened gallery forests to maintain biodiversity. PMID:19488520

  9. Colony-level variation in pollen collection and foraging preferences among wild-caught bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Saifuddin, Mustafa; Jha, Shalene

    2014-04-01

    Given that many pollinators have exhibited dramatic declines related to habitat destruction, an improved understanding of pollinator resource collection across human-altered landscapes is essential to conservation efforts. Despite the importance of bumble bees (Bombus spp.) as global pollinators, little is known regarding how pollen collection patterns vary between individuals, colonies, and landscapes. In this study, Vosnesensky bumble bees (Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski) were collected from a range of human-altered and natural landscapes in northern California. Extensive vegetation surveys and Geographic Information System (GIS)-based habitat classifications were conducted at each site, bees were genotyped to identify colony mates, and pollen loads were examined to identify visited plants. In contrast to predictions based on strong competitive interactions, pollen load composition was significantly more similar for bees captured in a shared study region compared with bees throughout the research area but was not significantly more similar for colony mates. Preference analyses revealed that pollen loads were not composed of the most abundant plant species per study region. The majority of ranked pollen preference lists were significantly correlated for pairwise comparisons of colony mates and individuals within a study region, whereas the majority of pairwise comparisons of ranked pollen preference lists between individuals located at separate study regions were uncorrelated. Results suggest that pollen load composition and foraging preferences are similar for bees throughout a shared landscape regardless of colony membership. The importance of native plant species in pollen collection is illustrated through preference analyses, and we suggest prioritization of specific rare native plant species for enhanced bumble bee pollen collection.

  10. Uptake of Neonicotinoid Insecticides by Water-Foraging Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Through Guttation Fluid of Winter Oilseed Rape.

    PubMed

    Reetz, J E; Schulz, W; Seitz, W; Spiteller, M; Zühlke, S; Armbruster, W; Wallner, K

    2016-02-01

    The water-foraging activity of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) on guttation fluid of seed-coated crops, such as winter oilseed rape (WOR; Brassica napus L.), has not yet been evaluated. We analyzed the uptake of active substances (a.s.) in guttation fluid by evaluating residues of honey-sac contents. In autumn, insecticide residues of up to 130 µg a.s. per liter were released in WOR guttation fluid; this concentration is noticeably lower than levels reported in guttation fluid of seed-coated maize. Until winter dormancy, the concentrations declined to <30 µg a.s. per liter. In spring, residues were linked to prewintered plants and declined steadily until flowering. The maximum release of residues in guttation fluid of seed-coated WOR occurs on the first leaves in autumn when the colonies' water demand decreases. For the first time, proof for the uptake of guttation fluid from seed-coated WOR by honey bees was provided by measuring residues in individual honey-sac contents. In total, 38 out of 204 samples (19%) showed residues of thiamethoxam at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 0.95 µg per liter while the corresponding concentrations in guttation fluid of WOR varied between 3.6 to 12.9 µg thiamethoxam per liter. The amounts of thiamethoxam we found in the honey sacs of water-foraging honey bees were therefore below the thresholds in nectar and pollen that are considered to have negative effects on honey bees after chronic exposure.

  11. Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as a potential Brassica napus pollinator (cv. Hyola 432) (Brassicaceae), in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A S; Blochtein, B; Ferreira, N R; Witter, S

    2010-11-01

    Brassica napus Linnaeus is considered a self-compatible crop; however, studies show that bee foraging elevates their seed production. Considering bee food shortages during the winter season and that the canola is a winter crop, this study aimed to evaluate the foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 regarding those flowers, and to verify if it presents adequate behaviour for successfully pollinating this crop in Rio Grande do Sul State. The study was carried out in a canola field, in Southern Brazil. The anthesis stages were morphologically characterised and then related to stigma receptivity and pollen grain viability. Similarly, the behaviour of A. mellifera individuals on flowers was followed, considering the number of flowers visited per plant, the amount of time spent on the flowers, touched structures, and collected resources. Floral fidelity was inferred by analysing the pollen load of bees collected on flowers. The bees visited from 1-7 flowers/plant (x = 2.02; sd = 1.16), the time spent on the flowers varied between 1-43 seconds (x = 3.29; sd = 2.36) and, when seeking nectar and pollen, they invariably touched anthers and stigmas. The pollen load presented 100% of B. napus pollen. The bees' attendance to a small number of flowers/plants, their short permanence on flowers, their contact with anthers and stigma and the integral floral constancy allows their consideration as potential B. napus pollinators. PMID:21180917

  12. South American native bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) infected by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), an emerging pathogen of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Plischuk, Santiago; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Prieto, Lourdes; Lucía, Mariano; Botías, Cristina; Meana, Aránzazu; Abrahamovich, Alberto H; Lange, Carlos; Higes, Mariano

    2009-04-01

    As pollination is a critical process in both human-managed and natural terrestrial ecosystems, pollinators provide essential services to both nature and humans. Pollination is mainly due to the action of different insects, such as the bumblebee and the honeybee. These important ecological and economic roles have led to widespread concern over the recent decline in pollinator populations that has been detected in many regions of the world. While this decline has been attributed in some cases to changes in the use of agricultural land, the effects of parasites could play a significant role in the reduction of these populations. For the first time, we describe here the presence of Nosema ceranae, an emerging honeybee pathogen, in three species of Argentine native bumblebees. A total of 455 bumblebees belonging to six species of genus Bombus were examined. PCR results showed that three of the species are positive to N. ceranae (Bombus atratus, Bombus morio and Bombus bellicosus). We discuss the appearance of this pathogen in the context of the population decline of this pollinators.

  13. Development of a SCAR marker for the analysis of B chromosome presence in Partamona helleri (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Tosta, V C; Tavares, M G; Fernandes-Salomão, T M; Barros, E G; Campos, L A O; Camacho, J P M

    2007-01-01

    Chromosomes in hymenopteran insects cannot currently be analysed in adult individuals. The only available cytogenetic techniques need to be performed in larvae. Here we develop and implement a SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region) marker, associated with B chromosomes in the bee Partamona helleri, which has proven to be very useful to reveal B chromosome presence in adults from natural populations. The marker was tested in ten different colonies simultaneously analysed by both molecular (ten adults per colony) and cytogenetic (20 larvae per colony) techniques. The presence of the SCAR marker always showed the same pattern as B chromosome presence: both were present or absent in all individuals from a same colony, or both were present in only part of the individuals from a same colony. This molecular marker is thus a useful tool for analysing new aspects of this B chromosome system such as B frequency and geographical distribution, B transmission, or B effects in adult individuals.

  14. A synopsis of the subgenus Centris (Hemisiella) Moure, 1945 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini) in Colombia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Hemisiella Moure in Colombia is presented. The species included are Centris dichrootricha (Moure), C. facialis Mocsáry, C. merrillae Cockerell, C. tarsata Smith, C. trigonoides Lepeletier and C. vittata Lepeletier. In addition, C. nebulosa new species from northwestern Colombia is described, as well as the male of C. merrillae. Diagnoses for both sexes, occurrence records, and an identification key for the seven species of the subgenus that occur in the country are provided.

  15. Euglossa obrima, a new species of orchid bee from Mesoamerica, with notes on the subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A.; Melo, Gabriel A.R.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the orchid bee subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Euglossini: Euglossa Latreille) is described and figured from a series of males and females collected broadly in Mesoamerica. Euglossa (Dasystilbe) obrima, sp. n., is differentiated from the one known species of Dasystilbe, Euglossa (Dasystilbe) villosa Moure, which occurs only in Panamá and perhaps Costa Rica. The subgenus and its constituent species are diagnosed, and comments provided on Dasystilbe. PMID:21594064

  16. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the Varroa Sensitive Hygienic trait in Russian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene and more specific VarroaVarroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH) provide resistance toward the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, Russian (RHB) and Italian honey bees were assessed for the VSH trait. Two...

  17. Acaricidal and insecticidal activity of essential oils on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Damiani, Natalia; Gende, Liesel B; Bailac, Pedro; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2009-12-01

    Varroa destructor is an external parasitic mite that is a serious pest of honeybees and has caused severe losses of colonies worldwide. One of the feasible alternative treatments being used for their control is essential oils. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of some essential oils on V. destructor and Apis mellifera in relation with their chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Lavender, lavendin and laurel essential oils showed linalool as main compound in their composition. 1,8-Cineole was also present as a predominant component in the laurel essential oil. However, thyme oil was characterized by a high concentration of thymol. Mites and bees toxicity was tested by means of complete exposure method. For mites, LC(50) values for laurel, lavender and lavendin essential oil did not show significant variation throughout all observation times. However, the LC(50) values for thyme oil at 48 and 72 h were lower than at 24 h. Bee mortality was evident only in treatment with thyme oil. At 48 and 72 h, lavender essential oil presented better selectivity indexes. In this research, all essential oils caused mite mortality without severe harmful effects on adult bees. The simultaneous evaluation of the physicochemical analysis of the essential oils, the characterization of the dosage response relationships among them, and the mortality effects on mite and bees, give us the possibility to obtain comparative results for future research in Varroa control.

  18. The influence of Nosema (Microspora: Nosematidae) infection on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) defense against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the costs and benefits of co-parasitism with Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) and Nosema (Nosema ceranae Fries and Nosema apis Zander) on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different defense levels. Newly-emerged worker bees from either high-mite-mortality-rate (high-MMR) bees or low-mite-mortality-rate (low-MMR) bees were confined in forty bioassay cages which were either inoculated with Nosema spores [Nosema (+) group] or were left un-inoculated [Nosema (-) group]. Caged-bees were then inoculated with Varroa mites [Varroa (+) group] or were left untreated [Varroa (-) group]. This established four treatment combinations within each Nosema treatment group: (1) low-MMR Varroa (-), (2) high-MMR Varroa (-), (3) low-MMR Varroa (+) and (4) high-MMR Varroa (+), each with five replicates. Overall mite mortality in high-MMR bees (0.12±0.02 mites per day) was significantly greater than in the low-MMR bees (0.06±0.02 mites per day). In the Nosema (-) groups bee mortality was greater in high-MMR bees than low-MMR bees but only when bees had a higher mite burden. Overall, high-MMR bees in the Nosema (-) group showed greater reductions in mean abundance of mites over time compared with low-MMR bees, when inoculated with additional mites. However, high-MMR bees could not reduce mite load as well as in the Nosema (-) group when fed with Nosema spores. Mean abundance of Nosema spores in live bees and dead bees of both strains of bees was significantly greater in the Nosema (+) group. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of both Nosema species in inoculated bees but N. ceranae was more abundant than N. apis and unlike N. apis increased over the course of the experiment. Collectively, this study showed differential mite mortality rates among different genotypes of bees, however, Nosema infection restrained Varroa removal success in high-MMR bees.

  19. Biological activity of some plant essential oils against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an ectoparasitic mite of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Vahid; Moharramipour, Saeid; Tahmasbi, Gholamhosein

    2011-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate acaricidal activity of the essential oils of Thymus kotschyanus, Ferula assa-foetida and Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Varroa destructor under laboratory conditions. Moreover, fumigant toxicity of these oils was tested on Apis mellifera. After preliminary dose-setting experiments, mites and honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of the oil, with 10 h exposure time. Essential oil of T. kotschyanus appeared the most potent fumigant for V. destructor (LC(50) = 1.07, 95% confidence limit (CL) = 0.87-1.26 μl/l air), followed by E. camaldulensis (LC(50) = 1.74, 95% CL = 0.96-2.50 μl/l air). The lowest acaricidal activity (LC(50) = 2.46, 95% CL = 2.10-2.86 μl/l air) was attributed to essential oil of F. assa-foetida. Surprisingly, among the three oils tested, essential oil of T. kotschyanus had the lowest insecticidal activity against A. mellifera (LC(50) = 5.08, 95% CL = 4.54-5.06 μl/l air). These findings proved that essential oil of T. kotschyanus has potential of practical value for use as alternative acaricide in the management of varroa in apiaries.

  20. Contribution to the knowledge of the Anthidulum Michener and Ctenanthidium Urban (Hymenoptera, Apidae) with new species from Argentina and Peru.

    PubMed

    Parizotto, Daniele R; Urban, Danúncia

    2013-01-30

    Updated diagnostic generic characters for the neotropical anthidiine genera Anthidulum and Ctenanthidium are presented. Ctenanthidium versicolor sp. nov. from Argentina and Anthidulum rozeni sp. nov. from Peru are described, illustrated and distinguished from their congeners. A key to the species of Ctenanthidium is provided. The male of Ctenanthidium nigripes Urban, 1993 is described for the first time.

  1. Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fat body persists through metamorphosis with a few apoptotic cells and an increased autophagy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Douglas Elias; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Campos, Lúcio Antônio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Fat body, typically comprising trophocytes, provides energy during metamorphosis. The fat body can be renewed once the larval phase is complete or recycled and relocated to form the fat body of the adult insect. This study aims to identify the class of programmed cell death that occurs within the fat body cells during the metamorphosis of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Using immunodetection techniques, the fat body of the post-defecating larvae and the white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae were tested for cleaved caspase-3 and DNA integrity, followed by ultrastructural analysis and identification of autophagy using RT-PCR for the Atg1 gene. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed some apoptotic cells positive for cleaved caspase-3, although without DNA fragmentation. During development, the fat body cells revealed an increased number of mitochondria and free ribosomes, in addition to higher amounts of autophagy Atg1 mRNA, than that of the pupae. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed few cells which underwent apoptosis, but there was evidence of increased autophagy at the completion of the larval stage. All together, these data show that some fat body cells persist during metamorphosis in the stingless bee M. quadrifasciata.

  2. Cytochemistry of fat body trophocytes and ovaries of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) during vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paes-de-Oliveira, Vagner Tadeu; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Berger, Bruno; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2012-12-01

    The fat body (FB) of insects is where yolk proteins are synthesized. Therefore, relationships between the FB and oogenesis were studied in nurse workers, virgins, and physogastric queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, a stingless bee in which the workers produce and lay eggs while provisioning brood cells. The relationships between FB and oogenesis, as well as the routes of materials from hemolymph to the oocytes, were studied through the cytochemical detection of lipids by osmium imidazole (OI), carbohydrates by ruthenium red (RR) and basic proteins by ammoniacal silver (AS). The results show differences in the presence of the studied materials in FB trophocytes and ovary of the classes of females studied and oogenesis phases. Material that tested positive for the treatments was detected among the classes of individuals studied in both, trophocytes and oocytes, and in the route of those materials from hemolymph to the oocytes. The differences found among the individual classes indicate relationships with the nutrition and adaptation to the parsimonious use of nutrients in the metabolism of reproduction.

  3. Orchid bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina) of Atlantic Forest fragments inside an urban area in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, André; Silveira, Fernando A

    2007-01-01

    Male orchid bees were collected by chemical baiting in four forest fragments in parks of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. One thousand three hundred and twenty-five males belonging to 14 species were captured within one year. The capture data were compared through correlation tests. The data suggest that abundance of orchid bees tend to increase with fragment size, although no correlation between species richness and fragment size was obtained. The results presented herein suggest that forest fragments in a large city may be of importance concerning conservation of orchid-bee faunas.

  4. Searching for a manageable pollinator for Acerola orchards: the solitary oil-collecting bee Centris analis (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Reisla; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2009-02-01

    Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC; Malpighiaceae) is an important fruit crop in Brazil. Among its pollinators, Centris (Heterocentris) analis (F.) stands out due to its abundance at flowers and prompt acceptance of trap-nests. For the first time, we propose the commercial use of Centris bees as orchard pollinators. To develop protocols for rearing and management of these bees, we analyzed trap-nest acceptance, brood-cell construction, and larval diet in Acerola orchards. Although Centris species, in general, use numerous pollen host plants, females of C. analis showed remarkable flower fidelity to Acerola for pollen supply when nesting in the orchard. Such fidelity was previously expected only for floral oil collection. The ease of acceptance of trap-nests by females of C. analis, their prolonged yearly activity period, multivoltine life history, and high pollinator efficiency characterize C. analis as an excellent potentially manageable pollinator in Acerola orchards.

  5. The role of the agricultural matrix: coffee management and euglossine bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) communities in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Briggs, H M; Perfecto, I; Brosi, B J

    2013-12-01

    With growing concern surrounding global pollinator declines, it is important to understand how habitat destruction and agricultural intensification impact pollinator communities. Euglossine bees are tropical forest-dependent pollinators responsible for pollination of both economically important crops and wild plant species. A growing body of work has focused on the effect of habitat fragmentation on euglossine bees, yet little is known about how these bees are impacted by agricultural intensification. Coffee cultivation is widespread in the tropics, and its management is conducted along a gradient of intensity, which ranges from monoculture (i.e., no shade, high inputs) to polyculture (shade overstory retained, fewer inputs). We used a landscape in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico, that allowed for comparison between monoculture and polyculture coffee farms, while holding distance to native habitat, as well as native habitat quality, constant. We found that habitat management influenced abundance, estimated richness, and community composition of euglossine bees. The polyculture coffee farm boasts a more similar community composition to the forest than to the monoculture coffee farm. In addition, the polyculture farm had almost double the euglossine abundance compared with the monoculture farm. Our results suggest that coffee management regimes may strongly impact euglossine communities and that less intensive polyculture approaches may mitigate species losses of this important group of pollinators.

  6. Exposure Effects on the Productivity of Commercial Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Quads During Bloom in Watermelon Fields.

    PubMed

    Marchese, J I; Johnson, G J; Delaney, D A

    2015-08-01

    In light of population declines of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), research has refocused attention on alternative pollinators and their potential to fulfill pollination services within economically important agricultural crops. Bumble bees are one such alternative, and within the past 20 yr, these pollinators have been reared and sold as commercial pollinators. Investigation into their use has been limited and more research is needed to improve pollinator effectiveness in field settings. Quad pollination units of the commercially reared native bumble bee species, the common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson), were monitored and evaluated for productivity during peak watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura & Nakai] bloom in southern Delaware. Differing colony exposures including various shade structure designs and natural shade were compared to assess the quality of the shade in regards to bumble bee activity during watermelon bloom. Quads receiving different nest treatments were evaluated on the basis of foraging activity and colony weight gain. Results indicated that colonies within quads provided with artificial or natural shade had significantly more foraging activity, weighed more, and produced more cells than colonies in quads placed in the field with no shade. Colonies within quads provided with artificial and natural shade peaked later in terms of foraging and weight gain, suggesting that growers could extend harvest to take advantage of later markets and possible movement into fields that were planted later. PMID:26470323

  7. A synopsis of the subgenus Centris (Hemisiella) Moure, 1945 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini) in Colombia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Hemisiella Moure in Colombia is presented. The species included are Centris dichrootricha (Moure), C. facialis Mocsáry, C. merrillae Cockerell, C. tarsata Smith, C. trigonoides Lepeletier and C. vittata Lepeletier. In addition, C. nebulosa new species from northwestern Colombia is described, as well as the male of C. merrillae. Diagnoses for both sexes, occurrence records, and an identification key for the seven species of the subgenus that occur in the country are provided. PMID:27615961

  8. Does Cry1Ab protein affect learning performances of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)?

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Romero, R; Desneux, N; Decourtye, A; Chaffiol, A; Pham-Delègue, M H

    2008-06-01

    Genetically modified Bt crops are increasingly used worldwide but side effects and especially sublethal effects on beneficial insects remain poorly studied. Honey bees are beneficial insects for natural and cultivated ecosystems through pollination. The goal of the present study was to assess potential effects of two concentrations of Cry1Ab protein (3 and 5000 ppb) on young adult honey bees. Following a complementary bioassay, our experiments evaluated effects of the Cry1Ab on three major life traits of young adult honey bees: (a) survival of honey bees during sub-chronic exposure to Cry1Ab, (b) feeding behaviour, and (c) learning performance at the time that honey bees become foragers. The latter effect was tested using the proboscis extension reflex (PER) procedure. The same effects were also tested using a chemical pesticide, imidacloprid, as positive reference. The tested concentrations of Cry1Ab protein did not cause lethal effects on honey bees. However, honey bee feeding behaviour was affected when exposed to the highest concentration of Cry1Ab protein, with honey bees taking longer to imbibe the contaminated syrup. Moreover, honey bees exposed to 5000 ppb of Cry1Ab had disturbed learning performances. Honey bees continued to respond to a conditioned odour even in the absence of a food reward. Our results show that transgenic crops expressing Cry1Ab protein at 5000 ppb may affect food consumption or learning processes and thereby may impact honey bee foraging efficiency. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of risks of transgenic Bt crops for honey bees. PMID:18206234

  9. The effects of Bt Cry1Ie toxin on bacterial diversity in the midgut of Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Jia, Hui-Ru; Geng, Li-Li; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Qiang; Diao, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Ting; Dai, Ping-Li

    2016-01-01

    The honey bee has been regarded as a key species in the environmental risk assessment of biotech crops. Here, the potential adverse effects of Cry1Ie toxin on the midgut bacteria of the worker bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Newly emerged bees were fed with different concentrations of Cry1Ie toxin syrups (20 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL, and 20 μg/mL), pure sugar syrup, and 48 ppb of imidacloprid syrups, then sampled after 15 and 30 d. We characterized the dominant midgut bacteria and compared the composition and structure of the midgut bacterial community in all samples using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA. No significant differences in the diversity of the midgut bacteria were observed between the five treatments. This work was the first to show the effects of Cry1Ie toxin on honey bees, and our study provided a theoretical basis for the biosafety assessment of transgenic Cry1Ie maize. PMID:27090812

  10. Biological activity of some plant essential oils against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an ectoparasitic mite of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Vahid; Moharramipour, Saeid; Tahmasbi, Gholamhosein

    2011-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate acaricidal activity of the essential oils of Thymus kotschyanus, Ferula assa-foetida and Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Varroa destructor under laboratory conditions. Moreover, fumigant toxicity of these oils was tested on Apis mellifera. After preliminary dose-setting experiments, mites and honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of the oil, with 10 h exposure time. Essential oil of T. kotschyanus appeared the most potent fumigant for V. destructor (LC(50) = 1.07, 95% confidence limit (CL) = 0.87-1.26 μl/l air), followed by E. camaldulensis (LC(50) = 1.74, 95% CL = 0.96-2.50 μl/l air). The lowest acaricidal activity (LC(50) = 2.46, 95% CL = 2.10-2.86 μl/l air) was attributed to essential oil of F. assa-foetida. Surprisingly, among the three oils tested, essential oil of T. kotschyanus had the lowest insecticidal activity against A. mellifera (LC(50) = 5.08, 95% CL = 4.54-5.06 μl/l air). These findings proved that essential oil of T. kotschyanus has potential of practical value for use as alternative acaricide in the management of varroa in apiaries. PMID:21484423

  11. A protocol for isolating insect mitochondrial genomes: a case study of NUMT in Melipona flavolineata (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Françoso, Elaine; Gomes, Fernando; Arias, Maria Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial DNA insertions (NUMTs) are mitochondrial DNA sequences that have been transferred into the nucleus and are recognized by the presence of indels and stop codons. Although NUMTs have been identified in a diverse range of species, their discovery was frequently accidental. Here, our initial goal was to develop and standardize a simple method for isolating NUMTs from the nuclear genome of a single bee. Subsequently, we tested our new protocol by determining whether the indels and stop codons of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of Melipona flavolineata are of nuclear origin. The new protocol successfully demonstrated the presence of a COI NUMT. In addition to NUMT investigations, the protocol described here will also be very useful for studying mitochondrial mutations related to diseases and for sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes with high read coverage by Next-Generation technology.

  12. Floral preferences of a neotropical stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponina) in an urban forest fragment.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Y; Costa, R G; Martins, R P

    2006-05-01

    Species of plants used by Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier for pollen and nectar gathering in an urban forest fragment were recorded in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Melipona quadrifasciata visited 22 out of 103 flowering plant species. The plant species belonged mainly to Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Convolvulaceae (64% of the visits). Melipona quadrifasciata tended to collect pollen or nectar each time, except for Myrtaceae species, from which both pollen and nectar were collected. Bee abundance at flowers did not significantly correlate to food availability (expressed by flowering plant richness). We found a relatively high similarity (50%) between plant species used by M. quadrifasciata, which was also found in studies carried out in São Paulo State. However, low similarity (17%) was found between the results of this study and those of another done in Bahia State, Brazil.

  13. Pollination of tomatoes by the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, S A Bispo; Roselino, A C; Hrncir, M; Bego, L R

    2009-06-30

    The pollination effectiveness of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera was tested in tomato plots. The experiment was conducted in four greenhouses as well as in an external open plot in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. The tomato plants were exposed to visits by M. quadrifasciata in one greenhouse and to A. mellifera in another; two greenhouses were maintained without bees (controls) and an open field plot was exposed to pollinators in an area where both honey bee and stingless bee colonies are abundant. We counted the number of tomatoes produced in each plot. Two hundred tomatoes from each plot were weighed, their vertical and transversal circumferences were measured, and the seeds were counted. We collected 253 Chrysomelidae, 17 Halictidae, one Paratrigona sp, and one honey bee from the flowers of the tomato plants in the open area. The largest number of fruits (1414 tomatoes), the heaviest and largest tomatoes, and the ones with the most seed were collected from the greenhouse with stingless bees. Fruits cultivated in the greenhouse with honey bees had the same weight and size as those produced in one of the control greenhouses. The stingless bee, M. quadrifasciata, was significantly more efficient than honey bees in pollinating greenhouse tomatoes.

  14. Cobalt chloride induces metaphase when topically applied to larvae and pupae of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Ueira-Vieira, C; Tavares, R R; Morelli, S; Pereira, B B; Silva, R P; Torres-Mariano, A R; Kerr, W E; Bonetti, A M

    2013-06-20

    In order to optimize preparations of bee metaphases, we tested cobalt chloride, which has been used as a metaphase inducer in other organisms, such as hamsters and fish. Four microliters of 65 mM cobalt chloride aqueous solution was topically applied to larval and pupal stages of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. The cerebral ganglion was removed after treatment and prepared for cytogenetic analysis. Identically manipulated untreated individuals were used as controls. The number of metaphases was increased 3-fold in treated individuals compared to controls. The micronucleus test showed no mutagenic effects of cobalt chloride on M. scutellaris cells. We concluded that cobalt chloride is a metaphase-inducing agent in M. scutellaris, thus being useful for cytogenetic analyses.

  15. High precision during food recruitment of experienced (reactivated) foragers in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana (Apidae, Meliponini)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Daniel; Nieh, James C.; Hénaut, Yann; Cruz, Leopoldo; Vandame, Rémy

    Several studies have examined the existence of recruitment communication mechanisms in stingless bees. However, the spatial accuracy of location-specific recruitment has not been examined. Moreover, the location-specific recruitment of reactivated foragers, i.e., foragers that have previously experienced the same food source at a different location and time, has not been explicitly examined. However, such foragers may also play a significant role in colony foraging, particularly in small colonies. Here we report that reactivated Scaptotrigona mexicana foragers can recruit with high precision to a specific food location. The recruitment precision of reactivated foragers was evaluated by placing control feeders to the left and the right of the training feeder (direction-precision tests) and between the nest and the training feeder and beyond it (distance-precision tests). Reactivated foragers arrived at the correct location with high precision: 98.44% arrived at the training feeder in the direction trials (five-feeder fan-shaped array, accuracy of at least +/-6° of azimuth at 50 m from the nest), and 88.62% arrived at the training feeder in the distance trials (five-feeder linear array, accuracy of at least +/-5 m or +/-10% at 50 m from the nest). Thus, S. mexicana reactivated foragers can find the indicated food source at a specific distance and direction with high precision, higher than that shown by honeybees, Apis mellifera, which do not communicate food location at such close distances to the nest.

  16. Occurrence of B chromosomes in Tetragonisca Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): A new contribution to the cytotaxonomy of the genus.

    PubMed

    Barth, Adriane; Fernandes, Anderson; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças; Costa, Marco Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Tetragonisca angustula and Tetragonisca fiebrigi have recently been listed as valid species. This study aimed to cytogenetically investigate both species, emphasizing the new registry of B chromosomes in the tribe Meliponini. We analyzed colonies of T. angustula and T. fiebrigi collected at Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, through conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding, and base-specific fluorochrome staining (CMA(3)/DAPI). T. angustula showed 2n = 34 chromosomes in females and n = 17 in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 34A(M). T. fiebrigi showed numeric variation, with chromosome number varying from 2n = 34 to 2n = 36 in females and from n = 17 to n = 18 in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 32A(M)+2A(Mc) and 2K = 32A(M)+2A(Mc) + 1 or 2 B-chromosomes. The B chromosomes are heterochromatic. In T. fiebrigi, the CMA(3)/DAPI staining revealed four chromosomes with a CMA(3) positive band. All individuals from the same colony showed the same number of B chromosomes. T. angustula and T. fiebrigi showed karyotype divergence, principally due to the presence of B chromosomes, which are found only in T. fiebrigi. Our data corroborate the status of valid species for both T. angustula and T. fiebrigi, as recently proposed.

  17. Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rogério M O; Carvalho, Carlos A L; Souza, Bruno A; Santos, Wyratan S

    2012-09-01

    The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.

  18. Analysis of the intercaste transcriptional profile of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) by mRNA differential display.

    PubMed

    Siquieroli, Ana Carolina S; Vieira, Carlos U; Carvalho-Zilse, Gislene A; Goulart, Luiz R; Kerr, Warwick E; Bonetti, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    In colonies of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 workers can be found with four ganglion nerve cells, a morphological characteristic of the queen. It is hypothesized that these workers, called intercastes, or phenocopies, are phenotypically-like workers, but genotypically identical to queens due to this specific trait. Workers with the same number of ganglion as queens seem to be intercastes between queens and workers. Our objective was to analyze the mRNA pro files of workers, queens, and intercastes of M. scutellaris through DDRT-PCR. Three hundred (300) pupae with white eyes were collected and externally identified according to the number of abdominal nerve ganglions: workers (5 ganglions), queens (4 ganglions) and intercastes (4 ganglions). The analysis identified differentially expressed transcripts that were present only in workers, but absent in intercastes and queens, confirming the hypothesis, by demonstrating the environmental effect on the queen genotype that generated phenotype-like workers.

  19. Effects of fluvalinate and coumaphos on queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in two commercial queen rearing operations.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Timothy; Spivak, Marla; Weaver, Daniel; Weaver, Binford; Glenn, Tom

    2002-02-01

    We conducted research on the potential impacts of fluvalinate and coumaphos on honey bee, Apis mellifera L., queen viability and health. Queens were reared in colonies that had been treated with differing amounts of both fluvalinate and coumaphos. Pre- and posttreatment samples of both wax and bees were collected from all of the colonies and analyzed for total concentrations of fluvalinate and coumaphos. All queens were measured for queen weight, ovarial weight, and number of sperm in the spermathecae. The queens treated with high doses of fluvalinate weighed significantly less than low-dose or control queens, but otherwise appeared to develop normally. The highest fluvalinate concentrations were observed in the wax and queen cells of the high-dose group. The developing queens in colonies treated with as little as one coumaphos-impregnated strip for more than 24 h suffered a high mortality rate. Several of the queens showed sublethal effects from the coumaphos, including physical abnormalities and atypical behavior. The queens exposed to coumaphos weighed significantly less and had lower ovary weights than the control group queens. The highest coumaphos concentrations were observed in the queen cells and wax of the high-dose groups.

  20. What's in that package? An evaluation of quality of package honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) shipments in the United States.

    PubMed

    Strange, James P; Cicciarelli, Richard P; Calderone, Nicholas W

    2008-06-01

    To replace deceased colonies or to increase the colony numbers, beekeepers often purchase honey bees, Apis mellifera L., in a package, which is composed of 909-1,364 g (2-3 lb) of worker bees and a mated queen. Packages are typically produced in warm regions of the United States in spring and shipped throughout the United States to replace colonies that perished during winter. Although the package bee industry is effective in replacing colonies lost in winter, packages also can be an effective means of dispersing diseases, parasites, and undesirable stock to beekeepers throughout the United States. To evaluate the quality of packages, we examined 48 packages representing six lines of bees purchased in the spring 2006. We estimated levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman and the percentage of drone (male) honey bees received in packages. We surveyed for presence of the tracheal honey bee mite, Acarapis woodi (Rennie), and a microsporidian parasite, Nosema spp., in the shipped bees. We found significant differences in both the mean Varroa mite per bee ratios (0.004-0.054) and the average percentage of drones (0.04-5.1%) in packages from different producers. We found significant differences in the number of Nosema-infected packages (0.0-75.0%) among the six lines. No packages contained detectable levels ofA. woodi. Considering the observed variability among honey bee packages, beekeepers should be aware of the potential for pest and disease infestations and high drone levels in packages.

  1. Physical interaction between floral specialist bees Ptilothrix bombiformis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) enhances pollination of hibiscus (section Trionum: Malvaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specialist bees, those species with narrow dietary niches, rely on a few related species of floral hosts for food. Accordingly, specialists are thought of as being more efficient pollinators than are generalists. There is growing evidence, however, that this is not true in all cases. For example, we...

  2. [Variation of the orchid bees community (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in three altered habitats of the Colombian "llano" piedmont].

    PubMed

    Parra-H, Alejandro; Nates-Parra, Guiomar

    2007-01-01

    Orchid bees subsist in vast tropical forest areas because they maintain close relationships with particular plant species in diverse micro-habitats. Based on the relationships among the environment and biological features (food preference, morphologic and ethologic diversity), it is possible to determine habitat quality using the euglossine array. This work proposes the use of this ecological information, in addition to diversity indices, for the evaluation of environmental quality. Fifteen localities in three landscape types (urban, rural and conserved) were sampled in the eastern llanos foothill (Meta, Colombia), between March and December of 2003 using entomological nets, and Cineol and Metil Salicylate as baits. Of the 26 species known to occur in the area, 17 were registered. Eulaema nigrita was the most frequent, while E. speciosa E. bombiformis, Euglossa magnipes, E. cybelia, E. heterosticta, E. singularis and Exaerete frontalis were mostly found in habitats rated "good to acceptable". The vegetation composition and proximity of forest fragments seem to favor some species in disturbed habitats. Relative diversity of bee body shapes and sizes is proportional to habitat quality.

  3. [Effect of landscape change on the structure of the sting-less bee community (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Meta, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Palacios, Eliana; Parra-H, Alejandro

    2008-09-01

    Stingless bees represent one of the most diversified components of the natural Apoidea fauna of pollinators in the tropics. They use diverse kinds of substrates and inhabit varied habitats. Some species are typical for some natural either artificial place. The landscape alteration were this group of bees nests, has and important impact on the natural composition of its community structure, fact which is reflected in the nest density. We analyzed the structure composition of the stingless bees' community in three environments in the Colombian Ilanos piedmont, an important region that represents the transition between Andean ecosystems and a savannah that is seriously threatened by cattle practices. We made systematic samples in secondary forest, agro-ecosystems and urban areas, recording the presence of 204 nests from 11 genera (24 species). The nest density per landscape was heterogeneous and never higher than 16 nests/Ha. We observed two nesting patterns and an effect of sampling criterion on the measured biodiversity.

  4. The traditional knowledge on stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponina) used by the Enawene-Nawe tribe in western Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gilton Mendes dos; Antonini, Yasmine

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper presents the Enawene-Nawe Society's traditional knowledge about stingless bees. The Enawene-Nawe are an Aruak speaking people, indigenous to the Meridian Amazon. Specifically, they live in the Jurema River hydrological basin, located in the northwestern region of the Mato Grosso state. Methods The stingless bees were sampled from two ecologically similar regions in the interior of Enawene-Nawe Land. The first sampling took place around the village, i.e., adjacent to houses, by the edge of the Iquê River, next to food leftovers, around human excrement, and simply when the insects were found flying or reposing on a human body. The second round of sampling happened from 29/10 to 02/11/94, during an expedition for honey collection that took place throughout the ciliar bushes of the Papagaio River, an important tributary of Juruena River. We sampled bees adjacent to their nests following the beehive inspection or during the honey extraction. In this work, the main bee species of the sub tribe Meliponina, which were handled by the Enawene-Nawe, was identified, and a brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and its social-cosmologic meaning for the group was done. Results and Discussion Similar to other indigenous people in Brazil, the Enawene-Nawe recognized 48 stingless bee species. They identified each bee species by name and specified each one's ecological niche. A brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and bees' social-cosmologic meaning for the group is included. Conclusion We concluded that, as an example of other indigenous people, the Enawene-Nawe classify and identify the bees based not only on their structure and morphological aspects but also on the ecological, etiological, and social characteristics of the species. PMID:18793393

  5. Responses to Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae by several commercial strains of Australian and North American honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential impact of varroa (Varroa destructor, Anderson & Trueman. 2000) on Australian beekeeping and agriculture depends in part on the levels of resistance to this parasite expressed by Australian commercial honey bees (Apis mellifera). The responses of seven lines of Australian honey bees to ...

  6. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.

    PubMed

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  7. Functionality of Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) When Used in Migratory Beekeeping for Crop Pollination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., that were bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated for performance when used for beekeeping in an intensive, migratory crop pollination system. Colonies of these stocks (Russian honey bees [RHB] and outcrosses of bees with...

  8. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safira, Nabila; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre-Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  9. [The gallery forests of the São Francisco river as corridors for Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from tropical rainforests].

    PubMed

    Moura, Debora C; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Euglossini are typical bees of Neotropical rainforests and only a few species occur in the Caatinga. The São Francisco river, which is the only permanent river in the semi-arid NE-Brazil, is bordered by a gallery forest with evergreen leaves. This environment offers flooral rewards along the year. Surveys of euglossine bees by attracting males to scent baits showed that species of the Atlantic Rainforest like Euglossa imperialis Cockerel, E. truncata Moure and Eulaema cingulata Fabricius occur in the gallery forest of the São Francisco river under the semi-arid climate of the caatinga region. These bees are restricted to the gallery forests which function as bio-corridors, and are absent at places where the forests were cut down. This emphasizes the need to protect the threatened gallery forests to maintain biodiversity.

  10. Profile of the mosaic element BTMR1 in the genome of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Casteret, S; Moiré, N; Aupinel, P; Tasei, J-N; Bigot, Y

    2011-04-01

    Co-evolution involving a mariner transposon, Botmar1 and the other repeats contained in the Bombus terrestris genome was investigated. We found that the 5'-region of Botmar1 forms one of the components of a mosaic element, known as B. terrestris mosaic repeat 1 (BTMR1), which is also composed of inner segments originating from two different retrotransposons and a pseudogene corresponding to an RNA methyltransferase cDNA. The fact that BTMR1 is interspersed within chromosomes and the differences in its abundance in different species indicate that it is very probably a mobile element. Nevertheless, the absences of direct or inverted repeats at its ends and of target site duplication indicate that its mobility is not ensured by a cardinal transposable element, but putatively by a Crypton-like element.

  11. Evidence for Bombus occidentalis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Populations in the Olympic Peninsula, the Palouse Prairie, and Forests of Northern Idaho

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Paul R.; Koch, Jonathan B.; Waits, Lisette P.; Strange, James P.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, Bombus occidentalis (Green) has declined from being one of the most common to one of the rarest bumble bee species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Although its conservation status is unresolved, a petition to list this species as endangered or threatened was recently submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To shed light on the conservation situation and inform the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service decision, we report on the detection and abundance of B. occidentalis following bumble bee collection between 2012 and 2014 across the Pacific Northwest. Collection occurred from the San Juan Islands and Olympic peninsula east to northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon, excluding the arid region in central Washington. B. occidentalis was observed at 23 collection sites out of a total of 234. With the exception of three sites on the Olympic peninsula, all of these were in the southeastern portion of the collection range. PMID:26856817

  12. [Variation of the orchid bees community (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in three altered habitats of the Colombian "llano" piedmont].

    PubMed

    Parra-H, Alejandro; Nates-Parra, Guiomar

    2007-01-01

    Orchid bees subsist in vast tropical forest areas because they maintain close relationships with particular plant species in diverse micro-habitats. Based on the relationships among the environment and biological features (food preference, morphologic and ethologic diversity), it is possible to determine habitat quality using the euglossine array. This work proposes the use of this ecological information, in addition to diversity indices, for the evaluation of environmental quality. Fifteen localities in three landscape types (urban, rural and conserved) were sampled in the eastern llanos foothill (Meta, Colombia), between March and December of 2003 using entomological nets, and Cineol and Metil Salicylate as baits. Of the 26 species known to occur in the area, 17 were registered. Eulaema nigrita was the most frequent, while E. speciosa E. bombiformis, Euglossa magnipes, E. cybelia, E. heterosticta, E. singularis and Exaerete frontalis were mostly found in habitats rated "good to acceptable". The vegetation composition and proximity of forest fragments seem to favor some species in disturbed habitats. Relative diversity of bee body shapes and sizes is proportional to habitat quality. PMID:19086396

  13. Bombus huntii, Bombus impatiens, and Bombus vosnesenskii (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Pollinate Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Strange, James P

    2015-06-01

    Bumble bees (Bombus) are the primary pollinators of tomatoes grown in greenhouses and can significantly increase fruit weight compared with tomatoes that receive no supplemental pollination. More than a million colonies are sold worldwide annually to meet pollination needs. Due to mounting concerns over the transportation of bumble bees outside of their native ranges, several species native to western North American are currently being investigated as potential commercial pollinators. Here, two western, Bombus huntii Greene and Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski, and one eastern species, Bombus impatiens Cresson, are compared for their efficacy as pollinators of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. In two experiments, colonies were placed in greenhouses and compared with control plants that received no supplemental pollination. In the first experiment, seed set was significantly increased with B. huntii pollination in one variety of cherry tomatoes. In the second experiment comparing all three bumble bee species, fruit weight was an average of 25.2 g heavier per fruit pollinated by bees versus the control, and the number of days to harvest was 2.9 d shorter for bee-pollinated fruit. In some rounds of pollination, differences were found among bumble bee species, but these were inconsistent across replicates and not statistically significant overall. Additionally, fruit weight was shown to be highly correlated to fruit diameter and seed set in all tests and, thus, is shown to be a reliable metric for assessing pollination in future studies. These results suggest that commercialization of western bumble bees is a viable alternative to the current practices of moving of nonnative bees into western North America to pollinate tomatoes. PMID:26470206

  14. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    SciTech Connect

    Safira, Nabila Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-30

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre–Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  15. A novel approach for the management of the chalkbrood disease infesting honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mourad, A K; Zaghloul, O A; El Kady, Magda B; Nemat, F M; Morsy, M E

    2005-01-01

    Except for, very few articles regarding the influence of some organic acids on the causative pathogen, Ascosphaera apis Maassen, no other studies pertaining to the management of the chalkbrood disease were performed, so far in Egypt. Laboratory investigations indicated that the fungicides, i.e (Galben C 46%, Radomil gold pluse WP 42.5% and Daconil 2787) at their recommended rates did not exert any effect on the mycelical growth of the fungus. Therefore, these fungicides were completely excluded from the subsequent apiary trials. As to the Mycostatin, it was found clearly that this mycostatic compound was effective at the rates of 50.000 and 100.000 IU. Regarding the essential oils (ceder, clove, peppermint, parsley, black cumin, garden rocket, and ricin), ceder oil surpassed the other oils and materials in controlling the subject disease. It is peculiar that no studies on the efficacy of ceder are available in the literature, so the present work using ceder oil is recorded for the first time worldwide. Thymol substance at the rate of 2% showed also a great success in managing the CHB disease. Baised on the obtained results, the promising materials in controlling the disease could be arranged according to their efficacy in a descending order as follows: ceder oil>thymol>mycostatin and oxalic acid, so these highly effective materials were again tested under the apiary conditions. Outdoors (apiary) studies revealed that ceder oil 4% gave 100% reduction in mummies numbers. Reductions in number of fallen mummies ranged from 63.22 to 96.94, 18.93 to 81.74, and 10.11 to 68.16%, on average, for thymol, mycostatin, and oxalic acid, respectively. From the practical point of view, thymol could be recommended for controlling the CHB disease, as it is the cheapest material and proved to increase the brood nest as well. In addition, thymol has other uses in the field of apiculture.

  16. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    PubMed Central

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

  17. Large pathogen screening reveals first report of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) parasitizing Apis mellifera intermissa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Menail, Ahmed Hichem; Piot, Niels; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida

    2016-06-01

    As it is most likely that global warming will also lead to a shift in pollinator-habitats northwards, the study of southern species becomes more and more important. Pathogen screenings in subspecies of Apis mellifera capable of withstanding higher temperatures, provide an insight into future pathogen host interactions. Screenings in different climate regions also provide a global perspective on the prevalence of certain pathogens. In this project, we performed a pathogen screening in Apis mellifera intermissa, a native subspecies of Algeria in northern Africa. Colonies were sampled from different areas in the region of Annaba over a period of two years. Several pathogens were detected, among them Apicystis bombi, Crithidia mellificae, Nosema ceranae, Paenibacillus larvae, Lake Sinai Virus, Sacbrood Virus and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV). Our screening also revealed a phoroid fly, Megaselia scalaris, parasitizing honey bee colonies, which we report here for the first time. In addition, we found DWV to be present in the adult flies and replicating virus in the larval stages of the fly, which could indicate that M. scalaris acts as a vector of DWV. PMID:27130035

  18. Cuticular hydrocarbons in the stingless bee Schwarziana quadripunctata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): differences between colonies, castes and age.

    PubMed

    Nunes, T M; Turatti, I C C; Mateus, S; Nascimento, F S; Lopes, N P; Zucchi, R

    2009-01-01

    Chemical communication is of fundamental importance to maintain the integration of insect colonies. In honey bees, cuticular lipids differ in their composition between queens, workers and drones. Little is known, however, about cuticular hydrocarbons in stingless bees. We investigated chemical differences in cuticular hydrocarbons between different colonies, castes and individuals of different ages in Schwarziana quadripunctata. The epicuticle of the bees was extracted using the non-polar solvent hexane, and was analyzed by means of a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer. The identified compounds were alkanes, branched-alkanes and alkenes with chains of 19 to 33 carbon atoms. Discriminant analyses showed clear differences between all the groups analyzed. There were significant differences between bees from different colonies, workers of different age and between workers and virgin queens. PMID:19551647

  19. Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): cell types and their role in phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Moreira Neto, João Felipe; Pereira, Gustavo Borges; Franco, Mariani Borges; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by forming an organized multicellular capsule around large parasites. In the current investigation the cellular in the hemolymph third instar larvae of M. scutellaris has been characterized by means of light microscopy analysis and phagocytosis assays were performed in vivo by injection of 0.5 microm fluorescence beads in order to identify the hemocyte types involved in phagocytosis. Four morphotypes of circulating hemocytes were found in 3rd instar larvae: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids. The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris. PMID:19914078

  20. Cytochemistry of fat body trophocytes and ovaries of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) during vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paes-de-Oliveira, Vagner Tadeu; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Berger, Bruno; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2012-12-01

    The fat body (FB) of insects is where yolk proteins are synthesized. Therefore, relationships between the FB and oogenesis were studied in nurse workers, virgins, and physogastric queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, a stingless bee in which the workers produce and lay eggs while provisioning brood cells. The relationships between FB and oogenesis, as well as the routes of materials from hemolymph to the oocytes, were studied through the cytochemical detection of lipids by osmium imidazole (OI), carbohydrates by ruthenium red (RR) and basic proteins by ammoniacal silver (AS). The results show differences in the presence of the studied materials in FB trophocytes and ovary of the classes of females studied and oogenesis phases. Material that tested positive for the treatments was detected among the classes of individuals studied in both, trophocytes and oocytes, and in the route of those materials from hemolymph to the oocytes. The differences found among the individual classes indicate relationships with the nutrition and adaptation to the parsimonious use of nutrients in the metabolism of reproduction. PMID:22833289

  1. Cytogenetics of Melitoma segmentaria (Fabricius, 1804) (Hymenoptera, Apidae) reveals differences in the characteristics of heterochromatin in bees

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Maykon Passos; Simões, Talitta Guimarães; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To date, more than 65 species of Brazilian bees (of the superfamily Apoidea) have been cytogenetically studied, but only a few solitary species have been analyzed. One example is the genus Melitoma Lepeletier & Serville, 1828, for which there is no report in the literature with regard to cytogenetic studies. The objective of the present study is to analyze the chromosome number and morphology of the species Melitoma segmentaria (Fabricius, 1804), as well as to determine the pattern of heterochromatin distribution and identify the adenine–thymine (AT)- and guanine–cytosine (GC)-rich regions. Melitoma segmentaria presents chromosome numbers of 2n=30 (females) and n=15 (males). With C-banding, it is possible to classify the chromosomes into seven pseudo-acrocentric pairs (AM), seven pseudo-acrocentric pairs with interstitial heterochromatin (AMi), and one totally heterochromatic metacentric pair (Mh). Fluorochrome staining has revealed that heterochromatin present in the chromosomal arms is rich in GC base pairs (CMA3+) and the centromeric region is rich in AT base pairs (DAPI+). The composition found for Melitoma diverges from the pattern observed in other bees, in which the heterochromatin is usually rich in AT. In bees, few heterochromatic regions are rich in GC and these are usually associated with or localized close to the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). Silver nitrate impregnation marks the heterochromatin present in the chromosome arms, which makes identification of the NOR in the chromosomes impossible. As this technique reveals proteins in the NOR, the observation that is made in the present study suggests that the proteins found in the heterochromatin are qualitatively similar to those in the NOR. PMID:25349673

  2. Occurrence of B chromosomes in Tetragonisca Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): A new contribution to the cytotaxonomy of the genus.

    PubMed

    Barth, Adriane; Fernandes, Anderson; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças; Costa, Marco Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Tetragonisca angustula and Tetragonisca fiebrigi have recently been listed as valid species. This study aimed to cytogenetically investigate both species, emphasizing the new registry of B chromosomes in the tribe Meliponini. We analyzed colonies of T. angustula and T. fiebrigi collected at Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, through conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding, and base-specific fluorochrome staining (CMA(3)/DAPI). T. angustula showed 2n = 34 chromosomes in females and n = 17 in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 34A(M). T. fiebrigi showed numeric variation, with chromosome number varying from 2n = 34 to 2n = 36 in females and from n = 17 to n = 18 in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 32A(M)+2A(Mc) and 2K = 32A(M)+2A(Mc) + 1 or 2 B-chromosomes. The B chromosomes are heterochromatic. In T. fiebrigi, the CMA(3)/DAPI staining revealed four chromosomes with a CMA(3) positive band. All individuals from the same colony showed the same number of B chromosomes. T. angustula and T. fiebrigi showed karyotype divergence, principally due to the presence of B chromosomes, which are found only in T. fiebrigi. Our data corroborate the status of valid species for both T. angustula and T. fiebrigi, as recently proposed. PMID:21637547

  3. Analysis of the intercaste transcriptional profile of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) by mRNA differential display.

    PubMed

    Siquieroli, Ana Carolina S; Vieira, Carlos U; Carvalho-Zilse, Gislene A; Goulart, Luiz R; Kerr, Warwick E; Bonetti, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    In colonies of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 workers can be found with four ganglion nerve cells, a morphological characteristic of the queen. It is hypothesized that these workers, called intercastes, or phenocopies, are phenotypically-like workers, but genotypically identical to queens due to this specific trait. Workers with the same number of ganglion as queens seem to be intercastes between queens and workers. Our objective was to analyze the mRNA pro files of workers, queens, and intercastes of M. scutellaris through DDRT-PCR. Three hundred (300) pupae with white eyes were collected and externally identified according to the number of abdominal nerve ganglions: workers (5 ganglions), queens (4 ganglions) and intercastes (4 ganglions). The analysis identified differentially expressed transcripts that were present only in workers, but absent in intercastes and queens, confirming the hypothesis, by demonstrating the environmental effect on the queen genotype that generated phenotype-like workers. PMID:19621138

  4. Genetic variability in Melipona quinquefasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) from northeastern Brazil determined using the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1).

    PubMed

    Pereira, J O P; Freitas, B M; Jorge, D M M; Torres, D C; Soares, C E A; Grangeiro, T B

    2009-01-01

    Melipona quinquefasciata is a ground-nesting South American stingless bee whose geographic distribution was believed to comprise only the central and southern states of Brazil. We obtained partial sequences (about 500-570 bp) of first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) nuclear ribosomal DNA from Melipona specimens putatively identified as M. quinquefasciata collected from different localities in northeastern Brazil. To confirm the taxonomic identity of the northeastern samples, specimens from the state of Goiás (Central region of Brazil) were included for comparison. All sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession numbers EU073751-EU073759). The mean nucleotide divergence (excluding sites with insertions/deletions) in the ITS1 sequences was only 1.4%, ranging from 0 to 4.1%. When the sites with insertions/deletions were also taken into account, sequence divergences varied from 0 to 5.3%. In all pairwise comparisons, the ITS1 sequence from the specimens collected in Goiás was most divergent compared to the ITS1 sequences of the bees from the other locations. However, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis showed that all ITS1 sequences from northeastern specimens along with the sample of Goiás were resolved in a single clade with a bootstrap support of 100%. The ITS1 sequencing data thus support the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in northeast Brazil. PMID:19554762

  5. Effect of biotic factors on the spatial distribution of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini) in fragmented neotropical habitats.

    PubMed

    Fierro, M M; Cruz-López, L; Sánchez, D; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Vandame, R

    2012-04-01

    We recorded stingless bee colony abundance and nesting habits in three sites with different anthropogenic activities in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico: (1) agroforestry (7 hacacao crop), (2) grassland (12 ha), and (3) urban area (3 ha). A total of 67 nests were found, representing five stingless bee species, Tetragonisca angustula angustula (Lepeletier), Trigona fulviventris (Guérin), Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin), Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Dalla Torre), and Oxytrigona mediorufa (Cockerell). The most abundant stingless bee in each site was T. angustula angustula (>50%). The primary tree species used by the bees were Ficus spp. (Moraceae, 37.8%) and Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae, 13.5%). The nest entrance height of T. angustula angustula (96 ± 19 cm) was different than the other species, and this bee was the only one that used all different nesting sites. Volatiles analyzed by gas chromatography from pollen collected by the stingless bees differed between bee species, but were highly similar in respect to the fragrances of the pollen collected by the same species at any site. Our data indicate that T. angustula angustula experienced low heterospecific and high intraspecific foraging overlap especially in the urban site. We observed cluster spatial distribution in grassland and in agroforestry sites. In the urban site, T. angustula angustula presented random distribution tended to disperse. Trigona fulviventris was the only overdispersed and solitary species. PMID:23950022

  6. Production of workers, queens and males in Plebeia remota colonies (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini), a stingless bee with reproductive diapause.

    PubMed

    Alves, D A; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Santos-Filho, P S

    2009-01-01

    Queen, male and worker production was studied during one year in three Plebeia remota colonies from Atlantic Rainforest in Cunha, São Paulo State, and two from a subtropical Araucaria forest in Prudentópolis, Paraná State. All the colonies were kept in São Paulo city during our study. Plebeia remota has reproductive diapause during autumn and winter, which makes its biology of special interest. Brood production begins before spring, renewing the colony cycle. We sampled brood combs monthly in these five colonies. The number of cells in each comb varied significantly with time of the year; the smallest brood combs appear to be a consequence of reduced food availability. However, worker, queen and male frequencies did not differ significantly in time, and this presumably is due to the fact that they all are necessary for the growth, maintenance and reproduction of the colony. Although some molecular, morphological and behavioral differences have been detected in several studies comparing populations from Cunha and from Prudentópolis, we did not find significant differences between the colonies from these two localities in number of brood cells and worker, queen and male production. PMID:19554766

  7. Cobalt chloride induces metaphase when topically applied to larvae and pupae of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Ueira-Vieira, C; Tavares, R R; Morelli, S; Pereira, B B; Silva, R P; Torres-Mariano, A R; Kerr, W E; Bonetti, A M

    2013-01-01

    In order to optimize preparations of bee metaphases, we tested cobalt chloride, which has been used as a metaphase inducer in other organisms, such as hamsters and fish. Four microliters of 65 mM cobalt chloride aqueous solution was topically applied to larval and pupal stages of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. The cerebral ganglion was removed after treatment and prepared for cytogenetic analysis. Identically manipulated untreated individuals were used as controls. The number of metaphases was increased 3-fold in treated individuals compared to controls. The micronucleus test showed no mutagenic effects of cobalt chloride on M. scutellaris cells. We concluded that cobalt chloride is a metaphase-inducing agent in M. scutellaris, thus being useful for cytogenetic analyses. PMID:23420403

  8. Pollen foraging in colonies of Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): effects of season, colony size and queen number.

    PubMed

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size. PMID:19554765

  9. Description of two new cases of gynandromorphism in Paratrigona Schwarz and Augochlora Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae and Halictidae).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Leopoldo J; Lucia, Mariano; Ramello, Pablo J; Abrahamovich, Alberto H

    2014-01-01

    Two new records of gynandromorphism in bees are described and illustrated for Paratrigona glabella and Augochlora amphitrite. The specimens show a mixture of male and female features, complete in Augochlora and on head and mesosoma in Paratrigona. Including the specimen described herein, gynandromorphs are now known for a total of three species in Meliponini bees and three species in Augochlorini bees. PMID:25544279

  10. Evaluation of the RAPD profiles from different body parts of Euglossa pleosticta Dressler male bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Euglossina).

    PubMed

    Pascual, Amália N T; Suzuki, Karen M; Almeida, Fernanda S; Sodré, Leda M K; Sofia, Silvia H

    2006-01-01

    In the current literature, information is scarce on which part of the adult insect body is suitable for isolation of genomic DNA for genetic analysis based on DNA-markers. In this study, we evaluated RAPD profiles generated from total genomic DNA isolated from distinct body parts (head, legs, thorax + wings and abdomen) of 12 males of Euglossa pleosticta Dressler. From the total of bands analyzed, 9.0% did not show reproducibility. Percent variations of bands in each body segment were: 1.1% (head); 0.4% (legs); 0.8% (thorax/wings) and 6.7% (abdomen). The much higher variation (chi2(one sample) = 10.27; df = 1; P < 0.01) in the RAPD profiles obtained by using DNA isolated from abdomen of the euglossine males suggests that this body part of adult insects should be avoided in DNA extraction procedures. Conversely, the low variation among the RAPD profiles obtained from amplifications of genomic DNA extracted from head, legs and thorax/wings indicates that all these body parts of male bees are equally useful and secure for using in isolation and amplification procedures of total genomic DNA.

  11. Phenotypic and Genetic Analyses of the Varroa Sensitive Hygienic Trait in Russian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Kirrane, Maria J.; de Guzman, Lilia I.; Holloway, Beth; Frake, Amanda M.; Rinderer, Thomas E.; Whelan, Pádraig M.

    2015-01-01

    Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene, and more specific Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH), provide resistance towards the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, 32 Russian (RHB) and 14 Italian honey bee colonies were assessed for the VSH trait using two different assays. Firstly, colonies were assessed using the standard VSH behavioural assay of the change in infestation of a highly infested donor comb after a one-week exposure. Secondly, the same colonies were assessed using an “actual brood removal assay” that measured the removal of brood in a section created within the donor combs as a potential alternative measure of hygiene towards Varroa-infested brood. All colonies were then analysed for the recently discovered VSH quantitative trait locus (QTL) to determine whether the genetic mechanisms were similar across different stocks. Based on the two assays, RHB colonies were consistently more hygienic toward Varroa-infested brood than Italian honey bee colonies. The actual number of brood cells removed in the defined section was negatively correlated with the Varroa infestations of the colonies (r2 = 0.25). Only two (percentages of brood removed and reproductive foundress Varroa) out of nine phenotypic parameters showed significant associations with genotype distributions. However, the allele associated with each parameter was the opposite of that determined by VSH mapping. In this study, RHB colonies showed high levels of hygienic behaviour towards Varroa -infested brood. The genetic mechanisms are similar to those of the VSH stock, though the opposite allele associates in RHB, indicating a stable recombination event before the selection of the VSH stock. The measurement of brood removal is a simple, reliable alternative method of measuring hygienic behaviour towards Varroa mites, at least in RHB stock. PMID:25909856

  12. The orchid-bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of a forest remnant in the southern portion of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Santos Júnior, J E; Ferrari, R R; Nemésio, A

    2014-08-01

    The orchid-bee fauna of the region of Porto Velho, in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, close to the southernmost limits of the Amazon Basin, was surveyed for the first time using five different scents as baits to attract orchid-bee males. Five hundred and twenty-one males belonging to five genera and 29 species were collected with bait traps during 26 non-consecutive days from November, 2011 to January, 2012. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Eulaema meriana (Olivier, 1789) were the most common species in the region and, together, represented almost 50% of all collected bees. Although the observed richness conforms to similar inventories in the region, the diversity (H'= 2.43) found in the present study is one of the highest ever recorded for orchid bees in the Amazon Basin.

  13. Bombus huntii, Bombus impatiens, and Bombus vosnesenskii (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Pollinate Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Strange, James P

    2015-06-01

    Bumble bees (Bombus) are the primary pollinators of tomatoes grown in greenhouses and can significantly increase fruit weight compared with tomatoes that receive no supplemental pollination. More than a million colonies are sold worldwide annually to meet pollination needs. Due to mounting concerns over the transportation of bumble bees outside of their native ranges, several species native to western North American are currently being investigated as potential commercial pollinators. Here, two western, Bombus huntii Greene and Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski, and one eastern species, Bombus impatiens Cresson, are compared for their efficacy as pollinators of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. In two experiments, colonies were placed in greenhouses and compared with control plants that received no supplemental pollination. In the first experiment, seed set was significantly increased with B. huntii pollination in one variety of cherry tomatoes. In the second experiment comparing all three bumble bee species, fruit weight was an average of 25.2 g heavier per fruit pollinated by bees versus the control, and the number of days to harvest was 2.9 d shorter for bee-pollinated fruit. In some rounds of pollination, differences were found among bumble bee species, but these were inconsistent across replicates and not statistically significant overall. Additionally, fruit weight was shown to be highly correlated to fruit diameter and seed set in all tests and, thus, is shown to be a reliable metric for assessing pollination in future studies. These results suggest that commercialization of western bumble bees is a viable alternative to the current practices of moving of nonnative bees into western North America to pollinate tomatoes.

  14. Evidence for Bombus occidentalis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Populations in the Olympic Peninsula, the Palouse Prairie, and Forests of Northern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Paul R; Koch, Jonathan B; Waits, Lisette P; Strange, James P; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, Bombus occidentalis (Green) has declined from being one of the most common to one of the rarest bumble bee species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Although its conservation status is unresolved, a petition to list this species as endangered or threatened was recently submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To shed light on the conservation situation and inform the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service decision, we report on the detection and abundance of B. occidentalis following bumble bee collection between 2012 and 2014 across the Pacific Northwest. Collection occurred from the San Juan Islands and Olympic peninsula east to northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon, excluding the arid region in central Washington. B. occidentalis was observed at 23 collection sites out of a total of 234. With the exception of three sites on the Olympic peninsula, all of these were in the southeastern portion of the collection range.

  15. Visual targeting of components of floral colour patterns in flower-naïve bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris; Apidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunau, Klaus; Fieselmann, Gabriele; Heuschen, Britta; van de Loo, Antje

    2006-07-01

    Floral colour patterns are contrasting colour patches on flowers, a part of the signalling apparatus that was considered to display shape and colour signals used by flower-visitors to detect flowers and locate the site of floral reward. Here, we show that flower-naïve bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris) spontaneously direct their approach towards the outside margin of artificial flowers, which provides contrast between these dummy flowers and the background. If no floral guides are present, the bumblebees continue to approach the margin and finally touch the marginal area of the dummy flower with the tips of their antennae. Whilst approaching dummy flowers that also have a central floral guide, the bumblebees change their direction of flight: Initially, they approach the margin, later they switch to approaching the colour guide, and finally they precisely touch the floral guide with their antennae. Variation of the shape of equally sized dummy flowers did not alter the bumblebees’ preferential orientation towards the guide. Using reciprocal combinations of guide colour and surrounding colour, we showed that the approach from a distance towards the corolla and the antennal contact with the guide are elicited by the same colour parameter: spectral purity. As a consequence, the dummy flowers eliciting the greatest frequency of antennal reactions at the guide are those that combine a floral guide of high spectral purity with a corolla of less spectral purity. Our results support the hypothesis that floral guides direct bumblebees’ approaches to the site of first contact with the flower, which is achieved by the tips of the antennae.

  16. Exposure Effects on the Productivity of Commercial Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Quads During Bloom in Watermelon Fields.

    PubMed

    Marchese, J I; Johnson, G J; Delaney, D A

    2015-08-01

    In light of population declines of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), research has refocused attention on alternative pollinators and their potential to fulfill pollination services within economically important agricultural crops. Bumble bees are one such alternative, and within the past 20 yr, these pollinators have been reared and sold as commercial pollinators. Investigation into their use has been limited and more research is needed to improve pollinator effectiveness in field settings. Quad pollination units of the commercially reared native bumble bee species, the common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson), were monitored and evaluated for productivity during peak watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura & Nakai] bloom in southern Delaware. Differing colony exposures including various shade structure designs and natural shade were compared to assess the quality of the shade in regards to bumble bee activity during watermelon bloom. Quads receiving different nest treatments were evaluated on the basis of foraging activity and colony weight gain. Results indicated that colonies within quads provided with artificial or natural shade had significantly more foraging activity, weighed more, and produced more cells than colonies in quads placed in the field with no shade. Colonies within quads provided with artificial and natural shade peaked later in terms of foraging and weight gain, suggesting that growers could extend harvest to take advantage of later markets and possible movement into fields that were planted later.

  17. [Mechanism of population density compensation in island bumblebee taxocenoses (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) and the notion of reserve compensatory species].

    PubMed

    Bolotov, I N; Kolosova, Iu S; Podbolotskaia, M V; Potapov, G S; Grishchenko, I V

    2013-01-01

    The notion of a dynamic compensatory system is discussed, characterized by the alternation of species occupying the leading position in bumblebee taxocenoses, while the total density of these pollinators in island ecosystems remains at similar levels. The functioning of the compensatory system is regulated by both abiotic factors (the weather and climate) and biotic factors (competition for trophic resources). The stability of the system is determined by the presence of reserve compensatory species capable of rapid population growth against the background of depressed abundance of other species under changing environmental conditions.

  18. Density and Distribution of Xylocopa Nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Caatinga Areas in the Surroundings of Passion Fruit Crops.

    PubMed

    Martins, C F; de Siqueira, K M M; Kiill, L H P; Sá, I I S; Aguiar, C M L

    2014-08-01

    Due to their importance as pollinators of many plant species, this study aimed to know the nest density, spatial distribution, and nesting substrates used by Xylocopa species in the Caatinga, a xerophilous vegetation of Northeastern Brazil. Three areas of Caatinga in the surroundings of passion fruit crops were sampled. The bee species found in these areas were Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier). All nests were in Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) trees (n = 113). Phytosociological analysis showed that this tree species presented the highest absolute density (212.5 individuals/ha) and index of importance value (52.7). The distribution pattern of the C. leptophloeos was aggregated. The nests were located in dead and dried branches with an average diameter of 5.3 ± 2.0 cm (n = 43). The mean number of nests/tree was 3.1 ± 2.8 (n = 113). The less disturbed area showed 6.7 nests/ha and 4.2 nests/tree. In the disturbed areas, 0.9 nests/ha and 2.4 to 2.7 nests/tree were observed. The availability of substrate for nesting in the studied areas and its importance as a limiting factor for nesting are discussed.

  19. Evidence for Bombus occidentalis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Populations in the Olympic Peninsula, the Palouse Prairie, and Forests of Northern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Paul R; Koch, Jonathan B; Waits, Lisette P; Strange, James P; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, Bombus occidentalis (Green) has declined from being one of the most common to one of the rarest bumble bee species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Although its conservation status is unresolved, a petition to list this species as endangered or threatened was recently submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To shed light on the conservation situation and inform the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service decision, we report on the detection and abundance of B. occidentalis following bumble bee collection between 2012 and 2014 across the Pacific Northwest. Collection occurred from the San Juan Islands and Olympic peninsula east to northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon, excluding the arid region in central Washington. B. occidentalis was observed at 23 collection sites out of a total of 234. With the exception of three sites on the Olympic peninsula, all of these were in the southeastern portion of the collection range. PMID:26856817

  20. Behavioral response of two species of stingless bees and the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to GF-120.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Escobar, Enoc; Liedo, Pablo; Montoya, Pablo; Vandame, Rémy; Sánchez, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of evaluating the response of three species of bees, Trigona fulviventris (Guérin), Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville), and Apis mellifera (L.), to food sources baited with the toxic bait GF-120 (NF Naturalyte), a spinosad-based bait exclusively used to manage fruit flies. Groups of foragers were trained to collect honey and water from a feeder located 50 m from the colonies. Once a sufficient number of foragers were observed at the experimental location, the training feeder was changed to two or three feeders that offered either honey and water, GF-120, Captor (hydrolyzed protein), GF-120 and honey (4:6), or Captor and honey (1:19). T fulviventris and S. mexicana rarely visited GF-120, Captor, or their mixtures with honey, while approximately 28.5 and 1.5% of A. mellifera foragers visited the GF-120 and honey and Captor and honey mixtures, respectively. Our results show that GF-120 clearly repels T. fulviventris and S. mexicana, whereas for A. mellifera, repellence is not as marked when GF-120 is combined with highly nutritious substances like honey.

  1. The effects of Bt Cry1Ie toxin on bacterial diversity in the midgut of Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hui-Ru; Geng, Li-Li; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Qiang; Diao, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Ting; Dai, Ping-Li

    2016-01-01

    The honey bee has been regarded as a key species in the environmental risk assessment of biotech crops. Here, the potential adverse effects of Cry1Ie toxin on the midgut bacteria of the worker bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Newly emerged bees were fed with different concentrations of Cry1Ie toxin syrups (20 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL, and 20 μg/mL), pure sugar syrup, and 48 ppb of imidacloprid syrups, then sampled after 15 and 30 d. We characterized the dominant midgut bacteria and compared the composition and structure of the midgut bacterial community in all samples using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V3–V4 regions of 16S rDNA. No significant differences in the diversity of the midgut bacteria were observed between the five treatments. This work was the first to show the effects of Cry1Ie toxin on honey bees, and our study provided a theoretical basis for the biosafety assessment of transgenic Cry1Ie maize. PMID:27090812

  2. Analysis of pollen and nectar of Arbutus unedo as a food source for Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Rasmont, Pierre; Regali, Ariane; Ings, Thomas C; Lognay, Georges; Baudart, Evelyne; Marlier, Michel; Delcarte, Emile; Viville, Pascal; Marot, Cécile; Falmagne, Pol; Verhaeghe, Jean-Claude; Chittka, Lars

    2005-06-01

    The mineral, total amino acid, and sterol compositions of pollen collected by Apis mellifera L. were compared with the pollen of a plant consumed by Bombus terrestris (L.): Arbutus unedo L. This plant provides the predominant food resource for the main autumn generation of B. terrestris in southern France. Honey bees also forage on this plant, although only for nectar. The mineral composition of 30 pollen samples collected by honey bees is close to the presently known requirements of A. mellifera, except for Cu and Mn, which are substantially lower. The total amino acid mean composition of a set of 54 pollen samples fits the basic requirements of honey bees except for valine, isoleucine, and methionine, which are present in lower concentrations in all the samples. For pollen of A. unedo, the amino acid balance is not very different from that of the survey. The main sterolic component in pollen of A. unedo, beta-sitosterol, is known to have antifeedant effects on A. mellifera. Honey bees cannot dealkylate C29 sterols like beta-sitosterol or delta5-avenasterol to obtain C27 cholesterol and ecdysteroids. Because these phytosterols as well as cholesterol are nearly absent from pollen of A. unedo, the metabolic capabilities of Apis seem unadapted to this plant. On the contrary, pollen of A. unedo is freely consumed by B. terrestris, which develops huge autumn populations solely on this food. These data indicate that the sterolic metabolisms of B. terrestris and A. mellifera differ, allowing separation in foraging activity. PMID:16022289

  3. South American native bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) infected by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), an emerging pathogen of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Plischuk, Santiago; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Prieto, Lourdes; Lucía, Mariano; Botías, Cristina; Meana, Aránzazu; Abrahamovich, Alberto H; Lange, Carlos; Higes, Mariano

    2009-04-01

    As pollination is a critical process in both human-managed and natural terrestrial ecosystems, pollinators provide essential services to both nature and humans. Pollination is mainly due to the action of different insects, such as the bumblebee and the honeybee. These important ecological and economic roles have led to widespread concern over the recent decline in pollinator populations that has been detected in many regions of the world. While this decline has been attributed in some cases to changes in the use of agricultural land, the effects of parasites could play a significant role in the reduction of these populations. For the first time, we describe here the presence of Nosema ceranae, an emerging honeybee pathogen, in three species of Argentine native bumblebees. A total of 455 bumblebees belonging to six species of genus Bombus were examined. PCR results showed that three of the species are positive to N. ceranae (Bombus atratus, Bombus morio and Bombus bellicosus). We discuss the appearance of this pathogen in the context of the population decline of this pollinators. PMID:23765744

  4. A new species of Tropidopedia from the Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with a revised phylogenetic overview of the genus.

    PubMed

    Mahlmann, Thiago; De Oliveira, Marcio L

    2015-10-15

    We describe a new species of the bee tribe Tapinotaspidini, Tropidopedia guaranae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n. from the Amazon rainforest, Amazonas, Brazil. We emend the phylogenetic tree of Aguiar & Melo (2007) to include the new species and comment upon some characters presented by those authors.

  5. Bombus huntii, Bombus impatiens and Bombus vosnesenskii (Hymenoptera: Apidae) pollinate greenhouse-grown tomatoes in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bumble bees (Bombus) are the primary pollinators of tomatoes grown in greenhouses and can significantly increase fruit weight compared to tomatoes that receive no supplemental pollination. Due to mounting concerns over the transportation of bumble bees outside of their native ranges, several specie...

  6. The near complete mitochondrial genome of the Giant honey bee, Apis dorsata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae) and its phylogenetic status.

    PubMed

    Chhakchhuak, Liansangmawii; De Mandal, Surajit; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In this report, we sequenced and characterized the near complete mitochondrial genome of Apis dorsata collected from Mizoram, India. For sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome, Illumina NextSeq500 platform was used. The near complete mitochondrial genome was assembled to be 15 076 bplong and contains the same gene order as the other honey bees. The assembly contains 13 protein coding genes, 21 transfer RNA, 2 ribosomal RNA and a partial control (A + T-rich) region estimated to be 75 bp. This is the first near complete sequenced mitochondrial genome from the giant honeybee A. dorsata which will benefit future genomics studies for understanding the phylogenetic relationship within the bee family. PMID:26186304

  7. [Effect of landscape change on the structure of the sting-less bee community (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Meta, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Palacios, Eliana; Parra-H, Alejandro

    2008-09-01

    Stingless bees represent one of the most diversified components of the natural Apoidea fauna of pollinators in the tropics. They use diverse kinds of substrates and inhabit varied habitats. Some species are typical for some natural either artificial place. The landscape alteration were this group of bees nests, has and important impact on the natural composition of its community structure, fact which is reflected in the nest density. We analyzed the structure composition of the stingless bees' community in three environments in the Colombian Ilanos piedmont, an important region that represents the transition between Andean ecosystems and a savannah that is seriously threatened by cattle practices. We made systematic samples in secondary forest, agro-ecosystems and urban areas, recording the presence of 204 nests from 11 genera (24 species). The nest density per landscape was heterogeneous and never higher than 16 nests/Ha. We observed two nesting patterns and an effect of sampling criterion on the measured biodiversity. PMID:19419046

  8. Ribosomal protein L11 is related to brain maturation during the adult phase in Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Lu, Wenjing; Yu, Feifei; Kang, Mingjiang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2012-05-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) play pivotal roles in developmental regulation. The loss or mutation of ribosomal protein L11 ( RPL11) induces various developmental defects. However, few RPs have been functionally characterized in Apis cerana cerana. In this study, we isolated a single copy gene, AccRPL11, and characterized its connection to brain maturation. AccRPL11 expression was highly concentrated in the adult brain and was significantly induced by abiotic stresses such as pesticides and heavy metals. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that AccRPL11 was localized to the medulla, lobula and surrounding tissues of esophagus in the brain. The post-transcriptional knockdown of AccRPL11 gene expression resulted in a severe decrease in adult brain than in other tissues. The expression levels of other brain development-related genes, p38, ERK2, CacyBP and CREB, were also reduced. Immunofluorescence signal attenuation was also observed in AccRPL11-rich regions of the brain in ds AccRPL11-injected honeybees. Taken together, these results suggest that AccRPL11 may be functional in brain maturation in honeybee adults.

  9. Inheritance of resistance to Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in first-generation crosses of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Danka, R G; Villa, J D

    2000-12-01

    The tendency of honey bees, Apis mellifera L, to become infested with tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie), was measured in six different types of F1 colonies. The colonies were produced by mating a stock (Buckfast) known to resist mite infestation to each of five commercially available stocks and to a stock known to be susceptible to mites. Young uninfested bees from progeny and parent colonies were simultaneously exposed to mites in infested colonies, then retrieved and dissected to determine resultant mite infestations. Reduced infestations similar to but numerically greater than those of the resistant parent bees occurred in each of the six crosses made with resistant bees regardless of the relative susceptibility of the other parental stock. Reciprocal crosses between resistant and susceptible queens and drones proved equally effective in improving resistance. Therefore, allowing resistant stock queens to mate naturally with unselected drones, or nonresistant queens to mate with drones produced by pure or outcrossed resistant queens, can be used for improving resistance of production queens. PMID:11142287

  10. Effects of high-voltage transmission lines on honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.; Bindokas, V.P.

    1981-04-01

    Data are reported on the effect of hive height and current distribution on honey bees hived under a 765 kV line (E-field ca. 7 kV/m). Hive height was standardized with adjustable collectors to 1 meter (59 ..mu..A total hive current) or 1.5 meter (85 ..mu..A) equivalents; controls were shielded. A 1.5 meter group with completely painted supers was included. After 8 or 16 weeks of exposure there was no effect on honey moisture content or weight of young workers in any group. Worker capped brood was not affected in 1 m hives but declined significantly in 1.5 m hives after 4 weeks of exposure and this was associated with queen loss, abnormal queen cell production, and colony failure. Weight gain was depressed in all hives after 2 weeks of exposure and was dose related, with the taller hives more severely affected. Only the exposed hives propolized entrances but the amount and time of onset were not dose related. The 1.5 m hives with painted interiors behaved like the 1 m hives with unpainted interiors in all respects, although their total hive current approximated the other group of 1.5 m hives. Reversal of treatments at midseason resulted in reversal of colony behavior, manifested most clearly with respect to hive weight, less with respect to brood. When first exposed, colonies exhibit pronounced but transient elevations in hive temperature. Bio-effects were more severe during the first period when hives had fewer bees. Total hive current was greater in wet than in dry periods. All these factors influence observed bioeffects.

  11. 40 CFR 180.1035 - Pine oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... formulation with the bee repellent butanoic anhydride applied in an absorbent pad over the hive. Pine oil is... formulation with the bee repellent butanoic anhydride applied in an absorbent pad over the hive....

  12. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhaled steroids. Omalizumab is also used to treat chronic hives without a known cause that cannot successfully be ... medical condition. When omalizumab is used to treat chronic hives, it is usually given once every 4 weeks. ...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1035 - Pine oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... formulation with the bee repellent butanoic anhydride applied in an absorbent pad over the hive. Pine oil is... formulation with the bee repellent butanoic anhydride applied in an absorbent pad over the hive....

  14. 40 CFR 180.1035 - Pine oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... formulation with the bee repellent butanoic anhydride applied in an absorbent pad over the hive. Pine oil is... formulation with the bee repellent butanoic anhydride applied in an absorbent pad over the hive....

  15. Foraging Allocation in the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Tuned by the Presence of the Spinosad-Based Pesticide GF-120.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Marín, N V; Liedo, P; Vandame, R; Sánchez, D

    2015-04-01

    Agroecosystem management commonly involves the use of pesticides. As a result, a heterogeneous landscape is created, in which suitable and unsuitable spaces are defined by the absence/presence of pesticides. In this study, we explored how foragers of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L., adapt to such context. We specifically evaluated the effect of GF-120, a spinosad-based fruit fly toxic bait, on the allocation of foragers between food sources under the hypothesis that foragers will move from food sources with GF-120 to food sources without it. We thus carried out three experiments: in experiment 1, a group of foragers was trained to collect honey solution from a feeder; next, this feeder offered a GF-120/honey solution. A minority of foragers continued collecting the GF-120/honey solution. In experiment 2, we trained two groups of foragers from a colony to two food sources equally rewarding. Next, GF-120 was added to one of the food sources. We found that the majority of foragers moved from the GF-120-treated feeder to the feeder without GF-120 and that the minority that continued visiting the GF-120-treated feeder did not collect the GF-120/honey solution. In a third experiment, we wanted to know if foragers in an experimental setup as in experiment 1 would perform waggle dances: none of the foragers that collected GF-120/honey were observed dancing. Our results emphasize the importance of "food refuges" for non-target species, since they minimize the impact of agrochemicals upon them. PMID:26013135

  16. Resistance to Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) when mite-resistant queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were free-mated with unselected drones.

    PubMed

    Harbo, J R; Harris, J W

    2001-12-01

    This study demonstrated (1) that honey bees, Apis mellifera L, can express a high level of resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman when bees were selected for only one resistant trait (suppression of mite reproduction); and (2) that a significant level of mite-resistance was retained when these queens were free-mated with unselected drones. The test compared the growth of mite populations in colonies of bees that each received one of the following queens: (1) resistant--queens selected for suppression of mite reproduction and artificially inseminated in Baton Rouge with drones from similarly selected stocks; (2) resistant x control--resistant queens, as above, produced and free-mated to unselected drones by one of four commercial queen producers; and (3) control--commercial queens chosen by the same four queen producers and free-mated as above. All colonies started the test with approximately 0.9 kg of bees that were naturally infested with approximately 650 mites. Colonies with resistant x control queens ended the 115-d test period with significantly fewer mites than did colonies with control queens. This suggests that beekeepers can derive immediate benefit from mite-resistant queens that have been free-mated to unselected drones. Moreover, the production and distribution of these free-mated queens from many commercial sources may be an effective way to insert beneficial genes into our commercial population of honey bees without losing the genetic diversity and the useful beekeeping characteristics of this population.

  17. Temporal and morphological differences in post-embryonic differentiation of the mushroom bodies in the brain of workers, queens, and drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Roat, Thaisa Cristina; da Cruz Landim, Carminda

    2008-12-01

    The mushroom bodies are structures present in the insect brain described as centers for the neural basis of learning, memory, and other higher functions. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are insects with a sophisticated system of spatial orientation and possess well-developed learning and memory capabilities, which are associated with neural and brain structures. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the mushroom bodies during post-embryonic development and in newly emerged males, workers, and queens using light and transmission electron microscopy to examine how differential morphological characteristics are established during development. Measurements of structures were also taken in several post-embryonic developmental phases in order to evaluate size differences during the process and in the adult organs. The results show that workers, queens, and males exhibit temporal and size differences during the post-embryonic development of mushroom bodies, probably as adaptations to differences in behavior complexity. The mushroom bodies of workers are precociously formed and are larger than those of queens and drones. Thus, workers have the largest mushroom bodies resulting from differential development during metamorphosis.

  18. Evaluation of drone brood removal for management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Calderone, N W

    2005-06-01

    The efficacy of drone brood removal for the management of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in colonies of the honey bee, A. mellifera L., was evaluated. Colonies were treated with CheckMite+ in the fall of 2002. The following spring, quantities of bees and brood were equalized, but colonies were not retreated. The brood nest of each colony consisted of 18 full-depth worker combs and two full-depth drone combs. Each worker comb had <12.9 cm2 of drone cells. Standard management practices were used throughout the season. Colonies were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the control group, drone combs remained in place throughout the season. In the treatment group, drone combs were removed on 16 June, 16 July, 16 August, and 16 September and replaced with empty drone combs (16 June) or with drone combs removed on the previous replacement date. In the early fall, the average mite-to-bee ratio in the control group was significantly greater than the corresponding ratio in the treatment group. Drone brood removal did not adversely affect colony health as measured by the size of the worker population or by honey production. Fall worker populations were similar in the two groups. Honey production in treatment colonies was greater than or similar to production in control colonies. These data demonstrate that drone brood removal can serve as a valuable component in an integrated pest management program for V. destructor and may reduce the need for other treatments on a colony-by-colony basis.

  19. The effects of temperature and dose of formic acid on treatment efficacy against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), a parasite of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Underwood, Robyn M; Currie, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    In order to decrease the variability of formic acid treatments against the honey bee parasite the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman 2000), it is necessary to determine the dose-time combination that best controls mites without harming bees. The concentration x time (CT) product is a valuable tool for studying fumigants and how they might perform under various environmental conditions. This laboratory study is an assessment of the efficacy of formic acid against the varroa mite under a range of formic acid concentrations and temperatures. The objectives are 1) to determine the effect of temperature and dose of formic acid on worker honey bee and varroa mite survival, 2) to determine the CT50 products for both honey bees and varroa mites and 3) to determine the best temperature and dose to optimize selectivity of formic acid treatment for control of varroa mites. Worker honey bees and varroa mites were fumigated at 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, and 0.16 mg/L at 5, 15, 25, and 35 degrees C for 12 d. Mite and bee mortality were assessed at regular intervals. Both mite and bee survival were affected by formic acid dose. Doses of 0.08 and 0.16 mg/L were effective at killing mites at all temperatures tested above 5 degrees C. There was a significant interaction between temperature, dose, and species for the CT50 product. The difference between the CT50 product of bees and mites was significant at only a few temperature-dose combinations. CT product values showed that at most temperatures the greatest fumigation efficiency occurred at lower doses of formic acid. However, the best fumigation efficiency and selectivity combination for treatments occurred at a dose of 0.16 mg/L when the temperature was 35 degrees C. PMID:14635816

  20. Spray toxicity and risk potential of 42 commonly used formulations of row crop pesticides to adult honey bees (Hymenoptera:Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To combat an increasing abundance of sucking insect pests, more than 40 pesticides are currently recommended and frequently used as foliar sprays on row crops, especially cotton. Foraging honey bees may be killed when they are directly exposed to foliar sprays, or they may take contaminated pollen b...

  1. A review of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Townsendiella (Apidae, Nomadinae, Townsendiellini), with the description of a new species from Pinnacles National Park

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Michael C.; Griswold, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cleptoparasitic bee genus Townsendiella Crawford (Nomadinae, Townsendiellini) is a rare group restricted to the southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico, whose taxonomy and biology remain poorly known. This paper describes Townsendiella ensifera sp. n., the first known record of this genus from Pinnacles National Park. A key to the species of the genus is provided. Several potential areas of future research are also discussed. PMID:26798307

  2. [Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Drummont, Patrícia; Silva, Fabiana O da; Viana, Blandina F

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap-nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 degrees 01' W e 38 degrees 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased (chi2 = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cells partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n = 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants.

  3. Evaluation of drone brood removal for management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Calderone, N W

    2005-06-01

    The efficacy of drone brood removal for the management of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in colonies of the honey bee, A. mellifera L., was evaluated. Colonies were treated with CheckMite+ in the fall of 2002. The following spring, quantities of bees and brood were equalized, but colonies were not retreated. The brood nest of each colony consisted of 18 full-depth worker combs and two full-depth drone combs. Each worker comb had <12.9 cm2 of drone cells. Standard management practices were used throughout the season. Colonies were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the control group, drone combs remained in place throughout the season. In the treatment group, drone combs were removed on 16 June, 16 July, 16 August, and 16 September and replaced with empty drone combs (16 June) or with drone combs removed on the previous replacement date. In the early fall, the average mite-to-bee ratio in the control group was significantly greater than the corresponding ratio in the treatment group. Drone brood removal did not adversely affect colony health as measured by the size of the worker population or by honey production. Fall worker populations were similar in the two groups. Honey production in treatment colonies was greater than or similar to production in control colonies. These data demonstrate that drone brood removal can serve as a valuable component in an integrated pest management program for V. destructor and may reduce the need for other treatments on a colony-by-colony basis. PMID:16022287

  4. [Rediscovery of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the "Restinga" in the Nacional Park Lençóis Maranhenses, Barreirinhas, MA, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rêgo, Márcia; Albuquerque, Patrícia

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 95 years after the original description, a nest of Melipona subnitida Ducke was rediscovered in the state of Maranhão, in a restinga ecosystem of the Barreirinhas municipality, Northeastern Brazil. The voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of the "Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas" of the "Departamento de Biologia UFMA".

  5. The importance of odor in nest site selection by a lodger bee, Centris Bicornuta Mocsáry (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the dry forest of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vinson, S B; Frankie, G W; Rao, A

    2011-01-01

    The more common lodger bee occurring in the dry forest of Costa Rica, Centris bicornuta Muscáry), has been observed nesting in new nest cavities drilled into wooden blocks placed next to cavities used by another female within 2-3 days. In contrast, new nest cavities placed in similar areas with no nesting Centris nearby were not used for weeks. These observations suggest that the presence of nesting bees may play a role in nest site selection. To confirm our observations, new nest cavities were placed in areas with or without nesting. We found nest initiation in newly placed nest cavities only in areas where bees were actively nesting. To examine the possibility that nesting locations are not unique, we placed new nest cavities in new locations either with (a) a number of completed nest cavities or (b) placed alone. Within three days we only found bees nesting in the newly placed nest cavities in situation "a". The results suggested that odor might be involved. We next compared nesting in new cavities placed alone with cavities contaminated with either (a) nest entrance plug material, (b) nest nectar, (c) nest pollen or (d) a combination of pollen and nectar. Nesting was significantly low in cavities placed next to cavities with nest entrance plug material (a), and high in cavities placed next to cavities "b, c, or d". The results suggest that pollen and /or nectar odor play a role in the location of potential nest sites. PMID:21584397

  6. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used for western U.S. honey production and almond pollination.

    PubMed

    Rinderer, Tihomas E; Danka, Robert G; Johnson, Stephanie; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Frake, Amanda M; Villa, José D; De Guzman, Lilia I; Harris, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees and outcrossed honey bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were compared with control colonies of Italian honey bees. All colonies were managed without miticide treatments. In total, 185 and 175 colonies were established for trials in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, respectively. Survival of colonies with original queens or with supersedure queens was similar among stocks for both years. Colony sizes of the Varroa-resistant stocks were as large as or larger than the control colonies during periods critical to honey production and almond pollination. Honey production varied among stocks. In the first year, all stocks produced similar amounts of honey. In the second year, Russian honey bees colonies produced less honey than the control colonies. V. destructor infestations also varied among stocks. In the first year, control colonies had more infesting mites than either of the Varroa-resistant stocks, especially later in the year. In the second year, the control and outcrossed Varroa-sensitive hygiene colonies had high and damaging levels of infestation while the Russian honey bees colonies maintained lower levels of infestation. Infestations of Acarapis woodi (Rennie) were generally infrequent and low. All the stocks had similarly high Nosema ceranae infections in the spring and following winter of both years. Overall, the two Varroa-resistant stocks functioned adequately in this model beekeeping system.

  7. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology.

  8. Crop-emptying rate and the design of pesticide risk assessment schemes in the honey bee and wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Fournier, Alice; Rollin, Orianne; Le Féon, Violette; Decourtye, Axel; Henry, Mickaël

    2014-02-01

    Recent scientific literature and reports from official sanitary agencies have pointed out the deficiency of current pesticide risk assessment processes regarding sublethal effects on pollinators. Sublethal effects include troubles in learning performance, orientation skills, or mobility, with possible contribution to substantial dysfunction at population scale. However, the study of sublethal effects is currently limited by considerable knowledge gaps, particularly for the numerous pollinators other than the honey bee Apis mellifera L.--the traditional model for pesticide risk assessment in pollinators. Here, we propose to use the crop-emptying time as a rule of thumb to guide the design of oral exposure experiments in the honey bee and wild bees. The administration of contaminated sucrose solutions is typically followed by a fasting time lapse to allow complete assimilation before the behavioral tests. The fasting duration should at least encompass the crop-emptying time, because no absorption takes place in the crop. We assessed crop-emptying rate in fasted bees and how it relates 1) with sucrose solution concentration in the honey bee and 2) with body mass in wild bees. Fasting duration required for complete crop emptying in honey bees fed 20 microl of a 50% sucrose solution was nearly 2 h. Actual fasting durations are usually shorter in toxicological studies, suggesting incomplete crop emptying, and therefore partial assimilation of experimental solutions that could imply underestimation of sublethal effects. We also found faster crop-emptying rates in large wild bees compared with smaller wild bees, and suggest operative rules to adapt sublethal assessment schemes accordingly.

  9. Foraging behavior of honey bees (hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E.; Conner, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount of solar UV-B reaching the earth`s surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A new species of Centris (Xanthemisia) Moure, 1945 from South America with a synopsis of the known species of the subgenus in Colombia (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny; Fernández, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Xanthemisia Moure in Colombia is presented. The species identified are Centris ferruginea Lepeletier, C. lutea Friese and C. aureiventris, a new species from the Colombian Andes. Morphological characters of both sexes, distribution records and an identification key for the three species of the subgenus that occur in Colombia are provided.

  11. Two new species of Centris (Aphemisia) Ayala, 2002 from Colombia with a synopsis of the subgenus for the country (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny; Fernández, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Aphemisia Ayala in Colombia is presented. A total of six species were recognized: C. lilacina Cockerell, C. mocsaryi Friese, C. plumipes Smith and C. quadrimaculata Packard, including C. celadonia n. sp. and C. vallecaucensis n. sp., two new species described from the Departments of Huila and Valle del Cauca, respectively. Diagnoses, descriptions, information on geographical distribution and an identification key to all species are provided. The previously unknown male of C. plumipes is described for the first time.

  12. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Wanderley, Paulo A; Wanderley, Maria J A; Silva, José C R; Michaluk, Lynnette M

    2007-01-01

    It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50% were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior.

  13. Associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Russian and Italian honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies.

    PubMed

    Rinderer, Thomas E; De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M

    2013-04-01

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Truman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite populations and mite fall in colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees using 29 candidate measurements. Measurements included damaged and nondamaged younger mites, damaged and nondamaged older mites, fresh mites and all mites, each as a proportion of total mites in the colonies and as a proportion of all trapped mites or all trapped fresh mites. Regression analyses were used to determine the relationships of these candidate measurements to the number of mites in the colonies. The largest positive regressions were found for trapped younger mites (Y) and trapped fresh mites (F). Measurments of Y and F across time could be used to estimate mite population growth for the purposes of selective breeding. The largest negative regressions with colony mites were observed for: trapped older mites/trapped mites (O/T), trapped older mites/trapped younger mites (O/Y), and trapped injured older mites/injured mites (IO/I). O/T and O/Y are significantly higher for Russian honey bee colonies suggesting that they are related to at least some of the mechanisms used by Russian honey bee to resist Varroa population growth. O/T and O/Y have strong negative relationships with colony mites for both Russian honey bee and Italian colonies suggesting that both strains possibly could be selected for reduced colony mites using O/T or O/Y.

  14. Genetic characterization of the mite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) collected from honey bees Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Strapazzon, R; Carneiro, F E; Guerra, J C V; Moretto, G

    2009-08-18

    The mite Varroa destructor is an ectoparasite that is considered a major pest for beekeeping with European honey bees. However, Africanized bee colonies are less threatened by this ectoparasite, because infestation levels remain low in these bees. The low reproductive ability of female mites of the Japanese biotype (J), introduced to Brazil early in the 1970s was initially considered the main factor for the lack of virulence of this parasite on Africanized bees. In other regions of the world where the Korean (K) biotype of this mite was introduced, there have been serious problems with Varroa due to the high reproductive potential of the mite. However, a significant increase in the reproductive rate of females of Varroa in Brazil has been recently demonstrated; the cause could be a change in the type of Varroa in the bee colonies. We evaluated the prevalence of haplotypes J and K in mite samples collected from the State of Santa Catarina and from the island of Fernando de Noronha in the State of Pernambuco. The analysis of the mitochondrial genome (PCR + RFLP) revealed haplotype K in all samples from Santa Catarina and haplotype J in all samples from Fernando de Noronha. The analysis of microsatellites (nuclear genome) in bees from Fernando de Noronha showed only the specific alleles of haplotype J, while in bees from Santa Catarina, these alleles were found in only 2.8% of the samples. The high frequency of individuals with Korean genetic material is probably to the reason for the current high reproductive capacity of the mite V. destructor recorded in Santa Catarina.

  15. Functionality of Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) When Used for Western U.S. Honey Production and Almond Pollination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, USA, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed honey bees with...

  16. Laboratory study on the effects of temperature and three ventilation rates on infestations of Varroa destructor in clusters of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Kozak, Paul R; Currie, Robert W

    2011-12-01

    In this study, reduced levels of ventilation were applied to small clusters of bees under controlled conditions to determine whether lowered ventilation rates and the resulting increased levels of CO2 could increase the mortality rates of varroa. Two experiments were performed at two different temperatures (10 degrees C and 25 degrees C). Both experiments compared varroa mortality among high (360 liters/h), medium (42.5 liters/h), and low (14 liters/h) rates of ventilation. The clusters of bees (approximately 300 worker bees) in bioassay cages with 40 introduced varroa mites were placed into self-contained glass chambers and were randomly assigned to one of the three ventilation treatments within incubators set at either of the two temperatures. Bee and varroa mortality and the levels of CO2 concentration were measured in each of the experimental chambers. In both experiments, CO2 levels within the chamber increased, with a decrease in ventilation with CO2 reaching a maximum of 1.2 +/- 0.45% at 10 degrees C and 2.13 +/- 0.2% at 25 degrees C under low ventilation. At high ventilation rates, CO2 concentration in chamber air was similar at 10 degrees C (1.1 +/- 1.5%) and 25 degrees C (1.9 +/- 1.1%). Both humidity and CO2 concentration were higher at 25 degrees C than at 10 degrees C. Bee mortality was similar within all ventilation rate treatments at either 10 degrees C (11.5 +/- 2.7-19.3 +/- 3.8%) or 25 degrees C (15.2 +/- 1.9-20.7 +/- 3.5%). At 10 degrees C, varroa mortality (percentage dead) was greatest in the high ventilation treatment (12.2 +/- 2.1%), but only slightly higher than under low (3.7 +/- 1.7%) and medium ventilation (4.9 +/- 1.6%). At 25 degrees C, varroa mortality was greatest under low ventilation at 46.12 +/- 7.7% and significantly greater than at either medium (29.7 +/- 7.4%) or low ventilation (9.5 +/- 1.6.1%). This study demonstrates that at 25 degrees C, restricted ventilation, resulting in high levels of CO2 in the surrounding environment of small clusters of honey bees, has the potential to substantially increase varroa mortality.

  17. Autumn invasion rates of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) into honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and the resulting increase in mite populations.

    PubMed

    Frey, Eva; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The honey bee parasite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman can disperse and invade honey bee colonies by attaching to "drifting" and "robbing" honey bees that move into nonnatal colonies. We quantified the weekly invasion rates and the subsequent mite population growth from the end of July to November 2011 in 28 honey bee colonies kept in two apiaries that had high (HBD) and low (LBD) densities of neighboring colonies. At each apiary, half (seven) of the colonies were continuously treated with acaricides to kill all Varroa mites and thereby determine the invasion rates. The other group of colonies was only treated before the beginning of the experiment and then left untreated to record Varroa population growth until a final treatment in November. The numbers of bees and brood cells of all colonies were estimated according to the Liebefeld evaluation method. The invasion rates varied among individual colonies but revealed highly significant differences between the study sites. The average invasion rate per colony over the entire 3.5-mo period ranged from 266 to 1,171 mites at the HBD site compared with only 72 to 248 mites at the LBD apiary. In the untreated colonies, the Varroa population reached an average final infestation in November of 2,082 mites per colony (HBD) and 340 mites per colony (LBD). All colonies survived the winter; however, the higher infested colonies lost about three times more bees compared with the lower infested colonies. Therefore, mite invasion and late-year population growth must be considered more carefully for future treatment concepts in temperate regions.

  18. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors.

  19. Evaluation of Mite-Away-II for fall control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Calderone, Nicholas W

    2010-02-01

    Mite-Away II, a recently-registered product with a proprietary formulation of formic acid, was evaluated under field conditions in commercial apiaries in upstate New York (USA) for the fall control of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Ambient temperatures during the treatment period were in the lower half of the range recommended on the label, but were typical for early fall in upstate New York. Average mite mortality was 60.2 +/- 2.2% in the Mite-Away II group and 23.3 +/- 2.6% in the untreated control group. These means were significantly different from each other, but the level of control was only moderate. These results demonstrate that Mite-Away II may not always provide an adequate level of control even when the temperature at the time of application falls within the recommended range stated on the product's label. To make the best use of temperature-sensitive products, I suggest that the current, single-value, economic treatment threshold be replaced with an economic treatment range. The limits for this range are specified by two pest density values. The lower limit is the usual pest density that triggers a treatment. The upper limit is the maximum pest density that one can expect to reduce to a level below the lower limit given the temperatures expected during the treatment period. When the actual pest density exceeds the upper limit, the product should not be recommended; or, a warning should be included indicating that acceptable control may not be achieved.

  20. The high-throughput production of dsRNA against sacbrood virus for use in the honey bee Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqing; Zhang, Yi; Han, Richou

    2016-10-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is a serious threat to honey bees. Currently, there is no specific drug available for the treatment of SBV that does not affect the quality of the bee product. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral strategy for disease control. To effectively utilize this technology, the large-scale production and purification of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is necessary. Here, a dsRNA-expressing plasmid targeting the VP1 gene of Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) HT115 (DE3). After lysing and ethanol precipitation from E. coli, dsRNA VP1 was purified with an anion exchange chromatography column. Second instar larvae of Apis cerana were fed the purified dsRNA VP1. A significant decrease in larval mortality and the level of expression of the VP1 gene after CSBV infection was demonstrated after the ingestion of dsRNA VP1. This result provides a potential method for the large-scale production of dsRNA to protect A. cerana from CSBV infection. PMID:27139728

  1. An Evaluation of the Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Safety Profile of a New Systemic Insecticide, Flupyradifurone, Under Field Conditions in Florida.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joshua W; Cabrera, Ana R; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Ellis, James D

    2016-10-01

    Flupyradifurone (Sivanto) is a novel systemic insecticide from the butenolide class developed by Bayer. Based on available data (USEPA 2014), this insecticide appears to have a favorable safety profile for honey bee colonies. As a result, the label permits the product to be applied during prebloom and bloom in various crops, including citrus, except when mixed with azole fungicides during the blooming period. We placed 24 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies adjacent to eight flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) fields that either had been sprayed with the maximum label rate of flupyradifurone or with water only (control fields), with three colonies placed adjacent to each field. We conducted colony strength assessments during which the number of adult bees, eggs, uncapped brood cells, capped brood cells, food storage cells, and weights of honey supers and brood chambers were determined prior to, during, and after the flowering period. We also analyzed bee-collected pollen and nectar for flupyradifurone residues. Overall, there were no differences in any colony strength parameter for colonies placed at control and flupyradifurone-treated buckwheat fields. Residue analyses showed that pollen (x =  565.8 ppb) and nectar (x  =  259.4 ppb) gathered by bees on fields treated with flupyradifurone contained significantly higher flupyradifurone residues than did bee bread and unprocessed nectar collected by bees from control fields (75% of samples 

  2. An Evaluation of the Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Safety Profile of a New Systemic Insecticide, Flupyradifurone, Under Field Conditions in Florida.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joshua W; Cabrera, Ana R; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Ellis, James D

    2016-10-01

    Flupyradifurone (Sivanto) is a novel systemic insecticide from the butenolide class developed by Bayer. Based on available data (USEPA 2014), this insecticide appears to have a favorable safety profile for honey bee colonies. As a result, the label permits the product to be applied during prebloom and bloom in various crops, including citrus, except when mixed with azole fungicides during the blooming period. We placed 24 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies adjacent to eight flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) fields that either had been sprayed with the maximum label rate of flupyradifurone or with water only (control fields), with three colonies placed adjacent to each field. We conducted colony strength assessments during which the number of adult bees, eggs, uncapped brood cells, capped brood cells, food storage cells, and weights of honey supers and brood chambers were determined prior to, during, and after the flowering period. We also analyzed bee-collected pollen and nectar for flupyradifurone residues. Overall, there were no differences in any colony strength parameter for colonies placed at control and flupyradifurone-treated buckwheat fields. Residue analyses showed that pollen (x =  565.8 ppb) and nectar (x  =  259.4 ppb) gathered by bees on fields treated with flupyradifurone contained significantly higher flupyradifurone residues than did bee bread and unprocessed nectar collected by bees from control fields (75% of samples 

  3. Two new species of Centris (Aphemisia) Ayala, 2002 from Colombia with a synopsis of the subgenus for the country (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny; Fernández, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Aphemisia Ayala in Colombia is presented. A total of six species were recognized: C. lilacina Cockerell, C. mocsaryi Friese, C. plumipes Smith and C. quadrimaculata Packard, including C. celadonia n. sp. and C. vallecaucensis n. sp., two new species described from the Departments of Huila and Valle del Cauca, respectively. Diagnoses, descriptions, information on geographical distribution and an identification key to all species are provided. The previously unknown male of C. plumipes is described for the first time. PMID:27394490

  4. Associations of Parameters Related to the Fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Russian and Italian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Truman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite populations and mite fall in colonies of Russian (RHB) and Italian (I) honey bees using 29 candidate measurements. Measurements included damaged and non-damaged younger mites, damag...

  5. Molecular characterization of the gene feminizer in the stingless bee Melipona interrupta (Hymenoptera: Apidae) reveals association to sex and caste development.

    PubMed

    Brito, Diana V; Silva, Carlos Gustavo N; Hasselmann, Martin; Viana, Luciana S; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Carvalho-Zilse, Gislene A

    2015-11-01

    In highly eusocial insects, development of reproductive traits are regulated not only by sex determination pathway, but it also depends on caste fate. The molecular basis of both mechanisms in stingless bees and possible interaction with each other is still obscure. Here, we investigate sex determination in Melipona interrupta, focusing on characterization and expression analysis of the feminizer gene (Mi-fem), and its association to a major component of caste determination, the juvenile hormone (JH). We present evidence that Mi-fem mRNA is sex-specifically spliced in which only the female splice variant encodes the full length protein, following the same principle known for other bee species. We quantified Mi-fem expression among developmental stages, sexes and castes. Mi-fem expression varies considerably throughout development, with higher expression levels in embryos. Also, fem levels in pupae and newly emerged adults were significantly higher in queens than workers and males. Finally, we ectopically applied JH in cocoon spinning larvae, which correspond to the time window where queen/worker phenotypes diverge. We observed a significantly increase in Mi-fem expression compared to control groups. Since up to 100% of females turn into queens when treated with JH (while control groups are composed mainly of workers), we propose that fem might act to regulate queens' development. Our findings provide support for the conserved regulatory function of fem in Melipona bees and demonstrate a significant correlation between key elements of sex and caste determination pathways, opening the avenue to further investigate the molecular basis of these complex traits.

  6. Effects of western honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony, cell type, and larval sex on host acquisition by female Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    Calderone, N W; Kuenen, L P

    2001-10-01

    Female mites of the genus Varroa reproduce on the immature stages of Apis cerana F. and A. mellifera L. Mites are found more often in drone brood than worker brood, and while evolutionary explanations for this bias are well supported, the proximate mechanisms are not known. In one experiment, we verified that the proportion of hosts with one or more mites (MPV, mite prevalence value) was significantly greater for drones (0.763 +/- 0.043) (lsmean +/- SE) than for workers (0.253 +/- 0.043) in populations of mites and bees in the United States. Similar results were found for the average number of mites per host. In a second experiment, using a cross-fostering technique in which worker and drone larvae were reared in both worker and drone cells, we found that cell type, larval sex, colony and all interactions affected the level of mites on a host. Mite prevalence values were greatest in drone larvae reared in drone cells (0.907 +/- 0.025), followed by drone larvae reared in worker cells (0.751 +/- 0.025), worker larvae reared in worker cells (0.499 +/- 0.025), and worker larvae reared in drone cells (0.383 +/- 0.025). Similar results were found for the average number of mites per host. Our data show that mite levels are affected by environmental factors (cell type), by factors intrinsic to the host (sex), and by interactions between these factors. In addition, colony-to-colony variation is important to the expression of intrinsic and environmental factors.

  7. Spore Loads May Not be Used Alone as a Direct Indicator of the Severity of Nosema ceranae Infection in Honey Bees Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera:Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huo-Qing; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Huang, Shao-Kang; Sohr, Alex; Wu, Lyman; Chen, Yan Ping

    2014-12-01

    Nosema ceranae Fries et al., 1996, a microsporidian parasite recently transferred from Asian honey bees Apis cerana F., 1793, to European honey bees Apis mellifera L., 1758, has been suspected as one of the major culprits of the worldwide honey bee colony losses. Spore load is a commonly used criterion to describe the intensity of Nosema infection. In this study, by providing Nosema-infected bees with sterilized pollen, we confirmed that pollen feeding increased the spore loads of honey bees by several times either in the presence or absence of a queen. By changing the amount of pollen consumed by bees in cages, we showed that spore loads increased with an increase in pollen consumption. Nosema infections decrease honey bee longevity and transcription of vitellogenin, either with or without pollen feeding. However, the reduction of pollen consumption had a greater impact on honey bee longevity and vitellogenin level than the increase of spore counts caused by pollen feeding. These results indicate that spore loads may not be used alone as a direct indicator of the severity of N. ceranae infection in honey bees.

  8. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) Parasitism and Climate Differentially Influence the Prevalence, Levels, and Overt Infections of Deformed Wing Virus in Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Md. Hamiduzzaman, Mollah; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G.; Correa-Benítez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and loads of deformed wing virus (DWV) between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies from a tropical and a temperate environment were compared. The interaction between these environments and the mite Varroa destructor in relation to DWV prevalence, levels, and overt infections, was also analyzed. V. destructor rates were determined, and samples of mites, adult bees, brood parasitized with varroa mites and brood not infested by mites were analyzed. DWV was detected in 100% of the mites and its prevalence and loads in honey bees were significantly higher in colonies from the temperate climate than in colonies from the tropical climate. Significant interactions were found between climate and type of sample, with the highest levels of DWV found in varroa-parasitized brood from temperate climate colonies. Additionally, overt infections were observed only in the temperate climate. Varroa parasitism and DWV loads in bees from colonies with overt infections were significantly higher than in bees from colonies with covert infections. These results suggest that interactions between climate, V. destructor, and possibly other factors, may play a significant role in the prevalence and levels of DWV in honey bee colonies, as well as in the development of overt infections. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain these results. PMID:27252482

  9. Descriptive attributes used in the characterization of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in rural populations of the Atlantic forest (Misiones-Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Human beings employ a combination of morphological, sensorial, utilitarian, cultural and ecological characters when they identify and classify organisms. Ethnotaxonomy has provided a store of information about the characters cultures employ when they identify and classify a vast diversity of taxonomic groups. Nevertheless, some more research is needed to provide a comparison of the characters employed in the description of taxons, and an analysis of the extent to which those descriptors are represented. Stingless bees constitute a diverse group of social insects that have been widely studied from an ethnobiological perspective due to their utilitarian and cultural importance. The objective of this study is to identify the elements local people consider when characterizing stingless bees, and how important these elements are in the study of local classifications. Methods The methodology used involves semi-structured interviews and trips with the informants to rural areas. Locally known ethnospecies are characterized, descriptive traits and salient criteria used in those characterizations are identified, and the frequency of reference of descriptive traits and salient criteria are estimated. Besides, the descriptive traits used for each ethnospecies are compared, and the contribution of the characterizations as a heuristic strategy in the study of folk classification systems is analyzed. Results The use of 19 biological descriptors (grouped according to 4 salient criteria) and of comparisons among ethnospecies was found. Results suggest the existence of group and specific descriptors. Researchers identified which ethnospecies are considered similar, how less important traits contribute to descriptions, the relation between specific descriptors and ethnospecies, the presence of cognitive prototypes, and the most relevant salient properties from the emic perspective. Conclusions The estimated importance of attributes descriptors allowed us to identify the spectrum of salient properties relevant from the emic perspective to characterize the stingless bees. In this sense, the analysis proposed here is useful to study folk taxonomy in culturally heterogeneous groups or multicultural regions, where the linguistic elements usually employed cannot be applied. Resumen Antecedentes Los seres humanos, al identificar y clasificar a los organismos emplean una combinación de características morfológicas, sensoriales, utilitarias, culturales y ecológicas. Entre los aportes generados desde la etnotaxonomía, se ha obtenido información sobre los caracteres utilizados para identificar y clasificar una gran diversidad de grupos taxonómicos. Sin embargo, aún faltan trabajos donde se comparen los caracteres utilizados en las descripciones de taxones y se analice en qué medida estos descriptores se encuentran representados. Las abejas sin aguijón conforman un diverso grupo de insectos sociales que han sido estudiadas desde la perspectiva etnobiológica, dada su importancia utilitaria y cultural. Los interrogantes que guían este trabajo son ¿Qué elementos tienen en cuenta los pobladores para caracterizar a las abejas sin aguijón? y ¿Qué importancia revisten los mismos en el estudio de las clasificaciones locales? Métodos Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y recorridos en áreas rurales con los informantes. Se caracterizan a las etnoespecies conocidas localmente; se identifican los atributos descriptores y los criterios emergentes utilizados para dichas caracterizaciones; y se estima la frecuencia de citas de los atributos descriptores y criterios emergentes. Por otra parte, se comparan los atributos descriptores empleados para cada etnoespecie y se analiza el aporte de las caracterizaciones como estrategia heurística en el estudio de los sistemas de clasificación folclóricos. Resultados Se halló el empleo de 19 descriptores biológicos (que fueron agrupados en 4 criterios emergentes) y de comparaciones entre etnoespecies. Los resultados sugieren la existencia de descriptores de grupo y descriptores específicos. Se identificaron cuales etnoespecies son consideradas similares, cómo contribuyen a las descripciones los atributos de menor peso, la relación entre los descriptores específicos y las etnoespecies, la presencia de prototipos cognitivos, así como las propiedades emergentes más relevantes desde la perspectiva émica. Conclusiones La importancia estimada de los atributos descriptores nos ha permitido identificar el espectro de propiedades emergentes que son relevantes desde la perspectiva emic para caracterizar las abejas sin aguijón. En este sentido el análisis aquí propuesto es de utilidad para estudiar taxonomías folclóricas en grupos heterogéneos culturalmente o en regiones pluriculturales, donde los elementos lingüísticos usualmente empleados no son aplicables. PMID:22330012

  10. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) Parasitism and Climate Differentially Influence the Prevalence, Levels, and Overt Infections of Deformed Wing Virus in Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Anguiano-Baez, Ricardo; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Md Hamiduzzaman, Mollah; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Correa-Benítez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and loads of deformed wing virus (DWV) between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies from a tropical and a temperate environment were compared. The interaction between these environments and the mite Varroa destructor in relation to DWV prevalence, levels, and overt infections, was also analyzed. V. destructor rates were determined, and samples of mites, adult bees, brood parasitized with varroa mites and brood not infested by mites were analyzed. DWV was detected in 100% of the mites and its prevalence and loads in honey bees were significantly higher in colonies from the temperate climate than in colonies from the tropical climate. Significant interactions were found between climate and type of sample, with the highest levels of DWV found in varroa-parasitized brood from temperate climate colonies. Additionally, overt infections were observed only in the temperate climate. Varroa parasitism and DWV loads in bees from colonies with overt infections were significantly higher than in bees from colonies with covert infections. These results suggest that interactions between climate, V. destructor, and possibly other factors, may play a significant role in the prevalence and levels of DWV in honey bee colonies, as well as in the development of overt infections. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain these results.

  11. Karyotypic description of the stingless bee Oxytrigona cf. flaveola (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina) of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to broaden knowledge on the cytogenetics of the subtribe Meliponina, by furnishing cytogenetic data as a contribution to the characterization of bees from the genus Oxytrigona. Individuals of the species Oxytrigona cf. flaveola, members of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied. The chromosome number was 2n = 34, distributed among four chromosomal morphologies, with the karyotype formula 8m+8sm+16st+2t. Size heteromorphism in the first metacentric pair, subsequently confirmed by sequential staining with fluorochrome (DA/DAPI/CMA3 ), was apparent in all the examined individuals The nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) are possibly located in this metacentric chromosome pair. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the genus Oxytrigona. Given that species in this group are threatened, the importance of their preservation and conservation can be shown in a sensible, concise fashion through studies such as this. PMID:21637423

  12. Euglossa williamsi, a new species of orchid bee from the Amazon Basin of Ecuador and Peru, with notes on its taxonomic association and biogeography (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Euglossa williamsi sp. n. is here described from the lowland Amazonian region in Ecuador and Peru, and as part of a small species assemblage within Euglossa consisting of Euglossa dodsoni Moure and Euglossa obtusa Dressler. An identification key to the males of the group is provided plus detailed figures of the new species and representative illustrations for the others. A brief discussion of the taxonomic and biogeographical implications of the new species is provided. New records in Honduras and Nicaragua are provided for the related Euglossa dodsoni. PMID:22303114

  13. Evidence of at least two evolutionary lineages in Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) suggested by mtDNA variability and geometric morphometrics of forewings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatti, Vanessa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Franco, Fernando Faria; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida using geometric morphometrics of the forewing and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing. We collected workers from six localities in the northernmost distribution. Both methodologies indicated that the variability among the sampled populations is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due to the existence of at least evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. The conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases.

  14. Descriptive attributes used in the characterization of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in rural populations of the Atlantic forest (Misiones-Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Human beings employ a combination of morphological, sensorial, utilitarian, cultural and ecological characters when they identify and classify organisms. Ethnotaxonomy has provided a store of information about the characters cultures employ when they identify and classify a vast diversity of taxonomic groups. Nevertheless, some more research is needed to provide a comparison of the characters employed in the description of taxons, and an analysis of the extent to which those descriptors are represented. Stingless bees constitute a diverse group of social insects that have been widely studied from an ethnobiological perspective due to their utilitarian and cultural importance. The objective of this study is to identify the elements local people consider when characterizing stingless bees, and how important these elements are in the study of local classifications. Methods The methodology used involves semi-structured interviews and trips with the informants to rural areas. Locally known ethnospecies are characterized, descriptive traits and salient criteria used in those characterizations are identified, and the frequency of reference of descriptive traits and salient criteria are estimated. Besides, the descriptive traits used for each ethnospecies are compared, and the contribution of the characterizations as a heuristic strategy in the study of folk classification systems is analyzed. Results The use of 19 biological descriptors (grouped according to 4 salient criteria) and of comparisons among ethnospecies was found. Results suggest the existence of group and specific descriptors. Researchers identified which ethnospecies are considered similar, how less important traits contribute to descriptions, the relation between specific descriptors and ethnospecies, the presence of cognitive prototypes, and the most relevant salient properties from the emic perspective. Conclusions The estimated importance of attributes descriptors allowed us to identify the spectrum of salient properties relevant from the emic perspective to characterize the stingless bees. In this sense, the analysis proposed here is useful to study folk taxonomy in culturally heterogeneous groups or multicultural regions, where the linguistic elements usually employed cannot be applied. Resumen Antecedentes Los seres humanos, al identificar y clasificar a los organismos emplean una combinación de características morfológicas, sensoriales, utilitarias, culturales y ecológicas. Entre los aportes generados desde la etnotaxonomía, se ha obtenido información sobre los caracteres utilizados para identificar y clasificar una gran diversidad de grupos taxonómicos. Sin embargo, aún faltan trabajos donde se comparen los caracteres utilizados en las descripciones de taxones y se analice en qué medida estos descriptores se encuentran representados. Las abejas sin aguijón conforman un diverso grupo de insectos sociales que han sido estudiadas desde la perspectiva etnobiológica, dada su importancia utilitaria y cultural. Los interrogantes que guían este trabajo son ¿Qué elementos tienen en cuenta los pobladores para caracterizar a las abejas sin aguijón? y ¿Qué importancia revisten los mismos en el estudio de las clasificaciones locales? Métodos Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y recorridos en áreas rurales con los informantes. Se caracterizan a las etnoespecies conocidas localmente; se identifican los atributos descriptores y los criterios emergentes utilizados para dichas caracterizaciones; y se estima la frecuencia de citas de los atributos descriptores y criterios emergentes. Por otra parte, se comparan los atributos descriptores empleados para cada etnoespecie y se analiza el aporte de las caracterizaciones como estrategia heurística en el estudio de los sistemas de clasificación folclóricos. Resultados Se halló el empleo de 19 descriptores biológicos (que fueron agrupados en 4 criterios emergentes) y de comparaciones

  15. A new species of Centris ( Centris) (Fabricius) from northeastern Brazil, with taxonomic notes on C. ( C.) pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahlmann, Thiago; de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, Centris (Centris) byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species Centris pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and Centris byrsonimae sp. n..Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of Centris pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of Centris pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of Centris pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of Centris byrsonimae sp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group. PMID:23459508

  16. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) Parasitism and Climate Differentially Influence the Prevalence, Levels, and Overt Infections of Deformed Wing Virus in Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Anguiano-Baez, Ricardo; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Md Hamiduzzaman, Mollah; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Correa-Benítez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and loads of deformed wing virus (DWV) between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies from a tropical and a temperate environment were compared. The interaction between these environments and the mite Varroa destructor in relation to DWV prevalence, levels, and overt infections, was also analyzed. V. destructor rates were determined, and samples of mites, adult bees, brood parasitized with varroa mites and brood not infested by mites were analyzed. DWV was detected in 100% of the mites and its prevalence and loads in honey bees were significantly higher in colonies from the temperate climate than in colonies from the tropical climate. Significant interactions were found between climate and type of sample, with the highest levels of DWV found in varroa-parasitized brood from temperate climate colonies. Additionally, overt infections were observed only in the temperate climate. Varroa parasitism and DWV loads in bees from colonies with overt infections were significantly higher than in bees from colonies with covert infections. These results suggest that interactions between climate, V. destructor, and possibly other factors, may play a significant role in the prevalence and levels of DWV in honey bee colonies, as well as in the development of overt infections. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain these results. PMID:27252482

  17. Temporal Variation in Honey Production by the Stingless Bee Melipona subnitida (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Long-Term Management Reveals its Potential as a Commercial Species in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koffler, Sheina; Menezes, Cristiano; Menezes, Paulo Roberto; Kleinert, Astrid de Matos Peixoto; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Even though stingless beekeeping has a great potential as a sustainable development tool, the activity remains essentially informal, technical knowledge is scarce, and management practices lack the sophistication and standardization found in apiculture. Here, we contributed to the further development of stingless beekeeping by investigating the long-term impact of management and climate on honey production and colony survival in the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (1910). We analyzed a 10-yr record of 155 M. subnitida colonies kept by a commercial honey producer of northeastern Brazil. This constitutes the longest and most accurate record available for a stingless bee. We modeled honey production in relation to time (years), age, management practices (colony division and food supplementation), and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and used a model selection approach to identify which factors best explained honey production. We also modeled colony mortality in relation to climatic factors. Although the amount of honey produced by each colony decreased over time, we found that the probability of producing honey increased over the years. Colony divisions decreased honey production, but did not affect honey presence, while supplementary feeding positively affected honey production. In warmer years, the probability of producing honey decreased and the amount of honey produced was lower. In years with lower precipitation, fewer colonies produced honey. In contrast, colony mortality was not affected by climatic factors, and some colonies lived up to nine years, enduring extreme climatic conditions. Our findings provide useful guidelines to improve management and honey production in stingless bees. PMID:26470204

  18. The naturalization of the oil collecting bee Centris nitida (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centrini), a potential pollinator of selected native, ornamental and invasive plants in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neotropical bee Centris nitida, recorded also from southern Arizona, has naturalized in southeastern Florida. This furry yellow and black bee has been confused with the similar C. lanosa, a native bee restricted to northern Florida and the Southwest and adjacent Mexico. Female C. nitida are smal...

  19. Two new species of the bee genus Peponapis, with a key to the North and Central American species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of squash bees, Peponapis pacifica Ayala and Griswold sp. n. and P. parkeria Griswold and Ayala sp. n., are described and illustrated. Peponapis pacifica is oligolectic on flowers of Schizocarpum longisepalum (Cucurbitaceae) endemic to Mexico, where it is found in the tropical dry ...

  20. Inheritance of resistance to Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in crosses between selected resistant Russian and selected susceptible u.s. honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Villa, José D; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    The pattern of inheritance of tracheal mite resistance in selected Russian bees was determined in bioassays and in samples from field colonies. Resistant colonies of Russian origin and colonies selected for high susceptibility in the United States were used to generate divergent parental populations. Seven groups of F1 colonies were produced by crossing queens and drones from these selected resistant Russian and selected susceptible populations. In a series of bioassays with young workers exposed in infested colonies, average mite abundance (female mites per worker) in F1 colonies was intermediate (1.04 +/- 0.13 [mean +/- SE]) and significantly different from that of both resistant Russian (0.74 +/- 0.13) and selected susceptible (1.57 +/- 0.13) colonies. Colonies representing the three populations were established in two apiaries in July 2005. Colonies surviving with original queens after 10 mo had mite prevalences supporting the findings of the bioassay. All three resistant colonies had undetectable mite levels, whereas prevalences in four F1 colonies ranged from 0 to 53%, and in 10 susceptible colonies ranged from 0 to 90%. Tracheal mite resistance in Russian bees is likely polygenic, but there may be a number of genes with major dominance interacting with minor genes. Use of selected Russian queens mated with Russian drones or with drones from unknown sources is beneficial for beekeeping in areas with persistent problems with tracheal mite infestation. PMID:19133453

  1. Impact of currently used or potentially useful insecticides for canola agroecosystems on Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Megachile rotundata (Hymentoptera: Megachilidae), and Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Scott-Dupree, C D; Conroy, L; Harris, C R

    2009-02-01

    Pest management practices may be contributing to a decline in wild bee populations in or near canola (Brassica napus L.) agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct contact toxicity of five technical grade insecticides--imidacloprid, clothianidin, deltamethrin, spinosad, and novaluron--currently used, or with potential for use in canola integrated pest management on bees that may forage in canola: common eastern bumble bees [Bombus impatiens (Cresson); hereafter bumble bees], alfalfa leafcutting bees [Megachile rotundata (F.)], and Osmia lignaria Cresson. Clothianidin and to a lesser extent imidacloprid were highly toxic to all three species, deltamethrin and spinosad were intermediate in toxicity, and novaluron was nontoxic. Bumble bees were generally more tolerant to the direct contact applications > O. lignaria > leafcutting bees. However, differences in relative toxicities between the three species were not consistent, e.g., whereas clothianidin was only 4.9 and 1.3x more toxic, deltamethrin was 53 and 68x more toxic to leafcutting bees than to bumble bees and O. lignaria, respectively. Laboratory assessment of direct contact toxicity, although useful, is only one measure of potential impact, and mortality under field conditions may differ greatly depending on management practices. Research conducted using only honey bees as the indicator species may not adequately reflect the risk posed by insecticides to wild bees because of their unique biology and differential susceptibility. Research programs focused on determining nontarget impact on pollinators should be expanded to include not only the honey bee but also wild bee species representative of the agricultural system under investigation. PMID:19253634

  2. Temporal Variation in Honey Production by the Stingless Bee Melipona subnitida (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Long-Term Management Reveals its Potential as a Commercial Species in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koffler, Sheina; Menezes, Cristiano; Menezes, Paulo Roberto; Kleinert, Astrid de Matos Peixoto; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Even though stingless beekeeping has a great potential as a sustainable development tool, the activity remains essentially informal, technical knowledge is scarce, and management practices lack the sophistication and standardization found in apiculture. Here, we contributed to the further development of stingless beekeeping by investigating the long-term impact of management and climate on honey production and colony survival in the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (1910). We analyzed a 10-yr record of 155 M. subnitida colonies kept by a commercial honey producer of northeastern Brazil. This constitutes the longest and most accurate record available for a stingless bee. We modeled honey production in relation to time (years), age, management practices (colony division and food supplementation), and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and used a model selection approach to identify which factors best explained honey production. We also modeled colony mortality in relation to climatic factors. Although the amount of honey produced by each colony decreased over time, we found that the probability of producing honey increased over the years. Colony divisions decreased honey production, but did not affect honey presence, while supplementary feeding positively affected honey production. In warmer years, the probability of producing honey decreased and the amount of honey produced was lower. In years with lower precipitation, fewer colonies produced honey. In contrast, colony mortality was not affected by climatic factors, and some colonies lived up to nine years, enduring extreme climatic conditions. Our findings provide useful guidelines to improve management and honey production in stingless bees.

  3. Communities of Social Bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in Trap-Nests: the Spatial Dynamics of Reproduction in an Area of Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Silva, M D; Ramalho, M; Monteiro, D

    2014-08-01

    As most stingless bee species depend on preexisting cavities, principally tree hollows, nesting site availability may represent an important restriction in the structuring of their forest communities. The present study examined the spatial dynamics of stingless bee communities in an area of Atlantic Forest by evaluating their swarming to trap-nests. The field work was performed in the Michelin Ecological Reserve (MER) on the southeastern coast of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty trap-nests were distributed within two forest habitats in advanced and initial stages of regeneration. The trap-nests were monitored between September 2009 and March 2011. Twenty-five trap-nests were occupied by five bee species, resulting in a capture ratio of 0.035 swarms/trap (approximately 0.14 swarms/ha), corresponding to 10 swarms/year (0.056 swarms/ha/year). According to previous study at MER, the most abundant species in natural nests were also the most common in trap-nests in the two forest habitats examined, with the exception of Melipona scutellaris Latreille. Swarms of higher numbers of species were captured in initial regeneration stage forests than in advanced regeneration stage areas, and differences in species compositions were significant between both habitats (p = 0.03); these apparent differences were not consistent, however, when considering richness (p = 0.14) and total abundance (p = 0.08). The present study suggests the existence of a minimum cavity size threshold of approximately 1 L for most local species of stingless bees and sustains the hypothesis of a mass effect of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille populations from surrounding disturbed habitats on the MER forest community in terms of propagule (swarm) pressure. Examining swarm densities with trap-nests can be a promising technique for comparative analyses of the carrying capacities of forest habitats for stingless bee colonies, as long as size thresholds of cavities for nesting are taken into consideration. PMID:27193808

  4. Evidence of at least two evolutionary lineages in Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) suggested by mtDNA variability and geometric morphometrics of forewings.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Vanessa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Franco, Fernando Faria; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida using geometric morphometrics of the forewing and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing. We collected workers from six localities in the northernmost distribution. Both methodologies indicated that the variability among the sampled populations is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due to the existence of at least evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. The conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases. PMID:24384774

  5. Genetic Differentiation in the Stingless Bee, Scaptotrigona xanthotricha Moure, 1950 (Apidae, Meliponini): a Species with Wide Geographic Distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Olívia M P; Gaiotto, Fernanda A; Costa, Marco A

    2014-05-14

    Stingless bees are important pollinators that are severely threatened by anthropic interference, resulting in a strong population decline. Scaptotrigona xanthotricha has a wide distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest, ranging from the northeastern state of Bahia to Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. To understand the genetic structure of S. xanthotricha, 12 species-specific microsatellite loci were analyzed in 42 colonies sampled throughout the species range. The results indicated 5 distinct clusters throughout the sampled area with high rates of genetic diversity, and the greatest diversity was found in southern Bahia. Greater differentiation was observed between samples from the extremes of the distribution, with an F ST value of 0.189 between cluster 1 and 5. The genetic differentiation analysis for all loci had an F ST value of 0.113, a result that is consistent with the analysis of molecular variance, which revealed 7.72% of the variation occurring between groups. The Mantel correlation between a genetic differentiation matrix and a geographic distance matrix (r = 0.184, P = 0.043) indicated a tendency toward increased differentiation with increased distance. This study revealed the profile of differentiation and distribution of genetic diversity in this species and indicates parameters that should be considered in future taxonomic revisions and activities for its management and conservation. PMID:24829365

  6. Sampling a biodiversity hotspot: the orchid-bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of Tarapoto, northeastern Peru, the richest and most diverse site of the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A; Rasmussen, C

    2014-08-01

    The orchid-bee fauna of the region of Tarapoto, northeastern Peru, was surveyed using seventeen different scents as baits to attract orchid-bee males. Six hundred and fifty-nine males belonging to 41 species were actively collected with insect nets during 120 hours in late July and early August, 2012. Euglossa dressleri Moure, 1968, Euglossa laurensi Bembé, 2008, and Euglossa maculilabris Moure, 1968, three species belonging to the Euglossa cybelia species-group, are here reported for Peru for the first time. Previous sporadic and unpublished samplings in the area recorded eleven additional species. With 53 species, the region of Tarapoto can be considered the richest single site in the Neotropics for orchid bees. Diversity, estimated with the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H' = 3.02), was also the highest ever recorded for orchid bees.

  7. Determination of Flower Constancy in Bombus atratus Franklin and Bombus bellicosus Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) through Palynological Analysis of Nectar and Corbicular Pollen Loads.

    PubMed

    Rossi, N; Santos, E; Salvarrey, S; Arbulo, N; Invernizzi, C

    2015-12-01

    The flower constancy (the visit to a single plant species during a foraging trip) in pollinator insects is a theme widely discussed in behavioral ecology and has an important implication in the evolution of angiosperms. This behavior was studied in the bumblebees Bombus atratus Franklin and Bombus bellicosus Smith through palynological analysis of the nectar and pollen loads of individuals captured while foraging in a restricted area. In both species, there were more individuals with constant flights than with non-constant ones, although in the nectar loads of B. atratus there were no significant differences between individuals with each flight types. It was verified that the nectar loads of the individuals that made either constant or non-constant flights did not differ in the number of pollen grains they contained. Considering this measurement as an estimate for flight duration, the results would indicate that the probability of changing between plant species during nectar collection is independent of the foraging trip duration. In both species, most individuals who collected nectar and/or pollen from more than one plant species visited just two plant species. In these cases, the pollen of one plant species was predominant. In the bumblebees in which it was possible to analyze nectar and pollen loads, the botanical origin of both resources was the same or they shared the principal species (with the exception of two individuals), showing that bumblebees do not often use a botanical source in an exclusive way to collect nectar and another to collect pollen.

  8. Hitting an Unintended Target: Phylogeography of Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier, 1836 and the First New Brazilian Bumblebee Species in a Century (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Santos Júnior, José Eustáquio; Santos, Fabrício R; Silveira, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    This work tested whether or not populations of Bombus brasiliensis isolated on mountain tops of southeastern Brazil belonged to the same species as populations widespread in lowland areas in the Atlantic coast and westward along the Paraná-river valley. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses showed that those populations were all conspecific. However, they revealed a previously unrecognized, apparently rare, and potentially endangered species in one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots of the World, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This species is described here as Bombus bahiensis sp. n., and included in a revised key for the identification of the bumblebee species known to occur in Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses based on two mtDNA markers suggest this new species to be sister to B. brasiliensis, from which its workers and queens can be easily distinguished by the lack of a yellow hair-band on the first metasomal tergum. The results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that B. bahiensis sp. n. may have originated from an ancestral population isolated in an evergreen-forest refuge (the so-called Bahia refuge) during cold, dry periods of the Pleistocene. This refuge is also known as an important area of endemism for several animal taxa, including other bees. Secondary contact between B. bahiensis and B. brasiliensis may be presently prevented by a strip of semi-deciduous forest in a climate zone characterized by relatively long dry seasons. Considering the relatively limited range of this new species and the current anthropic pressure on its environment, attention should be given to its conservation status.

  9. Communities of Social Bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in Trap-Nests: the Spatial Dynamics of Reproduction in an Area of Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Silva, M D; Ramalho, M; Monteiro, D

    2014-08-01

    As most stingless bee species depend on preexisting cavities, principally tree hollows, nesting site availability may represent an important restriction in the structuring of their forest communities. The present study examined the spatial dynamics of stingless bee communities in an area of Atlantic Forest by evaluating their swarming to trap-nests. The field work was performed in the Michelin Ecological Reserve (MER) on the southeastern coast of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty trap-nests were distributed within two forest habitats in advanced and initial stages of regeneration. The trap-nests were monitored between September 2009 and March 2011. Twenty-five trap-nests were occupied by five bee species, resulting in a capture ratio of 0.035 swarms/trap (approximately 0.14 swarms/ha), corresponding to 10 swarms/year (0.056 swarms/ha/year). According to previous study at MER, the most abundant species in natural nests were also the most common in trap-nests in the two forest habitats examined, with the exception of Melipona scutellaris Latreille. Swarms of higher numbers of species were captured in initial regeneration stage forests than in advanced regeneration stage areas, and differences in species compositions were significant between both habitats (p = 0.03); these apparent differences were not consistent, however, when considering richness (p = 0.14) and total abundance (p = 0.08). The present study suggests the existence of a minimum cavity size threshold of approximately 1 L for most local species of stingless bees and sustains the hypothesis of a mass effect of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille populations from surrounding disturbed habitats on the MER forest community in terms of propagule (swarm) pressure. Examining swarm densities with trap-nests can be a promising technique for comparative analyses of the carrying capacities of forest habitats for stingless bee colonies, as long as size thresholds of cavities for nesting are taken into consideration.

  10. Hitting an Unintended Target: Phylogeography of Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier, 1836 and the First New Brazilian Bumblebee Species in a Century (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos Júnior, José Eustáquio; Santos, Fabrício R.; Silveira, Fernando A.

    2015-01-01

    This work tested whether or not populations of Bombus brasiliensis isolated on mountain tops of southeastern Brazil belonged to the same species as populations widespread in lowland areas in the Atlantic coast and westward along the Paraná-river valley. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses showed that those populations were all conspecific. However, they revealed a previously unrecognized, apparently rare, and potentially endangered species in one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots of the World, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This species is described here as Bombus bahiensis sp. n., and included in a revised key for the identification of the bumblebee species known to occur in Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses based on two mtDNA markers suggest this new species to be sister to B. brasiliensis, from which its workers and queens can be easily distinguished by the lack of a yellow hair-band on the first metasomal tergum. The results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that B. bahiensis sp. n. may have originated from an ancestral population isolated in an evergreen-forest refuge (the so-called Bahia refuge) during cold, dry periods of the Pleistocene. This refuge is also known as an important area of endemism for several animal taxa, including other bees. Secondary contact between B. bahiensis and B. brasiliensis may be presently prevented by a strip of semi-deciduous forest in a climate zone characterized by relatively long dry seasons. Considering the relatively limited range of this new species and the current anthropic pressure on its environment, attention should be given to its conservation status. PMID:25992624

  11. A review of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Townsendiella (Apidae, Nomadinae, Townsendiellini) with the description of a new species from Pinnacles National Park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cleptoparasitic bee genus Townsendiella is a rare group restricted to the southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico, whose taxonomy and biology remain poorly known. This paper describes Townsendiella ensifera sp. n., apparently restricted to the South Coast and Transverse Ranges of Californ...

  12. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology. PMID:26666122

  13. Molecular characterization of the gene feminizer in the stingless bee Melipona interrupta (Hymenoptera: Apidae) reveals association to sex and caste development.

    PubMed

    Brito, Diana V; Silva, Carlos Gustavo N; Hasselmann, Martin; Viana, Luciana S; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Carvalho-Zilse, Gislene A

    2015-11-01

    In highly eusocial insects, development of reproductive traits are regulated not only by sex determination pathway, but it also depends on caste fate. The molecular basis of both mechanisms in stingless bees and possible interaction with each other is still obscure. Here, we investigate sex determination in Melipona interrupta, focusing on characterization and expression analysis of the feminizer gene (Mi-fem), and its association to a major component of caste determination, the juvenile hormone (JH). We present evidence that Mi-fem mRNA is sex-specifically spliced in which only the female splice variant encodes the full length protein, following the same principle known for other bee species. We quantified Mi-fem expression among developmental stages, sexes and castes. Mi-fem expression varies considerably throughout development, with higher expression levels in embryos. Also, fem levels in pupae and newly emerged adults were significantly higher in queens than workers and males. Finally, we ectopically applied JH in cocoon spinning larvae, which correspond to the time window where queen/worker phenotypes diverge. We observed a significantly increase in Mi-fem expression compared to control groups. Since up to 100% of females turn into queens when treated with JH (while control groups are composed mainly of workers), we propose that fem might act to regulate queens' development. Our findings provide support for the conserved regulatory function of fem in Melipona bees and demonstrate a significant correlation between key elements of sex and caste determination pathways, opening the avenue to further investigate the molecular basis of these complex traits. PMID:26393998

  14. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors. PMID:26470288

  15. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae) - A comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Andreia A.; Humann, Fernanda C.; Oliveira Campos, Lucio A.; Tavares, Mara G.; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid) on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i) gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii) in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males. PMID:22215977

  16. The high-throughput production of dsRNA against sacbrood virus for use in the honey bee Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqing; Zhang, Yi; Han, Richou

    2016-10-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is a serious threat to honey bees. Currently, there is no specific drug available for the treatment of SBV that does not affect the quality of the bee product. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral strategy for disease control. To effectively utilize this technology, the large-scale production and purification of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is necessary. Here, a dsRNA-expressing plasmid targeting the VP1 gene of Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) HT115 (DE3). After lysing and ethanol precipitation from E. coli, dsRNA VP1 was purified with an anion exchange chromatography column. Second instar larvae of Apis cerana were fed the purified dsRNA VP1. A significant decrease in larval mortality and the level of expression of the VP1 gene after CSBV infection was demonstrated after the ingestion of dsRNA VP1. This result provides a potential method for the large-scale production of dsRNA to protect A. cerana from CSBV infection.

  17. [Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Drummont, Patrícia; Silva, Fabiana O da; Viana, Blandina F

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap-nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 degrees 01' W e 38 degrees 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased (chi2 = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cells partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n = 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. PMID:18641893

  18. Modeling colony collapse disorder in honeybees as a contagion.

    PubMed

    Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Mitchell, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Honeybee pollination accounts annually for over $14 billion in United States agriculture alone. Within the past decade there has been a mysterious mass die-off of honeybees, an estimated 10 million beehives and sometimes as much as 90% of an apiary. There is still no consensus on what causes this phenomenon, called Colony Collapse Disorder, or CCD. Several mathematical models have studied CCD by only focusing on infection dynamics. We created a model to account for both healthy hive dynamics and hive extinction due to CCD, modeling CCD via a transmissible infection brought to the hive by foragers. The system of three ordinary differential equations accounts for multiple hive population behaviors including Allee effects and colony collapse. Numerical analysis leads to critical hive sizes for multiple scenarios and highlights the role of accelerated forager recruitment in emptying hives during colony collapse.

  19. Angioedema

    MedlinePlus

    Angioneurotic edema; Welts; Allergic reaction - angioedema; Hives - angioedema ... Angioedema may be caused by an allergic reaction . During the ... body releases histamine when the immune system detects a foreign ...

  20. Comparative Analyses of Cu-Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) and Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR) at the mRNA Level between Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Under Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Soon-Gyu; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2016-01-01

    This study compared stress-induced expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) genes in the European honeybee Apis mellifera L. and Asian honeybee Apis cerana F. Expression of both SOD1 and TrxR rapidly increased up to 5 h after exposure to cold (4°C) or heat (37°C) treatment and then gradually decreased, with a stronger effect induced by cold stress in A. mellifera compared with A. cerana. Injection of stress-inducing substances (methyl viologen, [MV] and H2O2) also increased SOD1 and TrxR expression in both A. mellifera and A. cerana, and this effect was more pronounced with MV than H2O2. Additionally, we heterologously expressed the A. mellifera and A. cerana SOD1 and TrxR proteins in an Escherichia coli expression system, and detection by SDS-PAGE, confirmed by Western blotting using anti-His tag antibodies, revealed bands at 16 and 60 kDa, respectively. Our results show that the expression patterns of SOD1 and TrxR differ between A. mellifera and A. cerana under conditions of low or high temperature as well as oxidative stress. PMID:26798140

  1. Does the Spatial Distribution of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Worker Brood of Honey Bee Apis Mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Rely on an Aggregative Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvy, M.; Capowiez, Y.; Le Conte, Y.; Salvy, M.; Clément, J.-L.

    Varroa jacobsoni is an ectoparasite of honey bees which reproduces in capped brood cells. Multi-infestation is frequently observed in worker brood and can be interpreted as an aggregative phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of V. jacobsoni in worker brood cells relies on a random or an aggregative process. We studied the distribution of Varroa females in capped worker brood at similar age by comparing, by a Monte Carlo test, the observed frequency distribution of mites per cell to simulated distributions based on a random process. A complementary approach, using the "nearest neighbor distances" (NND) with Monte Carlo tests, was investigated to study the spatial distribution (a) between mites in different cells and (b) between infested cells in brood. The observed distributions did not differ significantly from that expected by a random process, and we conclude that there is no aggregation during invasion of V. jacobsoni in worker brood.

  2. Comparative laboratory toxicity of neem pesticides to honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), their mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae), and brood pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascophaera apis.

    PubMed

    Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Smith, T; Lindberg, C; Mukai, A; Moore, M

    2000-04-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate neem oil and neem extract for the management of key honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pests. Neem pesticides inhibited the growth of Paenibacillus larvae (Ash, Priest & Collins) in vitro but had no effect on the growth of Ascophaera apis (Olive & Spiltoir). Azadirachtin-rich extract (neem-aza) was 10 times more potent than crude neem oil (neem oil) against P. larvae suggesting that azadirachtin is a main antibiotic component in neem. Neem-aza, however, was ineffective at controlling the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Ouduemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie). Honey bees also were deterred from feeding on sucrose syrup containing > 0.01 mg/ml of neem-aza. However, neem oil applied topically to infested bees in the laboratory proved highly effective against both mite species. Approximately 50-90% V. jacobsoni mortality was observed 48 h after treatment with associated bee mortality lower than 10%. Although topically applied neem oil did not result in direct A. woodi mortality, it offered significant protection of bees from infestation by A. woodi. Other vegetable and petroleum-based oils also offered selective control of honey bee mites, suggesting neem oil has both a physical and a toxicological mode of action. Although oils are not as selective as the V. jacobsoni acaricide tau-fluvalinate, they nonetheless hold promise for the simultaneous management of several honey bee pests. PMID:10826163

  3. An evaluation of the associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies as tools for selective breeding for mite resistance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite population differences in commercial colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) using 35 candidate measurements. Measurements included numbers of damaged and no...

  4. An evaluation of the associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies as tools for selective breeding for mite resistance.

    PubMed

    Rinderer, Thomas E; De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M; Tarver, Matthew R; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong

    2014-04-01

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite population differences and potential indicators of mite resistance in commercial colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) by using 35 candidate measurements. Measurements included numbers of damaged and nondamaged younger mites, nymphs, damaged and nondamaged older mites, fresh mites, and all mites, each as a proportion of total mites in the colonies and as a proportion of all trapped mites or all trapped fresh mites. Several measurements differed strongly between the stocks, suggesting that the detailed characteristics of trapped mites may reflect the operation of resistance mechanisms in the Russian honey bees. Regression analyses were used to determine the relationships of these candidate measurements with the number of mites in the colonies. The largest positive regressions differed for the two stocks (Italian honey bees: trapped mites and trapped younger mites; Russian honey bees: trapped younger mites and trapped fresh mites). Also, the regressions for Italian honey bees were substantially stronger. The largest negative regressions with colony mites for both stocks were for the proportion of older mites out of all trapped mites. Although these regressions were statistically significant and consistent with those previously reported, they were weaker than those previously reported. The numbers of mites in the colonies were low, especially in the Russian honey bee colonies, which may have negatively influenced the precision of the regressions.

  5. Pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) on the monoecious plants Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and Jatropha mutabilis (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in a semi-arid Caatinga area, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, E L; Viana, B F

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the superior competitive ability of honeybees compared with native bees in the exploitation of floral resources and nesting sites besides their low efficiency in pollinating native plant species. However, there is little evidence of the effect of this invading species on autochthonous plant populations in natural environments. Thus experiments were performed to test the pollination efficiency of honeybees in two species of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae), J. mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and J. mutabilis (Pohl) Baill., after a single flower visitation. Samplings were carried out between March and April 2006 in a hyperxerophilous shrub-arboreal Caatinga at Estação Biológica de Canudos, Bahia (9º 56´ 34" S, 38º 59´ 17" W), the property of Fundação Biodiversitas. Apis mellifera was efficient at pollinating J. mollissima (100%) and J. mutabilis (85%). This high efficiency may be explained by 1) the simple floral characteristics of both plant species, which facilitate access to the sexual organs of the plant; and 2) the body size of A. mellifera that fits the flower's dimensions.

  6. Does transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton pollen affect hypopharyngeal gland development and midgut proteolytic enzyme activity in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)?

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    The transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) cotton cultivar CCRI41 is increasingly used in China and potential side effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L. have been documented recently. Two studies have assessed potential lethal and sublethal effects in young bees fed with CCRI41 cotton pollen but no effect was observed on learning capacities, although lower feeding activity in exposed honey bees was noted (antifeedant effect). The present study aimed at providing further insights into potential side effects of CCRI41 cotton on honey bees. Emerging honey bees were exposed to different pollen diets using no-choice feeding protocols (chronic exposure) in controlled laboratory conditions and we aimed at documenting potential mechanisms underneath the CCRI41 antifeedant effect previously reported. Activity of midgut proteolytic enzyme of young adult honey bees fed on CCRI41 cotton pollen were not significantly affected, i.e. previously observed antifeedant effect was not linked to disturbed activity of the proteolytic enzymes in bees' midgut. Hypopharyngeal gland development was assessed by quantifying total extractable proteins from the glands. Results suggested that CCRI41 cotton pollen carries no risk to hypopharyngeal gland development of young adult honey bees. In the two bioassays, honey bees exposed to 1 % soybean trypsin inhibitor were used as positive controls for both midgut proteolytic enzymes and hypopharyngeal gland proteins quantification, and bees exposed to 48 ppb (part per billion) (i.e. 48 ng g(-1)) imidacloprid were used as controls for exposure to a sublethal concentration of toxic product. The results show that the previously reported antifeedant effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees is not linked to effects on their midgut proteolytic enzymes or on the development of their hypopharyngeal glands. The results of the study are discussed in the framework of risk assessment of transgenic crops on honey bees. PMID:22868904

  7. Species Diversity and Temporal Variation of the Orchid-Bee Fauna (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in a Conservation Gradient of a Rocky Field Area in the Espinhaço Range, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viotti, M A; Moura, F R; Lourenço, A P

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the orchid-bee community in a conservation gradient of the high-altitude rocky fields in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Sampling was performed at two sites with different anthropic influences: a disturbed area (DA), with exotic plant species, and a preserved area (PA). From September 2009 through February 2011, males of euglossine bees were sampled using aromatic bait-traps. We collected a total of 819 specimens belonging to 11 species and three genera: Euglossa Latreille, Eulaema Lepeletier, and Eufriesea Cockerell. Despite the proximity of DA and PA (about 1.2 km), differences in orchid-bee abundance and richness were observed. Higher abundance was observed in the PA (n = 485) compared with the DA (n = 334). Eight species were common to both sites, and only the DA showed exclusive species. The DA showed higher diversity and higher estimated species richness. Euglossa leucotricha Rebêlo & Moure was the most abundant species at both sites followed by Euglossa melanotricha Moure. Higher abundance and richness were found in the warm rainy season. This study contributes to the knowledge of the orchid-bee fauna in the rocky fields and suggests that the greater resource availability in the DA was responsible for the higher orchid-bee diversity.

  8. Effects of Self-Superparasitism and Host Age on Fitness-Correlated Traits in the Solitary Endoparasitoid Wasp Meteorus pulchricornis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Baoping; Meng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    The domed fitness functions are suggested to describe developmental patterns of progeny parasitoids in relation to host age at oviposition in solitary koinobint parasitoids that are engaged in single parasitism, but few studies have investigated the applicability of the functions as related to superparasitism. The present study was designed to compare fitness functions between single parasitism and superparasitism by examining developmental patterns of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymneoptera: Braconidae) progeny in relation to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), either singly parasitized or self-superparasitized as second—fifth instar larvae. Self-superparasitism caused deleterious effects on the fitness-related traits of parasitoid progeny, as demonstrated by a prolonged egg-to-adult emergence time, a smaller body size, and shorter longevity of the emerging adults, and decreased survival to adult emergence. While the domed fitness function was detected for development time, survival, adult body size, and longevity in relation to host larvae that were singly parasitized, the function was observed only for progeny survival in relation to host larvae that were self-superparasitized. This study suggests that developmental fitness functions with self-superparasitism can deviate from those with single parasitism in solitary koinobiont parasitoids. PMID:25201512

  9. Honeybees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Season, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The life patterns, behaviors, and functions of the social insects, the honeybees, are presented in this publication. Illustrations and information are offered on the topic areas of: (1) the honeybee society (explaining the jobs of the queen, worker, and drone bees); (2) the hive (describing how the hive is constructed, how new bees develop, and…

  10. Effects of Colony Creation Method and Beekeeper Education on Honeybee ("Apis mellifera") Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, J. Reed; Eborn, Benjamin; Jones, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The two-part study reported here analyzed the effects of beekeeper education and colony creation methods on colony mortality. The first study examined the difference in hive mortality between hives managed by beekeepers who had received formal training in beekeeping with beekeepers who had not. The second study examined the effect on hive…

  11. Organic acids and thymol: unsuitable alternative control of Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore alternative small hive beetle control strategies, established Varroa destructor and Galleria mellonella treatments with organic acids (formic, lactic, oxalic and acetic) and thymol were investigated in the laboratory against eggs, larvae and adult small hive beetle (SHB). As formic and ox...

  12. 21 CFR 522.960c - Flumethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL..., osselets, and myositis; and allergic states, e.g., hives, urticaria, and insect bites. (iii) Limitations...., hives, urticaria, and insect bites; and shock and shock-like states by intravenous administration....

  13. A scientific note on the comparison of airborne volatiles produced by commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) and honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small hive beetles have been documented as being able to successfully invade commercial bumble bee colonies and find the hives through odors produced by the colonies. We tested the hypothesis that volatiles emanating from Bumble bee and Honeybee colonies were similar by collecting volatiles from wo...

  14. Effects of high-voltage transmission lines on honeybees

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.; Bindokas, V.P.; Gauger, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    When shielded and exposed colonies were placed at incremental distances at a right angle from a 760-kV transmission line different thresholds for biologic effects were obtained. Hive exposures were controlled (E-field: 7, 5.5, 4.1, 1.8, and 0.65 to 0.85 kV/m) by variable height current collectors; shielded hives under the line behave normally. Exposure to 7 kV/m can produce the following sequence of events: (1) increased motor activity and transient hive temperature increase; (2) abnormal propolization; (3) retarded hive weight gain; (4) excess queen cell production with queen loss; (5) reduction of sealed brood area; and (6) poor winter survival. No biological effects were detected below 4.1 kV/m, thus the ''biological effects corridor'' is limited to approximately 23 m beyond a ground projection of each outer phase wire. Hive architecture enhances E-fields and creates shock hazards for bees. Intra-hive E-fields (15 to 100+ kV/m) were measured with a displacement current sensor and fiber optic telemetry link. Step-potential-induced currents up to 0.5 uA were measured with a bee model in hives at 7 kV/m. To investigate further the role of shock versus electric field exposure the study was continued to develop hive entrance extensions (porches), which produce controlled bee exposure to E-field or shock, and to test the feasibility of using these porches in such a study. Biological effects (e.g., abnormal propolization, retarded hive weight, queen loss) found in colonies with total-hive exposure were produced by entrance-only exposure of adult bees. We now have an exposure system in which E-field and shock can be separately controlled to reproduce the biological effects. 10 refs.

  15. Aging and demographic plasticity in response to experimental age structures in honeybees (Apis mellifera L).

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Linford, Robyn; Gardner, Preston; Coleman, Jennifer; Fine, Kari

    2008-08-01

    Honeybee colonies are highly integrated functional units characterized by a pronounced division of labor. Division of labor among workers is mainly age-based, with younger individuals focusing on in-hive tasks and older workers performing the more hazardous foraging activities. Thus, experimental disruption of the age composition of the worker hive population is expected to have profound consequences for colony function. Adaptive demography theory predicts that the natural hive age composition represents a colony-level adaptation and thus results in optimal hive performance. Alternatively, the hive age composition may be an epiphenomenon, resulting from individual life history optimization. We addressed these predictions by comparing individual worker longevity and brood production in hives that were composed of a single age cohort, two distinct age cohorts, and hives that had a continuous, natural age distribution. Four experimental replicates showed that colonies with a natural age composition did not consistently have a higher life expectancy and/or brood production than the single cohort or double cohort hives. Instead, a complex interplay of age structure, environmental conditions, colony size, brood production, and individual mortality emerged. A general trade-off between worker life expectancy and colony productivity was apparent, and the transition from in-hive tasks to foraging was the most significant predictor of worker lifespan irrespective of the colony age structure. We conclude that the natural age structure of honeybee hives is not a colony-level adaptation. Furthermore, our results show that honeybees exhibit pronounced demographic plasticity in addition to behavioral plasticity to react to demographic disturbances of their societies.

  16. Nest Initiation in Three North American Species of Bumble Bees (Bombus): Effects of Gyne Number and Worker Helpers on Colony Size and Establishment Success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three species of bumble bees, Bombus appositus, B. bifarius, and B. centralis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were evaluated for nest initiation success under three sets of initial conditions. In the spring, queens of each species were caught in the wild and introduced to nest boxes in one of three ways. Qu...

  17. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a 15.2 km2 area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready seed production fields (totalin...

  18. Two new bee-killing flies from Brazil (Insecta: Diptera: Phoridae: Melaloncha)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Melaloncha is a large group of species of parasitoid phorid flies that attack Hymenoptera, mostly stingless bees (Meliponinae, Apidae) in the Neotropical Region. New information Two new Brazilian species, Melaloncha (Melaloncha) peacockorum sp. n. and Melaloncha (Udamochiras) nielsi sp. n., are described and their identification clarified. PMID:26929720

  19. The status of Bombus occidentalis and B. moderatus in Alaska with special focus on Nosema bombi incidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Four North American bumble bee species in the subgenus Bombus sensu stricto, including Bombus occidentalis (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are experiencing dramatic declines in population abundance, range and genetic diversity. The prevailing hypothesis concerning their decline is the ‘s...

  20. Estimating reproductive success of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in honey bee colonies by trapping emigrating larvae.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Richard T; Torto, Baldwyn; Willms, Steve; Fombong, Ayuka T; Duehl, Adrian; Teal, Peter E A

    2012-02-01

    The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) is a scavenger and facultative predator in honey bee colonies, where it feeds on pollen, honey, and bee brood. Although a minor problem in its native Africa, it is an invasive pest of honey bees in the United States and Australia. Adult beetles enter bee hives to oviposit and feed. Larval development occurs within the hive, but mature larvae leave the hive to pupate in soil. The numbers leaving, which can be estimated by trapping, measure the reproductive success of adult beetles in the hive over any given period of time. We describe a trap designed to intercept mature larvae as they reach the end of the bottom board on their way to the ground. Trap efficiency was estimated by releasing groups of 100 larvae into empty brood boxes and counting the numbers trapped. Some larvae escaped, but mean efficiency ranged from 87.2 to 94.2%. We envision the trap as a research tool for study of beetle population dynamics, and we used it to track numbers of larvae leaving active hives for pupation in the soil. The traps detected large increases and then decreases in numbers of larvae leaving colonies that weakened and died. They also detected small numbers of larvae leaving strong European and African colonies, even when no larvae were observed in the hives.