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Sample records for hyperaccumulators alyssum murale

  1. Nickel and Manganese Accumulation, Interaction and Localization in Leaves of the Ni Hyperaccumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Alyssum contains >50 Ni hyperaccumulator species; many can achieve 3% Ni in dry leaf. In soils with normal Mn levels, Alyssum trichome bases were observed previously to accumulate Ni and Mn to high levels. Here we report concentration and localization patterns in A. murale and A. corsicum...

  2. The Metal Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale Uses Nitrogen and Oxygen Donor Ligands for Ni Transport and Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kotodesh genotype of the nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale was examined to determine the compartmentalization and internal speciation of Ni, and other elements, in an effort to ascertain the mechanism used by this plant to tolerate extremely high shoot Ni concentrations. Plants were g...

  3. Interaction of Nickel and Manganese in Accumulation and Localization in Leaves of the Ni Hyperaccumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhurst, C.; Tappero, R; Maugel, T; Erbe, E; Sparks, D; Chaney, R

    2009-01-01

    The genus Alyssum contains >50 Ni hyperaccumulator species; many can achieve >2.5% Ni in dry leaf. In soils with normal Mn levels, Alyssum trichome bases were previously observed to accumulate Ni and Mn to high levels. Here we report concentration and localization patterns in A. murale and A. corsicum grown in soils with nonphytotoxic factorial additions of Ni and Mn salts. Four leaf type subsets based on size and age accumulated Ni and Mn similarly. The greatest Mn accumulation (10 times control) was observed in A. corsicum with 40 mmol Mn kg-1 and 40 mmol Ni kg-1 added to potting soil. Whole leaf Ni concentrations decreased as Mn increased. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of whole fresh leaves showed localized in distinct high-concentration Mn spots associated with trichomes, Ni and Mn distributions were strongly spatially correlated. Standard X-ray fluorescence point analysis/mapping of cryofractured and freeze-dried samples found that Ni and Mn were co-located and strongly concentrated only in trichome bases and in cells adjacent to trichomes. Nickel concentration was also strongly spatially correlated with sulfur. Results indicate that maximum Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum may be reduced in soils with higher phytoavailable Mn, and suggest that Ni hyperaccumulation in Alyssum species may have developed from a Mn handling system.

  4. Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale Relies on a Different Metal Storage Mechanism for Cobalt than for Nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Tappero, R.; Peltier, E; Grafe, M; Heidel, K; Ginder-Vogel, M; Livi, K; Rivers, M; Marcus, M; Chaney, R; Sparks, D

    2007-01-01

    The nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale has been developed as a commercial crop for phytoremediation/phytomining Ni from metal-enriched soils. Here, metal co-tolerance, accumulation and localization were investigated for A. murale exposed to metal co-contaminants. A. murale was irrigated with Ni-enriched nutrient solutions containing basal or elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) or zinc (Zn). Metal localization and elemental associations were investigated in situ with synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (SXRF) and computed-microtomography (CMT). A. murale hyperaccumulated Ni and Co (> 1000 {micro}g g{sup -1} dry weight) from mixed-metal systems. Zinc was not hyperaccumulated. Elevated Co or Zn concentrations did not alter Ni accumulation or localization. SXRF images showed uniform Ni distribution in leaves and preferential localization of Co near leaf tips/margins. CMT images revealed that leaf epidermal tissue was enriched with Ni but devoid of Co, that Co was localized in the apoplasm of leaf ground tissue and that Co was sequestered on leaf surfaces near the tips/margins. Cobalt-rich mineral precipitate(s) form on leaves of Co-treated A. murale. Specialized biochemical processes linked with Ni (hyper)tolerance in A. murale do not confer (hyper)tolerance to Co. A. murale relies on a different metal storage mechanism for Co (exocellular sequestration) than for Ni (vacuolar sequestration).

  5. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Catherine L; Chaney, Rufus L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae) contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50), many of which can achieve 30 g kg(-1) Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn uptake. We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg(-1) Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg(-1). A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient phytoremediation and

  6. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, Catherine L.; Chaney, Rufus L.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae) contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50), many of which can achieve 30 g kg−1 Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn uptake. We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg−1 Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg−1. A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient phytoremediation and

  7. Exogenous cytokinin treatments of a Ni hyper-accumulator, Alyssum murale, grown in a serpentine soil: Implications for phytoextraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of exogenous plant growth regulators was examined as a viable technique to increase the efficiency of plant metal phytoextraction from contaminated soils. The aim of this study was to investigate the alteration of Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum murale, a Ni hyperaccumulator, following the...

  8. Transient Influx of nickel in root mitochondria modulates organic acid and reactive oxygen species production in nickel hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Bhavana; Czymmek, Kirk J; Sparks, Donald L; Bais, Harsh P

    2013-03-08

    Mitochondria are important targets of metal toxicity and are also vital for maintaining metal homeostasis. Here, we examined the potential role of mitochondria in homeostasis of nickel in the roots of nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum murale. We evaluated the biochemical basis of nickel tolerance by comparing the role of mitochondria in closely related nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale and non-accumulator Alyssum montanum. Evidence is presented for the rapid and transient influx of nickel in root mitochondria of nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale. In an early response to nickel treatment, substantial nickel influx was observed in mitochondria prior to sequestration in vacuoles in the roots of hyperaccumulator A. murale compared with non-accumulator A. montanum. In addition, the mitochondrial Krebs cycle was modulated to increase synthesis of malic acid and citric acid involvement in nickel hyperaccumulation. Furthermore, malic acid, which is reported to form a complex with nickel in hyperaccumulators, was also found to reduce the reactive oxygen species generation induced by nickel. We propose that the interaction of nickel with mitochondria is imperative in the early steps of nickel uptake in nickel hyperaccumulator plants. Initial uptake of nickel in roots results in biochemical responses in the root mitochondria indicating its vital role in homeostasis of nickel ions in hyperaccumulation.

  9. Growth and metal accumulation of an Alyssum murale nickel hyperaccumulator ecotype co-cropped with Alyssum montanum or perennial ryegrass in serpentine soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 400 plant species naturally accumulate high levels of metals such as Cd, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae) contains the greatest number of reported Ni hyperaccumulators (50), many of which can achieve 3 wt% Ni in dry leaves. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viabl...

  10. The Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale uses Complexation with Nitrogen and Oxygen Donor Ligands for Ni Transport and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    McNear, Jr., D.; Chanay, R; Sparks, D

    2010-01-01

    The Kotodesh genotype of the nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale was examined to determine the compartmentalization and internal speciation of Ni, and other elements, in an effort to ascertain the mechanism used by this plant to tolerate extremely high shoot (stem and leaf) Ni concentrations. Plants were grown either hydroponically or in Ni enriched soils from an area surrounding an historic Ni refinery in Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and synchrotron based micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) spectroscopy were used to determine the metal distribution and co-localization and synchrotron X-ray and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopies were used to determine the Ni speciation in plant parts and extracted sap. Nickel is concentrated in the dermal leaf and stem tissues of A. murale bound primarily to malate along with other low molecular weight organic ligands and possibly counter anions (e.g., sulfate). Ni is present in the plant sap and vasculature bound to histidine, malate and other low molecular weight compounds. The data presented herein supports a model in which Ni is transported from the roots to the shoots complexed with histidine and stored within the plant leaf dermal tissues complexed with malate, and other low molecular weight organic acids or counter-ions.

  11. Organic acids rather than histidine predominate in Ni chelation in Alyssum hyperaccumulator xylem exudate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of Ni uptake mechanisms by hyperaccumulator plants is necessary to improve Ni uptake efficiency for phytoremediation technologies i.e. phytomining. It is known that an important aspect of Ni translocation involves Ni chelation with organic ligands. However, it is still not cle...

  12. Evolutionary lineages of nickel hyperaccumulation and systematics in European Alysseae (Brassicaceae): evidence from nrDNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Lorenzo; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Arnetoli, Miluscia; Gonnelli, Cristina; Hasko, Agim; Selvi, Federico

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulation is a rare form of physiological specialization shared by a small number of angiosperms growing on ultramafic soils. The evolutionary patterns of this feature among European members of tribe Alysseae (Brassicaceae) are investigated using a phylogenetic approach to assess relationships among Ni hyperaccumulators at the genus, species and below-species level. Methods Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were generated for multiple accessions of Alysseae. Phylogenetic trees were obtained for the genera of the tribe and Alyssum sect. Odontarrhena. All accessions and additional herbarium material were tested for Ni hyperaccumulation with the dimethylglyoxime colorimetric method. Key Results Molecular data strongly support the poorly known hyperaccumulator endemic Leptoplax (Peltaria) emarginata as sister to hyperaccumulator species of Bornmuellera within Alysseae. This is contrary to current assumptions of affinity between L. emarginata and the non-hyperaccumulator Peltaria in Thlaspideae. The lineage Bornmuellera–Leptoplax is, in turn, sister to the two non-hyperaccumulator Mediterranean endemics Ptilotrichum rupestre and P. cyclocarpum. Low ITS sequence variation was found within the monophyletic Alyssum sect. Odontarrhena and especially in A. murale sensu lato. Nickel hyperaccumulation was not monophyletic in any of three main clades retrieved, each consisting of hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators of different geographical origin. Conclusions Nickel hyperaccumulation in Alysseae has a double origin, but it did not evolve in Thlaspideae. In Bornmuellera–Leptoplax it represents an early synapomorphy inherited from an ancestor shared with the calcicolous, sister clade of Mediterranean Ptilotrichum. In Alyssum sect. Odontarrhena it has multiple origins even within the three European clades recognized. Lack of geographical cohesion suggests that accumulation ability has been lost or gained over the

  13. Evaluation of plant growth regulators to increase nickel phytoextraction by Alyssum species.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Conejo, M I; Centofanti, T; Kidd, P S; Prieto-Fernández, A; Chaney, R L

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that application of phytohormones to shoots of Alyssum murale increased biomass production but did not increase Ni shoot concentration. Increased biomass and Ni phytoextraction efficiency is useful to achieve economically viable phytomining. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of phytohormones on the Ni phytoextraction capacity of four Alyssum species. Two different commercially available phytohormones (Cytokin and Promalin) based on cytokinins and/or gibberellins were applied on shoot biomass of four Ni hyperaccumulating Alyssum species (A. corsicum, A. malacitanum, A. murale, and A. pintodasilvae). Cytokin was applied in two concentrations and promalin in one concentration. The application of phytohormones had no clear positive effect on biomass production, Ni accumulation and Ni phytoextraction efficiency in the studied Alyssum species. A. malacitanum was the only species in which a significantly negative effect of these treatments was observed (in Ni uptake). A slightly positive response to promalin treatment was observed in the biomass production and Ni phytoextraction efficiency of A. corsicum. Although this effect was not significant it does indicate a potential application of these approaches to improve phytoextraction ability. Further studies will be needed to identify the most adequate phytohormone treatment as well as the appropriate concentrations and application times.

  14. NiO (bunsenite) is not available to Alyssum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some species of the genus Alyssum are capable of accumulating up to 30 g kg-1 DW Ni in their leaves when grown on serpentine soils where these species are endemic. The unique ability of Alyssum species to hyperaccumulate high concentration of Ni stimulated basic research toward a better understandi...

  15. Heavy metal resistance and genotypic analysis of metal resistance genes in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria present in Ni-rich serpentine soil and in the rhizosphere of Alyssum murale.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shanab, R A I; van Berkum, P; Angle, J S

    2007-06-01

    Forty-six bacterial cultures, including one culture collection strain, thirty from the rhizosphere of Alyssum murale and fifteen from Ni-rich soil, were tested for their ability to tolerate arsenate, cadmium, chromium, zinc, mercury, lead, cobalt, copper, and nickel in their growth medium. The resistance patterns, expressed as minimum inhibitory concentrations, for all cultures to the nine different metal ions were surveyed by using the agar dilution method. A large number of the cultures were resistant to Ni (100%), Pb (100%), Zn (100%), Cu (98%), and Co (93%). However, 82, 71, 58 and 47% were sensitive to As, Hg, Cd and Cr(VI), respectively. All cultures had multiple metal-resistant, with heptametal resistance as the major pattern (28.8%). Five of the cultures (about of 11.2% of the total), specifically Arthrobacter rhombi AY509239, Clavibacter xyli AY509235, Microbacterium arabinogalactanolyticum AY509226, Rhizobium mongolense AY509209 and Variovorax paradoxus AY512828 were tolerant to nine different metals. The polymerase chain reaction in combination with DNA sequence analysis was used to investigate the genetic mechanism responsible for the metal resistance in some of these gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that were, highly resistant to Hg, Zn, Cr and Ni. The czc, chr, ncc and mer genes that are responsible for resistance to Zn, Cr, Ni and Hg, respectively, were shown to be present in these bacteria by using PCR. In the case of, M. arabinogalactanolyticum AY509226 these genes were shown to have high homology to the czcD, chrB, nccA, and mer genes of Ralstonia metallidurans CH34. Therefore, Hg, Zn, Cr and Ni resistance genes are widely distributed in both gram-positive and gram-negative isolates obtained from A. murale rhizosphere and Ni-rich soils.

  16. Nickel and zinc isotope fractionation in hyperaccumulating and nonaccumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Cloquet, Christophe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Estrade, Nicolas; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-10-21

    Until now, there has been little data on the isotope fractionation of nickel (Ni) in higher plants and how this can be affected by plant Ni and zinc (Zn) homeostasis. A hydroponic cultivation was conducted to investigate the isotope fractionation of Ni and Zn during plant uptake and translocation processes. The nonaccumulator Thlaspi arvense, the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale and the Ni and Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens were grown in low (2 μM) and high (50 μM) Ni and Zn solutions. Results showed that plants were inclined to absorb light Ni isotopes, presumably due to the functioning of low-affinity transport systems across root cell membrane. The Ni isotope fractionation between plant and solution was greater in the hyperaccumulators grown in low Zn treatments (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.90 to -0.63‰) than that in the nonaccumulator T. arvense (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.21‰), thus indicating a greater permeability of the low-affinity transport system in hyperaccumulators. Light isotope enrichment of Zn was observed in most of the plants (Δ(66)Zn(plant-solution) = -0.23 to -0.10‰), but to a lesser extent than for Ni. The rapid uptake of Zn on the root surfaces caused concentration gradients, which induced ion diffusion in the rhizosphere and could result in light Zn isotope enrichment in the hyperaccumulator N. caerulescens. In high Zn treatment, Zn could compete with Ni during the uptake process, which reduced Ni concentration in plants and decreased the extent of Ni isotope fractionation (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.11 to -0.07‰), indicating that plants might take up Ni through a low-affinity transport system of Zn. We propose that isotope composition analysis for transition elements could become an empirical tool to study plant physiological processes.

  17. Chelator-buffered nutrient solution is ineffective in extracting Ni from seeds of Alyssum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperaccumulator species of the genera Alyssum can accumulate 100 times more Ni than normal crops and are therefore used for phytomining and phytoextraction of nickel contaminated soils. Basic studies on the physiology and metal uptake mechanisms of these plants are needed to increase efficiency and...

  18. NiO(s) (Bunsenite) is not Available to Alyssum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AIMS: To determine if the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum corsicum can absorb Ni from the kinetically inert crystalline mineral NiO(s) (bunsenite). METHODS: A. corsicum and A. montanum plants were grown for 30 days in a serpentine Hoagland solution. NiO was provided at 0 or 0.1 g L-1 (1.34 mmol L-1) ...

  19. Evaluation of plant growth regulators to increase Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that application of phytohormones to shoots of Alyssum murale increased biomass production but did not increase Ni shoot concentration. Increased biomass and Ni phytoextraction efficiency is useful to achieve economically viable phytomining. The objective of this study wa...

  20. Chelator-buffered nutrient solution is ineffective in extracting Ni from seeds of Alyssum.

    PubMed

    Centofanti, Tiziana; Tappero, Ryan V; Davis, Allen P; Chaney, Rufus L

    2011-01-01

    Hyperaccumulator species of the genera Alyssum can accumulate 100 times more Ni than normal crops and are therefore used for phytomining and phytoextraction of nickel contaminated soils. Basic studies on the physiology and metal uptake mechanisms of these plants are needed to increase efficiency and uptake capacity of Nickel (Ni) by hyperaccumulators. Recent attempts to disclose if those hyperaccumulator species require higher Ni level than normal plants failed because of the high Ni content in the seeds (7000-9000 microg g(-1)). In this study, we attempted to use chelator buffered nutrient solution to deplete Ni from the seed/seed coat and to obtain low Ni seedlings of Alyssum cultivars to be used in physiology studies. HEDTA-buffered nutrient solution did not deplete Ni from the seeds, perhaps because Ni was mainly localized within the seedling embryonic tissues with greatest Ni enrichment in the cotyledons and hypocotyls. We could not observe any positive correlation between seed fitness and germination capacity with seed Ni content. Investigation of nickel localization in Alyssum seeds using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (micro-SXRF) showed that nickel is localized in the embryonic tissues with greatest Ni enrichment observed in the cotyledons and hypocotyl.

  1. Mural Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Five articles describe techniques of mural making and mural projects which have been accomplished by elementary and secondary students, including a class of blind and partially sighted children. (SJL)

  2. Critical Muralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  3. Feasibility of using hyperaccumulating plants to bioremediate metal-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.J.; Guerin, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was carried out to determine whether selected plants were capable of hyperaccumulating anthropogenic sources of metals found in soils from three contaminated sites. A trial was conducted using the previously reported hyperaccumulators, Armeria maritima (thrift), Impatiens balsamina (balsam), Alyssum saxatile (gold dust), and the control species, Brassica oleracea (cabbage). Although none of these plants showed any substantial hyperaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, it was established that there is an optimum period in the life-cycle of these plants in which the metal concentration reaches a maximum. This period was dependent on the metal, soil, and plant type. The current paper describes the data obtained for Zn and Cu uptake by thrift.

  4. Murals as Storytellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fradella, Laura

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes murals as visual storytelling. In times before most people could read or write, pictures were used to tell stories and to teach people. Visual storytelling is most often seen in the form of drawing, painting, collage, printmaking, quilts, stained-glass windows, and murals. The concept of visual storytelling…

  5. Sticky-Note Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a sticky-note mural project that originated from his desire to incorporate contemporary materials into his assignments as well as to inspire collaboration between students. The process takes much more than sticking sticky notes to the wall. It takes critical thinking skills and teamwork to design and complete…

  6. Rain Forest Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  7. An Ocean Mural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Frank; Graham, Ada

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a class project on oceans, fishes, and fishing industries around the world. Groups of students make a mural of the world, filling the oceans with accurate drawings of fish, fishing boats, and fishing equipment. Students learn about the importance of fish in various cultures and about the migration routes of fish. Includes a resource…

  8. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  9. 7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF MURAL IN LOBBY. THE MURAL IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF MURAL IN LOBBY. THE MURAL IS PAINTED IN PASTEL SHADES, AND A REFLECTION OF THE BALUSTRADE OF THE OPPOSITE STAIRWAY IS VISIBLE IN THE MIRROR - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  10. INTERIOR DETAIL OF MURAL IN LOBBY. THE MURAL IS PAINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL OF MURAL IN LOBBY. THE MURAL IS PAINTED IN PASTEL SHADES, AND A REFLECTION OF THE BALUSTRADE OF THE OPPOSITE STAIRWAY IS VISIBLE IN THE MIRROR. - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  11. Ecological Mural as Community Reconnection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang Song, Young Imm; Gammel, Jo Ann

    2011-01-01

    Murals are particularly visually captivating forms of public art due to their size and accessibility. Mural images also capture public attention and provoke viewers to explore layers of meaning and find hidden stories. They are often in places that people come to visit, study, play, congregate and discuss matters that may relate to the content of…

  12. Chalk Murals and Great Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Kay

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Annual Chalk Mural project done by the members of the National Art Honor Society at the Sacramento County Day School. Discusses the tradition of the annual project and the planning and research involved. Focuses on the 7th Annual Chalk Mural featuring Wayne Thiebaud. (CMK)

  13. Waste or substrate for metal hyperaccumulating plants - The potential of phytomining on waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Phytomining could represent an innovative low-cost technology for the selective recovery of valuable trace elements from secondary resources. In this context the potential of phytomining from waste incineration bottom ash was tested in a pot experiment. Fresh bottom ash was acidified, leached to reduce salinity and amended with organic material to obtain a suitable substrate for plant growth. Two hyperaccumulator species, Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum and Sedum plumbizincicola as well as three metal tolerant species, Brassica napus, B. juncea and Nicotiana tabacum were tested for their phytomining potential on the pre-treated and amended bottom ashes from municipal solid waste and hazardous waste incineration. The hyperaccumulators had severe difficulties to establish on the bottom ash and to produce sufficient biomass, likely due to salinity and Cu toxicity. Nevertheless, concentrations of Ni in A. serpyllifolium and Zn in S. plumbizincicola were high, but total metal removal was limited by the low biomass production and was clearly less than on metalliferous soils. The Brassica species proved to be more tolerant to salinity and high Cu concentrations and produced considerably higher biomass, but total metal removal was limited by rather low shoot concentrations. The observed limitations of the phytomining process along with currently low market prices of Ni and Zn suggest that further optimisation of the process is required in order to make phytomining economically feasible on the tested waste incineration bottom ashes.

  14. Agronomy of strip intercropping broccoli with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic broccoli growers in California typically control aphids by intercropping broccoli with strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) which attracts hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) that are important predators of aphids. A three year study with transplanted organic broccoli in Salinas, ...

  15. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    PubMed

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits.

  16. Potential use of metal hyperaccumulators

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, R.; Li, Yin-Ming; Green, C.

    1996-12-31

    Experiments involving biological accumulation of metal contaminants are summarized in the article. The focus is on identification of hyperaccumulating plant species for cadmium and zinc. Two of the studies examined Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) as a bioadsorbent; the third study compared different species of Thlaspi. The T. caerulescens accumulated both metals, but with low yields. Other plant species were identified which adsorbed cadmium or zinc, but not both metals.

  17. Patriotic Mural: An Artistic Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfi, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Explains how students created artwork as a therapeutic outlet after the attack on the World Trade Center (New York) on September 11th, 2001. Describes a project that focused on patriotism in which students created murals with quotes from national hymns. (CMK)

  18. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic growers in California typically devote 5 to 10% of the area in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fields to insectary strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritime (L.) Desv.) to attract syrphid flies (Syrphidae) whose larvae provide biological control of aphids. A 2-year study with organic romaine lettuc...

  19. Analysis of the brain mural cell transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    He, Liqun; Vanlandewijck, Michael; Raschperger, Elisabeth; Andaloussi Mäe, Maarja; Jung, Bongnam; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Ando, Koji; Hofmann, Jennifer; Keller, Annika; Betsholtz, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes, the mural cells of blood microvessels, regulate microvascular development and function and have been implicated in many brain diseases. However, due to a paucity of defining markers, pericyte identification and functional characterization remain ambiguous and data interpretation problematic. In mice carrying two transgenic reporters, Pdgfrb-eGFP and NG2-DsRed, we found that double-positive cells were vascular mural cells, while the single reporters marked additional, but non-overlapping, neuroglial cells. Double-positive cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and analyzed by RNA sequencing. To reveal defining patterns of mural cell transcripts, we compared the RNA sequencing data with data from four previously published studies. The meta-analysis provided a conservative catalogue of 260 brain mural cell-enriched gene transcripts. We validated pericyte-specific expression of two novel markers, vitronectin (Vtn) and interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (Ifitm1), using fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We further analyzed signaling pathways and interaction networks of the pericyte-enriched genes in silico. This work provides novel insight into the molecular composition of brain mural cells. The reported gene catalogue facilitates identification of brain pericytes by providing numerous new candidate marker genes and is a rich source for new hypotheses for future studies of brain mural cell physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:27725773

  20. Phytomining of valuable metals from waste incineration residues using hyperaccumulator plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    involving six plant species and an unplanted control as well as two different substrates. Fast growing species (Brassica napus, B. juncea, Nicotiana tabacum) will be harvested after two months, whereas slowly growing hyperaccumulators (Sedum plumbizincicola, Alyssum pintodasilvae) will be harvested after four months of growth. The plant tissue will be analyzed for the accumulation of the target metals. Moreover, the influence of plants on the substrate and solubility of certain metals is going to be evaluated.

  1. 21. View West, Detail Mural, Children's Room, Rip Van Winkle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View West, Detail Mural, Children's Room, Rip Van Winkle Mural, Project of the CWA (Civil Works Administration) Completed May 1934. - Ives Memorial Library, 133 Elm Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. The Politics of Clay: The American-Soviet Mural Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lynn

    1990-01-01

    Describes a U.S.-Soviet mural project where citizens from Milwaukee, Wisconsin and citizens from Leningrad created two peace murals--one in the United States and the other in the Soviet Union. The murals were exchanged. Participants made their own clay using dry clay and water before creating their impressions of peace and friendship. (KM)

  3. Investigating murals with terahertz reflective tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technology has been proposed to be used in the non-invasive detection of murals. THz-TDS images provide structural data of the sample that cannot be obtained with other complementary techniques. In this paper, two types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by the terahertz reflected time domain spectroscopy imaging system. These preset defects include a leaf slice and a slit built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. With this THz tomography, different defects with the changes of optical thickness and their relative refractive index have been identified. The application of reflective pulsed terahertz imaging has been extended to the defect detection of the murals.

  4. RVOT mural and mitral valve endocarditis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Maadh; Cardozo, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Mural endocarditis is a very rare condition. This entity involves bacterial growth on cardiac walls. In addition, concomitant valvular endocarditis, along with mural endocarditis, is an extremely rare combination. The diagnosis of mural endocarditis is difficult and requires more advanced cardiac imaging, such as a transesophageal echocardiogram. The differential diagnoses of mural masses include vegetations, thrombi, metastasis, and benign and malignant tumors. We present a rare and unusual case of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with findings of both right ventricular outflow tract mural endocarditis and valvular endocarditis involving the mitral valve.

  5. RVOT mural and mitral valve endocarditis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, Maadh; Cardozo, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Mural endocarditis is a very rare condition. This entity involves bacterial growth on cardiac walls. In addition, concomitant valvular endocarditis, along with mural endocarditis, is an extremely rare combination. The diagnosis of mural endocarditis is difficult and requires more advanced cardiac imaging, such as a transesophageal echocardiogram. The differential diagnoses of mural masses include vegetations, thrombi, metastasis, and benign and malignant tumors. We present a rare and unusual case of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with findings of both right ventricular outflow tract mural endocarditis and valvular endocarditis involving the mitral valve. PMID:26702695

  6. Prospecting for hyperaccumulators of trace elements: a review.

    PubMed

    Krzciuk, Karina; Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Specific plant species that can take up and accumulate abnormally high concentrations of elements in their aboveground tissues are referred to as "hyperaccumulators". The use of this term is justified in the case of enormous element-binding capacity of plants growing in their natural habitats and showing no toxicity symptoms. An increasing interest in the study of hyperaccumulators results from their potential applications in environmental biotechnology (phytoremediation, phytomining) and their emerging role in nanotechnology. The highest number of plant species with confirmed hyperaccumulative properties has been reported for hyperaccumulators of nickel, cadmium, zinc, manganese, arsenic and selenium. More limited data exist for plants accumulating other elements, including common pollutants (chromium, lead and boron) or elements of commercial value, such as copper, gold and rare earth elements. Different approaches have been used for the study of hyperaccumulators - geobotanical, chemical, biochemical and genetic. The chemical approach is the most important in screening for new hyperaccumulators. This article presents and critically reviews current trends in new hyperaccumulator research, emphasizing analytical methodology that is applied in identification of new hyperaccumulators of trace elements and its future perspectives.

  7. Effects of arsenic on nitrogen metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ferns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of arsenic on the in vitro activities of the enzymes (nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in nitrate metabolism in the roots, rhizomes, and fronds of two four-month old fern plants, Pteris vittata, an arsenic-hyperaccumulator, and Pteris ensiformis, ...

  8. Xylem exudate composition and root-to-shoot nickel translocation in Alyssum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved understanding of Ni root-to-shoot translocation mechanism in hyperaccumulators is necessary to increase Ni uptake efficiency for phytoextraction technologies. It is presumed that an important aspect of Ni translocation and storage involves chelation with organic ligands. It has been re...

  9. Knowing, Experiencing and Feeling: A Mural for Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jenny

    1980-01-01

    Described is a project in which art education graduate students in Perth, Australia, built a story mural for blind children. Using an Australian adaptation of "The Wizard of Oz," they created a mural with textures and objects that illustrated the story carried in print and braille. (SJL)

  10. Out of America: Exploring Collaborative Mural Teaching in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kong

    2012-01-01

    In February 2010, the author arrived in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, to teach mural painting at the National Academy of Art for his five-month Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program lecturing award. He targeted Bulgaria as his host country in his 2009-2010 Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program application because of its rich mural painting culture. He…

  11. Hyperaccumulators, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and stress of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Use of plants, with hyperaccumulating ability or in association with soil microbes including the symbiotic fungi, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), are among the most common biological methods of treating heavy metals in soil. Both hyperaccumulating plants and AM fungi have some unique abilities, which make them suitable to treat heavy metals. Hyperaccumulator plants have some genes, being expressed at the time of heavy metal pollution, and can accordingly localize high concentration of heavy metals to their tissues, without showing the toxicity symptoms. A key solution to the issue of heavy metal pollution may be the proper integration of hyperaccumulator plants and AM fungi. The interactions between the soil microbes and the host plant can also be important for the treatment of soils polluted with heavy metals.

  12. Development and characterization of electrosprayed Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum nanoparticles for encapsulation of d-limonene.

    PubMed

    Khoshakhlagh, Khadije; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Allafchian, Alireza

    2017-03-15

    In this study, the feasibility of developing Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) nanocapsules containing d-limonene by electrospraying has been investigated. d-limonene emulsions with constant AHSG (0.5% w/w) and various flavor concentrations (10-30% based on gum weight) with 0.1% Tween 20 were electrosprayed at 20kV and 0.1ml/h of flow rate. The effects of key parameters of emulsions (rheological properties, droplet size, surface tension and electrical conductivity) on the morphology of structures have been studied. The morphology of nanocapsules had strong dependency on solution properties. The aggregated irregular shaped nanoparticles were obtained from electrospraying of AHSG solution. After incorporation of 10 and 20% d-limonene, spherical nanocapsules were yielded. However, morphology of nanocapsules changed to nanofibers by increasing the flavor content to 30%. The encapsulation efficiency for 10 and 20% d-limonene loaded nanocapsules was around 87-93%. Attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also employed to study the physicochemical characteristics of nanocapsules. These experiments provided evidences that electrosprayed AHSG nanoparticles introduce a novel and efficient carrier for encapsulation of bioactive ingredients.

  13. Effects of selenium hyperaccumulation on plant-plant interactions: evidence for elemental allelopathy?

    PubMed

    El Mehdawi, Ali F; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-07-01

    • Few studies have investigated plant-plant interactions involving hyperaccumulator plants. Here, we investigated the effect of selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation on neighboring plants. • Soil and litter Se concentrations were determined around the hyperaccumulators Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata and around the nonhyperaccumulators Medicago sativa and Helianthus pumilus. We also compared surrounding vegetative cover, species composition and Se concentration in two plant species (Artemisia ludoviciana and Symphyotrichum ericoides) growing either close to or far from Se hyperaccumulators. Then, Arabidopsis thaliana germination and growth were compared on soils collected next to the hyperaccumulators and the nonhyperaccumulators. • Soil collected around hyperaccumulators contained more Se (up to 266 mg Se kg(-1) ) than soil collected around nonhyperaccumulators. Vegetative ground cover was 10% lower around Se hyperaccumulators compared with nonhyperaccumulators. The Se concentration was higher in neighboring species A. ludoviciana and S. ericoides when growing close to, compared with far from, Se hyperaccumulators. A. thaliana showed reduced germination and growth, and higher Se accumulation, when grown on soil collected around Se hyperaccumulators compared with soil collected around nonaccumulators. • In conclusion, Se hyperaccumulators may increase the surrounding soil Se concentration (phytoenrichment). The enhanced soil Se contents around hyperaccumulators can impair the growth of Se-sensitive plant species, pointing to a possible role of Se hyperaccumulation in elemental allelopathy.

  14. Magnetic remanence of hematite-bearing murals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, R.; Zanella, E.; Saudino, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a series of experiments designed to test the ability of hematite-bearing colors to record the direction of the ambient magnetic field. Plasterboards accurately oriented with respect to the Earth's magnetic field were painted with red tempera colors prepared with hematite pigments. Magnetic measurements indicate that the color film retains a remanent magnetization and acquires a well developed magnetic fabric. The remanence direction is close to, yet slightly deviated from the Earth's magnetic field. The deviation is interpreted to result from preferential alignment of the pigment grains parallel to the plasterboard surface and depends on both its orientation with respect to magnetic north and the degree of magnetic anisotropy of the color film, which in turn varies according to the pigment used. Investigation of the magnetic remanence of murals may complement archaeomagnetic information derived from traditional materials such as baked and fired structures.

  15. 9. BASRELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BAS-RELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT DEARBORN - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Michigan Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 35. Writing room with fireplace and a Chinese style mural ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Writing room with fireplace and a Chinese style mural painted by Alison Stilwell. (removed 1997) - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  17. 60. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, WEST MURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, WEST MURAL PAINTING SHOWING A WOMAN (See NY-5635-54 for original location) - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  18. The apoplasmic pathway via the root apex and lateral roots contributes to Cd hyperaccumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qi; Jupa, Radek; Luo, Jipeng; Lux, Alexander; Kováč, Ján; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Yimei; Jan, Japenga; Liang, Yongchao; Li, Tingqiang

    2016-12-16

    Although the significance of apoplasmic barriers in roots with regards to the uptake of toxic elements is generally known, the contribution of apoplasmic bypasses (ABs) to cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation is little understood. Here, we employed a combination of stable isotopic tracer techniques, an ABs tracer, hydraulic measurements, suberin lamellae staining, metabolic inhibitors, and antitranspirants to investigate and quantify the impact of the ABs on translocation of Cd to the xylem in roots of a hyperaccumulating (H) ecotype and a non-hyperaccumulating (NH) ecotype of Sedum alfredii In the H ecotype, the Cd content in the xylem sap was proportional to hydrostatic pressure, which was attributed to pressure-driven flow via the ABs. The contribution of the ABs to Cd transportation to the xylem was dependent on the Cd concentration applied to the H ecotype (up to 37% at the highest concentration used). Cd-treated H ecotype roots showed significantly higher hydraulic conductance compared with the NH ecotype (76 vs 52 × 10(-8) m s(-1)MPa(-1)), which is in accordance with less extensive suberization due to reduced expression of suberin-related genes. The main entry sites of apoplasmically transported Cd were localized in the root apexes and lateral roots of the H ecotype, where suberin lamellae were not well developed. These findings highlight the significance of the apoplasmic bypass in Cd hyperaccumulation in hyperaccumulating ecotypes of S. alfredii.

  19. Recipe for Working Together: Gen. Colin Powell and the Baker's Dough Mural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Describes the process for creating a baker's-dough mural that would become a permanent part of the community and relates a visit made to the Sacramento (California) Boys & Girls Club by General Colin Powell. Discusses Powell's part in creating the mural. Includes the steps for how to make a Baker's-dough mural. (CMK)

  20. An Intercultural Peace Mural Project: Let's Make a Peaceful World Hand in Hand!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Jaehan

    2012-01-01

    Murals have become a powerful art form for portraying antiwar, human rights, social justice, and human dignity issues. Educators and artists have conducted mural workshops with adolescents in international settings to educate them about peace, human rights, and cultural tolerance. Learning with murals has been shown to be pedagogically meaningful…

  1. Effects of Cadmium on Nickel Tolerance and Accumulation in Alyssum species and Cabbage Grown in Nutrient Solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nickel phytoextraction using hyperaccumulator plant species to accumulate Ni from mineralized and contaminated soils rich in Ni is an emerging technology. Serpentinite derived soils which contain Ni ore value have a very low ratio of Ca:Mg among soils due the nature of the parent rock. In crop plant...

  2. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma with sarcoma-like mural nodule

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, R. F. R.; Stoot, J. H. M. B.; Blok, P.

    2007-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal cystadenomas are extremely rare. This is the first report in literature to describe a primary retroperitoneal cystadenoma with a sarcoma-like mural nodule. A 45-year-old woman complained of a left-sided abdominal mass. A computed tomography scan revealed a cystic mass with a mural nodule, which seemed to originate from the tail of the pancreas. At laparotomy the cyst was not adhered to the pancreas but localized retroperitoneally. Histologic examination showed a mucinous cystadenoma with only foci of borderline malignancy with a mural “sarcoma-like” nodule. In view of the surgical and histopathological findings, the mucinous cystadenoma was regarded as primary retroperitoneal. This case demonstrates that in the era of radiological preoperative refinement, pathological diagnosis remains of utmost importance, especially for rare cases. PMID:17690906

  3. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhée, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-10-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  4. 4D Visualization of Painted Sculpture and Murals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, M. Y.; Tong, H.; Shen, L.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Z. C.; Hu, Q. W.; Zhu, Y. X.; Zhang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Most cultural heritage applications address visualization with using various media or platforms: desktop-based multimedia presentations, museum kiosks, or videos produced with computer animation. However, these techniques can not directly reveal or show the course that the colorful surface of painted sculpture and murals becomes faint along with the change of the climate and time. Most current techniques just preserve the current appearance and disseminate the current situation of the painted sculpture and murals. The course how these forms of cultural heritage change along the time has not been visualized. In this paper we developed an approach to modelling of painted sculpture and murals that has undergone changes over the years. Different hypotheses has also be given if there is uncertainty. A painted sculpture of Mogao Grottoes is used to demonstate this approach.

  5. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  6. Molecular dissection of the cellular mechanisms involved in nickel hyperaccumulation in plants. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Salt, D.

    1998-06-01

    'Phytoremediation, the use of plants for environmental cleanup of pollutants, including toxic metals, holds the potential to allow the economic restoration of heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated sites. A number of terrestrial plants are known to naturally accumulate high levels of metals in their shoots (1--2% dry weight), and these plants have been termed metal-hyperaccumulators. Clearly, the genetic traits that determine metal-hyperaccumulation offers the potential for the development of practical phytoremediation processes. The long-term objective is to rationally design and generate plants ideally suited for phytoremediation using this unique genetic material. Initially, the strategy will focus on isolating and characterizing the key genetic information needed for expression of the metal-hyperaccumulation phenotype. Recently, histidine has been shown to play a major role in Ni hyperaccumulation. Based on this information the authors propose to investigate, at the molecular level, the role of histidine biosynthesis in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, a Ni hyperaccumulator species.'

  7. Hyperaccumulation, complexation and distribution of nickel in Sebertia acuminata.

    PubMed

    Sagner, S; Kneer, R; Wanner, G; Cosson, J P; Deus-Neumann, B; Zenk, M H

    1998-02-01

    The nickel content in different parts of the hyperaccumulating tree Sebertia acuminata was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Nickel was found to be mainly located in laticifers. The total nickel content of a single mature tree was estimated to be 37 kg. By gel filtration and NMR spectroscopy, citric acid was unequivocally identified as counter ion for about 40% of this metal present. Nitrate was assumed to be a further partner for a complete ionic balance. Phytochelatins were not found to be involved in nickel detoxification in Sebertia. The localization of nickel complexes inside the laticifers was demonstrated by light microscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy in combination with an EDX system for the analysis of elements. A repellent effect of the plant sap was observed on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster indicating that in hyperaccumulating plants nickel functions as an agent to prevent predation.

  8. Beautiful Walls: Reclaiming Urban Space through Mural Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Bethany J.

    2016-01-01

    During the nearly sixteen years she has lived and worked in inner city neighborhoods in New York, Delaware, and Philadelphia, Bethany Welch has seen communities reclaim these spaces by tackling the most visible things first. This includes clearing trash strewn vacant lots and creating murals on expansive exterior walls stained with marks of time.…

  9. On the Wall: Art Students Learn to Paint a Mural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the Mississippi University for Women's studio art course that teaches students the ins and outs of mural making from inception and design to application of the final glaze. While students in other courses may spend the semester working toward a final exam or paper, this four-and-a-half-week summer course…

  10. Endoglin regulates mural cell adhesion in the circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elisa; Smadja, David M; Boscolo, Elisa; Langa, Carmen; Arevalo, Miguel A; Pericacho, Miguel; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Kauskot, Alexandre; Botella, Luisa M; Gaussem, Pascale; Bischoff, Joyce; Lopez-Novoa, José M; Bernabeu, Carmelo

    2016-04-01

    The circulatory system is walled off by different cell types, including vascular mural cells and podocytes. The interaction and interplay between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells, such as vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes, play a pivotal role in vascular biology. Endoglin is an RGD-containing counter-receptor for β1 integrins and is highly expressed by ECs during angiogenesis. We find that the adhesion between vascular ECs and mural cells is enhanced by integrin activators and inhibited upon suppression of membrane endoglin or β1-integrin, as well as by addition of soluble endoglin (SolEng), anti-integrin α5β1 antibody or an RGD peptide. Analysis of different endoglin mutants, allowed the mapping of the endoglin RGD motif as involved in the adhesion process. In Eng (+/-) mice, a model for hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia type 1, endoglin haploinsufficiency induces a pericyte-dependent increase in vascular permeability. Also, transgenic mice overexpressing SolEng, an animal model for preeclampsia, show podocyturia, suggesting that SolEng is responsible for podocytes detachment from glomerular capillaries. These results suggest a critical role for endoglin in integrin-mediated adhesion of mural cells and provide a better understanding on the mechanisms of vessel maturation in normal physiology as well as in pathologies such as preeclampsia or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

  11. 18. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. 'MISSILE ART' MURAL PAINTED ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. 'MISSILE ART' MURAL PAINTED ON INTERIOR WALL OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  12. 59. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, CENTRAL MURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, CENTRAL MURAL PAINTING SHOWING WOMAN ON A SWING (See NY-5635-54 for original location) - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  13. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  14. Molecular Dissection of the Cellular Mechanisms Involved in Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Salt, David E.

    1999-06-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants for environmental cleanup of pollutants, including toxic metals, holds the potential to allow the economic restoration of heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated sites. A number of terrestrial plants are known to naturally accumulate high levels of metals in their shoots (1-2% dry weight), and these plants have been termed metal-hyperaccumulators. Clearly, the genetic traits that determines metal-hyperaccumulation offers the potential for the development of practical phytoremediation processes. Our long-term objective is to rationally design and generate plants ideally suited for phytoremediation using this unique genetic material. Initially, our strategy will focus on isolating and characterizing the key genetic information needed for expression of the metal-hyperaccumulation phenotype. Recently, histidine has been shown to play a major role in Ni hyperaccumulation. Based on this information we propose to investigate, at the molecular level, the role of histidine biosynthesis in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, a Ni hyperaccumulator species. We will clone key genes involved in histidine biosynthesis. We will characterize their transcriptional and post transcriptional regulation by histidine, Ni. We will determine if any of these genes are essential and sufficient for Ni hyperaccumulation by their expression in the non-hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana.

  15. Molybdenum accumulation, tolerance and molybdenum-selenium-sulfur interactions in Astragalus selenium hyperaccumulator and nonaccumulator species.

    PubMed

    DeTar, Rachael Ann; Alford, Élan R; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2015-07-01

    Some species hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) upwards of 0.1% of dry weight. This study addressed whether Se hyperaccumulators also accumulate and tolerate more molybdenum (Mo). A field survey revealed on average 2-fold higher Mo levels in three hyperaccumulator Astragali compared to three nonaccumulator Astragali, which were not significantly different. Next, a controlled study was performed where hyperaccumulators Astragalus racemosus and Astragalus bisulcatus were compared with nonaccumulators Astragalus drummondii and Astragalus convallarius for Mo accumulation and tolerance, alone or in the presence of Se. When grown on agar media with 0, 12, 24 or 48 mg L(-1) molybdate and/or 0, 1.6 or 3.2 mg L(-1) selenate, all species decreased in biomass with increasing Mo supply. Selenium did not impact biomass at the supplied levels. All Astragali accumulated Mo upwards of 0.1% of dry weight. Selenium levels were up to 0.08% in Astragalus racemosus and 0.04% Se in the other species. Overall, there was no correlation between Se hyperaccumulation and Mo accumulation capacity. However, the hyperaccumulators and nonaccumulators differed in some respects. While none of the species had a higher tissue Mo to sulfur (S) ratio than the growth medium, nonaccumulators had a higher Mo/S ratio than hyperaccumulators. Also, while molybdate and selenate reduced S accumulation in nonaccumulators, it did not in hyperaccumulators. Furthermore, A. racemosus had a higher Se/S ratio than its medium, while the other species did not. Additionally, Mo and Se treatment affected S levels in nonaccumulators, but not in hyperaccumulators. In conclusion, there is no evidence of a link between Se and Mo accumulation and tolerance in Astragalus. Sulfate transporters in hyperaccumulating Astragali appear to have higher sulfate specificity over other oxyanions, compared to nonaccumulators, and A. racemosus may have a transporter with enhanced selenate specificity relative to sulfate or molybdate.

  16. Characterizing microbial diversity and damage in mural paintings.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Tânia; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Mural paintings are some of the oldest and most important cultural expressions of mankind and play an important role for the understanding of societies and civilizations. These cultural assets have high economic and cultural value and therefore their degradation has social and economic impact. The present work presents a novel microanalytical approach to understand the damages caused by microbial communities in mural paintings. This comprises the characterization and identification of microbial diversity and evaluation of damage promoted by their biological activity. Culture-dependent methods and DNA-based approaches like denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing are important tools in the isolation and identification of the microbial communities allowing characterization of the biota involved in the biodeterioration phenomena. Raman microspectrometry, infrared spectrometry, and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry are also useful tools for evaluation of the presence of microbial contamination and detection of the alteration products resulting from metabolic activity of the microorganisms. This study shows that the degradation status of mural paintings can be correlated to the presence of metabolically active microorganisms.

  17. Increased glutathione biosynthesis plays a role in nickel tolerance in thlaspi nickel hyperaccumulators.

    PubMed

    Freeman, John L; Persans, Michael W; Nieman, Ken; Albrecht, Carrie; Peer, Wendy; Pickering, Ingrid J; Salt, David E

    2004-08-01

    Worldwide more than 400 plant species are now known that hyperaccumulate various trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn), metalloids (As) and nonmetals (Se) in their shoots. Of these, almost one-quarter are Brassicaceae family members, including numerous Thlaspi species that hyperaccumulate Ni up to 3% of there shoot dry weight. We observed that concentrations of glutathione, Cys, and O-acetyl-l-serine (OAS), in shoot tissue, are strongly correlated with the ability to hyperaccumulate Ni in various Thlaspi hyperaccumulators collected from serpentine soils, including Thlaspi goesingense, T. oxyceras, and T. rosulare, and nonaccumulator relatives, including T. perfoliatum, T. arvense, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Further analysis of the Austrian Ni hyperaccumulator T. goesingense revealed that the high concentrations of OAS, Cys, and GSH observed in this hyperaccumulator coincide with constitutively high activity of both serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and glutathione reductase. SAT catalyzes the acetylation of l-Ser to produce OAS, which acts as both a key positive regulator of sulfur assimilation and forms the carbon skeleton for Cys biosynthesis. These changes in Cys and GSH metabolism also coincide with the ability of T. goesingense to both hyperaccumulate Ni and resist its damaging oxidative effects. Overproduction of T. goesingense SAT in the nonaccumulator Brassicaceae family member Arabidopsis was found to cause accumulation of OAS, Cys, and glutathione, mimicking the biochemical changes observed in the Ni hyperaccumulators. In these transgenic Arabidopsis, glutathione concentrations strongly correlate with increased resistance to both the growth inhibitory and oxidative stress induced effects of Ni. Taken together, such evidence supports our conclusion that elevated GSH concentrations, driven by constitutively elevated SAT activity, are involved in conferring tolerance to Ni-induced oxidative stress in Thlaspi Ni hyperaccumulators.

  18. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia)

    PubMed Central

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L.; Noller, Barry N.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H.

    2017-01-01

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves – in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni2+ does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni2+ chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:28205587

  19. Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) seedlings are hyperaccumulators of copper.

    PubMed

    Zappala, Marian N; Ellzey, Joanne T; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Due to health reasons, toxic metals must be removed from soils contaminated by mine tailings and smelter activities. The phytoremediation potential of Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) was examined by use of inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes of parenchymal cells of leaves in the presence of copper. Elemental analysis was used to localize copper within leaves. A 600-ppm copper sulfate exposure to seedlings for 24 days resulted in 31,000 ppm copper in roots, 17,000 ppm in stems, 11,000 in cotyledons and 20 ppm in the true leaves. For a plant to be considered a hyperaccumulator, the plant must accumulate a leaf-to-root ratio <1. Screw bean mesquite exposed to copper had a leaf-to-root ratio of 0.355 when cotyledons were included. We showed that P. pubescens grown in soil is a hyperaccumulator of copper. We recommend that this plant should be field tested.

  20. Tissue fractions of cadmium in two hyperaccumulating Jerusalem artichoke genotypes.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiaohua; Ni, Ni; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed; Jiang, Xin; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms in two Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) genotypes that hyperaccumulate Cd, a sand-culture experiment was carried out to characterize fractionation of Cd in tissue of Cd-hyperaccumulating genotypes NY2 and NY5. The sequential extractants were: 80% v/v ethanol (FE), deionized water (FW), 1 M NaCl (FNaCl), 2% v/v acetic acid (FAcet), and 0.6 M HCl (FHCl). After 20 days of treatments, NY5 had greater plant biomass and greater Cd accumulation in tissues than NY2. In both genotypes the FNaCl fraction was the highest in roots and stems, whereas the FAcet and FHCl fractions were the highest in leaves. With an increase in Cd concentration in the culture solution, the content of every Cd fraction also increased. The FW and FNaCl ratios in roots were lower in NY5 than in NY2, while the amount of other Cd forms was higher. It implied that, in high accumulator, namely, NY5, the complex of insoluble phosphate tends to be shaped more easily which was much better for Cd accumulation. Besides, translocation from plasma to vacuole after combination with protein may be one of the main mechanisms in Cd-accumulator Jerusalem artichoke genotypes.

  1. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L.; Noller, Barry N.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H.

    2017-02-01

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves – in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni2+ does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni2+ chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants.

  2. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L; Noller, Barry N; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H

    2017-02-16

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves - in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni(2+) does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni(2+) chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants.

  3. Genetic and Molecular Dissection of Arsenic Hyperaccumulation in the fern Pteris vittata.

    SciTech Connect

    Jo Ann Banks; David Salt

    2008-04-04

    Pteris vittata is a fern that is extraordinary in its ability to tolerate hyperaccumulate high levels of arsenic (As). The goals of the proposed research, to identify the genes that are necessary for As hyperaccumulation in P. vittata using molecular and genetic approaches and to understand the physiology of arsenic uptake and distribution in the living plant, were accomplished during the funding period. The genes that have been identified may ultimately enable the engineering or selection of other plants capable of As hyperaccumulation. This is important for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils in areas where P. vittata cannot grow.

  4. Art, Education, and the Bomb: Reflections on an International Children's Peace Mural Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social change can be evidenced in the absence of an image. Discusses how murals painted by children 50 years after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki do not depict "the bomb," but it pervades the murals nonetheless. Shows that viewers draw unintended analogies between the images and the bombings. (DSK)

  5. Teaching with Murals at a Post Office: A Community's Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Jaehan

    2009-01-01

    Murals in a post office can be an important way to explore how public art functions in a community because they represent stories about history, culture, people, and lives. In this lesson, middle school students will investigate murals at a local post office in Sheboygan, Wisconsin to learn about the function of public art and the social role…

  6. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holscher, Louis M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  7. Pre-Columbian mural paintings from Mesoamerica as geomagnetic field recorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguitchaichvili, A.; Soler, A. M.; Zanella, E.; Chiari, G.; Lanza, R.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Gonzalez, T.

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance archeomagnetic study of mural paintings in various pre-Columbian sites in Mexico. The magnetic measurements of the pigments show that at least four murals (sites: Cacaxtla, Cholula and Templo Mayor) retain a remanent magnetization carried by a mixture of magnetite and minor hematite grains. In most specimens, a characteristic remanent magnetization is successfully isolated by alternating field demagnetization. The mean directions are reasonably well determined for each mural and within the range of secular variation during the last centuries. Studied Mesoamerican murals apparently retain the direction of the magnetic field at the time they were painted and therefore are an invaluable source of information concerning its secular variation. The archeomagnetic study of pre-Columbian mural paintings opens new alternatives to drawing a reliable reference master curve for the region and may largely contribute to the Mesoamerican absolute chronology.

  8. Solar and Calendrical Symbolism in the Early Medieval Finnish Church Murals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.

  9. Molecular Dissection of The Cellular Mechanisms Involved In Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Salt

    2002-04-08

    Hyperaccumulator plant species are able to accumulate between 1-5% of their biomass as metal. However, these plants are often small, slow growing, and do not produce a high biomass. Phytoextraction, a cost-effective, in situ, plant based approach to soil remediation takes advantage of the remarkable ability of hyperaccumulating plants to concentrate metals from the soil and accumulate them in their harvestable, above-ground tissues. However, to make use of the valuable genetic resources identified in metal hyperaccumulating species, it will be necessary to transfer this material to high biomass rapidly growing crop plants. These plants would then be ideally suited to the phytoremediation process, having the ability to produce large amount of metal-rich plant biomass for rapid harvest and soil cleanup. Although progress is being made in understanding the genetic basis of metal hyperaccumulation a more complete understanding will be necessary before we can take full advantage of the genetic potential of these plants.

  10. Grossesse intra murale à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    de Tové, Kofi-Mensa Savi; Salifou, Kabibou; Imorou, Rachidi Sidi; Biaou, Olivier; Boco, Vicentia

    2015-01-01

    La grossesse intra-murale est la variété la plus rare de grossesse extra-utérine. Il s'agit de la localisation de l’œuf dans l’épaisseur du myomètre. En cas de retard diagnostic, l’évolution peut être catastrophique avec rupture utérine et hémorragie cataclysmique. L’échographie permet dans certains cas un diagnostic pré opératoire. Les auteurs rapportent un cas survenu chez une patiente aux antécédents de curetage. PMID:26448812

  11. Unicystic Ameloblastoma with Mural Proliferation Managed by Conservative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Unicystic ameloblastoma is a distinguishable entity of ameloblastomas, characterized by slow growth and being relatively locally aggressive. Three histological types are recognized according to the degree of ameloblastomatous epithelial extension, namely, luminal, intraluminal, and mural types. This classification has a direct bearing on their biological behavior, treatment, and prognosis. However, there is difficulty in determining the most appropriate form of treatment for unicystic ameloblastoma. We present a case of unicystic ameloblastoma that occurred in the right posterior mandible of 19-year-old girl, which was enucleated and did not recur after 12-month follow-up. PMID:27610259

  12. Archaeomagnetism of some pre-Columbian mural paintings in Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogichaishvili, A.; Soler, A.; Zanella, E.; Lanza, R.; Chiari, G.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2003-12-01

    This work investigates the magnetic remanence associated with the mural paintings at three archeological sites in Central Mexico dated between 200 AD and 1450 AD (Cholula, Cacaxtla and Templo Mayor). The remanence of the murals is shown, using X-ray analyses and rock-magnetic measurements, to be carried by both magnetite and hematite. In most specimens, a characteristic magnetization is successfully isolated by alternating field demagnetization. The mean site directions are consistent with the available master curve for Mesoamerica. This work shows that murals from Central Mexico can retain their remanent magnetization for centuries and demonstrates the viability in principle of pictorial remanence as an archeomagnetic tool.

  13. Alyssum homolocarpum seeds: phytochemical analysis and effects of the seed oil on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Ghanbari, Amir; Razavipour, Razieh; Saeidi, Vahid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Azari, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacognostic evaluation of medicinal plants may assess their current applications and possibly results in finding new active components. In this study, ash and extractive values and high performance thin layer chromatography fingerprints of Alyssum homolocarpum (Brassicaceae) seed extracts were investigated to elucidate its composition. Differential scanning calorimetry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were employed to determine the components of A. homolocarpum seed oil (AHO). Neurosphere assay, in vitro differentiation and immunofluorescence analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of AHO (0.5 or 1 g/kg/day for 14 days) on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in adult male BALB/c mice. Total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values were determined as 45.83 ± 5.85, 6.67 ± 2.89 and 28.33 ± 2.89 mg/g, respectively. The extractive values were 4.90, 0.43 and 0.56 % (w/w) for n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethanolic extracts, respectively. Interestingly, AHO was mainly composed of α-linolenic acid (89.71 %), β-sitosterol (3.3 mg/g) and campesterol (0.86 mg/g). Administration of AHO at 1 g/kg/day significantly increased proliferation of NSCs, as evidenced by an increase in mean neurosphere-forming frequency per brain (872.7 ± 15.17) and neurosphere diameter (101 ± 2.48 µm) compared to the control group (424.3 ± 59.29 and 78.63 ± 1.7 µm, respectively; P < 0.05). AHO treatment did not affect in vitro differentiation of the harvested NSCs. Our data show that A. homolocarpum seed oil is a rich source of α-linolenic acid and β-sitosterol with potential therapeutic application to enhance NSC proliferation and recruitment in neurological diseases.

  14. Terahertz analysis of an East Asian historical mural painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, K.; Hosako, I.; Kohdzuma, Y.; Koezuka, T.; Kim, M.-J.; Ikari, T.; Du, X.

    2010-05-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz and imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. We have applied THz imaging to analyse the historic mural painting of a Lamaism temple by using a transportable time-domain THz imaging system; such an attempt is the first in the world. The reflection image revealed that there are two orange colours in the painting, although they appear the same to the naked eye. THz imaging can also estimate the depth of cracks. The colours were examined by X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, and the results were found to be in good agreement. This work proved that THz imaging can contribute to the non-invasive analysis of cultural heritage.

  15. The bacterial rhizobiome of hyperaccumulators: future perspectives based on omics analysis and advanced microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Visioli, Giovanna; D'Egidio, Sara; Sanangelantoni, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are plants that can extract heavy metal ions from the soil and translocate those ions to the shoots, where they are sequestered and detoxified. Hyperaccumulation depends not only on the availability of mobilized metal ions in the soil, but also on the enhanced activity of metal transporters and metal chelators which may be provided by the plant or its associated microbes. The rhizobiome is captured by plant root exudates from the complex microbial community in the soil, and may colonize the root surface or infiltrate the root cortex. This community can increase the root surface area by inducing hairy root proliferation. It may also increase the solubility of metals in the rhizosphere and promote the uptake of soluble metals by the plant. The bacterial rhizobiome, a subset of specialized microorganisms that colonize the plant rhizosphere and endosphere, makes an important contribution to the hyperaccumulator phenotype. In this review, we discuss classic and more recent tools that are used to study the interactions between hyperaccumulators and the bacterial rhizobiome, and consider future perspectives based on the use of omics analysis and microscopy to study plant metabolism in the context of metal accumulation. Recent data suggest that metal-resistant bacteria isolated from the hyperaccumulator rhizosphere and endosphere could be useful in applications such as phytoextraction and phytoremediation, although more research is required to determine whether such properties can be transferred successfully to non-accumulator species. PMID:25709609

  16. A nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals by the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xincheng; Lin, Li; Chen, Mingyue; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Bao; Yang, Xiaoe; An, Qianli

    2012-08-30

    Low biomass and shallow root systems limit the application of heavy metal phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators. Plant growth-promoting microbes may enhance hyperaccumulators'phytoextraction. A heavy metal-resistant fungus belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum complex was isolated from the Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance grown in a Pb/Zn mined area. This Fusarium fungus was not pathogenic to plants but promoted host growth. Hydroponic experiments showed that 500 μM Zn(2+) or 50 μM Cd(2+) combined with the fungus increased root length, branches, and surface areas, enhanced nutrient uptake and chlorophyll synthesis, leading to more vigorous hyperaccumulators with greater root systems. Soil experiments showed that the fungus increased root and shoot biomass and S. alfredii-mediated heavy metal availabilities, uptake, translocation or concentrations, and thus increased phytoextraction of Zn (144% and 44%), Cd (139% and 55%), Pb (84% and 85%) and Cu (63% and 77%) from the original Pb/Zn mined soil and a multi-metal contaminated paddy soil. Together, the nonpathogenic Fusarium fungus was able to increase S. alfredii root systems and function, metal availability and accumulation, plant biomass, and thus phytoextraction efficiency. This study showed a great application potential for culturable indigenous fungi other than symbiotic mycorrhizas to enhance the phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators.

  17. Molecular dissection of the cellular mechanisms involved in nickel hyperaccumulation. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Salt, D.E.

    1997-10-28

    'Phytoremediation, the use of plants for environmental cleanup of pollutants, including toxic metals, holds the potential to allow the economic restoration of heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated sites. A number of terrestrial plants are known to naturally accumulate high levels of metals in their shoots (1--2% dry weight), and these plants have been termed metal-hyperaccumulators. Clearly, the genetic traits that determine metal-hyperaccumulation offers the potential for the development of practical phytoremediation processes. The long-term objective is to rationally design and generate plants ideally suited for phytoremediation using this unique genetic material. Initially, the strategy will focus on isolating and characterizing the key genetic information needed for expression of the metal-hyperaccumulation phenotype. Recently, histidine has been shown to play a major role in Ni hyperaccumulation. Based on this information the authors propose to investigate, at the molecular level, the role of histidine biosynthesis in Ni hyperaccumuIation in Thlaspi goesingense, a Ni hyperaccumulator species.'

  18. Selenium hyperaccumulation - Astragalus bisulcatus, Cardamine hupingshanensis and Stanleya pinnata - may be useful for agromining selenium-rich soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium hyperaccumulator plants like Stanleya pinnata, Astragalus bisulcatus and the newly discovered Se-accumulator Cardamine hupingshanensis may play an important role in the Se cycle from soil to plant to human in China. Se-hyperaccumulators can be used for agromining or for phytoremediation of ...

  19. Interactive effects of Cd and PAHs on contaminants removal from co-contaminated soil planted with hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil contamination by multiple organic and inorganic contaminants is common but its remediation by hyperaccumulator plants is rarely reported. The growth of a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and removal of contaminants from Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) co-contaminated s...

  20. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5–8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5–8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5–8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction. PMID:26412036

  1. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-09-28

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5-8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction.

  2. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5-8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction.

  3. Soluble forms of VEGF receptor-1 and -2 promote vascular maturation via mural cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lorquet, Sophie; Berndt, Sarah; Blacher, Silvia; Gengoux, Emily; Peulen, Olivier; Maquoi, Erik; Noël, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Munaut, Carine; Péqueux, Christel

    2010-10-01

    Two soluble forms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2, are physiologically released and overproduced in some pathologies. They are known to act as anti-VEGF agents. Here we report that these soluble receptors contribute to vessel maturation by mediating a dialogue between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells that leads to blood vessel stabilization. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we provide evidence that these soluble VEGF receptors promote mural cell migration through a paracrine mechanism involving interplay in ECs between VEGF/VEGFR-2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate type-1 (S1P)/S1P1 pathways that leads to endothelial nitric oxyde synthase (eNOS) activation. This new paradigm is supported by the finding that sVEGFR-1 and -2 perform the following actions: 1) induce an eNOS-dependent outgrowth of a mural cell network in an ex vivo model of angiogenesis, 2) increase the mural cell coverage of neovessels in vitro and in vivo, 3) promote mural cell migration toward ECs, and 4) stimulate endothelial S1P1 overproduction and eNOS activation that promote the migration and the recruitment of neighboring mural cells. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms regulating physiological and pathological angiogenesis and vessel stabilization.

  4. [Design and manufacture of mechanic modeling of fluid dynamics related to the myocardial bridging and mural coronary artery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohui; Ge, Junbo; Shen, Lixing; Wang, Keqiang; Qian, Juying; Fan, Bing; Xu, Genlin; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Feng

    2005-06-01

    A model of fluid dynamics related to the myocardial bridginged and mural coronary artery was designed and manufactured according to the physical principle and characteristic of the mural coronary artery. The model can imitate systematically well the effect of myocardial bridging on hemodynamic change of the mural coronary artery under different controlled experimental parameter. The methodology is proved to be feasible and has good prosperity of experimental study.

  5. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, R. Elmitwalli; Fatma, Helmi M.; Rizk, Mohammed A.; Hagrassy, Abeer F.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl α pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  6. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural's many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc.) reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines) an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect the actual state of

  7. Recovery of zinc from hyperaccumulator plants: Sedum plumbizincicola.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Guang; Yang, Jian-Ying; Peng, Chang-Hong; Tang, Chao-Bo; Zhou, Ke-Cao

    2009-06-01

    Hyperaccumulator biomass harvested after heavy-metal phytoremediation must be considered as hazardous waste that should be contained or treated appropriately before disposal or reuse. As a potential method to detoxify the biomass and to convert this material to a suitable fertilizer or mulch, leaching of heavy metals from Sedum plumbizincicola biomass was studied by using ammonia-ammonium chloride solution as a leaching agent. The research was carried out in two phases: (i) a leaching study to determine the heavy metal:zinc extraction efficiency of this leaching agent and (ii) a thermodynamic analysis to identify the likely reactions and stable Zn(II) species formed in the leaching systems. Experimentally, a Taguchi orthogonal experiment with four variable parameter elements: leaching temperature, nNH4Cl:nNH3 ratio, leaching time and solid-liquid ratio, each at three levels, was used to optimize the experimental parameters by the analysis of variances. Application of the Taguchi technique significantly reduced the time and cost required for the experimental investigation. The findings indicate that leaching temperature had the most dominant effect on metal extraction performance, followed by nNH4Cl:nNH3 ratio, solid-liquid ratio and leaching time. Accordingly, the optimum leaching conditions were determined as temperature: 60 degrees C, nNH4Cl:nNH3 = 0.6, leaching time: 2 h and solid/liquid ratio: 5:1. The total zinc removal after leaching under the optimum conditions reached 97.95%. The thermodynamic study indicated that the dominant species produced by the leaching process should be the soluble species Zn(NH3)4(2+).

  8. Hyperaccumulation of cadmium by hairy roots of Thlaspi caerulescens

    SciTech Connect

    Nedelkoska, T.V.; Doran, P.M.

    2000-03-05

    Hairy roots were used to investigate cadmium uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens, a metal hyperaccumulator plant with potential applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Experiments were carried out in nutrient media under conditions supporting root growth. Accumulation of Cd in short-term (9-h) experiments varied with initial medium pH and increased after treating the roots with H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor. The highest equilibrium Cd content measured in T. caerulescens roots was 62,800 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight, or 6.3% dry weight, at a liquid Cd concentration of 3,710 ppm. Cd levels in live T. caerulescens roots were 1.5- to 1.7-fold those in hairy roots of nonhyperaccumulator species exposed to the same Cd concentration, but similar to the Cd content of auto-claved T. caerulescens roots. The ability to grow at Cd concentrations of up to 100 ppm clearly distinguished T. caerulescens hairy roots from the nonhyperaccumulators. The specific growth rate of T. caerulescens roots was essentially unaffected by 20 to 50 ppm Cd in the culture medium; in contrast, N. tabacum roots turned dark brown at 20 ppm and growth was negligible. Up to 10,600 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight Cd was accumulated by growing T. caerulescens hairy roots. Measurement of Cd levels in while roots and in the cell wall fraction revealed significant differences in the responses of T. caerulescens and N. tabacum roots to 20 ppm Cd. Most metal was transported directly into the symplasm of N. tabacum roots within 3 days of exposure; in contrast, T. caerulescens roots stored virtually all of their Cd in the wall fraction for the first 7 to 10 days. This delay in transmembrane uptake may represent an important defensive strategy against Cd poisoning in T. caerulescens, allowing time for activation of intracellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification.

  9. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  10. Transcriptomic Analysis of Cadmium Stress Response in the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoe; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd), as well as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≧2.0) and down-regulated (Fold Change ≦0.5) by chronic Cd treatment in S. alfredii Hance (HE) at q-value cutoff of 0.005, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR was employed to compare gene expression patterns between S. alfredii Hance (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. PMID:23755133

  11. High-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting for lipid hyperaccumulating Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Stessman, Dan; Hart, Jason H; Dong, Haili; Wang, Yingjun; Wright, David A; Nikolau, Basil J; Spalding, Martin H; Halverson, Larry J

    2014-09-01

    The genetically tractable microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has many advantages as a model for renewable bioproducts and/or biofuels production. However, one limitation of C. reinhardtii is its relatively low-lipid content compared with some other algal species. To overcome this limitation, we combined ethane methyl sulfonate mutagenesis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of cells stained with the lipophilic stain Nile Red to isolate lipid hyperaccumulating mutants of C. reinhardtii. By manipulating the FACS gates, we sorted mutagenized cells with extremely high Nile Red fluorescence signals that were rarely detected in nonmutagenized populations. This strategy successfully isolated several putative lipid hyperaccumulating mutants exhibiting 23% to 58% (dry weight basis) higher fatty acid contents than their progenitor strains. Significantly, for most mutants, nitrogen starvation was not required to attain high-lipid content nor was there a requirement for a deficiency in starch accumulation. Microscopy of Nile Red stained cells revealed that some mutants exhibit an increase in the number of lipid bodies, which correlated with TLC analysis of triacyglycerol content. Increased lipid content could also arise through increased biomass production. Collectively, our findings highlight the ability to enhance intracellular lipid accumulation in algae using random mutagenesis in conjunction with a robust FACS and lipid yield verification regime. Our lipid hyperaccumulating mutants could serve as a genetic resource for stacking additional desirable traits to further increase lipid production and for identifying genes contributing to lipid hyperaccumulation, without lengthy lipid-induction periods.

  12. Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2013-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens.

  13. Cadmium leaching from micro-lysimeters planted with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens: experimental findings and modeling.

    PubMed

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Bücherl, Barbara; Neumann, Günter; Streck, Thilo

    2006-01-01

    The use of heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants has the potential to become a promising new technique to remediate contaminated sites. We investigated the role of metal mobilization in the Cd hyperaccumulation of Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl, 'Ganges'). In a micro-lysimeter experiment we investigated the dynamics of Cd concentration of leachate as well as Cd removal by plant uptake in four treatments: (i) Control (bare soil), (ii) T. caerulescens, (iii) nonhyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ('PI 426308'), and (iv) co-cropping of the hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator. The experimental findings were analyzed using one- and two-site rate-limited desorption models. Co-cropping of T. caerulescens and B. juncea did not enhance metal uptake by B. juncea. Although Cd uptake of T. caerulescens was 10 times higher than that of B. juncea, the Cd concentration of leachate of the T. caerulescens treatment did not decrease below that of the B. juncea treatment. The Cd depletion in leachate was well reproduced by the two-site rate-limited desorption model. The optimized desorption coefficient was three orders of magnitude higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Our results indicate that T. caerulescens accelerates the resupply of Cd from soil pointing to an important role of kinetic desorption in the hyperaccumulation by T. caerulescens.

  14. Elevated Nicotianamine Levels in Arabidopsis halleri Roots Play a Key Role in Zinc Hyperaccumulation[W

    PubMed Central

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H.; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Talke, Ina N.; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem. PMID:22374395

  15. The metal hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia can broaden our understanding of nickel accumulation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Jaffré, Tanguy; Pillon, Yohan; Thomine, Sébastien; Merlot, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    While an excess of metals such as zinc, cadmium or nickel (Ni) is toxic for most plants, about 500 plant species called hyperaccumulators are able to accumulate high amounts of these metals. These plants and the underlying mechanisms are receiving an increasing interest because of their potential use in sustainable biotechnologies such as biofortification, phytoremediation, and phytomining. Among hyperaccumulators, about 400 species scattered in 40 families accumulate Ni. Despite this wide diversity, our current knowledge of the mechanisms involved in Ni accumulation is still limited and mostly restricted to temperate herbaceous Brassicaceae. New Caledonia is an archipelago of the tropical southwest pacific with a third of its surface (5500 km2) covered by Ni-rich soils originating from ultramafic rocks. The rich New Caledonia flora contains 2145 species adapted to these soils, among which 65 are Ni hyperaccumulators, including lianas, shrubs or trees, mostly belonging to the orders Celastrales, Oxalidales, Malpighiales, and Gentianales. We present here our current knowledge on Ni hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia and the latest molecular studies developed to better understand the mechanisms of Ni accumulation in these plants. PMID:23898341

  16. The Possible Interpretation of a Mural in a Sixth Century Koguryo Tumulus as an AD 555 Solar Eclipse Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il-Seong, Nha; Nha, Sarah L.

    Large numbers of tumuli are a feature of the Koguryo Kingdom (37 BC to AD 668), one of the Three Kingdoms in ancient Korea, and their interiors contain an extremely diverse range of murals. Quite a number of these murals include astronomical motifs, including the stars, the Sun and the Moon.

  17. Murals as Text: A Social-Cultural Perspective on Family Literacy Events in US Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, William

    2011-01-01

    Literacy and parenting programmes in US prisons tend to be generic and skills-oriented, insensitive to pressing personal needs of parents and their distant children. This study reports on a prison-based family/art/literacy programme that attended to the local needs and interests of participants through a mural project. The article describes some…

  18. Archaeomagnetic results from mural paintings and pyroclastic rocks in Pompeii and Herculaneum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanella, E.; Gurioli, L.; Chiari, G.; Ciarallo, A.; Cioni, R.; De Carolis, E.; Lanza, R.

    2000-03-01

    This work investigates the magnetic remanence associated with red pigments from murals at Pompeii and compares their directions to those of the pyroclastic rocks from the Vesuvius AD 79 eruption. The remanence of the murals is shown, using X-ray analyses, to be carried by haematite. Murals in Thermae Stabianae, known to have been painted a few years before AD 79, yield an archaeomagnetic direction ( D=1.2°, I=58.0°; α95=5.5°) indistinguishable from that of a nearby kiln ( D=358.0°, I=59.1°; α95=1.7°) ( Evans and Mareschal, 1989) probably last used immediately prior to the eruption. The directions are also consistent with those of fine-grained pyroclastic rocks from the eruption ( D=351.2°, I=57.9°; α95=3.4°) and lithic and tile fragments embedded within them ( D=358.5°, I=60.4°; α95=8.5°). Other paintings of the 1st century AD yield similar directions, with a lower statistical definition. This study shows that murals can retain their remanent magnetization for centuries and demonstrates the viability in principle of pictorial remanence as an archaeomagnetic tool.

  19. The Safford, Arizona, Murals of Seymour Fogel: A Study in Artistic Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Jared A.; Stevens, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the controversy generated by art works commissioned by the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Attempting to create work for depression-era artists, the WPA often commissioned murals for government buildings. Recounts the experience of Seymour Fogel, who's positive portrayal of Native Americans ran afoul of racist sentiments in Safford,…

  20. Mexican Muralism: Its Social-Educative Roles in Latin America and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Shifra M.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history of Mexican muralism (1920s to 1970s) as an art of advocacy intended to change consciousness and promote political action; shows how it can still be used in an educative manner in schools. Emphasizes the effects of three great muralists (Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros). (LC)

  1. 76 FR 63701 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Diego Rivera: Murals for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Diego Rivera: Murals for The Museum of Modern Art,'' imported... that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, from...] [FR Doc No: 2011-26518] DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7646] Culturally Significant...

  2. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Community Mural Making and Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetto, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Through a hermeneutic phenomenological study of interview data from 8 community artists, the author sought to discover commonalities and differences in the worldviews and philosophies of self that underlie community mural making as they relate to art therapy as social action and art therapy practice within a traditional Western cultural framework.…

  3. Public Art Education in Brunei Darussalam: The Cultural Language of Community Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kong

    2014-01-01

    Two mural projects in Brunei offer insight into the specific and universal aspects of public art education and community art making. This article describes how the author used his initiative and experience as a muralist to plan and implement two community art research projects in Bandar Seri Begwan, the capital of Brunei Darussalam. A premise of…

  4. Rinorea niccolifera (Violaceae), a new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species from Luzon Island, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Edwino S; Quimado, Marilyn O; Doronila, Augustine I

    2014-01-01

    A new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species of Rinorea (Violaceae), Rinorea niccolifera Fernando, from Luzon Island, Philippines, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to the widespread Rinorea bengalensis by its fasciculate inflorescences and smooth subglobose fruits with 3 seeds, but it differs by its glabrous ovary with shorter style (5 mm long), the summit of the staminal tube sinuate to entire and the outer surface smooth, generally smaller leaves (3-8 cm long × 2-3 cm wide), and smaller fruits (0.6-0.8 cm diameter). Rinorea niccolifera accumulates to >18,000 µg g(-1) of nickel in its leaf tissues and is thus regarded as a Ni hyperaccumulator.

  5. Localization of nickel in tissues of Streptanthus polygaloides Gray (Cruciferae) and endemic nickel hyperaccumulators from California.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mata, Daniel; de la Fuente, Vicenta; Rufo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptanthus Nutt. is one of the most important indicators of ultramafic floras in western North America. This genus contains taxa that are endemic or tolerant of ultramafic soils. Streptanthus polygaloides is an annual nickel hyperaccumulator strictly confined to ultramafic soils throughout the Californian Sierra Nevada foothills. Nickel concentration in S. polygaloides populations was evaluated by elemental microanalysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Representative samples of S. polygaloides roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray probe (SEM-EDX). Results show Ni accumulation values between 0.09 and 1.18 %, and a distribution pattern similar to that observed in other Ni hyperaccumulator taxa, with the leaf epidermis accumulating the largest concentrations.

  6. A more complete picture of metal hyperaccumulation through next-generation sequencing technologies

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Nathalie; Hanikenne, Marc; Clemens, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of metal hyperaccumulation has benefitted immensely from the use of molecular genetics tools developed for Arabidopsis thaliana. The revolution in DNA sequencing will enable even greater strides in the near future, this time not restricted to the family Brassicaceae. Reference genomes are within reach for many ecologically interesting species including heterozygous outbreeders. They will allow deep RNA-seq transcriptome studies and the re-sequencing of contrasting individuals to unravel the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. Cell-type specific transcriptome analyses, which will be essential for the dissection of metal translocation pathways in hyperaccumulators, can be achieved through the combination of RNA-seq and translatome approaches. Affordable high-resolution genotyping of many individuals enables the elucidation of quantitative trait loci in intra- and interspecific crosses as well as through genome-wide association mapping across large panels of accessions. Furthermore, genome-wide scans have the power to detect loci under recent selection. Together these approaches will lead to a detailed understanding of the evolutionary path towards the emergence of hyperaccumulation traits. PMID:24098304

  7. Application of rhizosphere interaction of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens to remediate cadmium-contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Wang, Wei; Li, Hua-Fen

    2011-10-01

    There is an urgent requirement for selecting appropriate technologies to solve food safety problems due to soil contamination. In this study, the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and a high Cd accumulator pakchoi cultivar (Brassica rapa L. spp. Chinenesis cv.) were grown in a moderately Cd-contaminated soil with three planting systems (monocrop, inter-crop, and crop-rotation) and three growing durations (25, 50, and 75 days) to study the role of rhizosphere interaction of both species on the uptake of Cd. The Cd accumulations in the shoot of pakchoi were significantly reduced in the inter-crop treatment, also the decreased percentage increased with rhizosphere interaction between the two species. In the inter-crop systems of 75 days, the Cd concentration and amount in the shoot of pakchoi represented 54% and 83% reduction, respectively, while the total depletion of Cd decreased by approximate 19%. Although the Cd concentration and amount in the shoot of pakchoi were significantly reduced by 52% and 44%, respectively, in the crop-rotation treatment, the decreased percentage were markedly lower than in the inter-crop treatment. Therefore, the rhizosphere interaction of hyperaccumulator with non-hyperaccumulator may reduce the risk of vegetable contamination during making full use of or remediating the contaminated soil.

  8. Manganese uptake and accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae).

    PubMed

    Xue, S G; Chen, Y X; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M; Lin, Q; Fernando, Denise R

    2004-10-01

    The perennial herb Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new manganese hyperaccumulator by means of field surveys on Mn-rich soils and by glasshouse experiments. This species not only has remarkable tolerance to Mn but also has extraordinary uptake and accumulation capacity for this element. The maximum Mn concentration in the leaf dry matter was 19,300 microg/g on Xiangtan Mn tailings wastelands, with a mean of 14,480 microg/g. Under nutrient solution culture conditions, P. acinosa could grow normally with Mn supplied at a concentration of 8000 micromol/l, although with less biomass than in control samples supplied with Mn at 5 micromol/l. Manganese concentration in the shoots increased with increasing external Mn levels, but the total mass of Mn accumulated in the shoots first increased and then decreased. At an Mn concentration of 5000 micromol/l in the culture solution, the Mn accumulation in the shoot dry matter was highest (258 mg/plant). However, the Mn concentration in the leaves reached its highest value (36,380 microg/g) at an Mn supply level of 12,000 micromol/l. These results confirm that P. acinosa is an Mn hyperaccumulator which grows rapidly, has substantial biomass, wide distribution and a broad ecological amplitude. This species provides a new plant resource for exploring the mechanism of Mn hyperaccumulation, and has potential for use in the phytoremediation of Mn-contaminated soils.

  9. [Characteristics of 23 species of weed in northeast of China hyperaccumulating PAHs in contaminated soils].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Liang, Hong; Gao, Da-Wen; Zhang, Bai-Hui; Li, Xin-Ping; Guo, Xiao-Hu

    2011-10-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the 23 species of weed accumulation characteristics of phenanthrene, as a representative of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), from soil in the northeast of China. The result indicated that among the 23 species, the bioconcentration factors of Taraxacum ohwianum K., Potentilla aiscolor B. and Chelidonium majus L. were all higher than 1, which were 1.01, 4.98, 38.24 respectively. The phenanthrene concentrations in roots were 2.83, 16.34 and 9.66 mg/kg which were lower than those in aboveground part with phenanthrene concentrations were 15.18, 74.70 and 573.62 mg/kg, respectively. The hyperaccumulators were indicated by strong conveyance of phenanthrene from root to aboveground part. The analysis of phenanthrene concentration in aboveground weed and aboveground plant biomass showed that the accumulation of phenanthrene in plant were not correlated with their biomass. It concluded that Taraxacum ohwianum K., Potentilla aiscolor B. and Chelidonium majus L. had hyperaccumulative characteristics of phenanthrene, and it is possible to screen out plants with high biomass and hyperaccumulation capability.

  10. Thermal Characteristics of Hyperaccumulator and Fate of Heavy Metals during Thermal Treatment of Sedum plumbizincicola.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Daoxu; Zhong, Zhaoping; Wu, Longhua; Xue, Hui; Song, Zuwei; Luo, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Thermal treatment is one of the most promising disposal techniques for heavy metal- (HM)-enriched hyperaccumulators. However, the thermal characteristics and fate of HMs during thermal treatment of hyperaccumulator biomass need to be known in detail. A horizontal tube furnace was used to analyze the disposal process of hyperaccumulator biomass derived from a phyto-extracted field in which the soil was moderately contaminated with heavy metals. Different operational conditions regarding temperature and gas composition were tested. A thermo-dynamic analysis by advanced system for process engineering was performed to predict HM speciation during thermal disposal and SEM-EDS, XRD and sequential chemical extraction were used to characterize the heavy metals. The recovery of Zn, Pb and Cd in bottom ash decreased with increasing temperature but recovery increased in the fly ash. Recovery of Zn, Pb and Cd fluctuated with increasing air flow rate and the metal recovery rates were higher in the fly ash than the bottom ash. Most Cl, S, Fe, Al and SiO2 were found as alkali oxides, SO2, Fe2(SO4)3, iron oxide, Ca3Al2O6, K2SiO3 and SiO2 instead of reacting with HMs. Thus, the HMs were found to occur as the pure metals and their oxides during the combustion process and as the sulfides during the reducing process.

  11. Relationship between metal and pigment concentrations in the Fe-hyperaccumulator moss Scopelophila ligulata.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Itoh, Kiminori

    2017-01-01

    Scopelophila ligulata is known to be a Fe-hyperaccumulator moss; however, its mechanism of accumulation and the effects of Fe on pigments remain unclear. To clarify the effects, we measured its metal and pigment concentrations. The Fe concentration in S. ligulata was 10-61 times higher than that in normal mosses, confirming that the moss is a Fe-hyperaccumulator. The black samples of S. ligulata had the highest Fe concentration (2.9 wt%) and the second in the order of decreasing Fe concentration (2.2 wt%), which explains their color and indicates that the excess amount of Fe is distributed through the plant body. Moreover, we observed that the concentration of Ca is negatively correlated with the concentrations of pigments and, conversely, that the concentration of K is positively correlated with the concentrations of pigments. This inverse relationship between Ca and K can be explained by the reduced uptake of K in S. ligulata in response to Ca stress, which is supported by the fact that the concentration of Ca is negatively correlated with that of K. These findings provide a better understanding of the relationships between metals and pigments in the Fe-hyperaccumulator moss S. ligulata.

  12. De novo transcriptome assemblies of four accessions of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens

    PubMed Central

    Blande, Daniel; Halimaa, Pauliina; Tervahauta, Arja I; Aarts, Mark G.M.; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O

    2017-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens of the Brassicaceae family has become the key model plant among the metal hyperaccumulator plants. Populations/accessions of N. caerulescens from geographic locations with different soil metal concentrations differ in their ability to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. Comparison of transcriptomes in several accessions provides candidates for detailed exploration of the mechanisms of metal accumulation and tolerance and local adaptation. This can have implications in the development of plants for phytoremediation and improved mineral nutrition. Transcriptomes from root and shoot tissues of four N. caerulescens accessions with contrasting Zn, Cd and Ni hyperaccumulation and tolerance traits were sequenced with Illumina Hiseq2000. Transcriptomes were assembled using the Trinity de novo assembler and were annotated and the protein sequences predicted. The comparison against the BUSCO plant early release dataset indicated high-quality assemblies. The predicted protein sequences have been clustered into ortholog groups with closely related species. The data serve as important reference sequences in whole transcriptome studies, in analyses of genetic differences between the accessions and other species, and for primer design. PMID:28140388

  13. Effects of arsenic on concentration and distribution of nutrients in the fronds of the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.

    PubMed

    Tu, Cong; Ma, Lena Q

    2005-05-01

    Pteris vittata was the first terrestrial plant known to hyperaccumulate arsenic (As). However, it is unclear how As hyperaccumulation influences nutrient uptake by this plant. P. vittata fern was grown in soil spiked with 0-500 mg As kg(-1) in the greenhouse for 24 weeks. The concentrations of essential macro- (P, K, Ca, and Mg) and micro- (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B and Mo) elements in the fronds of different age were examined. Both macro- and micronutrients in the fronds were found to be within the normal concentration ranges for non-hyperaccumulators. However, As hyperaccumulation did influence the elemental distribution among fronds of different age of P. vittata. Arsenic-induced P and K enhancements in the fronds contributed to the As-induced growth stimulation at low As levels. The frond P/As molar ratios of 1.0 can be used as the threshold value for normal growth of P. vittata. Potassium may function as a counter-cation for As in the fronds as shown by the As-induced K increases in the fronds. The present findings not only demonstrate that P. vittata has the ability to maintain adequate concentrations of essential nutrients while hyperaccumulating As from the soil, but also have implications for soil management (fertilization in particular) of P. vittata in As phytoextraction practice.

  14. Root and shoot transcriptome analysis of two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens uncovers the role of NcNramp1 in Cd hyperaccumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, has been studied extensively for its ability to accumulate Zn and Cd in its leaves to extremely high levels. Previous studies have indicated that the Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation trait exhibited by this species involves different transport and toleran...

  15. The potential of phytoremediation using hyperaccumulator plants: a case study at a lead-zinc mine site.

    PubMed

    Lorestani, Bahareh; Cheraghi, Mehrdad; Yousefi, Nafiseh

    2012-09-01

    Contamination with heavy metals is one of the most pressing threats to water and soil resources, as well as human health. Phytoremediation might potentially be used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. A major advance in the development of phytoremediation for heavy metal affected soils was the discovery of heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants. This study applied several established criteria to identify hyperaccumulator plants. A case study was conducted at a mining area in the Hamedan province in the west central region of Iran. The results indicated that plant metal accumulation differed among species and plant parts. Plant species grown in substrata with elevated metal levels contained significantly higher metal levels. Using the most common criteria, Euphorbia macroclada and Centaurea virgata can be classified as hyperaccumulators of specific heavy metals measured in this study and they might potentially be used for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  16. Synergistic effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate rock on heavy metal uptake and accumulation by an arsenic hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Leung, H M; Wu, F Y; Cheung, K C; Ye, Z H; Wong, M H

    2010-09-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and phosphate rock on the phytorextraction efficiency of a hyperaccumulator (Pteris vittata) and a non-hyperaccumulator (Cynodon dactylon) plant were studied. Both seedlings were planted in As contaminated soil under different treatments [(1) control (contaminated soil only), (2) indigenous mycorrhizas (IM), (3) mixed AM inoculum [indigenous mycorrhiza + Glomus mosseae (IM/Gm)] and (4) IM/Gm + phosphate rock (P rock)] with varying intensities (40%, 70% and 100%) of water moisture content (WMC). Significant As reduction in soil (23.8% of soil As reduction), increase in plant biomass (17.8 g/pot) and As accumulation (2054 mg/kg DW) were observed for P. vittata treated with IM/Gm + PR at 100% WMC level. The overall results indicated that the synergistic effect of mycorrhiza and P rock affected As subcellular distribution of the hyperaccumulator and thereby altered its As removal efficiency under well-watered conditions.

  17. Heart pump system in "heart-mural coronary artery-myocardial bridge" simulative device.

    PubMed

    Ding, H; Chen, Z; Shen, L; Xu, M; Zhou, Y; Xu, S; Zeng, Y

    2009-06-01

    The myocardial tissue covering the artery is termed a myocardial bridge. But so far many researches on the myocardial bridge have been involved with clinical patients or animals, which have some limitations (e.g. lack of systematicness, difficulties in measuring the flow in the mural coronary artery and so on). Designing a "Heart-Mural coronary artery-Myocardial Bridge" Simulative Device provides a good approach to solve above problems; however, documents on this subject have seldom been reported until now. The heart pump as the key part of the whole simulative device should be able to simulate the waveform of blood pressure, adjust blood flow and regulate heart rate. Our experimental results basically met above requirements. The heart pump proposed in the paper presented an alternative experimental method to go further into other issues about the cardiovascular circulation system.

  18. Non-invasive detection of murals with pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Zhang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed terahertz reflected imaging technology has been expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. In this paper, three types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by a pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system. These preset defects include a circular groove, a cross-shaped slit and a piece of "Y-type" metal plate built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. Additionally, three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of defects. Terahertz reflective imaging can be applied to the defect investigation of the murals.

  19. Investigation of Layer Structure of the Takamatsuzuka Mural Paintings by Terahertz Imaging Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inuzuka, M.; Kouzuma, Y.; Sugioka, N.; Fukunaga, K.; Tateishi, T.

    2017-02-01

    Terahertz imaging can be a powerful tool in conservation science for cultural heritages. In this study, a new terahertz imaging system was applied to the Takamatsuzuka mural painting of a blue dragon, and the condition of the plaster layer was diagnosed. As a result, the locations where the plaster layer appears solid on the surface but in actuality may have peeled off the underlying tuff stone were revealed and viewed as two-dimensional images.

  20. Investigation of Layer Structure of the Takamatsuzuka Mural Paintings by Terahertz Imaging Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inuzuka, M.; Kouzuma, Y.; Sugioka, N.; Fukunaga, K.; Tateishi, T.

    2017-04-01

    Terahertz imaging can be a powerful tool in conservation science for cultural heritages. In this study, a new terahertz imaging system was applied to the Takamatsuzuka mural painting of a blue dragon, and the condition of the plaster layer was diagnosed. As a result, the locations where the plaster layer appears solid on the surface but in actuality may have peeled off the underlying tuff stone were revealed and viewed as two-dimensional images.

  1. Approach of the measurement of thermal diffusivity of mural paintings by front face photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candoré, Jean Charles; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, Vincent; Remy, B.; Grossel, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we present, in an experimental way, the possibilities of front face photothermal radiometry to measure, in situ, the longitudinal thermal diffusivity of mural paintings. First, we present the principle of the method of measurement. Then, we present the experimental device implemented for the study. Finally, we show, using the experimental study of a plaster sample, the photothermal method allows in a particular case, a good approximation of the parameter longitudinal thermal diffusivity.

  2. Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties

    PubMed Central

    Sura-de Jong, Martina; Reynolds, Ray J. B.; Richterova, Klara; Musilova, Lucie; Staicu, Lucian C.; Chocholata, Iva; Cappa, Jennifer J.; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Frantik, Tomas; Dolinova, Iva; Strejcek, Michal; Cochran, Alyssa T.; Lovecka, Petra; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se)-rich plants may be used to provide dietary Se to humans and livestock, and also to clean up Se-polluted soils or waters. This study focused on endophytic bacteria of plants that hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) to 0.5–1% of dry weight. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to compare the diversity of endophytic bacteria of hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) and Astragalus bisulcatus (Fabaceae) with those from related non-accumulators Physaria bellii (Brassicaceae) and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae) collected on the same, seleniferous site. Hyperaccumulators and non-accumulators showed equal T-RF diversity. Parsimony analysis showed that T-RFs from individuals of the same species were more similar to each other than to those from other species, regardless of plant Se content or spatial proximity. Cultivable endophytes from hyperaccumulators S. pinnata and A. bisulcatus were further identified and characterized. The 66 bacterial morphotypes were shown by MS MALDI-TOF Biotyper analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to include strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Staphylococcus, Paenibacillus, Advenella, Arthrobacter, and Variovorax. Most isolates were highly resistant to selenate and selenite (up to 200 mM) and all could reduce selenite to red elemental Se, reduce nitrite and produce siderophores. Seven isolates were selected for plant inoculation and found to have plant growth promoting properties, both in pure culture and when co-cultivated with crop species Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae) or M. sativa. There were no effects on plant Se accumulation. We conclude that Se hyperaccumulators harbor an endophytic bacterial community in their natural seleniferous habitat that is equally diverse to that of comparable non-accumulators. The hyperaccumulator endophytes are characterized by high Se resistance, capacity to produce elemental Se and plant growth promoting properties. PMID:25784919

  3. Heat-stable chloroplastic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in Chenopodium murale.

    PubMed

    Khanna-Chopra, Renu; Sabarinath, S

    2004-08-06

    Chenopodium murale is a weed species having wide adaptation to different climatic regimes and experiences a temperature range of 5-45 degrees C during its life span. Higher temperatures may result in heat stress, which induces higher ROS production leading to oxidative stress in the plant. Superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD, EC.1.15.1.1) is ubiquitous, being widely distributed among O(2)(-) consuming organisms and is the first line of defense against oxidative stress. In this study, we have characterized the thermostability of the SOD isozymes from C. murale in vitro. The leaf protein extracts, thylakoidal and stromal fractions were subjected to elevated temperatures ranging from 50 degrees C to boiling and analyzed for activity and isoform pattern of SOD. Out of six SOD isoforms, SOD V showed stability even after boiling the extract for 10min. Under high temperature treatment (>60 degrees C) there was an appearance of a new SOD band with higher electrophoretic mobility. The inhibitor studies and subcellular analysis revealed that the SOD V isoform was a chloroplastic Cu/Zn SOD. The stromal Cu/Zn SOD (SOD V) was more stable than the co-migrating thylakoidal isozyme at 80 degrees C and boiling for 10min. Hence, we report an unusual, constitutive thermostable chloroplastic Cu/Zn SOD from C. murale, which may contribute towards its heat tolerance.

  4. Development of a portable ESPI system for the analysis in situ of mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaglio, E.; Lamas, J.; López, Ana J.; Ramil, A.; Pereira, L.; Prieto, B.; Silva, B.

    2012-10-01

    The use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is well documented in the literature as a non-destructive technique for structural diagnostics in the field of cultural heritage.. In the case of mural paintings the lack of adhesion between the plaster and the mural support is one of the most important risk factors that threaten their conservation. With this non-invasive method it is possible to detect detachments and cracks in the paintings before they become visible The objective of this work is the development of ESPI portable equipment based on a fibre interferometer for in situ qualitative analysis of mural paintings. The novelty of the presented set up is the use of a variable ratio coupler which makes the system more immune to vibrations and allows for better use of available light compared with the equivalent of free air guided. This configuration simplifies the arrangement and makes it possible to obtain ESPI interferograms with high contrast; moreover, the use of a ceramic heater as excitation source enables the analysis during the heating. Preliminary results obtained in laboratory conditions have shown that detachments and cracks can be successfully detected on model samples of the wall paintings.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Selenium Tolerance and Hyperaccumulation in Stanleya pinnata1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, John L.; Tamaoki, Masanori; Stushnoff, Cecil; Quinn, Colin F.; Cappa, Jennifer J.; Devonshire, Jean; Fakra, Sirine C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; McGrath, Steve P.; Van Hoewyk, Doug; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for selenium (Se) tolerance and hyperaccumulation were studied in the Se hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) by comparing it with the related secondary Se accumulator Stanleya albescens using a combination of physiological, structural, genomic, and biochemical approaches. S. pinnata accumulated 3.6-fold more Se and was tolerant to 20 μm selenate, while S. albescens suffered reduced growth, chlorosis and necrosis, impaired photosynthesis, and high levels of reactive oxygen species. Levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, total sulfur, and nonprotein thiols were higher in S. pinnata, suggesting that Se tolerance may in part be due to increased antioxidants and up-regulated sulfur assimilation. S. pinnata had higher selenocysteine methyltransferase protein levels and, judged from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, mainly accumulated the free amino acid methylselenocysteine, while S. albescens accumulated mainly the free amino acid selenocystathionine. S. albescens leaf x-ray absorption near-edge structure scans mainly detected a carbon-Se-carbon compound (presumably selenocystathionine) in addition to some selenocysteine and selenate. Thus, S. albescens may accumulate more toxic forms of Se in its leaves than S. pinnata. The species also showed different leaf Se sequestration patterns: while S. albescens showed a diffuse pattern, S. pinnata sequestered Se in localized epidermal cell clusters along leaf margins and tips, concentrated inside of epidermal cells. Transcript analyses of S. pinnata showed a constitutively higher expression of genes involved in sulfur assimilation, antioxidant activities, defense, and response to (methyl)jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, or ethylene. The levels of some of these hormones were constitutively elevated in S. pinnata compared with S. albescens, and leaf Se accumulation was slightly enhanced in both species when these hormones were supplied. Thus, defense-related phytohormones

  6. Conserved but Attenuated Parental Gene Expression in Allopolyploids: Constitutive Zinc Hyperaccumulation in the Allotetraploid Arabidopsis kamchatica

    PubMed Central

    Paape, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Masaomi; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Cereghetti, Teo; Onda, Yoshihiko; Kenta, Tanaka; Sese, Jun; Shimizu, Kentaro K.

    2016-01-01

    Allopolyploidization combines parental genomes and often confers broader species distribution. However, little is known about parentally transmitted gene expression underlying quantitative traits following allopolyploidization because of the complexity of polyploid genomes. The allopolyploid species Arabidopsis kamchatica is a natural hybrid of the zinc hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and of the nonaccumulator Arabidopsis lyrata. We found that A. kamchatica retained the ability to hyperaccumulate zinc from A. halleri and grows in soils with both low and high metal content. Hyperaccumulation of zinc by A. kamchatica was reduced to about half of A. halleri, but is 10-fold greater than A. lyrata. Homeologs derived from A. halleri had significantly higher levels of expression of genes such as HEAVY METAL ATPASE4 (HMA4), METAL TRANSPORTER PROTEIN1 and other metal ion transporters than those derived from A. lyrata, which suggests cis-regulatory differences. A. kamchatica has on average about half the expression of these genes compared with A. halleri due to fixed heterozygosity inherent in allopolyploids. Zinc treatment significantly changed the ratios of expression of 1% of homeologous pairs, including genes putatively involved in metal homeostasis. Resequencing data showed a significant reduction in genetic diversity over a large genomic region (290 kb) surrounding the HMA4 locus derived from the A. halleri parent compared with the syntenic A. lyrata-derived region, which suggests different evolutionary histories. We also estimated that three A. halleri-derived HMA4 copies are present in A. kamchatica. Our findings support a transcriptomic model in which environment-related transcriptional patterns of both parents are conserved but attenuated in the allopolyploids. PMID:27413047

  7. Nickel, Zn and Cd localisation in seeds of metal hyperaccumulators using μ-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer; Walsh, Kerry B.; Singh, Balwant

    2009-06-01

    Metal hyperaccumulators are a rare group of plant species that accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of metals in above ground tissues without showing symptoms of phytotoxicity. Quantitative localisation of the accumulated metals in seed tissues is of considerable interest to help understand the eco-physiology of these unique plant species. We investigated the spatial localisation of metals within seeds of Ni hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. adpressus, H. floribundus subsp. floribundus and Pimelea leptospermoides and dual-metal (Cd and Zn) hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens using quantitative micro-proton induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy. Intact seeds were hand-sectioned, sandwiched between Formvar films and irradiated using the 3 MeV high energy heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO. Elemental maps of whole H. floribundus subsp. adpressus seeds showed an average Ni concentration of 5.1 × 10 3 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) with highest Ni concentration in cotyledonary tissues (7.6 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW), followed by the embryonic axis (4.4 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). Nickel concentration in whole H. floribundus subsp. floribundus seeds was 3.5 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW without a clear pattern of Ni localisation. The average Ni concentration in whole P. leptospermoides seeds was 2.6 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW, and Ni was preferentially localised in the embryonic axis (4.3 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW). In T. caerulescens, Cd concentrations were similar in cotyledon (4.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) and embryonic axis (3.3 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) tissues, whereas Zn was highest in cotyledonary tissues (1.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). In all species, the presence of the accumulated metal within the cotyledonary and embryonic axis tissues indicates that the accumulated metal was able to move apoplastically within the seed.

  8. Conserved but Attenuated Parental Gene Expression in Allopolyploids: Constitutive Zinc Hyperaccumulation in the Allotetraploid Arabidopsis kamchatica.

    PubMed

    Paape, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Masaomi; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Cereghetti, Teo; Onda, Yoshihiko; Kenta, Tanaka; Sese, Jun; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2016-11-01

    Allopolyploidization combines parental genomes and often confers broader species distribution. However, little is known about parentally transmitted gene expression underlying quantitative traits following allopolyploidization because of the complexity of polyploid genomes. The allopolyploid species Arabidopsis kamchatica is a natural hybrid of the zinc hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and of the nonaccumulator Arabidopsis lyrata We found that A. kamchatica retained the ability to hyperaccumulate zinc from A. halleri and grows in soils with both low and high metal content. Hyperaccumulation of zinc by A. kamchatica was reduced to about half of A. halleri, but is 10-fold greater than A. lyrata Homeologs derived from A. halleri had significantly higher levels of expression of genes such as HEAVY METAL ATPASE4 (HMA4), METAL TRANSPORTER PROTEIN1 and other metal ion transporters than those derived from A. lyrata, which suggests cis-regulatory differences. A. kamchatica has on average about half the expression of these genes compared with A. halleri due to fixed heterozygosity inherent in allopolyploids. Zinc treatment significantly changed the ratios of expression of 1% of homeologous pairs, including genes putatively involved in metal homeostasis. Resequencing data showed a significant reduction in genetic diversity over a large genomic region (290 kb) surrounding the HMA4 locus derived from the A. halleri parent compared with the syntenic A. lyrata-derived region, which suggests different evolutionary histories. We also estimated that three A. halleri-derived HMA4 copies are present in A. kamchatica Our findings support a transcriptomic model in which environment-related transcriptional patterns of both parents are conserved but attenuated in the allopolyploids.

  9. Mobilization of cadmium by dissolved organic matter in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingqiang; Liang, Chengfeng; Han, Xuan; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-05-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Cd speciation in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii and its effects on Cd mobility. After growing HE S. alfredii, the rhizosphere soil solution pH of heavily polluted soil (HPS) and slightly polluted soil (SPS) was reduced by 0.49 and 0.40 units, respectively, due to enhanced DOC derived from root exudation. The total Cd concentration in soil solution decreased significantly but the decrease accounted for less than 1% of the total Cd uptake in the shoots of HE S. alfredii. Visual MINTEQ speciation predicted that Cd-DOM complexes were the dominant Cd species in soil solutions after the growth of S. alfredii for both soils, followed by the free metal Cd(2+) species. However, Cd-DOM complexes fraction in the rhizosphere soil solution of HE S. alfredii (89.1% and 74.6% for HPS and SPS, respectively) were much greater than NHE S. alfredii (82.8% and 64.7% for HPS and SPS, respectively). Resin equilibration experiment results indicated that DOM from the rhizosphere (R-DOM) of both ecotypes of S. alfredii had the ability to form complexes with Cd, whereas the degree of complexation was significantly higher for HE-R-DOM (79-89%) than NHE-R-DOM (63-74%) in the undiluted sample. The addition of HE-R-DOM significantly (P<0.05) increased the solubility of four Cd minerals while NHE-R-DOM was not as effective at the same concentration. It was concluded that DOM in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype of S. alfredii could significantly increase Cd mobility through the formation of soluble DOM-metal complexes.

  10. Molecular dissection of the role of histidine in nickel hyperaccumulation in Thalspi goesingense (Halacsy)

    SciTech Connect

    Persans, M.W.; Yan, X.; Patnoe, J.M.M.L.; Kraemer, U.; Salt, D.E.

    1999-12-01

    To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, the authors investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase, and histidinol dehydrogenase, were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His autotrophs. Northern analysis of THJG1, THD1, and THB1 gene expression revealed that each gene is expressed in both roots and shoots, but at the concentrations and dosage times of Ni treatment used in this study, these genes failed to show any regulation by Ni. The authors were also unable to observe any increases in the concentration of free His in root, shoot, or xylem sap of T. goesingense in response to Ni exposure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of root and shoot tissue from T. goesingense and the non-accumulator species Thlaspi reverse revealed no major differences in the coordination of Ni by His in these tissues. They therefore conclude that the Ni hyperaccumulation phenotype in T. goesingense is not determined by the overproduction of His in response to Ni.

  11. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  12. Combined endophytic inoculants enhance nickel phytoextraction from serpentine soil in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    PubMed Central

    Visioli, Giovanna; Vamerali, Teofilo; Mattarozzi, Monica; Dramis, Lucia; Sanangelantoni, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of specific bacterial endophytes on the phytoextraction capacity of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens, spontaneously growing in a serpentine soil environment. Five metal-tolerant endophytes had already been selected for their high Ni tolerance (6 mM) and plant growth promoting ability. Here we demonstrate that individual bacterial inoculation is ineffective in enhancing Ni translocation and growth of N. caerulescens in serpentine soil, except for specific strains Ncr-1 and Ncr-8, belonging to the Arthrobacter and Microbacterium genera, which showed the highest indole acetic acid production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-deaminase activity. Ncr-1 and Ncr-8 co-inoculation was even more efficient in promoting plant growth, soil Ni removal, and translocation of Ni, together with that of Fe, Co, and Cu. Bacteria of both strains densely colonized the root surfaces and intercellular spaces of leaf epidermal tissue. These two bacterial strains also turned out to stimulate root length, shoot biomass, and Ni uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in MS agar medium supplemented with Ni. It is concluded that adaptation of N. caerulescens in highly Ni-contaminated serpentine soil can be enhanced by an integrated community of bacterial endophytes rather than by single strains; of the former, Arthrobacter and Microbacterium may be useful candidates for future phytoremediation trials in multiple metal-contaminated sites, with possible extension to non-hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:26322074

  13. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-14

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ(114/110)Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  14. Cellular Sequestration of Cadmium in the Hyperaccumulator Plant Species Sedum alfredii1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Labavitch, John; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli; Hu, Hening; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Newville, Matt; Commisso, Joel; Brown, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Spatial imaging of cadmium (Cd) in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in vivo by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray microfluorescence imaging. Preferential Cd accumulation in the pith and cortex was observed in stems of the Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE), whereas Cd was restricted to the vascular bundles in its contrasting nonhyperaccumulating ecotype. Cd concentrations of up to 15,000 μg g−1 were measured in the pith cells, which was many fold higher than the concentrations in the stem epidermis and vascular bundles in the HE plants. In the leaves of the HE, Cd was mainly localized to the mesophyll and vascular cells rather than the epidermis. The distribution pattern of Cd in both stems and leaves of the HE was very similar to calcium but not zinc, irrespective of Cd exposure levels. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis showed that Cd in the stems and leaves of the HE was mainly associated with oxygen ligands, and a larger proportion (about 70% in leaves and 47% in stems) of Cd was bound with malic acid, which was the major organic acid in the shoots of the plants. These results indicate that a majority of Cd in HE accumulates in the parenchyma cells, especially in stems, and is likely associated with calcium pathways and bound with organic acid (malate), which is indicative of a critical role of vacuolar sequestration of Cd in the HE S. alfredii. PMID:22025609

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizae increase the arsenic translocation factor in the As hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata L.

    PubMed

    Trotta, A; Falaschi, P; Cornara, L; Minganti, V; Fusconi, A; Drava, G; Berta, G

    2006-09-01

    Phytoremediation techniques are receiving more attention as decontaminating strategies. Phytoextraction makes use of plants to transfer contaminants from soil to the aboveground biomass. This research is devoted to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) on growth and As hyperaccumulation in the Chinese brake fern Pteris vittata. We grew for 45 days P. vittata sporophytes, infected or not infected with the AM fungi Glomus mosseae or Gigaspora margarita, in a hydroponic system on quartz sand. As-treated plants were weekly fed with 25 ppm As. The As treatment produced a dramatic increase of As concentration in pinnae and a much lower increase in roots of both mycorrhizal and control plants. Mycorrhization increased pinnae dry weight (DW) (G. margarita = G. mosseae) and leaf area (G. margarita > G. mosseae), strongly reduced root As concentration (G. mosseae > G. margarita), and increased the As translocation factor (G. mosseae > G. margarita). The concentration of phosphorus in pinnae and roots was enhanced by both fungi (G. margarita > G. mosseae). The quantitatively different effects of the two AM fungi on plant growth as well as on As and P distribution in the fern suggest that the As hyperaccumulation in P. vittata can be optimized by a careful choice of the symbiont.

  16. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  17. Arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata efficiently solubilized phosphate rock to sustain plant growth and As uptake.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing-Wei; Liu, Xue; Han, Yong-He; Mei, Hanyi; Cao, Yue; de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Liu, Yungen; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-01-31

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for phytoremediation of arsenic (As)-contaminated soils. In this study, we demonstrated that As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was efficient in acquiring P from insoluble phosphate rock (PR). When supplemented with PR as the sole P source in hydroponic systems, P. vittata accumulated 49% and 28% higher P in the roots and fronds than the -P treatment. In contrast, non-hyperaccumulator Pteris ensiformis was unable to solubilize P from PR. To gain insights into PR solubilization by plants, organic acids in plant root exudates were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that phytic acid was the predominant (>90%) organic acid in P. vittata root exudates whereas only oxalic acid was detected in P. ensiformis. Moreover, P. vittata secreted more phytic acid in -P and PR treatments. Compared to oxalic acid, phytic acid was more effective in solubilizing PR, suggesting that phytic acid was critical for PR utilization. Besides, secretion of phytic acid by P. vittata was not inhibited by arsenate. Our data indicated that phytic acid played an important role in efficient use of insoluble PR by P. vittata, shedding light on using insoluble PR to enhance phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils.

  18. The impact of Ni on the physiology of a Mediterranean Ni-hyperaccumulating plant.

    PubMed

    Roccotiello, Enrica; Serrano, Helena Cristina; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    High nickel (Ni) levels exert toxic effects on plant growth and plant water content, thus affecting photosynthesis. In a pot experiment, we investigated the effect of the Ni concentration on the physiological characteristics of the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssoides utriculata when grown on a vermiculite substrate in the presence of different external Ni concentrations (0-500 mg Ni L(-1)). The results showed that the Ni concentration was higher in leaves than in roots, as evidenced by a translocation factor = 3 and a bioconcentration factor = 10. At the highest concentration tested (500 mg Ni L(-1)), A. utriculata accumulated 1100 mg Ni per kilogram in its leaves, without an effects on its biomass. Plant water content increased significantly with Ni accumulation. Ni treatment did not, or only slightly, affected chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The photosynthetic efficiency (FV/FM) of A. utriculata was stable between Ni treatments (always ≥ 0.8) and the photosynthetic performance of the plant under Ni stress remained high (performance index = 1.5). These findings support that A. utriculata has several mechanisms to avoid severe damage to its photosynthetic apparatus, confirming the tolerance of this species to Ni under hyperaccumulation.

  19. Cellular Sequestration of Cadmium in the Hyperaccumulator Plant Species Sedum alfredii

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Labavitch, John M.; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli; Hu, Hening; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Newville, Matt; Commisso, Joel; Brown, Patrick Hugh

    2012-07-23

    Spatial imaging of cadmium (Cd) in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in vivo by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray microfluorescence imaging. Preferential Cd accumulation in the pith and cortex was observed in stems of the Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE), whereas Cd was restricted to the vascular bundles in its contrasting nonhyperaccumulating ecotype. Cd concentrations of up to 15,000 {micro}g g{sup -1} were measured in the pith cells, which was many fold higher than the concentrations in the stem epidermis and vascular bundles in the HE plants. In the leaves of the HE, Cd was mainly localized to the mesophyll and vascular cells rather than the epidermis. The distribution pattern of Cd in both stems and leaves of the HE was very similar to calcium but not zinc, irrespective of Cd exposure levels. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis showed that Cd in the stems and leaves of the HE was mainly associated with oxygen ligands, and a larger proportion (about 70% in leaves and 47% in stems) of Cd was bound with malic acid, which was the major organic acid in the shoots of the plants. These results indicate that a majority of Cd in HE accumulates in the parenchyma cells, especially in stems, and is likely associated with calcium pathways and bound with organic acid (malate), which is indicative of a critical role of vacuolar sequestration of Cd in the HE S. alfredii.

  20. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study, we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with...

  1. Potential hyperaccumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in endurant plants distributed in an old smeltery, northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shuang; Zhou, Qixing; Chao, Lei

    2007-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in some endurant weed plant species that survived in an old smeltery in Liaoning, China, were systematically investigated. Potential hyperaccumulative characteristics of these species were also discussed. The results showed that metal accumulation in plants differed with species, tissues and metals. Endurant weed plants growing in this contaminated site exhibited high metal adaptability. Both the metal exclusion and detoxification tolerance strategies were involved in the species studied. Seven species for Pb and four species for Cd were satisfied for the concentration time level standard for hyperaccumulator. Considering translocation factor (TF) values, one species for Pb, seven species for Zn, two species for Cu and five species for Cd possessed the characteristic of hyperaccumulator. Particularly, Abutilon theophrasti Medic, exhibited strong accumulative ability to four heavy metals. Although enrichment coefficients of all samples were lesser than 1 and the absolute concentrations didn’t reach the standard, species mentioned above were primarily believed to be potential hyperaccumulators.

  2. Spatial Imaging, Speciation, and Quantification of Selenium in theHyperaccumulator Plants Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Zhang, L.H.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; McGrath,S.P.; Pilon-Smits, E.A.H.

    2006-09-01

    Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) up to 1% of plant dry weight. In the field, Se was mostly present in the young leaves and reproductive tissues of both hyperaccumulators. Microfocused scanning x-ray fluorescence mapping revealed that Se was hyperaccumulated in trichomes in young leaves of A. bisulcatus. None of 10 other elements tested were accumulated in trichomes. Micro x-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that Se in trichomes was present in the organic forms methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys; 53%) and {gamma}-glutamyl-MeSeCys (47%). In the young leaf itself, there was 30% inorganic Se (selenate and selenite) in addition to 70% MeSeCys. In young S. pinnata leaves, Se was highly concentrated near the leaf edge and surface in globular structures that were shown by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis to be mainly in epidermal cells. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed both MeSeCys (88%) and selenocystathionine (12%) inside leaf edges. In contrast, both the Se accumulator Brassica juncea and the nonaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana accumulated Se in their leaf vascular tissues and mesophyll cells. Se in hyperaccumulators appears to be mobile in both the xylem and phloem because Se-treated S. pinnata was found to be highly toxic to phloem-feeding aphids, and MeSeCys was present in the vascular tissues of a S. pinnata young leaf petiole as well as in guttation fluid. The compartmentation of organic selenocompounds in specific storage areas in the plant periphery appears to be a unique property of Se hyperaccumulators. The high concentration of Se in the plant periphery may contribute to Se tolerance and may also serve as an elemental plant defense mechanism.

  3. Daily life of the ancient Maya recorded on murals at Calakmul, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco Vargas, Ramón; López, Verónica A. Vázquez; Martin, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Research into ancient societies frequently faces a major challenge in accessing the lives of those who made up the majority of their populations, since the available evidence so often concerns only the ruling elite. Our excavations at the ancient Maya site of Calakmul, Mexico, have uncovered a “painted pyramid:” a structure decorated with murals depicting scenes of its inhabitants giving, receiving, and consuming diverse foods, as well as displaying and transporting other goods. Many are accompanied by hieroglyphic captions that describe the participants, and include spellings of key subsistence items. Collectively, they offer insights into the social mechanisms by which goods were circulated within major Maya centers. PMID:19901331

  4. Stimulated infrared thermography applied to thermophysical characterization of cultural heritage mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to approach stimulated infrared thermography possibilities in terms of measuring longitudinal thermal diffusivity of mural paintings in situ. The measuring method principle is first submitted. It is based on temporal analysis of changes in the characteristic radius beams of spatial profiles of the photothermal signal, measured on the spot of the laser excitation. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated, thanks to a series of simulations. Lastly, the method enables to correctly estimate longitudinal thermal diffusivity in a test sample, and further in a fragment copy of "Saint Christophe" belonging to the Campana collection in the Louvre.

  5. Daily life of the ancient Maya recorded on murals at Calakmul, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carrasco Vargas, Ramón; López, Verónica A Vázquez; Martin, Simon

    2009-11-17

    Research into ancient societies frequently faces a major challenge in accessing the lives of those who made up the majority of their populations, since the available evidence so often concerns only the ruling elite. Our excavations at the ancient Maya site of Calakmul, Mexico, have uncovered a "painted pyramid:" a structure decorated with murals depicting scenes of its inhabitants giving, receiving, and consuming diverse foods, as well as displaying and transporting other goods. Many are accompanied by hieroglyphic captions that describe the participants, and include spellings of key subsistence items. Collectively, they offer insights into the social mechanisms by which goods were circulated within major Maya centers.

  6. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations.

  7. Zinc ligands in the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens as determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Salt, D.E.; Prince, R.C.; Baker, A.J.M.; Raskin, I.; Pickering, I.J.

    1999-03-01

    Using the noninvasive technique of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the authors have been able to determine the ligand environment of Zn in different tissues of the Zn-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. The majority of intracellular Zn in roots of T. caerulescens was found to be coordinated with histidine. In the xylem sap Zn was found to be transported mainly as the free hydrated Zn{sup 2+} cation with a smaller proportion coordinated with organic acids. In the shoots, Zn coordination occurred mainly via organic acids, with a smaller proportion present as the hydrated cation and coordinated with histidine and the cell wall. Their data suggest that histidine plays an important role in Zn homeostasis in the roots, whereas organic acids are involved in xylem transport and Zn storage in shoots.

  8. Nickel localization on tissues of hyperaccumulator species of phyllanthus L. (Euphorbiaceae) from ultramafic areas of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Berazaín, R; de la Fuente, V; Sánchez-Mata, D; Rufo, L; Rodríguez, N; Amils, R

    2007-01-01

    Two species of perennial Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) (Phyllanthus orbicularis and Phyllanthus discolor, both endemic to ultramafic areas of Cuba, and their natural hybrid, Phyllanthus xpallidus) were selected for metal localization microanalysis. Different plant tissues were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray probe. All of the studied taxa are nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulators and significant concentrations of this element were found in different leaf and stem tissues. The highest Ni content was found in the laticifer tubes, whereas leaf epidermis Ni content resulted to be much more relevant in terms of total metal storage. Calcium and magnesium were found more evenly distributed in leaf and stem tissues.

  9. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency.

  10. Role of transpiration in arsenic accumulation of hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-ming; Lei, Mei; Chen, Tong-bin; Yang, Jun-xing; Liu, Hong-tao; Chen, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms of Pteris vittata L. to hyperaccumulate arsenic (As), especially the efficient translocation of As from rhizoids to fronds, are not clear yet. The present study aims to investigate the role of transpiration in the accumulation of As from the aspects of transpiration regulation and ecotypic difference. Results showed that As accumulation of P. vittata increased proportionally with an increase in the As exposure concentration. Lowering the transpiration rate by 28∼67% decreased the shoot As concentration by 19∼56%. Comparison of As distribution under normal treatment and shade treatment indicated that transpiration determines the distribution pattern of As in pinnae. In terms of the ecotypic difference, the P. vittata ecotype from moister and warmer habitat had 40% higher transpiration and correspondingly 40% higher shoot As concentration than the ecotype from drier and cooler habitat. Results disclosed that transpiration is the main driver for P. vittata to accumulate and re-distribute As in pinnae.

  11. Chelator effects on bioconcentration and translocation of cadmium by hyperaccumulators, Tagetes patula and Impatiens walleriana.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jhen-Lian; Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2012-10-01

    French marigold (Tagetes patula) and impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) can act as hyperaccumulator plants for removal of cadmium (Cd) from contaminated sites. In this study, an exponential decay model was used to predict the maximum removal of Cd from artificially spiked soils by impatiens. Application of a chelator, EDTA, was also assessed for effects on the bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation (TF) factors of the two species with four replicates. Exposure to Cd significantly decreased the biomass of two plant species. Impatiens and French marigold accumulated Cd at a rate of 200-1200 mg Cd kg(-1) in shoots, with BCFs and TFs of 8.5-15 and 1.7-2.6, respectively.

  12. Leaf-age and soil-plant relationships: key factors for reporting trace-elements hyperaccumulation by plants and design applications.

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Mc Coy, Stéphane; Grison, Claude; Jaffré, Tanguy

    2015-04-01

    Relationships between the trace-elements (TE) content of plants and associated soil have been widely investigated especially to understand the ecology of TE hyperaccumulating species to develop applications using TE phytoextraction. Many studies have focused on the possibility of quantifying the soil TE fraction available to plants, and used bioconcentration (BC) as a measure of the plants ability to absorb TE. However, BC only offers a static view of the dynamic phenomenon of TE accumulation. Accumulation kinetics are required to fully account for TE distributions in plants. They are also crucial to design applications where maximum TE concentrations in plant leaves are needed. This paper provides a review of studies of BC (i.e. soil-plant relationships) and leaf-age in relation to TE hyperaccumulation. The paper focuses of Ni and Mn accumulators and hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia who were previously overlooked until recent Ecocatalysis applications emerged for such species. Updated data on Mn hyperaccumulators and accumulators from New Caledonia are also presented and advocate further investigation of the hyperaccumulation of this element. Results show that leaf-age should be considered in the design of sample collection and allowed the reclassification of Grevillea meisneri known previously as a Mn accumulator to a Mn hyperaccumulator.

  13. Hydroponic phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Ni, As, and Fe: can Helianthus annuus hyperaccumulate multiple heavy metals?

    PubMed

    January, Mary C; Cutright, Teresa J; Van Keulen, Harry; Wei, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Sundance sunflowers were subjected to contaminated solutions containing 3, 4, or 5 heavy metals, with and without EDTA. The sunflowers exhibited a metal uptake preference of Cd=Cr>Ni, Cr>Cd>Ni>As and Fe>As>Cd>Ni>Cr without EDTA and Cr>Cd>Ni, Fe>As>Cd>Cr>Ni with EDTA. As uptake was not affected by other metals, but it decreased Cd and Ni concentration in the stems. The presence of Fe improved the translocation of the other metals regardless of whether EDTA was present. In general, EDTA served as a hindrance to metal uptake. For the experiment with all five heavy metals, EDTA decreased Cd in the roots and stems from 2.11 to 1.36 and from 2.83 to 2.3 2mg g(-1) biomass, respectively. For the same conditions, Ni in the stems decreased from 1.98 to 0.94 mg g(-1) total metal uptake decreased from 14.95 mg to 13.89 mg, and total biomass decreased from 2.38 g to 1.99 g. These results showed an overall negative effect in addition of EDTA. However it is unknown whether the negative effect was due to toxicity posed by EDTA or the breaking of phytochelatin-metal bonds. The most important finding was the ability of Sundance sunflowers to achieve hyperaccumulator status for both As and Cd under all conditions studied. Ni hyperaccumulator status was only achieved in the presence of three metals without EDTA.

  14. A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ya-Fen; Severing, Edouard I.; te Lintel Hekkert, Bas; Schijlen, Elio; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc, and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species known to hyperaccumulate these metals to extremely high concentrations in their aboveground biomass. In order to provide additional molecular resources for this model metal hyperaccumulator species to study and understand the mechanism of adaptation to heavy metal exposure, we aimed to provide a comprehensive database of transcript sequences for N. caerulescens. In this study, 23,830 transcript sequences (isotigs) with an average length of 1025 bp were determined for roots, shoots and inflorescences of N. caerulescens accession “Ganges” by Roche GS-FLEX 454 pyrosequencing. These isotigs were grouped into 20,378 isogroups, representing potential genes. This is a large expansion of the existing N. caerulescens transcriptome set consisting of 3705 unigenes. When translated and compared to a Brassicaceae proteome set, 22,232 (93.2%) of the N. caerulescens isotigs (corresponding to 19,191 isogroups) had a significant match and could be annotated accordingly. Of the remaining sequences, 98 isotigs resembled non-plant sequences and 1386 had no significant similarity to any sequence in the GenBank database. Among the annotated set there were many isotigs with similarity to metal homeostasis genes or genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Only for transcripts similar to Metallothionein3 (MT3), clear evidence for an additional copy was found. This comprehensive set of transcripts is expected to further contribute to the discovery of mechanisms used by N. caerulescens to adapt to heavy metal exposure. PMID:24999345

  15. Antioxidant responses of hyper-accumulator and sensitive fern species to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Ma, Lena Q; Singh, Nandita; Singh, Shraddha

    2005-05-01

    Plant species capable of hyper-accumulating heavy metals are of considerable interest for phytoremediation, and differ in their ability to accumulate metals from the environment. This work aims to examine (i) arsenic accumulation in three fern species [Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), slender brake fern (Pteris ensiformis Burm. f.), and Boston fern (Nephrolepis exaltata L.)], which were exposed to 0, 150, or 300 muM of arsenic (Na(2)HAsO(4).7H(2)O), and (ii) the role of anti-oxidative metabolism in arsenic tolerance in these fern species. Arsenic accumulation increased with an increase in arsenic concentration in the growth medium, the most being found in P. vittata fronds showing no toxicity symptoms. In addition, accumulation was highest in the fronds, followed by the rhizome, and finally the roots, in all three fern species. Thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, indicators of stress in plants, were found to be lowest in P. vittata, which corresponds with its observed tolerance to arsenic. All three ferns responded differentially to arsenic exposure in terms of anti-oxidative defence. Higher levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were observed in P. vittata than in P. ensiformis and N. exaltata, showing their active involvement in the arsenic detoxification mechanism. However, no significant increase was observed in either guaiacol peroxides or glutathione reductase in arsenic-treated P. vittata. Higher activity of anti-oxidative enzymes and lower thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances in arsenic-treated P. vittata correspond with its arsenic hyper-accumulation and no symptoms of toxicity.

  16. Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: Role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.W.; Blaylock, M.J.; Kapulnik, Y.; Ensley, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Uranium phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract U from contaminated soils, is an emerging technology. The authors report on the development of this technology for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils. In this research, they investigated the effects of various soil amendments on U desorption from soil to soil solution, studied the physiological characteristics of U uptake and accumulation in plants, and developed techniques to trigger U hyperaccumulation in plants. A key to the success of U phytoextraction is to increase soil U availability to plants. The authors have found that some organic acids can be added to soils to increase U desorption from soil to soil solution and to trigger a rapid U accumulation in plants. Of the organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid, and malic acid) tested, citric acid was the most effective in enhancing U accumulation in plants. Shoot U concentrations of Brassica juncea and Brassica chinensis grown in a U-contaminated soil increased from less than 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1} to more than 5,000 mg kg{sup {minus}1} in citric acid-treated soils. To their knowledge, this is the highest shoot U concentration reported for plants grown on U-contaminated soils. Using this U hyperaccumulation technique, they are now able to increase U accumulation in shoots of selected plant species grown in two U-contaminated soils by more than 1,000-fold within a few days. The results suggest that U phytoextraction may provide an environmentally friendly alternative for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils.

  17. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O.; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification. PMID:26327118

  18. Enhancement of Cd phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii using electrical field and organic amendments.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wendan; Li, Dan; Ye, Xuezhu; Xu, Haizhou; Yao, Guihua; Wang, Jingwen; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Jing; Gao, Na

    2017-02-01

    The combined use of organic amendment-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation to decontaminate Cd-polluted soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. The plant species selected was the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Prior to the pot experiment, the loamy soil was treated with 15 g kg(-1) of pig manure compost, 10 g kg(-1) of humic acid, or 5 mmol kg(-1) of EDTA, and untreated soil without application of any amendment was the control. Two conditions were applied to each treatment: no voltage (without an electrical field) and a direct current (DC) electrical field (1 V cm(-1) with switching polarity every day). Results indicated that Cd concentrations in S. alfredii were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by application of the electrical field and soil amendments (pig manure compost, humic acid, and EDTA). By switching the polarity of the DC electrical field, significant pH variation from anode to cathode can be avoided, and no significant impact was observed on shoot biomass production. Electrical field application increased DTPA-extractable Cd in soils and the Cd accumulation in shoots by 6.06-15.64 and 24.53-52.31%, respectively. The addition of pig manure compost and humic acid enhanced shoot Cd accumulation by 1.54- to 1.92- and 1.38- to 1.64-fold because of their simultaneous enhancement of Cd concentration in shoots and biomass production. However, no enhancement of Cd accumulation was found in the EDTA treatment, which can be ascribed to the inhibition of plant growth caused by EDTA. In conclusion, pig manure compost or humic acid addition in combination with the application of a switched-polarity DC electrical field could significantly enhance Cd phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator S. alfredii.

  19. Mural Dissections of Brain-Supplying Arteries in a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Baze, Wallace B; Storts, Ralph W; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Buchl, Stephanie J; Magden, Elizabeth R; Chaffee, Beth K

    2015-12-01

    We describe the pathologic features of mural arterial dissection involving brain-supplying arteries in a 31-y-old female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Several hours after examination for a possible respiratory tract infection, the chimpanzee became unresponsive, developed seizures, and died within 18 h. At necropsy, the occipital cortex of the brain had a small area of congestion, and the cerebellar cortex contained a small necrotic area. Histologic evaluation confirmed the cortical lesions and revealed an additional necrotic area in the medulla oblongata characterized by mural dissection of the brain-supplying vertebral and basilar arteries and subsequent branches. Lesions in the cortices and medulla were within areas supplied by the vertebrobasilar system. Dissection of brain-supplying arteries has been described in humans but not previously in chimpanzees (or any other NHP), suggesting that these species might be useful in understanding this condition in humans. In addition, the lesion should be added to the NHP clinician's and pathologist's differential diagnosis list for similar presentations in this species.

  20. A Cross-Cultural Collaboration: Using Visual Culture for the Creation of a Socially Relevant Mural in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how high school and university students in Georgia and members of a small weaving pueblo in Oaxaca, Mexico, collaborated in designing and creating a mural in the central market ("mercado") of the pueblo. A number of lessons emerged from this multi-cultural collaboration. First they learned that using…

  1. What’s Wrong with the Murals at the Mogao Grottoes: A Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meijun; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Jinchang; Chai, Bolong; Sun, Jizhou

    2015-09-01

    Although a significant amount of work has been performed to preserve the ancient murals in the Mogao Grottoes by Dunhuang Cultural Research, non-contact methods need to be developed to effectively evaluate the degree of flaking of the murals. In this study, we propose to evaluate the flaking by automatically analyzing hyperspectral images that were scanned at the site. Murals with various degrees of flaking were scanned in the 126th cave using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral camera with a spectral range of approximately 900 to 1700 nm. The regions of interest (ROIs) of the murals were manually labeled and grouped into four levels: normal, slight, moderate, and severe. The average spectral data from each ROI and its group label were used to train our classification model. To predict the degree of flaking, we adopted four algorithms: deep belief networks (DBNs), partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component analysis with a support vector machine (PCA + SVM) and principal component analysis with an artificial neural network (PCA + ANN). The experimental results show the effectiveness of our method. In particular, better results are obtained using DBNs when the training data contain a significant amount of striping noise.

  2. What’s Wrong with the Murals at the Mogao Grottoes: A Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Method

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meijun; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Jinchang; Chai, Bolong; Sun, Jizhou

    2015-01-01

    Although a significant amount of work has been performed to preserve the ancient murals in the Mogao Grottoes by Dunhuang Cultural Research, non-contact methods need to be developed to effectively evaluate the degree of flaking of the murals. In this study, we propose to evaluate the flaking by automatically analyzing hyperspectral images that were scanned at the site. Murals with various degrees of flaking were scanned in the 126th cave using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral camera with a spectral range of approximately 900 to 1700 nm. The regions of interest (ROIs) of the murals were manually labeled and grouped into four levels: normal, slight, moderate, and severe. The average spectral data from each ROI and its group label were used to train our classification model. To predict the degree of flaking, we adopted four algorithms: deep belief networks (DBNs), partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component analysis with a support vector machine (PCA + SVM) and principal component analysis with an artificial neural network (PCA + ANN). The experimental results show the effectiveness of our method. In particular, better results are obtained using DBNs when the training data contain a significant amount of striping noise. PMID:26394926

  3. Hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as an alternative for chelate-induced phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated alluvial soils.

    PubMed

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The ability of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as compared to chelates was investigated by growing Calendula officinalis L for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated alluvial soil. The combinatorial treatment T6 [2.5 g kg(-1) oilcake manure+5 mmol kg(-1) EDDS] caused maximum cadmium accumulation in root, shoot and flower up to 5.46, 4.74 and 1.37 mg kg(-1) and lead accumulation up to 16.11, 13.44 and 3.17 mg kg(-1), respectively at Naini dump site, Allahabad (S3). The treatment showed maximum remediation efficiency for Cd (RR=0.676%) and Pb (RR=0.202%) at Mumfordganj contaminated site (S2). However, the above parameters were also observed at par with the treatment T5 [2.5 g kg(-1) oilcake manure +2 g kg(-1) humic acid]. Applied EDDS altered chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and carotene contents of plants while application of oilcake manure enhanced their contents in plant by 3.73-8.65%, 5.81-17.65%, and 7.04-17.19%, respectively. The authors conclude that Calendula officinalis L has potential to be safely grown in moderately Cd and Pb-contaminated soils and application of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure boosts the photosynthetic pigments of the plant, leading to enhanced clean-up of the cadmium and lead-contaminated soils. Hence, the hyperaccumulator oilcake manure should be preferred over chelates for sustainable phytoremediation through soil-plant rhizospheric process.

  4. Quantitative micro-PIXE comparison of elemental distribution in Ni-hyperaccumulating and non-accumulating genotypes of Senecio coronatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Prozesky, V. M.; Pineda, C. A.

    1997-07-01

    The Ni hyperaccumulator, plant species Senecio coronatus (Thunb.) Harv., Asteraceae is an example of plant adaptation mechanisms to different ecological conditions. This widespread species can inter alia be found on serpentine outcrops and the genotypes growing in serpentine soils show different ways of adaptation. The populations from two distant localities take up and translocate Ni in concentrations which are normally phytotoxic, while plants growing on a different site, in the vicinity of another hyperaccumulating species, absorb amounts which are typical for most of the plants found on serpentine soils. The NAC nuclear microprobe was used to compare the distribution of Ni and other elements in selected organs and cells with simultaneous use of PIXE and proton BackScattering (BS). Quantitative maps of stems showed large differences in concentrations and distributions of major and trace elements. In hyperaccumulating genotypes Ni is present everywhere within stem tissues, but the highest concentrations were found in the epidermis, cortex and phloem. In non-accumulating plants Ni was concentrated in the phloem. In the leaf epidermis Ni was concentrated in the cell walls for both accumulating and non-accumulating plants. These results suggest that biochemical diversity is more than morphological, because investigated genotypes belong to the same taxon.

  5. Characterization of Zinc and Cadmium Hyperaccumulation in Three Noccaea (Brassicaceae) Populations from Non-metalliferous Sites in the Eastern Pyrenees

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Soledad; Gallego, Berta; Sáez, Llorenç; López-Alvarado, Javier; Cabot, Catalina; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The Southern slope of the Pyrenees is the meridional limit for the distribution of several Noccaea populations. However, the systematic description of these populations and their hyperaccumulation mechanisms are not well established. Morphological and genetic analysis (ITS and 3 chloroplast regions) were used to identify Noccaea populations localized on non-metallicolous soils during a survey in the Catalonian Pyrenees. Cd and Zn concentrations were analyzed in soils and plants both sampled in the field and grown hydroponically. The expression of selected metal transporter genes was assessed by quantitative PCR. The populations were identified as Noccaea brachypetala (Jord.) F.K. Mey by conspicuous morphological traits. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation among N. brachypetala, Noccaea caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl and Noccaea occitanica (Jord.) F.K. Mey., three Noccaea species reported in the Pyrenees. Contrastingly, ITS and cpDNA analyses were unable to clearly differentiate these taxa. Differences in the expression of the metal transporter genes HMA3, HMA4, and MTP1 between N. caerulescens and N. brachypetala, and those amongst the N. brachypetala populations suggest differences in the strategies for handling enhanced Cd and Zn availability. This is the first report demonstrating Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by N. brachypetala both in the field and in hydroponics. This comprehensive study based on taxonomic, molecular, and physiological data allows both the correct identification of this species and the characterization of population differences in hyperaccumulation and tolerance of Zn and Cd. PMID:26904085

  6. Characterization of Streptomyces isolates causing colour changes of mural paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haliem, M E F; Sakr, A A; Ali, M F; Ghaly, M F; Sohlenkamp, C

    2013-08-25

    Paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs often suffer colour changes due to microbial growth and colonization. Streptomyces strains were isolated from mural paintings of Tell Basta and Tanis tombs (East of Nile Delta, Egypt) and were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. The16S rDNA sequences data indicated that isolated strains were closely related to S. coelicolor, S. albidofuscus, S. ambofaciens, S. canarius, S. parvullus, S. corchorusii, S. albidofuscus and S. nigrifaciens. It could be shown that Streptomyces strains are involved on a large scale in the colour changes of paintings and stone support by producing a wide range of metabolites such as acids (oxalic, citric and sulphuric acids), biopigments of melanin, carotenoids, and hydrogen sulphide.

  7. Is Conservative Surgical Treatment Sufficient to Treat Unicystic Mural Ameloblastoma in Infant?

    PubMed

    Acar, Ahmet Hüseyin; Yolcu, Ümit; Erdem, Necip Fazil; Asutay, Fatih

    2015-06-01

    Ameloblastoma, a benign neoplasm derived from odontogenic epithelium, is an aggressive and locally invasive tumor. It represents 11% of all odontogenic tumors and 1% of all oral odontogenic epithelial tumors. In this case report, a 20-month-old boy was referred to our clinic with complaint of collapse in his symphysis region of the mandible. Radiographic examination revealed unilocular radiolucency in this region. The lesion was enucleated with 1 tooth germ under general anesthesia and diagnosed as mural unicystic ameloblastoma by histopathologic examination. After the surgery, complete healing was obtained clinically and radiographically. No sign of recurrence has been seen during the follow-up period of 4.5 years. To our knowledge, this was the second youngest case of ameloblastoma in the English literature. However, it is the youngest case of ameloblastoma that occurred in an infant boy.

  8. Contribution to the improvement of heritage mural painting non-destructive testing by stimulated infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Di Pallo, Luigi; Detalle, Vincent; Vallet, Jean-Marc; Duvaut, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    Non-destructive testing of heritage mural paintings by means of stimulated infrared thermography has now become rather efficient [1-14]. However, pigments, which form a pictorial layer, have contrasting radiative properties possibly leading to artifact detection. In this paper, attempts to alleviate this difficulty are presented. Based on the spectroscopic study of different paint layers, one can argue that, in the medium infrared field, this radiative disparity decreases significantly. Then, with similar settings, it can be shown that ceramic radiative sources allow reaching this wavelength band. Finally, on the basis of a study carried out on an academic sample and a partial copy of a fresco from the cathedral of Angers, combining ceramic heat sources with a laboratory SAMMTHIR experimental setup enables to make real headway in terms of defects' detection.

  9. Calcifying odontogenic cyst with luminal and mural component (Type 1c)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhushan; Koshy, George; Kapoor, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) was first described and classified by Gorlin et al. It is defined as a cystic lesion in which the epithelial lining shows a well defined basal layer of columnar cells, an overlying layer that often resemble stellate reticulum and masses of ghost cells that may be in the epithelial cystic lining or in the fibrous capsule. The lesion generally occurs in the region anterior to maxillary and mandibular molars and either intraosseous or extraosseus. This entity might present as a cystic or solid lesion. Praetorius et al. classified COC into 2 main entities namely a cyst (Type 1) and a neoplasm (Type 2). The present case report exhibit a cystic lesion with both luminal and mural component. PMID:27433053

  10. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Singh, Balwant; Ionescu, Mihail

    2008-04-01

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the μ-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, μ-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, μ-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue analysis

  11. Effect of soil pH on as hyperaccumulation capacity in fern species, Pityrogramma calomelanos.

    PubMed

    Anh, B T Kim; Kim, D D; Kuschk, P; Tua, T V; Hue, N T; Minh, N N

    2013-03-01

    Arsenic uptake by hyperaccumulator plant species depends on many different environmental factors. Soil pH is one of the most important factors due to its combined effect on both chemical and biological processes. In greenhouse experiment, the effect of pH (within the pH range 3.6 - 8.9) on As uptake as well as biomass of Pityrogramma calomelanos was evaluated. The plants were grown in mining soil containing 645.6 mg As kg(-1) for 14 weeks. Within this time, the plant biomass growth was 3.78 - 8.64 g d. wt. per plant and the removal amounted 6.3-18.4 mg As per plant. Translocation factor (ratio of As in fronds to roots) of the fern was 3.6 - 9.7, indicating its potential in phytoremediation of As contaminated soil. Influence of pH on As bioavailability was visible as the available As concentration was higher in acidic soil compared to alkaline soil. Furthermore, it was found that As accumulation by Pityrogramma calomelanos was optimum in the soil of pH 3.6. Nevertheless, the results of this study demonstrate that remediation of As-contaminated mining soils, by this fern, can be improved by changing the soil pH from 4.6 to 6.8.

  12. Formation of biomineral iron oxides compounds in a Fe hyperaccumulator plant: Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.

    PubMed

    Fuente, V; Rufo, L; Juárez, B H; Menéndez, N; García-Hernández, M; Salas-Colera, E; Espinosa, A

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed work of composition and location of naturally formed iron biominerals in plant cells tissues grown in iron rich environments as Imperata cylindrica. This perennial grass grows on the Tinto River banks (Iberian Pyritic Belt) in an extreme acidic ecosystem (pH∼2.3) with high concentration of dissolved iron, sulphate and heavy metals. Iron biominerals were found at the cellular level in tissues of root, stem and leaf both in collected and laboratory-cultivated plants. Iron accumulated in this plant as a mix of iron compounds (mainly as jarosite, ferrihydrite, hematite and spinel phases) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), magnetometry (SQUID), electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX; TEM-EDX; HRSTEM). A low fraction of phosphorous was detected in this iron hyperaccumulator plant. Root and rhizomes tissues present a high proportion of ferromagnetic iron oxide compounds. Iron oxides-rich zones are localized in electron dense intra and inter-cellular aggregates that appear as dark deposits covering the inner membrane and organelles of the cell. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of accumulation, transport, distribution of iron in Imperata cylindrica.

  13. Prosopis laevigata a potential chromium (VI) and cadmium (II) hyperaccumulator desert plant.

    PubMed

    Buendía-González, L; Orozco-Villafuerte, J; Cruz-Sosa, F; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2010-08-01

    The bioaccumulation of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) in Prosopis laevigata and the effect of these heavy metals on plant growth were assessed. P. laevigata seeds were cultured during 50 days on modified Murashige-Skoog medium supplemented with four different concentrations of Cr(VI) (0-3.4mM) and Cd(II) (0-2.2mM), respectively. Heavy metals did not stop germination, but smaller plants with fewer leaves and secondary roots were produced. Seedlings showed an accumulation of 8176 and 21,437 mg Cd kg(-1) and of 5461 and 8090 mg Cr kg(-1) dry weight, in shoot and root, when cultured with 0.65 mM Cd(II) and 3.4mM Cr(VI), respectively. These results indicated that significant translocation from the roots unto aerial parts took place. A bioaccumulation factor greater than 100 for Cd and 24 for Cr was exhibited by the seedlings. P. laevigata can be considered as a potential hyperaccumulator of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) species and considered as a promising candidate for phytoremediation purposes.

  14. Evaluation of novel starch-deficient mutants of Chlorella sorokiniana for hyper-accumulation of lipids

    PubMed Central

    Vonlanthen, Sofie; Dauvillée, David; Purton, Saul

    2015-01-01

    When green algae are exposed to physiological stresses such as nutrient deprivation, growth is arrested and the cells channel fixed carbon instead into storage compounds, accumulating first starch granules and then lipid bodies containing triacylglycerides. In recent years there has been significant interest in the commercial exploitation of algal lipids as a sustainable source of biodiesel. Since starch and lipid biosynthesis involves the same C3 precursor pool, it has been proposed that mutations blocking starch accumulation should result in increased lipid yields, and indeed several studies have supported this. The fast-growing, thermotolerant alga Chlorella sorokiniana represents an attractive strain for industrial cultivation. We have therefore generated and characterized starch-deficient mutants of C. sorokiniana and determined whether lipid levels are increased in these strains under stress conditions. One mutant (ST68) is shown to lack isoamylase, whilst two others (ST3 and ST12) are defective in starch phosphorylase. However, we find no significant change in the accumulation or profile of fatty acids in these mutants compared to the wild-type, suggesting that a failure to accumulate starch per se is not sufficient for the hyper-accumulation of lipid, and that more subtle regulatory steps underlie the partitioning of carbon to the two storage products. PMID:26865991

  15. Mycorrhizae increase arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumulator Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.).

    PubMed

    Al Agely, Abid; Sylvia, David M; Ma, Lena Q

    2005-01-01

    Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) is a hyperaccumulator of arsenic (As) that grows naturally on soils in the southern United States. It is reasonable to expect that mycorrhizal symbiosis may be involved in As uptake by this fern. This is because arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have a well-documented role in increasing plant phosphorus (P) uptake, P and As have similar chemical properties, and ferns are known to be colonized by AM fungi. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment with three levels of As (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1)) and P (0, 25, and 50 mg kg(-1)) and with and without Chinese brake fern colonized by a community of AM fungi from an As-contaminated site. We found that the AM fungi not only tolerated As amendment, but their presence increased frond dry mass at the highest As application rate. Furthermore, the AM fungi increased As uptake across a range of P levels, while P uptake was generally increased only when there was no As amendment. These data indicate that AM fungi have an important role in arsenic accumulation by Chinese brake fern. Therefore, to effectively phytoremediate As-contaminated soils, the mycorrhizal status of ferns needs to be taken into account.

  16. Characterization of arsenic-resistant endophytic bacteria from hyperaccumulators Pteris vittata and Pteris multifida.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling-Jia; Guan, Dong-Xing; Luo, Jun; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2014-10-01

    We isolated and characterized As-resistant endophytic bacteria (AEB) from two arsenic hyperaccumulators. Their plant growth promoting traits and the relation between As tolerance and transformation were evaluated. A total of 41 and 33 AEB were isolated from Pteris vittata (PV) and Pteris multifida (PM) respectively. PV AEB represented 2genera while PM AEB comprised of 12 genera, with Bacillus sp. being the most dominant bacteria from both plants. All AEB had limited ability in solubilizing P and producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. All isolates tolerated 10mM arsenate (As(V)), with PV isolates being more tolerant to As(V) and PM more tolerant to arsenite (As(III)). Bacterial arsenic tolerance was related to their ability in As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction as well as their ability to retain As in the biomass to a varying extent. Though AEB showed limited plant growth promoting traits, they were important in arsenic tolerance and speciation in plants.

  17. Hormesis phenomena under Cd stress in a hyperaccumulator--Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lian; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhouli; Huang, Yanqing; Yu, Shuai

    2013-04-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate possible hormetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced a significant increase in plant growth, leaf water content and content of photosynthetic pigments in L. japonica, but decreased them at high concentrations, displayed inverted U-shaped dose response curves, confirming a typical biphasic hormetic response. The U-shaped dose response curves were displayed in malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in leaves at low doses of Cd, indicating reduce oxidative stress and toxic effect. The increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, indicative of increase in anti-oxidative capacity that ensures redox homeostasis is maintained. After 28 days exposure to 10 mg L(-1) Cd, stem and leaf Cd concentrations reached 502.96 ± 28.90 and 103.22 ± 5.62 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively and the plant had high bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF'). Moreover, the maximum TF value was found at 2.5 mg L(-1) Cd treatment, implying that low Cd treatment improved the ability to transfer Cd from medium via roots to aerial structures. Taking together, L. japonica could be considered as a new plant to investigate the underlying mechanisms of hormesis and Cd tolerance. Our results suggest that hormetic effects should be taken into consideration in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil.

  18. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Regvar, Marjana

    2006-01-01

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment.

  19. Use of Chenopodium murale L. transgenic hairy root in vitro culture system as a new tool for allelopathic assays.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Nevena; Dmitrović, Slavica; Djordjević, Mirka; Zdravković-Korać, Snežana; Nikolić, Radomirka; Raspor, Martin; Djordjević, Tatjana; Maksimović, Vuk; Zivković, Suzana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Stanišić, Mariana; Ninković, Slavica

    2012-08-15

    We investigated Chenopodium murale transgenic hairy root in vitro culture system as a new tool for allelopathic assays. Transgenic hairy roots were induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4M70GUS from roots, cotyledons, leaves, and internodes of C. murale seedlings. Roots were found to be the best target explants, providing transformation efficiency of up to 11.1%. Established hairy root clones differed in their morphology and growth potential. Molecular characterization of these clones was carried out by PCR, RT-PCR and histochemical GUS analyses. No differences in rol gene expression were observed. Liquid culture system of characterized hairy root clones was maintained for over 2 years. Six hairy root clones were selected for assaying the allelopathic effect of their growth medium against germination and seedling elongation of wheat and lettuce test plants. The inhibitory potential varied depending on the hairy root clone. Some transgenic clones showed significantly higher inhibition compared to wild-type roots. These results revealed that hairy roots as an independent system synthesize some bioactive substances with allelopathic activity and exude them into the growth medium. Concentrations of caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids (0.07-2.85 μmol/L) identified by HPLC analysis in the growth media were at least 1000 times lower than the inhibitory active concentration (5 mmol/L) of pure grade phenolic acids, suggesting that they have a limited role in the allelopathic phenomena of C. murale. The presented hairy root system appears to be a suitable tool for further investigation of the potential and nature of root-mediated allelopathic interference of C. murale.

  20. Human sperm acrosome reaction-initiating activity associated with the human cumulus oophorus and mural granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Siiteri, J E; Dandekar, P; Meizel, S

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the detection and partial characterization of preovulatory human cumulus oophorus and mural granulosa cell-associated activity capable of initiating the human sperm acrosome reaction (AR) in vitro. Fragments of preovulatory human cumulus (cells plus extracellular matrix) were washed 3 times, incubated for 24 hr and the spent media and washes assayed for their ability to initiate the human sperm acrosome reaction (AR) in vitro. AR activity was present in the first two washes but not the third wash; however, AR activity was recovered in the spent medium after 3 X-washed fragments were incubated for 24 hr under conditions which maintained the viability of the cumulus cells. The spent media of preovulatory human mural granulosa cells contained AR-initiating activity after 1-3, 3-6, and 6-9 days of culture. The properties of the AR activity present in spent media of human cumulus fragments included resistance to loss of activity during treatment with pronase; resistance to loss of activity during treatment with chondroitinase ABC or bacterial hyaluronidase; heat stability after overnight incubation; lack of extraction by chloroform-methanol; an apparent molecular weight (MW) of 50,000, as determined by Sephadex G-75 column chromatography; conversion to a lower apparent MW activity by incubation with pronase. These properties are also characteristic of a fraction derived by Sephadex G-75 chromatography of preovulatory human follicular fluid which also has been shown to stimulate the human sperm acrosome reaction in vitro. The AR activity from spent media of human mural granulosa cells is also found in a 50,000 MW Sephadex G-75 fraction. We propose that the sources of the 50,000 MW human follicular fluid AR activity are the cumulus oophorus and the mural granulosa cells.

  1. Effectiveness of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound for detecting mural nodules in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas and for making therapeutic decisions

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Mitsuru; Itoi, Takao; Ikeuchi, Nobuhito; Sofuni, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Ishii, Kentaro; Kamada, Kentaro; Umeda, Junko; Tanaka, Reina; Tonozuka, Ryosuke; Honjo, Mitsuyoshi; Mukai, Shuntaro; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: There have been few studies to date evaluating the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (CE-EUS) for detecting mural nodules in patients with branch duct-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BD-IPMN) of the pancreas. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of CE-EUS for detecting mural nodules in BD-IPMN. Patients and Methods: Of the 427 BD-IPMN patients, 21 patients (4.9%) in whom the presence of mural nodules was suggested by CE computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or in whom the presence of nodule-like lesions as shown by fundamental EUS, were examined by CE-EUS. Results: The mean diameter of cystic lesions was 29.8 ± 12.8 mm. The mean diameter of mural nodules was 9.5 ± 5.7 mm. BD-IPMN was detected in the pancreatic head in 16 cases, pancreatic body in 2 cases, and pancreatic tail in 3 cases. The mean follow-up period was 17.2 ± 11.9 months. The detection rates of mural nodule-like lesions in BD-IPMN patients on CT, MRI, and fundamental EUS were 36.8%, 63.2%, and 100%, respectively. The detection rates of true mural nodules in BD-IPMN patients on CT, MRI, and fundamental EUS were 85.7%, 71.4%, and 100%, respectively. The echo levels of mural nodule-like lesions on fundamental EUS were hyperechoic in 6 patients, isoechoic in 9 patients, and hypoechoic in 6 patients. The final diagnosis was mucus lumps in 14 patients and mural nodules in 7 patients. The contrast patterns observed were avascular, isovascular, and hypervascular in 14, 3, and 4 patients, respectively. No patients showed a hypovascular pattern. Fourteen patients showing an avascular pattern were diagnosed as having mucus lumps, and they were able to avoid surgical resection. Of the 7 patients who were diagnosed as having mural nodules, 5 underwent surgical resection. The pathological findings were adenocarcinoma in 2 patients and adenoma in 3 patients. Of the 3 adenoma patients, fundamental EUS demonstrated a hypoechoic

  2. Selenium hyperaccumulator plants Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus are colonized by Se-resistant, Se-excluding wasp and beetle seed herbivores.

    PubMed

    Freeman, John L; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C; Devonshire, Jean; McGrath, Steve P; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator plants can concentrate the toxic element Se up to 1% of shoot (DW) which is known to protect hyperaccumulator plants from generalist herbivores. There is evidence for Se-resistant insect herbivores capable of feeding upon hyperaccumulators. In this study, resistance to Se was investigated in seed chalcids and seed beetles found consuming seeds inside pods of Se-hyperaccumulator species Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata. Selenium accumulation, localization and speciation were determined in seeds collected from hyperaccumulators in a seleniferous habitat and in seed herbivores. Astragalus bisulcatus seeds were consumed by seed beetle larvae (Acanthoscelides fraterculus Horn, Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and seed chalcid larvae (Bruchophagus mexicanus, Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae). Stanleya pinnata seeds were consumed by an unidentified seed chalcid larva. Micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µXANES) and micro-X-Ray Fluorescence mapping (µXRF) demonstrated Se was mostly organic C-Se-C forms in seeds of both hyperaccumulators, and S. pinnata seeds contained ∼24% elemental Se. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of Se-compounds in S. pinnata seeds detected the C-Se-C compound seleno-cystathionine while previous studies of A. bisulcatus seeds detected the C-Se-C compounds methyl-selenocysteine and γ-glutamyl-methyl-selenocysteine. Micro-XRF and µXANES revealed Se ingested from hyperaccumulator seeds redistributed throughout seed herbivore tissues, and portions of seed C-Se-C were biotransformed into selenocysteine, selenocystine, selenodiglutathione, selenate and selenite. Astragalus bisulcatus seeds contained on average 5,750 µg Se g(-1), however adult beetles and adult chalcid wasps emerging from A. bisulcatus seed pods contained 4-6 µg Se g(-1). Stanleya pinnata seeds contained 1,329 µg Se g(-1) on average; however chalcid wasp larvae and adults emerging from S. pinnata seed pods contained 9 and 47 µg Se g(-1). The

  3. Effects of Cu on the content of chlorophylls and secondary metabolites in the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen Stereocaulon japonicum.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Hara, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Kiminori

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Cu and Cu-hyperaccumulator lichens is important for their application in monitoring and assessing heavy metal pollution. We investigated the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen Stereocaulon japonicum at several Cu-polluted and control sites in Japan, and found the lichen to be widely distributed. Its concentrations of Cu, chlorophylls, and secondary metabolites, chlorophyll-related indices, and absorption spectra were measured, and we observed negative effects of Cu on these concentrations and indices. For highly Cu-polluted samples (>100ppm dry weight), however, we found significant linear correlations between Cu and chlorophyll concentrations. This can be considered as the response of the photobiont in S. japonicum to Cu stress. In highly Cu-polluted samples the chlorophyll-related indices and concentration of total secondary metabolites were almost constant regardless of Cu concentration. This suggests that the increase in chlorophyll concentration with the increase in Cu concentration enhances photosynthetic productivity per unit biomass, which will allow the production of extra structure and energy for maintaining the chlorophyll-related indices under Cu stress. The relationship between the increase in chlorophyll concentration of S. japonicum and the decrease in secondary metabolite concentration of the lichen can be explained by considering the balance of carbohydrates in the lichen. We found that a spectral index A372-A394 can be a useful index of the concentrations of Cu and total secondary metabolites in S. japonicum. These findings show the adjustment of the content of chlorophylls and secondary metabolites in S. japonicum to Cu stress, and provide a better understanding of the relationship between Cu and the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen.

  4. In vivo localization of manganese in the hyperaccumulator Gossia bidwillii (Benth.) N. Snow & Guymer (Myrtaceae) by cryo-SEM/EDAX.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Denise R; Batianoff, George N; Baker, Alan J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2006-05-01

    Gossia bidwillii (Myrtaceae) is a manganese (Mn)-hyperaccumulating tree native to subtropical eastern Australia. It typically contains foliar Mn levels in excess of 1% dry weight. However, in G. bidwillii and other Mn-hyperaccumulating species, the cellular and subcellular localization of Mn has not been measured. Quantitative in vivo cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was used to localize Mn and other elements in tissue collected from mature trees growing in a natural population. Cryo-SEM showed that the leaf mesophyll is differentiated as a double-layer palisade mesophyll above spongy mesophyll. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the palisade and epidermal cells are highly vacuolated. EDAX data were used to estimate in situ vacuolar Mn concentrations of all cell types in fresh cryo-fixed leaf tissues. The highest average vacuolar Mn concentration of over 500 mM was found in the upper-layer palisade mesophyll, while the lowest concentration of around 100 mM was found in the spongy mesophyll. Qualitative in vivo cryo-SEM/EDAX was employed to further investigate the spatial distribution of Mn in fresh leaf tissues and young bark tissue, which was also found to have a high Mn concentration. It is concluded that Mn distribution in G. bidwillii is quantitatively different to metal distribution in other hyperaccumulating species where the highest localized concentrations of these elements occur in non-photosynthmetic tissues such as epidermal cells and associated dermal structures including trichomes and leaf hairs.

  5. Chromate and phosphate inhibited each other's uptake and translocation in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Letúzia M; Lessl, Jason T; Gress, Julia; Tisarum, Rujira; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the effects of chromate (CrVI) and phosphate (P) on their uptake and translocation in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). Plants were exposed to 1) 0.10 mM CrVI and 0, 0.25, 1.25, or 2.50 mM P or 2) 0.25 mM P and 0, 0.50, 2.5 or 5.0 mM CrVI for 24 h in hydroponics. PV accumulated 2919 mg/kg Cr in the roots at CrVI₀.₁₀, and 5100 and 3500 mg/kg P in the fronds and roots at P₀.₂₅. When co-present, CrVI and P inhibited each other's uptake in PV. Increasing P concentrations reduced Cr root concentrations by 62-82% whereas increasing CrVI concentrations reduced frond P concentrations by 52-59% but increased root P concentrations by 11-15%. Chromate reduced P transport, with more P being accumulated in PV roots. Though CrVI was supplied, 64-78% and 92-93% CrIII were in PV fronds and roots. Based on X-ray diffraction, Cr₂O₃ was detected in the roots confirming CrVI reduction to CrIII by PV. In short, CrVI and P inhibited each other in uptake and translocation by PV, and CrVI reduction to CrIII in PV roots served as its detoxification mechanism. The finding helps to understand the interactions of P and Cr during their uptake in PV.

  6. Functional analysis of the three HMA4 copies of the metal hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Nouet, Cécile; Charlier, Jean-Benoit; Carnol, Monique; Bosman, Bernard; Farnir, Frédéric; Motte, Patrick; Hanikenne, Marc

    2015-09-01

    In Arabidopsis halleri, the HMA4 gene has an essential function in Zn/Cd hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation by mediating root-to-shoot translocation of metals. Constitutive high expression of AhHMA4 results from a tandem triplication and cis-activation of the promoter of all three copies. The three AhHMA4 copies possess divergent promoter sequences, but highly conserved coding sequences, and display identical expression profiles in the root and shoot vascular system. Here, an AhHMA4::GFP fusion was expressed under the control of each of the three A. halleri HMA4 promoters in a hma2hma4 double mutant of A. thaliana to individually examine the function of each AhHMA4 copy. The protein showed non-polar localization at the plasma membrane of the root pericycle cells of both A. thaliana and A. halleri. The expression of each AhHMA4::GFP copy complemented the severe Zn-deficiency phenotype of the hma2hma4 mutant by restoring root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. However, each copy had a different impact on metal homeostasis in the A. thaliana genetic background: AhHMA4 copies 2 and 3 were more highly expressed and provided higher Zn tolerance in roots and accumulation in shoots than copy 1, and AhHMA4 copy 3 also increased Cd tolerance in roots. These data suggest a certain extent of functional differentiation among the three A. halleri HMA4 copies, stemming from differences in expression levels rather than in expression profile. HMA4 is a key node of the Zn homeostasis network and small changes in expression level can have a major impact on Zn allocation to root or shoot tissues.

  7. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  8. Lewis acid catalysis and Green oxidations: sequential tandem oxidation processes induced by Mn-hyperaccumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Escande, Vincent; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Among the phytotechnologies used for the reclamation of degraded mining sites, phytoextraction aims to diminish the concentration of polluting elements in contaminated soils. However, the biomass resulting from the phytoextraction processes (highly enriched in polluting elements) is too often considered as a problematic waste. The manganese-enriched biomass derived from native Mn-hyperaccumulating plants of New Caledonia was presented here as a valuable source of metallic elements of high interest in chemical catalysis. The preparation of the catalyst Eco-Mn1 and reagent Eco-Mn2 derived from Grevillea exul exul and Grevillea exul rubiginosa was investigated. Their unusual polymetallic compositions allowed to explore new reactivity of low oxidative state of manganese-Mn(II) for Eco-Mn1 and Mn(IV) for Eco-Mn2. Eco-Mn1 was used as a Lewis acid to catalyze the acetalization/elimination of aldehydes into enol ethers with high yields; a new green and stereoselective synthesis of (-)-isopulegol via the carbonyl-ene cyclization of (+)-citronellal was also performed with Eco-Mn1. Eco-Mn2 was used as a mild oxidative reagent and controlled the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols into aldehydes with quantitative yields. Oxidative cleavage was interestingly noticed when Eco-Mn2 was used in the presence of a polyol. Eco-Mn2 allowed direct oxidative iodination of ketones without using iodine, which is strongly discouraged by new environmental legislations. Finally, the combination of the properties in the Eco-Mn catalysts and reagents gave them an unprecedented potential to perform sequential tandem oxidation processes through new green syntheses of p-cymene from (-)-isopulegol and (+)-citronellal; and a new green synthesis of functionalized pyridines by in situ oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines.

  9. Daclatasvir inhibits hepatitis C virus NS5A motility and hyper-accumulation of phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Chukkapalli, Vineela; Berger, Kristi L.; Kelly, Sean M.; Thomas, Meryl; Deiters, Alexander; Randall, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have the potential to revolutionize the HCV therapeutic regime. An integral component of DAA combination therapies are HCV NS5A inhibitors. It has previously been proposed that NS5A DAAs inhibit two functions of NS5A: RNA replication and virion assembly. In this study, we characterize the impact of a prototype NS5A DAA, daclatasvir (DCV), on HCV replication compartment formation. DCV impaired HCV replicase localization and NS5A motility. In order to characterize the mechanism behind altered HCV replicase localization, we examined the impact of DCV on the interaction of NS5A with its essential cellular cofactor, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III α (PI4KA). We observed that DCV does not inhibit PI4KA directly, nor does it impair early events of the NS5A-PI4KA interaction that can occur when NS5A is expressed alone. NS5A functions that are unaffected by DCV include PI4KA binding, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation, and a basal accumulation of the PI4KA product, PI4P. However, DCV impairs late steps in PI4KA activation that requires NS5A expressed in the context of the HCV polyprotein. These NS5A functions include hyper-stimulation of PI4P levels and appropriate replication compartment formation. The data are most consistent with a model wherein DCV inhibits conformational changes in the NS5A protein or protein complex formations that occur in the context of HCV polyprotein expression and stimulate PI4P hyper-accumulation and replication compartment formation. PMID:25546252

  10. Soil pollution assessment and identification of hyperaccumulating plants in chromated copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated sites, Korea.

    PubMed

    Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Awad, Yasser M; Lim, Kyoung Jae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-05-01

    In recent decades, heavy metal contamination in soil adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has received increasing attention. This study was conducted to determine the pollution level (PL) based on the concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in soils and to evaluate the remediative capacity of native plant species grown in the CCA contaminated site, Gangwon Province, Korea. The pollution index (PI), integrated pollution index (IPI), bioaccumulation factors (BAF(shoots) and BAF(roots)) and translocation factor (TF) were determined to ensure soil contamination and phytoremediation availability. The 19 soil samples from 10 locations possibly contaminated with Cr, Cu and As were collected. The concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in the soil samples ranged from 50.56-94.13 mg kg(-1), 27.78-120.83 mg kg(-1), and 0.13-9.43 mg kg(-1), respectively. Generally, the metal concentrations decreased as the distance between the CCA-treated wood structure and sampling point increased. For investigating phytoremediative capacity, the 19 native plant species were also collected in the same area with soil samples. Our results showed that only one plant species of Iris ensata, which presented the highest accumulations of Cr (1120 mg kg(-1)) in its shoot, was identified as a hyperaccumulator. Moreover, the relatively higher values of BAF(shoot) (3.23-22.10) were observed for Typha orientalis, Iris ensata and Scirpus radicans Schk, suggesting that these plant species might be applicable for selective metal extraction from the soils. For phytostabilization, the 15 plant species with BAF(root) values>1 and TF values<1 were suitable; however, Typha orientalis was the best for Cr.

  11. Netrin-4 promotes mural cell adhesion and recruitment to endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Netrins are secreted molecules involved in axon guidance and angiogenesis. We previously showed that Netrin-4 acts as an anti-angiogenic factor by inhibiting endothelial cell (EC) functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Netrin-4 on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activity in vitro and in vivo. We show that exogenous Netrin-4 stimulated VSMC adhesion and migration, and increased their coverage on EC tubes (grown on a Matrigel substrate). siRNA knock-down of endogenous Netrin-4 expression in VSMC decreased their recruitment to EC tubes. VSMC expressed Netrin-4 and three of the six Netrin-1 cognate receptors: DCC, Neogenin, and Unc5B. Silencing of these receptors reduced Netrin-4 adhesion to VSMC, strongly suggesting that these receptors were involved in the recruitment process. We previously showed that Netrin-4 overexpression in PC3 cancer cells delayed tumor growth in a model of subcutaneous xenograft by reducing tumor vessel density. Here, we show that Netrin-4 overexpression improved tumor blood vessel structure and increased VSMC coverage. Thus, Netrin-4 induced mural cell recruitment may play a role in the inhibition of tumor growth. Our data suggest that Netrin-4 is important for blood vessel normalization through the regulation of both endothelial and perivascular cells. PMID:24472220

  12. Identification of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Specific Genes in Cumulus and Mural Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Aydos, Alp; Gurel, Aykut; Oztemur Islakoglu, Yasemin; Noyan, Senem; Gokce, Bagdagul; Ecemis, Tolga; Kaya, Cemil; Aksu, Arif Tarik; Gur Dedeoglu, Bala

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and endocrine disorder which affects women of reproductive age with prevalence of 8-18%. The oocyte within the follicle is surrounded by cumulus cells (CCs), which connect with mural granulosa cells (MGCs) that are responsible for secreting steroid hormones. The main aim of this study is comparing gene expression profiles of MGCs and CCs in PCOS and control samples to identify PCOS-specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In this study, two microarray databases were searched for mRNA expression microarray studies performed with CCs and MGCs obtained from PCOS patients and control samples. Three independent studies were selected to be integrated with naive meta-analysis since raw meta-data from these studies were found to be highly correlated. DEGs in these somatic cells were identified for PCOS and control groups. This study enabled us to reveal dysregulation in MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase), insulin and Wnt signaling pathways between CCs and MGCs in PCOS. The meta-analysis results together with qRT-PCR validations provide evidence that molecular signaling is dysregulated through MGCs and CCs in PCOS, which is important for follicle and oocyte maturation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

  13. Mutual interaction between endothelial cells and mural cells enhances BMP9 signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tachida, Yuki; Izumi, Nanae; Sakurai, Toyo; Kobayashi, Hideki

    2017-03-15

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is characterized by the formation of abnormal vascular networks and caused by the mutation of genes involved in BMP9 signaling. It is also known that the interaction between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells (MCs) is critical to maintain vessel integrity. However, it has not yet fully been uncovered whether the EC-MC interaction affects BMP9 signaling or not. To elucidate this point, we analyzed BMP9 signaling in a co-culture of several types of human primary culture ECs and MCs. The co-culture activated the Notch pathway in both types of cells in a co-culture- and BMP9-dependent manner. In HUVECs, the genes induced by BMP9 were significantly and synergistically induced in the presence of pericytes, fibroblasts or mesenchymal stem cells. The synergistic induction was greatly reduced in a non-contact condition. In fibroblasts, PDGFRB expression was potently induced in the presence of HUVECs, and BMP9 additively increased this response. Taken together, these results suggest that the EC-MC interaction potentiates BMP9 signaling both in ECs and MCs and plays a critical role in the maintenance of proper vessel functions.

  14. Clarification of mural cell coverage of vascular endothelial cells by live imaging of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Koji; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Izumi, Nanae; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hajime; Kelsh, Robert N.; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Mural cells (MCs) consisting of vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes cover the endothelial cells (ECs) to regulate vascular stability and homeostasis. Here, we clarified the mechanism by which MCs develop and cover ECs by generating transgenic zebrafish lines that allow live imaging of MCs and by lineage tracing in vivo. To cover cranial vessels, MCs derived from either neural crest cells or mesoderm emerged around the preformed EC tubes, proliferated and migrated along EC tubes. During their migration, the MCs moved forward by extending their processes along the inter-EC junctions, suggesting a role for inter-EC junctions as a scaffold for MC migration. In the trunk vasculature, MCs derived from mesoderm covered the ventral side of the dorsal aorta (DA), but not the posterior cardinal vein. Furthermore, the MCs migrating from the DA or emerging around intersegmental vessels (ISVs) preferentially covered arterial ISVs rather than venous ISVs, indicating that MCs mostly cover arteries during vascular development. Thus, live imaging and lineage tracing enabled us to clarify precisely how MCs cover the EC tubes and to identify the origins of MCs. PMID:26952986

  15. Mutual interaction between endothelial cells and mural cells enhances BMP9 signaling in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tachida, Yuki; Izumi, Nanae; Sakurai, Toyo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is characterized by the formation of abnormal vascular networks and caused by the mutation of genes involved in BMP9 signaling. It is also known that the interaction between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells (MCs) is critical to maintain vessel integrity. However, it has not yet fully been uncovered whether the EC–MC interaction affects BMP9 signaling or not. To elucidate this point, we analyzed BMP9 signaling in a co-culture of several types of human primary culture ECs and MCs. The co-culture activated the Notch pathway in both types of cells in a co-culture- and BMP9-dependent manner. In HUVECs, the genes induced by BMP9 were significantly and synergistically induced in the presence of pericytes, fibroblasts or mesenchymal stem cells. The synergistic induction was greatly reduced in a non-contact condition. In fibroblasts, PDGFRB expression was potently induced in the presence of HUVECs, and BMP9 additively increased this response. Taken together, these results suggest that the EC–MC interaction potentiates BMP9 signaling both in ECs and MCs and plays a critical role in the maintenance of proper vessel functions. PMID:28298363

  16. Identification of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Specific Genes in Cumulus and Mural Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aydos, Alp; Gurel, Aykut; Oztemur Islakoglu, Yasemin; Noyan, Senem; Gokce, Bagdagul; Ecemis, Tolga; Kaya, Cemil; Aksu, Arif Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and endocrine disorder which affects women of reproductive age with prevalence of 8–18%. The oocyte within the follicle is surrounded by cumulus cells (CCs), which connect with mural granulosa cells (MGCs) that are responsible for secreting steroid hormones. The main aim of this study is comparing gene expression profiles of MGCs and CCs in PCOS and control samples to identify PCOS-specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In this study, two microarray databases were searched for mRNA expression microarray studies performed with CCs and MGCs obtained from PCOS patients and control samples. Three independent studies were selected to be integrated with naive meta-analysis since raw meta-data from these studies were found to be highly correlated. DEGs in these somatic cells were identified for PCOS and control groups. This study enabled us to reveal dysregulation in MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase), insulin and Wnt signaling pathways between CCs and MGCs in PCOS. The meta-analysis results together with qRT-PCR validations provide evidence that molecular signaling is dysregulated through MGCs and CCs in PCOS, which is important for follicle and oocyte maturation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the syndrome. PMID:27997581

  17. Chemical, morphological and chromatic behavior of mural paintings under Er:YAG laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striova, J.; Camaiti, M.; Castellucci, E. M.; Sansonetti, A.

    2011-08-01

    Several pigments (malachite CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, azurite 2CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, yellow ochre (goethite α-FeOOH, gypsum CaSO4ṡ2H2O), St. John's white CaCO3 formed from slaked lime) and respective mural paintings specimens were subjected to the free-running Er:YAG laser radiation in order to study their damage thresholds, in a broad range of laser fluences, both in dry and wet conditions. The specimens' damage thresholds were evaluated by spectroscopic methods, colorimetric measurements and microscopic observation. The pigments containing -OH groups were found to be more sensitive than St. John's white; hence the most sensitive paint layers in dry conditions are those containing malachite, azurite (both 1.3 J/cm2) and yellow ochre (2.5 J/cm2) as compared to the ones containing St. John's white (15.2 J/cm2). The presence of wetting agents (w.a.) attenuated the pigments chemical alteration. The damage thresholds of all the paint layers, in presence of w.a., were found to be around 2.5 J/cm2. The alteration was caused by thermo-mechanical damage and by binding medium ablation of a fresco and a secco prepared specimens, respectively.

  18. Characterization of a selenium-tolerant rhizosphere strain from a novel Se-hyperaccumulating plant Cardamine hupingshanesis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xinzhao; Yuan, Linxi; Luo, Lei; Yin, Xuebin

    2014-01-01

    A novel selenium- (Se-) hyperaccumulating plant, Cardamine hupingshanesis, accumulating Se as a form of SeCys2, was discovered in Enshi, Hubei, China, which could not be explained by present selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) theory. However, it is interesting to investigate if rhizosphere bacteria play some roles during SeCys2 accumulation. Here, one Se-tolerant rhizosphere strain, Microbacterium oxydans, was isolated from C. hupingshanesis. Phylogenetic analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined the strain as a kind of Gram positive bacillus and belonged to the family Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. Furthermore, Se tolerance test indicated the strain could grow in extreme high Se level of 15.0 mg Se L(-1). When exposed to 1.5 mg Se L(-1), SeCys2 was the predominant Se species in the bacteria, consistent with the Se species in C. hupingshanesis. This coincidence might reveal that this strain played some positive effect in SeCys2 accumulation of C. hupingshanesis. Moreover, when exposed to 1.5 mg Se L(-1) or 15.0 mg Se L(-1), As absorption diminished in the logarithmic phase. In contrast, As absorption increased when exposed to 7.5 mg Se L(-1), indicating As metabolism processes could be affected by Se on this strain. The present study provided a sight on the role of rhizosphere bacteria during Se accumulation for Se-hyperaccumulating plant.

  19. Characterization of arsenate reductase in the extract of roots and fronds of Chinese brake fern, an arsenic hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Duan, Gui-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tong, Yi-Ping; Cai, Chao; Kneer, Ralf

    2005-05-01

    Root extracts from the arsenic (As) hyperaccumulating Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) were shown to be able to reduce arsenate to arsenite. An arsenate reductase (AR) in the fern showed a reaction mechanism similar to the previously reported Acr2p, an AR from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), using glutathione as the electron donor. Substrate specificity as well as sensitivity toward inhibitors for the fern AR (phosphate as a competitive inhibitor, arsenite as a noncompetitive inhibitor) was also similar to Acr2p. Kinetic analysis showed that the fern AR had a Michaelis constant value of 2.33 mM for arsenate, 15-fold lower than the purified Acr2p. The AR-specific activity of the fern roots treated with 2 mM arsenate for 9 d was at least 7 times higher than those of roots and shoots of plant species that are known not to tolerate arsenate. A T-DNA knockout mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with disruption in the putative Acr2 gene had no AR activity. We could not detect AR activity in shoots of the fern. These results indicate that (1) arsenite, the previously reported main storage form of As in the fern fronds, may come mainly from the reduction of arsenate in roots; and (2) AR plays an important role in the detoxification of As in the As hyperaccumulating fern.

  20. Characterization of Arsenate Reductase in the Extract of Roots and Fronds of Chinese Brake Fern, an Arsenic Hyperaccumulator1

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Gui-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tong, Yi-Ping; Cai, Chao; Kneer, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Root extracts from the arsenic (As) hyperaccumulating Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) were shown to be able to reduce arsenate to arsenite. An arsenate reductase (AR) in the fern showed a reaction mechanism similar to the previously reported Acr2p, an AR from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), using glutathione as the electron donor. Substrate specificity as well as sensitivity toward inhibitors for the fern AR (phosphate as a competitive inhibitor, arsenite as a noncompetitive inhibitor) was also similar to Acr2p. Kinetic analysis showed that the fern AR had a Michaelis constant value of 2.33 mm for arsenate, 15-fold lower than the purified Acr2p. The AR-specific activity of the fern roots treated with 2 mm arsenate for 9 d was at least 7 times higher than those of roots and shoots of plant species that are known not to tolerate arsenate. A T-DNA knockout mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) with disruption in the putative Acr2 gene had no AR activity. We could not detect AR activity in shoots of the fern. These results indicate that (1) arsenite, the previously reported main storage form of As in the fern fronds, may come mainly from the reduction of arsenate in roots; and (2) AR plays an important role in the detoxification of As in the As hyperaccumulating fern. PMID:15834011

  1. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Arroyo, Irvin; Pickering, Ingrid J; Yang, Soo In; Freeman, John L

    2015-01-01

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing the Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with ground shoots of the Se-hyperaccumulator Stanleyapinnata. With increasing application rates of S. pinnata, total plant Se concentrations increased to nutritionally ideal levels inside edible parts. Selenium compounds in aqueous extracts were analyzed by SAX-HPLC-ICPMS and identified as a variety of mainly organic-Se forms. Together with bulk Se K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis performed on broccoli florets, carrot roots and shoots, dried ground S. pinnata, and the amended soil at post-plant, we demonstrate that Se-enriched S. pinnata is valuable as a soil amendment for enriching broccoli and carrots with healthful forms of organic-Se.

  2. Molecular Dissection of the Role of Histidine in Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense (Hálácsy)1

    PubMed Central

    Persans, Michael W.; Yan, Xiange; Patnoe, Jean-Marc M.L.; Krämer, Ute; Salt, David E.

    1999-01-01

    To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, we investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (THG1, GenBank accession no. AF003347), imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase (THB1, GenBank accession no. AF023140), and histidinol dehydrogenase (THD1, GenBank accession no. AF023141) were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His auxotrophs. Northern analysis of THG1, THD1, and THB1 gene expression revealed that each gene is expressed in both roots and shoots, but at the concentrations and dosage times of Ni treatment used in this study, these genes failed to show any regulation by Ni. We were also unable to observe any increases in the concentration of free His in root, shoot, or xylem sap of T. goesingense in response to Ni exposure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of root and shoot tissue from T. goesingense and the non-accumulator species Thlaspi arvense revealed no major differences in the coordination of Ni by His in these tissues. We therefore conclude that the Ni hyperaccumulation phenotype in T. goesingense is not determined by the overproduction of His in response to Ni. PMID:10594099

  3. Complexation with dissolved organic matter and mobility control of heavy metals in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingqiang; Tao, Qi; Liang, Chengfeng; Shohag, M J I; Yang, Xiaoe; Sparks, Donald L

    2013-11-01

    The complexation of Zn, Cd and Pb with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and a non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii was measured using resin equilibration method. After the growth of HE S. alfredii, the rhizosphere soil pH was reduced by 0.27-0.33 units, due to enhanced DOM derived from root exudation. For both ecotypes of S. alfredii, the fraction of free metal as a percentage of soluble metal varied from 22.1 to 42.5% for Zn(2+), from 8.1 to 15.5% for Cd(2+), and from 4.5 to 10.4% for Pb(2+). Resin equilibration experiment results indicated that HE-DOM had greater ability to form complexes with Zn, Cd and Pb than NHE-DOM, Visual MINTEQ model gave excellent predictions of the complexation of Zn and Cd by DOM (R(2) > 0.97). DOM in the rhizosphere of HE S. alfredii could significantly increase metal mobility through the formation of soluble DOM-metal complexes.

  4. Improved cadmium uptake and accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii: the impact of citric acid and tartaric acid* #

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ling-li; Tian, Sheng-ke; Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Ting-qiang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of a natural strategy for metal hyperaccumulation enables the rational design of technologies for the clean-up of metal-contaminated soils. Organic acid has been suggested to be involved in toxic metallic element tolerance, translocation, and accumulation in plants. The impact of exogenous organic acids on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in the zinc (Zn)/Cd co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in the present study. By the addition of organic acids, short-term (2 h) root uptake of 109Cd increased significantly, and higher 109Cd contents in roots and shoots were noted 24 h after uptake, when compared to controls. About 85% of the 109Cd taken up was distributed to the shoots in plants with citric acid (CA) treatments, as compared with 75% within controls. No such effect was observed for tartaric acid (TA). Reduced growth under Cd stress was significantly alleviated by low CA. Long-term application of the two organic acids both resulted in elevated Cd in plants, but the effects varied with exposure time and levels. The results imply that CA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation and tolerance in S. alfredii, whereas the impact of TA is mainly on the root uptake of Cd. PMID:23365009

  5. A native Zn/Cd transporting P1B ATPase from natural overexpression in a hyperaccumulator plant reveals post-translational processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TcHMA4 is a P1B-type ATPase that is highly expressed in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens and contains a C-terminal 9-histidine repeat. After isolation from roots, we purified TcHMA4 protein via metal affinity chromatography. The purified protein exhibited Cd- and Zn activated AT...

  6. Sulfate and chromate increased each other's uptake and translocation in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Letúzia M; Gress, Julia; De, Jaysankar; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Marchi, Giuliano; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effects of chromate (CrVI) and sulfate on their uptake and translocation in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. Plants were exposed to 1) 0.1 mM CrVI and 0, 0.25, 1.25 or 2.5 mM sulfate or 2) 0.25 mM sulfate and 0, 0.5, 2.5 or 5.0 mM CrVI for 1 d in hydroponics. P. vittata accumulated 26 and 1261 mg kg(-1) Cr in the fronds and roots at CrVI0.1, and 2197 and 1589 mg kg(-1) S in the fronds and roots at S0.25. Increasing sulfate concentrations increased Cr root concentrations by 16-66% and helped CrVI reduction to CrIII whereas increasing CrVI concentrations increased frond sulfate concentrations by 3-27%. Increasing sulfate concentrations enhanced TBARS concentrations in the biomass, indicating oxidative stress caused lipid peroxidation in plant cell membranes. However, addition of 0.25-2.5 mM sulfate alleviated CrVI's toxic effects and decreased TBARS from 23.5 to 9.46-12.3 μmol g(-1) FW. Though CrVI was supplied, 78-96% of CrIII was in the biomass, indicating efficient CrVI reduction to CrIII by P. vittata. The data indicated the amazing ability of P. vittata in Cr uptake at 289 mg kg(-1) h(-1) with little translocation to the fronds. These results indicated that P. vittata had potential in Cr phytoremediation in contaminated sites but further studies are needed to evaluate this potential. The facts that CrVI and sulfate helped each other in uptake by P. vittata suggest that CrVI was not competing with sulfate uptake in P. vittata. However, the mechanisms of how sulfate and CrVI enhance each other's accumulation in P. vittata need further investigation.

  7. Nitrate facilitates cadmium uptake, transport and accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Yin, Yong-Gen; Ishikawa, Satoru; Suzui, Nobuo; Kawachi, Naoki; Fujimaki, Shu; Igura, Masato; Yuan, Cheng; Huang, Jiexue; Li, Zhu; Makino, Tomoyuki; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Wu, Longhua

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate whether and how the nitrogen form (nitrate (NO3 (-)) versus ammonium (NH4 (+))) influences cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation and subsequent Cd phytoextraction by the hyperaccumulator species Sedum plumbizincicola. Plants were grown hydroponically with N supplied as either NO3 (-) or NH4 (+). Short-term (36 h) Cd uptake and translocation were determined innovatively and quantitatively using a positron-emitting (107)Cd tracer and positron-emitting tracer imaging system. The results show that the rates of Cd uptake by roots and transport to the shoots in the NO3 (-) treatment were more rapid than in the NH4 (+) treatment. After uptake for 36 h, 5.6 (0.056 μM) and 29.0 % (0.290 μM) of total Cd in the solution was non-absorbable in the NO3 (-) and NH4 (+) treatments, respectively. The local velocity of Cd transport was approximately 1.5-fold higher in roots (3.30 cm h(-1)) and 3.7-fold higher in shoots (10.10 cm h(-1)) of NO3 (-)- than NH4 (+)-fed plants. Autoradiographic analysis of (109)Cd reveals that NO3 (-) nutrition enhanced Cd transportation from the main stem to branches and young leaves. Moreover, NO3 (-) treatment increased Cd, Ca and K concentrations but inhibited Fe and P in the xylem sap. In a 21-day hydroponic culture, shoot biomass and Cd concentration were 1.51 and 2.63 times higher in NO3 (-)- than in NH4 (+)-fed plants. We conclude that compared with NH4 (+), NO3 (-) promoted the major steps in the transport route followed by Cd from solution to shoots in S. plumbizincicola, namely its uptake by roots, xylem loading, root-to-shoot translocation in the xylem and uploading to the leaves. S. plumbizincicola prefers NO3 (-) nutrition to NH4 (+) for Cd phytoextraction.

  8. Transcriptomic diversification of developing cumulus and mural granulosa cells in mouse ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Wigglesworth, Karen; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Emori, Chihiro; Sugiura, Koji; Eppig, John J

    2015-01-01

    Cumulus cells and mural granulosa cells (MGCs) have functionally distinct roles in antral follicles, and comparison of their transcriptomes at a global and systems level can propel future studies on mechanisms underlying their functional diversity. These cells were isolated from small and large antral follicles before and after stimulation of immature mice with gonadotropins, respectively. Both cell types underwent dramatic transcriptomic changes, and differences between them increased with follicular growth. Although cumulus cells of both stages of follicular development are competent to undergo expansion in vitro, they were otherwise remarkably dissimilar with transcriptomic changes quantitatively equivalent to those of MGCs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that cumulus cells of small follicles were enriched in transcripts generally associated with catalytic components of metabolic processes, while those from large follicles were involved in regulation of metabolism, cell differentiation, and adhesion. Contrast of cumulus cells versus MGCs revealed that cumulus cells were enriched in transcripts associated with metabolism and cell proliferation while MGCs were enriched for transcripts involved in cell signaling and differentiation. In vitro and in vivo models were used to test the hypothesis that higher levels of transcripts in cumulus cells versus MGCs is the result of stimulation by oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs). Surprisingly ∼48% of transcripts higher in cumulus cells than MGCs were not stimulated by ODPFs. Those stimulated by ODPFs were mainly associated with cell division, mRNA processing, or the catalytic pathways of metabolism, while those not stimulated by ODPFs were associated with regulatory processes such as signaling, transcription, phosphorylation, or the regulation of metabolism.

  9. Elevated CO2 concentration increase the mobility of Cd and Zn in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingqiang; Tao, Qi; Liang, Chengfeng; Yang, Xiaoe

    2014-05-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on metal species and mobility in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator are not well understood. We report an experiment designed to compare the effects of elevated CO2 on Cd/Zn speciation and mobility in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and a non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii grown under ambient (350 μl l(-1)) or elevated (800 μl l(-1)) CO2 conditions. No difference in solution pH of NHE was observed between ambient and elevated CO2 treatments. For HE, however, elevated CO2 reduced soil solution pH by 0.22 unit, as compared to ambient CO2 conditions. Elevated CO2 increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic acid levels in soil solution of both ecotypes, but the increase in HE solution was much greater than in NHE solution. After the growth of HE, the concentrations of Cd and Zn in soil solution decreased significantly regardless of CO2 level. The visual MINTEQ speciation model predicted that Cd/Zn-DOM complexes were the dominant species in soil solutions, followed by free Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) species for both ecotypes. However, Cd/Zn-DOM complexes fraction in soil solution of HE was increased by the elevated CO2 treatment (by 8.01 % for Cd and 8.47 % for Zn, respectively). Resin equilibration experiment results indicated that DOM derived from the rhizosphere of HE under elevated CO2 (HE-DOM-E) (90 % for Cd and 73 % for Zn, respectively) showed greater ability to form complexes with Cd and Zn than those under ambient CO2 (HE-DOM-A) (82 % for Cd and 61 % for Zn, respectively) in the undiluted sample. HE-DOM-E showed greater ability to extract Cd and Zn from soil than HE-DOM-A. It was concluded that elevated CO2 could increase the mobility of Cd and Zn due to the enhanced formation of DOM-metal complexes in the rhizosphere of HE S. alfredii.

  10. A hyperaccumulation pathway to three-dimensional hierarchical porous nanocomposites for highly robust high-power electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Shan, Yu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Hongtao; Zhao, Zipeng; Mei, Lin; Fan, Zheng; Xu, Zhi; Shakir, Imran; Huang, Yu; Lu, Bingan; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-11-01

    Natural plants consist of a hierarchical architecture featuring an intricate network of highly interconnected struts and channels that not only ensure extraordinary structural stability, but also allow efficient transport of nutrients and electrolytes throughout the entire plants. Here we show that a hyperaccumulation effect can allow efficient enrichment of selected metal ions (for example, Sn2+, Mn2+) in the halophytic plants, which can then be converted into three-dimensional carbon/metal oxide (3DC/MOx) nanocomposites with both the composition and structure hierarchy. The nanocomposites retain the 3D hierarchical porous network structure, with ultrafine MOx nanoparticles uniformly distributed in multi-layers of carbon derived from the cell wall, cytomembrane and tonoplast. It can simultaneously ensure efficient electron and ion transport and help withstand the mechanical stress during the repeated electrochemical cycles, enabling the active material to combine high specific capacities typical of batteries and the cycling stability of supercapacitors.

  11. A hyperaccumulation pathway to three-dimensional hierarchical porous nanocomposites for highly robust high-power electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian; Shan, Yu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Hongtao; Zhao, Zipeng; Mei, Lin; Fan, Zheng; Xu, Zhi; Shakir, Imran; Huang, Yu; Lu, Bingan; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Natural plants consist of a hierarchical architecture featuring an intricate network of highly interconnected struts and channels that not only ensure extraordinary structural stability, but also allow efficient transport of nutrients and electrolytes throughout the entire plants. Here we show that a hyperaccumulation effect can allow efficient enrichment of selected metal ions (for example, Sn2+, Mn2+) in the halophytic plants, which can then be converted into three-dimensional carbon/metal oxide (3DC/MOx) nanocomposites with both the composition and structure hierarchy. The nanocomposites retain the 3D hierarchical porous network structure, with ultrafine MOx nanoparticles uniformly distributed in multi-layers of carbon derived from the cell wall, cytomembrane and tonoplast. It can simultaneously ensure efficient electron and ion transport and help withstand the mechanical stress during the repeated electrochemical cycles, enabling the active material to combine high specific capacities typical of batteries and the cycling stability of supercapacitors. PMID:27853174

  12. Brevibacterium picturae sp. nov., isolated from a damaged mural painting at the Saint-Catherine chapel (Castle Herberstein, Austria).

    PubMed

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Verbeeren, Jens; Schumann, Peter; Devos, Joke; Swings, Jean; De Vos, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Three strains showing highly similar (GTG)5-PCR patterns were isolated from a heavily damaged mural painting at the Saint-Catherine chapel (Castle Herberstein, Austria). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains were attributed to Brevibacterium, with Brevibacterium casei (96.7 %), Brevibacterium iodinum (96.7 %) and Brevibacterium linens (96.6 %) as the closest related species. Chemotaxonomic data [peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid; mycolic acids absent; MK-8(H2) as the major menaquinone; polar lipids phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol present; anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) as major fatty acids] supported the affiliation of the strains to the genus Brevibacterium. Additional physiological and biochemical tests confirmed the taxonomic position of the strains and allowed phenotypic differentiation from Brevibacterium species with validly published names. The isolates from the mural painting, therefore, represent a novel species, for which the name Brevibacterium picturae sp. nov. is proposed, with LMG 22061T (= DSM 16132T) as the type strain.

  13. Halophilic Microorganisms Are Responsible for the Rosy Discolouration of Saline Environments in Three Historical Buildings with Mural Paintings

    PubMed Central

    Ettenauer, Jörg D.; Jurado, Valme; Piñar, Guadalupe; Miller, Ana Z.; Santner, Markus; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    A number of mural paintings and building materials from monuments located in central and south Europe are characterized by the presence of an intriguing rosy discolouration phenomenon. Although some similarities were observed among the bacterial and archaeal microbiota detected in these monuments, their origin and nature is still unknown. In order to get a complete overview of this biodeterioration process, we investigated the microbial communities in saline environments causing the rosy discolouration of mural paintings in three Austrian historical buildings using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent techniques as well as microscopic techniques. The bacterial communities were dominated by halophilic members of Actinobacteria, mainly of the genus Rubrobacter. Representatives of the Archaea were also detected with the predominating genera Halobacterium, Halococcus and Halalkalicoccus. Furthermore, halophilic bacterial strains, mainly of the phylum Firmicutes, could be retrieved from two monuments using special culture media. Inoculation of building materials (limestone and gypsum plaster) with selected isolates reproduced the unaesthetic rosy effect and biodeterioration in the laboratory. PMID:25084531

  14. Genome Structure of the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and Its Stability on Metalliferous and Nonmetalliferous Soils1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mandáková, Terezie; Singh, Vasantika; Krämer, Ute; Lysak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens (formerly known as Thlaspi caerulescens), an extremophile heavy metal hyperaccumulator model plant in the Brassicaceae family, is a morphologically and phenotypically diverse species exhibiting metal tolerance and leaf accumulation of zinc, cadmium, and nickel. Here, we provide a detailed genome structure of the approximately 267-Mb N. caerulescens genome, which has descended from seven chromosomes of the ancestral proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7) through an unusually high number of pericentric inversions. Genome analysis in two other related species, Noccaea jankae and Raparia bulbosa, showed that all three species, and thus probably the entire Coluteocarpeae tribe, have descended from the proto-Calepineae Karyotype. All three analyzed species share the chromosome structure of six out of seven chromosomes and an unusually high metal accumulation in leaves, which remains moderate in N. jankae and R. bulbosa and is extreme in N. caerulescens. Among these species, N. caerulescens has the most derived karyotype, with species-specific inversions on chromosome NC6, which grouped onto its bottom arm functionally related genes of zinc and iron metal homeostasis comprising the major candidate genes NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE2 and ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE1. Concurrently, copper and organellar metal homeostasis genes, which are functionally unrelated to the extreme traits characteristic of N. caerulescens, were grouped onto the top arm of NC6. Compared with Arabidopsis thaliana, more distal chromosomal positions in N. caerulescens were enriched among more highly expressed metal homeostasis genes but not among other groups of genes. Thus, chromosome rearrangements could have facilitated the evolution of enhanced metal homeostasis gene expression, a known hallmark of metal hyperaccumulation. PMID:26195571

  15. A significant positive correlation between endogenous trans-zeatin content and total arsenic in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica var. nervosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Qinchun; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Yanyan

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the content of endogenous trans-zeatin (Z), plant arsenic (As) uptake and physiological indices in the fronds of As-hyperaccumulator (Pteris cretica var. nervosa) and non-hyperaccumulator (Pteris ensiformis). Furthermore, a stepwise regression method was used to study the relationship among determined indices, and the time-course effect of main indices was also investigated under 100mg/kg As stress with time extension. In the 100-200mg/kg As treatments, plant height showed no significant difference and endogenous Z content significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa compared to the control, but a significant decrease of height and endogenous Z was observed in P. ensiformis. The concentrations of As (III) and As (V) increased significantly in the fronds of two plants, but this increase was much higher in P. cretica var. nervosa. Compared to the control, the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein were significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa but decreased in P. ensiformis in the 200mg/kg As treatment, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the contents of endogenous Z and total As in P. cretica var. nervosa, but such a correlation was not found in P. ensiformis. Additionally, in the time-course effect experiment, a peak value of each index was appeared in the 43rd day in two plants, except for chlorophyll in P. ensiformis, but this value was significantly higher in P. cretica var. nervosa than that in P. ensiformis. In conclusion, a higher endogenous Z content contributed to As accumulation of P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress.

  16. A proteomics approach to investigate the process of Zn hyperaccumulation in Noccaea caerulescens (J & C. Presl) F.K. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Thomas; Persson, Daniel Pergament; Husted, Søren; Schellenberg, Maja; Gehrig, Peter; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico; Schjoerring, Jan K; Meyer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element in all living organisms, but is toxic in excess. Several plant species are able to accumulate Zn at extraordinarily high concentrations in the leaf epidermis without showing any toxicity symptoms. However, the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. A state-of-the-art quantitative 2D liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) proteomics approach was used to investigate the abundance of proteins involved in Zn hyperaccumulation in leaf epidermal and mesophyll tissues of Noccaea caerulescens. Furthermore, the Zn speciation in planta was analyzed by a size-exclusion chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SEC-ICP-MS) method, in order to identify the Zn-binding ligands and mechanisms responsible for Zn hyperaccumulation. Epidermal cells have an increased capability to cope with the oxidative stress that results from excess Zn, as indicated by a higher abundance of glutathione S-transferase proteins. A Zn importer of the ZIP family was more abundant in the epidermal tissue than in the mesophyll tissue, but the vacuolar Zn transporter MTP1 was equally distributed. Almost all of the Zn located in the mesophyll was stored as Zn-nicotianamine complexes. In contrast, a much lower proportion of the Zn was found as Zn-nicotianamine complexes in the epidermis. However, these cells have higher concentrations of malate and citrate, and these organic acids are probably responsible for complexation of most epidermal Zn. Here we provide evidence for a cell type-specific adaptation to excess Zn conditions and an increased ability to transport Zn into the epidermal vacuoles.

  17. Elucidating the selenium and arsenic metabolic pathways following exposure to the non-hyperaccumulating Chlorophytum comosum, spider plant.

    PubMed

    Afton, Scott E; Catron, Brittany; Caruso, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the metabolism of selenium and arsenic in hyperaccumulating plants for phytoremediation purposes, few have explored non-hyperaccumulating plants as a model for general contaminant exposure to plants. In addition, the result of simultaneous supplementation with selenium and arsenic has not been investigated in plants. In this study, Chlorophytum comosum, commonly known as the spider plant, was used to investigate the metabolism of selenium and arsenic after single and simultaneous supplementation. Size exclusion and ion-pairing reversed phase liquid chromatography were coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to obtain putative metabolic information of the selenium and arsenic species in C. comosum after a mild aqueous extraction. The chromatographic results depict that selenium and arsenic species were sequestered in the roots and generally conserved upon translocation to the leaves. The data suggest that selenium was directly absorbed by C. comosum roots when supplemented with Se(VI), but a combination of passive and direct absorption occurred when supplemented with Se(IV) due to the partial oxidation of Se(IV) to Se(VI) in the rhizosphere. Higher molecular weight selenium species were more prevalent in the roots of plants supplemented with Se(IV), but in the leaves of plants supplemented with Se(VI) due to an increased translocation rate. When supplemented as As(III), arsenic is proposed to be passively absorbed as As(III) and partially oxidized to As(V) in the plant root. Although total elemental analysis demonstrates a selenium and arsenic antagonism, a compound containing selenium and arsenic was not present in the general aqueous extract of the plant.

  18. Elucidating the selenium and arsenic metabolic pathways following exposure to the non-hyperaccumulating Chlorophytum comosum, spider plant

    PubMed Central

    Afton, Scott E.; Catron, Brittany; Caruso, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the metabolism of selenium and arsenic in hyperaccumulating plants for phytoremediation purposes, few have explored non-hyperaccumulating plants as a model for general contaminant exposure to plants. In addition, the result of simultaneous supplementation with selenium and arsenic has not been investigated in plants. In this study, Chlorophytum comosum, commonly known as the spider plant, was used to investigate the metabolism of selenium and arsenic after single and simultaneous supplementation. Size exclusion and ion-pairing reversed phase liquid chromatography were coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to obtain putative metabolic information of the selenium and arsenic species in C. comosum after a mild aqueous extraction. The chromatographic results depict that selenium and arsenic species were sequestered in the roots and generally conserved upon translocation to the leaves. The data suggest that selenium was directly absorbed by C. comosum roots when supplemented with SeVI, but a combination of passive and direct absorption occurred when supplemented with SeIV due to the partial oxidation of SeIV to SeVI in the rhizosphere. Higher molecular weight selenium species were more prevalent in the roots of plants supplemented with SeIV, but in the leaves of plants supplemented with SeVI due to an increased translocation rate. When supplemented as AsIII, arsenic is proposed to be passively absorbed as AsIII and partially oxidized to AsV in the plant root. Although total elemental analysis demonstrates a selenium and arsenic antagonism, a compound containing selenium and arsenic was not present in the general aqueous extract of the plant. PMID:19273464

  19. Hyperaccumulator of Pb in native plants growing on Peruvian mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Boluda, Rafael; Tume, Pedro; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sanchez, Isidoro

    2014-05-01

    samples were taken at four locations (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4) with different levels of Pb. The Pb soil content (mean ± standard deviation) in mg•kg-1 is as follows: CA1 3992 ± 301; CA2 10128 ± 2247, CA3 14197 ± 895, CA4 16060 ± 810. The non-polluted value around the mine was Pb 124 mg•kg-1. Unusual elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and TF greater than one were detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens). The location CA4 has the maximum content of Pb in the shoots of Ageratina sp. (5045±77 mg•kg-1), C. apalothica (3367±188 mg•kg-1), E. denticulatum (13599±848 mg•kg-1), T. officinalis (2533±47 mg•kg-1) and T. repens (2839±231 mg•kg-1). However, the BF (Bioaccumulation Factor) was smaller than one. Despite the low BF index, the great TFs for Pb indicate that these plant species effectively translocate this metal (i.e., 2.4 for Ageratina sp., 2.3 for C. apalothica, 1.6 for T. repens, 1.5 for A. alata, 1.3 for T. officinalis and 1.2 for E. denticulatum). It seems that the BF is not a reliable index when the metal soil concentration is extremely large. Controlled-environment studies must be performed to definitively confirm the Pb hyperaccumulation character of cited plant species.

  20. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    observed in so-called hyperaccumulating metalophytes, which are studied for its suitability to be incorporated in metal recovery processes of elements that diffusely occur in different waste streams. In a systematic series of tests under laboratory conditions the accumulation behaviour for many different elements including rare earth metals of a selection of candidate plants growing on sewage sludge, incineration residues and industrial leftovers was assessed (quantitavely and qualitatively). Growth performance of these plants as well as the most suitable substrate properties were evaluated. The results of this project provided the groundwork for further research and development steps that might bring to practical implementation a technological option with potentially huge benefits: The recovery of valuable metal resources from sewage sludge, incineration ashes and metal rich wastewaters by environmentally friendly and low energy means. Simultaneous decontamination of the input substrates from heavy metals, opening the possibility for these nutrient streams to be redirected to biological regeneration processes (for example use as fertilizers in agriculture) without fear of polluting soils with heavy metal loads. Generation of biomass on contaminated substrates can yield usable energy surplus through incineration during or after processing.

  1. Speciation and localization of Zn in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii by extended X-ray absorption fine structure and micro-X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingli; Liao, Xingcheng; Labavitch, John; Yang, Xiaoe; Nelson, Erik; Du, Yonghua; Brown, Patrick H; Tian, Shengke

    2014-11-01

    Differences in metal homeostasis among related plant species can give important information of metal hyperaccumulation mechanisms. Speciation and distribution of Zn were investigated in a hyperaccumulating population of Sedum alfredii by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure and micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), respectively. The hyperaccumulator uses complexation with oxygen donor ligands for Zn storage in leaves and stems, and variations in the Zn speciation was noted in different tissues. The dominant chemical form of Zn in leaves was most probably a complex with malate, the most prevalent organic acid in S. alfredii leaves. In stems, Zn was mainly associated with malate and cell walls, while Zn-citrate and Zn-cell wall complexes dominated in the roots. Two-dimensional μ-XRF images revealed age-dependent differences in Zn localization in S. alfredii stems and leaves. In old leaves of S. alfredii, Zn was high in the midrib, margin regions and the petiole, whereas distribution of Zn was essentially uniform in young leaves. Zinc was preferentially sequestered by cells near vascular bundles in young stems, but was highly localized to vascular bundles and the outer cortex layer of old stems. The results suggest that tissue- and age-dependent variations of Zn speciation and distribution occurred in the hyperaccumulator S. alfredii, with most of the Zn complexed with malate in the leaves, but a shift to cell wall- and citric acid-Zn complexes during transportation and storage in stems and roots. This implies that biotransformation in Zn complexation occurred during transportation and storage processes in the plants of S. alfredii.

  2. Mural folliculitis and alopecia caused by infection with goat-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus in two sika deer.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Timothy B; Li, Hong; Rosenburg, Stuart R; Norhausen, Robert W; Garner, Michael M

    2002-09-15

    Two sika deer from a zoo in Florida were examined because of chronic hair loss and skin lesions. No common causes of alopecia were identified in either deer. One deer was treated with prednisone, but the condition worsened when the dosage was decreased. Both deer were euthanatized after several months because of continued disease. The predominant histologic lesion in skin specimens was granulomatous mural folliculitis. Serologic testing and sequencing of fragments produced with a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that both deer were infected with caprine herpesvirus-2, a newly recognized member of the malignant catarrhal fever group of viruses. Disease in these deer was substantially different from that typically seen following infection with ovine herpesvirus-2, the sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus. Findings in these deer establish the pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus-2 in sika deer and illustrate the ability of this group of complex herpesviruses to cause a wide variety of clinical abnormalities in diverse species.

  3. Reduced mural cell coverage and impaired vessel integrity after angiogenic stimulation in the Alk1-deficient brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqiu; Guo, Yi; Walker, Espen J.; Shen, Fanxia; Jun, Kristine; Oh, S. Paul; Degos, Vincent; Lawton, Michael T.; Tihan, Tarik; Davalos, Dimitrios; Akassoglou, Katerina; Nelson, Jeffrey; Pile-Spellman, John; Su, Hua; Young, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vessels in brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) are prone to rupture. The underlying pathogenesis is not clear. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2) patients with activin receptor-like kinase 1 (Alk1) mutation have a higher incidence of bAVM than the general population. We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) impairs vascular integrity in the Alk1-deficient brain through reduction of mural cell-coverage. Methods and Results Adult Alk11f/2f mice (loxP sites flanking exons 4-6) and wild-type (WT) mice were injected with 2×107 PFU Ad-Cre and 2×109 genome copies of AAV-VEGF to induce focal homozygous Alk1 deletion (in Alk11f/2f mice) and angiogenesis. Brain vessels were analyzed eight weeks later. Compared to WT mice, the Alk1-deficient brain had more fibrin (99±30×103 pixels/mm2 vs. 40±13×103, P=0.001), iron deposition (508±506 pixels/mm2 vs. 6 ±49, P=0.04), and Iba1+ microglia/macrophage infiltration (888±420 Iba1+ cells/mm2 vs. 240±104 Iba1+, P=0.001) after VEGF stimulation. In the angiogenic foci, the Alk1-deficient brain had more α-SMA- vessels (52±9% vs. 12±7%, P<0.001), fewer vascular associated pericytes (503±179/mm2 vs. 931±115, P<0.001), and reduced PDGFR-β expression (26±9%, P<0.001). Conclusion Reduction of mural cell coverage in response to VEGF stimulation is a potential mechanism for the impairment of vessel wall integrity in HHT2-associated bAVM. PMID:23241407

  4. A native Zn/Cd pumping P(1B) ATPase from natural overexpression in a hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Aravind; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Yang, Mingjie; Kroneck, Peter M H; Welte, Wolfram; Lutz, Gabriela; Papoyan, Ashot; Kochian, Leon V; Küpper, Hendrik

    2007-11-09

    We report here the first purification of a P(1B) type ATPase, a group of transporters that occurs in bacteria, plants and animals incl. humans, from a eukaryotic organism in native state. TcHMA4 is a P(1B) type ATPase that is highly expressed in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens and contains a C-terminal 9-histidine repeat. After isolation from roots, we purified TcHMA4 protein via metal affinity chromatography. The purified protein exhibited Cd- and Zn-activated ATPase activity after reconstitution into lipid vesicles, showing that it was in its native state. Gels of crude root extract and of the purified protein revealed TcHMA4-specific bands of about 50 and 60kDa, respectively, while the TcHMA4 mRNA predicts a single protein with a size of 128kDa. This indicates the occurrence of post-translational processing; the properties of the two bands were characterised by their activity and binding properties.

  5. Tolerance and hyperaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) by four aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Romero-Hernández, Jorge Alberto; Amaya-Chávez, Araceli; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; González-Rivas, Nelly; Balderas-Plata, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-04

    In the present investigation, four macrophytes, namely Typha latifolia (L.), Lemna minor (L.), Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, and Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc, were evaluated for their heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) hyperaccumulation potential under laboratory conditions. Tolerance analyses were performed for 7 days of exposure at five different treatments of the metals mixture (Cu(+2), Hg(+2), Pb(+2), and Zn(+2)). The production of chlorophyll and carotenoids was determined at the end of each treatment. L. minor revealed to be sensitive, because it did not survive in all the tested concentrations after 72 hours of exposure. E. crassipes and M. aquaticum displayed the highest tolerance to the metals mixture. For the most tolerant species of aquatic macrophytes, The removal kinetics of E. crassipes and M. aquaticum was carried out, using the following mixture of metals: Cu (0.5 mg/L) and Hg, Pb, and Zn 0.25 mg/L. The obtained results revealed that E. crassipes can remove 99.80% of Cu, 97.88% of Pb, 99.53% of Hg, and 94.37% of Zn. M. aquaticum withdraws 95.2% of Cu, 94.28% of Pb, 99.19% of Hg, and 91.91% of Zn. The obtained results suggest that these two species of macrophytes could be used for the phytoremediation of this mixture of heavy metals from the polluted water bodies.

  6. Development of suitable hydroponics system for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water using an arsenic hyperaccumulator plant Pteris vittata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Inoue, Chihiro; Endo, Ginro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we found that high-performance hydroponics of arsenic hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata is possible without any mechanical aeration system, if rhizomes of the ferns are kept over the water surface level. It was also found that very low-nutrition condition is better for root elongation of P. vittata that is an important factor of the arsenic removal from contaminated water. By the non-aeration and low-nutrition hydroponics for four months, roots of P. vittata were elongated more than 500 mm. The results of arsenate phytofiltration experiments showed that arsenic concentrations in water declined from the initial concentrations (50 μg/L, 500 μg/L, and 1000 μg/L) to lower than the detection limit (0.1 μg/L) and about 80% of arsenic removed was accumulated in the fern fronds. The improved hydroponics method for P. vittata developed in this study enables low-cost phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water and high-affinity removal of arsenic from water.

  7. Zinc hyperaccumulation substitutes for defense failures beyond salicylate and jasmonate signaling pathways of Alternaria brassicicola attack in Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Berta; Martos, Soledad; Cabot, Catalina; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis of metal defense as a substitute for a defective biotic stress signaling system in metal hyperaccumulators was tested using the pathosystem Alternaria brassicicola-Noccaea caerulescens under low (2 µM), medium (12 µM) and high (102 µM) Zn supply. Regardless the Zn supply, N. caerulescens responded to fungal attack with the activation of both HMA4 coding for a Zn transporter, and biotic stress signaling pathways. Salicylate, jasmonate, abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid concentrations, as well as biotic stress marker genes (PDF1.2, CHIB, LOX2, PR1 and BGL2) were activated 24 h upon inoculation. Based on the activation of defense genes 24 h after the inoculation an incompatible fungal-plant interaction could be predicted. Nonetheless, in the longer term (7 days) no effective protection against A. brassicicola was achieved in plants exposed to low and medium Zn supply. After 1 week the biotic stress markers were even further increased in these plants, and this compatible interaction was apparently not caused by a failure in the signaling of the fungal attack, but due to the lack of specificity in the type of the activated defense mechanisms. Only plants receiving high Zn exhibited an incompatible fungal interaction. High Zn accumulation in these plants, possibly in cooperation with high glucosinolate concentrations, substituted for the ineffective defense system and the interaction turned into incompatible. In a threshold-type response, these joint effects efficiently hampered fungal spread and, consequently decreased the biotic stress signaling.

  8. Quantitative elemental localisation in leaves and stems of nickel hyperaccumulating shrub Hybanthusfloribundus subsp. floribundus using micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Singh, Balwant; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer

    2008-02-01

    Hybanthusfloribundus (Lindl.) F.Muell. subsp. floribundus is a native Australian nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulating shrub and a promising species for rehabilitation and phytoremediation of Ni tailings. Spatial localisation and quantification of Ni in leaf and stem tissues of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus was studied using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy. Young plants, grown in a potting mix under controlled glasshouse conditions were exposed to Ni concentrations of 0 and 26 mM kg-1 for 20 weeks. Leaf and stem samples were hand-sectioned and freeze-dried prior to micro-PIXE analysis. Elemental distribution maps of leaves revealed Ni concentration of 7800 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) in whole leaf sections, which was identical to the bulk tissue analysis. Elemental maps showed that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermis (10,000 mg kg-1 DW) and reached a maximum of up to 10,000 mg kg-1 DW in the leaf margin. Freeze-dried stem sections from the same plants contained lower Ni than leaf tissues (1800 mg kg-1 versus 7800 mg kg-1 DW, respectively), however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalisation across different anatomical regions. Our results suggest localisation in epidermal cells is an important physiological mechanism involved in Ni accumulation and tolerance in leaves of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus.

  9. Impaired leaf CO2 diffusion mediates Cd-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Ying, Rong-Rong; Jiang, Dan; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Morel, Jean-Louis; Tang, Ye-Tao; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms of cadmium (Cd)-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata were investigated using photosynthesis limitation analysis. P. divaricata seedlings were grown in nutrient solution containing 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, or 75 μM Cd for 2 weeks. Total limitations to photosynthesis (TL) increased from 0% at 5 μM Cd to 68.8% at 75 μM Cd. CO2 diffusional limitation (DL) made the largest contribution to TL, accounting for 93-98% of TL in the three highest Cd treatments, compared to just 2-7% of TL attributable to biochemical limitation (BL). Microscopic imaging revealed significantly decreased stomatal density and mesophyll thickness in the three highest Cd treatments. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters related to photosynthetic biochemistry (Fv/Fm, NPQ, ΦPSII, and qP) were not significantly decreased by increased Cd supply. Our results suggest that increased DL in leaves is the main cause of Cd-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in P. divaricata, possibly due to suppressed function of mesophyll and stomata. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that Cd supply had little effect on photochemistry parameters, suggesting that the PSII reaction centers are not a main target of Cd inhibition of photosynthesis in P. divaricata.

  10. Arsenic uptake, arsenite efflux and plant growth in hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata: Role of arsenic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-He; Fu, Jing-Wei; Chen, Yanshan; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria-mediated arsenic (As) transformation and their impacts on As and P uptake and plant growth in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) were investigated under sterile condition. All As-resistant bacteria (9 endophytic and 6 rhizospheric) were As-reducers except one As-oxidizer. After growing two months in media with 37.5 mg kg(-1) AsV, As concentrations in the fronds and roots were 3655-5389 (89-91% AsIII) and 971-1467 mg kg(-1) (41-73% AsIII), corresponding to 22-52% decrease in the As in the media. Bacterial inoculation enhanced As and P uptake by up to 47 and 69%, and PV growth by 20-74%, which may be related to elevated As and P in plants (r = 0.88-0.97, p < 0.05). Though AsV was supplied, 95% of the As in the bacteria-free media was AsIII, suggesting efficient efflux of AsIII by PV roots (120 µg g(-1) root fw). This was supported by the fact that no AsV was detected in media inoculated with As-reducers while 95% of AsV was detected with As-oxidizer. Our data showed that, under As-stress, PV reduced As toxicity by efficient AsIII efflux into media and AsIII translocation to the fronds, and bacteria benefited PV growth probably via enhanced As and P uptake.

  11. Arsenic-induced plant growth of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata: Impact of arsenic and phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-He; Yang, Guang-Mei; Fu, Jing-Wei; Guan, Dong-Xing; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) has been shown to promote plant growth and arsenic (As) uptake by As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). However, little is known about its behaviors in agricultural soils. In this study, impact of 50 mg kg(-1) As and/or 1.5% PR amendment on plant As accumulation and growth was investigated by growing PV for 90 d in three agricultural soils. While As amendment significantly increased plant As uptake and substantially promoted PV growth, the opposite was observed with PR amendment. Arsenic amendment increased plant frond As from 16.9-265 to 961-6017 mg kg(-1),whereas PR amendment lowered frond As to 10.2-216 mg kg(-1). The As-induced plant growth stimulation was 69-71%. While PR amendment increased plant Ca and P uptake, As amendment showed opposite results. The PV biomass was highly correlated with plant As at r = 0.82, but with weak correlations with plant Ca or P at r < 0.30. This study confirmed that 1) As significantly promoted PV growth, probably independent of Ca or P uptake, 2) PR amendment didn't enhance plant growth or As uptake by PV in agricultural soils with adequate available P, and 3) PV effluxed arsenite (AsIII) growing in agricultural soils.

  12. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation.

  13. Effect of fertilizer amendments on phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by a newly discovered hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Li, Yunmeng; Zhou, Qixing; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Chiu, Siuwai; Zhan, Jie; Wu, Zhijie; Sun, Tieheng

    2010-04-15

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective, simple and sustainable beneficiary technique to purify the polluted environment. Solanum nigrum L., a newly found cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate Cd-contaminated soils. Present study investigated the effects of fertilizer amendments on the Cd uptake by S. nigrum. Chicken manure and urea are usual agricultural fertilizers and more environmental friendly. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoots of S. nigrum were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by 28.2-34.6%, as compared to that of without the addition of chicken manure, but not the case for urea treatment. However, Cd extraction capacities (microg pot(-1)) in shoot biomass of S. nigrum were significantly increased (p<0.05) due to increased shoot biomass. In addition, available Cd concentration in soil significantly decreased due to addition of chicken manure. Thus, urea might be a better fertilizer for strengthening phytoextraction rate of S. nigrum to Cd, and chicken manure may be a better fertilizer for phytostabilization.

  14. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, Sangita; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G M

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5' deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading.

  15. Microbial siderophores and root exudates enhanced goethite dissolution and Fe/As uptake by As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue; Fu, Jing-Wei; Da Silva, Evandro; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Cao, Yue; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) in soils is often adsorbed on Fe-(hydro)oxides surface, rendering them more resistant to dissolution, which is undesirable for phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata prefers to grow in calcareous soils where available Fe and As are low. To elucidate its mechanisms of acquiring Fe and As from insoluble sources in soils, we investigated dissolution of goethite with pre-adsorbed arsenate (AsV; As-goethite) in presence of four organic ligands, including two root exudates (oxalate and phytate, dominant in P. vittata) and two microbial siderophores (PG12-siderophore and desferrioxamine B). Their presence increased As solubilization from As-goethite from 0.03 to 0.27-5.33 mg L(-1) compared to the control. The siderophore/phytate bi-ligand treatment released 7.42 mg L(-1) soluble Fe, which was 1.2-fold that of the sum of siderophore and phytate, showing a synergy in promoting As-goethite dissolution. In the ligand-mineral-plant system, siderophore/phytate was most effective in releasing As and Fe from As-goethite. Moreover, the continuous plant uptake induced more As-goethite dissolution. The continued release of As and Fe significantly enhanced their plant uptake (from 0.01 to 0.43 mg plant(-1) As and 2.7-14.8 mg plant(-1) Fe) and plant growth (from 1.2 to 3.1 g plant(-1) fw) in P. vittata. Since microbial siderophores and root exudates often coexist in soil rhizosphere, their synergy in enhancing dissolution of insoluble As-Fe minerals may play an important role in efficient phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils.

  16. Identification of green pigments from fragments of Roman mural paintings of three Roman sites from north of Germania Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debastiani, Rafaela; Simon, Rolf; Goettlicher, Joerg; Heissler, Stefan; Steininger, Ralph; Batchelor, David; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-10-01

    Roman mural green pigment painting fragments from three Roman sites in the north of the Roman province Germania Superior: Koblenz Stadtwald Remstecken (KOSR), Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann" (WEIS) and Mendig Lungenkärchen (MELU), dating from second and third centuries AD were analyzed. The experiments were performed nondestructively using synchrotron-based scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-MA-XRF), synchrotron-based scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF), synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Correlation between SR-MA-XRF, SR-μ-XRF elemental map distributions and optical images of scanned areas was mainly found for the elements Ca, Fe and K. With XRF, Fe and K were identified correlated with green pigment, but in samples from two sites, Mendig Lungenkärchen and Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann", also Cu was detected in minor concentration. The results of SR-XRD and Raman spectroscopy were limited to one sample from Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann". In this sample, green earth and calcium carbonate were identified by SR-XRD and, additionally, malachite by Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Iliac artery mural thrombus formation. Effect of antiplatelet therapy on 111In-platelet deposition in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, S.R.; Paxton, L.D.; Harker, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    To measure the rate, extent, and time course of arterial mural thrombus formation in vivo and to assess the effects of antiplatelet therapy in that setting, we have studied autologous /sup 111/In-platelet deposition induced by experimental iliac artery aneurysms in baboons. Scintillation camera imaging analyses were performed at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours after implantation of the device. Correction for tissue attenuation was determined by using a small, comparably located /sup 111/In source implanted at the time of surgery. In five animals, /sup 111/In-platelet activity accumulated progressively after device implantation, reaching a maximum after the third day. Repeat image analysis carried out 2 weeks after the surgical procedure also showed progressive accumulation of /sup 111/In-platelets over 3 days but at markedly reduced amounts as compared with the initial study. In five additional animals, treatment with a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole begun 1 hour after surgical implantation reduced /sup 111/In-platelet deposition to negligible levels by the third day. Although platelet survival time was shortened and platelet turnover was reciprocally increased in all operated animals, platelet survival and turnover were not affected by antiplatelet therapy. We conclude that, in contrast to platelet survival and turnover measurements, /sup 111/In-platelet imaging is a reliable and sensitive method for localizing and quantifying focal arterial thrombi and for assessing the effects of antiplatelet therapy.

  18. ST Elevation Infarction after Heart Transplantation Induced by Coronary Spasms and Mural Thrombus Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Niels Ramsing; Eiskjær, Hans; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt; Maeng, Michael; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Christiansen, Evald Høj

    2016-01-01

    The case illustrates the possible link between coronary spasms, intraluminal thrombus formation, and widespread organized and layered thrombi in HTx patients. Furthermore, the case underlines the clinical value of OCT as a novel method for high-resolution vessel imaging in heart-transplanted (HTx) patients with coronary spasms and suspected coronary artery disease. Coronary spasms and sudden death are frequent complications after HTx. The underlying mechanisms leading to these complications are unknown. The present case displays the clinical course of a 19-year-old HTx patient who was hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction induced by severe coronary spasms. The patients remained unstable on conservative therapy. Therefore, an optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed and revealed massive, organized thrombi in the left main coronary artery, the circumflex coronary artery, and the left anterior descending coronary artery. The patient was stabilized after percutaneous coronary intervention. As a mural thrombus often goes undetected by coronary angiography, OCT may prove benefit in HTx patients with myocardial infarction or suspected coronary spasms. PMID:27980873

  19. Increased ecological risk due to the hyperaccumulation of As in Pteris cretica during the phytoremediation of an As-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seulki; Moon, Hee Sun; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-03-01

    Ecological risk due to the hyperaccumulation of As in Pteris cretica during phytoremediation was evaluated at an abandoned As-contaminated site. Five receptor groups representing terrestrial invertebrates, avian insectivores, small mammals, herbivores, and omnivores were selected as potentially affected ecological receptors. Soil and food ingestion were considered as major exposure pathways. Phytoremediation was performed with P.cretica only and with both P.cretica and siderophores to enhance plant uptake of As. Ecological hazard index (EHI) values for the small mammal greatly exceeded 1.0 even after three weeks of growth regardless of siderophore application, probably due to its limited home range. For the mammalian herbivore, which mainly consumes plant foliage, the EHI values were greater than 5.73 after seven weeks without siderophore application, but the value increased sharply to 29.3 at seven weeks when siderophores were applied. This increased risk could be attributed to the facilitated translocation of As from roots to stems and leaves in P.cretica. Our results suggest that, when a phytoremediation strategy is considered for metals remediation, its ecological consequences should be taken into account to prevent the spread of hyperaccumulated heavy metals throughout the food chain of ecological receptors. Uncertainties involved in the ecological risk assessment process were also discussed.

  20. Elevated salicylic acid levels conferred by increased expression of ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1 contribute to hyperaccumulation of SUMO1 conjugates in the Arabidopsis mutant early in short days 4.

    PubMed

    Villajuana-Bonequi, Mitzi; Elrouby, Nabil; Nordström, Karl; Griebel, Thomas; Bachmair, Andreas; Coupland, George

    2014-07-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is essential for plant growth and development. Mutations in the SUMO protease early in short days 4 (ESD4) cause hyperaccumulation of conjugates formed between SUMO and its substrates, and phenotypically are associated with extreme early flowering and impaired growth. We performed a suppressor mutagenesis screen of esd4 and identified a series of mutants called suppressor of esd4 (sed), which delay flowering, enhance growth and reduce hyperaccumulation of SUMO conjugates. Genetic mapping and genome sequencing indicated that one of these mutations (sed111) is in the gene salicylic acid induction-deficient 2 (SID2), which encodes ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE I, an enzyme required for biosynthesis of salicylic acid (SA). Analyses showed that compared with wild-type plants, esd4 contains higher levels of SID2 mRNA and about threefold more SA, whereas sed111 contains lower SA levels. Other sed mutants also contain lower SA levels but are not mutant for SID2, although most reduce SID2 mRNA levels. Therefore, higher SA levels contribute to the small size, early flowering and elevated SUMO conjugate levels of esd4. Our results support previous data indicating that SUMO homeostasis influences SA biosynthesis in wild-type plants, and also demonstrate that elevated levels of SA strongly increase the abundance of SUMO conjugates.

  1. Biochar provides a safe and value-added solution for hyperaccumulating plant disposal: A case study of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengsen; Gao, Bin; Li, Yuncong; Ok, Yong Sik; Shen, Chaofeng; Xue, Shengguo

    2017-02-27

    In this work, an innovative approach using biochar technology for hyperaccumulator disposal was developed and evaluated. The heavy metal enriched P. acinosa biomass (PBM) was pyrolyzed to produce biochar (PBC). Both PBM and PBC were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystal phases, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface topography, and analyzed for elemental composition and mobility. The results revealed that whewellite, a dominant crystal form in biomass, was decomposed to calcite after pyrolysis. Elemental analysis indicated that 91-99% total non-volatile elements in the biomass were retained in the biochar. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results revealed that 94.6% and 0.15% of total Mn was extracted for biomass and biochar, respectively. This suggests that mobility and bioavailability of Mn in biochar was much lower relative to pristine biomass. Batch sorption experiment showed that excellent removal of aqueous silver, lead, cadmium, and copper ions can be achieved with PBC. Findings from this work indicated that biochar technology can provide a value-added solution for hyperaccumulator disposal.

  2. Effective selenium detoxification in the seed proteins of a hyperaccumulator plant: the analysis of selenium-containing proteins of monkeypot nut (Lecythis minor) seeds.

    PubMed

    Németh, Anikó; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    A shotgun proteomic approach was applied to characterize the selenium (Se)-containing proteins of the selenium hyperaccumulator monkeypot nut (Lecythis minor) seeds. The exceptionally high Se content (>4,000 mg kg(-1)) of the sample enabled a straightforward procedure without the need for multiple preconcentration and fractionation steps. The proteins identified were sulfur-rich seed proteins, namely, 11S globulin (Q84ND2), 2S albumin (B6EU54), 2S sulfur-rich seed storage proteins (P04403 and P0C8Y8) and a 11S globulin-like protein (A0EM48). Database directed search for theoretically selenium-containing peptides was assisted by manual spectra evaluation to achieve around 25% coverage on sulfur analogues. Remarkable detoxification mechanisms on the proteome level were revealed in the form of multiple selenomethionine-methionine substitution and the lack of selenocysteine residues. The degree of selenomethionine substitution could be characterized by an exponential function that implies the inhibition of protein elongation by selenomethionine. Our results contribute to the deeper understanding of selenium detoxification procedures in hyperaccumulator plants.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population).

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V

    2010-01-01

    We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd. Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances found were: ZNT1, mature leaves of young plants; ZNT5, young leaves of young plants; MTP1 (= ZTP1 = ZAT), young leaves of both young and mature plants. Surprisingly different cellular expression patterns were found for ZNT1 and ZNT5, both belonging to the ZIP family of transition metal transporters: ZNT1, photosynthetic mesophyll and bundle sheath cells; ZNT5, nonphotosynthetic epidermal metal storage cells and bundle sheath cells. Thus, ZNT1 may function in micronutrient nutrition while ZNT5 may be involved in metal storage associated with hyperaccumulation. Cadmium inhibited the uptake of Zn, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), probably by competing for transporters or by interfering with the regulation of transporter gene expression. Cadmium-induced changes in cellular expression for ZNT1, ZNT5 and MTP1 could also be part of plant acclimatization to Cd toxicity. Defence against Cd toxicity involved enhanced uptake of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and sulphur (S).

  4. Rhizobium metallidurans sp. nov., a symbiotic heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from the Anthyllis vulneraria Zn-hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Grison, Claire M; Jackson, Stephen; Merlot, Sylvain; Dobson, Alan; Grison, Claude

    2015-05-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (ChimEc512(T)) was isolated from 56 host seedlings of the hyperaccumulating Anthyllis vulneraria legume, which was on an old zinc mining site at Les Avinières, Saint-Laurent-Le-Minier, Gard, South of France. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain ChimEc512(T) was shown to belong to the genus Rhizobium and to be most closely related to Rhizobium endophyticum CCGE 2052(T) (98.4%), Rhizobium tibeticum CCBAU 85039(T) (98.1%), Rhizobium grahamii CCGE 502(T) (98.0%) and Rhizobium mesoamericanum CCGE 501(T) (98.0%). The phylogenetic relationships of ChimEc512(T) were confirmed by sequencing and analyses of recA and atpD genes. DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain ChimEc512(T) with R. endophyticum CCGE 2052(T), R. tibeticum CCBAU 85039(T), R. mesoamericanum CCGE 52(T), Rhizobium grahamii CCGE 502(T), Rhizobium etli CCBAU 85039(T) and Rhizobium radiobacter KL09-16-8-2(T) were 27, 22, 16, 18, 19 and 11%, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain ChimEc512(T) was 58.9 mol%. The major cellular fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c, characteristic of the genus Rhizobium . The polar lipid profile included phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine and moderate amounts of aminolipids, phospholipid and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Although ChimEc512(T) was able to nodulate A. vulneraria, the nodC and nifH genes were not detected by PCR. The rhizobial strain was tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals: up to 35 mM Zn and up to 0.5 mM Cd and its growth kinetics was not impacted by Zn. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain ChimEc512(T) from species of the genus Rhizobium with validly published names. Strain ChimEc512(T), therefore, represents a novel species, for which the name Rhizobium metallidurans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain

  5. Interaction of As and Sb in the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.: changes in As and Sb speciation by XANES.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoming; Lei, Mei; Chen, Tongbin

    2016-10-01

    Arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are chemical analogs that display similar characteristics in the environment. The As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. is a potential As-Sb co-accumulating species. However, when this plant is exposed to different As and Sb speciation, the associated accumulating mechanisms and subsequent assimilation processes of As and Sb remain unclear. A 2-week hydroponic experiment was conducted by exposing P. vittata to single AsIII, AsV, SbIII, and SbV or the co-existence of AsIII and SbIII and AsV and SbV. P. vittata could co-accumulate As and Sb in the pinna (>1000 mg kg(-1)) with high translocation (>1) of As and Sb from the root to the pinna. P. vittata displayed apparent preference to the trivalent speciation of As and Sb than to the pentavalent speciation. Under the single exposure of AsIII or SbIII, the pinna concentration of As and Sb was 84 and 765 % higher than that under the single exposure of AsV or SbV, respectively. Despite the provided As speciation, the main speciation of As in the root was AsV, whereas the main speciation of As in the pinna was AsIII. The Sb in the roots comprised SbV and SbIII when exposed to SbV but was exclusively SbIII when exposed to SbIII. The Sb in the pinna was a mixture of SbV and SbIII regardless of the provided Sb speciation. Compared with the single exposure of As, the co-existence of As and Sb increased the As concentration in the pinna of P. vittata by 50-66 %, accompanied by a significant increase in the AsIII percentage in the root. Compared with the single exposure of Sb, the co-existence of Sb and As also increased the Sb concentration in the pinna by 51-100 %, but no significant change in Sb speciation was found in P. vittata.

  6. Zinc Isotope Fractionation in the Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and the Nonaccumulating Plant Thlaspi arvense at Low and High Zn Supply.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ye-Tao; Cloquet, Christophe; Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Yang, Wen-Jun; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-08-02

    On the basis of our previous field survey, we postulate that the pattern and degree of zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation in the Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens (J. & C. Presl) F. K. Mey may reflect a relationship between Zn bioavailability and plant uptake strategies. Here, we investigated Zn isotope discrimination during Zn uptake and translocation in N. caerulescens and in a nonaccumulator Thlaspi arvense L. with a contrasting Zn accumulation ability in response to low (Zn-L) and high (Zn-H) Zn supplies. The average isotope fractionations of the N. caerulescens plant as a whole, relative to solution (Δ(66)Znplant-solution), were -0.06 and -0.12‰ at Zn-L-C and Zn-H-C, respectively, indicative of the predominance of a high-affinity (e.g., ZIP transporter proteins) transport across the root cell membrane. For T. arvense, plants were more enriched in light isotopes under Zn-H-A (Δ(66)Znplant-solution = -0.26‰) than under Zn-L-A and N. caerulescens plants, implying that a low-affinity (e.g., ion channel) transport might begin to function in the nonaccumulating plants when external Zn supply increases. Within the root tissues of both species, the apoplast fractions retained up to 30% of Zn mass under Zn-H. Moreover, the highest δ(66)Zn (0.75‰-0.86‰) was found in tightly bound apoplastic Zn, pointing to the strong sequestration in roots (e.g., binding to high-affinity ligands/precipitation with phosphate) when plants suffer from high Zn stress. During translocation, the magnitude of isotope fractionation was significantly greater at Zn-H (Δ(66)Znroot-shoot = 0.79‰) than at Zn-L, indicating that fractionation mechanisms associated with root-shoot translocation might be identical to the two plant species. Hence, we clearly demonstrated that Zn isotope fractionation could provide insight into the internal sequestration mechanisms of roots when plants respond to low and high Zn supplies.

  7. Installation of a Rudist Biostrome after the Late Aptian - Early Albian OAE1B (mural Formation, Southeastern Arizona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, A.; Helfrich-Dennis, M. M.; Suarez, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Mesozoic climate change has been extensively studied in the Tethys, while their expression in the proto Gulf of Mexico can still be precised, especially for the time period straddling the Aptian-Albian boundary. During this time period, significant climatic events may correlate between the proto-Atlantic and the Tethys, amongst which the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b that corresponds to a period of marine anoxia across this stage boundary. We hypothesized that this event may have impacted the shallow-marine carbonate factory that is now preserved near the town of Bisbee (Mule Mountains, southern Arizona). This sedimentary succession has been chosen because it documents a switch from a siliclastic- to carbonate-dominated sedimentation during the targeted time interval. Using carbon isotope chemostratigraphy, we were able to refine the stratigraphic framework of the Mural Formation, which was previously based on benthic organisms such as rudist bivalves and orbitolinids, such as Mesorbitolina texana. The OAE1b has been identified based on its peculiar δ13C signature supported by biostratigraphic data. Concurrently, microfacies analysis helped in reconstructing variations in sea levels. In southern Arizona, the OAE1b equivalent belongs to a third-order transgressive systems tract, and extends into the following highstand systems track. The maximum flooding surface is defined within a thick rudist biostrome with chondrodonts. It thus seems that the OAE1b did not strongly affected the carbonate factory in this region of the proto Gulf of Mexico. As a conclusion, limestone rocks now preserved in southeastern Arizona were deposited during the Late Aptian to Early Albian time period, during which the OAE1b developed. This paleoceanographic perturbation is expressed in the sedimentary record by its unique carbon isotope signature, with no significant impact on benthic ecosystems.

  8. Expression of the ZNT1 Zinc Transporter from the Metal Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens Confers Enhanced Zinc and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation to Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis. We examined if the NcZNT1 function contributes to the metal hyperaccumulation of N. caerulescens. NcZNT1 was found to be a plasma-membrane located metal transporter. Constitutive overexpression of NcZNT1 in A. thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to exposure to excess Zn and Cd supply, as well as increased accumulation of Zn and Cd and induction of the Fe deficiency response, when compared to non-transformed wild-type plants. Promoters of both genes were induced by Zn deficiency in roots and shoots of A. thaliana. In A. thaliana, the AtZIP4 and NcZNT1 promoters were mainly active in cortex, endodermis and pericycle cells under Zn deficient conditions. In N. caerulescens, the promoters were active in the same tissues, though the activity of the NcZNT1 promoter was higher and not limited to Zn deficient conditions. Common cis elements were identified in both promoters by 5’ deletion analysis. These correspond to the previously determined Zinc Deficiency Responsive Elements found in A. thaliana to interact with two redundantly acting transcription factors, bZIP19 and bZIP23, controlling the Zn deficiency response. In conclusion, these results suggest that NcZNT1 is an important factor in contributing to Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. Differences in cis- and trans-regulators are likely to account for the differences in expression between A. thaliana and N. caerulescens. The high, constitutive NcZNT1 expression in the stele of N. caerulescens roots implicates its involvement in long distance root-to-shoot metal transport by maintaining a Zn/Cd influx into cells responsible for xylem loading. PMID:26930473

  9. The hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola harbors metal-resistant endophytic bacteria that improve its phytoextraction capacity in multi-metal contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Nai, Fengjiao; Rajkumar, Mani; Luo, Yongming; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-06-01

    Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation has recently been suggested as a successful approach for ecological restoration of metal contaminated soils, however little information is available on the influence of endophytic bacteria on the phytoextraction capacity of metal hyperaccumulating plants in multi-metal polluted soils. The aims of our study were to isolate and characterize metal-resistant and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) utilizing endophytic bacteria from tissues of the newly discovered Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and to examine if these endophytic bacterial strains could improve the efficiency of phytoextraction of multi-metal contaminated soils. Among a collection of 42 metal resistant bacterial strains isolated from the tissues of S. plumbizincicola grown on Pb/Zn mine tailings, five plant growth promoting endophytic bacterial strains (PGPE) were selected due to their ability to promote plant growth and to utilize ACC as the sole nitrogen source. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus pumilus E2S2, Bacillus sp. E1S2, Bacillus sp. E4S1, Achromobacter sp. E4L5 and Stenotrophomonas sp. E1L and subsequent testing revealed that they all exhibited traits associated with plant growth promotion, such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores and solubilization of phosphorus. These five strains showed high resistance to heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Pb) and various antibiotics. Further, inoculation of these ACC utilizing strains significantly increased the concentrations of water extractable Cd and Zn in soil. Moreover, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating metal-resistant ACC utilizing strains on the growth of S. plumbizincicola and its uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb in multi-metal contaminated soils. Out of the five strains, B. pumilus E2S2 significantly increased root (146%) and shoot (17%) length, fresh (37%) and dry biomass (32%) of S. plumbizincicola as well as plant Cd uptake (43%), whereas

  10. Mid-infrared thermal imaging for an effective mapping of surface materials and sub-surface detachments in mural paintings: integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffara, C.; Parisotto, S.; Mariotti, P. I.

    2015-06-01

    Cultural Heritage is discovering how precious is thermal analysis as a tool to improve the restoration, thanks to its ability to inspect hidden details. In this work a novel dual mode imaging approach, based on the integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography (TQR) in the mid-IR is demonstrated for an effective mapping of surface materials and of sub-surface detachments in mural painting. The tool was validated through a unique application: the "Monocromo" by Leonardo da Vinci in Italy. The dual mode acquisition provided two spatially aligned dataset: the TQR image and the thermal sequence. Main steps of the workflow included: 1) TQR analysis to map surface features and 2) to estimate the emissivity; 3) projection of the TQR frame on reference orthophoto and TQR mosaicking; 4) thermography analysis to map detachments; 5) use TQR to solve spatial referencing and mosaicking for the thermal-processed frames. Referencing of thermal images in the visible is a difficult aspect of the thermography technique that the dual mode approach allows to solve in effective way. We finally obtained the TQR and the thermal maps spatially referenced to the mural painting, thus providing the restorer a valuable tool for the restoration of the detachments.

  11. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species, Quarterly technical progress report, December 20, 1995--March 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kochian, L.; Brady, D.; Last, M.; Ebbs, S.

    1995-12-01

    Although the period covered by this progress report began on December 20, 1994, which was the date that DOE approved the Interagency Agreement, the agreement was not approved by USDA until January 9, 1995 and the first scientists working on the project were not hired until February 1, 1995. The first goal of the research supported by the Interagency Agreement is to use hydroponic techniques to identify plant species and genotypes with potential for heavy metal hyperaccumulation for planting on a test site at Silverbow Creek and for radionuclide ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation on a test site at INEL, Idaho, later this year. The second goal of this research is to identify soil amendment procedures that will enhance the bioavailability of heavy metals and radionuclides in the soil without increasing the movement of the contaminants of concern (COC`s) into the groundwater. Our initial research covered in this report focuses on the first goal.

  12. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1997--June 19, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kochian, L.

    1997-11-01

    This laboratory has been involved in a collaborative project focusing on a range of issues related to the phytoremediation of heavy metal-and radionuclide- contaminated soils. While much of the research has been fundamental in nature, involving physiological and molecular characterizations of the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation in plants, the laboratory is also investigating more practical issues related to phytoremediation. A central issue in this latter research has been the identification of amendments capable of increasing the bioavailability and subsequent phytoextraction of radionuclides. The results described here detail these efforts for uranium and Cs-137. A study was also conducted on a Cs-137 contaminated site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which allowed application of the laboratory and greenhouse results to a field setting.

  13. Transcriptional up-regulation of genes involved in photosynthesis of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii in response to zinc and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Yao, Aijun; Ming Yuan; Tang, Yetao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Xi; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are two closely related chemical elements with very different biological roles in photosynthesis. Zinc plays unique biochemical functions in photosynthesis. Previous studies suggested that in some Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, many steps in photosynthesis may be Cd tolerant or even Cd stimulated. Using RNA-seq data, we found not only that Cd and Zn both up-regulated the CA1 gene, which encodes a β class carbonic anhydrase (CA) in chloroplasts, but that a large number of other Zn up-regulated genes in the photosynthetic pathway were also significantly up-regulated by Cd in leaves of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. These genes also include chloroplast genes involved in transcription and translation (rps18 and rps14), electron transport and ATP synthesis (atpF and ccsA), Photosystem II (PSBI, PSBM, PSBK, PSBZ/YCF9, PSBO-1, PSBQ, LHCB1.1, LHCB1.4, LHCB2.1, LHCB4.3 and LHCB6) and Photosystem I (PSAE-1, PSAF, PSAH2, LHCA1 and LHCA4). Cadmium and Zn also up-regulated the VAR1 gene, which encodes the ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease FTSH 5 (a member of the FtsH family), and the DAG gene, which influences chloroplast differentiation and plastid development, and the CP29 gene, which supports RNA processing in chloroplasts and has a potential role in signal-dependent co-regulation of chloroplast genes. Further morphological parameters (dry biomass, cross-sectional thickness, chloroplast size, chlorophyll content) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters confirmed that leaf photosynthesis of S. alfredii responded to Cd much as it did to Zn, which will contribute to our understanding of the positive effects of Zn and Cd on growth of this plant.

  14. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 μm Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  15. Story of a Mural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Nancy K.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a muralmaking project during a three-week summer institute in open education in Manhattan is described. Photographs and videotape provide a record to share with teachers and schools who wish to use muralmaking as a curriculum element. Preparation is recounted; participants' logs and community reactions are quoted. (AJ)

  16. Placas and Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romotsky, Jerry; Romotsky, Sally

    1974-01-01

    Presented examples of graffiti as seen in the barrios of East Los Angeles that told of the past and demonstrated how graffiti could be used in a positive fashion reflecting the positive aspirations, interests, and identities of the residents. (Author/RK)

  17. Calcium carbonate crystallizations on hypogean mural paintings: a pilot study of monitoring and diagnostics in Roman catacombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapete, D.; Fratini, F.; Mazzei, B.; Camaiti, M.; Cantisani, E.; Riminesi, C.; Manganelli Del Fà, R.; Cuzman, O.; Tiano, P.

    2012-04-01

    One of the deterioration processes affecting mural paintings and rock surfaces within manmade hypogea consists in the formation of calcium carbonate crystallizations, which can create thick coverage and incrustations, even in some cases speleothems. These chemical reactions necessarily require the availability of calcium sources, which can be also of anthropogenic origin (e.g., lime-based mortars). Microclimate parameters also represent environmental forcing factors, on which the morphology and the degree of crystallinity of the precipitated carbonates depend. Understanding past/recent dynamics of carbonate precipitation implies a deep knowledge of the relationships between the exposed surfaces and the microclimate conditions, the impacts of external factors (e.g., groundwater infiltration and percolation from the overlying soil) and how they change over time. This is particularly fundamental for the preservation of hypogean sites which have not comparison with other typologies of environment due to their uniqueness, such as the ancient catacombs carved underneath the suburbs of Rome (Italy), since the 2nd century AD. In this paper we present the multidisciplinary methodological approach designed for the instrumental monitoring of the microphysical environment of the Catacombs of Saints Mark, Marcellian and Damasus, in the framework of the co-operation between the Institute for the Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage and Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology, Vatican, on the project HYPOGEA. Temperature inside the catacomb and on the surfaces, air relative humidity and CO2 concentration are the main of the parameters continuously measured by means of data loggers installed within the cubicles. Contemporarily, standardized methods of photographic documentation and digital micro-photogrammetry are used for change detection analysis of the painted surfaces and ancient plasters, as well as of the test areas purposely realized by applying fresh

  18. Development of a small solid cerebellar haemangioblastoma into a large pseudocyst with a mural nodule in a patient without VHL; the importance of regular follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hansol; Joo, Jin-Deok; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Chae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Haemangioblastomas (HBLs) are rare central nervous system tumours accounting for only 1.2–2.5% of all intracranial tumours. While most HBLs occur sporadically, 36–40% of cases are associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome. Owing to its benign nature, sporadic cases are usually detected only when symptoms occur due to mass effect. Thus, the natural history of HBLs has only been studied in association with VHL syndrome. We present a case of sporadic HBL with a rapid evolution of its small nodule into an enlarging mural nodule with a large pseudocyst that resulted in increased intracranial pressure. Craniotomy for complete tumour removal was performed and the patient fully recovered. This case implies a regular follow-up of HBL might be mandatory even in patients without VHL. PMID:25427934

  19. Development of a small solid cerebellar haemangioblastoma into a large pseudocyst with a mural nodule in a patient without VHL; the importance of regular follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hansol; Joo, Jin-Deok; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Chae-Yong

    2014-11-26

    Haemangioblastomas (HBLs) are rare central nervous system tumours accounting for only 1.2-2.5% of all intracranial tumours. While most HBLs occur sporadically, 36-40% of cases are associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome. Owing to its benign nature, sporadic cases are usually detected only when symptoms occur due to mass effect. Thus, the natural history of HBLs has only been studied in association with VHL syndrome. We present a case of sporadic HBL with a rapid evolution of its small nodule into an enlarging mural nodule with a large pseudocyst that resulted in increased intracranial pressure. Craniotomy for complete tumour removal was performed and the patient fully recovered. This case implies a regular follow-up of HBL might be mandatory even in patients without VHL.

  20. A multi-analytical study of the fifteenth century mural paintings of the Batalha Monastery (Portugal) in view of their conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valadas, S.; Candeias, A.; Dias, C.; Schiavon, N.; Cotovio, M.; Pestana, J.; Gil, M.; Mirão, J.

    2013-12-01

    The systematic characterization of the painting's palette and technique applied on the execution of the mural paintings of the Batalha Monastery (Batalha, Leiria, Portugal) is presented. These are the oldest mural paintings known in Portugal (apart from Roman frescoes) and represent the beginning of an artistic Portuguese tradition that continues until the nineteenth century. The aim of the study was to identify for the first time by adopting a multi-analytical physico-chemical approach of the pigments, binder, and alteration products (white veils, crusts, and pigment alteration) of these unique works of arts in order not only to better understand the painting technique, but also to support a conservation-restoration intervention that took place from April to August 2010. Micro-sampling of paint layers was performed on representative areas of the paintings. The characterization of the pigments and binders was carried out by microscopy and microanalysis of cross sections using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), micro-FTIR, and micro X-ray diffraction. The combined analysis of the paintings allowed the identification of the painting's palette: Vermillion (HgS) and red ochre for the reds, yellow ochres for the yellows, green earths and malachite for the greens, azurite for the blues, and carbon for the blacks. The use of the pigment is dependent of the motive painted while the most expensive materials were used in the most important iconographic motives. Alteration of malachite was identified in darkened layers in green areas of the paintings. White veil areas on the surface of the paintings were identified as calcite from precipitation/dissolution processes due to water run-off on the sacristy dome ceiling and walls.

  1. Deep arterial injury during experimental angioplasty: relation to a positive indium-111-labeled platelet scintigram, quantitative platelet deposition and mural thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, J.Y.; Chesebro, J.H.; Steele, P.M.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Badimon, L.; Fuster, V.

    1986-12-01

    Although it is not clear why coronary occlusion and restenosis occur after successful coronary angioplasty, factors related to the procedure may influence early and late results. The possible adverse effects of a medial tear documented histologically and produced during balloon angioplasty of the common carotid arteries were studied in 30 fully heparinized (100 U/kg body weight) normal pigs. Scanning electron microscopy showed endothelial denudation and extensive platelet deposition in all dilated arterial segments. Visible macroscopic mural thrombus was present within an hour of the procedure in 29 (91%) of the 32 arteries that had a medial tear documented by histologic study; the tear produced an indium-111-labeled platelet deposition of 116.4 +/- 26.5 X 10(6)/cm2 (mean +/- SE) and total thrombotic occlusion in 2 arteries (4%). None of the 24 arteries without a medial tear had a thrombus, and the mean platelet deposition in that group was 7.0 +/- 0.5 X 10(6)/cm2 (p less than 0.0008). In 12 pigs scanned with a gamma camera, visible thrombus was associated with platelet deposition in excess of 20 X 10(6)/cm2 in 12 arteries, 9 of which had a positive indium-111-labeled platelet scintigram. Thus, arterial angioplasty causes deep arterial injury, which appears to be a major cause of mural thrombosis, heavy platelet deposition, a positive indium-111-labeled platelet scintigram and acute arterial occlusion. A positive indium-111-labeled platelet scintigram was always associated with macroscopic thrombus of at least 20 > 10(6) platelets/cm2 and underlying deep arterial injury.

  2. Dietary supplementation of fermented soybean, natto, suppresses intimal thickening and modulates the lysis of mural thrombi after endothelial injury in rat femoral artery.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kazunao; Matsumoto, Yuji; Zhao, Bing-Qing; Otsuguro, Kenichi; Maeda, Tetsuya; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori; Urano, Tetsumei; Umemura, Kazuo

    2003-07-25

    We have previously demonstrated that natto-extracts containing nattokinase (NK) inactivates plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and then potentiates fibrinolytic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with natto-extracts on neointima formation and on thrombolysis at the site of endothelial injury. Endothelial damage in the rat femoral artery was induced by intravenous injection of rose bengal followed by focal irradiation by transluminal green light. Dietary natto-extracts supplementation containing NK of 50 or 100 CU/body was started 3 weeks before endothelial injury and then continued for another 3 weeks. Intimal thickening in animals given supplementation was significantly (P<0.01) suppressed compared with controls and the intima/media ratio in animals with 50 and 100 CU/body NK and control group was 0.09 +/- 0.03, 0.09 +/- 0.06 and 0.16 +/- 0.12, respectively. Although femoral arteries were reopened both in control animals and those treated with NK within 8 hours after endothelial injury, mural thrombi were histologically observed at the site of endothelial injury. In the control group, the center of vessel lumen was reopened and mural thrombi were attached on the surface of vessel walls. In contrast, in NK-treated groups, thrombi near the vessel wall showed lysis and most of them detached from the surface of vessel walls. In conclusion, dietary natto-extracts supplementation suppressed intimal thickening produced by endothelial injury in rat femoral artery. These effects may partially be attributable to NK, which showed enhanced thrombolysis near the vessel wall.

  3. Characteristics of metal-tolerant plant growth-promoting yeast (Cryptococcus sp. NSE1) and its influence on Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Qingling; Hou, Jinyu; Wu, Longhua; Wood, Jennifer L; Luo, Yongming; Franks, Ashley E

    2016-09-01

    Plant growth-promoting yeasts are often over looked as a mechanism to improve phytoremediation of heavy metals. In this study, Cryptococcus sp. NSE1, a Cd-tolerant yeast with plant growth capabilities, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola. The yeast exhibited strong tolerance to a range of heavy metals including Cd, Cu, and Zn on plate assays. The adsorption rate Cd, Cu, Zn by NSE1 was 26.1, 13.2, and 25.2 %, respectively. Irregular spines were formed on the surface of NSE1 when grown in MSM medium supplemented with 200 mg L(-1) Cd. NSE1 was capable of utilizing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as a sole nitrogen source and was capable of solubilization of inorganic phosphate at rates of 195.2 mg L(-1). Field experiments demonstrated that NSE1 increased phytoremediation by increasing the biomass of Cd hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola (46 %, p < 0.05) during phytoremediation. Overall, Cd accumulation by S. plumbizincicola was increased from 19.6 to 31.1 mg m(-2) though no difference in the concentration of Cd in the shoot biomass was observed between NSE1 and control. A Cd accumulation ratio of 38.0 % for NSE1 and 17.2 % for control was observed. The HCl-extractable Cd and CaCl2-extractable Cd concentration in the soil of the NSE1 treatment were reduced by 39.2 and 29.5 %, respectively. Community-level physiology profiling, assessed using Biolog Eco plates, indicated functional changes to the rhizosphere community inoculated with NSE1 by average well color development (AWCD) and measurement of richness (diversity). Values of Shannon-Weiner index, Simpson index, and McIntosh index showed a slight but no significant increases. These results indicate that inoculation of NSE1 could increase the shoot biomass of S. plumbizincicola, enhance the Cd accumulation in S. plumbizincicola, and decrease the available heavy metal content in soils significantly without overall significant changes to the

  4. Transcriptome analysis of the key role of GAT2 gene in the hyper-accumulation of copper in the oyster Crassostrea angulata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Bo; Huang, Zekun; Xiang, Xu; Huang, Miaoqin; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-12-01

    One paradigm of oysters as the hyper-accumulators of many toxic metals is the inter-individual variation of metals, but the molecular mechanisms remain very elusive. A comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome of Crassostrea angulata was conducted to reveal the relationship between gene expression and differential Cu body burden in oysters. Gene ontology analysis for the differentially expressed genes showed that the neurotransmitter transporter might affect the oyster behavior, which in turn led to difference in Cu accumulation. The ATP-binding cassette transporters superfamily played an important role in the maintenance of cell Cu homeostasis, vitellogenin and apolipophorin transport, and elimination of excess Cu. Gill and mantle Cu concentrations were significantly reduced after silencing the GABA transporter 2 (GAT2) gene, but increased after the injection of GABA receptor antagonists, suggesting that the function of GABA transporter 2 gene was strongly related to Cu accumulation. These findings demonstrated that GABA transporter can control the action of transmitter GABA in the nervous system, thereby affecting the Cu accumulation in the gills and mantles.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of the key role of GAT2 gene in the hyper-accumulation of copper in the oyster Crassostrea angulata

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bo; Huang, Zekun; Xiang, Xu; Huang, Miaoqin; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Ke, Caihuan

    2015-01-01

    One paradigm of oysters as the hyper-accumulators of many toxic metals is the inter-individual variation of metals, but the molecular mechanisms remain very elusive. A comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome of Crassostrea angulata was conducted to reveal the relationship between gene expression and differential Cu body burden in oysters. Gene ontology analysis for the differentially expressed genes showed that the neurotransmitter transporter might affect the oyster behavior, which in turn led to difference in Cu accumulation. The ATP-binding cassette transporters superfamily played an important role in the maintenance of cell Cu homeostasis, vitellogenin and apolipophorin transport, and elimination of excess Cu. Gill and mantle Cu concentrations were significantly reduced after silencing the GABA transporter 2 (GAT2) gene, but increased after the injection of GABA receptor antagonists, suggesting that the function of GABA transporter 2 gene was strongly related to Cu accumulation. These findings demonstrated that GABA transporter can control the action of transmitter GABA in the nervous system, thereby affecting the Cu accumulation in the gills and mantles. PMID:26648252

  6. Arsenic accumulation pattern in 12 Indian ferns and assessing the potential of Adiantum capillus-veneris, in comparison to Pteris vittata, as arsenic hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nandita; Raj, Anshita; Khare, P B; Tripathi, R D; Jamil, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of some Indian ferns to accumulate and tolerate arsenic. Twelve species of Indian ferns were exposed to 10 mg L(-1) arsenic as sodium arsenate for 15 days in hydroponic system. Depending on the arsenic uptake in the plant parts--Pteris vittata, Pteris cretica, Adiantum capillus-veneris and Nephrolepis exaltata may be categorised as arsenic accumulator. Further, A. capillus-veneris plants were grown in arsenic contaminated soil (200-600 mg kg(-1)) under green-house condition, to assess its arsenic accumulation and tolerance mechanism, in comparison to known As-hyperaccumulator--P. vittata Linn., growing in the same conditions. The experiment identified A. capillus-veneris having a potential to tolerate arsenic up to 500 mg kg(-1). The plants were analysed for the extent of oxidative stress, as a result of arsenic accumulation. A. capillus-veneris was able to detoxify the arsenic stress through induction of anti-oxidant defence system.

  7. Enhanced Cd extraction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) by plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengshan; Meng, Qian; Luo, Sha; Shen, Jing; Chen, Bao; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Japenga, Jan; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2017-03-04

    Four plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were used as study materials, among them two heavy metal-tolerant rhizosphere strains SrN1 (Arthrobacter sp.) and SrN9 (Bacillus altitudinis) were isolated from rhizosphere soil, while two endophytic strains SaN1 (Bacillus megaterium) and SaMR12 (Sphingomonas) were identified from roots of the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of these PGPB on plant growth and Cd accumulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants grown on aged Cd-spiked soil. The results showed that the four PGPB significantly boosted oilseed rape shoot biomass production, improved soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value, enhanced Cd uptake of plant and Cd translocation to the leaves. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), we demonstrated the studied S. alfredii endophytic bacterium SaMR12 were able to colonize successfully in the B. napus roots. However, all four PGPB could increase seed Cd accumulation. Due to its potential to enhance Cd uptake by the plant and to restrict Cd accumulation in the seeds, SaMR12 was selected as the most promising microbial partner of B. napus when setting up a plant-microbe fortified remediation system.

  8. Cadmium sorption characteristics of soil amendments and its relationship with the cadmium uptake by hyperaccumulator and normal plants in amended soils.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C C; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14-0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51-2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K > or = 1.49 L/mg and n > or = 3.59.

  9. Analysis and characterization of cultivable heavy metal-resistant bacterial endophytes isolated from Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and their potential use for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-lian; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jue-liang; Xiao, Xiao; Xu, Tao-ying; Wan, Yong; Rao, Chan; Liu, Cheng-bin; Liu, Yu-tang; Lai, Cui; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the heavy metal-resistant bacterial endophytes of Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. grown on a mine tailing by using cultivation-dependent technique. Thirty Cd-tolerant bacterial endophytes were isolated from roots, stems, and leaves of S. nigrum L. and classified by amplified ribosomal DNA-restriction analysis into 18 different types. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that these isolates belonged to four groups: Actinobacteria (43%), Proteobacteria (23%), Bacteroidetes (27%) and Firmicutes (7%). All the isolates were then characterized for their plant growth promoting traits as well as their resistances to different heavy metals; and the actual plant growth promotion and colonization ability were also assessed. Four isolates were re-introduced into S. nigrum L. under Cd stress and resulted in Cd phytotoxicity decrease, as dry weights of roots increased from 55% to 143% and dry weights of above-ground from 64% to 100% compared to the uninoculated ones. The total Cd accumulation of inoculated plants increased from 66% to 135% (roots) and from 22% to 64% (above-ground) compared to the uninoculated ones. Our research suggests that bacterial endophytes are a most promising resource and may be the excellent candidates of bio-inoculants for enhancing the phytoremediation efficiency.

  10. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Kai; Huang, Hua-gang; Zhang, Xincheng; Fang, Hua; Li, Ting-qiang; Alva, A K; He, Zhen-li

    2012-10-15

    The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for fields co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its metabolites 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) (DDT, DDE, and DDD are collectively called DDs) using an identified Cd-hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii (SA) and DDT-degrading microbes (DDT-1). Initially, inoculation with DDT-1 was shown to increase SA root biomass in a pot experiment. When SA was applied together with DDT-1, the levels of Cd and DDs in the co-contaminated soil decreased by 32.1-40.3% and 33.9-37.6%, respectively, in a pot experiment over 18 months compared to 3.25% and 3.76% decreases in soil Cd and DDs, respectively, in unplanted, untreated controls. A subsequent field study (18-month duration) in which the levels of Cd and DDs decreased by 31.1% and 53.6%, respectively, confirmed the beneficial results of this approach. This study demonstrates that the integrated bioremediation strategy is effective for the remediation of Cd-DDs co-contaminated soils.

  11. Stable isotope tracing: a powerful tool for selenium speciation and metabolic studies in non-hyperaccumulator plants (ryegrass Lolium perenne L.).

    PubMed

    Di Tullo, Pamela; Versini, Antoine; Bueno, Maïté; Le Hécho, Isabelle; Thiry, Yves; Biron, Philippe; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse; Pannier, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Selenium is both essential and toxic for mammals; the range between the two roles is narrow and not only dose-dependent but also related to the chemical species present in foodstuff. Unraveling the metabolism of Se in plants as a function of Se source may thus lead to ways to increase efficiency of fertilization procedures in selenium deficient regions. In this study, stable-isotope tracing was applied for the first time in plants to simultaneously monitor the bio-incorporation of two inorganic Se species commonly used as foodstuff enrichment sources. Occurrence and speciation of Se coming from different Se sources were investigated in root and leaf extracts of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), which had been co-exposed to two labeled Se species ((77)SeIV and (82)SeVI). Although the plant absorbed similar amounts of Se when supplied in the form of selenite or selenate, the results evidenced marked differences in speciation and tissues allocation. Selenite was converted into organic forms incorporated mostly into high molecular weight compounds with limited translocation to leaves, whereas selenate was highly mobile being little assimilated into organic forms. Double-spike isotopic tracer methodology makes it possible to compare the metabolism of two species-specific Se sources simultaneously in a single experiment and to analyze Se behavior in not-hyperaccumulator plants, the ICP-MS sensitivity being improved by the use of enriched isotopes.

  12. Cadmium Sorption Characteristics of Soil Amendments and its Relationship with the Cadmium Uptake by Hyperaccumulator and Normal Plants in Amended Soils

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C.C.; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2013-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14–0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51–2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K ≥ 1.49 L/mg and n ≥ 3.59. PMID:24912231

  13. Arsenic and phosphate rock impacted the abundance and diversity of bacterial arsenic oxidase and reductase genes in rhizosphere of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-He; Fu, Jing-Wei; Xiang, Ping; Cao, Yue; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-01-05

    Microbially-mediated arsenic (As) transformation in soils affects As speciation and plant uptake. However, little is known about the impacts of As on bacterial communities and their functional genes in the rhizosphere of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. In this study, arsenite (AsIII) oxidase genes (aroA-like) and arsenate (AsV) reductase genes (arsC) were amplified from three soils, which were amended with 50mgkg(-1) As and/or 1.5% phosphate rock (PR) and grew P. vittata for 90 d. The aroA-like genes in the rhizosphere were 50 times more abundant than arsC genes, consistent with the dominance of AsV in soils. According to functional gene alignment, most bacteria belonged to α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Moreover, aroA-like genes showed a higher biodiversity than arsC genes based on clone library analysis and could be grouped into nine clusters based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Besides, AsV amendment elevated aroA-like gene diversity, but decreased arsC gene diversity. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil pH, available Ca and P, and AsV concentration were key factors driving diverse compositions in aroA-like gene community. This work identified new opportunities to screen for As-oxidizing and/or -reducing bacteria to aid phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils.

  14. Effect of metal stress on photosynthetic pigments in the Cu-hyperaccumulating lichens Cladonia humilis and Stereocaulon japonicum growing in Cu-polluted sites in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Yoshitani, Azusa; Itoh, Kiminori

    2013-11-01

    To understand the ecology and physiology of metal-accumulating lichens growing in Cu-polluted sites, we investigated lichens near temple and shrine buildings with Cu roofs in Japan and found that Stereocaulon japonicum Th. Fr. and Cladonia humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon grow in Cu-polluted sites. Metal concentrations in the lichen samples collected at some of these sites were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). UV-vis absorption spectra of pigments extracted from the lichen samples were measured, and the pigment concentrations were estimated from the spectral data using equations from the literature. Secondary metabolites extracted from the lichen samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector. We found that S. japonicum and C. humilis are Cu-hyperaccumulating lichens. Differences in pigment concentrations and their absorption spectra were observed between the Cu-polluted and control samples of the 2 lichens. However, no correlation was found between Cu and pigment concentrations. We observed a positive correlation between Al and Fe concentrations and unexpectedly found high negative correlations between Al and pigment concentrations. This suggests that Al stress reduces pigment concentrations. The concentrations of secondary metabolites in C. humilis growing in the Cu-polluted sites agreed with those in C. humilis growing in the control sites. This indicates that the metabolite concentrations are independent of Cu stress.

  15. Effect of CO, NOx and SO2 on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione pathway to induce Fragaria×annasa as a hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Byung Chul; Lee, Beom Seon; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of carbon monoxide (CO), nitroxide (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione pathway in strawberry plants. The results showed that both singlet oxygen (O2(-1)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content increased in CO, NOx and SO2 treated strawberry leaves. A drastic reduction of primary metabolism of plants (photosynthesis), with the closure of stomata, resulted in a reduction of protein, carbohydrate and sucrose content due to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under prolonged exposure of gas stress. The resulting antioxidant enzymes were increased under a low dose of gas stress, whereas they were decreased due to a high dose of gas stress. Our results indicate that increased ROS may act as a signal to induce defense responses to CO, NOx and SO2 gas stress. The increased level of antioxidant enzymes plays a significant role in plant protection due to which strawberry plants can be used as a hyperaccumulator to maintain environmental pollution, however, the defense capacity cannot sufficiently alleviate oxidative damage under prolonged exposure of CO, NOx and SO2 stress.

  16. Improved plant growth and Zn accumulation in grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic microbes isolated from a Zn Hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii H.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoe; Zhang, Xincheng; Dong, Lanxue; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Lu, Lingli

    2014-02-26

    This study is to investigate the possibility of zinc (Zn) biofortification in the grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic strains isolated from a Zn hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance. Five endophytic strains, Burkholderia sp. SaZR4, Burkholderia sp. SaMR10, Sphingomonas sp. SaMR12, Variovorax sp. SaNR1, and Enterobacter sp. SaCS20, isolated from S. alfredii, were inoculated in the roots of Japonica rice Nipponbare under hydroponic condition. Fluorescence images showed that endophytic strains successfully colonized rice roots after 72 h. Improved root morphology and plant growth of rice was observed after inoculation with endophytic strains especially SaMR12 and SaCS20. Under hydroponic conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 increased Zn concentration by 44.4% and 51.1% in shoots, and by 73.6% and 83.4% in roots, respectively. Under soil conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 resulted in an increase of grain yields and elevated Zn concentrations by 20.3% and 21.9% in brown rice and by 13.7% and 11.2% in polished rice, respectively. After inoculation of SaMR12 and SaCS20, rhizosphere soils of rice plants contained higher concentration of DTPA-Zn by 10.4% and 20.6%, respectively. In situ micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping of Zn confirmed the elevated Zn content in the rhizosphere zone of rice treated with SaMR12 as compared with the control. The above results suggested that endophytic microbes isolated from S. alfredii could successfully colonize rice roots, resulting in improved root morphology and plant growth, increased Zn bioavailability in rhizosphere soils, and elevated grain yields and Zn densities in grains.

  17. Aluminium Uptake and Translocation in Al Hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius Is Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids Content and Soil pH

    PubMed Central

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Száková, Jiřina; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Hejcman, Michal; Müllerová, Vladimíra; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8) and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism. Methods We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs. Results Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid) in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of “oxalate plants.” The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions. Conclusions In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids. PMID:25880431

  18. Effect of copper stress on cup lichens Cladonia humilis and C. subconistea growing on copper-hyperaccumulating moss Scopelophila cataractae at copper-polluted sites in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Yoshitani, Azusa; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Sakurai, Haruka; Itoh, Kiminori

    2012-10-01

    We investigated lichen species in the habitats of the copper (Cu)-hyperaccumulating moss Scopelophila cataractae and found that the cup lichens Cladonia subconistea and C. humilis grow on this moss. We performed X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass (ICP-MS) analysis of lichen samples and measured the visible absorption spectra of the pigments extracted from the samples to assess the effect of Cu stress on the cup lichens. The chlorophyll a/b ratio and degradation of chlorophyll a to pheophytin a were calculated from the spectral data. X-ray fluorescence analysis indicated that Cu concentrations in cup lichens growing on S. cataractae were much higher than those in control samples growing on non-polluted soil. Moreover, Cu microanalysis showed that Cu concentrations in parts of podetia of C. subconistea growing on S. cataractae increased as the substrate (S. cataractae) was approached, whereas those of C. humilis growing on S. cataractae decreased as the substrate was approached. This reflects the difference in the route of Cu ions from the source to the podetia. Furthermore, ICP-MS analysis confirmed that C. subconistea growing on S. cataractae was heavily contaminated with Cu, indicating that this lichen is Cu tolerant. We found a significant difference between the visible absorption spectra of pigments extracted from the Cu-contaminated and control samples. Hence, the spectra could be used to determine whether a cup lichen is contaminated with Cu. Chlorophyll analysis showed that cup lichens growing on S. cataractae were affected by Cu stress. However, it also suggested that the areas of dead moss under cup lichens were a suitable substrate for the growth of the lichen. Moreover, it suggested that cup lichens had allolepathic effects on S. cataractae; it is likely that secondary metabolites produced by cup lichens inhibited moss growth.

  19. Unveiling Zn hyperaccumulation in Juncus acutus: implications on the electronic energy fluxes and on oxidative stress with emphasis on non-functional Zn-chlorophylls.

    PubMed

    Santos, D; Duarte, B; Caçador, I

    2014-11-01

    Juncus acutus arises as possible hyperaccumulator specie, tolerating exogenous Zn concentrations as high as 60 mM. Zinc concentrations here detected in seedlings germinated in the presence high Zn concentrations, were above the described upper toxic levels for higher plants. Even at the highest Zn concentration, growth inhibition only accounted to approximately 30% of control seedlings biomass, presenting an EC₅₀ value in the range of 10-20 mM of metal. PSII quantum yields showed a marked decline, reflection of changes in the thylakoid structure on the PSII electron donor sites. In fact, the electron transport rate was severely affected by Zn in seedlings exposed to higher Zn concentrations leading to a decrease in their maximum electronic transport rate and consequently presenting lower light saturation and lower photosynthetic efficiencies. Although light absorption capacity was not affected by Zn exposure and uptake, energy trapping flux in the photosynthetic apparatus and transport throughout the electronic chain was severely impaired. This lack of efficiency is related with non-functional Zn-chlorophylls formation. There was a strong linear correlation between exogenous Zn concentration applied and the concentration actually verified in the seedlings tissue with the concentration of both ZnChl a and b. There was also a gradual loss of connectivity between the antennae of the PSII units being this more evident at the higher Zn concentrations and thus impairing the energetic transport. The reduction in light harvesting efficiency, leads inevitably to the accumulation of redox energy inside the cells. To counteract ROS generation, all anti-oxidant enzymatic activities (except catalase) showed a proportional response to exogenous and in vivo Zn concentrations. Not only this plant appears to be highly tolerant to high Zn concentrations, but also it can overcome efficiently the damage produced during this uptake by efficiently dissipating the excessive cellular

  20. Cadmium uptake and translocation in tumbleweed (Salsola kali), a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator desert plant species: ICP/OES and XAS studies.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Montes, Milka; Parsons, Jason G; Cano-Aguilera, Irene; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2004-06-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which, even at low concentrations, can be highly toxic to the growth and development of both plants and animals. Plant species vary extensively in their tolerance to excess cadmium in a growth medium and very few cadmium-tolerant species have been identified. In this study, tumbleweed plants (Salsola kali) grown in an agar-based medium with 20 mgl(-1) of Cd(II) did not show phytotoxicity, and their roots had the most biomass (4.5 mg) (P < 0.05) compared to the control plants (2.7 mg) as well as other treated plants. These plants accumulated 2696, 2075, and 2016 mg Cd kg(-1) of dry roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. The results suggest that there is no restricted cadmium movement in tumbleweed plants. In addition, the amount of Cd found in the dry leaf tissue suggests that tumbleweed could be considered as potential cadmium hyperaccumulating species. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies demonstrated that in roots, cadmium was bound to oxygen while in stems and leaves, the metal was attached to oxygen and sulfur groups. This might imply that some small organic acids are responsible for Cd transport from roots to stems and leaves. In addition, it might be possible that the plant synthesizes phytochelatins in the stems, later coordinating the absorbed cadmium for transport and storage in cell structures. Thus, it is possible that in the leaves, Cd either exists as a Cd-phytochelatin complex or bound to cell wall structures. Current studies are being performed in order to elucidate the proposed hypothesis.

  1. Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-10-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity.

  2. Characterization of Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria from Mn-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana and their impact on Mn accumulation of hybrid penisetum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Three hundred Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Mn-hyperaccumulator, Phytolacca americana, grown at different levels of Mn (0, 1, and 10mM) stress. Under no Mn stress, 90%, 92%, and 11% of the bacteria produced indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, respectively. Under Mn stress, 68-94%, 91-92%, and 21-81% of the bacteria produced IAA, siderophore, and ACC deaminase, respectively. Greater percentages of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria were found in the Mn-treated P. americana. Furthermore, the ratios of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria were significantly higher in the Mn treated plant leaves, while the ratio of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria was significantly higher in the Mn treated-roots. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, Mn-resistant bacteria were affiliated with 10 genera. In experiments involving hybrid penisetum grown in soils treated with 0 and 1000mgkg(-1) of Mn, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the root (ranging from 6.4% to 18.3%) and above-ground tissue (ranging from 19.3% to 70.2%) mass and total Mn uptake of above-ground tissues (64%) compared to the control. Furthermore, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the ratio of IAA-producing bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of hybrid penisetum grown in Mn-added soils. The results showed the effect of Mn stress on the ratio of the plant growth-promoting factor-producing endophytic bacteria of P. americana and highlighted the potential of endophytic bacterium as an inoculum for enhanced phytoremediation of Mn-polluted soils by hybrid penisetum plants.

  3. Elemental selenium particles at nano-size (Nano-Se) are more toxic to Medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a consequence of hyper-accumulation of selenium: a comparison with sodium selenite.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongcheng; Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Thanh; Luo, Wenru; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2008-09-29

    Recent studies have shown that elemental selenium particles at nano-size (Nano-Se) exhibited comparable bioavailability and less toxicity in mice and rats when compared to sodium selenite, selenomethinine and methylselenocysteine. However, little is known about the toxicity profile of Nano-Se in aquatic animals. In the present study, toxicities of Nano-Se and selenite in selenium-sufficient Medaka fish were compared. Selenium bioaccumulation and subsequent clearance in fish livers, gills, muscles and whole bodies were examined after 10 days of exposure to Nano-Se and selenite (100 microg Se/L) and again after 7 days of depuration. Both forms of selenium exposure effectively increased selenium concentrations in the investigated tissues. Surprisingly, Nano-Se was found to be more hyper-accumulated in the liver compared to selenite with differences as high as sixfold. Selenium clearance of both Nano-Se and selenite occurred at similar ratios in whole bodies and muscles but was not rapidly cleared from livers and gills. Nano-Se exhibited strong toxicity for Medaka with an approximately fivefold difference in terms of LC(50) compared to selenite. Nano-Se also caused larger effects on oxidative stress, most likely due to more hyper-accumulation of selenium in liver. The present study suggests that toxicity of nanoparticles can largely vary between different species and concludes that the evaluation of nanotoxicology should be carried out on a case-by-case basis.

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques applied to the noninvasive investigation of mural paintings: a feasibility study carried out on a wall painting by Beato Angelico in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Costanza; Picollo, Marcello; Chiarantini, Leandro; Sereni, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays hyperspectral imaging is a well-established methodology for the non-invasive diagnostics of polychrome surfaces, and is increasingly utilized in museums and conservation laboratories for documentation purposes and in support of restoration procedures. However, so far the applications of hyperspectral imaging have been mainly limited to easel paintings or paper-based artifacts. Indeed, specifically designed hyperspectral imagers, are usually used for applications in museum context. These devices work at short-distances from the targets and cover limited size surfaces. Instead, almost still unexplored remain the applications of hyperspectral imaging to the investigations of frescoes and large size mural paintings. For this type of artworks a remote sensing approach, based on sensors capable of acquiring hyperspectral data from distances of the order of tens of meters, is needed. This paper illustrates an application of hyperspectral remote sensing to an important wall-painting by Beato Angelico, located in the San Marco Museum in Florence. Measurements were carried out using a re-adapted version of the Galileo Avionica Multisensor Hyperspectral System (SIM-GA), an avionic hyperspectral imager originally designed for applications from mobile platforms. This system operates in the 400-2500 nm range with over 700 channels, thus guaranteeing acquisition of high resolution hyperspectral data exploitable for materials identification and mapping. In the present application, the SIM-GA device was mounted on a static scanning platform for ground-based applications. The preliminary results obtained on the Angelico's wall-painting are discussed, with highlights on the main technical issues addressed to optimize the SIM-GA system for new applications on cultural assets.

  5. A clinical evaluation of the hypothesis that rupture of the left ventricle following mitral valve replacement can be prevented by preservation of the chordae of the mural leaflet.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, F C; Galloway, A C; Colvin, S B

    1985-01-01

    Experiences with 14 patients undergoing rupture of the left ventricle following mitral valve replacement over a period of 9 years have been described. Three different types have been recognized. Before 1978, most injuries occurred in the atrioventricular groove, apparently resulting from traction that insidiously avulsed the mitral annulus from the underlying left ventricular muscle. Several changes in operative technique, described in the text, were made to prevent this traction avulsion. Following the adoption of these principles, rupture in the atrioventricular groove virtually disappeared. A second type of injury, strut perforation, has been recognized in only one patient, a small 81-year-old female in whom the prosthesis inserted was too large for the ventricular cavity. Translucent obturators were subsequently developed not only to size the left ventricle but also to note the location of the post of the porcine prosthesis before insertion. Further problems of this type have not been seen. The most puzzling, and currently the most significant, problem is a third type of rupture, the mid-ventricular rupture, suggested as Type III by Miller in 1978 and described in detail by Cobbs in 1977 and 1980. The phenomenon seems to be a true spontaneous rupture of a thin left ventricle, usually occurring in small elderly women with mitral valve disease. If the friability of the left ventricle is transiently increased with potassium cardioplegia, such ventricles may spontaneously rupture following division of the chordae to the annulus of the mural leaflet. If this concept is correct, a rupture in some patients can best be prevented by preserving these chordae. It is well realized, of course, that a fortunate narrative experience of 3 1/2 years does not have any statistical value concerning a complication that occurs in 1 to 2% of operations. The experiences are reported, however, because to our knowledge, the untethered loop hypothesis has not been previously evaluated in

  6. Selective uptake, distribution, and redistribution of (109)Cd, (57)Co, (65)Zn, (63)Ni, and (134)Cs via xylem and phloem in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Anders, Iwona; Feller, Urs

    2014-06-01

    The focus of this article was to explore the translocation of (109)Cd, (57)Co, (65)Zn, (63)Ni, and (134)Cs via xylem and phloem in the newly found hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. Two experiments with the uptake via the roots and transport of (109)Cd, (57)Co, and (65)Zn labeled by roots, and the redistribution of (109)Cd, (65)Zn, (57)Co, (63)Ni, and (134)Cs using flap label in S. nigrum in a hydroponic culture with a standard nutrient solution were conducted. The results showed that (109)Cd added for 24 h to the nutrient medium of young plants was rapidly taken up, transferred to the shoot, and accumulated in the cotyledons and the oldest leaves but was not efficiently redistributed within the shoot afterward leading to a rather low content in the fruits. In contrast, (57)Co was more slowly taken up and released to the shoot, but afterward, this element was redistributed from older leaves to younger leaves and maturing fruits. (65)Zn was rapidly taken up and transferred to the shoot (mainly to the youngest leaves and not to the cotyledons). Afterward, this radionuclide was redistributed within the shoot to the youngest organs and finally accumulated in the maturing fruits. After flap labeling, all five heavy metals tested ((109)Cd, (57)Co, (65)Zn, (63)Ni, (134)Cs) were exported from the labeled leaf and redistributed within the plant. The accumulation in the fruits was most pronounced for (63)Ni and (65)Zn, while a relatively high percentage of (57)Co was finally found in the roots. (134)Cs was roughly in the middle of them. The transport of (109)Cd differed from that previously reported for wheat or lupin and might be important for the potential of S. nigrum to hyperaccumulate cadmium.

  7. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  8. Journey: A Service Learning Mural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Winthrop Middle School's cafeteria had three paintings on the wall in which the paint was fading and the plaster was falling off. Many students wanted a change since the paintings had been there for over 15 years. This situation seemed appropriate for a service learning project for this Winthrop, Maine middle school. After the students reviewed…

  9. Inoculation with endophytic Bacillus megaterium 1Y31 increases Mn accumulation and induces the growth and energy metabolism-related differentially-expressed proteome in Mn hyperaccumulator hybrid pennisetum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-hui; He, Lin-yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-12-30

    In this study, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to investigate the molecular and microbial mechanisms involved in the endophytic Bacillus megaterium 1Y31-enhanced Mn tolerance and accumulation in Mn hyperaccumulator hybrid pennisetum. Strain 1Y31 significantly increased the dry weights (ranging from 28% to 94%) and total Mn uptake (ranging from 23% to 112%) of hybrid pennisetum treated with 0, 2, and 10mM Mn compared to the control. Total 98 leaf differentially expressed proteins were identified between the live and dead bacterial inoculated hybrid pennisetum. The major leaf differentially expressed proteins were involved in energy generation, photosynthesis, response to stimulus, metabolisms, and unknown function. Furthermore, most of the energy generation and photosynthesis-related proteins were up-regulated, whereas most of the response to stimulus and metabolism-related proteins were down-regulated under Mn stress. Notably, the proportion of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing endophytic bacteria was significantly higher in the bacterial inoculated plants under Mn stress. The results suggested that strain 1Y31 increased the growth and Mn uptake of hybrid pennisetum through increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis and energy metabolism as well as the proportion of plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria in the plants.

  10. Novel environmental species isolated from the plaster wall surface of mural paintings in the Takamatsuzuka tumulus: Bordetella muralis sp. nov., Bordetella tumulicola sp. nov. and Bordetella tumbae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Tazato, Nozomi; Handa, Yutaka; Nishijima, Miyuki; Kigawa, Rika; Sano, Chie; Sugiyama, Junta

    2015-12-01

    Ten strains of Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile coccobacilli were isolated from the plaster wall surface of 1300-year-old mural paintings inside the stone chamber of the Takamatsuzuka tumulus in Asuka village (Asuka-mura), Nara Prefecture, Japan. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the isolates, they belonged to the proteobacterial genus Bordetella (class Betaproteobacteria) and could be separated into three groups representing novel lineages within the genus Bordetella. Three isolates were selected, one from each group, and identified carefully using a polyphasic approach. The isolates were characterized by the presence of Q-8 as their major ubiquinone system and C16 : 0 (30.0-41.8 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c; 10.1-27.0 %) and C17 : 0 cyclo (10.8-23.8 %) as the predominant fatty acids. The major hydroxy fatty acids were C12 : 0 2-OH and C14 : 0 2-OH. The DNA G+C content was 59.6-60.0 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization tests confirmed that the isolates represented three separate novel species, for which the names Bordetella muralis sp. nov. (type strain T6220-3-2bT = JCM 30931T = NCIMB 15006T), Bordetella tumulicola sp. nov. (type strain T6517-1-4bT = JCM 30935T = NCIMB 15007T) and Bordetella tumbae sp. nov. (type strain T6713-1-3bT = JCM 30934T = NCIMB 15008T) are proposed. These results support previous evidence that members of the genus Bordetella exist in the environment and may be ubiquitous in soil and/or water.

  11. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species have adapted on such stress. The aim of this study is to investigate the behaviour of copper in plants and to assess its potential effect on the surrounding environment. To detect copper in biological samples electrochemical methods were employed particularly differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Copper gave signals at 0.02 V measured by DPV. The obtained calibration dependence was linear (R2 = 0.995). Further, this method was utilized for determination of copper in real soil samples obtained from previously mentioned heavy-metal-polluted mining area. The content varied within range from tens to hundreds of mg of copper per kg of the soil. Moreover, we focused on investigation of copper influence on seedlings of Norway spruce. The seedlings were treated with copper (0, 0.1, 10 and 100 mM) for four weeks. We observed anatomical-morphological changes and other biochemical parameters in plants. We determined that seedlings synthesized more than 48 % protective thiols (glutathione and phytochelatins) compared to control ones. We investigated copper distribution in plant tissues by diphenylcarbazide staining. We found out that copper is highly accumulated in parenchymal stalk cells. In needles, change in auto-fluorescence of parenchymal cells of mesoderm similarly to endodermis cells. Besides, we analyzed samples of plants from the polluted area (spruce, pin, birch). The data obtained well correlated with previously mentioned. Acknowledgement The work on this experiment was supported by grant: INCHEMBIOL MSM0021622412.

  12. Genetic and Molecular Dissection of Arsenic Hyperaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Jo Ann

    2005-06-01

    We have constructed cDNA libraries from RNA isolated from arsenic treated gametophytes of the fern Pteris vittata. This library was made in a manner that allows each cDNA clone to be expressed in yeast. We have introduced this library into yeast cells, both wild type and arsensic sensitive mutants, and selected transformed yeast colonies with increased arsenic tolerance compared to the parental strains. From these screens we have identified putative homologs of the yeast ACR2 and ACR3 genes from Pteris vittata and, for the past year, have focused on characterizing the function of the ACR2 gene. In yeast, ACR2 is an arsenate reductase that is essential for arsenate tolerance. We refer to the Pteris vittata ACR2 gene as PvACR2. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvACR2 is highly similar to the yeast ACR2 and other related phosphatases.

  13. IN VIVO SYNCHROTRON INVESTIGATION OF THALLIUM HYPERACCUMULATION - I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thallium (TI) is a metal of great toxicological concern and its prevalence in the natural environment has steadily increased as a result of manufacturing and combustion practices. Due to its low natural abundance and the increasing demand, TI recovery and reuse could be a profita...

  14. The Solar Eclipse Mural Series by Howard Russell Butler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich trove of astronomical phenomena in works of art by artists from the greater New York area, a trend that is even more pronounced in the oeuvres of New York City residents through the present day. A case in point is the trio of oil paintings by artist (and former physics professor) Howard Russell Butler depicting total solar eclipses in 1918, 1923, and 1925 that are based on his own observations. They were long displayed in the former art-deco building of the Hayden Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History, the location of this conference. (The Museum also has nine other Butler paintings, none of which are currently exhibited.) Since the eclipse paintings have been in storage for many years, these once famous works are now virtually forgotten. Based on our research as an astronomer who has seen sixty-two solar eclipses and an art historian who has written extensively about astronomical imagery, we will discuss Butler's Solar Eclipse Triptych to explore its place in the history of astronomical imaging.

  15. Descending vasa recta endothelial cells and pericytes form mural syncytia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong; Lin, Hai; Cao, Chunhua; Payne, Kristie

    2013-01-01

    Using patch clamp, we induced depolarization of descending vasa recta (DVR) pericytes or endothelia and tested whether it was conducted to distant cells. Membrane potential was measured with the fluorescent voltage dye di-8-ANEPPS or with a second patch-clamp electrode. Depolarization of an endothelial cell induced responses in other endothelia within a millisecond and was slowed by gap junction blockade with heptanol. Endothelial response to pericyte depolarization was poor, implying high-resistance myo-endothelial coupling. In contrast, dual patch clamp of neighboring pericytes revealed syncytial coupling. At high sampling rate, the spread of depolarization between pericytes and endothelia occurred in 9 ± 2 or 12 ± 2 μs, respectively. Heptanol (2 mM) increased the overall input resistance of the pericyte layer to current flow and prevented transmission of depolarization between neighboring cells. The fluorescent tracer Lucifer yellow (LY), when introduced through ruptured patches, spread between neighboring endothelia in 1 to 7 s, depending on location of the flanking cell. LY diffused to endothelial cells on the ipsilateral but not contralateral side of the DVR wall and minimally between pericytes. We conclude that both DVR pericytes and endothelia are part of individual syncytia. The rate of conduction of membrane potential exceeds that for diffusion of hydrophilic molecules by orders of magnitude. Gap junction coupling of adjacent endothelial cells may be spatially oriented to favor longitudinal transmission along the DVR axis. PMID:24381184

  16. Collaboration, Inclusion, and Empowerment: A Life Skills Mural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    Making the visual arts program meaningful in public education can be a challenge when one considers how little instructional time is devoted to the visual arts. A challenge for art educators is to seek opportunities outside the classroom for real-life inquiry-based projects. This form of systematic inquiry done by teachers for themselves is called…

  17. A phytogeochemical study of the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal): possible species for plant-based soil remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Díez Lázaro, J; Kidd, P S; Monterroso Martínez, C

    2006-02-01

    Phytoremediation techniques are now considered to be promising alternatives to conventional techniques for the remediation of diffused or moderately contaminated soils. Despite their growing acceptance relatively few plant species have been studied for phytoremediation purposes. Further geobotanical surveys and plant screenings are necessary since these could lead to the identification of additional species with potential value for such applications. Serpentine areas could prove valuable sources of such plants. In this study heavy metal accumulation was determined in the flora associated with ultramafic and non-ultramafic soils of the Trás-os-Montes region of NE Portugal. Study sites were selected to represent a wide range of soil-forming rocks (serpentinized (S), ultrabasic (UB), basic (B) and acid (migmatite, M and schists, SC) rocks) and plant metal accumulation was related to soil metal bioavailability. Nine plant species (representing 7 families) were sampled including the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum. The greatest metal accumulation, transport (leaf[metal]:root[metal]) and bioaccumulation (leaf[metal]/soil[metal]) was found in four of the non metal-hyperaccumulating species: Cistus ladanifer, Lavandula stoechas, Plantago subulata subsp. radicata and Thymus mastichina. Metal accumulation depended on both the plant species and the edaphic conditions at its provenance. While P. subulata is of less interest due to its low biomass the remaining three species could be of use in phytoremediation technologies such as phytoextraction, and particularly in soils contaminated with Cr, Mn and Zn. These three species are also of economic interest due to their oil and fragrance producing biomass.

  18. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF INORGANICS: REALISM AND SYNERGIES.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Nicholas M; Baker, Alan J M; Doronila, Augustine; Laidlaw, Scott; Reeves, Roger D

    2009-02-01

    There are very few practical demonstrations of the phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from soils and sediments beyond small-scale and short-term trials. The two approaches used have been based on using 1) hyperaccumulator species, such as Thlaspi caerulescens (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni), Alyssum spp. (Ni, Co), and Pteris vittata (As) or 2) fast-growing plants, such as Salix and Populus spp. that accumulate above-average concentrations of only a smaller number of the more mobile trace elements (Cd, Zn, B). Until we have advanced much more along the pathway of genetic isolation and transfer of hyperaccumulator traits into productive plants, there is a high risk in marketing either approach as a technology or stand-alone solution to clean up contaminated land. There are particular uncertainties over the longer-term effectiveness of phytoextraction and associated environmental issues. Marginally contaminated agricultural soils provide the most likely land use where phytoextraction can be used as a polishing technology. An alternative and more useful practical approach in many situations currently would be to give more attention to crops selected for phytoexclusion: selecting crops that do not translocate high concentrations of metals to edible parts. Soils of brownfield, urban, and industrial areas provide a large-scale opportunity to use phytoremediation, but the focus here should be on the more realistic possibilities of risk-managed phytostabilization and monitored natural attenuation. We argue that the wider practical applications of phytoremediation are too often overlooked. There is huge scope for cross-cutting other environmental agenda, with synergies that involve the recovery and provision of services from degraded landscapes and contaminated soils. An additional focus on biomass energy, improved biodiversity, watershed management, soil protection, carbon sequestration, and improved soil health is required for the justification and advancement of phytotechnologies.

  19. Bacterially Induced Weathering of Ultramafic Rock and Its Implications for Phytoextraction

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Petra; Kuffner, Melanie; Prieto-Fernández, Ángeles; Hann, Stephan; Monterroso, Carmela; Sessitsch, Angela; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The bioavailability of metals in soil is often cited as a limiting factor of phytoextraction (or phytomining). Bacterial metabolites, such as organic acids, siderophores, or biosurfactants, have been shown to mobilize metals, and their use to improve metal extraction has been proposed. In this study, the weathering capacities of, and Ni mobilization by, bacterial strains were evaluated. Minimal medium containing ground ultramafic rock was inoculated with either of two Arthrobacter strains: LA44 (indole acetic acid [IAA] producer) or SBA82 (siderophore producer, PO4 solubilizer, and IAA producer). Trace elements and organic compounds were determined in aliquots taken at different time intervals after inoculation. Trace metal fractionation was carried out on the remaining rock at the end of the experiment. The results suggest that the strains act upon different mineral phases. LA44 is a more efficient Ni mobilizer, apparently solubilizing Ni associated with Mn oxides, and this appeared to be related to oxalate production. SBA82 also leads to release of Ni and Mn, albeit to a much lower extent. In this case, the concurrent mobilization of Fe and Si indicates preferential weathering of Fe oxides and serpentine minerals, possibly related to the siderophore production capacity of the strain. The same bacterial strains were tested in a soil-plant system: the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. malacitanum was grown in ultramafic soil in a rhizobox system and inoculated with each bacterial strain. At harvest, biomass production and shoot Ni concentrations were higher in plants from inoculated pots than from noninoculated pots. Ni yield was significantly enhanced in plants inoculated with LA44. These results suggest that Ni-mobilizing inoculants could be useful for improving Ni uptake by hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:23793627

  20. Cadmium accumulation is enhanced by ammonium compared to nitrate in two hyperaccumulators, without affecting speciation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Miaomiao; Wang, Peng; Kopittke, Peter M.; Wang, Anan; Sale, Peter W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization could improve the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction in contaminated soil and thus shorten the remediation time. However, limited information is available on the effect of N form on Cd phytoextraction and associated mechanisms in plants. This study examined the effect of N form on Cd accumulation, translocation, and speciation in Carpobrotus rossii and Solanum nigrum. Plants were grown in nutrient solution with 5–15 μM Cd in the presence of 1000 µM NH4 + or NO3 −. Plant growth and Cd uptake were measured, and Cd speciation was analyzed using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Shoot Cd accumulation was 30% greater with NH4 + than NO3 − supply. Carpobrotus rossii accumulated three times more Cd than S. nigrum. However, Cd speciation in the plants was not influenced by N form, but it did vary with species and tissues. In C. rossii, up to 91% of Cd was bound to S-containing ligands in all tissues except the xylem sap where 87–95% were Cd-OH complexes. Furthermore, the proportion of Cd-S in shoots was substantially lower in S. nigrum (44–69%) than in C. rossii (60–91%). It is concluded that the application of NH4 + (instead of NO3 −) increased shoot Cd accumulation by increasing uptake and translocation, rather than changing Cd speciation, and is potentially an effective approach for increasing Cd phytoextraction. PMID:27385767

  1. Mechanisms of nickel uptake, and hyperaccumulation by plants and implications to soil remediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil contamination by heavy metals like Ni was originally restricted to metalliferous soils but in recent years it has become a general problem due to the increasingly frequent anthropogenic activities. Because of the characteristics of cost-effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and fewer side...

  2. Microbial community dynamics in the rhizosphere of a cadmium hyper-accumulator

    PubMed Central

    Wood, J. L.; Zhang, C.; Mathews, E. R.; Tang, C.; Franks, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Phytoextraction is influenced by the indigenous soil microbial communities during the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil microbial communities can affect plant growth, metal availability and the performance of phytoextraction-assisting inocula. Understanding the basic ecology of indigenous soil communities associated with the phytoextraction process, including the interplay between selective pressures upon the communities, is an important step towards phytoextraction optimization. This study investigated the impact of cadmium (Cd), and the presence of a Cd-accumulating plant, Carpobrotus rossii (Haw.) Schwantes, on the structure of soil-bacterial and fungal communities using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Whilst Cd had no detectable influence upon fungal communities, bacterial communities underwent significant structural changes with no reduction in 16S rRNA copy number. The presence of C. rossii influenced the structure of all communities and increased ITS copy number. Suites of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed in abundance in response to either Cd or C. rossii, however we found little evidence to suggest that the two selective pressures were acting synergistically. The Cd-induced turnover in bacterial OTUs suggests that Cd alters competition dynamics within the community. Further work to understand how competition is altered could provide a deeper understanding of the microbiome-plant-environment and aid phytoextraction optimization. PMID:27805014

  3. Zinc Hyperaccumulation in Squirrelfish (Holocentrus adscenscionis) and Its Role in Embryo Viability

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Chris N.; Capo, Tom; Walsh, Patrick J.; Hogstrand, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Female squirrelfish (Fam. Holocentridae) can accumulate and temporarily sequester copious amounts of zinc (Zn) in their livers. There, it is initially compartmentalized before a subsequent, estrogen-triggered redistribution to the ovaries. Here we show that cellular uptake of Zn is also influenced by estrogen signaling, and that estrogen increases concentrations of the plasma Zn-binding protein vitellogenin (VTG). However, estrogen-mediated increases in VTG are not sufficient to accommodate the magnitude of hepato-ovarian Zn transfer in female squirrelfish (Holocentrus adscensionis). These findings suggest that holocentrids have acquired the ability to use hormonal cues to drive hepatic uptake and storage of Zn, signal for its physiological redistribution, and influence the capacity for systemic transport of Zn beyond the mediation of increased plasma VTG concentrations. Such specific adaptations suggest an advantage for the oocyte, which is corroborated in further studies where we determined that oocyte Zn concentrations are positively correlated with egg viability in captive-spawned squirrelfish. The novel nature of these findings underlies the importance of Zn in squirrelfish reproductive biology. PMID:23056248

  4. Chemical Form and Distribution of Selenium and Sulfur in the Selenium Hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus1

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Ingrid J.; Wright, Carrie; Bubner, Ben; Ellis, Danielle; Persans, Michael W.; Yu, Eileen Y.; George, Graham N.; Prince, Roger C.; Salt, David E.

    2003-01-01

    In its natural habitat, Astragalus bisulcatus can accumulate up to 0.65% (w/w) selenium (Se) in its shoot dry weight. X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to examine the selenium biochemistry of A. bisulcatus. High concentrations of the nonprotein amino acid Se-methylseleno-cysteine (Cys) are present in young leaves of A. bisulcatus, but in more mature leaves, the Se-methylseleno-Cys concentration is lower, and selenate predominates. Seleno-Cys methyltransferase is the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of Se-methylseleno-Cys from seleno-Cys and S-methyl-methionine. Seleno-Cys methyltransferase is found to be expressed in A. bisulcatus leaves of all ages, and thus the biosynthesis of Se-methylseleno-Cys in older leaves is limited earlier in the metabolic pathway, probably by an inability to chemically reduce selenate. A comparative study of sulfur (S) and Se in A. bisulcatus using x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates similar trends for oxidized and reduced Se and S species, but also indicates that the proportions of these differ significantly. These results also indicate that sulfate and selenate reduction are developmentally correlated, and they suggest important differences between S and Se biochemistries. PMID:12644695

  5. Cadmium accumulation is enhanced by ammonium compared to nitrate in two hyperaccumulators, without affecting speciation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Miaomiao; Wang, Peng; Kopittke, Peter M; Wang, Anan; Sale, Peter W G; Tang, Caixian

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen fertilization could improve the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction in contaminated soil and thus shorten the remediation time. However, limited information is available on the effect of N form on Cd phytoextraction and associated mechanisms in plants. This study examined the effect of N form on Cd accumulation, translocation, and speciation in Carpobrotus rossii and Solanum nigrum Plants were grown in nutrient solution with 5-15 μM Cd in the presence of 1000 µM NH4 (+) or NO3 (-) Plant growth and Cd uptake were measured, and Cd speciation was analyzed using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Shoot Cd accumulation was 30% greater with NH4 (+) than NO3 (-) supply. Carpobrotus rossii accumulated three times more Cd than S. nigrum. However, Cd speciation in the plants was not influenced by N form, but it did vary with species and tissues. In C. rossii, up to 91% of Cd was bound to S-containing ligands in all tissues except the xylem sap where 87-95% were Cd-OH complexes. Furthermore, the proportion of Cd-S in shoots was substantially lower in S. nigrum (44-69%) than in C. rossii (60-91%). It is concluded that the application of NH4 (+) (instead of NO3 (-)) increased shoot Cd accumulation by increasing uptake and translocation, rather than changing Cd speciation, and is potentially an effective approach for increasing Cd phytoextraction.

  6. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  7. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  8. Microbial community dynamics in the rhizosphere of a cadmium hyper-accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. L.; Zhang, C.; Mathews, E. R.; Tang, C.; Franks, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Phytoextraction is influenced by the indigenous soil microbial communities during the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil microbial communities can affect plant growth, metal availability and the performance of phytoextraction-assisting inocula. Understanding the basic ecology of indigenous soil communities associated with the phytoextraction process, including the interplay between selective pressures upon the communities, is an important step towards phytoextraction optimization. This study investigated the impact of cadmium (Cd), and the presence of a Cd-accumulating plant, Carpobrotus rossii (Haw.) Schwantes, on the structure of soil-bacterial and fungal communities using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Whilst Cd had no detectable influence upon fungal communities, bacterial communities underwent significant structural changes with no reduction in 16S rRNA copy number. The presence of C. rossii influenced the structure of all communities and increased ITS copy number. Suites of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed in abundance in response to either Cd or C. rossii, however we found little evidence to suggest that the two selective pressures were acting synergistically. The Cd-induced turnover in bacterial OTUs suggests that Cd alters competition dynamics within the community. Further work to understand how competition is altered could provide a deeper understanding of the microbiome-plant-environment and aid phytoextraction optimization.

  9. Bioenergy crops grown for hyperaccumulation of phosphorus in the delmarva peninsula and their biofuels potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbaceous bioenergy crops, including sorghum, switchgrass, and miscanthus, were evaluated for their potential as phytoremedators for the uptake of phosphorus in the Delmarva Peninsula and their subsequent conversion to biofuel intermediates (bio-oil) by fast pyrolysis using pyrolysis-gas chromatogr...

  10. Bioenergy crops grown for hyperaccumulation of phosphorous in the Delmarva Peninsula and their biofuels potential.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Akwasi A; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Mullen, Charles A; Dien, Bruce S; Hashem, Fawzy M; Dadson, Robert B

    2015-03-01

    Herbaceous bioenergy crops, including sorghum, switchgrass, and miscanthus, were evaluated for their potential as phytoremediators for the uptake of phosphorus in the Delmarva Peninsula and their subsequent conversion to biofuel intermediates (bio-oil) by fast pyrolysis using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Four cultivars of sorghum, five cultivars of switchgrass and one miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) were grown in soils with two different levels of poultry manure (PM) applications. Little variation was seen in phosphorus uptake in the two different soils indicating that the levels of available phosphorus in the soil already saturated the uptake ability of the plants. However, all plants regardless of trial took up more phosphorus than that measured for the non- PM treated control. Sorghum accumulated greater levels of nutrients including phosphorus and potassium compared to switchgrass and miscanthus. The levels of these nutrients in the biomass did not have an effect on carbohydrate contents. However, the potential yield and composition of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis were affected by both agronomics and differences in mineral concentrations.

  11. Thought and Action in Extra-Mural Work, Leicester, 1946-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaway, A. John

    Since its founding in 1862, Vaughan College of the University of Leicester has moved from a working men's institute offering elementary education to adults through a period of domination by the Workers' Education Association (WEA) to become a lively institution offering to adults university level courses in several locations. During 1946-1966, the…

  12. Unicystic plexiform ameloblastoma with mural proliferation: a full-blown lesion.

    PubMed

    Anchlia, Sonal; Bahl, Sumit; Vyas, Siddharth; Raju, Godishala Swamy Sugunakar

    2016-04-06

    Ameloblastoma is the most common aggressive benign odontogenic tumour of the jaws and has received considerable attention due to its frequency, clinical subtypes and high tendency to infiltrate and recur. There are various types of this tumour and confusion still exists among clinicians as to its correct classification. Multicystic ameloblastoma is the most frequent subtype while unicystic ameloblastoma can be considered a variant of the solid or multicystic subtype. Unicystic ameloblastoma is considered a less aggressive tumour with a variable recurrence rate. However, its frequency is often underestimated. Ameloblastoma is often asymptomatic, presenting as a slowly enlarging facial swelling or an incidental finding on radiograph. It is seen in all age groups but is most commonly diagnosed in the third and fourth decades. We report a case of unusual unicystic ameloblastoma and present its clinical, radiological and full-blown histological changes and treatment modalities, providing new insights into ameloblastomas.

  13. Percutaneous Mural Fenestration and Angioplasty for the Treatment of a Refractory Hemodialysis-Related Venous Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, Gregory L. Funaki, Brian

    2006-12-15

    Venous stenoses are the leading cause of dialysis graft and mature dialysis fistula malfunction. We report a simple, inexpensive technique for treating stenoses that are refractory to conventional balloon angioplasty and present a case in which this technique was successfully applied.

  14. Rectal colonic mural hematoma following enema for constipation while on therapeutic anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Rentea, Rebecca M.; Fehring, Charles H.

    2017-01-01

    Causes of colonic and recto-sigmoid hematomas are multifactorial. Patients can present with a combination of dropping hemoglobin, bowel obstruction and perforation. Computed tomography imaging can provide clues to a diagnosis of intramural hematoma. We present a case of rectal hematoma and a review of current management literature. A 72-year-old male on therapeutic anticoagulation for a pulmonary embolism, was administered an enema resulting in severe abdominal pain unresponsive to blood transfusion. A sigmoid colectomy with end colostomy was performed. Although rare, colonic and recto-sigmoid hematomas should be considered as a possible diagnosis for adults with abdominal pain on anticoagulant therapy. PMID:28108634

  15. [Mural paintings of Jean Coquet at the Desgenette Hospital in Lyon].

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Frédéric; Fischer, Louis-Paul

    2010-01-01

    René Nicolas Dufriche Desgenettes (1762-1837) became famous through two historical events: the first and most famous one is where he proved his courage by inoculating himself with the plague during the Syrian campaign in 1799; the second one, rarely represented in paintings, happened during the Russian retreat in 1812 when he was freed thanks to his reputation. Two wide fresco paintings facing each other in the hall of Desgenettes, a hospital built during World War Two, are witnesses of these two major events. Jean Coquet (1907-1990), a decorator, painter and glassblower, who worked at the Beaux-Arts School of Lyon, first as a decoration teacher than as its director, painted these two works of art. In 1946, he inserted them into an ornamental group constituted of ironworks, furniture, stained glass and ceramics. Two paintings from Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835) inspired these works: Bonaparte visiting the plague-stricken of Jaffa (1804) and Napoleon on the battlefield of Eylau (1808). With their academic composition and daring stylization those two frescoes represent in a modern and original way Desgenettes' life style, an archetype of what the military doctor is.

  16. An investigation of paint from a mural in the church of Sainte Madeleine, Manas, France.

    PubMed

    March, Raymond E; Papanastasiou, Malvina; McMahon, Adam W; Allen, Norman S

    2011-08-01

    The pigment in brown paint samples taken from a church in the Drôme region of France has been shown to be almost pure 6-bromoindigo and 6,6'-dibromoindigo. The composition of the pigment was established by comparison with 6-bromoindigo and 6,6'-dibromoindigo standards using atmospheric pressure photoionization combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The brown paint samples were taken from a frieze of ca 20 brown images having symmetric tree-like forms composed of five overlapping filled circles representing foliage. The tree-like images, simple rather than artistic, had a metallic luster. The molar ratio of 6-bromoindigo and 6,6'-dibromoindigo in the brown paint pigment (98:2) is remarkably similar to that of shellfish purple from the Mediterranean Murex brandaris (96.5:3.5) thus, it is possible that the origin of the indigoid compounds in the brown paint pigment is the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. As the production of Tyrian purple ended with the fall of Byzantium in 1453, purple pigment had to have been produced prior to this time. We have conjectured about the circumstances that may account for the use of 'purple' in this manner in the Drôme region and how the pigment was transported there from the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea during the time of the Crusades.

  17. Mural Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour as Anterior Mandibular Swelling: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Reena Bhola; Grewal, Jessica; Grewal, Ripin; Bansal, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour is an uncommon, benign, hamartomatous lesion that commonly affects the anterior maxilla and has two radiographic variants, follicular and extrafollicular where the former is more common than the latter. Here, we report a case of 15-year-old female with midline swelling of the mandible. Radiographically, impacted right permanent mandibular canine was associated with the radiolucent lesion. Dentigerous cyst was given as provisional diagnosis. However, histologically the lesion represented the features of cystic variant of Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour. PMID:25121073

  18. Letting in the Sun: Native Youth Transform Their School with Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Alejandro; Hall, McClellan

    2007-01-01

    From a visual perspective, many disadvantaged students are assigned to schools that are dark, shabby and lifeless--more like a factory or fortress than a place for learning. Equally lifeless is the standard test-driven curriculum which utterly fails to tap the interests and talents of these students. Stultified learning environments are…

  19. Murals as Monuments: Students' Ideas about Depictions of Civilization in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seixas, Peter; Clark, Penney

    2004-01-01

    Around the world people confront monuments that celebrate historical origins, movements, heroes, and triumphs no longer seen as worthy of celebration. While an analysis of these "lieux de memoire" themselves can reveal historical consciousness, the sites become particularly interesting at the moment when they inspire debate, namely, when…

  20. A multi-technique approach for the characterization of Roman mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toschi, Francesco; Paladini, Alessandra; Colosi, Francesca; Cafarelli, Patrizia; Valentini, Veronica; Falconieri, Mauro; Gagliardi, Serena; Santoro, Paola

    2013-11-01

    In the frame of an ongoing archeological study on the Sabina area, a countryside close to Rome, white and red samples of roman wall paintings have been investigated by combining X-ray diffraction and different spectroscopic methodologies, namely laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, μ-Raman and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. The used multi-technique approach has allowed the unambiguous identification of the red pigment as red ochre and has provided insight on the provenance of both the pigment and the material used for the realization of the wall paintings. The experimental results have confirmed some assumptions on the use of local materials in roman rural architecture.

  1. Degradation of azurite in mural paintings: distribution of copper carbonate, chlorides and oxalates by SRFTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lluveras, A.; Boularand, S.; Andreotti, A.; Vendrell-Saz, M.

    2010-05-01

    This article illustrates the analysis by synchrotron micro-analytical techniques of an azurite painting presenting greenish chromatic degradation. The challenge of the experiments was to obtain the spatial distribution of the degradation products of azurite. Copper hydroxychlorides, carbonates and copper oxalates have been mapped by SR FTIR imaging of cross sections in transmission mode. To complement the information, Py/GC/MS and GC/MS techniques were applied in order to characterize the binding media and organic materials present as well as their degradation products. Results contribute to a better understanding of the decay of blue areas in ancient paintings not only from the particular point of view of azurite weathering, but also by adding information regarding the oxalates’ formation and their distribution in painting samples. Synchrotron radiation demonstrates its capability for the mapping in painting cross sections.

  2. Fungal-Induced Deterioration of Mural Paintings: In Situ and Mock-Model Microscopy Analyses.

    PubMed

    Unković, Nikola; Grbić, Milica Ljaljević; Stupar, Miloš; Savković, Željko; Jelikić, Aleksa; Stanojević, Dragan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-04-01

    Fungal deterioration of frescoes was studied in situ on a selected Serbian church, and on a laboratory model, utilizing standard and newly implemented microscopy techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray confirmed the limestone components of the plaster. Pigments used were identified as carbon black, green earth, iron oxide, ocher, and an ocher/cinnabar mixture. In situ microscopy, applied via a portable microscope ShuttlePix P-400R, proved very useful for detection of invisible micro-impairments and hidden, symptomless, microbial growth. SEM and optical microscopy established that observed deterioration symptoms, predominantly discoloration and pulverization of painted layers, were due to bacterial filaments and fungal hyphal penetration, and formation of a wide range of fungal structures (i.e., melanized hyphae, chlamydospores, microcolonial clusters, Cladosporium-like conidia, and Chaetomium perithecia and ascospores). The all year-round monitoring of spontaneous and induced fungal colonization of a "mock painting" in controlled laboratory conditions confirmed the decisive role of humidity level (70.18±6.91% RH) in efficient colonization of painted surfaces, as well as demonstrated increased bioreceptivity of painted surfaces to fungal colonization when plant-based adhesives (ilinocopie, murdent), compared with organic adhesives of animal origin (bone glue, egg white), are used for pigment sizing.

  3. Micro-analytical evidence of origin and degradation of copper pigments found in Bohemian Gothic murals.

    PubMed

    Svarcová, Silvie; Hradil, David; Hradilová, Janka; Kocí, Eva; Bezdicka, Petr

    2009-12-01

    Correct identification of pigments and all accompanying phases found in colour layers of historical paintings are relevant for searching their origin and pigment preparation pathways and for specification of their further degradation processes. We successfully applied the analytical route combining non-destructive in situ X-ray fluorescence analyses with subsequent laboratory investigation of micro-samples by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray powder micro-diffraction (micro-XRD) to obtain efficiently all the data relevant for mineralogical interpretations of the copper pigments origin. Cu salts (carbonates, chlorides, sulphates, etc.) used as pigments exist in a range of polymorphs with similar or identical composition. The efficiency of the micro-XRD for direct identification of such crystal phases present in micro-samples of colour layers was demonstrated in the presented paper. A new, until now unpublished, type of copper pigment--cumengeite, Pb(21)Cu(20)Cl(42)(OH)(40)--used as a blue pigment on a sacral wall painting in the Czech Republic was found by means of micro-XRD. Furthermore, azurite, malachite, paratacamite, atacamite and posnjakite were identified in fragments of colour layers of selected Gothic wall paintings. We found Cu-Zn arsenates indicating the natural origin of azurite and malachite; artificial malachite was distinguishable according to its typical spherulitic crystals. The corrosion of blue azurite to green basic Cu chloride was clearly evidenced on some places exposed to the action of salts and moisture-in a good agreement with the results of laboratory experiments, which also show that oxalic acid accelerates the corrosion of Cu pigments.

  4. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  5. The investigation of the possibility for using some wild and cultivated plants as hyperaccumulators of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Maric, Miroslava; Antonijevic, Milan; Alagic, Sladjana

    2013-02-01

    The copper production in Bor (East Serbia) during the last 100 years presents an important source of the pollution of environment. Dust, waste waters, tailing, and air pollutants influence the quality of soil, water, and air. Over 2,000 ha of fertile soil have been damaged by the flotation tailing from Bor's facilities. The goal of the present work has been to determine the content of Pb, Cu, and Fe in wild plants (17 species) naturally growing in the damaged soil and in fodder crops (nine species) planted at the same place. The content of Pb, Cu, and Fe has been analyzed in damaged soil as well. This study has also searched for native (wild) and cultivated plants which are able to grow in contaminated soil in the area of the intense industrial activity of copper production in Bor, which means that they can accumulate and tolerate heavy metals in their above-ground tissues. It has been found out that the content of all metals in contaminated soil decreases considerably at the end of the experiment. As it has been expected, all plant species could accumulate investigated metals. All tested plants, both wild-growing and cultivated plants, seem to be quite healthy on the substrate which contained extremely high concentrations of copper.

  6. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  7. Intraspecific variability of cadmium tolerance and accumulation, and cadmium-induced cell wall modifications in the metal hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Claire-Lise; Juraniec, Michal; Huguet, Stéphanie; Chaves-Rodriguez, Elena; Salis, Pietro; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Certain molecular mechanisms of Cd tolerance and accumulation have been identified in the model species Arabidopsis halleri, while intraspecific variability of these traits and the mechanisms of shoot detoxification were little addressed. The Cd tolerance and accumulation of metallicolous and non-metallicolous A. halleri populations from different genetic units were tested in controlled conditions. In addition, changes in shoot cell wall composition were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Indeed, recent works on A. halleri suggest Cd sequestration both inside cells and in the cell wall/apoplast. All A. halleri populations tested were hypertolerant to Cd, and the metallicolous populations were on average the most tolerant. Accumulation was highly variable between and within populations, and populations that were non-accumulators of Cd were identified. The effect of Cd on the cell wall composition was quite similar in the sensitive species A. lyrata and in A. halleri individuals; the pectin/polysaccharide content of cell walls seems to increase after Cd treatment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by Cd were more pronounced in the less tolerant individuals, leading to a correlation between the level of tolerance and the extent of modifications. This work demonstrated that Cd tolerance and accumulation are highly variable traits in A. halleri, suggesting adaptation at the local scale and involvement of various molecular mechanisms. While in non-metallicolous populations drastic modifications of the cell wall occur due to higher Cd toxicity and/or Cd immobilization in this compartment, the increased tolerance of metallicolous populations probably involves other mechanisms such as vacuolar sequestration. PMID:25873677

  8. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Sahi, S. V.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  9. Immunocytochemical analysis of the subcellular distribution of ferritin in Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel, an iron hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Vicenta; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2012-05-01

    Ferritin is of interest at the structural and functional level not only as storage for iron, a critical element, but also as a means to prevent cell damage produced by oxidative stress. The main objective of this work was to confirm by immunocytochemistry the presence and the subcellular distribution of the ferritin detected by Mösbauer spectroscopy in Imperata cylindrica, a plant which accumulates large amounts of iron. The localization of ferritin was performed in epidermal, parenchymal and vascular tissues of shoots and leaves of I. cylindrica. The highest density of immunolabeling in shoots appeared in the intracellular space of cell tissues, near the cell walls and in the cytoplasm. In leaves, ferritin was detected in the proximity of the dense network of the middle lamella of cell walls, following a similar path to that observed in shoots. Immunolabeling was also localized in chloroplasts. The abundance of immunogold labelling in mitochondria for I. cylindrica was rather low, probably because the study dealt with tissues from old plants. These results further expand the localization of ferritin in cell components other than chloroplasts and mitochondria in plants.

  10. Rhizosphere Microbial Community Composition Affects Cadmium and Zinc Uptake by the Metal-Hyperaccumulating Plant Arabidopsis halleri

    PubMed Central

    Muehe, E. Marie; Weigold, Pascal; Adaktylou, Irini J.; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction depends on plant growth and plant metal accessibility. Soil microorganisms can affect the accumulation of metals by plants either by directly or indirectly stimulating plant growth and activity or by (im)mobilizing and/or complexing metals. Understanding the intricate interplay of metal-accumulating plants with their rhizosphere microbiome is an important step toward the application and optimization of phytoremediation. We compared the effects of a “native” and a strongly disturbed (gamma-irradiated) soil microbial communities on cadmium and zinc accumulation by the plant Arabidopsis halleri in soil microcosm experiments. A. halleri accumulated 100% more cadmium and 15% more zinc when grown on the untreated than on the gamma-irradiated soil. Gamma irradiation affected neither plant growth nor the 1 M HCl-extractable metal content of the soil. However, it strongly altered the soil microbial community composition and overall cell numbers. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples of A. halleri identified microbial taxa (Lysobacter, Streptomyces, Agromyces, Nitrospira, “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium”) of higher relative sequence abundance in the rhizospheres of A. halleri plants grown on untreated than on gamma-irradiated soil, leading to hypotheses on their potential effect on plant metal uptake. However, further experimental evidence is required, and wherefore we discuss different mechanisms of interaction of A. halleri with its rhizosphere microbiome that might have directly or indirectly affected plant metal accumulation. Deciphering the complex interactions between A. halleri and individual microbial taxa will help to further develop soil metal phytoextraction as an efficient and sustainable remediation strategy. PMID:25595759

  11. The effects of copper, manganese and zinc on plant growth and elemental accumulation in the manganese-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijun; Wu, Liangqi; Chai, Tuanyao; Zhang, Yuxiu; Tan, Jinjuan; Ma, Shengwen

    2012-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to estimate major, minor and trace elements in Cu-, Zn- and Mn-treated Phytolacca americana. The effects of the addition of Cu, Zn and Mn on morphological parameters, such as root length, shoot height, and fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, were also examined. In addition, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidases (GPX) and catalase (CAT) and the expression of Fe-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, metallothionein-2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) exposed to the highest amounts of Cu, Zn or Mn were detected. Our results confirmed the following: (1) Zn supplementation leads to chlorosis, disturbed elemental homeostasis and decreased concentrations of micro- and macroelements such as Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca and K. Cu competed with Fe, Mn and Zn uptake in plants supplemented with 25 μM Cu. However, no antagonistic interactions took place between Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe uptake in plants supplemented with 100 μM Cu. Mn supplementation at various concentrations had no negative effects on elemental deficits. Mn was co-located with high concentrations of Fe and Zn in mature leaves and the concentrations of macro elements were unchanged. (2) P. americana supplemented with increased concentrations of Zn and Cu exhibited lower biomass production and reduced plant growth. (3) When plants were supplemented with the highest Zn and Cu concentrations, symptoms of toxicity corresponded to decreased SOD or CAT activities and increased APX and GPX activities. However, Mn tolerance corresponded to increased SOD and CAT activities and decreased POD and APX activities. Our study revealed that heavy metals partially exert toxicity by disturbing the nutrient balance and modifying enzyme activities that induce damage in plants. However, P. americana has evolved hyper accumulating mechanisms to maintain elemental balance and redox homeostasis under excess Mn.

  12. Effect of fertilizers on Cd uptake of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a high biomass, fast growing and easily cultivated potential Cd hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning Yu; Fu, Qing Lin; Zhuang, Ping; Guo, Bing; Zou, Bi; Li, Zhi An

    2012-02-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of three amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cvs. K112, R104, and K472) and the effect of application of N, NP, and NPK fertilizer on Cd uptake of the three cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg kg(-1) Cd. All three amaranth cultivars had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, which ranged from 95.1 to 179.1 mg kg(-1) in leaves, 58.9 to 95.4 mg kg(-1) in stems, and 62.4 to 107.2 mg kg(-1) in roots, resulting in average bioaccumulation factors ranging from 17.7 to 29.7. Application of N, NP, or NPK fertilizers usually increased Cd content in leaves but decreased Cd content in stem and root. Fertilizers of N or NP combined did not substantially increase dry biomass of the 3 cultivars, leading to a limited increment of Cd accumulation. NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 2.7-3.8, resulting in a large increment of Cd accumulation. Amaranth cultivars (K112, R104, and K472) have great potential in phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation and little effect on Cd uptake by fertilization.

  13. Arsenic-resistant proteobacterium from the phyllosphere of arsenic-hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.) reduces arsenate to arsenite.

    PubMed

    Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Raman, Suresh Babu; Kertulis, Gina; Ma, Lena

    2006-07-01

    An arsenic-resistant bacterium, AsRB1, was isolated from the fronds of Pteris vittata grown in a site contaminated with copper chromium arsenate. The bacterium exhibited resistance to arsenate, arsenite, and antimony in the culture medium. AsRB1, like Pseudomonas putida, grew on MacConkey and xylose-lactose-desoxycholate agars and utilized citrate but, unlike P. putida, was positive for indole test and negative for oxidase test. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that AsRB1 is a proteobacterium of the beta subclass, related to Pseudomonas saccharophila and Variovorax paradoxus. Following an exogenous supply of arsenate, most arsenic occurred as arsenite in the medium and the cell extracts, suggesting reduction and extrusion of arsenic as the mechanism for arsenic resistance in AsRB1.

  14. Inactivation of the LOX-1 pathway promotes the Golgi apparatus during cell differentiation of mural granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, J M; Vernunft, A; Krüger, B; Plinski, C; Viergutz, T

    2014-12-01

    In female mammals, granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle differentiate into the corpus luteum after ovulation of the pregnable oocyte into the fallopian tube. During these differentiation processes several morphological alterations have to occur and the molecular basis is not fully understood. As an endpoint estradiol production from granulosa cells has to switch off in favor for progesterone production from the proceeding corpus luteum to sustain the developing embryo. Previously, we demonstrated that the multiligand receptor LOX-1 plays a critical role in steroid hormone synthesis of granulosa cells via intracellular calcium release from endoplasmic (ER)-dependent and ER-independent calcium pools. In the present study, we show that inhibition of LOX-1 leads to a rearrangement of ceramide from the basal membrane toward the Golgi apparatus. This activity is accomplished by a calcium-dependent phosphorylation of aromatase, the key step in estradiol production. Phosphorylated aromatase increased estradiol production in a dose-dependent manner. Our data indicate that the ceramide cascade is essential for proper granulosa cell function and ceramide redistribution serves as a first step in order to proceed with the prosperous differentiation into a corpus luteum.

  15. Non-destructive and micro-invasive testing techniques for characterizing materials, structures and restoration problems in mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, Mariagrazia; Sfarra, Stefano; Chiarini, Marco; Daniele, Valeria; Taglieri, Giuliana; Cerichelli, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, chemical and structural studies of medieval wall paintings in Ocre (L'Aquila, Italy) are presented. During the latest restoration campaign, non-destructive (Near-Infrared Reflectography and Infrared Thermography) and micro-invasive (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, μ-Raman, Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-ray Microanalysis, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence, Optical Microscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Thermogravimetry) analyses were performed in order to determine the detachments of wall surfaces and the characterization of original and restoration materials. Data integration allowed to reconstruct the conservative history, the execution techniques and the conservation problems of the artefact, as well as to assess the effectiveness of restoration activities adopted. The combined use of physical and micro-chemical techniques proved to be effective for an in-depth study of materials stratification of paintings.

  16. Differential regulation of blood flow‐induced neovascularization and mural cell recruitment by vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Oliver A.; Carter, James G.; Lin, P. Charles; Paleolog, Ewa; Machado, Maria J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Combining nitric oxide (NO)‐mediated increased blood flow with angiopoietin‐1–Tie2 receptor signalling induces arteriolargenesis – the formation of arterioles from capillaries – in a model of physiological angiogenesis.This NO–Tie‐mediated arteriolargenesis requires endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling.Inhibition of VEGF signalling increases pericyte coverage in microvessels.Together these findings indicate that generation of functional neovasculature requires close titration of NO–Tie2 signalling and localized VEGF induction, suggesting that the use of exogenous VEGF expression as a therapeutic for neovascularization may not be successful. Abstract Signalling through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and the tyrosine kinase with IgG and EGF domains‐2 (Tie2) receptor by angiopoietins is required in combination with blood flow for the formation of a functional vascular network. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF and angiopoietin‐1 (Ang1) contribute differentially to neovascularization induced by nitric oxide (NO)‐mediated vasodilatation, by comparing the phenotype of new microvessels in the mesentery during induction of vascular remodelling by over‐expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the fat pad of the adult rat mesentery during inhibition of angiopoietin signalling with soluble Tie2 (sTie2) and VEGF signalling with soluble Fms‐like tyrosine kinase receptor‐1 (sFlt1). We found that NO‐mediated angiogenesis was blocked by inhibition of VEGF with sFlt1 (from 881 ± 98% increase in functional vessel area to 279 ± 72%) and by inhibition of angiopoietin with sTie2 (to 337 ± 67%). Exogenous angiopoietin‐1 was required to induce arteriolargenesis (8.6 ± 1.3% of vessels with recruitment of vascular smooth muscle cells; VSMCs) in the presence of enhanced flow. sTie2 and sFlt1 both inhibited VSMC recruitment (both 0%), and VEGF inhibition increased pericyte recruitment to newly formed vessels (from 27 ± 2 to 54 ± 3% pericyte ensheathment). We demonstrate that a fine balance of VEGF and angiopoietin signalling is required for the formation of a functional vascular network. Endogenous VEGF signalling prevents excess neovessel pericyte coverage, and is required for VSMC recruitment during increased nitric oxide‐mediated vasodilatation and angiopoietin signalling (NO–Tie‐mediated arteriogenesis). Therapeutic vascular remodelling paradigms may therefore require treatments that modulate blood flow to utilize endogenous VEGF, in combination with exogenous Ang1, for effective neovascularization. PMID:27868196

  17. University Adult Education in Independent Zambia: The Role of a Department of Extra-Mural Studies in National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Clement Abiazem

    1971-01-01

    Like other African countries, Zambia's most pragmatic approach to national development must lie in adult education. The University of Zambia is one agency involved toward this goal and its emphasis is on rapid expansion of university-type education and the training of adult educators. (Author/JB)

  18. Abnormal accumulation of trace metals by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, R.D.; Brooks, R.R.; Baker, A.J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The article describes the hyperaccumulation of metals by plants. Ranges for low, normal, high, and hyperaccumulating uptake are established. A partial list of hyperaccumulator species and their localities is included. Studies are reviewed and summarized for zinc, cadmium and lead, nickel, cobalt and copper, selenium, and cadmium and manganese hyperaccumulation.

  19. Narrating Neighborhood: Denying Young Women's Public Voices about Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Corrine C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a youth-centered activist project with a group of young women in Brooklyn, NY, and the controversy surrounding it. In 1999 the young women created a neighborhood mural with anti-violence themes. Within 6 months of the mural's dedication, the mural was whitewashed by the corporate owner of the mural wall. Using content and…

  20. Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, J; Samek, O; Reale, L; Liska, M; Malina, R; Ritucci, A; Poma, A; Tucci, A; Flora, F; Lai, A; Mancini, L; Tromba, G; Zanini, F; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Cinque, G

    2007-02-01

    This article reports on the utilization of X-ray microradiography and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) techniques for investigation of the metal accumulation in different part of leaf samples. The potential of the LIBS-analysis for finding the proper plant species for phytoremediation is compared with the results of microradiography measurements at the HERCULES source at ENEA, Rome (Italy) and X-ray microradiography experiments at the ELETTRA Synchrotron, Trieste (Italy).

  1. Phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.: effects of frond harvesting regimes and arsenic levels in refill water.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Seenivasan; Stamps, Robert H; Ma, Lena Q; Saha, Uttam K; Hernandez, Damaris; Cai, Yong; Zillioux, Edward J

    2011-01-30

    A large-scale hydroponic system to phytoremediate arsenic-contaminated groundwater using Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) was successfully tested in a field. In this 30-wk study, three frond-harvesting regimes (all, mature, and senescing fronds) and two water-refilling schemes to compensate for evapotranspiration (high-As water of 140-180 μg/L and low-As water of <7 μg/L) were investigated. Two experiments (Cycle 1 and Cycle 2) were conducted using the same plants in 24 tanks with each containing 600 L of arsenic-contaminated groundwater and 32 ferns. During Cycle 1 and with initial As of 140 μg/L, As in tanks refilled with low-As water was reduced to <10 μg/L in 8 wks compared to <10 μg/L in 17 wks in tanks refilled with high-As water. During Cycle 2 and with initial As of 180 μg/L, the remediation time was reduced by 2-5 wks, indicating that more established ferns were more efficient. In areas where clean water is limiting, refilling high-As water coupled with harvesting senescing fronds is recommended for more effective As phytoremediation.

  2. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kochian, L.

    1997-05-01

    Potential for phytoremediation of an aged radiocesium-contaminated soil from Brookhaven National Laboratory was investigated in three phases: (1) hydroponic screening for plant species capable of accumulating elevated levels of cesium in shoots, (2) amending contaminated soil to enhance {sup 137}Cs bioavailability, and (3) phytoextracting radiocesium with plant roots and its removal in harvested shoots. The bioaccumulation ratio of Cs in shoots of hydroponically grown plants ranged between 38 and 165. From solution, dicot species accumulated 2- to 4-fold more cesium in shoots than grasses. The effect of several chemical compounds on {sup 137}Cs desorption from the contaminated soil was investigated. Ammonium salts were the most effective at desorbing Cs from contaminated soil, but only 25% of radiocesium could be desorbed. Although release of radiocesium from the soil was concentration-dependent, this effect appeared to level off above 0.2 M ammonium in solution. In a pot study, from the soil contaminated with 400 pCi g{sup -1} soil, the greatest amount of {sup 137}Cs, 140 pCi, was removed in shoots of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). {sup 137}Cs accumulation in shoots was significantly increased by the addition of 40 NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} kg{sup -1} soil. Increasing NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} application from 40 to 80 mmoles kg{sup -1} soil did not further increase radiocesium phytoextraction. The ability to accumulate radiocesium from soil in shoots was significantly different among species tested. This ability increased in order: reed Canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) < Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) < tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) < cabbage.

  3. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation ...

  4. Lead accumulation reduces photosynthesis in the lead hyper-accumulator Salvinia minima Baker by affecting the cell membrane and inducing stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Sáenz-Carbonell, Luis; Talavera-May, Carlos; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2016-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker accumulates a fair amount of lead in its tissues; however, no studies have investigated the effect of lead on the physiological processes that affect photosynthesis in this species. The objective of the present study was to assess whether the high amounts of lead accumulated by S. minima can affect its photosynthetic apparatus. The physiological changes in the roots and leaves in response to lead accumulation were analyzed. An exposure to 40 μM Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h (first stage) was sufficient to reduce the photosynthetic rate (Pn) by 44%. This reduction in Pn was apparently the result of processes at various levels, including damage to the cell membranes (mainly in roots). Interestingly, although the plants were transferred to fresh medium without lead for an additional 24 h (second stage), Pn not only remained low, but was reduced even further, which was apparently related to stomatal closure, and may have led to reduced CO2 availability. Therefore, it can be concluded that lead exposure first decreases the photosynthetic rate by damaging the root membrane and then induces stomatal closure, resulting in decreased CO2 availability.

  5. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1995--June 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kochian, L.

    1995-12-01

    The biological accumulation of heavy metals and cesium, strontium, and uranium in plants is discussed. The role of nutrient deficiencies and foliar treatments of manganese and iron compounds is described.

  6. Zn-bis-glutathionate is the best co-substrate of the monomeric phytochelatin synthase from the photosynthetic heavy metal-hyperaccumulator Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    García-García, Jorge D; Girard, Lourdes; Hernández, Georgina; Saavedra, Emma; Pardo, Juan P; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Encalada, Rusely; Reyes-Prieto, Adrián; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    The phytochelatin synthase from photosynthetic Euglena gracilis (EgPCS) was analyzed at the transcriptional, kinetic, functional, and phylogenetic levels. Recombinant EgPCS was a monomeric enzyme able to synthesize, in the presence of Zn(2+) or Cd(2+), phytochelatin2-phytochelatin4 (PC2-PC4) using GSH or S-methyl-GS (S-methyl-glutathione), but not γ-glutamylcysteine or PC2 as a substrate. Kinetic analysis of EgPCS firmly established a two-substrate reaction mechanism for PC2 synthesis with Km values of 14-22 mM for GSH and 1.6-2.5 μM for metal-bis-glutathionate (Me-GS2). EgPCS showed the highest Vmax and catalytic efficiency with Zn-(GS)2, and was inactivated by peroxides. The EgPCS N-terminal domain showed high similarity to that of other PCSases, in which the typical catalytic core (Cys-70, His-179 and Asp-197) was identified. In contrast, the C-terminal domain showed no similarity to other PCSases. An EgPCS mutant comprising only the N-terminal 235 amino acid residues was inactive, suggesting that the C-terminal domain is essential for activity/stability. EgPCS transcription in Euglena cells was not modified by Cd(2+), whereas its heterologous expression in ycf-1 yeast cells provided resistance to Cd(2+) stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the N-terminal domain showed that EgPCS is distant from plants and other photosynthetic organisms, suggesting that it evolved independently. Although EgPCS showed typical features of PCSases (constitutive expression; conserved N-terminal domain; kinetic mechanism), it also exhibited distinct characteristics such as preference for Zn-(GS)2 over Cd-(GS)2 as a co-substrate, a monomeric structure, and ability to solely synthesize short-chain PCs, which may be involved in conferring enhanced heavy-metal resistance.

  7. Quantitative determination of un-derivatised amino acids in artistic mural paintings using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Roberta; Piazza, Rossano; Cairns, Warren R L; Izzo, Francesca C; Vianello, Alvise; Zendri, Elisabetta; Gambaro, Andrea

    2010-08-18

    The tempera painting technique is one of the most common methods used throughout art history. Tempera is defined by the type of binders used and in this work we study protein-based temperas. Proteinaceous binders can be characterized by the chromatographic determination of the amino acids present where techniques are either based on gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry. The objective of this work was to develop a derivatisation-free HPLC method with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) of 21 amino acids contained in the protein-based binders of tempera paints. The analytical method identifies the painting techniques of two contemporary artists: Sironi and DeLuigi. The sample data are compared to painting material standards. The results show that the samples from works by DeLuigi contain mainly animal glue binders, while the samples from Sironi paintings contain binders that are an amino acid mixture with an overall composition between that of eggs and casein.

  8. Blue natural organic dyestuffs--from textile dyeing to mural painting. Separation and characterization of coloring matters present in elderberry, logwood and indigo.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Katarzyna; Puchalska, Maria; Miszczak, Agata; Rosłoniec, Elzbieta; Jarosz, Maciej

    2006-05-01

    Natural dyestuffs used for painting or dyeing of textiles are complex mixtures of compounds of various chemical properties. Proper identification of the dye used by a painter and, even better, its origin is possible only when its compositional 'fingerprint' can be evaluated. For this reason gradient program for liquid chromatographic separation of 16 color compounds--components of natural blue dyes: elderberry, logwood and indigo--has been developed. Two detector systems were used simultaneously: UV-Vis spectrophotometry (at 280, 445, 520 and 600 nm) and ESI mass spectrometry (positive and negative SIM mode). It was found that fragmentation observed in ESI-MS is affected not only by ion source parameters, but also by chromatographic conditions, especially in case of the less stable substances: cyanidin glucosides, tannic acid, rutin and hematoxylin. Examination of characteristic dissociation pathways of the compounds under investigation after direct admission into ion source or after chromatographic separation allowed to select proper ions for SIM detection and to develop novel and efficient reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC)-UV-Vis/ESI-MS method for the analysis of natural blue dyes. The procedure was successfully applied for identification of indigotin and carminic acid-main colorants extracted from a fiber taken from the blue-red 'Italian' tapestry (the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw, Poland).

  9. Self-Fashioning through Glamour and Punk in East Los Angeles: Patssi Valdez in Asco's "Instant Mural" and "A La Mode"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Marci R.

    2011-01-01

    Patssi Valdez, one of the most influential yet understudied female artists of the Chicana/o movement, was the only original and long-term female member of the 1970s art collective Asco. Through the visual discourses of pachuca glamour and punk, Valdez negotiated and exploited the gendered ideologies that visually put her at the center of the…

  10. Phytoremediation of Soil Trace Elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoremediation includes several distinct approaches to using plants to achieve soil remediation goals. Phytoextraction uses rare hyperaccumulator plants to accumulate in their shoots enough metals per year to achieve decontamination goals. Phytomining uses hyperaccumulators and biomass burn to pro...

  11. Figurecasting Eighth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    A group of eighth-grade art students created a four-panel fiberglass mural made by figurecasting in plaster. Students aided in planning and executing the mural, including acting as models. The process and problems encountered are discussed. (IS)

  12. Mexican Muralists: Rivera, Siqueiros, and Orozco. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Kim

    Murals created by Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros embody a time of change in Mexico. The murals they created were intended to educate an illiterate population. Today these murals embody national pride. The goal of this curriculum project is rooted in learning about the history, culture, and art of Mexico. The project…

  13. Children and Youth in Mexico Toward the 21st Century. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Rose C.

    This paper consists of two art curriculum units: (1) mural painting; and (2) sculpture. In the mural painting unit, students analyze and critique works done by Diego Rivera and create a mural using the fresco technique. In the sculpture unit, students create a piece of sculpture that combines influences of past and/or present-day Mexican sculpture…

  14. VEGFA164_B mRNA abundance has a positive relationship to AMH, BCL2 and the ratio of E2:A4 in mural granulosa cells of estrogen active and inactive follicles prior to ovulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we reported differential expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) isoforms in somatic cells from bovine females of differing fertility. Thus, we sought to determine how expression of VEGFA pro and antiangiogenic isoforms were regulated after synchronization protocols t...

  15. Intimal sarcoma of the abdominal aorta with platelet-derived growth factor receptor α overexpression and amplification in mural invasive cells and pulmonary metastatic cells but not in intimal spreading cells.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Takanashi, Yusuke; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Neyatani, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Intimal sarcoma (IS) is the most common sarcoma of the aorta. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA), murine double minute 2 (MDM2), and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) genes are often simultaneously amplified in IS. While immunohistochemical analysis of IS tissue has demonstrated frequent overexpression of the MDM2 and CDK4 proteins, the expression pattern of PDGFRA has not been well characterized, particularly in terms of intratumoral heterogeneity. Here, we present the case of a 46-year-old man who presented with a backache and was subsequently diagnosed with IS. Intratumoral heterogeneity of PDGFRA gene amplification was observed using fluorescence in situ hybridization and was positively correlated with PDGFRA protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of PDGFRA was also correlated with cytological atypia: PDGFRA was not overexpressed in intimal spreading cells that displayed the lowest degree of atypia while PDGFRA overexpression and amplification were observed in invasive cells of progressive areas such as the aortic wall and a pulmonary metastatic site, which showed increased cytological atypia. Although PDGFRA has not been well examined on IHC, IHC of PDGFRA could be useful to diagnose IS. However, the areas within the tumor from which specimens are derived are important given potential intratumoral heterogeneity.

  16. Renewable Bio-Solar Hydrogen Production: The Second Generation (Part C)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-28

    enzymes in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, (b) increasing the levels of algal cellular starch , (c) understanding the mechanism of [FeFe... starch hyperaccumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which can be used to make a variety of glucose based products. The Nannochloropsis genus of...Another significant advance was the generation of starch hyperaccumulating mutants. By overexpressing the isoamlyase gene in Chlamydomonas, central

  17. Habitat management of organic vineyard in Northern Italy: the role of cover plants management on arthropod functional biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burgio, G; Marchesini, E; Reggiani, N; Montepaone, G; Schiatti, P; Sommaggio, D

    2016-12-01

    The effect of cover plants on arthropod functional biodiversity was investigated in a vineyard in Northern Italy, through a 3-year field experiment. The following six ground cover plants were tested: Sweet Alyssum; Phacelia; Buckwheat; Faba Bean; Vetch and Oat; control. Arthropods were sampled using different techniques, including collection of leaves, vacuum sampling and sweeping net. Ground cover plant management significantly affected arthropod fauna, including beneficial groups providing ecosystem services like biological control against pests. Many beneficial groups were attracted by ground cover treatments in comparison with control, showing an aggregative numerical response in the plots managed with some of the selected plant species. Alyssum, Buckwheat and 'Vetch and Oat' mixture showed attractiveness on some Hymenoptera parasitoid families, which represented 72.3% of the insects collected by sweeping net and 45.7 by vacuum sampling. Phytoseiidae mites showed a significant increase on leaves of the vineyard plots managed with ground covers, in comparison with control, although they did not show any difference among the treatments. In general, the tested ground cover treatments did not increase dangerous Homoptera populations in comparison with control, with the exception of Alyssum. The potential of ground cover plant management in Italian vineyards is discussed: the overall lack of potential negative effects of the plants tested, combined with an aggregative numerical response for many beneficials, seems to show a potential for their use in Northern Italy vineyards.

  18. 37. Tap room with bar, looking from east to west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Tap room with bar, looking from east to west showing part of the mural (on north wall) depicting nautical and whaling themes. (mural and bar were removed 1998 - 99 respectively.) - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  19. The Human Story at the Intersection of Ethics, Aesthetics and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca, Judith F.

    2005-01-01

    Murals tell specific stories, but, because they are created from many specific stories, they also tell a common story, a story of the things that connect people to each other. In this way, muralism is an antidote for the hatred and disconnectedness in society. Moral education is participatory. It is a creative, critical and analytical process.…

  20. Windows to Art Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  1. Mexico: A Transition to Democracy. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnett, Joyce

    This interdisciplinary unit is designed for secondary level history students but can be adapted for other levels. The focus of the unit is on Diego Rivera's mural "Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in the Alameda." Students use the mural to examine three major phases of Mexican history and to provide a basis of research of Mexican history and…

  2. Learning Outside the Box: How Mayan Pedagogy Informs a Community/University Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staikidis, Kryssi

    2009-01-01

    In this article the author describes a project in which professors and preservice art educators from Northern Illinois University (NIU) collaborated with teens and members of the DeKalb Latino local community center to create a mural celebrating a traditional Aztec narrative. The mural project involved professors, university students, teenagers…

  3. 11. GENERAL VIEW IN SENATE CHAMBER, FROM WEST; PAINTED GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW IN SENATE CHAMBER, FROM WEST; PAINTED GLASS WINDOW BEHIND COLUMNS DEPICTS 'THE LANDING OF DE SOTO;' MURAL TO LEFT SHOWS 'THOMAS HART BENTON'S SPEECH AT ST. LOUIS 1849;' MURAL TO RIGHT SHOWS 'PRESIDENT JEFFERSON GREETING LEWIS AND CLARK' - Missouri State Capitol, High Street between Broadway & Jefferson Streets, Jefferson City, Cole County, MO

  4. La Memoria De Nuestra Tierra: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca, Judy

    2005-01-01

    La Memoria de Nuestra Tierra combines a meticulously hand-painted landscape with historic photographs in a seamless blend imprinted on the holographic-like surface of a metallic coated substrate. The mural for the Denver International Airport, entitled La Memoria de Nuestra Tierra is a breakthrough in digital murals, printed digitally on a…

  5. Becoming Educultural: Collaborative Projects in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    Manurewa Intermediate students were given an experience only the arts can provide as they collaboratively researched, responded to and celebrated a school mural project. The mural project was initiated by Shane Hansen through the Principal Iain Taylor and coordinated by Dianne Macdonald, a Professional Learning Leader at Manurewa Intermediate…

  6. Architectural Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornek, Richard R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan developed around the work of architectural muralist Richard Haas. Discusses the significance of mural painting and gives key concepts for the lesson. Lists class activities for the elementary and secondary grades. Provides a photograph of the Haas mural on the Fountainbleau Hilton Hotel, 1986. (GG)

  7. Current Measurements from Moorings off Northern California: September 1984-July 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    participated in this cruise and has immortalized it in a large mural depicting the recovery of a deep-sea meter mooring. The mural is located in the Memorial...Arnaldo Dias (Instituto Antarctico Argentino), Jorge Castiglioni (Instituto Antarctico Argentino), and Henk Pander (who recorded it with glowing

  8. The Commander’s Emergency Response Program: A Versatile Strategic Weapon System Requiring an Azimuth Adjustment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-04

    tigers at the Zawra Park Zoo in Baghdad, and to commission the painting of a $900,000 mural depicting the progression of Iraq from fishing villages...multimillion dollar hotel complexes, to commission the drawing of elaborate murals, and to cool bears at the zoo erode congress’ trust. This erosion, if

  9. In the Shadow of the Peace Walls: Art, Education, and Social Reconstruction in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom; Conlon, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Northern Ireland's well-known civil strife between Catholics and Protestants had enjoyed an uneasy peace, but a recent outbreak of new violence in 2010 caused disappointment to these authors. Bernard Conlon and Tom Anderson collaborated on creating a new children's peace mural with the Kids' Guernica Peace Mural Project in West Belfast. This Kids'…

  10. Amino Acid Features of P1B-ATPase Heavy Metal Transporters Enabling Small Numbers of Organisms to Cope with Heavy Metal Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, E.; Alemzadeh, A.; Ebrahimi, M.; Ebrahimie, E.; Dadkhodaei, N.; Ebrahimi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoremediation refers to the use of plants for extraction and detoxification of pollutants, providing a new and powerful weapon against a polluted environment. In some plants, such as Thlaspi spp, heavy metal ATPases are involved in overall metal ion homeostasis and hyperaccumulation. P1B-ATPases pump a wide range of cations, especially heavy metals, across membranes against their electrochemical gradients. Determination of the protein characteristics of P1B-ATPases in hyperaccumulator plants provides a new opportuntity for engineering of phytoremediating plants. In this study, using diverse weighting and modeling approaches, 2644 protein characteristics of primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of P1B-ATPases in hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator plants were extracted and compared to identify differences between proteins in hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator pumps. Although the protein characteristics were variable in their weighting, tree and rule induction models; glycine count, frequency of glutamine-valine, and valine-phenylalanine count were the most important attributes highlighted by 10, five, and four models, respectively. In addition, a precise model was built to discriminate P1B-ATPases in different organisms based on their structural protein features. Moreover, reliable models for prediction of the hyperaccumulating activity of unknown P1B-ATPase pumps were developed. Uncovering important structural features of hyperaccumulator pumps in this study has provided the knowledge required for future modification and engineering of these pumps by techniques such as site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:21573033

  11. Heavy metal contamination from mining sites in South Morocco: 2. Assessment of metal accumulation and toxicity in plants.

    PubMed

    Boularbah, Ali; Schwartz, Christophe; Bitton, Gabriel; Aboudrar, Wafae; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Morel, Jean Louis

    2006-05-01

    Metalliferous soils cover a relatively large surface area in Morocco, and up to now no hyperaccumulating plants have been identified on these mining or these industrial sites. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of metal accumulation by plants found in three mining areas in southern Morocco with the ultimate goal of finding metal hyperaccumulating species by using the MetPAD biotest. The biotest helps to obtain information on the selective metal toxicity of aqueous extracts from the plants. A strong metal toxicity, as revealed by the biotest is an indication of a hyperaccumulating plant. Toxicity tests were run concurrently with chemicals analyses of metals in plants and their water extracts. The chemical analyses allow the determination of the hyperaccumulated metal(s). Specimens of the plant species mainly growing on and in the vicinity of the three mines were sampled with their corresponding soils. The results show that all plants analyzed had lower heavy metal content and toxicity despite the relatively very high soil concentrations. A comparison of our results with the criterion used to classify the hyperaccumulator plants indicates that plants we collected from mining sites were hypertolerant but not hyperaccumulators. This was confirmed by transfer factors generally lower than 1. Nevertheless, these tolerant plants species can be used as tools for revegetation for erosion control in metals-contaminated sites (phytostabilization).

  12. 18. SECOND FLOOR, CITY COMMISSION CHAMBERS, DETAIL OF ARCH WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SECOND FLOOR, CITY COMMISSION CHAMBERS, DETAIL OF ARCH WITH MURAL ON LEFT OF BENCH, SHOWING SEAMEN,SCIENTIST,SPORTSMEN AND STATE SEAL - City Hall, Atlantic & Tennessee Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  13. 152. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 28, 1940. PENDENTIVE MURAL - CHOIR LOFT - ST. MARK WITH LION. (NORTHEAST ELEVATION) - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  14. INTERIOR DETAIL OF, CEILINGS OF EAST BEDROOM, NORTH WING, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL OF, CEILINGS OF EAST BEDROOM, NORTH WING, SHOWING PART OF MOUNTAIN LION MURAL; CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST - Harry Carey Ranch, Ranch House, 28515 San Francisquito Canyon Road, Saugus, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Pericytes as targets in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Thalgott, Jérémy; Dos-Santos-Luis, Damien; Lebrin, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Defective paracrine Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling between endothelial cells and the neighboring mural cells have been thought to lead to the development of vascular lesions that are characteristic of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT). This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of TGF-β signaling in mural cell recruitment and vessel stabilization and how perturbed TGF-β signaling might contribute to defective endothelial-mural cell interaction affecting vessel functionalities. Our recent findings have provided exciting insights into the role of thalidomide, a drug that reduces both the frequency and the duration of epistaxis in individuals with HHT by targeting mural cells. These advances provide opportunities for the development of new therapies for vascular malformations. PMID:25763012

  16. 19. SECOND FLOOR, CITY COMMISSION CHAMBERS, DETAIL OF ARCH WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. SECOND FLOOR, CITY COMMISSION CHAMBERS, DETAIL OF ARCH WITH MURAL ON RIGHT OF BENCH, SHOWING PIONEERS AND ATLANTIC CITY SEAL - City Hall, Atlantic & Tennessee Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  17. 37. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR LOBBY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ELEVATOR LOBBY 4, EAST WALL, AMERICAN BISON MURAL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 117. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. March 29, 1940. 'OUR LADY OF THE ROSARY'. EAST TRANSEPT MURAL. (NORTH ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  19. The Next Giant Step

    NASA Video Gallery

    Artist Robert McCall painted "The Next Giant Step" in 1979 to commemorate the heroism and courage of spaceflight pioneers. Located in the lobby of Johnson's building 2, the mural depicts America's ...

  20. 118. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 29, 1940. EAST TRANSEPT MURAL, 'CHILDHOOD OF VIRGIN MARY'. (NORTH ELEVATION) - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  1. 48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, SOUTH WALL, DEER STALKING MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Interior view, law library (note one of aluminum lamps designed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, law library (note one of aluminum lamps designed by Jennwein is in the foreground; the murals were painted by Maurice Sterne) - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... part 162 of this chapter. (b) Any pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural which is....C. 2093(b): (1) First be offered for return to the country of origin, and shall be returned if...

  4. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... part 162 of this chapter. (b) Any pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural which is....C. 2093(b): (1) First be offered for return to the country of origin, and shall be returned if...

  5. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... part 162 of this chapter. (b) Any pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural which is....C. 2093(b): (1) First be offered for return to the country of origin, and shall be returned if...

  6. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... part 162 of this chapter. (b) Any pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural which is....C. 2093(b): (1) First be offered for return to the country of origin, and shall be returned if...

  7. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... part 162 of this chapter. (b) Any pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural which is....C. 2093(b): (1) First be offered for return to the country of origin, and shall be returned if...

  8. 183. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    183. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 2, 1940. PENDENTIVE MURAL - SACRISTY - 'ST. ISADORE OF SPAIN'. (NORTHEAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  9. 158. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Historic American Buildings Survey, Donald W. Dickensheets, Photographer. April 2, 1940. MURAL EAST SIDE NAVE. 'DESCENT OF THE HOLY GHOST'. (WEST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  10. 82. STARBOARD CATAPULT CENTERLINE LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. STARBOARD CATAPULT - CENTERLINE LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING ENGINE CYLINDER, CABLE EQUALIZER AND STARBOARD CAT MURAL. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. The More the Merrier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Several teachers contribute their tested ideas for projects that involve a large group of students. Included are: an archaelogical dig; a school mural; a visit from a children's author; and a whale-watching field trip. (SJL)

  12. [An unusual primary vascular tumor: intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery].

    PubMed

    Brochériou, I; Quillard, A; Gatecel, C; Wassef, M

    2000-01-01

    Primary sarcomas of great vessels are rare and involve the aorta, pulmonary artery and inferior vena cava. The pathologic classification of these tumors can be made on the location of the sarcoma in relation to the vessel wall, luminal or mural. Luminal sarcomas are usually intimal sarcoma and mural sarcoma are most frequently leiomyosarcoma. The myofibroblastic or endothelial differentiation of these tumors is still debated. We report a case of intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery.

  13. [Diego Rivera: a great master and a didactic and discerning medical historian].

    PubMed

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2014-11-01

    Diego Rivera is one of the artistic giants of the 20th century. His many original creations included landscapes, portraits and large murals created in both Mexico and the United States. Rivera ventured into many styles-cubism, naturalism and narrative realism-with great success. Rivera's murals build on those of the Renaissance, pre-historic and colonial civilizations of Mexico. Biological and medical topics and their history form an important concern in Rivera's work, present in many of his murals in a highly informative and creative manner. His two History of Cardiology murals present an original and comprehensive account of the developments of this medical specialty from pre-historic to modern times. His History of Medicine in Mexico (The people demands health) mural is a creatively and vigorously fashioned and highly dynamic and synthetic vision of the relationships between pre-historic and modern medicine in Mexico and its social foundations. Medical topics such as vaccines and vaccination, embryology and surgery are inventively and accurately presented in the large mural, Detroit Industry. The trigger and impetus for the concern of Rivera for these topics of life and death, and the exceedingly ground-breaking way he presents them, appear to stem from his rational materialism, his concern for collective wellbeing, his belief in progress through scientific developments and political action and his commitment to understand Mexican and American history.

  14. Copper and cobalt accumulation in plants: a critical assessment of the current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bastien; van der Ent, Antony; Baker, Alan John Martin; Echevarria, Guillaume; Mahy, Grégory; Malaisse, François; Meerts, Pierre; Pourret, Olivier; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Faucon, Michel-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This review synthesizes contemporary understanding of copper-cobalt (Cu-Co) tolerance and accumulation in plants. Accumulation of foliar Cu and Co to > 300 μg g(-1) is exceptionally rare globally, and known principally from the Copperbelt of Central Africa. Cobalt accumulation is also observed in a limited number of nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator plants occurring on ultramafic soils around the world. None of the putative Cu or Co hyperaccumulator plants appears to comply with the fundamental principle of hyperaccumulation, as foliar Cu-Co accumulation is strongly dose-dependent. Abnormally high plant tissue Cu concentrations occur only when plants are exposed to high soil Cu with a low root to shoot translocation factor. Most Cu-tolerant plants are Excluders sensu Baker and therefore setting nominal threshold values for Cu hyperaccumulation is not informative. Abnormal accumulation of Co occurs under similar circumstances in the Copperbelt of Central Africa as well as sporadically in Ni hyperaccumulator plants on ultramafic soils; however, Co-tolerant plants behave physiologically as Indicators sensu Baker. Practical application of Cu-Co accumulator plants in phytomining is limited due to their dose-dependent accumulation characteristics, although for Co field trials may be warranted on highly Co-contaminated mineral wastes because of its relatively high metal value.

  15. Classification and identification of metal-accumulating plant species by cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenhao; Li, He; Zhang, Taoxiang; Sen, Lin; Ni, Wuzhong

    2014-09-01

    Identification and classification of metal-accumulating plant species is essential for phytoextraction. Cluster analysis is used for classifying individuals based on measured characteristics. In this study, classification of plant species for metal accumulation was conducted using cluster analysis based on a practical survey. Forty plant samples belonging to 21 species were collected from an ancient silver-mining site. Five groups such as hyperaccumulator, potential hyperaccumulator, accumulator, potential accumulator, and normal accumulating plant were graded. For Cd accumulation, the ancient silver-mining ecotype of Sedum alfredii was treated as a Cd hyperaccumulator, and the others were normal Cd-accumulating plants. For Zn accumulation, S. alfredii was considered as a potential Zn hyperaccumulator, Conyza canadensis and Artemisia lavandulaefolia were Zn accumulators, and the others were normal Zn-accumulating plants. For Pb accumulation, S. alfredii and Elatostema lineolatum were potential Pb hyperaccumulators, Rubus hunanensis, Ajuga decumbens, and Erigeron annuus were Pb accumulators, C. canadensis and A. lavandulaefolia were potential Pb accumulators, and the others were normal Pb-accumulating plants. Plant species with the potential for phytoextraction were identified such as S. alfredii for Cd and Zn, C. canadensis and A. lavandulaefolia for Zn and Pb, and E. lineolatum, R. hunanensis, A. decumbens, and E. annuus for Pb. Cluster analysis is effective in the classification of plant species for metal accumulation and identification of potential species for phytoextraction.

  16. Regulation of gemma formation in the copper moss Scopelophila cataractae by environmental copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Toshihisa; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2011-09-01

    Considerable attention has recently been focused on the use of hyperaccumulator plants for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. The moss, Scopelophila cataractae (Mitt.) Broth., is a typical hyperaccumulator that is usually observed only in copper-rich environments and which accumulates high concentrations of copper in its tissues. However, many of the physiological processes and mechanisms for metal hyperaccumulation in S. cataractae remain unknown. To address this issue, we examined the mechanisms regulating gemma formation, which is considered the main strategy by which S. cataractae relocates to new copper-rich areas. From this study we found that treatment of S. cataractae with high concentrations of copper suppressed gemma formation but promoted protonemal growth. The suppressive effect was not observed by treatment with heavy metals other than copper. These results suggest the importance of copper-sensitive asexual reproduction in the unique life strategy of the copper moss, S. cataractae.

  17. The potential for heavy metal decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.J.M.; McGrath, S.P.; Sidoli, C.M.D.; Reeves, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Preliminary trials to assess the ability of plant species to extract metals are presented. A range of zinc and nickel hyperaccumulator plants from the Brassicaceae family, collected from diverse populations in Europe, were grown on plots along with nonaccumulating crop plants from the same family. Extraction efficiencies and the number of croppings required to reduce the total zinc in the soil to a concentration of 300 mg/kg are tabulated. Zinc accumulation remained high over a wide range of soil metal concentration. However, the concentration of nickel in the hyperaccumulators increased in accordance with increasing total nickel concentrations in the soil. Calculations suggest that there is an excellent potential for using hyperaccumulator species to remove metals from the rhizosphere where remediation can be considered over a period of years and multiple cropping is a viable option.

  18. Pint-sized plants pack a punch in fight against heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.

    1996-05-01

    USDA researchers are experimenting with plants that naturally scavenge heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc from the soil. Known as hyperaccumulators, the plants can store up to 2.5% of their dry weight in heavy metals in leaves without yield reductions. They can be grown, harvested, and dried. The dried material is then burned, and the metal ore can be recovered. As well as discussing the history of hyperaccumulators, this article focuses on the plant pennycress and work on improving its metal uptake.

  19. Histidine promotes the loading of nickel and zinc, but not of cadmium, into the xylem in Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Seregin, Ilya V; Verweij, Rudo; Schat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    Histidine is known to be involved in Ni hyperaccumulation. Recently, histidine-dependent xylem loading of Ni and Zn has been demonstrated in the Zn/Ni/Cd hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens. Here we tested the hypothesis whether Cd xylem loading is histidine-dependent, too. In contrast to that of Ni and Zn, the xylem loading of Cd was not affected by exogenous histidine. Histidine accumulation in root cells appears to facilitate the radial transport of Ni and Zn, but not Cd, across the roots. This may be due to the relatively high preference of Cd for coordination with sulfur over coordination with nitrogen, in comparison with Ni and Zn.

  20. Archaeomagnetic studies in Mesoamerica using non-conventional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler-Arechalde, A.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2004-12-01

    For the first time results of an archaeomagnetic study of mural paintings and unburned lime-plasters from Mesoamerica are presented. The magnetic measurements show that at least four murals (sites: Cacaxtla, Cholula and Templo Mayor) retain a remanent magnetization carried by a mixture of hematite and magnetite grains. In most specimens, a characteristic magnetization is successfully isolated by alternating field demagnetization. The mean directions are reasonably well determined for each murals and within the range of secular variation during the last centuries. Studied Mesoamerican murals apparently retain the direction of the magnetic field at the time they were painted and are therefore an invaluable source of information concerning its secular variation. Lime-plaster samples were selected from two archaeological excavation projects in the Teopancazco residential compound of Teotihuacan and the large multi-stage structure of Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan, where chronological information is available. The intensity of remanent magnetization and low-field susceptibility are weak reflecting low relative content of magnetic minerals. NRM directions are well grouped and alternating field demagnetization shows single or two-component magnetizations. Rock-magnetic experiments point to fine-grained titanomagnetites with pseudo-single domain behavior. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements document a depositional fabric, with normal to free-surface minimum AMS axes. Characteristic mean site directions were correlated to the paleosecular variation curve for Mesoamerica. Our results suggest that archaeomagnetic dating can be applied to mural paintings and lime-plasters, which are materials widely employed in Mesoamerica.

  1. Root-Secreted Nicotianamine from Arabidopsis halleri Facilitates Zinc Hypertolerance by Regulating Zinc Bioavailability1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tsednee, Munkhtsetseg; Yang, Shun-Chung; Lee, Der-Chuen; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators tolerate and accumulate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals. Content of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA) in the root of zinc hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri is elevated compared with nonhyperaccumulators, a trait that is considered to be one of the markers of a hyperaccumulator. Using metabolite-profiling analysis of root secretions, we found that excess zinc treatment induced secretion of NA in A. halleri roots compared with the nonhyperaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana. Metal speciation analysis further revealed that the secreted NA forms a stable complex with Zn(II). Supplying NA to a nonhyperaccumulator species markedly increased plant zinc tolerance by decreasing zinc uptake. Therefore, NA secretion from A. halleri roots facilitates zinc hypertolerance through forming a Zn(II)-NA complex outside the roots to achieve a coordinated zinc uptake rate into roots. Secretion of NA was also found to be responsible for the maintenance of iron homeostasis under excess zinc. Together our results reveal root-secretion mechanisms associated with hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation. PMID:25118254

  2. The fascinating facets of plant selenium accumulation - biochemistry, physiology, evolution and ecology.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Michela; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2017-03-01

    Contents 1582 I. 1582 II. 1583 III. 1588 IV. 1590 V. 1592 1592 References 1592 SUMMARY: The importance of selenium (Se) for medicine, industry and the environment is increasingly apparent. Se is essential for many species, including humans, but toxic at elevated concentrations. Plant Se accumulation and volatilization may be applied in crop biofortification and phytoremediation. Topics covered here include beneficial and toxic effects of Se on plants, mechanisms of Se accumulation and tolerance in plants and algae, Se hyperaccumulation, and ecological and evolutionary aspects of these processes. Plant species differ in the concentration and forms of Se accumulated, Se partitioning at the whole-plant and tissue levels, and the capacity to distinguish Se from sulfur. Mechanisms of Se hyperaccumulation and its adaptive significance appear to involve constitutive up-regulation of sulfate/selenate uptake and assimilation, associated with elevated concentrations of defense-related hormones. Hyperaccumulation has evolved independently in at least three plant families, probably as an elemental defense mechanism and perhaps mediating elemental allelopathy. Elevated plant Se protects plants from generalist herbivores and pathogens, but also gives rise to the evolution of Se-resistant specialists. Plant Se accumulation affects ecological interactions with herbivores, pollinators, neighboring plants, and microbes. Hyperaccumulation tends to negatively affect Se-sensitive ecological partners while facilitating Se-resistant partners, potentially affecting species composition and Se cycling in seleniferous ecosystems.

  3. Cadmium accumulation characteristics of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lijin; Shi, Jun; Liu, Qihua; Liao, Ming'an; Mei, Luoyin

    2014-07-01

    In a preliminary study, we found that the cadmium (Cd) concentrations in shoots of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)), indicating that these two farmland weeds might be Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, we grew these species in soil containing various concentrations of Cd to further evaluate their Cd accumulation characteristics. The biomasses of C. hirsuta and G. affine decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in the soil, while the root/shoot ratio and the Cd concentrations in shoot tissues increased. The Cd concentrations in shoots of C. hirsuta and G. affine reached 121.96 and 143.91 mg kg(-1), respectively, at the soil Cd concentration of 50 mg kg(-1). Both of these concentrations exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)). The shoot bioconcentration factors of C. hirsuta and G. affine were greater than 1. The translocation factor of C. hirsuta was less than 1 and that of G. affine was greater than 1. These findings indicated that C. hirsuta is a Cd-accumulator and G. affine is Cd-hyperaccumulator. Both plants are distributed widely in the field, and they could be used to remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil in winter.

  4. What about the rare-earth elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is insufficient understanding of the nutritional physiology of pecan trees and orchards; thus, affecting nutmeat yield and quality, disease resistance and alternate bearing. An analysis of the rare-earth element composition of pecan and related hickory cousins found that they hyperaccumulate ...

  5. Histidine-mediated xylem loading of zinc is a species-wide character in Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Seregin, Ilya V; Erlikh, Nadezhda T; Shevyreva, Taisiya A; Andreev, Igor M; Verweij, Rudo; Schat, Henk

    2014-07-01

    Histidine plays a crucial role in nickel (Ni) translocation in Ni-hyperaccumulating plants. Here, we investigated its role in zinc (Zn) translocation in four accessions of the Zn hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, using the related non-hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi arvense, as a reference. We compared the effects of exogenous histidine supply on Zn xylem loading, and of Zn-histidine complex formation on Zn uptake in energized tonoplast vesicles. The Zn distribution patterns over root tissues were also compared. Exogenous histidine supply enhanced Zn xylem loading in all the N. caerulescens accessions, but decreased it in T. arvense. Zn distribution patterns over root tissues were similar, apart from the accumulation in cortical and endodermal cells, which was much lower in N. caerulescens than in T. arvense. Zn uptake in energized tonoplast vesicles was inhibited significantly in N. caerulescens, but not affected significantly in T. arvense, when Zn was supplied in combination with histidine in a 1:2 molar ratio. Histidine-mediated Zn xylem loading seems to be a species-wide character in N. caerulescens. It may well have evolved as a component trait of the hyperaccumulation machinery for Zn, rather than for Ni.

  6. Expression of an "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter CAX1 variant in petunia enhances cadmium tolerance and accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective and minimally invasive technology to cleanse soils contaminated with heavy metals. However, few plant species are suitable for phytoremediation of metals such as cadmium (Cd). Genetic engineering offers a powerful tool to generate plants that can hyperaccumulate ...

  7. The Engineered Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methylmercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Meagher; Sarah Marshburn; Andrew Heaton; Anne Marie Zimer; Raoufa Rahman

    2003-06-24

    Our current specific objectives are to use transgenic plants to control the chemical species, electrochemical state, and above ground binding of mercury to (a) prevent methylmercury from entering the food-chain, (b) remove mercury from polluted sites, and (c) hyperaccumulate mercury in above ground tissues for later harvest.

  8. Metal-accumulating plants: The biological resource and its commercial exploitation is soil clean-up technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a broad overview of metal hyperaccumulator plants and biological accumulation technology. Plants that have been identified as having the greatest potentials for development as phytoremediator crops for metal-contaminated soils are very briefly discussed. Phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, and phytostabilization are briefly defined. Issues pertinent to large scale phytoremediation of soils are discussed, including biological and technological constraints.

  9. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY ABSORPTION-EDGE COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF THALLIUM COMPARTMENTALIZATION IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thallium (TI) is an extremely toxic metal which, due to its similarities to K, is readily taken up by plants. Thallium is efficiently hyperaccumulated in Iberis intermedia as TI(I). Distribution and compartmentalization of TI in I. intermedia is highes...

  10. Current status and challenges in developing Ni phytomining: An agronomic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review examines the current status, progress and challenges in Ni phytomining agronomy undertaken since the first field trial two decades ago. To date, over 400 Ni hyperaccumulators have been documented (of which >30% are in Cuba) including approximately 50 species with potential for use in Ni ...

  11. Identification of a novel pathway involving a GATA transcription factor in yeast and possibly plant Zn uptake and homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain a better understanding of the regulation of Zn homeostasis in plants and the degree of conservation of Zn homeostasis between plants and yeast, a cDNA library from the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulating plant species, Nocceae caerulescens, was screened for its ability to restore growth under Zn limitin...

  12. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Regvar, Marjana

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14,590 mg kg(-1) Zn, 5960 mg kg(-1) Cd and 3500 mg kg(-1) Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox.

  13. Value of Computerized Tomography Enterography in Predicting Crohn’s Disease Activity: Correlation with Crohn’s Disease Activity Index and C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Kyung; Han, Na Yeon; Park, Beom Jin; Sung, Deuk Jae; Cho, Sung Beom; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Keum, Bora; Kim, Min Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background The accurate evaluation of Crohn’s disease activity is important for the treatment of the disease and for monitoring the response. Computerized tomography (CT) enterography is a useful imaging modality that reflects enteric inflammation, as well as extramural complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CT enterographic (CTE) findings of active Crohn’s disease and the Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients and Methods Fifty CT enterographies of 39 patients with Crohn’s disease in the small bowel were used in our study. The CDAI was assessed through clinical and laboratory variables. Multiple CT parameters, including mural hyperenhancement, mural thickness, mural stratification, comb sign, and mesenteric fat attenuation, were evaluated with a four-point scale. The presence or absence of enhanced lymph nodes, fibrofatty proliferation, sinus or fistula, abscess, and stricture were also assessed. Two gastrointestinal radiologists independently reviewed all CT images, and inter-observer agreement was examined. Correlations between CT findings, CRP, and CDAI were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation and logistic regression analysis. To assess the predictive accuracy of the model, a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for the sum of CT enterographic scores was used. Results Mural hyperenhancement, mural thickness, comb sign, mesenteric fat density, and fibrofatty proliferation were significantly correlated with CDAI and CRP (P < 0.05). The binary logistic regression model demonstrated that mesenteric fat density, mural stratification, and the presence of enhanced lymph nodes (P < 0.05) had an influence on CDAI severity. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the CTE index for predicting disease activity was 0.85. Using a cut-off value of 8, the sensitivity and negative predictive values were 95% and 94%, respectively

  14. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  15. A technique of aortic annulus enlargement with a Freestyle stentless bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Bical, Olivier M; Nutu, Ovidiu; Deleuze, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    We describe our surgical technique to manage a small aortic annulus during aortic valve replacement. Starting with the posterior annular enlargement incision described by Manouguian, a stentless porcine aortic root, with excision of the left and right porcine coronary segments and conservation of the mural wall (Freestyle MS design, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN ), was used. The Freestyle bioprosthesis enlarges the aortic annulus using a direct suture of the valve on the enlarged annulus, and the aorta is closed by a direct suture of the mural wall of the bioprosthesis. Therefore, the aortic annulus enlargement is made only using the aortic bioprosthesis, without other material.

  16. Photothermal Thermography Applied to the Non-destructive Testing of Different Types of Works of Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, J. L.; Mouhoubi, K.; Szatanik-Perrier, G.; Vallet, J. M.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    In this article, various cases in helping to restore works of art by stimulated infrared thermography are presented. First, the method allows detecting old restorations found on a mural painting in the French senate. Then, it is demonstrated how the photothermal method enables determination of the underlying structure of the mural painting "The Apotheosis of Saint Bruno" in the Charterhouse of Villeneuve-lez-Avignon. Finally, the method allows locating separate canvas paintings on "Avenant de l'aurore" in the "Luxembourg" French Senate building.

  17. Challenging the Future through Young Adult Literature, Fiction Writing and Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewbaker, James M.

    Columbus (Georgia) College's Challenge Squared program consists of three 2-week enrichment day camps for gifted students in grades 5 through 10. In past years, students have worked with an artist to create local history murals and have written and produced video plays in cooperation with a media specialist. Most recently, students were involved in…

  18. An Art of Resistance: From the Street to the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Rooted in graffiti culture and its attitude toward the world, street art is regarded as a postgraffiti movement. Street art encompasses a wide array of media and techniques, such as traditional spray-painted tags, stickers, stencils, posters, photocopies, murals, paper cutouts, mosaics, street installations, performances, and video projections…

  19. 44. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, EAST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: RELIGION MURAL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Characterization of bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice expressing mCherry fluorescent protein substituted for the murine smooth muscle-alpha-actin gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smooth muscle a actin (SMA) is a cytoskeletal protein expressed by mesenchymal and smooth muscle cell types, including mural cells(vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes). Using Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) recombineering technology, we generated transgenic reporter mice that express a ...

  1. Neighborhood Jams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    1995-01-01

    Examines the role of the neighborhood in books for children and young adults. Discusses community characteristics, historical fiction, "special and scary places," neighborhoods in conflict and harmony, and the neighborhood as a memory base. Presents activities including animated maps, games, murals, small group dramas, and storytelling.…

  2. An Artful Forest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Possick, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors' kindergarteners and a fellow first-grade class turned their hallway into a forest! Not just any mural, this culmination of a month-long project was based on observing, questioning, taking field trips, conducting library research (including the internet) and asking experts. The students developed skills in forming…

  3. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  4. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 2, March-April 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    in his famous mural Guernica. March–April 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 148 Views Today the Syrian case invokes memories of Italian airpower...Air Forces sent him to Japan; his new bride followed him when housing facilities be- came available. Like any sensitive autobiographer , Loving offers

  5. Interior view, hallway outside of the attorney general's office (note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, hallway outside of the attorney general's office (note murals by Henry Varnuum Poor illustrate themes associated with crime and the deliverance of justice) - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Beyond the Walls. 50 Years of Adult and Continuing Education at the University of Leeds, 1946-1996. Leeds Studies in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Richard, Ed.

    This book contains 21 papers detailing the history of adult and continuing education at the University of Leeds (England) since its inception in 1946 as the Department of Extra-Mural Studies. The themes addressed include the appropriate nature of university continuing education and the issue of standards and quality assurance; the roles of…

  7. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Describes 26 different activities, experiments, demonstrations, and computer simulations in various topics in science. Includes instructional activities dealing with mural ecology, surface area/volume ratios, energy transfer in ecosystems, electrochemical simulations, alternating and direct current, terminal velocity, measuring the size of the…

  8. Where Is the Action? Three Lenses to Analyze Social Justice Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Marit

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a marked increase in educational programs aimed to create art for social justice. From murals and plays to photographs and spoken word poetry, young people across the country are creating works of art that question, challenge, and aim to impact conditions of inequality and injustice. While these practices…

  9. Alaska Women in History Poster, 1988. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Mary; Piper, Debbie

    This study guide focuses on notable Alaskan women and is intended for use with Women in History Month. The works of poet Nancy McCleery are incorporated in the following lessons: (1) "Writing/Visual Arts Collaboration: Alaskan Animals Similes Mural"; and (2) "Writing/Visual Arts Collaboration: Poems and Drawing Collaboration."…

  10. Training Student Organizers Curriculum, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamm, Michael; And Others

    Between 1979 and June 1990, the Training Student Organizers (TSO) Program has motivated nearly 7,400 students and their teachers to organize over 260 environmental improvement projects serving their schools and neighborhoods in the New York City area. The projects run the gamut from clean up campaigns, murals, and letter writing efforts to energy…

  11. Friendship Fence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ann

    2007-01-01

    A friendship fence is a wonderful alternative to the standard mural. It provides a fantastic opportunity for children to help design a creative learning environment. In this article, the author describes an art project that involves creating a friendship fence. The author relates that she began introducing her students to Ndebele beadwork dolls…

  12. Computer Graphics: KidPix, the MacIntosh, and Students with Cognitive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cindy

    This teacher's guide provides an overview of KidPix software and contains adaptive applications of the software for Cognitively Disabled-Borderline (CDB) students. Ten lesson plans are given, including: (1) "USing Rubber Stamps/Rubber Stamp Editor"; (2) "Portrait"; (3) "Create a Pattern"; (4) "Garden Mural";…

  13. Evaluating Visitors' Reactions to Interpretation in Australian National Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluations of visitors' reactions to interpretation in Australian national parks found that guided activities provided more immediate responses to visitors' questions on Aboriginal culture than on-site signs; a well-designed interpretive mural mitigated people's disappointment at visiting wetlands when no birds were present; and ranger-guided…

  14. Handmade Tile Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Just like the classroom, children's outdoor environments should be filled with artistic creations that add sparkle and imagination to the space. One of the author's favorite ways to add art to the outdoors is by installing a mosaic mural of child-made tiles. The process of making the tiles is fun for all; each tile is a charming work of art in…

  15. Point-of-care ultrasound identification of pneumatosis intestinalis in pediatric abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    James, Vigil; Warier, Aswin; Lee, Khai Pin; Ong, Gene Yong-Kwang

    2017-12-01

    We describe a case report of an infant with intussusception who presented to a pediatric emergency department with diarrhea and increased irritability. Pneumatosis intestinalis (intra-mural air) detected on point-of-care ultrasonography (but not apparent on plain abdominal radiographs) alerted the emergency physicians towards the severity of disease process.

  16. The Old Computers' Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angier, Natalie

    1983-01-01

    The Computer Museum in Marlborough, Massachusetts houses old and not-so-old calculators, famous old computers and parts of computers, photographs and assorted memorabilia, computer-generated murals, and even a computer made of Tinkertoys that plays tick-tack-toe. The development of the museum and selected exhibits is described. (Author/JN)

  17. A 1939 Letter of Protest: Controversy over Public Art during the New Deal. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamel, Wynell; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Contends that during the Great Depression the federal government gave the visual arts unprecedented support. Presents a classroom lesson on a public controversy regarding a Works Progress Administration sponsored mural in an Idaho city. Includes teaching suggestions, recommended topics for student projects, and four primary sources. (CFR)

  18. Graffiti: The Use of the Familiar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Jessie L.

    2004-01-01

    This Instructional Resources continues our 2004 series on forms of "public art" that included Susan Goetz Zwirn's contribution on images of work in the 1930s (March 2004), Carol Argiro's exploration of public sculpture (July 2004), and Mary Jane Zander's work on WPA post office murals (September 2004). This Instructional Resources explores an art…

  19. Man, Controller of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olowin, R. P.

    2011-06-01

    The Man, Controller of the Universe painted by the renowned Mexican artist Diego Rivera in the gigantic mural of the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City is overlooked by a telescope. We acknowledge this instrument as the Plaskett Telescope at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, Canada.

  20. Panorama Jamma!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rollinda

    2009-01-01

    Interactive art activities can empower children and adults to experience art as active participants rather than passive spectators. Fayetteville State University's Art Education program in North Carolina has established Panorama Kids, mural projects designed by kids and painted by community volunteers. As art students can attest, art is very much…

  1. 25 CFR 309.22 - What are examples of painting and other fine art forms that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... but, not limited to, works on canvas, photography, sand painting, mural, computer generated art... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of painting and other fine art forms that are Indian products? 309.22 Section 309.22 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. Evolving the Concept of Homology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naples, Virginia L.; Miller, Jon S.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding homology is fundamental to learning about evolution. The present study shows an exercise that can be varied in complexity, for which students compile research illustrating the fate of homologous fish skull elements, and assemble a mural to serve as a learning aid. The skull of the most primitive living Actinopterygian (bony fish),…

  3. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  4. Re-Creating Pablo Picasso's "Guernica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daseler, Jack C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the teachers at the author's school completed a group project with their eighth-graders in which they recreated a mural version of the famous painting by Pablo Picasso, "Guernica." This activity was aimed at: (1) studying the rise of Fascism in Spain and Germany during the Spanish Civil War prior to World War II; (2) learning…

  5. The PIC [Process Individualization Curriculum] Model: Structure with Humanistic Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Doris T.

    This paper describes a curriculum design model to train research and development personnel under USOE-NIE funding. This design model, called PIC (Process Individualization Curriculum), was chosen for coverting on-campus courses to extra-mural self-instructional courses. The curriculum specialists who work with professors to individualize their…

  6. USSR Report Political and Sociological Affairs No. 1364

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    rites of the cult. On the other hand, it also serves educational purposes. The vestments, ikons and frescoes , depicting Christ’s suffering... frescoes and murals of Zakhariy Zograf are far from the religious canons. The Biblical figures and Orthodox saints which emerged from under his talented

  7. 42. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, WEST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: SCIENCE MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Getting Artsy with the Alphabet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Ruth Straus

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the combined artistry of third, fourth, and fifth graders as they illuminate a formerly dark corner of their school's entry plaza with a sparkling mosaic mural. The students worked in small groups to form the letters of the alphabet on 12" x 15" (30.5 x 38 cm) panels of cement board decorated with flat-backed…

  9. Half a Life Painting Walls: The Trajectory of Graffiti Artist Miguel "Kane One" Aguilar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Miguel Aguilar describes the process of mental preparation he performs before beginning a new graffiti mural. This may include reviewing recent sketches and his lists of color palettes. Aguilar mind maps ideas he wants to connect, thinking about intentions or the goal he wants to accomplish. Aguilar further states "this…

  10. Learning the World: Literacy Left Standing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    keith, john d.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the author's experiences during two years as a Peace Corps volunteer serving in South Africa. Describes his difficulties, doubts, and successes working to support literacy in poor rural village schools. Notes the impact of painting educational murals in one school and discusses how literacy emerged for the author and for villagers over…

  11. Building for the Future: The Development of Distance Education Programmes at Makerere University of Uganda. Consultant Report 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, John

    There is an urgent and widely recognized need for the introduction of postsecondary distance education programs in Uganda. The Senate of Makerere University has resolved that its Center for Continuing Education should prepare for the admission of students to extra-mural degree courses by October 1990. This is an extremely ambitious target since…

  12. Correspondence Education Through a National Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, R. F.

    The Department of Extra-Mural Studies of Makerere University College, Uganda, experimented with developing correspondence courses in several subjects which were published in the weekly newspaper "The People" during 1967. Three 30-week courses (Communication, Elements of Government, and Economics) were included in a special supplement to…

  13. Cultivating a Delicate Hybrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ronald

    1970-01-01

    The new Intermediate Certificate of Adult Studies recently introduced at Makerere University is another indication of the trend in East Africa away from traditional extra-mural work and toward meeting the demand for a 'ladder of achievement.' (Author/NL)

  14. Cultural Persistence, Political Resistance, and Hope in the Community and School-Based Art of a Puerto Rican Diaspora Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario-Ramos, Enid M.; Rosario, Maria L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe themes of cultural persistence, political resistance, and hope in the art of one Puerto Rican neighborhood in the Midwestern United States. The themes are described across three contexts: community mural art, poetry from students in an alternative high school, and poetry from seventh grade students in a neighborhood middle…

  15. Mammals in Our Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines how humans have treated mammals throughout history. Identifies both the problems facing animals and the corrective efforts that are currently underway. Student activities include stories, games, a scavenger hunt, a mural, a puzzle, and a survey focusing on mammals. (ML)

  16. Super Send-Offs for All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskvitz, Alan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Several activities to help teachers focus students' attention on learning at the end of the year include quiz games, mystery boxes, map games, videotapes, gift making, author birthday parties, yard sales, ice cream science, and summer safety activities. Younger students can create murals, play editing games, and enjoy special ceremonies. (SM)

  17. Building Social Networks with Computer Networks: A New Deal for Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer technology and Web sites in expanding social networks. Focuses on the New Deal Network using two examples: (1) uniting a Julia C. Lathrop Housing (Chicago, Illinois) resident with a university professor; and (2) saving the Hugo Gellert art murals at the Seward Park Coop Apartments (New York). (CMK)

  18. Behind Steel Doors: Images From the Walls of a County Jail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The compulsion and capacity for self-expression in penal institutions can be witnessed through the endless production of such creations as wall murals, graffiti, effigies, adornments, decorative envelopes, and tattoos. The intent of this paper is to examine the self-directed expressive endeavors of male residents at a county jail. The examples…

  19. Illuminate Your Life with Art-History Lampshades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an activity in which students created and designed lampshades using artists' styles. This was a unique experience because while all of the students have drawn or painted on flat canvas, none of them had done dimensional painting in this manner before. Essentially, they were planning and creating murals in 3-D. The author…

  20. Walking, Talking Art Gallery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Sheila

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a project that aimed at educating the public about art by bringing art to the people. Explains that students selected their favorite artwork and made a t-shirt displaying their artwork. States that the students went into their community and also created a mural. (CMK)

  1. Films of a Changing World: A Critical International Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Jean Marie

    The films reviewed in this book focus on the theme, the developing nation. These films compare cultures, praise" technical advancement" projects, record research, tell stories exemplifying cultural heritage, and paint murals depicting the cultural and technological development of these countries. Some of the films were produced by the developing…

  2. London's Tutorial Classes; An Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, F. G.

    1970-01-01

    Growth during the 1960s in the number and scope of tutorial classes by the London University Department of Extra-Mural Studies is attributed to considerable help from voluntary personnel, emphasis on written work, and other factors potentially signficant to extension education elsewhere in Britain. (LY)

  3. Art to Bring About Change: The Work of Tyree Guyton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffington, Melanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Public art takes many forms, including commemorative sculptures, site-specific works, and collaborative murals. Additionally, public art can beautify an urban environment or raise awareness of social issues. Public works of art are a form of discourse and open conversations and dialogue, helping communities work toward unity and empowerment. Using…

  4. Stem cell-derived vascular endothelial cells and their potential application in regenerative medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although a 'vascular stem cell' population has not been identified or generated, vascular endothelial and mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) can be derived from currently known pluripotent stem cell sources, including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. We rev...

  5. Treasures of Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Laurie; Pinkcombe, Josie; Ellyn, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe how they started a holiday mural project for students in different grades. They discuss how Gustav Klimt became the inspiration for this project. Klimt is an artist known for his "painted mosaics." The authors decided to use a theme that was decorative and enchanting, containing all of the jewel-like qualities that a holiday…

  6. Four Fresh Ideas for Teaching the 5 Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Leslie Mills, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Presents ideas developed by four teachers for teaching the geographic themes. Includes a plastic flamingo sent traveling with instructions for those taking it to return postcards to a first grade class, a wall mural of the United States, and a song representing geographic concepts. Describes how one school painted maps of the continents in a…

  7. Here & There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Bill; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Short pieces discuss employment opportunities for Hispanic college graduates at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, growth of Hispanic college fraternities and sororities, college scholarships for Hispanic women awarded by Mary Kay Cosmetics, participation by Hispanic college art students in renovation of a bank mural, and the sixth annual Tejano…

  8. Aesthetic Education and Masked Emotions: A Model for Emancipatory Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    According to Maxine Greene (1988), aesthetic education is "integral to the development of persons--to their cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and imaginative development" (p. 7). The purpose of this paper is to present the developing sense of self that pre-service teachers experienced through an aesthetic entry point, the 9/11 mural by…

  9. Rhetorical Witnessing: Recognizing Genocide in Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.; Wolf, Rudiger Escobar

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the rhetorical dimensions of witnessing. We concentrate, in particular, on two groups: 1) university students at the University of San Carlos, Quetzaltenango, whose murals are dramatic reminders of the massacres that resulted in the deaths of over 200,000 indigenous people in the 1980s and early 90s and of the corrupt…

  10. 34. View of the Women's lounge (Spanish room) looking northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of the Women's lounge (Spanish room) looking northwest. A Mural by Merlin Hardy depicts a "Spanish dance theme in a 19th century setting." (removed 1997) - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  11. Exploring the Everyday Context of Chemical Elements: Discovering the Elements of Car Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project about the chemical elements made by 15-year-old Spanish high school students of Chemistry. It focuses on context-based teaching combined with the advantages of creating a large mural which subsequently is exposed in the school. The project consisted of researching the chemical elements in the different materials that…

  12. Buildings That Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebenson, John

    1998-01-01

    Teachers can use "built teaching aids" or elements of the school building itself to expand teaching and enhance learning. Possibilities include bulletin boards, display cases, murals painted by local artists, permanent information panels, interior windows to classrooms, flags, and bas-reliefs on building exteriors. Playground pavement…

  13. 45. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GRAND STAIRCASE (STAIRS G), SIDE AISLE, EAST WALL, THE NEGRO'S CONTRIBUTION IN THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICA: EDUCATION MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. An Elementary Odyssey: Teaching Ancient Civilization through Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstone, David H.

    Adopting an interdisciplinary, story-centered approach, this book suggests new ways for elementary school students to study the ancient world. The book focuses on "The Odyssey," approaching the epic poem by having students create their own rough cartoons, vivid murals, and elaborate dioramas of Greek culture. The book suggests class…

  15. Happy Birthday with Handmade Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Making paper in the blender is always exciting for students. When coupled with using the paper to make a mural for a birthday celebration, the excitement swells. Eric Carle is a great inspiration to children with the books he has written and illustrated, such as "The Very Hungry Caterpillar" and "The Very Busy Spider." In this article, the author…

  16. Learning Activities for Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)

  17. Effect of Red Blood Cells on Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation in Tortuous Arterioles.

    PubMed

    Chesnutt, Jennifer K W; Han, Hai-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, which can lead to myocardial infarction and stroke. Thrombosis may form in tortuous microvessels, which are often seen throughout the human body, but the microscale mechanisms and processes are not well understood. In straight vessels, the presence of red blood cells (RBCs) is known to push platelets toward walls, which may affect platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. However in tortuous vessels, the effects of RBC interactions with platelets in thrombosis are largely unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to determine the physical effects of RBCs, platelet size, and vessel tortuosity on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. A discrete element computational model was used to simulate the transport, collision, adhesion, aggregation, and shear-induced platelet activation of hundreds of individual platelets and RBCs in thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. Results showed that high shear stress near the inner sides of curved arteriole walls activated platelets to initiate thrombosis. RBCs initially promoted platelet activation, but then collisions of RBCs with mural thrombi reduced the amount of mural thrombus and the size of emboli. In the absence of RBCs, mural thrombus mass was smaller in a highly tortuous arteriole compared to a less tortuous arteriole. In the presence of RBCs however, mural thrombus mass was larger in the highly tortuous arteriole compared to the less tortuous arteriole. As well, smaller platelet size yielded less mural thrombus mass and smaller emboli, either with or without RBCs. This study shed light on microscopic interactions of RBCs and platelets in tortuous microvessels, which have implications in various pathologies associated with thrombosis and bleeding.

  18. Phytoremediation of ionic and methylmercury pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B

    2010-04-28

    Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and sequester the toxic elemental pollutants, like the heavy metal mercury. Our current working hypothesis is that transgenic plants controlling the transport, chemical speciation, electrochemical state. volatilization, and aboveground binding of mercury will: a) tolerate mercury and grow rapidly in mercury contaminated environments; b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain; c) remove mercury from polluted soil and . water; and d) hyperaccumulate mercury in aboveground tissues for later harvest. Progress toward these specific aims is reported: to increase the transport of mercury into roots and to aboveground vegetative organs; to increase biochemical sinks and storage for mercury in leaves; to increase leaf cell vacuolar storage of mercury; and to demonstrate that several stacked transgenes, when functioning in concert, enhance mercury resistance and hyperaccumulation to high levels.

  19. The relationship of selenium tolerance and speciation in Lecythidaceae species.

    PubMed

    Németh, Anikó; García Reyes, Juan Francisco; Kosáry, Judit; Dernovics, Mihály

    2013-12-01

    Comparative study of selenium (Se) speciation in hyperaccumulator plants offers an interesting challenge from the analytical point of view. In our study the application of a sophisticated sample clean-up procedure and the combination of elemental and molecular mass spectrometric methods led to the identification of several new selenocompounds. The difference between the Se speciation of the primary accumulator Lecythis minor and the secondary accumulator Bertholletia excelsa confirmed the current opinion that the speciation pattern in hyperaccumulator plants is principally related to the mechanism of accumulation and not to taxonomy. The most abundant new selenocompounds were found to be the derivatives of selenohomocysteine (SeHCy) and selenomethionine (SeMet), including fatty acid metabolism related compounds. A series of SeHCy derived species containing multiple Se atoms (>2) was also detected and their structures were validated by the synthesis of their S-Se analogues.

  20. Impact of heavy metal toxicity and constructed wetland system as a tool in remediation.

    PubMed

    Usharani, B; Vasudevan, N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to throw light upon the global concern of heavy metal-contaminated sites and their remediation through an ecofriendly approach. Accumulated heavy metals in soil and water bodies gain entry through the food chain and pose serious threat to all forms of life. This has engendered interest in phytoremediation techniques where hyperaccumulators are used. Constructed wetland has a pivotal role and is a cost-effective technique in the remediation of heavy metals. Metal availability and mobility are influenced by the addition of chelating agents, which enhance the availability of metal uptake. This review helps in identifying the critical knowledge gaps and areas to enhance research in the future to develop strategies such as genetically engineered hyperaccumulators to attain an environment devoid of heavy metal contamination.