Science.gov

Sample records for hyperactivity disorder adhd

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  2. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Voeller, Kytja K S

    2004-10-01

    Approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are undergoing a major change as a result of information from studies on the genetics of ADHD and the use of new neuroimaging technologies. Moreover, pharmacogenomics, although still in its infancy, will provide a basis for much more sophisticated treatment strategies for ADHD, particularly once more information is available about the genetics of ADHD. Even at this point in time, there is some pertinent information available that, although not ready for application in clinical settings, nonetheless provides a broader perspective for the clinician. In terms of etiology, ADHD is a neuropsychiatric disorder. There is a genetic basis in about 80% of the cases, involving a number of different genes, and in about 20% of the cases, ADHD is the result of an acquired insult to the brain. Some individuals likely have both genetic and acquired forms. Although medication works well in many cases of ADHD, optimal treatment of ADHD requires integrated medical and behavioral treatment. The family plays a crucial role in the management of children with ADHD. Because there is often a very high degree of comorbidity between ADHD and learning disabilities, teachers also have a great deal to contribute in the day-to-day management of these children. Early recognition and treatment prevent the development of more serious psychopathology in adolescence and adulthood.

  3. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD symptoms may not be as clear as ADHD symptoms in children. In adults, hyperactivity may decrease, but struggles with ... similar to treatment for childhood ADHD, though some ADHD medications approved for children are not approved for adult use. Adult ADHD ...

  4. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF ... Overview Do you find it hard to pay attention? Do you feel the need to move constantly ...

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Søren

    2013-02-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make the criteria more appropriate for children, adolescents and adults. The age of onset will also be changed from 7 to 12 years, the subtyping of the disorder will change, and pervasive developmental disorders will no longer be an exclusion criterion. Although the main concept is unchanged, the suggested changes will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes and the impact they may have, and in addition, the paper will make an overview of the main characteristics of some of the international and national guidelines for assessment and treatment of ADHD and how these impact the clinical practice.

  6. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--molecular and genetic aspects].

    PubMed

    Migdalska, Anna; Nawara, Magdalena; Bal, Jerzy; Mazurczak, Tadeusz

    2006-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, affecting approximately 5-10% of children. ADHD is considered to be a multifactorial disorder because both genetic and environmental components may contribute to its progress. The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unknown, however family, twin and adoption studies have suggested that genetic factors are very important in its etiopathogenesis. The research of genetic basis of ADHD consists of linkage analysis, candidate gene approach and association studies. These analyses and also investigations on animal models of disease suggest that mutations in genes involved in dopaminergic, serotonergic and adrenergic systems are likely to be responsible for ADHD.

  7. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  8. Wildland firefighters and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Palmer; Steven Gaskill; Joe Domitrovich; Marcy McNamara; Brian Knutson; Alysha. Spear

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Research has indicated that the prevalence rate of ADHD in adult populations is approximately 4.4 percent and that the majority of those cases go untreated (Kessler et al. 2006). To date,...

  9. Personality profiles in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Golay, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Julien; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Ardu, Stefano; Herrmann, François R; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Baud, Patrick

    2016-06-14

    Previous studies suggested that the presence of ADHD in children and young adolescents may affect the development of personality. Whether or not the persistence of ADHD in adult life is associated with distinct personality patterns is still matter for debate. To address this issue, we compared the profiles of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) that assesses personality dimensions in 119 adults ADHD and 403 controls. ANCOVA were used to examine group differences (controls vs. ADHD and ADHD inattentive type vs. ADHD combined + hyperactive/impulsive types) in Temperaments and Characters. Partial correlation coefficients were used to assess correlation between TCI and expression and severity of symptoms of ADHD. High novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) scores as well as low self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) scores were associated with ADHD diagnosis. Low SD was the strongest personality trait associated with adult ADHD. Cases with the ADHD inattentive type showed higher HA and lower SD scores compared to the combined and hyperactive/impulsive types. High HA scores correlated with inattention symptoms whereas high NS and ST scores were related to hyperactive symptoms. Finally low SD and high NS were associated with increased ADHD severity. Distinct temperaments were associated with inattentive versus hyperactive/impulsive symptoms supporting the heterogeneous nature of the disorder.

  10. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  11. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  12. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs.

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Tessari, Luca

    2017-01-01

    While psychiatric comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been extensively explored, less attention has been paid to somatic conditions possibly associated with this disorder. However, mounting evidence in the last decade pointed to a possible significant association between ADHD and certain somatic conditions, including obesity. This papers provides an update of a previous systematic review on the relationship between obesity and ADHD (Cortese and Vincenzi, Curr Top Behav Neurosci 9:199-218, 2012), focusing on pertinent peer-reviewed empirical papers published since 2012. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge databases (search dates: from January 1st, 2012, to July 16th, 2016). We retained a total of 41 studies, providing information on the prevalence of obesity in individuals with ADHD, focusing on the rates of ADHD in individuals with obesity, or reporting data useful to gain insight into possible mechanisms underlying the putative association between ADHD and obesity. Overall, over the past 4 years, an increasing number of studies have assessed the prevalence of obesity in individuals with ADHD or the rates of ADHD in patients with obesity. Although findings are mixed across individual studies, meta-analytic evidence shows a significant association between ADHD and obesity, regardless of possible confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidities. An increasing number of studies have also addressed possible mechanisms underlying the link between ADHD and obesity, highlighting the role, among others, of abnormal eating patterns, sedentary lifestyle, and possible common genetic alterations. Importantly, recent longitudinal studies support a causal role of ADHD in contributing to weight gain. The next generation of studies in the field should explore if and to which extent the treatment of comorbid ADHD in individuals with obesity may lead to long-term weight loss, ultimately improving their

  14. [Genetic findings in Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Schimmelmann, Benno Graf; Friedel, Susann; Christiansen, Hanna; Dempfle, Astrid; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2006-11-01

    Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent psychiatric disorder with a prevalence rate of 3-7%. Formal genetic studies provided an estimated heritability of 0.6-0.8 and an approximately five-fold elevated risk for ADHD in first-degree relatives. Currently, four genome scans have led to the identification of chromosomal regions potentially relevant in ADHD; especially the evidence for linkage to chromosome 5p13 is convincing. Meta-analyses of a large number of candidate gene studies suggest association with gene variants of the dopaminergic receptors DRD4 and DRD5, the serotonergic receptor HTR1B, and the synaptosomal receptor protein (SNAP-25). Hyperactivity has been investigated particularly in animal models, focusing on knockout- and quantitative trait loci (QTL) designs, with promising results for the dopaminergic system. It is likely that several gene polymorphisms with moderate to small effect sizes contribute to the phenotype ADHD; different combinations of such predisposing variants presumably underlie ADHD in different individuals. Therefore, large samples for molecular genetic studies are mandatory to detect these polymorphisms. Accordingly, several of today's findings have to be regarded as preliminary. The understanding of ADHD's neurobiology may be advanced by new technologies, such as SNP-based genome scans performed with gene chips comprising 10,000-1,000,000 SNPs, as well as using more sophisticated animal model designs.

  15. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). NetNews. Volume 7, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder that is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Between 3% and 7% of school-aged children are affected by ADHD. ADHD is a lifespan condition that affects children, adolescents and adults of all ages. It…

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a practical scale for pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Oktem, F; Semerci, Z B

    1998-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disturbance causing school failure and social problems. Early diagnosis and intervention allow ADHD children to adjust and succeed at school and in daily life. To identify these patients, we designed a practical questionnaire for parents. When tested on children with ADHD (n = 100), children with psychiatric problems (n = 35), and on age- and sex-mached control children (n = 100), this scale was found to be highly useful in distinguishing these three groups from each other, especially after the identification and elimination of items with lower specificity. The use of the Hacettepe ADHD scale is recommended for pediatricians, general practitioners and teachers to allow earlier diagnosis of this condition.

  17. [Graphomotor functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Stasik, Dorota; Tucha, Oliver; Tucha, Lara; Walitza, Susanne; Lange, Klaus W

    2009-01-01

    The present article is a review of studies concerning graphomotor functions (handwriting) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the stimulant-induced (methylphenidate) alterations of both qualitative and quantitative aspects of handwriting. This review indicates an interaction between attentional functions and handwriting in ADHD children treated with methylphenidate. The comparison of writing movements of children on and off methylphenidate revealed that medication resulted in improved handwriting. However, kinematic analysis showed a deterioration in handwriting fluency on methylphenidate. A number of studies have demonstrated that children with ADHD display deficits regarding attentional functions. Treatment with methylphenidate has been shown to induce improvements of various attentional functions. Children with ADHD may use their increased attentional capacities to focus on skills (e.g. handwriting) that are independent of conscious control or may even be disturbed by attention.

  18. Handwriting performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Racine, Marie Brossard; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. Consequences are multifaceted and include activity limitations in daily-living skills, academic challenges, diminished socialization skills, and motor difficulties. Poor handwriting performance is an example of an affected life skill that has been anecdotally observed by educators and clinicians for this population and can negatively impact academic performance and self-esteem. To guide health and educational service delivery needs, the authors reviewed the evidence in the literature on handwriting difficulties in children with ADHD. Existing evidence would suggest that children with ADHD have impaired handwriting performance, characterized by illegible written material and/or inappropriate speed of execution compared to children without ADHD. Studies with larger sample sizes using standardized measures of handwriting performance are needed to evaluate the prevalence of the problem and to better understand the nature of handwriting difficulties and their impact in this population.

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  20. The Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Arabic Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hariri, Ruaa Osama

    2016-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficiency/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) often have co-existing learning disabilities and developmental weaknesses or delays in some areas including speech (Rief, 2005). Seeing that phonological disorders include articulation errors and other forms of speech disorders, studies pertaining to children with ADHD symptoms who…

  1. Integrated pharmacologic treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Horst, Robert O; Hendren, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    This article is a review of what is currently known about optimal treatments for patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins with a description of assessment techniques and the differential diagnosis, which includes learning disorders, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. The high rate of comorbidity in patients with ADHD and the impact of comorbidity on treatment decisions are also discussed. Detailed descriptions of various pharmacologic treatments are provided, including a description of the role of combination pharmacotherapy and the integration of nonpharmacologic therapy. A decision-making model for selecting the most appropriate pharmacologic therapy versus combining pharmacotherapy with psychosocial interventions is described. The advantages and disadvantages of various pharmacologic agents--including long-acting stimulants and atomoxetine--are examined. Particular attention is paid to the recent Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, which includes a comparison of long-term pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, or a combination thereof, as well as an evaluation of the role of community-based therapy (i.e., treatment as usual). This article focuses on children and adolescents, because most of the research on ADHD has been conducted in this age group. However, a brief section on adults is also provided.

  2. Review of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Like Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Brieana M.; Findling, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that…

  3. Review of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Like Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Brieana M.; Findling, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that…

  4. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  5. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  6. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  7. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  8. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  9. Pediatric Integrative Medicine Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Esparham, Anna; Evans, Randall G; Wagner, Leigh E; Drisko, Jeanne A

    2014-08-27

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches. Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. Pediatric integrative medicine practitioners are increasing in number throughout the United States because of improvement in patient health outcomes. However, limited funding and poor research design interfere with generalizable treatment approaches utilizing integrative medicine. The use of research designs originally intended for drugs and procedures are not suitable for many integrative medicine approaches. This article serves to highlight integrative medicine approaches in use today for children with ADHD, including dietary therapies, nutritional supplements, environmental hygiene, and neurofeedback.

  10. Pediatric Integrative Medicine Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Esparham, Anna; Evans, Randall G.; Wagner, Leigh E.; Drisko, Jeanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches. Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. Pediatric integrative medicine practitioners are increasing in number throughout the United States because of improvement in patient health outcomes. However, limited funding and poor research design interfere with generalizable treatment approaches utilizing integrative medicine. The use of research designs originally intended for drugs and procedures are not suitable for many integrative medicine approaches. This article serves to highlight integrative medicine approaches in use today for children with ADHD, including dietary therapies, nutritional supplements, environmental hygiene, and neurofeedback. PMID:27417475

  11. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Adult Day Services Centers Home Health Care Hospice Care Nursing Home Care Residential Care Communities Screenings Mammography ... and emergency departments) with attention deficit disorder as primary diagnosis: 9.0 million (average annual, 2009-2010) ...

  12. Shared genetic influences between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in children and clinical ADHD.

    PubMed

    Stergiakouli, Evie; Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Davey Smith, George

    2015-04-01

    Twin studies and genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) are not in agreement regarding heritability estimates for behavioral traits in children from the general population. This has sparked a debate on the possible difference in genetic architecture between behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we test whether polygenic risk scores associated with variation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) trait levels in children from the general population predict ADHD diagnostic status and severity in an independent clinical sample. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < .5 from a genome-wide association study of ADHD traits in 4,546 children (mean age, 7 years 7 months) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; general population sample) were selected to calculate polygenic risk scores in 508 children with an ADHD diagnosis (independent clinical sample) and 5,081 control participants. Polygenic scores were tested for association with case-control status and severity of disorder in the clinical sample. Increased polygenic score for ADHD traits predicted ADHD case-control status (odds ratio = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08-1.28], p = .0003), higher ADHD symptom severity (β = 0.29 [95% CI = 0.04-0.54], p = 0.02), and symptom domain severity in the clinical sample. This study highlights the relevance of additive genetic variance in ADHD, and provides evidence that shared genetic factors contribute to both behavioral traits in the general population and psychiatric disorders at least in the case of ADHD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge and Misperceptions about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among School Teachers in Mumbai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shroff, Hemal P.; Hardikar-Sawant, Samindara; Prabhudesai, Anuradha D.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in the diagnosis and management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There are no published studies on Indian teachers' knowledge of ADHD. In the present study, the aim was to assess knowledge and misperceptions about ADHD among schoolteachers in Mumbai. A total of 106 teachers from 12 English-medium…

  14. Use and Management of Medications for Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.; Barkley, Russell A.; DuPaul, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides information and guidelines for the effective use of medication in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Basic principles of psychopharmacology, different types of medications that have been used successfully to treat ADHD, and best practices for assessing the effects of medication in children with ADHD are…

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Alternative Treatment Plans for School Age Children Diagnosed with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell, Claudia L.

    This literature review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for children diagnosed with ADHD. It describes the complexity of ADHD, its symptoms, treatments, and implications on a child's social and academic development as well as strategies for assisting such children. Individual sections…

  16. Use and Management of Medications for Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.; Barkley, Russell A.; DuPaul, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides information and guidelines for the effective use of medication in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Basic principles of psychopharmacology, different types of medications that have been used successfully to treat ADHD, and best practices for assessing the effects of medication in children with ADHD are…

  17. Psychiatric comorbidity in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Sobanski, Esther

    2006-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, lifelong disorder with childhood-onset, which seriously impairs the affected adults in a variety of daily living functions like educational and occupational functioning, partnership and parenting. ADHD is associated with a high percentage of comorbid psychiatric disorders in every lifespan. In adulthood between 65-89% of all patients with ADHD suffer from one or more additional psychiatric disorders, above all mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and personality disorders, which complicates the clinical picture in terms of diagnostics, treatment and outcome issues. The present overview provides information of comorbid psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD, underlying associations and clinical implications.

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  20. 'ADHD Does Bad Stuff to You': Young People's and Parents' Experiences and Perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travell, Chris; Visser, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study of young people's and parents' experiences and perspectives of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from five positions: the 'symptoms' of ADHD and their consequences, the process of diagnosis and treatment, interventions, a personal diagnosis, and participation and voice. It questions the…

  1. A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolova, Elena; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Rommelse, Nanda N.; Groot, Perry; Hartman, Catharina A.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Claassen, Tom; Heskes, Tom; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562 affected and unaffected siblings, and 414 controls,…

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among illicit psychostimulant users: a hidden disorder?

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sharlene; Darke, Shane; Torok, Michelle

    2013-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence, nature and correlates of symptomatology consistent with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among illicit psychostimulant users. Cross-section survey. Sydney, Australia. 269 regular illicit psychostimulant users. Structured interview assessing demographics, drug use and treatment history, psychostimulant dependence and self-reported symptoms consistent with adult ADHD. Almost half (45%) screened positive for adult ADHD (ADHD+). Symptoms of inattention (90%) were more prevalent than symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (57%). Of those who screened positive for adult ADHD, only 17% had received a prior diagnosis of ADHD. The ADHD+ group differed from other participants in several respects: an earlier initiation of substance use and injecting drug use; more extensive polydrug use; a higher frequency of recent stimulant use and injecting drug use; a greater likelihood of stimulant dependence; and a greater likelihood of having received treatment for drug dependence. After controlling for other factors, screening positive for ADHD was associated independently with fewer years of education, earlier initiation of regular tobacco use and more extensive life-time polydrug use. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for patients of drug and alcohol treatment services to have undiagnosed and/or untreated ADHD that may impact on their compliance with, and retention in, treatment. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Hormone disorder and vitamin deficiency in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).

    PubMed

    Bala, Keziban Aslı; Doğan, Murat; Kaba, Sultan; Mutluer, Tuba; Aslan, Oktay; Doğan, Sekibe Zehra

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze thyroid hormones and antibodies, ferritin, vitamins B12 and D, adrenal and gonadal steroid levels, and celiac antibodies in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Between February 2014 and July 2014, a total of 77 children and adolescents (31 girls, 46 boys) who were admitted to the Van Training and Research Hospital were included in the study. The study population was divided into three groups including ADHD (n=34), ASD (n=16), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=27). The diagnosis of ADHD was made on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and DSM-4 Turkish version with the diagnostic interview and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale (DBDRS). The diagnosis of ASD was based on the DSM-4 and DSM-5 Turkish version with the diagnostic interview and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The blood samples were obtained between 8:00 and 9:00 A.M. There was a statistically significant difference in vitamin B12 and D levels and ferritin values among the three groups. The ASD group had the highest ferritin and the lowest vitamins B12 and D levels. Vitamin D levels of the ADHD group were significantly lower compared to the healthy controls. Our study results highlight the importance of supplementation of vitamins B12 and D in the ASD and ADHD patients.

  4. Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2009-01-01

    Hyperactivity is currently considered a core and ubiquitous feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory (WM) and activity level. The current study investigated whether children's activity level is functionally…

  5. Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2009-01-01

    Hyperactivity is currently considered a core and ubiquitous feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory (WM) and activity level. The current study investigated whether children's activity level is functionally…

  6. Review of pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-like symptoms in children and adolescents with developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Brieana M; Findling, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that contribute to difficulties in psychosocial functioning are frequently able to be addressed by pharmacotherapy. This article reviews what is known about the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from developmental disorders and comorbid ADHD/ADHD-like symptoms.

  7. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) that 5% of children have ADHD 1 . ... and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition: DSM-5. Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Top of ...

  8. Scales for the Identification of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Abigail; Deb, Shoumitro; Unwin, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in the adult population. The associated co-morbidities and impairments can be relieved with treatment. Therefore, several rating scales have been developed to identify adults with ADHD who may benefit from treatment. No systematic review has yet sought to evaluate these scales in more…

  9. Understanding Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Applying Research to Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soffer, Stephen L.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Power, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    To date, the majority of research on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been completed with boys as the predominate participants in study samples. Over the past decade there has been increased attention focused on the characteristics and needs of girls with ADHD. Although much of the research comparing boys and girls with ADHD…

  10. Perceived Effectiveness of Classroom Management Interventions with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforti, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers are concerned about their ability to work effectively with students who have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to determine the perceived efficacy of common interventions used to address negative ADHD behaviors in the elementary and middle school classrooms. The…

  11. Time Perception: Modality and Duration Effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Time perception performance was systematically investigated in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, the effects of manipulating modality (auditory and visual) and length of duration (200 and 1000 ms) were examined. Forty-six adolescents with ADHD and 44 controls were administered four duration…

  12. Scales for the Identification of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Abigail; Deb, Shoumitro; Unwin, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in the adult population. The associated co-morbidities and impairments can be relieved with treatment. Therefore, several rating scales have been developed to identify adults with ADHD who may benefit from treatment. No systematic review has yet sought to evaluate these scales in more…

  13. Perceived Effectiveness of Classroom Management Interventions with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforti, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers are concerned about their ability to work effectively with students who have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to determine the perceived efficacy of common interventions used to address negative ADHD behaviors in the elementary and middle school classrooms. The…

  14. Electrophysiological Indices of Abnormal Error-Processing in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Cahill, John D.; Bates, Alan T.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Calton, Timothy G.; Liddle, Peter F.; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been frequently observed in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and might underlie the excessive hyperactivity and impulsivity in this population. We investigated behavioural and electrophysiological indices relevant to one domain of cognitive control; namely…

  15. Electrophysiological Indices of Abnormal Error-Processing in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Cahill, John D.; Bates, Alan T.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Calton, Timothy G.; Liddle, Peter F.; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been frequently observed in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and might underlie the excessive hyperactivity and impulsivity in this population. We investigated behavioural and electrophysiological indices relevant to one domain of cognitive control; namely…

  16. INCLEN diagnostic tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (INDT-ADHD): development and validation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sharmila; Aneja, Satinder; Russell, Paul S S; Gulati, Sheffali; Deshmukh, Vaishali; Sagar, Rajesh; Silberberg, Donald; Bhutani, Vinod K; Pinto, Jennifer M; Durkin, Maureen; Pandey, Ravindra M; Nair, M K C; Arora, Narendra K

    2014-06-01

    To develop and validate INCLEN Diagnostic Tool for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (INDT-ADHD). Diagnostic test evaluation by cross sectional design. Tertiary care pediatric centers. 156 children aged 65-117 months. After randomization, INDT-ADHD and Connors 3 Parent Rating Scale (C3PS) were administered, followed by an expert evaluation by DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Psychometric evaluation of diagnostic accuracy, validity (construct, criterion and convergent) and internal consistency. INDT-ADHD had 18 items that quantified symptoms and impairment. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was identified in 57, 87 and 116 children by expert evaluation, INDT-ADHD and C3PS, respectively. Psychometric parameters of INDT-ADHD for differentiating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and normal children were: sensitivity 87.7%, specificity 97.2%, positive predictive value 98.0% and negative predictive value 83.3%, whereas for differentiating from other neuro-developmental disorders were 87.7%, 42.9%, 58.1% and 79.4%, respectively. Internal consistency was 0.91. INDT-ADHD has a 4-factor structure explaining 60.4% of the variance. Convergent validity with Conner's Parents Rating Scale was moderate (r =0.73, P= 0.001). INDT-ADHD is suitable for diagnosing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Indian children between the ages of 6 to 9 years.

  17. Bupropion for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

    PubMed

    Verbeeck, Wim; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Kramers, Cornelis

    2017-10-02

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobiological condition, characterised by behavioral and cognitive symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity and/or excessive activity. The syndrome is commonly accompanied by psychiatric comorbidities and is associated with educational and occupational underachievement.Although psychostimulant medications are the mainstay of treatment for ADHD, not all adults respond optimally to, or can tolerate, these medicines. Thus, alternative non-stimulant treatment approaches for ADHD have been explored. One of these alternatives is bupropion, an aminoketone antidepressant and non-competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Bupropion is registered for the treatment of depression and smoking cessation, but is also used off-label to treat ADHD. To assess the effects and safety of bupropion for the treatment of adults with ADHD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and seven other databases in February 2017. We also searched three trials registers and three online theses portals. In addition, we checked references of included studies and contacted study authors to identify potentially relevant studies that were missed by our search. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects (including adverse effects) of bupropion compared to placebo in adults with ADHD. Two review authors (WV, GB) independently screened records and extracted data using a data extraction sheet that we tested in a pilot study. We extracted all relevant data on study characteristics and results. We assessed risks of bias using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and assessed the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We used a fixed-effect model to pool the results across studies. We included six studies with a total of 438 participants. Five studies were conducted in the USA, and one in Iran. All studies evaluated a long

  18. Exploring the Validity of Proposed Transgenic Animal Models of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Custodio, Raly James; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2017-05-22

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, behavioral, and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Symptoms of this disorder are managed by treatment with methylphenidate, amphetamine, and/or atomoxetine. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but substantial evidence indicates that this disorder has a significant genetic component. Transgenic animals have become an essential tool in uncovering the genetic factors underlying ADHD. Although they cannot accurately reflect the human condition, they can provide insights into the disorder that cannot be obtained from human studies due to various limitations. An ideal animal model of ADHD must have face (similarity in symptoms), predictive (similarity in response to treatment or medications), and construct (similarity in etiology or underlying pathophysiological mechanism) validity. As the exact etiology of ADHD remains unclear, the construct validity of animal models of ADHD would always be limited. The proposed transgenic animal models of ADHD have substantially increased and diversified over the years. In this paper, we compiled and explored the validity of proposed transgenic animal models of ADHD. Each of the reviewed transgenic animal models has strengths and limitations. Some fulfill most of the validity criteria of an animal model of ADHD and have been extensively used, while there are others that require further validation. Nevertheless, these transgenic animal models of ADHD have provided and will continue to provide valuable insights into the genetic underpinnings of this complex disorder.

  19. Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, McKenzie L.; Guo, Wei; Samuels, Jack F.; Wang, Ying; Nestadt, Paul S.; Krasnow, Janice; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Geller, Daniel A.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Knowles, James A.; Grados, Marco A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; McLaughlin, Nicole C.; Nurmi, Erika L.; Askland, Kathleen D.; Cullen, Bernadette; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L.; Bienvenu, Joseph; Stewart, Evelyn; Goes, Fernando S.; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Qian, Ji; Nestadt, Gerald; Shugart, Yin Yao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify any potential genetic overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that since these disorders share a sub-phenotype, they may share common risk alleles. In this manuscript, we report the overlap found between these two disorders. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between ADHD and OCD, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for both disorders. In addition, a protein-protein analysis was completed in order to examine the interactions between proteins; p-values for the protein-protein interaction analysis was calculated using permutation. Conclusion: None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome wide significance and there was little evidence of genetic overlap between ADHD and OCD. PMID:28386217

  20. Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Ritter, McKenzie L; Guo, Wei; Samuels, Jack F; Wang, Ying; Nestadt, Paul S; Krasnow, Janice; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Geller, Daniel A; Murphy, Dennis L; Knowles, James A; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Nurmi, Erika L; Askland, Kathleen D; Cullen, Bernadette; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Bienvenu, Joseph; Stewart, Evelyn; Goes, Fernando S; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Mattheisen, Manuel; Qian, Ji; Nestadt, Gerald; Shugart, Yin Yao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify any potential genetic overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that since these disorders share a sub-phenotype, they may share common risk alleles. In this manuscript, we report the overlap found between these two disorders. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between ADHD and OCD, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for both disorders. In addition, a protein-protein analysis was completed in order to examine the interactions between proteins; p-values for the protein-protein interaction analysis was calculated using permutation. Conclusion: None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome wide significance and there was little evidence of genetic overlap between ADHD and OCD.

  1. Sleep habits, parasomnias and associated behaviors in school children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rodopman-Arman, Ayşe; Perdahli-Fiş, Neşe; Ekinci, Ozalp; Berkem, Meral

    2011-01-01

    Considerable clinical data support an association between sleep problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to investigate the sleep habits, associated parasomnias and behavioral symptoms in primary school children with ADHD. Forty primary school children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD and 40 age-sex-matched healthy community controls were recruited. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire providing information regarding sleep habits and nighttime and daytime symptoms was used. About 22% of children with ADHD (versus 2.9% of the controls) needed their parents to accompany them while going to sleep (p: 0.008). Transitional objects were needed by 8.1% of ADHD children in contrast to 2.9% of controls. Nightmares, overactivity during sleep, habitual snoring, and bed-wetting were significantly higher in the ADHD group. ADHD children needed significantly more time to go to sleep on school days (p < 0.02). Children undergoing evaluation for ADHD should be routinely screened for sleep disturbances.

  2. Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kalpana; Lad, Sagar; Kale, Mrudula; Patwardhan, Bhushan; Mahadik, Sahebrao P; Patni, Bindu; Chaudhary, Arti; Bhave, Sheila; Pandit, Anand

    2006-01-01

    Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Few intervention studies with LCPUFA supplementation have reported inconsistent and marginal results. This pilot study evaluates the effect of alpha linolenic acid (ALA)-rich nutritional supplementation in the form of flax oil and antioxidant emulsion on blood fatty acids composition and behavior in children with ADHD. Post-supplementation levels of RBC membrane fatty acids were significantly higher than pretreatment levels as well as the levels in control. There was significant improvement in the symptoms of ADHD reflected by reduction in total hyperactivity scores of ADHD children derived from ADHD rating scale.

  3. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population.

  4. Hyperfunctional Voice Disorder in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A Phenotypic Characteristic?

    PubMed

    Barona-Lleo, Luz; Fernandez, Secundino

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect specific vocal aerodynamic patterns in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and to define a possible new phenotypic feature of this disorder that must be diagnosed and treated. This is a prospective study. Seventy-nine children aged 5-13 years were recruited: 44 children with ADHD diagnosis and 35 children, as a control group, matched according to age and gender. All children were evaluated in the voice laboratory. Each subject repeated sustained vowels, syllables, words, and sentences several times. Intraoral pressure, transglottal airflow, microphone, and electroglottograph results were recorded and analyzed. Children affected by ADHD, with adequate tolerance, were evaluated endoscopically and by the speech therapist. The aerodynamic analysis shows that the subglottal pressure is higher and transglottal airflow is lower in ADHD children compared with the children of the control group. Those differences are statistically significant. The endoscopic physical examination showed vocal nodules in 25 children (78.125%) and hyperfunctional vocal behavior in all ADHD children studied. We proposed that every child with ADHD disorder must be evaluated from a laryngeal point of view (otolaryngologist and speech therapist) as an important part of the diagnosis and global treatment. It could be considered as a new phenotypic characteristic of this disorder. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Is ADHD a Vulnerability Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, L. A.; Kunz, M.; Chua, H. C.; Rotrosen, J.; Resnick, S. G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence suggesting a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study examined the association between PTSD and ADHD using retrospective and current clinical evaluations. Method: Twenty-five male veterans with PTSD and 22 male veterans with panic …

  6. The Relationships between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Problematic Drug Use (PDU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alastair

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and problematic drug use (PDU). The review considers the main debates around the structure and aetiology of ADHD and the main theoretical frameworks offered to explain the…

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Is ADHD a Vulnerability Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, L. A.; Kunz, M.; Chua, H. C.; Rotrosen, J.; Resnick, S. G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence suggesting a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study examined the association between PTSD and ADHD using retrospective and current clinical evaluations. Method: Twenty-five male veterans with PTSD and 22 male veterans with panic …

  8. The Relationships between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Problematic Drug Use (PDU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alastair

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and problematic drug use (PDU). The review considers the main debates around the structure and aetiology of ADHD and the main theoretical frameworks offered to explain the…

  9. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  10. A review of the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Couture, Justin

    2014-02-01

    To review the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE using the terms attention deficit hyperactive disorder, ADHD, pathophysiology, etiology, and neurobiology. Limits applied were the following: published in the past 10 years (January 2003 to August 2013), humans, review, meta-analysis, and English language. These yielded 63 articles in PubMed and 74 in EMBASE. After removing duplicate/irrelevant articles, 86 articles and their relevant reference citations were reviewed. ADHD is a neurological disorder that affects children, but symptoms may persist into adulthood. Individuals suffering from this disorder exhibit hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, and problems in social interaction and academic performance. Medications used to treat ADHD such as methylphenidate, amphetamine, and atomoxetine indicate a dopamine/norepinephrine deficit as the neurochemical basis of ADHD, but the etiology is more complex. Moreover, these agents have poor adverse effect profiles and a multitude of drug interactions. Because these drugs are also dispensed to adults who may have concomitant conditions or medications, a pharmacist needs to be aware of these adverse events and drug interactions. This review, therefore, focuses on the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of ADHD and details the adverse effects and drug interaction profiles of the drugs used to treat it. Published research shows the benefit of drug therapy for ADHD in children, but given the poor adverse effect and drug interaction profiles, these must be dispensed with caution.

  11. Pharmacological treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders.

    PubMed

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Steeves, Thomas

    2011-04-13

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the comorbid psychiatric disorders that complicate tic disorders. Medications commonly used to treat ADHD symptoms include the stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine; nonstimulants, such as atomoxetine; tricyclic antidepressants; and alpha agonists. Due to the impact of ADHD symptoms on the child with tic disorder, treatment of ADHD is often of greater priority than the medical management of tics. However, for many decades clinicians have been reluctant to use stimulants to treat children with ADHD and tics for fear of worsening their tics.  To assess the effects of pharmacological treatments for ADHD on ADHD symptoms and tic severity in children with ADHD and comorbid tic disorders.  We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to July 2009), EMBASE (1980 to July 2009), CINAHL (1982 to July 2009), PsycINFO (1806 to July Week 4 2009) and BIOSIS Previews (1985 to July 2009). Dissertation Abstracts (searched via Dissertaation Express), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials were searched (30 July 2009). We included randomized, double-blind, controlled trials of any pharmacological treatment for ADHD used specifically in children with comorbid tic disorders. We included both parallel group and cross-over study designs. Two authors independently extracted data using standardized forms. We included a total of eight randomized controlled studies in the review but were unable to combine any of these in meta-analysis. Several of the trials assessed multiple agents. Medications assessed included methylphenidate, clonidine, desipramine, dextroamphetamine, guanfacine, atomoxetine, and deprenyl. All treatments, with the exception of deprenyl, were efficacious in treating symptoms of ADHD. Tic symptoms improved in children treated with guanfacine, desipramine, methylphenidate, clonidine, and the combination of methylphenidate and clonidine. Fear of worsening tics

  12. [Mindfulness-based intervention in attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mindfulness means paying attention and being aware of the experiences occurring in the present moment, and it is usually developed by the practice of meditation. Research shows that mindfulness training is associated with improved attention systems and self-regulation, and that it therefore fosters those skills that are underdeveloped in individuals with ADHD. Although only few studies have investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness training in ADHD (many of which showing methodological limitations), the findings do suggest that mindfulness may be useful in ADHD interventions.

  13. [Neuropsychiatric bases of the methylphenidate-therapy of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Huber, M; Kirchler, E; Niederhofer, H; Gruber, L

    2007-05-01

    High prevalence and high co-morbidity rates with frequently aggravating psychosocial problems make the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of children, adolescents and adults an important target for research and healthcare. Recent findings suggest a dopaminergic fronto-striatal information processing deficit in ADHD-patients (executive functions). This review summarizes and presents, in the context of recent studies (MRI, f-MRI, PET, SPECT, Mapping Genes) the neurobiochemical bases of the methylphenidate-therapy, clinically successfully applied since almost one half century by the ADHD. The increased striatal dopamine transporter density by the ADHD-methylphenidate-responder is reported as a scientifically sound and useful clinical working model.

  14. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschoolers: nature, assessment and treatment].

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed behaviour problem in school-age children. Although more and more preschool-age children are referred in clinical settings for typical ADHD symptoms, few studies have examined the nature, the assessment as well as the treatment of ADHD in this age group. This literature review addresses the nature, the assessment, and the treatment of ADHD during the preschool period. The main themes reviewed are: prevalence, symptomatology, etiology, comorbidity, consequences on normal development and adaptation of the child, evolution of symptoms from preschool to school period, difficulties related to diagnosis, assessment modalities, psychosocial treatment, and pharmacological treatment.

  15. Genetic Epidemiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Index) in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saviouk, Viatcheslav; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Distel, Marijn A.; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Geels, Lot M.; van Beek, Jenny H. D. A.; Bartels, Meike; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke

    2010-01-01

    Context In contrast to the large number of studies in children, there is little information on the contribution of genetic factors to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults. Objective To estimate the heritability of ADHD in adults as assessed by the ADHD index scored from the CAARS (Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales). Design Phenotype data from over 12,000 adults (twins, siblings and parents) registered with the Netherlands Twin Register were analyzed using genetic structural equation modeling. Main outcome measures Heritability estimates for ADHD from the twin-family study. Results Heritability of ADHD in adults is estimated around 30% in men and women. There is some evidence for assortative mating. All familial transmission is explained by genetic inheritance, there is no support for the hypothesis that cultural transmission from parents to offspring is important. Conclusion Heritability for ADHD features in adults is present, but is substantially lower than it is in children. PMID:20485550

  16. Increased levels of serum neopterin in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; Uneri, Ozden Sukran; Guney, Esra; Ergin, Merve; Alisik, Murat; Goker, Zeynep; Senses Dinc, Gulser; Karaca Kara, Fatma; Erel, Ozcan

    2014-08-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently occurring neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood with an etiology that is not fully understood. A number of reviews that have addressed the neurobiology of ADHD have focused on imaging and genetics. Relatively little attention has been given to factors/mechanisms involved in the brain dysfunction. We suggest that changes in cellular immunity may be involved. Neopterin is a good indicator of cellular immunity, and we evaluated serum levels of neopterin in patients with ADHD. The study group consisted of 49 patients with ADHD. An age- and gender-matched control group was composed of 31 healthy subjects. Venous blood samples were collected, and the levels of neopterin were measured. The levels of neopterin were significantly higher in ADHD than in the comparison subjects. Cellular immunity may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of ADHD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reading Motivational Differences among Groups: Reading Disability (RD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), RD + ADHD, and Typical Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the reading motivation of 133 students at individual grade levels (2nd-5th), who were divided in subgroups with and without reading disabilities/difficulties (RD) and with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Major findings were that students in the RD subgroup had lower reading motivation (intrinsic,…

  18. Developmental differences in structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between childhood and adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The current paper utilizes a bifactor modeling approach to evaluate the structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood and assess developmental continuity of ADHD structure between childhood and adulthood. The study compared traditional one-factor, two-factor, three-factor, and second-order factor models of ADHD with a bifactor model of ADHD. Developmental differences in ADHD structure were examined using an extension of the bifactor model: a two-group model comparing children and adults. Participants were 406 adults (49% male; 145 of 406 with ADHD), (18 to 37) years old, and 548 children (58% male; 302 of 548 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old. A bifactor model of ADHD exhibited the best fit in adults and children compared to traditional models, suggesting continuity in the ADHD latent construct across development. However, significant differences in the factor loadings were evident between children and adults in the two-group bifactor model, suggesting changes in the relative importance of particular symptoms over time. Namely, hyperactivity symptoms appear to decline in importance relative to the ADHD phenotype between childhood and adulthood. PMID:25635150

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an affect-processing and thought disorder?

    PubMed

    Günter, Michael

    2014-02-01

    In the literature on child and adolescent psychoanalysis attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as complex syndrome with wide-ranging psychodynamic features. Broadly speaking, the disorder is divided into three categories: 1. a disorder in early object relations leading to the development of a maniform defence organization in which object-loss anxieties and depressed affects are not worked through via symbolization but are organized in a body-near manner; 2. a triangulation disorder in which the cathexis of the paternal position is not stable; structures providing little support alternate with excessive arousal, affect regulation is restricted; 3. current emotional stress or a traumatic experience. I suggest taking a fresh look at ADHD from a psychoanalytic vantage point. With respect to the phenomenology of the disorder, the conflict-dynamic approach should be supplemented by a perspective regarding deficits in α-function as constitutive for ADHD. These deficits cause affect-processing and thought disorders compensated for (though not fully) by the symptomatology. At a secondary level, a vicious circle develops through the mutual reinforcement of defective processing of sense data and affects into potential thought content, on the one hand, and secondary, largely narcissistic defence processes on the other. These considerations have major relevance for the improved understanding of ADHD and for psychoanalytic technique.

  20. Comorbidity and continuity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adolescence in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cak, H Tuna; Dinc, Gulser Senses; Tuzun, Zeynep; Evinc, S Gulin; Cop, Esra; Cuhadaroglu Cetin, Fusun

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes, psychiatric comorbidity and neuropsychological characteristics in Turkish adolescents with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in childhood. A total of 45 children with ADHD diagnosis and 28 children with a psychiatric diagnosis other than ADHD in a 1-year cohort of 7-10-year-olds were reevaluated 6 years later using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Stroop Test TBAG version. This study shows that the clinical outcomes and the comorbidity patterns for ADHD from childhood to adolescence in Turkey are similar to reported rates in the Western countries. In the ADHD group, 75.6 % still has impairing ADHD symptoms and 46.6 % has comorbid psychiatric disorders. The main difference is anxiety disorders being the most common comorbid disorders (37.8 %) in Turkish ADHD youth. These findings stress the high comorbidity associated with ADHD and support the importance of assessment and treatment for ADHD and comorbidities during adolescence.

  1. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  2. Pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) decreases the risk for substance abuse: findings from a longitudinal follow-up of youths with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Findings from a previously published longitudinal follow-up of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reanalyzed to determine the extent to which pharmacotherapy for ADHD is associated with substance use disorders, including abuse and dependence. Using naturalistic data from 140 people with ADHD and 120 controls, researchers returned to previously accumulated data to determine whether exposure to stimulant therapy had increased rates of substance use disorder among ADHD patients. Findings included confirmation that, in fact, stimulant therapy protected medicated ADHD patients against substance use disorder, which occurred at rates that were 3 to 4 times greater among people with untreated ADHD.

  3. The Association Between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy.

  4. Factor structure of symptom dimensions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Parke, Elyse M; Mayfield, Abigail R; Barchard, Kimberly A; Thaler, Nicholas S; Etcoff, Lewis M; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-12-01

    There is disagreement on whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are best characterized along two dimensions consisting of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity or three dimensions where hyperactivity and impulsivity are separate. To address this, the current study investigated the underlying symptom dimensions of ADHD by examining two- and three-factor models of ADHD symptom ratings in 400 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD symptom ratings for each of the 18 DSM-IV Criteria A symptoms were obtained from mothers using a standardized symptom rating scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine whether the 18 symptoms were best explained by two or three latent constructs. Results of the CFA demonstrated that a three-factor model was superior to a two-factor model. Findings support three distinct symptom dimensions that are consistent with previous research demonstrating unique clinical presentations of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Differentiating between these three domains may aid in predicting behavioral outcomes in children with ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Nutritional Status of Korean Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Jang, Bo Young; Bu, So Young

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with an elevated risk for obesity but this seems to be paradoxical to the fact that many youths with ADHD have symptoms of hyperactivity. People diagnosed with ADHD tend to have a high risk of developing undesirable diet habits and consequently have health related problems. However, less attention has been paid to obesity in ADHD while many efforts have been devoted to the prevention of childhood obesity in mentally normal people. Hence the purpose of this study was to explore the nutritional status and life habits of children and adolescents with ADHD (n = 76) based on degree of obesity by utilizing the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data from 2005-2013. As results the levels of blood pressure, total triglycerides and the fat intake relative to total energy intake in overweight ADHD group were higher than those in normal weight group. Interestingly, overweight ADHD subjects consumed significantly less amount of iron compared to normal weight ADHD subjects and the level of serum ferritin was lower in the overweight ADHD group (59.0 ng/mL) than in the normal weight ADHD group (47.9 ng/mL). After adjusting total energy intake, total vegetable consumption was 14.3% lower in overweight group compared to the consumption in normal weight group. These results indicate a plausible relationship of iron status and obesity in ADHD subjects but this relationship may not be specific to ADHD. A future study with case-control design is necessary to investigate the association of obesity, nutrient intake, and cognitive/mental status of ADHD.

  6. Subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): distinct or related disorders across measurement levels?

    PubMed

    Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert; Walle, Johan Vande

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding differences and similarities between the inattentive (IA) and combined (C) subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in order to detail challenges concerning further conceptualization, diagnostics, and treatment. The literature on ADHD-IA and ADHD-C was reviewed and contrasted across genetic, neuroanatomical, neurophysiological/ neurochemical, neuro(psycho)logical, and clinical psychiatric measurement levels. It was found that the more fundamental the measurement level, the less unambiguous evidence is found for subtype differences. Only on the clinical psychiatric diagnostic level, do more or less clear-cut differences in cognitive, social, academic, and behavioural functioning emerge. In conclusion, fundamental research that compares ADHD-IA and ADHD-C is relatively rare. At this point, only irrefutable phenomenological evidence of subtype differences seems to be available, even in attention problems which are presumed to be identical. The question as to whether both subtypes should be considered as two independent disorders was not adequately resolved.

  7. Parental age and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hvolgaard Mikkelsen, Susanne; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Obel, Carsten

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that young mothers more often have children with ADHD. We used sibling comparisons to examine the nature of this association and to investigate if this association is explained by early environment or genetic and socioeconomic factors. A large population-based cohort including all singletons born in Denmark from 1 January 1991 through 31 December 2005 was followed from birth until 30 April 2011. Data were available for 94% ( N  = 943 785) of the population. Offspring ADHD was identified by an ICD-10 diagnosis of Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD). We used sibling-matched Cox regression to control for genetic and socioeconomic factors. In the population cohort we found that children born by parents aged 20 years or younger had more than twice the risk of being diagnosed with ADHD compared with children with parents between 26 and 30 years of age. When comparing full siblings the associations were attenuated, but we found a trend of increased risk of ADHD with decreasing maternal age, which was not seen for paternal age. Sibling comparisons suggested that the associations between both maternal and paternal age and ADHD are partly explained by common genetic and socioeconomic factors. The trend of increased risk of ADHD with decreasing maternal age, but not with paternal age, may be linked to pregnancy or early-life environmental factors. Even though only a smaller part of the association can be attributed to environmental factors, there is a public health interest to support young parents through their first years of parenthood.

  8. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Predict Levels of Depressive Symptoms during Emerging Adulthood?

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Michael C; Pettit, Jeremy W; Waxmonsky, James G; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the development and course of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood among individuals with a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine if a history of ADHD in childhood significantly predicted depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood (i.e., ages 18-25 years), including the initial level of depressive symptoms, continued levels of depressive symptoms at each age year, and the rate of change in depressive symptoms over time. 394 participants (205 with ADHD and 189 without ADHD; 348 males and 46 females) drawn from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) completed annual self-ratings of depressive symptoms between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Childhood history of ADHD significantly predicted a higher initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18, and higher levels of depressive symptoms at every age year during emerging adulthood. ADHD did not significantly predict the rate of change in depressive symptoms from age 18 to age 25. Childhood history of ADHD remained a significant predictor of initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18 after controlling for comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, but not after controlling for concurrent ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. Participants with childhood histories of ADHD experienced significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than non-ADHD comparison participants by age 18 and continued to experience higher, although not increasing, levels of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Predict Levels of Depressive Symptoms during Emerging Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, Michael C.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development and course of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood among individuals with a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine if a history of ADHD in childhood significantly predicted depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood (i.e., ages 18–25 years), including the initial level of depressive symptoms, continued levels of depressive symptoms at each age year, and the rate of change in depressive symptoms over time. 394 participants (205 with ADHD and 189 without ADHD; 348 males and 46 females) drawn from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) completed annual self-ratings of depressive symptoms between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Childhood history of ADHD significantly predicted a higher initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18, and higher levels of depressive symptoms at every age year during emerging adulthood. ADHD did not significantly predict the rate of change in depressive symptoms from age 18 to age 25. Childhood history of ADHD remained a significant predictor of initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18 after controlling for comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, but not after controlling for concurrent ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. Participants with childhood histories of ADHD experienced significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than non-ADHD comparison participants by age 18 and continued to experience higher, although not increasing, levels of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26272531

  10. The Neural Correlates of Deficient Error Awareness in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Hester, Robert; Garavan, Hugh; Fitzgerald, Michael; Foxe, John J.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to detect and correct errors is critical to adaptive control of behaviour and represents a discrete neuropsychological function. A number of studies have highlighted that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with abnormalities in behavioural and neural responsiveness to performance errors. One limitation of…

  11. The Neural Correlates of Deficient Error Awareness in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Hester, Robert; Garavan, Hugh; Fitzgerald, Michael; Foxe, John J.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to detect and correct errors is critical to adaptive control of behaviour and represents a discrete neuropsychological function. A number of studies have highlighted that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with abnormalities in behavioural and neural responsiveness to performance errors. One limitation of…

  12. Beyond ADHD: A Consideration of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Pedagogy in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Brenton J.

    2008-01-01

    A psycho-medical discourse that explains behavioural dysfunction through neurological deficit has dominated debate about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, if only medical questions are asked, only medical answers will be found, resulting in more or less drug treatment. When behavioural dysfunction results in impairment…

  13. The STARS Program: Social Empowerment Training for Preadolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), there has been a dramatic increase in the number of children being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the last several years. School nursing interventions need to be developed, implemented, and evaluated to address complexities experienced by this population. The…

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disordered eating behaviour: A systematic review and a framework for future research.

    PubMed

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Familial Clustering of Latent Class and DSM-IV Defined Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Erik R.; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Heath, Andrew C.; Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Findings from family and twin-based studies of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have indicated that inattentive and combined subtypes cluster together among sibling pairs who both express ADHD symptoms. The current report examines the familial clustering of ADHD subtypes, defined according to latent class and DSM-IV…

  16. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms Predict Alcohol Expectancy Development

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brammer, Whitney A.; Ray, Lara A.; Lee, Steve S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Positive alcohol expectancies and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are independent risk factors for adolescent alcohol problems and substance use disorders. However, the association of early ADHD diagnostic status, as well as its separate dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity, with alcohol expectancies is essentially unknown. Method At baseline (i.e., Wave 1), parents of 139 6-to 9-year-old children (71% male) with (N = 77; 55%) and without (N = 62; 45%) ADHD completed structured diagnostic interviews of child psychopathology. Approximately two years later (i.e., Wave 2), children completed a Memory Model-Based Expectancy Questionnaire (MMBEQ) to ascertain their positive and negative expectancies regarding alcohol use. All children were alcohol naïve at both baseline and follow-up assessments. Results Controlling for age, sex, IQ, as well as the number of Wave 1 oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, the number of baseline hyperactivity symptoms prospectively predicted more positive arousing (i.e., MMBEQ “wild and crazy” subscale) alcohol expectancies at Wave 2. No predictive association was observed for the number of Wave 1 inattention symptoms and alcohol expectancies. Conclusions Childhood hyperactivity prospectively and positively predicted expectancies regarding the arousing properties of alcohol, independent of inattention and ODD/CD symptoms, as well as other key covariates. Even in the absence of explicit alcohol engagement, youths with elevated hyperactivity may benefit from targeted intervention given its association with more positive arousing alcohol expectancies. PMID:27110089

  17. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Increased Anterior Pelvic Angle Characterizes the Gait of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Yatsuga, Chiho; Kubota, Masafumi; Matsuo, Hideaki; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Shimada, Seiichiro; Imai, Yuto; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have motor problems. Previous studies have reported that the characteristic gait in children with ADHD is immature and that subjects demonstrate higher levels of variability in gait characteristics for the lower extremities than healthy controls. However, little is known about body movement during gait in children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristic body movements associated with ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD. Methods Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, we compared gait variables in boys with ADHD (n = 19; mean age, 9.58 years) and boys with typical development (TD) (n = 21; mean age, 10.71 years) to determine the specific gait characteristics related to ADHD symptoms. We assessed spatiotemporal gait variables (i.e. speed, stride length, and cadence), and kinematic gait variables (i.e. angle of pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle) to measure body movement when walking at a self-selected pace. Results In comparison with the TD group, the ADHD group demonstrated significantly higher values in cadence (t = 3.33, p = 0.002) and anterior pelvic angle (t = 3.08, p = 0.004). In multiple regression analysis, anterior pelvic angle was associated with the ADHD rating scale hyperactive/impulsive scores (β = 0.62, t = 2.58, p = 0.025), but not other psychiatric symptoms in the ADHD group. Conclusions Our results suggest that anterior pelvic angle represents a specific gait variable related to ADHD symptoms. Our kinematic findings could have potential implications for evaluating the body movement in boys with ADHD. PMID:28099484

  19. Treatment of comorbidity in conduct disorder with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Turgay, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. It is characterized by a variety of chronic antisocial behaviors, a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others, major age-appropriate societal norms, or both. Aggressive behavior, lying, stealing, fire-setting, and running away from home and school are the most frequent manifestations of CD and are often accompanied by hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, explosiveness, cognitive and learning problems, and poor social skills. The rate of comorbidity is high, with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) being the most common; comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders are also seen, especially in adolescents. The diagnostic process should include the use of structured interviews, and scores from reliable and valid rating scales that cover all psychiatric disorders must be considered in the differential diagnosis, because CD alone is an extreme rarity and multiple disorders are almost always the rule rather than exception. Treatment should include parenting skills training combined with training of the child to improve his or her relationships with peers, academic performance, and compliance with legitimate demands of authority figures. The appropriate use of medications and integration of patient/parent education and support, as well as individual, group, family, residential, and inpatient treatment may be beneficial for patients with CD and ADHD. The article describes a number of psychopharmacological agents that are used in patients with CD with ADHD and other comorbid disorders. Drugs that may be useful include psychostimulants; atomoxetine (Strattera); antidepressants (imipramine [Tofranil], desipramine [Norpramin]); Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs); atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone (Risperdal); or mood regulators including lithium (Eskalith).

  20. Frontal brain asymmetry in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): extending the motivational dysfunction hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Keune, Philipp M; Wiedemann, Eva; Schneidt, Alexander; Schönenberg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves motivational dysfunction, characterized by excessive behavioral approach tendencies. Frontal brain asymmetry in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) represents a neural correlate of global motivational tendencies, and abnormal asymmetry, indicating elevated approach motivation, was observed in pediatric and adult patients. To date, the relation between ADHD symptoms, depression and alpha asymmetry, its temporal metric properties and putative gender-specificity remain to be explored. Adult ADHD patients (n=52) participated in two resting-state EEG recordings, two weeks apart. Asymmetry measures were aggregated across recordings to increase trait specificity. Putative region-specific associations between asymmetry, ADHD symptoms and depression, its gender-specificity and test-retest reliability were examined. ADHD symptoms were associated with approach-related asymmetry (stronger relative right-frontal alpha power). Approach-related asymmetry was pronounced in females, and also associated with depression. The latter association was mediated by ADHD symptoms. Test-retest reliability was sufficient. The association between reliably assessable alpha asymmetry and ADHD symptoms supports the motivational dysfunction hypothesis. ADHD symptoms mediating an atypical association between asymmetry and depression may be attributed to depression arising secondary to ADHD. Gender-specific findings require replication. Frontal alpha asymmetry may represent a new reliable marker of ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... say about the relationship between food additives and ADHD? Answers from David C. Agerter, M.D Food ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and ...

  2. Age dependent electroencephalographic changes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Poil, S-S; Bollmann, S; Ghisleni, C; O'Gorman, R L; Klaver, P; Ball, J; Eich-Höchli, D; Brandeis, D; Michels, L

    2014-08-01

    Objective biomarkers for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could improve diagnostics or treatment monitoring of this psychiatric disorder. The resting electroencephalogram (EEG) provides non-invasive spectral markers of brain function and development. Their accuracy as ADHD markers is increasingly questioned but may improve with pattern classification. This study provides an integrated analysis of ADHD and developmental effects in children and adults using regression analysis and support vector machine classification of spectral resting (eyes-closed) EEG biomarkers in order to clarify their diagnostic value. ADHD effects on EEG strongly depend on age and frequency. We observed typical non-linear developmental decreases in delta and theta power for both ADHD and control groups. However, for ADHD adults we found a slowing in alpha frequency combined with a higher power in alpha-1 (8-10Hz) and beta (13-30Hz). Support vector machine classification of ADHD adults versus controls yielded a notable cross validated sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 83% using power and central frequency from all frequency bands. ADHD children were not classified convincingly with these markers. Resting state electrophysiology is altered in ADHD, and these electrophysiological impairments persist into adulthood. Spectral biomarkers may have both diagnostic and prognostic value. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; Kara, Mehmet; Tekin, Neslihan; Goker, Zeynep; Senses Dinc, Gulser; Ozturk, Onder; Eker, Sevda; Kizilgun, Murat

    2014-02-07

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. The etiopathogeny of ADHD has not been totally defined. Recent reports have suggested a pathophysiological role of neurotrophins in ADHD. In this study, we evaluated serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with ADHD. The sample population consisted of 44 child or adolescent patients diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria; 36 healthy subjects were included in the study as controls. Venous blood samples were collected, and NGF levels were measured. The mean serum NGF levels of the ADHD patients were significantly higher than those of the controls. Age and gender of the patients were not correlated with serum NGF levels. There were no significant differences in NGF levels among the combined and predominantly inattentive subtypes of ADHD. Our study suggests that there are higher levels of serum NGF in drug naive ADHD patients, and that increased levels of NGF might have an important role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Trott, Kate

    2013-12-01

    It has been increasingly believed that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with lifelong course associated with cognitive difficulties including among others, language production, verbal learning, and verbal fluency. However, research is limited to children and adolescents, and very few researchers have examined the impact of ADHD in adulthood on the cognitive domain. The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of adults, diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. It is hypothesized that adults with ADHD will perform worse on both tasks than matched controls. Sixty university students (30 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 30 matched controls) of mean age 20.5 participated in the study. They all completed two verbal fluency tasks. The ADHD group had statistically significant lower scores than the non-ADHD group on the phonemic, but not the semantic task. The study provides some evidence that ADHD in childhood has a negative impact on adults' phonemic verbal fluency. This finding could be probably explained by the fact that phonemic fluency is considered more cognitively demanding and impacting more on the frontal lobe functions, known to be impaired in ADHD, than semantic fluency.

  5. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care providers can diagnose or treat ADHD. DSM-5 Criteria for ADHD People with ADHD show ... National Institutes of Mental Health . Changes in the DSM-5 The fifth edition of the DSM was ...

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  7. Deficit in response inhibition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): impact of motivation?

    PubMed

    Desman, Christiane; Petermann, Franz; Hampel, Petra

    2008-11-01

    To date, neuropsychological and psycho-physiological studies have revealed inconsistent results regarding an executive or motivational deficit explaining the response inhibition deficit in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research on differentiating neuropsychological processes in ADHD subtypes is still scarce. Therefore, the motivational impact on response inhibition among boys with ADHD was examined in this study. In the first study, 19 boys with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects performed a modified Go/No-Go task with the following experimental conditions: neutral, auditory feedback, reward, response cost, and reward/response cost. Performance and physiological data (heart rate and skin conductance responses) were recorded. In a second study with the modified Go/No-Go task, data for six children with ADHD-C, six with ADHD-inattentive subtype (ADHD-I), and six healthy control subjects were compared. Neither of the two studies revealed group by condition interactions. In study 1, boys with ADHD-C generally made more commissions and omissions compared to the control group. However, feedback significantly improved the response inhibition in all children. The heart rate of all children was increased in the two conditions of reward and reward/response cost. Study 2 revealed that children with ADHD-I responded more slowly and showed increased reaction time variability compared to both other groups. The present study supports an executive rather than a motivational deficit in the response inhibition among children with ADHD-C, though further results also indicate the role of auditory feedback on response inhibition. Additionally, the findings support the differentiation of ADHD-C and ADHD-I, suggesting that ADHD-I children are characterized by a sluggish cognitive tempo.

  8. A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Elena; Oerlemans, Anoek M; Rommelse, Nanda N; Groot, Perry; Hartman, Catharina A; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Claassen, Tom; Heskes, Tom; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-03-02

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562 affected and unaffected siblings, and 414 controls, to infer a structural equation model using a causal discovery algorithm. Three distinct pathways between ASD and ADHD were identified: (1) from impulsivity to difficulties with understanding social information, (2) from hyperactivity to stereotypic, repetitive behavior, (3) a pairwise pathway between inattention, difficulties with understanding social information, and verbal IQ. These findings may inform future studies on understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the overlap between ASD and ADHD.

  9. Clinical Impact of Epileptiform Discharge in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hye; Choi, Yong Sung; Yoon, Hoi Soo; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of epileptiform discharges in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors retrospectively reviewed 180 children who were diagnosed with ADHD and had an electroencephalography (EEG) recording. Epileptiform discharges were found in 29 (16.1%) of 180 patients with ADHD. Of these, 15 (8.3%) had generalized epileptiform discharges and 14 (7.7%) had focal epileptiform discharges. The focal epileptiform discharges were most prevalent from the frontal (5/14) and rolandic area (5/14). Among the 29 patients with epileptiform discharges and ADHD, 5 patients had previous history of epilepsy and 4 patients developed epilepsy later, whereas none of the normal EEG group developed epilepsy. The authors suggest that interictal epileptiform discharges appear to be associated with seizure occurrence in children with ADHD and might reflect maturational pathophysiology overlapping with epilepsy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Time perception: modality and duration effects in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-10-01

    Time perception performance was systematically investigated in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, the effects of manipulating modality (auditory and visual) and length of duration (200 and 1000 ms) were examined. Forty-six adolescents with ADHD and 44 controls were administered four duration discrimination tasks and two control tasks, and a set of standardized measures. Participants with ADHD had higher thresholds than controls on all of the duration discrimination tasks, with the largest effect size obtained on the visual 1000 ms duration discrimination task. No group differences were observed on the control tasks. Visual-spatial memory was found to be a significant predictor of visual and auditory duration discrimination at longer intervals (1000 ms) in the ADHD sample, whereas auditory verbal working memory predicted auditory discrimination at longer intervals (1000 ms) in the control sample. These group differences suggest impairments in basic timing mechanisms in ADHD.

  11. Candidate genetic pathways for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show association to hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bralten, Janita; Franke, Barbara; Waldman, Irwin; Rommelse, Nanda; Hartman, Catharina; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard P; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph A; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Because multiple genes with small effect sizes are assumed to play a role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiology, considering multiple variants within the same analysis likely increases the total explained phenotypic variance, thereby boosting the power of genetic studies. This study investigated whether pathway-based analysis could bring scientists closer to unraveling the biology of ADHD. The pathway was described as a predefined gene selection based on a well-established database or literature data. Common genetic variants in pathways involved in dopamine/norepinephrine and serotonin neurotransmission and genes involved in neuritic outgrowth were investigated in cases from the International Multicentre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. Multivariable analysis was performed to combine the effects of single genetic variants within the pathway genes. Phenotypes were DSM-IV symptom counts for inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity (n = 871) and symptom severity measured with the Conners Parent (n = 930) and Teacher (n = 916) Rating Scales. Summing genetic effects of common genetic variants within the pathways showed a significant association with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms ((p)empirical = .007) but not with inattentive symptoms ((p)empirical = .73). Analysis of parent-rated Conners hyperactive/impulsive symptom scores validated this result ((p)empirical = .0018). Teacher-rated Conners scores were not associated. Post hoc analyses showed a significant contribution of all pathways to the hyperactive/impulsive symptom domain (dopamine/norepinephrine, (p)empirical = .0004; serotonin, (p)empirical = .0149; neuritic outgrowth, (p)empirical = .0452). The present analysis shows an association between common variants in 3 genetic pathways and the hyperactive/impulsive component of ADHD. This study demonstrates that pathway-based association analyses, using quantitative measurements of ADHD symptom domains, can increase the power of genetic analyses to

  12. Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity associated with tobacco use?

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Several studies report a strong link between ADHD and tobacco use; however, the nature of this relationship is not entirely clear. We examined the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and tobacco use within a sample of college students. Although tobacco use was the main focus, we also examined alcohol and marijuana use. We examined the association between the number of ADHD symptoms endorsed (severity), and tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in a convenience sample of 334 college students in the southeastern United States. Survey data were based on the annual Core Alcohol and Drug Survey for substance use, and the Current Symptom Scale (CSS) for ADHD, conduct disorder (CD), and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) symptoms. Among ever users of a substance, the number (severity) of current ADHD symptoms, including inattentive and hyperactive symptoms, were significantly associated with the frequency of tobacco and marijuana use in the past month and past year, as well as to the frequency of alcohol use in the past month. The results suggest that the number of ADHD symptoms is proportionally associated with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use.

  13. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an updated review of the essential facts.

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2014-11-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder that can affect individuals across the lifespan. It is associated with substantial heterogeneity in terms of aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment outcome and is the subject of extensive research. Because of this, it can be difficult for clinicians to stay up to date with the most relevant findings and know how best to respond to parents' questions and concerns about the disorder and interventions. This is a narrative review that aims to summarize key findings from recent research into ADHD and its treatment that clinicians can share with families in order to increase their knowledge about ADHD and intervention options. ADHD develops as a result of complex interplay between interdependent genetic and non-genetic factors. The disorder is associated with substantial impairments in functioning and poor long-term outcomes. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options are available for symptom management and to improve function, but functioning outcomes often fail to normalize in children with ADHD. Despite extensive advances in understanding this complex disorder, it is clear that there is still a long way to go. In particular, we address the need for future non-pharmacological interventions to be more specifically targeted for ADHD symptoms and its commonly associated functioning deficits in order to ensure the best long-term outcomes for children with ADHD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adaptation night as determinants of sleep patterns in children.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Roumen; Uebel, Henrik; Albrecht, Bjoern; Banaschewski, Tobias; Yordanova, Juliana; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2012-12-01

    Sleep problems are a prominent feature in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but their relationships to sleep structure are not consistent across studies. We aimed at further examining the sleep architecture in children with ADHD, while considering the role of the first-night effect (FNE) as a possible confounder. Twenty unmedicated children with ADHD combined type (8-15 years old; mean 11.24, SD 2.31) and 19 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, underwent polysomnography during an adaptation and a consecutive second night. ADHD and controls displayed a typical FNE without group differences. Independently of testing night, children with ADHD spent more time in sleep and had shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency and a greater amount of REM sleep relative to controls. However, the increased REM sleep amount in ADHD children was more expressed in the second night when it was also significantly related to scores of inattention and hyperactivity. Our results (1) document similar sleep adaptation processes in children with ADHD and typically developing children, (2) reveal that REM sleep changes in association with ADHD-specific psychopathology may characterize sleep in ADHD children, which is evident only when the FNE is accounted for, (3) indicate that ADHD psychopathology and adaptation night may exert opposite effects on REM sleep in children. These results may prompt the awareness of clinicians about the importance of actual sleep alterations and their precise evaluation in children with ADHD, which could significantly contribute to better diagnostic, treatment and early prevention strategies.

  15. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Interaction between socioeconomic status and parental history of ADHD determines prevalence.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Andrew S; Skipper, Betty J; Rabiner, David L; Qeadan, Fares; Campbell, Richard A; Naftel, A Jack; Umbach, David M

    2017-08-12

    Many studies have reported a higher prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among disadvantaged populations, but few have considered how parental history of ADHD might modify that relationship. We evaluated whether the prevalence of ADHD varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and parental history of ADHD in a population-sample of elementary school children age 6-14 years. We screened all children in grades 1-5 in 17 schools in one North Carolina (U.S.) county for ADHD using teacher rating scales and 1,160 parent interviews, including an ADHD structured interview (DISC). We combined parent and teacher ratings to determine DSM-IV ADHD status. Data analysis was restricted to 967 children with information about parental history of ADHD. SES was measured by family income and respondent education. We found an interaction between family income and parental history of ADHD diagnosis (p = .016). The SES gradient was stronger in families without a parental history and weaker among children with a parental history. Among children without a parental history of ADHD diagnosis, low income children had 6.2 times the odds of ADHD (95% CI 3.4-11.3) as high income children after adjusting for covariates. Among children with a parental history, all had over 10 times the odds of ADHD as high income children without a parental history but the SES gradient between high and low income children was less pronounced [odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5]. Socioeconomic status and parental history of ADHD are each strong risk factors for ADHD that interact to determine prevalence. More research is needed to dissect the components of SES that contribute to risk of ADHD. Future ADHD research should evaluate whether the strength of other environmental risk factors vary by parental history. Early identification and interventions for children with low SES or parental histories of ADHD should be explored. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adult psychiatry. A 20-year register study.

    PubMed

    Nylander, Lena; Holmqvist, Maria; Gustafson, Lars; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are increasingly recognized in adults. This study aimed to assess trends in diagnostic practice, diagnostic delay and comorbidity regarding ADHD and ASD in adult psychiatric patients. Individuals with diagnosed ADHD or ASD were identified in an adult psychiatry register comprising 56,462 patients. ADHD was diagnosed in up to 2.7% and ASD in 1.3% of the patients. Most cases were diagnosed within 2 years of first contact with adult psychiatry, but some patients were treated for 10 years or more before being diagnosed with ADHD or ASD. Seventy per cent of ADHD and 56% of ASD patients were treated as outpatients only. Other psychiatric diagnoses were registered in about 60%. Affective disorders were common in patients with ADHD. Psychoses and intellectual disability were more common in ASD patients. Psychoactive substance use-related disorders were considerably more common in those with ADHD. Concomitant ADHD and ASD were seldom diagnosed in this clinical material. ADHD and ASD were probably much underdiagnosed in the studied group of psychiatric patients. Other psychiatric diagnoses were common, but not ADHD with concomitant ASD.

  17. Managing childhood and adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with exercise: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Ho, Collin Yih Xian; Chan, Hwei Wuen; Yong, Bob Zheng Jie; Yeo, Wee-Song

    2017-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting some 8-10% of children worldwide. Increasing research has shed light on the life course of the disorder, suggesting that majority of children with ADHD will continue to have persistent symptoms into adulthood. The mainstay of ADHD management has been pharmacologic and behavioural/psychological interventions, with little attention paid to exercise as a potential management strategy. A systematic review, examining both the short-term and long-term effects of exercise on children with ADHD, is timely and necessary to guide further research in this area. Using the keywords [exercise OR physical OR activity OR sport] AND [attention deficit hyperactivity disorder OR ADHD OR ADDH], a preliminary search on the PubMed and Ovid database yielded 613 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1980 and 1-July-2016. Full articles were also reviewed for references of interest. A total of 30 studies were included in this systematic review. Both short-term and long-term studies support the clinical benefits of physical activity for individuals with ADHD. Cognitive, behavioural and physical symptoms of ADHD were alleviated in most instances, and the largest intervention effects were reported for mixed exercise programs. No adverse effects arising from physical exercise were reported in any of the studies, suggesting that exercise is a well-tolerated intervention. Physical activity, in particular moderate-to-intense aerobic exercise, is a beneficial and well-tolerated intervention for children and adolescents with ADHD. Future research should include more adequately-powered trials and investigate the ideal exercise prescription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnosis: An Activation-Executive Model

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Debora; González-Pienda, Julio A.

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit with, or without, hyperactivity and impulsivity (ADHD) is categorized as neuro-developmental disorder. ADHD is a common disorder in childhood and one of the most frequent conditions affecting school ages. This disorder is characterized by a persistent behavioral pattern associated with inattention, over-activity (or hyperactivity), and difficulty in controlling impulses. Current research suggests the existence of certain patterns of cortical activation and executive control, which could more objectively identify ADHD. Through the use of a risk and resilience model, this research aimed to analyze the interaction between brain activation variables (nirHEG and Q-EEG) and executive variables (Continuous performance test -CPT-) in subjects with ADHD. The study involved 499 children, 175 females (35.1%) and 324 males (64.91%); aged from 6 to 16 years (M = 11.22, SD = 1.43). Two hundred and fifty six of the children had been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and 243 were without ADHD. For the analysis of this objective, a causal model was designed to include the following different measures of task-execution: CPT TOVA (omissions, commissions, response time, variability, D prime and the ADHD Index); electrical activity (using Q-EEG); and blood-flow oxygenation activity (using nirHEG). The causal model was tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The model that had been constructed was based upon three general assumptions: (1) There are different causal models for children with ADHD and those without ADHD; (2) The activation measures influence students’ executive performance; and (3) There are measurable structural differences between the ADHD and control group models (executive and activation). In general, the results showed that: (a) activation measures influence executive patterns differently, (b) the relationship between activation variables (nirHEG and Q-EEG) depends on the brain zone being studied, (c

  19. Diagnosis of children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its association with cytomegalovirus infection with ADHD: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Xia, Qun; Shen, Huaiyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yongli; Xu, Jiali

    2015-01-01

    As the most common mental disorder identified in children and teenagers, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects millions of children and their families, making it a critical health issue worldwide. This article reviewed the historical opinions about the diagnosis of ADHD and defined different subtypes of this disorder. It also summarized the current diagnostic criteria and available medications. After re-visiting the etiology of ADHD in the sense of both genetic and environment factors, it was further hypothesized that viral infection might be involved in ADHD pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may be associated with ADHD, although both clinical observations and animal studies need to be performed for validation. PMID:26550354

  20. The Nature, Clinical Assessment, and Treatment of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Gilliam, Brenda; Johnson, Annabel M.; McWilliams, Elizabeth; Avula, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in childhood. Symptoms of ADHD include developmentally inappropriate levels of activity, distractibility, and impulsivity. The behavior often leads to academic and social problems and may have a long-term adverse impact on a child's later life. This…

  1. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), inhibition processes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - an overview].

    PubMed

    Hoegl, Thomas; Bender, Stephan; Buchmann, Johannes; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2014-11-01

    Motor system excitability can be tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation CFMS). In this article, an overview of recent methodological developments and research findings related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is provided. Different TMS parameters that reflect the function of interneurons in the motor cortex may represent neurophysiological markers of inhibition in ADHD, particularly the so-called intracortical inhibition. In children with a high level of hyperactivity and impulsivity, intracortical inhibition was comparably low at rest as shortly before the execution of a movement. TMS-evoked potentials can also be measured in the EEG so that investigating processes of excitability is not restricted to motor areas in future studies. The effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability may be interpreted in the sense of a 'fine-tuning' with these mainly dopaminergic effects also depending on genetic parameters (DAT1 transporter). A differentiated view on the organization of motor control can be achieved by a combined analysis of TMS parameters and event-related potentials. Applying this bimodal approach, strong evidence for a deviant implementation of motor control in children with ADHD and probably compensatory mechanisms (with involvement of the prefrontal cortex) was obtained. These findings, which contribute to a better understanding of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inhibitory processes and motor control in ADHD as well as the mechanisms of medication, underline the relevance of TMS as a neurophysiological method in ADHD research.

  2. Sleep microstructure is not altered in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Příhodová, I; Paclt, I; Kemlink, D; Nevšímalová, S

    2012-01-01

    The high rate of occurrence of sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prompted the idea that structural and neurotransmitter changes might give rise to specific sleep pattern abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microstructure of sleep in children with ADHD who had no polysomnographically diagnosed sleep disorder, had never been treated for ADHD, and were free from any psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were 14 patients with ADHD (12 boys and 2 girls aged 7-12 years, mean age 9.6+/-1.6). ADHD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders). Psychiatric comorbidities were ruled out by detailed psychiatric examination. The patients underwent two consecutive overnight video-polysomnographic (PSG) recordings, with the sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern - CAP) scoring during the second night. The data were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Sleep microstructure analysis using CAP revealed no significant differences between the ADHD group and the controls in any of the parameters under study. In conclusions, no ADHD-specific alterations were found in the sleep microstructure.

  3. Differential diagnosis and comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adults.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra

    2006-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and borderline personality Disorder (BPD) share some similar clinical features (e. g. impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, cognitive impairment). ADHD in childhood has been reported to be highly associated with the diagnosis of BPD in adulthood and adult ADHD often co-occurs with BPD. Treatment studies revealed an efficacy of dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) and DBT-based psychotherapy, respectively, in BPD and adult ADHD as well as neuroimaging and psychopharmacological studies showed some evidence for a potential common neurobiological dysfunction suggesting the hypothesis that ADHD and BPD may not be two distinct disorders, but represent at least in a subgroup of patients two dimensions of one disorder.

  4. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation.

    PubMed

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  6. A history of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) impacts clinical outcome in adult bipolar patients regardless of current ADHD.

    PubMed

    Rydén, E; Thase, M E; Stråht, D; Aberg-Wistedt, A; Bejerot, S; Landén, M

    2009-09-01

    The occurrence of comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might have an impact of the course of the bipolar disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 159) underwent a comprehensive evaluation with respect to affective symptoms. Independent psychiatrists assessed childhood and current ADHD, and an interview with a parent was undertaken. The prevalence of adult ADHD was 16%. An additional 12% met the criteria for childhood ADHD without meeting criteria for adult ADHD. Both these groups had significantly earlier onset of their first affective episode, more frequent affective episodes (except manic episodes), and more interpersonal violence than the bipolar patients without a history of ADHD. The fact that bipolar patients with a history of childhood ADHD have a different clinical outcome than the pure bipolar group, regardless of whether the ADHD symptoms remained in adulthood or not, suggests that it represent a distinct early-onset phenotype of bipolar disorder.

  7. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    PubMed

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  8. Comparison of QEEG Findings between Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without Comorbidity and ADHD Comorbid with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ha; Hong, Ji Sun; Han, Doug Hyun; Min, Kyoung Joon; Lee, Young Sik; Kee, Baik Seok; Kim, Sun Mi

    2017-03-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is often comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we compared the neurobiological differences between ADHD comorbid with IGD (ADHD+IGD group) and ADHD without comorbidity (ADHD-only group) by analyzing quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) findings. We recruited 16 male ADHD+IGD, 15 male ADHD-only adolescent patients, and 15 male healthy controls (HC group). Participants were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale and ADHD Rating Scale. Relative power and inter- and intra-hemispheric coherences of brain waves were measured using a digital electroencephalography (EEG) system. Compared to the ADHD-only group, the ADHD+IGD group showed lower relative delta power and greater relative beta power in temporal regions. The relative theta power in frontal regions were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Inter-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between F3-F4 and C3-C4 electrodes were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Intra-hemispheric coherence values for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands between P4-O2 electrodes and intra-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between Fz-Cz and T4-T6 electrodes were higher in ADHD+IGD group compared to ADHD-only group. Adolescents who show greater vulnerability to ADHD seem to continuously play Internet games to unconsciously enhance attentional ability. In turn, relative beta power in attention deficit in ADHD+IGD group may become similar to that in HC group. Repetitive activation of brain reward and working memory systems during continuous gaming may result in an increase in neuronal connectivity within the parieto-occipital and temporal regions for the ADHD+IGD group.

  9. Comparison of QEEG Findings between Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without Comorbidity and ADHD Comorbid with Internet Gaming Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is often comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we compared the neurobiological differences between ADHD comorbid with IGD (ADHD+IGD group) and ADHD without comorbidity (ADHD-only group) by analyzing quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) findings. We recruited 16 male ADHD+IGD, 15 male ADHD-only adolescent patients, and 15 male healthy controls (HC group). Participants were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale and ADHD Rating Scale. Relative power and inter- and intra-hemispheric coherences of brain waves were measured using a digital electroencephalography (EEG) system. Compared to the ADHD-only group, the ADHD+IGD group showed lower relative delta power and greater relative beta power in temporal regions. The relative theta power in frontal regions were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Inter-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between F3–F4 and C3–C4 electrodes were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Intra-hemispheric coherence values for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands between P4–O2 electrodes and intra-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between Fz–Cz and T4–T6 electrodes were higher in ADHD+IGD group compared to ADHD-only group. Adolescents who show greater vulnerability to ADHD seem to continuously play Internet games to unconsciously enhance attentional ability. In turn, relative beta power in attention deficit in ADHD+IGD group may become similar to that in HC group. Repetitive activation of brain reward and working memory systems during continuous gaming may result in an increase in neuronal connectivity within the parieto-occipital and temporal regions for the ADHD+IGD group. PMID:28145657

  10. Clinical observations on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Qing; Li, Fu-Hai; Zhu, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Ruo-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy and related factors. The medical records of 190 children diagnosed with frontal lobe epilepsy at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively collected, and a follow-up analysis of the prevalence of ADHD in these children was conducted. Of the 161 children with an effective follow-up, 59.0% (95/161) with frontal lobe epilepsy suffered from ADHD as well. Analysis of epilepsy and ADHD-related factors indicated that the incidence of ADHD was 89.4% (76/85) in children with abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) discharges on the most recent EEG, which was significantly higher than the ADHD incidence of 25% (19/76) in children with normal readings on the most recent EEG (P < .01). Children with frontal lobe epilepsy have a high incidence of ADHD. Sustained abnormal discharge on the electroencephalogram is associated with increased comorbidity of ADHD with frontal lobe epilepsy.

  11. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the early years: diagnostic issues and educational relevance.

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    In this study we discuss implications of the dimensional versus categorical approach in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and focus on the educational relevance of an early assessment. In a longitudinal study in a German community sample we investigated the development of ADHD symptoms from kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 as well as the association to pre-academic skills and later academic performance. At three time points in kindergarten, children (original sample N = 793; Mn age 4 years 10 months) were assessed in regard to school-relevant precursors of reading, spelling and mathematical abilities; ADHD symptoms were rated by parents and preschool teachers. In elementary school academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was measured with standardized tests. Results show that stability of ADHD symptoms during preschool was high considering the dimensional approach, whereas in regard to the categorical classification many children crossing the cut-off point at one measurement point did not do so at the next assessment. Furthermore, preschool ADHD symptoms were negatively correlated with all school-relevant precursors. This was more pronounced for symptoms of inattention than for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Observing later development, preschool ADHD symptoms predicted academic achievement in mathematics and reading at the end of Grade 1 even after individual differences in nonverbal intelligence and specific precursors had been statistically controlled for.

  12. A systematic review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mathematical ability: current findings and future implications.

    PubMed

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Momi, Sukhleen Kaur; Asherson, Philip; Malki, Karim

    2015-08-27

    Several recent behavioural and behavioural genetic studies have investigated the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mathematical ability. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of these studies to date. An emphasis was placed on reviewing results that explored the association between mathematics and the two ADHD components of attention and hyperactivity-impulsivity separately. A systematic search of quantitative studies investigating the association between mathematics and ADHD was conducted across five databases (PsychINFO, Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus). A total of 30 cross-sectional and four longitudinal studies were included in this review. Narrative synthesis of the results was provided using PRISMA guidelines. Taken together, the studies pointed at substantial evidence for a negative association between ADHD symptoms and mathematical ability. This association was particularly marked for the inattentive component of ADHD than for the hyperactive-impulsive component. Evidence from twin studies also showed a significant genetic correlation between mathematics and ADHD, which was greater for the inattentive component of ADHD compared to the hyperactive-impulsive component. The differential relationship of the hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention domains with mathematics emphasises the heterogeneity within the disorder and suggests a partially different aetiology of the two ADHD domains. A better understanding of the aetiology of ADHD could help develop more efficient interventions aimed at the reduction of its symptoms. It could also offer an explanatory framework for shortcomings in achievement and inform the development of non-pharmacological intervention strategies.

  13. Atypical Processing of Gaze Cues and Faces Explains Comorbidity between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Kochhar, Puja; Hamilton, Antonia; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Simeou, Marina; Hollis, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the neurobiological basis of comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared children with ASD, ADHD or ADHD+ASD and typically developing controls (CTRL) on behavioural and electrophysiological correlates of gaze cue and face processing. We measured effects…

  14. Psychopathological rating scales for diagnostic use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rösler, M; Retz, W; Thome, J; Schneider, M; Stieglitz, R-D; Falkai, P

    2006-09-01

    The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a complex procedure which should include retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms either by patient recall or third party information, diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV, current adult ADHD psychopathology including symptom severity and pervasiveness, functional impairment, quality of life and comorbidity. In order to obtain a systematic database for the diagnosis and evaluation of the course ADHD rating scales can be very useful. This article reviews rating instruments that have found general acceptance. The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Childhood Symptoms Scale by Barkley and Murphy try to make a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms. The Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Current Symptoms Scales by Barkley and Murphy (CSS), the Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS) by Adler et al. and Kessler et al. or the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Self Report Scale (ADHD-SR by Rösler et al.) are self report rating scales focusing mainly on the DSM-IV criteria. The CAARS and the CSS have other report forms too. The Brown ADD Rating Scale (Brown ADD-RS) and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Other Report Scale (ADHD-OR by Rösler et al.) are instruments for use by clinicians or significant others. Both self rating scales and observer report scales quantify the ADHD symptoms by use of a Likert scale mostly ranging from 0 to 3. This makes the instruments useful to follow the course of the disease quantitatively. Comprehensive diagnostic interviews not only evaluate diagnostic criteria, but also assess different psychopathological syndrome scores, functional disability measures, indices of pervasiveness and information about comorbid disorders. The most comprehensive procedures are the Brown ADD Diagnostic Form and the Adult Interview (AI) by Barkley and Murphy. An instrument of particular interest is the Wender Reimherr Interview (WRI

  15. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Cross-sectional survey. Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for ADHD symptoms in these patients warrants further evaluation in longitudinal intervention studies.

  16. Reliability and validity of DS-ADHD: A decision support system on attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kuo-Chung; Huang, Yu-Shu; Tseng, Chien-Fu; Huang, Hsin-Jou; Wang, Chih-Huan; Tai, Hsin-Yi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of the clinical use of the self-built decision support system, diagnosis-supported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (DS-ADHD), in an effort to develop the DS-ADHD system, by probing into the development of indicating patterns of past screening support systems for ADHD. The study collected data based on 107 subjects, who were divided into two groups, non-ADHD and ADHD, based on the doctor's determination, using the DSM-IV diagnostic standards. The two groups then underwent Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) and DS-ADHD testing. The survey and testing results underwent one-way ANOVA and split-half method statistical analysis, in order to further understand whether there were any differences between the DS-ADHD and the identification tools used in today's clinical trials. The results of the study are as follows: 1) The ROC area between the TOVA and the clinical identification rate is 0.787 (95% confidence interval: 0.701-0.872); 2) The ROC area between the DS-ADHD and the clinical identification rate is 0.867 (95% confidence interval: 0.801-0.933). The study results show that DS-ADHD has the characteristics of screening for ADHD, based on its reliability and validity. It does not display any statistical differences when compared with TOVA systems that are currently on the market. However, the system is more effective and the accuracy rate is better than TOVA. It is a good tool to screen ADHD not only in Chinese children, but also in western country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep quality in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Alm, Barbara; Sobanski, Esther

    2007-04-01

    Sleep disorders are common in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two sleep questionnaires; the Brown ADD Scale, the Symptom-Checklist-90-R, and a self-developed symptom questionnaire were administered in this study. In a sample of 61 patients without comorbidity, current substance abuse and medication intake, sleep problems were reported more often than in healthy controls. A lack of being refreshed in the morning was very closely associated with ADHD symptomatology whereas insomnia was related to the presence of comorbidity and depressive symptoms. In the total sample (N = 120), medication intake (mainly stimulants) was not related to any of the sleep parameters. It seems important to screen adult patients with ADHD for the presence of sleep disorders, especially insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and sleep-related breathing disorders (the last in conjunction with the body mass index). Since primary sleep disorders are associated with cognitive impairment, one might expect that ADHD symptomatology may improve if comorbid sleep disorders are adequately treated in addition to the specific ADHD treatment.

  18. Acupuncture for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuro-psychiatric problem, affecting 7-9% of children. Pharmacological interventions are widely used with behavioral treatments in ADHD. Still, the origin of ADHD is unclear, limiting pharmacological effectiveness and making adverse effects common. The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased, especially for developmental and behavioral disorders, such as ADHD. CAM is used by 60-65% of parents of children with ADHD to relieve ADHD-associated symptoms and to avoid the side effects of conventional medication. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with ADHD, but the available evidence of its effectiveness is insufficient. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in patients (both and each treatment naive and conventional therapy children) with ADHD (any subtype) compared to the waitlist control. Methods/Design This study is a waitlist controlled open trial. We used a computer generated randomization scheme. This randomised, controlled trial had two parallel arms (acupuncture, and waitlist group). Each arm consisted of 40 participants. The acupuncture group received acupuncture treatment two times per week for a total of 12 sessions over 6 weeks. Post-treatment follow-up was performed 3 weeks later to complement the 12 acupuncture sessions. Participants in the waitlist group did not receive acupuncture treatments during the first six weeks but were only required to be assessed. After 6 weeks, the same treatments given to the acupuncture group were provided to the waitlist group. The primary outcome of this trial included differences in Korean version of ADHD-Rating Scale (K-ADHD-RS) before randomization, 3 weeks and 6 weeks after randomization, and 3 weeks after completing the treatment. Discussion Subjective measurements, like K-ADHD-RS, are commonly used in ADHD. Although these measurements have adequate reliability and validity

  19. [Is emotional dysregulation a component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?].

    PubMed

    Villemonteix, T; Purper-Ouakil, D; Romo, L

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents. It is characterized by age-inappropriate inattention/impulsiveness and/or hyperactivity symptoms. ADHD shows a high comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), a disorder that features symptoms of emotional lability. Due to this comorbidity, emotional lability was long considered a secondary consequence of ADHD, which could arise under the influence of environmental factors such as inefficient parenting practices, as part of an ODD diagnosis. In this model of heterotypic continuity, emotional lability was considered not to play any causal role regarding ADHD symptomatology. As opposed to this view, it is now well established that a large number of children with ADHD and without any comorbid disorder exhibit symptoms of emotional lability. Furthermore, recent studies have found that negative emotionality accounts for significant unique variance in ADHD symptom severity, along with motor-perceptual and executive function deficits. Barkley proposed that ADHD is characterized by deficits of executive functions, and that a deficiency in the executive control of emotions is a necessary component of ADHD. According to this theory, the extent to which an individual with ADHD displays a deficiency in behavioral inhibition is the extent to which he or she will automatically display an equivalent degree of deficiency in emotional inhibition. However, not all children with ADHD exhibit symptoms of emotional lability, and studies have found that the association between emotional lability and ADHD was not mediated by executive function or motivational deficits. Task-based and resting state neuroimaging studies have disclosed an altered effective connectivity between regions dedicated to emotional regulation in children with ADHD when compared to typically developing children, notably between the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and

  20. [Long-term courses in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Huss, M

    2004-03-18

    ADHD was long considered to be the attention deficit disorder of childhood. Observations over the long-term have, however, shown that some one-third of victims also continue to meet the criteria for ADHD in adulthood too. In many cases, such additional psychiatric conditions as depression or an addictive illness are also to be seen. Today, ADHD is believed to be a mainly heritable disorder with deviations in the dopaminergic system. Re-evaluation of the condition now focuses attention on the attention-related, rather than the hyperactivity-related aspects of the problem. Currently, the best therapeutic results are achieved through the use of stimulants coupled with intensive paediatric psychiatric care.

  1. [ADH/D and impulsiveness: Prevalence of impulse control disorders and other comorbidities, in 81 adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADH/D)].

    PubMed

    Porteret, R; Bouchez, J; Baylé, F J; Varescon, I

    2016-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADH/D) is a neuropsychological developmental disorder characterized by pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Whereas it is well known in children, there is still little information about ADH/D in adults, including prevalence. Indeed, there are actually no epidemiological studies in France, despite the considerable impact of this disorder in a patient's professional and affective life. Moreover, ADH/D rarely stays isolated, and many comorbidities often complicate the diagnostic investigation. It is well known that the so-called ADH/D is composed of two main categories of symptoms (Attentional Disorder/Hyperactiviy Disorder), but Impulsiveness also remains a major symptom. The aim of this study was to evaluate not only the prevalence of Impulse Control Disorders (ICD) but also psychological and addictive comorbidities among adult patients with ADH/D. A total of 100 patients from specialized consultations of adult ADH/D were evaluated in this study, but only 81 were included after presenting all the clinical criteria of ADH/D. We used the DSM IV-T-R for ADH/D, the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview a semi-structured clinical interview assessing impulse control disorders (ICD) (compulsive buying, trichotillomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, kleptomania, pyromania and intermittent explosive disorder), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview in order to evaluate psychiatric and addictive comorbidities. More than 90 % of the patients met the early apparition criteria of ADH/D (before 7years). More than half of the patients presented a mixed type of ADH/D (both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive forms): 55.6 % vs 44.4 % for the inattentive type. The vast majority of patients showed a complete form (with a total of 6 or more symptoms out of 9, of inattentive and/or impulsive-hyperactivity category): 93.8 % and only 6.2 % presented a sub-syndromic form of ADH/D (with

  2. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Hemodynamic response of children with attention-deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) to emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Nakato, Emi; Kanazawa, So; Shimamura, Keiichi; Sakuta, Yuiko; Sakuta, Ryoichi; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulty recognizing facial expressions. They identify angry expressions less accurately than typically developing (TD) children, yet little is known about their atypical neural basis for the recognition of facial expressions. Here, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine the distinctive cerebral hemodynamics of ADHD and TD children while they viewed happy and angry expressions. We measured the hemodynamic responses of 13 ADHD boys and 13 TD boys to happy and angry expressions at their bilateral temporal areas, which are sensitive to face processing. The ADHD children showed an increased concentration of oxy-Hb for happy faces but not for angry faces, while TD children showed increased oxy-Hb for both faces. Moreover, the individual peak latency of hemodynamic response in the right temporal area showed significantly greater variance in the ADHD group than in the TD group. Such atypical brain activity observed in ADHD boys may relate to their preserved ability to recognize a happy expression and their difficulty recognizing an angry expression. We firstly demonstrated that NIRS can be used to detect atypical hemodynamic response to facial expressions in ADHD children.

  4. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Scassellati, Catia; Zanardini, Roberta; Tiberti, Alessandra; Pezzani, Marco; Valenti, Vera; Effedri, Paola; Filippini, Elena; Conte, Stefano; Ottolini, Alberto; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2014-03-01

    It has been proposed that the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiopathogenesis. Alterations in BDNF serum levels have been observed in childhood/adulthood neurodevelopmental pathologies, but no evidence is available for BDNF serum concentrations in ADHD. The study includes 45 drug-naïve ADHD children and 45 age-sex matched healthy subjects. Concentration of serum BDNF was determined by the ELISA method. BDNF serum levels in patients with ADHD were not different from those of controls (mean ± SD; ADHD: 39.33 ± 10.41 ng/ml; controls: 38.82 ± 8.29 ng/ml, t = -0.26, p = 0.80). Our findings indicate no alteration of serum BDNF levels in untreated patients with ADHD. A further stratification for cognitive, neuropsychological and psychopathological assessment in a larger sample could be useful to clarify the role of BDNF in the endophenotype characterization of ADHD.

  5. Associated factors with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Malek, Ayyoub; Amiri, Shahrokh; Sadegfard, Majid; Abdi, Salman; Amini, Saeedeh

    2012-09-01

    The current study attempted to investigate factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children without co-morbidities. In this case-control study, 164 ADHD children who attended the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran were compared with 166 normal children selected in a random-cluster method from primary and secondary schools. Clinical interviews based on DSM-IV-TR using K-SADS were used to diagnose ADHD cases and to select the control group. Participants were matched for age. We used chi-square and binary logistic regression for data analysis. Among the associated factors with ADHD were gender and maternal employment. Boys (OR 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.34 - 0.86) and those children with working mothers (OR 0.16: 95% confidence interval: 0.06 - 0.86) suffered more from ADHD. The birth season, family size, birth order, and parental kinship were not among risk factors for ADHD. The results of the study show that maternal employment and male gender are among the associated risk factors for ADHD.

  6. Right hemisphere brain morphology, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtype, and social comprehension.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott R; Miller, Carlin J; Bloom, Juliana S; Hynd, George W; Craggs, Jason G

    2006-02-01

    Social comprehension involves empathy for others' experiences and appropriate responses to nonverbal cues. Previous research using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has suggested a relationship between brain morphology and psychiatric syndromes, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), that typically entail social difficulties. The right hemisphere, specifically, has been associated with social skill deficits, and numerous studies have also associated ADHD with social skill deficits. No studies, however, have examined the association of ADHD subtype with both social comprehension and right-hemisphere morphology. Fifty-nine children (6-12 years old) underwent MRI, from which the right hemisphere was classified into four morphologic subtypes. Children were also grouped by ADHD subtype or clinical control status. From Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) items, a social comprehension subscale was constructed. Analyses revealed significant differences in social comprehension based on ADHD subtype. Differences in social comprehension based on ADHD status were especially pronounced in children with atypical right-hemisphere morphology. Thus, the diagnosis of ADHD might be associated with underlying risk in the area of social comprehension, especially for children with atypical right-hemisphere morphology.

  7. Cerebellar Volume in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Wyciszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Pawlak, Mikolaj A; Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with altered cerebellar volume and cerebellum is associated with cognitive performance. However there are mixed results regarding the cerebellar volume in young patients with ADHD. To clarify the size and direction of this effect, we conducted the analysis on the large public database of brain images. The aim of this study was to confirm that cerebellar volume in ADHD is smaller than in control subjects in currently the largest publicly available cohort of ADHD subjects.We applied cross-sectional case control study design by comparing 286 ADHD patients (61 female) with age and gender matched control subjects. Volumetric measurements of cerebellum were obtained using automated segmentation with FreeSurfer 5.1. Statistical analysis was performed in R-CRAN statistical environment. Patients with ADHD had significantly smaller total cerebellar volumes (134.5±17.11cm(3) vs.138.90±15.32 cm(3)). The effect was present in both females and males (males 136.9±14.37 cm(3) vs. 141.20±14.75 cm(3); females 125.7±12.34 cm(3) vs. 131.20±15.03 cm(3)). Age was positively and significantly associated with the cerebellar volumes. These results indicate either delayed or disrupted cerebellar development possibly contributing to ADHD pathophysiology.

  8. Dynamical nonstationarity of resting EEGs in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).

    PubMed

    Latchoumane, Charles-Francois V; Kim, In-Hye; Sohn, Hansem; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2013-01-01

    This study applied dynamical nonstationarity analysis (DNA) to the resting EEGs of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). We aimed to assess and characterize AD/HD using features based on the local and global duration of dynamical microstate. We hypothesized that AD/HD patients would have difficulties in maintaining stable cognitive states (e.g., attention deficit and impulsivity) and that they would thus exhibit EEGs with temporal dynamics distinct from normal controls, i.e., rapidly and frequently changing dynamics. To test this hypothesis, we recorded EEGs from 12 adolescent subjects with AD/HD and 11 age-matched healthy subjects in the resting state with eyes closed and eyes open. We found that AD/HD patients exhibited significantly faster changes in dynamics than controls in the right temporal region during the eyes closed condition, but slower changes in dynamics in the frontal region during the eyes open condition. AD/HD patients exhibited a disruption in the rate of change of dynamics in the frontotemporal region at rest, probably due to executive and attention processes. We suggest that the DNA using complementary local and global features based on the duration of dynamical microstates could be a useful tool for the clinical diagnosis of subjects with AD/HD.

  9. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  10. Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

  11. ADHD: A Scientific Fact or a Factual Opinion? A Critique of the Veracity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, John; Jehan, Zenib

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the debate on the phenomenon of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It explores how and why the discourses surrounding the aetiology and interventions are dominated by a bio-medical understanding of ADHD. Competing discourses are examined, particularly those marginalised because they do not support the…

  12. ADHD: A Scientific Fact or a Factual Opinion? A Critique of the Veracity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, John; Jehan, Zenib

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the debate on the phenomenon of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It explores how and why the discourses surrounding the aetiology and interventions are dominated by a bio-medical understanding of ADHD. Competing discourses are examined, particularly those marginalised because they do not support the…

  13. Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

  14. Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths

    PubMed Central

    Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

  15. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  16. Striatal Sensitivity During Reward Processing in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to deficits in the dopaminergic reward-processing circuitry, yet existing evidence is limited and the influence of genetic variation affecting dopamine signaling remains unknown. We investigated striatal responsivity to rewards in ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and whether it is modulated by variation in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). Method We tested 29 male adolescents with ADHD-CT and 30 age-, handedness-and gender-matched healthy controls, selected for DAT110/6 haplotype dosage. Based on previous research, we focused our analysis on the ventral striatum and the caudate nucleus. Results Three main findings emerged: first, male adolescents with ADHD-CT did not differ from controls in terms of blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI response to reward-predicting cues (gain or loss-avoidance) in the ventral striatum. Second, male adolescents with ADHD-CT showed a relative increase, compared to controls, in the striatal BOLD response to successful outcomes. Third, DAT110/6 dosage differentially modulated neural activation to reward-predicting cues in the caudate nucleus in the ADHD-CT and control groups. Conclusions The findings challenge the idea of a deficit in anticipation-related activation in the ventral striatum in male adolescents with ADHD-CT, while suggesting that the processing of reward outcomes is dysfunctional, consistent with a recent neurobiological model of the disorder. Preliminary evidence suggests that polymorphic variations in genes affecting dopamine signaling need to be taken into consideration when investigating reward-related deficits in ADHD-CT. PMID:22721595

  17. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domains at Population-Typical Exposure Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly; Mark Knottnerus, G.; Cavanagh, Kevin; Friderici, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domains are related to blood lead level, even at background exposure levels typical in western countries. However, recent studies disagreed as to whether lead was related to inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity within the ADHD…

  18. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domains at Population-Typical Exposure Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly; Mark Knottnerus, G.; Cavanagh, Kevin; Friderici, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domains are related to blood lead level, even at background exposure levels typical in western countries. However, recent studies disagreed as to whether lead was related to inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity within the ADHD…

  19. [Awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Greece].

    PubMed

    Pehlivanidis, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopment disorder of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. In adults, the clinical picture of ADHD is complex and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is the rule. The documentation that the disorder had a childhood onset and the various comorbid symptomatologies present both in childhood and adult life represent the most influential obstacles for the accurate clinical diagnosis of the disorder. In 75% of cases with adult ADHD there is at least one coexisting comorbid disorder, with anxiety and mood disorders as well as substance abuse and impulse control disorders being the most prevalent ones. Adult psychiatrists have limited experience in the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of the disorder. Greece is a member of the European Network Adult ADHD (ENAA), founded in 2003, aiming to increase awareness of the disorder and to improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. A clinic where diagnosis as well as treatment recommendations are given after a thorough assessment of adult ADHD patients, is hosted at the First Department of Psychiatry of the Athens National and Kapodistian University. The clinic is in close collaboration with ENAA. The diagnosis of ADHD is given after a detailed evaluation of the patient, based on history taken, self-administered questionnaires and a specific psychiatric interview. The reliable trace of the symptoms' onset back in early childhood, current symptomatology, as well as its impact on at least two major areas of functioning (school, home, work or personal relationships) are pivotal for the assessment procedure. Special attention should be paid in the distinction of symptoms often coexisting with the core symptoms of the ADHD, such as emotional liability, incessant mental activity, avoidance of situations like queuing, especially when there is also frustration, from those indicating a comorbid

  20. A comparison of family adversity and family dysfunction in families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and families of children without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Foley, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the presence of family adversity and family dysfunction in 32 families who had children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with 23 families with similar sociodemographic characteristics whose children did not have ADHD. A descriptive comparative design was used to investigate family adversity and family dysfunction. Families of children with ADHD had significantly higher levels of family dysfunction than families whose children did not have ADHD. Earlier identification and intervention with families of children who have ADHD may result in healthier family and child outcomes. © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed.

  2. Characterizing adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and comorbid borderline personality disorder: ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, G K; McHugh, L; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize adults with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) with regard to ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors. A between-group design compared a group of individuals diagnosed with ADHD (n=40) with a group diagnosed with BPD and who also met the criteria for ADHD (ADHD+BPD) (n=20). Significant differences were observed for both childhood and current impulsivity symptoms, whereby ADHD+BPD exhibited increased impulsivity; no differences on self-report and cognitive measures of impulsivity were reported. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly higher on measures of depression, anxiety and numerous other axis I and II conditions. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly lower on most measures of intellectual functioning and attention, however largely not on those relating to response inhibition. Furthermore, group differences were observed for psychosocial factors, including education, substance use and criminal record. Comorbid ADHD and BPD is characterized by more symptoms of impulsivity, additional psychopathology, comparatively lower intellectual and attentional functioning and increased psychosocial difficulties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy versus treatment as usual in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Janssen, Lotte; Kan, Cornelis C; Carpentier, Pieter J; Sizoo, Bram; Hepark, Sevket; Grutters, Janneke; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E M

    2015-09-15

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with a lifelong pattern of core symptoms that is associated with impairments of functioning in daily life. This has a substantial personal and economic impact. In clinical practice there is a high need for additional or alternative interventions for existing treatments, usually consisting of pharmacotherapy and/or psycho-education. Although previous studies show preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving executive functioning, these studies have methodological limitations. This study will take account of these limitations and will examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in further detail. A multi-centre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial will be conducted in N = 120 adults with ADHD. Patients will be randomised to MBCT in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. Assessments will take place at baseline and at three, six and nine months after baseline. Primary outcome measure will be severity of ADHD symptoms rated by a blinded clinician. Secondary outcome measures will be self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, positive mental health and general functioning. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. This trial will offer valuable information about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MBCT in addition to TAU compared to TAU alone in adults swith ADHD. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02463396. Registered 8 June 2015.

  4. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with altered heart rate asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerová, I; Ondrejka, I; Farský, I; Višňovcová, Z; Mešťaník, M; Javorka, M; Jurko, A; Čalkovská, A

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with complex neurocardiac integrity. We aimed to study heart rate time asymmetry as a nonlinear qualitative feature of heart rate variability indicating complexity of cardiac autonomic control at rest and in response to physiological stress (orthostasis) in children suffering from ADHD. Twenty boys with ADHD and 20 healthy age-matched boys at the age of 8 to 12 years were examined. The continuous ECG was recorded in a supine position and during postural change from lying to standing (orthostasis). Time irreversibility indices - Porta's (P%), Guzik's (G%) and Ehlers' (E) - were evaluated. Our analysis showed significantly reduced heart rate asymmetry indices at rest (P%: 49.8 % vs. 52.2 %; G%: 50.2 % vs. 53.2 %; p<0.02), and in response to orthostatic load (P%: 52.4 % vs. 54.5 %, G%: 52.3 % vs. 54.5 %; p<0.05) associated with tachycardia in ADHD children compared to controls. Concluding, our study firstly revealed the altered heart rate asymmetry pattern in children suffering from ADHD at rest as well as in response to posture change from lying to standing (orthostasis). These findings might reflect an abnormal complex cardiac regulatory system as a potential mechanism leading to later cardiac adverse outcomes in ADHD.

  6. Reinforcing and subjective effects of methylphenidate in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    English, Joseph; Robinson, Rachel; Hallyburton, Matt; Chrisman, Allan K.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There has been controversy over the abuse potential of methylphenidate (MPH) in the context of treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective The objective of this study was to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of oral MPH in adults with and without ADHD. Materials and methods Following screening, 33 adults (n= 16 with ADHD; n=17 free from psychiatric diagnoses) completed four pairs of experimental sessions, each of which included a sampling session and a self-administration session. During sampling sessions, subjects received in randomized order 0 (placebo), 20, 40, and 60 mg MPH. During self-administration sessions, subjects completed a progressive ratio (PR) task to earn portions of the dose received on the corresponding sampling session. Subjective effects were recorded throughout all sessions. The main outcome measure for the study was the number of ratios completed on the PR task. Secondary measures included peak subjective effects and area-under-the-curve values for subjective effects. Results Compared to the control group, the ADHD group completed more ratios on the PR task. Both groups showed robust effects of methylphenidate on subjective endpoints. Main effects of group were noted on subjective effects involving concentration and arousal. Conclusions Compared to placebo, MPH produced reinforcing effects only for the ADHD group and not for the control group. Increases in stimulant-related subjective effects in non-ADHD subjects were not associated with drug reinforcement. PMID:19104775

  7. Oculomotor inhibition in children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hanisch, C; Radach, R; Holtkamp, K; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Konrad, K

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to distinguish between a general deficit in oculomotor control and a deficit restricted to inhibitory functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we were interested in differentiating between a general inhibition deficit and deficient subfunctions of inhibition. We used a prosaccade task to measure general oculomotor abilities in 22 children with ADHD and in age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A fixation, an antisaccade and a countermanding saccade task were used to measure specific aspects of oculomotor inhibition. Two major results were obtained: First, our prosaccade task suggests similar saccadic response preparation and saccadic accuracy in the ADHD compared to the control children. Secondly, the fixation and the countermanding saccade task indicate deficits on measures of oculomotor inhibition in the ADHD group. While patients were specifically impaired in stopping an already initiated response or in suppressing exploratory saccades in a novel situation, inhibition of a prepotent response was not deficient. Our data thus indicate an underlying impairment in cognitive inhibition in ADHD that has been associated with prefrontal lobe functions. More specifically, as the anterior cingulate gyrus has been associated with the countermanding saccade task and group differences were most pronounced in this paradigm our data are in line with imaging data stressing the importance of this cortical structure in the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  8. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD): parental characterization and perception.

    PubMed

    Brook, Uzi; Boaz, Mona

    2005-04-01

    Sixty-six parents of adolescents (mean age, 14.8 years), who attended special education classes and who were diagnosed as having attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD), were interviewed. The comorbidity of the ADHD group included emotional lability and/or depression, 70%; oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 67%; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 44%; addiction to buying, 44%; and aggressiveness, 62%. Twenty-one percent were either involved in the past or presently using drugs. Nine percent had attempted suicide. According to their parents, the main characteristic of these adolescents was low self-image. Parents enumerated five negative characteristics: impulsiveness; nervousness; angered easily ('short fused'); aggressiveness with cursing and outbursts; and impaired sociability with impoliteness.

  10. Improving antisaccade performance in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Karatekin, Canan

    2006-09-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the effects of task manipulations on antisaccade accuracy and response times (RTs) of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), age-matched controls, 10-year-olds and young adults. Order effects were tested by administering the task at the beginning and end of the session. Other manipulations involved a visual landmark to reduce demands on working memory and internal generation of saccades; spatially specific and non-specific cues at three intervals; and central engagement of attention through perceptual and cognitive means at three intervals. As expected, adolescents with ADHD were impaired relative to age-matched controls in terms of accuracy and saccadic RT on the first administration of the task. Although their accuracy improved with most of the manipulations, it did not improve disproportionately compared to age-matched controls. Nevertheless, with most of the manipulations, they could achieve the same level of accuracy as unaided controls on the first administration of the task. In contrast, the saccadic RTs of the ADHD group came close to normal under several conditions, indicating that elevated antisaccade RTs in this disorder may be related to attentional factors. The ADHD group made more premature saccades and fewer corrective saccades than both the age-matched and younger groups, suggesting difficulties with impulsivity and goal neglect. The findings suggest that cognitive scaffolds can ameliorate at least some of the inhibition deficits in adolescents with ADHD.

  11. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD): adolescents perspective.

    PubMed

    Brook, Uzi; Boaz, Mona

    2005-08-01

    Three hundred and eight pupils in the age group 12-18 years were interviewed and examined. They had been diagnosed as having attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD), and were attending a high school devoted to special education. Their classification into subgroups was as follows: ADHD - inattentive (I) = 22.1%, ADHD - hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) = 12.3% and combined = 42.2%. Only 25% of them were treated by methylphenidate (Ritalin). Ninety-four percent of them were diagnosed with comorbidity of 'learning disabilities'. Thirty-four percent of them reported being severely stressed when going to school and sitting in class. Their complaints were: tiredness and excessive needs to sleep, frequent quarrelling with close friends, feeling different from other classmates and having low self-esteem (SE). They complaint that their parents don't understand them. Things that irritated them the most were being lied to and coercion by others. The authors suggest to consider ADHD/LD as neurobehavioral disability. It is mandatory to prepare them for adult life with proper social skills and a suitable occupation.

  12. Treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and irritability: results from the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD (MTA).

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Simonoff, Emily; McGough, James J; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Arnold, L Eugene; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Clinically impairing irritability affects 25% to 45% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); yet, we know little about what interventions are effective in treating children with ADHD and co-occurring irritability. We used data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) to address 3 aims: to establish whether irritability in children with ADHD can be distinguished from other symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); to examine whether ADHD treatment is effective in treating irritability; and to examine how irritability influences ADHD treatment outcomes. Secondary analyses of data from the MTA included multivariate analyses, and intent-to-treat random-effects regression models were used. Irritability was separable from other ODD symptoms. For treating irritability, systematic stimulant treatment was superior to behavioral management but not to routine community care; a combination of stimulants and behavioral treatment was superior to community care and to behavioral treatment alone, but not to medication alone. Irritability did not moderate the impact of treatment on parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms in any of the 4 treatment groups. Treatments targeting ADHD symptoms are helpful for improving irritability in children with ADHD. Moreover, irritability does not appear to influence the response to treatment of ADHD. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychaitry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-year latent class trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a clinical sample not selected for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L Eugene; Ganocy, Stephen J; Mount, Katherine; Youngstrom, Eric A; Frazier, Thomas; Fristad, Mary; Horwitz, Sarah M; Birmaher, Boris; Findling, Robert; Kowatch, Robert A; Demeter, Christine; Axelson, David; Gill, Mary Kay; Marsh, Linda

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to examine trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) sample. The LAMS study assessed 684 children aged 6 to 12 years with the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and rating scales semi-annually for 3 years. Although they were selected for elevated manic symptoms, 526 children had baseline ADHD diagnoses. With growth mixture modeling (GMM), we separately analyzed inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, covarying baseline age. Multiple standard methods determined optimal fit. The χ(2) and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance compared resulting latent classes/trajectories on clinical characteristics and medication. Three latent class trajectories best described inattentive symptoms, and 4 classes best described hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Inattentive trajectories maintained their relative position over time. Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms had 2 consistent trajectories (least and most severe). A third trajectory (4.5%) started mild, then escalated; and a fourth (14%) started severe but improved dramatically. The improving trajectory was associated with the highest rate of ADHD and lowest rate of bipolar diagnoses. Three-fourths of the mildest inattention class were also in the mildest hyperactive/impulsive class; 72% of the severest inattentive class were in the severest hyperactive/impulsive class, but the severest inattention class also included 62% of the improving hyperactive-impulsive class. An ADHD rather than bipolar diagnosis prognosticates a better course of hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive, symptoms. High overlap of relative severity between inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity confirms the link between these symptom clusters. Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms wane more over time. Group means are insufficient to understand individual ADHD prognosis. A small subgroup deteriorates over time in

  14. Three-Year Latent Class Trajectories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in a Clinical Sample Not Selected for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Ganocy, Stephen J.; Mount, Katherine; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Frazier, Thomas; Fristad, Mary; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Birmaher, Boris; Findling, Robert; Kowatch, Robert A.; Demeter, Christine; Axelson, David; Gill, Mary Kay; Marsh, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) sample. Method The LAMS study assessed 684 children aged 6-12 with Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and rating scales semi-annually for 3 years. Though selected for elevated manic symptoms, 526 had baseline ADHD diagnoses. With growth mixture modeling (GMM), we separately analyzed inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, covarying baseline age. Multiple standard methods determined optimal fit. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared resulting latent classes/trajectories on clinical characteristics and medication. Results Three latent class trajectories best described inattentive symptoms; 4 classes best described hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Inattentive trajectories maintained their relative position over time. Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms had 2 consistent trajectories (least and most severe). Another (4.5%) started mild, then escalated; and a fourth (14%) started severe but improved dramatically. The improving trajectory had the highest rate of ADHD and lowest rate of bipolar diagnoses. Three-fourths of the mildest inattention class were also in the mildest hyperactive/impulsive class; 72% of the severest inattentive class were in the severest hyperactive/impulsive class; but the severest inattention class also included 62% of the improving hyperactive-impulsive class. Conclusion An ADHD rather than bipolar diagnosis prognosticates a better course of hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive, symptoms. High overlap of relative severity between inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity confirms the link between these symptom clusters. Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms wane more over time. Group means are insufficient to understand individual ADHD prognosis. A small subgroup deteriorates over time in hyperactivity/impulsivity and

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  16. The cognitive genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): sustained attention as a candidate phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bellgrove, Mark A; Hawi, Ziarih; Gill, Michael; Robertson, Ian H

    2006-08-01

    Here we describe the application of cognitive genetics to the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive genetics owes much to the pioneering work of cognitive neuropsychologists such as John Marshall, whose careful observations of cognitive dissociations between brain-lesioned patients greatly advanced the theoretical understanding of normal cognitive function. These theories have in turn helped to constrain linkages between candidate genes and cognitive processes and thus help to drive the relatively new field of cognitive genetics in a hypothesis-driven fashion. We examined the relationship between sustained attention deficits in ADHD and genetic variation in a catecholamine-related gene, dopamine beta hydroxylase (DbetaH). DBH encodes the enzyme that converts dopamine to noradrenaline and is crucial to catecholamine regulation. A polymorphism with the DBH gene has been associated with ADHD. In fifty-two children with ADHD, we examined whether variation in the Taq I DBH gene polymorphism was related to sustained attention performance. Participants performed the Sustained Attention to Response Test (SART). Performance on the SART discriminates ADHD from control children, and in imaging work, is associated with right frontoparietal activation. A significant effect of DBH genotype was found on SART performance measures. Children possessing two copies of the ADHD-associated risk allele (A2) had significantly poorer sustained attention than those ADHD children who did not possess this allele or a non-genotyped control group. The DBH gene may contribute to the susceptibility for ADHD, in part because of its varying effects on the development of brain mechanisms mediating sustained attention.

  17. No genetic association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease in nine ADHD candidate SNPs.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Julia M; Romanos, Marcel; Gerlach, Manfred; Berg, Daniela; Schulte, Claudia

    2017-02-07

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) involve pathological changes in brain structures such as the basal ganglia, which are essential for the control of motor and cognitive behavior and impulsivity. The cause of ADHD and PD remains unknown, but there is increasing evidence that both seem to result from a complicated interplay of genetic and environmental factors affecting numerous cellular processes and brain regions. To explore the possibility of common genetic pathways within the respective pathophysiologies, nine ADHD candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes were tested for association with PD in 5333 cases and 12,019 healthy controls: one variant, respectively, in the genes coding for synaptosomal-associated protein 25 k (SNAP25), the dopamine (DA) transporter (SLC6A3; DAT1), DA receptor D4 (DRD4), serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the norepinephrine transporter SLC6A2 and three SNPs in cadherin 13 (CDH13). Information was extracted from a recent meta-analysis of five genome-wide association studies, in which 7,689,524 SNPs in European samples were successfully imputed. No significant association was observed after correction for multiple testing. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that candidate variants implicated in the pathogenesis of ADHD do not play a substantial role in PD.

  18. [Effectiveness of neuropsychological training in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Amonn, Frauke; Frölich, Jan; Döpfner, Manfred

    2013-05-01

    Recently published studies on the effects of neuropsychological training in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reflect our present knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disorder. This review article collects the results of published treatment studies drawn from a MEDLINE search. Because of the restricted number of available studies we considered randomized studies as well as studies with a lower evidence level, including case reports. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the study samples, we restrict our interpretation of the study results to the application of various diagnostic criteria, to different levels of effect measurement, and to diverse, only partially comparable treatment contents and length. Despite these limitations, neuropsychological training may be effective in reducing some specific cognitive deficits in ADHD. In a next step replication studies on homogeneous samples would be required under application of comparable training modules.

  19. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention.

  20. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Amanda K.; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G.

    2015-01-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0–6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach’s alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75% vs 25%; Fischer’s Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention. PMID:26429569

  1. Regulation of sadness via acceptance or suppression in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Sadohara, Chiharu; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-12-15

    Emotion dysregulation is a recognized symptom of adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study is to induce sadness in adults suffering from ADHD and to investigate the impact of emotion regulation strategies on sadness intensity, and psychophysiological measures. Thirty-six adults diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either expressive suppression (SUPP) or acceptance (ACC) of emotion. Sadness was induced using a film clip. Participants estimated the intensity of sadness and the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion before (T1), immediately after (T2) and 2 min after the film (T3). Physiological measures were obtained. Sadness induction was effective in both conditions. The perception of being overwhelmed with emotion increased between T1 and T2 in both conditions, but persisted until T3 only in the expressive suppression condition whereas a decrease was observed in the acceptance condition. In ADHD expressive suppression of sadness seems to be associated to a prolonged recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. Emotion-regulation via acceptance in contrast appears to allow faster recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify suppression as a critical mediator between an induced emotion and delayed recovery from emotional reactions in adult ADHD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the BASC and BRIEF.

    PubMed

    Jarratt, Kelly Pizzitola; Riccio, Cynthia A; Siekierski, Becky M

    2005-01-01

    There has been an overwhelming increase in the number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). School and clinical psychologists play an important role in the assessment of a child's emotional and behavioral difficulties, including problems with attention. Various assessment measures, including behavioral rating forms such as the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), are often used in the assessment of a child's behavior. The purpose of this article is to provide more knowledge to psychologists regarding the assessment of ADHD in children using the BASC and BRIEF. Results from this study indicated that the BASC and BRIEF scales appear to be measuring similar, but different, constructs pertaining to behaviors associated with ADHD, as well as similar study skills and learning problems. These findings suggest that children diagnosed with ADHD are rated lower on adaptive skills when compared to children with no diagnosis on the BASC. Use of the BASC and BRIEF in ADHD assessment appears promising and may generate additional areas in need of intervention.

  3. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulant medications as cognitive enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Advokat, Claire; Scheithauer, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses, and the escalation of stimulant prescriptions, has raised concern about diversion and abuse of stimulants, as well as the ethics of using these drugs as “cognitive enhancers.”Such concern appears misplaced in the face of substantial evidence that stimulant drugs do not improve the academic performance of ADHD-diagnosed students. Moreover, numerous studies have found little or no benefit of stimulants on neuropsychological tests of ADHD-diagnosed as well as normal, individuals. This paper examines the apparent paradox: why don't drugs that improve “attention,” produce better academic outcomes in ADHD-diagnosed students? We found that stimulant drugs significantly improved impairment of episodic memory in ADHD-diagnosed undergraduate students. Nevertheless, we also found consistent academic deficits between ADHD students and their non-ADHD counterparts, regardless of whether or not they used stimulant medications. We reviewed the current literature on the behavioral effects of stimulants, to try to find an explanation for these conflicting phenomena. Across a variety of behavioral tasks, stimulants have been shown to reduce emotional reactions to frustration, improve the ability to detect errors, and increase effortful behavior. However, all of these effects would presumably enhance academic performance. On the other hand, the drugs were also found to promote “risky behavior” and to increase susceptibility to environmental distraction. Such negative effects, including the use of drugs to promote wakefulness for last minute study, might explain the lack of academic benefit in the “real world,” despite their cognitive potential. Like many drugs, stimulants influence behavior in multiple ways, depending on the environmental contingencies. Depending on the circumstances, stimulants may, or may not, enhance cognition. PMID:23754970

  4. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  5. Differences in Executive Functioning in Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Elosúa, M Rosa; Del Olmo, Sandra; Contreras, María José

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its relation to deficits in working memory (WM) and more specifically the different executive functions (EFs) has grown, to the point of confirming that these are quite frequent in this disorder. The aim of this study was precisely to explore differences in executive functioning of WM in fourth grade Primary school children with and without ADHD (26 and 29 children, respectively), introducing rigorous control measures in the tests used. Four EFs were analyzed: divided attention, updating, attentional shifting and inhibition, measured through four tasks, the dual-task paradigm (digits and box-crossing), the N-Back task, the Trail Making Test and the Stroop task, respectively. The results showed that participants with ADHD, compared to children with typical development (TD), exhibited a smaller verbal memory span as well as deficits in the attentional shifting and updating functions. However, a similar performance for the EF of inhibition was found for both groups of participants. Finally, an unexpected result was obtained with regard to the role of divided attention, as children with ADHD were less impaired when performing the double task than participants in the TD group.

  6. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  7. Pre-Service and In-Service Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge about Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Limeng; Gao, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-method inquiry into pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers' knowledge about Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward students with this disorder in Hong Kong. The inquiry revealed no differences between pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers concerning their…

  8. Pre-Service and In-Service Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge about Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Limeng; Gao, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-method inquiry into pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers' knowledge about Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward students with this disorder in Hong Kong. The inquiry revealed no differences between pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers concerning their…

  9. Therapeutic Eurythmy-movement therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Majorek, Magdalena; Tüchelmann, Tobias; Heusser, Peter

    2004-02-01

    This paper considers Therapeutic Eurythmy (TE) as a possible therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).ADHD manifests as a complex psychological disturbance in which deficit of attention such as forgetfulness or distraction is the main symptom. It would seem that a growing number of children seem to be affected by this syndrome and an increasing number of alternative approaches to treatment are being sought. Therapeutic Eurythmy is a movement Therapy in the context of anthroposophical medicine. As a holistic therapy TE affects both physical and spiritual aspects of illness. TE entails the practice of movement exercises learned from a trained therapist. In this exploratory study, the effects of TE on behavioural functioning were examined.This paper addresses five single cases where the therapy induced positive changes to client's attention span, concentration, tempo of work and motor skills such as coordination, dexterity and social behaviour. Standard psychological tests parameters for movement, and for attention were used to assess aspects of performance.A positive shift was observed with reference to concentration and development of movement skills. Results were less pronounced but showed positive improvements on working speed and social behaviour problems. Hyperactivity also diminished to some extent. Generally, children were considered to be more mature in their development after therapy. The results of these case studies suggest that TE may be helpful for children with ADHD. However, more systematic research is warranted.

  10. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with autism.

    PubMed

    Christakou, A; Murphy, C M; Chantiluke, K; Cubillo, A I; Smith, A B; Giampietro, V; Daly, E; Ecker, C; Robertson, D; Murphy, D G; Rubia, K

    2013-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share behavioural-cognitive abnormalities in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 boys with ADHD to 20 age and IQ matched ASD and 20 healthy boys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. ADHD and ASD boys had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato-thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not patients, suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode network in both disorders. However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in ADHD relative to ASD boys, which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in ADHD patients. ASD boys, on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both ADHD and control boys, presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that ADHD and ASD boys have both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in brain function during sustained attention. Shared deficits were in fronto-striato-parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in ADHD and a disorder-specific fronto-striato-cerebellar dysregulation in ASD.

  11. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Christakou, A; Murphy, C M; Chantiluke, K; Cubillo, A I; Smith, A B; Giampietro, V; Daly, E; Ecker, C; Robertson, D; Murphy, D G; Rubia, K

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share behavioural-cognitive abnormalities in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 boys with ADHD to 20 age and IQ matched ASD and 20 healthy boys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. ADHD and ASD boys had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato–thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not patients, suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode network in both disorders. However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in ADHD relative to ASD boys, which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in ADHD patients. ASD boys, on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both ADHD and control boys, presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that ADHD and ASD boys have both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in brain function during sustained attention. Shared deficits were in fronto–striato–parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in ADHD and a disorder-specific fronto–striato–cerebellar dysregulation in ASD. PMID:22290121

  12. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among adult eating disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Svedlund, Nils Erik; Norring, Claes; Ginsberg, Ylva; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne

    2017-01-17

    Very little is known about the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder and even less in other eating disorders. This knowledge gap is of clinical importance since stimulant treatment is proven effective in Binge Eating Disorder and discussed as a treatment possibility for Bulimia Nervosa. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and types of self-reported ADHD symptoms in an unselected group of eating disorder patients assessed in a specialized eating disorder clinic. In total 1165 adults with an eating disorder were assessed with a battery of standardized instruments, for measuring inter alia ADHD screening, demographic variables, eating disorder symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity. Chi-square tests were used for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous variables. Almost one third (31.3 %) of the patients scored above the screening cut off indicating a possible ADHD. The highest prevalence rates (35-37 %) were found in Bulimia Nervosa and Anorexia Nervosa bingeing/purging subtype, while Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified type 1-4 and Binge Eating Disorder patients reported slightly below average (26-31 %), and Anorexia Nervosa restricting subtype patients even lower (18 %). Presence of binge eating, purging, loss of control over eating and non-anorectic BMI were related to results indicating a possible ADHD. Psychiatric comorbidity correlated to ADHD symptoms without explaining the differences between eating disorder diagnoses. There is a high frequency of ADHD symptoms in patients with binge eating/purging eating disorders that motivates further studies, particularly concerning the effects of ADHD medication. The finding that the frequency of ADHD symptoms in anorexia nervosa with binge eating/purging is as high as in bulimia nervosa highlights the need also for this group.

  13. Clinical significance of tics and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with pervasive developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; DeVincent, Carla J

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the clinical significance of co-occurring tics and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as indicators of a more complex symptomatology in children with and without pervasive developmental disorder. Parents and teachers completed a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-referenced rating scale for 3- to 5- (n = 182/135) and 6- to 12- (n = 301/191) year-old children with pervasive developmental disorder and clinic controls, respectively. The percentage of children with tic behaviors varied with age: preschoolers (25%, 44%) versus elementary schoolchildren (60%, 66%) (parent and teacher ratings, respectively). For many psychiatric symptoms, screening prevalence rates were highest for the ADHD + tics group and lowest for the group with symptoms of neither, but the pattern of group differences varied by age group and informant. In general, there were few differences between the ADHD only and tics only groups. The pattern of ADHD/tic group differences was similar for both children with and without pervasive developmental disorder. We concluded that these findings support the notion that the co-occurrence of ADHD and tics is an indicator of a more complex psychiatric symptomatology in children with pervasive developmental disorder.

  14. [Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Silva, Bianca Del Ponte da; Anselmi, Luciana; Schmidt, Vera; Santos, Iná S

    2015-04-01

    This aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. The systematic multiple-stage literature search in PubMed, LILACS, BIREME, and PsycINFO was limited to research in human subjects and published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. A total of 373 references were retrieved. Of these, only five met the study's objectives and were kept in the review. Most of the studies employed a longitudinal design, were conducted in developed countries, and were published in the last five years. Only one study found a positive association. Studies on caffeine consumption during pregnancy and ADHD are scarce, with conflicting results and several methodological difficulties such as lack of standardized outcome measures.

  15. Investigation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) sub-types in Children via EEG Frequency Domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, Ramazan; Demirci, Esra; Per, Huseyin; Canpolat, Mehmet; Özmen, Sevgi; Tokmakçı, Mahmut

    2017-09-19

    This study aims to investigate the frequency domain effects and changes in Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in children aged 7-12 years old who were diagnosed with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and which labelled subtypes of ADHD.The study's sample consisted of 20 healthy children and 20 ADHD children as control group. Of the 20 participants who were diagnosed with ADHD, 10 were classified as ADHD-I (inattentive subtype ADHD) and the other 10 were classified as ADHD-C (combined subtype ADHD).Participants were classified into 3 groups all of ADHD, ADHD-I,ADHD-C and Control group on the basis of the results of a standardized clinical interview, behavioral rating scales, and a continuous performance test. In this study, the frequency domain of EEG signals for ADHD, subtypes, and control groups were analyzed and compared using Matlab program. The mean age of the ADHD children's group was 8.7 years and the control group 9.1 years Spectral analysis of mean power (μV(2)) and relative-mean power (%) was carried out for 4 different frequency bands: delta (0-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (13-32 Hz). The ADHD and subtypes of ADHD-I, and ADHD-C groups had higher average power value of delta and theta band than that of control group. However, this is not the case for alpha and beta bands. Increases in delta/beta ratio and statistical significance were found only between ADHD-I and control group, and in delta/beta, theta/delta ratio statistical significance values were found to exist between ADHD-C and control group.

  16. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in Childhood: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Clinton, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This article examines recent literature related to the diagnosis of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in childhood. First, the article discusses diagnostic criteria presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Next, it explores the diagnostic procedures for AD/HD…

  17. Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Medication Effects in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in school-aged children and is usually treated with stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin[R], Ritalin-LA[R], Concerta[R], Metadate[R], or Focalin[R]) and other drug compounds (e.g., Adderall[R], Adderall-XR[R], or Dexedrine).…

  18. Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Medication Effects in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in school-aged children and is usually treated with stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin[R], Ritalin-LA[R], Concerta[R], Metadate[R], or Focalin[R]) and other drug compounds (e.g., Adderall[R], Adderall-XR[R], or Dexedrine).…

  19. Delphi Consensus on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): evaluation by a panel of experts.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Amaia; de Santos, Teresa; Quintero, Javier; Ruíz-Lázaro, Pedro M; Alda, José A; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A

    2016-11-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood, which is frequently maintained in adolescent and adult age. It presents great clinical heterogeneity, significantly affecting the functioning of those who suffer it. Although drug treatments obtain results by themselves, the approach should be multidisciplinary and be adapted to the specific needs of each patient and his/ her family. Given the variety of drugs currently available to treat ADHD, there are diverse opinions on the most effective way to approach this disorder. The objective of this work is to study the opinion of an expert clinical panel and to know the professional criteria used to define key concepts and therapeutic guidelines of ADHD in Spain. The project was carried out in four phases: 1) Constitution of a Scientific Committee, responsible for the preliminary biographic review and the formulation of the questionnaire; 2) selection of an expert panel of specialists with special interest and/or experience in the treatment of ADHD; 3) Likert type structured survey (online platform) in two rounds with interim processing of opinions; and 4) collection and final analysis of results. The experts’ panel achieved a consensus in 55 of the 58 items making up the questionnaire, finding 3 items in which sufficient unanimity of criteria was not achieved because of the high number of experts were found in positions of non-certainty. Overall, the experts of this study reached a high level of agreement in the criteria proposed in the survey, which could be generalized as indications for the clinical practice in the management of ADHD. Similarly, and given the dispersion of the results in some of the items and the lack of consensus in others, some points remain as object of discussion.

  20. Maternal Chemical and Drug Intolerances: Potential Risk Factors for Autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Heilbrun, Lynne P; Palmer, Raymond F; Jaen, Carlos R; Svoboda, Melissa D; Perkins, Jimmy; Miller, Claudia S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether chemically intolerant women are at greater risk for having a child with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a case-control study of chemical intolerance among mothers of children with ASD (n = 282) or ADHD (n = 258) and children without these disorders (n = 154). Mothers participated in an online survey consisting of a validated chemical intolerance screening instrument, the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI). Cases and controls were characterized by parental report of a professional diagnosis. We used a one-way, unbalanced analysis of variance to compare means across the 3 groups. Both mothers of children with ASD or ADHD had significantly higher mean chemical intolerance scores than did mothers of controls, and they were more likely to report adverse reactions to drugs. Chemically intolerant mothers were 3 times more likely (odds ratio, 3.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-6.02) to report having a child with autism or 2.3 times more likely (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-5.04) to report a child with ADHD. Relative to controls, these mothers report their children are more prone to allergies (P < .02), have strong food preferences or cravings (P < .003), and have greater sensitivity to noxious odors (P < .04). These findings suggest a potential association between maternal chemical intolerance and a diagnosis of ADHD or ASD in their offspring. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  1. Effective management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through structured re-assessment: the Dundee ADHD Clinical Care Pathway.

    PubMed

    Coghill, David; Seth, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become a major aspect of the work of child and adolescent psychiatrists and paediatricians in the UK. In Scotland, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services were required to address an increase in referral rates and changes in evidence-based medicine and guidelines without additional funding. In response to this, clinicians in Dundee have, over the past 15 years, pioneered the use of integrated psychiatric, paediatric, nursing, occupational therapy, dietetic and psychological care with the development of a clearly structured, evidence-based assessment and treatment pathway to provide effective therapy for children and adolescents with ADHD. The Dundee ADHD Clinical Care Pathway (DACCP) uses standard protocols for assessment, titration and routine monitoring of clinical care and treatment outcomes, with much of the clinical work being nurse led. The DACCP has received international attention and has been used as a template for service development in many countries. This review describes the four key stages of the clinical care pathway (referral and pre-assessment; assessment, diagnosis and treatment planning; initiating treatment; and continuing care) and discusses translation of the DACCP into other healthcare systems. Tools for healthcare professionals to use or adapt according to their own clinical settings are also provided.

  2. Assessment of stigma associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Psychometric evaluation of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kellison, Ida; Bussing, Regina; Bell, Lindsay; Garvan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ) among a community sample of 301 adolescents ages 11–19 years at high (n = 192) and low risk (n = 109) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study subjects were drawn from a cohort study assessing ADHD detection and service use. The 26-item ASQ demonstrated good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis using random parceling supported a three factor structure with highly correlated subscales of Disclosure Concerns, Negative Self Image, and Concern with Public Attitudes, and a Schmid-Leiman analysis supported an overall stigma factor. Test-retest stability was assessed after two-weeks (n = 45) and found to be adequate for all three subscales. Construct validity was supported by relationships with related constructs, including clinical maladjustment, depression, self-esteem and emotional symptoms and the absence of a relationship with school maladjustment. Findings indicate that the ASQ has acceptable psychometric properties in a large community sample of adolescents, some of whom met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. PMID:20580842

  3. Response acquisition with delayed reinforcement in a rodent model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hand, Dennis J; Fox, Andrew T; Reilly, Mark P

    2006-12-15

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been shown to exhibit behavioral characteristics analogous to those exhibited by humans diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study was conducted to further evaluate the validity of the SHR model of ADHD by characterizing learning of a novel response under conditions of delayed reinforcement. Seven experimentally naïve SHRs and a control group of seven normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to a contingency where one lever press initiated pellet delivery after a 15-s, resetting delay. Rats in both groups acquired lever pressing, and the pattern of acquisition was well described with a three-parameter, sigmoidal equation. Response acquisition was retarded in the SHRs; they took longer to acquire the behavior, exhibited lower response rates and earned fewer reinforcers over the course of the experiment. When reinforcer delivery was made immediate in a subsequent condition, the SHRs exhibited higher response rates than the WKY, suggesting that the lower rates of responding seen in the SHRs were due to the reinforcer delay. The results replicate previous research on response acquisition with delayed reinforcement and provide further validation of the SHR strain as a model of ADHD. Like humans diagnosed with ADHD, the SHRs appear to be hypersensitive to delayed consequences, which in the present context, interfered with learning a novel behavior.

  4. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): age related change of completion time and error rates of Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Thursina, Cempaka; Ar Rochmah, Mawaddah; Nurputra, Dian Kesumapramudya; Harahap, Indra Sari Kusuma; Harahap, Nur Imma Fatimah; Sa'Adah, Nihayatus; Wibowo, Samekto; Sutarni, Sri; Sadewa, Ahmad Hamim; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Mandai, Tsurue; Iijima, Kazumoto; Nishio, Hisahide; Kitayama, Shinji

    2015-04-07

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral problem in children throughout the world. The Stroop test has been widely used for the evaluation of ADHD symptoms. However, the age-related change of the Stroop test results has not been fully clarified until now. Sixty-five ADHD and 70 age-matched control children aged 6-13 years were enrolled in this study. ADHD was diagnosed based on DSM-IV criteria. We examined the completion time and error rates of the Congruent Stroop test (CST) and Incongruent Stroop test (IST) in ADHD and control children. No significant difference was observed in the completion time for CST or IST between the ADHD and control children at 6-9 years old. However, ADHD children at 10-13 years old showed significantly delayed completion time for the CST and IST compared with controls of the same age. As for the error rates of the CST and IST, ADHD and control children at 6-9 years old showed no difference. However, error rates of CST and IST in the ADHD children at 10-13 years were significantly higher than those of control of the same age. Age may influence the results of Stroop test in ADHD children. For the ages of 10-13 years old, the Stroop test clearly separates ADHD children from control children, suggesting that it may be a useful screening tool for ADHD among preadolescent children.

  5. CBT/DBT skills training for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Cole, Pierre; Weibel, Sebastien; Nicastro, Rosetta; Hasler, Roland; Dayer, Alexandre; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Prada, Paco; Perroud, Nader

    2016-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with marked impairments in familial, social, and professional functioning. Although stimulant treatments can be effective in adult ADHD, some patients will respond poorly or not at all to medication. Previous studies demonstrated that cognitive behavioural therapy- (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy- (DBT) oriented interventions are effective in reducing the burden of the disease, which is mainly marked by depression, interpersonal difficulties, low self-esteem, and low quality of life. In order to determine the effectiveness of this intervention, we assessed the benefits of a CBT/DBT programme to reduce residual symptoms and help patients improve their quality of life. 49 ADHD-patients, poor responders to medication, were enrolled in a one-year programme where they received individual therapy, associated with weekly sessions of group therapy with different modules: Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, Interpersonal Effectiveness and Distress Tolerance, Impulsivity/Hyperactivity and Attention. Each subject was assessed at baseline, at months 3 and 6, and at the end of the treatment for ADHD severity (ASRS v1.1), depression severity (BDI-II), hopelessness (BHS), mindfulness skills (KIMS), anger expression and control (STAXI), impulsivity (BIS-11), quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), and social functioning (QFS). The 49 ADHD patients were compared with 13 ADHD subjects on a waiting list. Linear mixed models were used to measure response to treatment. Overall, the psychotherapeutic treatment was associated with significant improvements in almost all dimensions. The most significant changes were observed for BDI-II (b=-0.30; p<0.0001), ASRS total score (b=-0.16; p<0.0001), and KIMS AwA (b=0.21; p<0.0001), with moderate to large effect sizes. Compared with the waiting list controls, ADHD patients showed a better, albeit non-significant, pattern of response. Individual and structured psycho-educational DBT

  6. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Has ADHD en español El ADHD ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , is a medical condition that affects ... them through first. ADHD used to be called attention deficit disorder , or ADD for short. In 1994, it ...

  7. Addiction severity pattern associated with adult and childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in patients with addictions.

    PubMed

    Fatséas, Melina; Hurmic, Hortense; Serre, Fuschia; Debrabant, Romain; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Denis, Cécile; Auriacombe, Marc

    2016-12-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adults with addictive disorders, but little is known about addiction patterns associated with ADHD diagnosis. This study examined addiction severity in patients with co-occurring addictive disorders and ADHD controlling for the potential influence of associated psychiatric comorbidity. Data were collected in French outpatient addiction treatment centers. A total of 217 patients seeking treatment for substance or gambling addiction were included. At treatment entry, participants were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index, the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnosis Interview for the DSM-IV (CAADID), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II for borderline personality disorder (SCID II). History of ADHD was associated with an earlier onset of addiction, poly-dependence (defined by presence of at least two current substance dependence diagnoses in addition to tobacco dependence if present) and borderline personality disorder. Persistence of ADHD during adulthood was associated with a higher prevalence of poly-dependence. This study highlights the need for early implementation of preventive interventions for substance use or behavioral addiction in children/adolescents with ADHD and the need to consider ADHD in the treatment of addictive disorders.

  8. Effects of essential fatty acids in iron deficient and sleep-disturbed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children.

    PubMed

    Yehuda, S; Rabinovitz-Shenkar, S; Carasso, R L

    2011-10-01

    Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity constitute the core diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Patients generally suffer from sleep disturbance and malnutrition that can account for tiredness during the day, poor concentration, poor eating and depressed mood, along with anemia and an n-3 polyunsaturated acid deficiency. The change of ADHD behavior in children (9-12) was studied, following 10 weeks of treatment with a polyunsaturated acid mixture on six variables: cooperation, mood, concentration, homework preparation, fatigue and sleep quality. Iron status was also examined. Polyunsaturated acid administration was associated with significant improvement in quality of life, ability to concentrate, sleep quality and hemoglobin levels.

  9. Anxiety and Depression among College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Cross-Informant, Sex, and Subtype Differences.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jason M; Liebel, Spencer W

    2017-09-22

    This study examined symptoms of anxiety and depression among college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Data were collected between March 2011 and March 2016 from 150 college students with ADHD and 150 college students without ADHD. Participants with ADHD were compared to a sex- and ethnicity-matched control group. For the ADHD group, parent and self-report of anxiety and depression were also compared. College students with ADHD self-reported significantly higher anxiety and depressive symptoms than did students without ADHD. Scores on parent-report measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms were significantly higher than scores on self-report measures. Significant sex differences were found for participants with ADHD, with females showing higher depressive and anxiety symptoms than males. Parent-reported anxiety symptoms were higher for those with inattentive type ADHD compared to combined type ADHD. The current study highlights the importance of multi-informant assessment in ADHD evaluations for college-aged adults.

  10. Classifying adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on functional and structural imaging.

    PubMed

    Iannaccone, Reto; Hauser, Tobias U; Ball, Juliane; Brandeis, Daniel; Walitza, Susanne; Brem, Silvia

    2015-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disabling psychiatric disorder associated with consistent deficits in error processing, inhibition and regionally decreased grey matter volumes. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, interviews and questionnaires, which are to some degree subjective and would benefit from verification through biomarkers. Here, pattern recognition of multiple discriminative functional and structural brain patterns was applied to classify adolescents with ADHD and controls. Functional activation features in a Flanker/NoGo task probing error processing and inhibition along with structural magnetic resonance imaging data served to predict group membership using support vector machines (SVMs). The SVM pattern recognition algorithm correctly classified 77.78% of the subjects with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.78% based on error processing. Predictive regions for controls were mainly detected in core areas for error processing and attention such as the medial and dorsolateral frontal areas reflecting deficient processing in ADHD (Hart et al., in Hum Brain Mapp 35:3083-3094, 2014), and overlapped with decreased activations in patients in conventional group comparisons. Regions more predictive for ADHD patients were identified in the posterior cingulate, temporal and occipital cortex. Interestingly despite pronounced univariate group differences in inhibition-related activation and grey matter volumes the corresponding classifiers failed or only yielded a poor discrimination. The present study corroborates the potential of task-related brain activation for classification shown in previous studies. It remains to be clarified whether error processing, which performed best here, also contributes to the discrimination of useful dimensions and subtypes, different psychiatric disorders, and prediction of treatment success across studies and sites.

  11. The clinical presentation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Niarchou, Maria; Martin, Joanna; Thapar, Anita; Owen, Michael J; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2015-12-01

    Although attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children with 22q11.2DS, it remains unclear whether its clinical presentation is similar to that in children with idiopathic ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the ADHD phenotype in children with and without 22q11.2DS by examining ADHD symptom scores, patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, IQ and gender distribution. Forty-four children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD (mean age = 9.6), 600 clinic children (mean age = 10.8) and 77 children with ADHD from a population cohort (mean age = 10.8) participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using parent-report research diagnostic instruments. There was a higher proportion of females in the 22q11.2DS ADHD sample in relation to the clinical sample (χ(2)  = 18.2, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS group showed a higher rate of ADHD inattentive subtype (χ(2)  = 114.76, P < 0.001), and fewer hyperactive-impulsive symptoms compared to the clinical group (z = 8.43, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS ADHD group parents reported fewer oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms (z = 6.33, P < 0.001) and a higher rate of generalized anxiety disorder (χ(2)  = 4.56, P = 0.03) in relation to the clinical group. Two percent of the 22q11.2 DS ADHD sample had received ADHD treatment. The results were similar when the 22q11.2 ADHD group was compared to the population cohort ADHD group. The clinical presentation of ADHD and patterns of co-morbidity in 22q11.2DS is different from that in idiopathic ADHD. This could lead to clinical under-recognition of ADHD in this group. Examining psychopathology in 22q11.2DS can provide insights into the genetic origins of psychiatric problems with implications beyond the 22q11.2DS population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. ADHD & Pharmacotherapy: Past, Present and Future: A Review of the Changing Landscape of Drug Therapy for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J J; Glessner, J T; Elia, J; Hakonarson, H

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobiological disorder in children, with a prevalence of ~6-7%(1,2) that has remained stable for decades(2). The social and economic burden associated with patients(3), families, and broader systems (healthcare/educational) is substantial, with the annual economic impact of ADHD exceed $30 billion in the US alone(4). Efficacy of pharmacotherapy in treating ADHD symptoms has generally been considerable with at least ¾ of individuals benefitting from pharmacotherapy, typically in the form of stimulants(5). In this review, we begin by briefly reviewing the history of pharmacotherapy in relation to ADHD, before focusing (primarily) on the state-of-the-field on themes such as biophysiology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenomics. We conclude with a summary of emerging clinical and research studies, particularly the potential role for precision therapy in matching ADHD patients and drug types.

  13. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  14. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Xia, Weiping; Shen, Lixiao; Zhang, Jinsong

    2015-12-25

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents. School-aged children with ADHD

  15. The Cognitive Abilities and Skills of Children Who Suffer from Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Kuwait State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ali Mohammed Haidar

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the level of cognitive skills and abilities of children who suffer from the Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the differences in the level of cognitive skills and abilities according to the age group and the level of academic achievement. To achieve the objective of the study, a…

  16. Knowledge and Misconceptions about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Comparison of Greek General and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Antonopoulou, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    School teachers play an important role in the identification and assessment of pupils' difficulties, and have been considered one of the most valuable sources of information with regard to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. The study examines and compares general and special education teachers' knowledge and misconceptions…

  17. Knowledge and Misconceptions about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Comparison of Greek General and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Antonopoulou, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    School teachers play an important role in the identification and assessment of pupils' difficulties, and have been considered one of the most valuable sources of information with regard to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. The study examines and compares general and special education teachers' knowledge and misconceptions…

  18. Effects of Computer Collaborative Group Work on Peer Acceptance of a Junior Pupil with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Teck Shuenn; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of computer collaborative group work, facilitated by an adult, on peer acceptance of a junior boy with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It aimed to ascertain whether collaborative group work on a computer, with the facilitation of an adult, could help to raise his peer acceptance among his…

  19. Does ADHD Matter? Examining Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder on the Likelihood of Recidivism among Detained Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jill A.; Diehl, Robyn L.; Anderson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    There is limited research regarding attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among youth in the juvenile justice system, but the existing research demonstrates higher rates of difficulties, including substance abuse, parental dysfunction, and school issues. There is, however, little knowledge regarding the impact of detainment on…

  20. Responses to Positive versus Negative Interventions to Disruptive Classroom Behavior in a Student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Renee B.

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews pertinent research, then uses a single-subject experimental design and methodology to assess the impact of both positive and negative interventions to reduce the incidence of inappropriate classroom behavior in a 12.2 year-old male student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the context of this study,…

  1. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Well-Being: Is Social Impairment an Issue for College Students with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the psychological well-being of college students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was analyzed. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates aged 18-25 at a Southern university (N = 317). Well-being was measured using Ryff's (1989) 6 likert scales of psychological well-being. Students with…

  2. Does ADHD Matter? Examining Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder on the Likelihood of Recidivism among Detained Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jill A.; Diehl, Robyn L.; Anderson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    There is limited research regarding attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among youth in the juvenile justice system, but the existing research demonstrates higher rates of difficulties, including substance abuse, parental dysfunction, and school issues. There is, however, little knowledge regarding the impact of detainment on…

  3. Understanding the Psycho-Social and Cultural Factors That Influence the Experience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Chinese American College Students: A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Edmund Wong Din-Mond

    2012-01-01

    A review of the extant research literature reveals limited data on college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Even less information is known in regards to minority populations living with ADHD, specifically Asian American college student. This research project was focused on Chinese American college students with ADHD.…

  4. Understanding the Psycho-Social and Cultural Factors That Influence the Experience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Chinese American College Students: A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Edmund Wong Din-Mond

    2012-01-01

    A review of the extant research literature reveals limited data on college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Even less information is known in regards to minority populations living with ADHD, specifically Asian American college student. This research project was focused on Chinese American college students with ADHD.…

  5. A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

  6. Anxiety and depression in parents of a Brazilian non-clinical sample of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) students.

    PubMed

    Segenreich, D; Fortes, D; Coutinho, G; Pastura, G; Mattos, P

    2009-05-01

    Higher prevalence rates of anxiety and depression have been reported in parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The interaction between the burden of ADHD in offspring, a higher prevalence rate of this highly inherited disorder in parents, and comorbidities may explain this finding. Our objective was to investigate levels of ADHD, anxious and depressive symptomatology, and their relationship in parents of ADHD children from a non-clinical sample using a dimensional approach. The sample included 396 students enrolled in all eight grades of a public school who were screened for ADHD using the SNAP IV rating scale. Positive cases were confirmed through a semi-structured interview. Parents of all 26 ADHD students and 31 paired controls were enrolled. A sample of 36 parents of ADHD children (21 mothers, 15 fathers) and 30 parents of control children (18 mothers, 12 fathers) completed the Adult Self Report Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory in order to investigate anxious and depressive symptomatology. Probands' mothers presented a higher level of ADHD symptomatology (with only inattention being a significant cluster). Again, mothers of ADHD children presented higher depressive and anxiety levels; however, these did not correlate with their own ADHD symptomatology. Only trait-anxiety levels were higher in ADHD mothers. Our findings suggest that: 1) anxious and depressive symptoms might be more prevalent in mothers of ADHD students; 2) anxious and depressive symptomatology might be independent of impairment associated with ADHD symptoms; 3) anxious and depressive symptoms are independent of the presence of ADHD.

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This brief paper summarizes information on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First it identifies eight common characteristics of this disorder: (1) inattentiveness and distractibility, (2) impulsiveness, (3) hyperactivity, (4) attention-demanding behavior, (5) learning difficulties, (6) coordination difficulties, (7) unacceptable…

  8. Review of the possible relationship and hypothetical links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the simple sleep related movement disorders, parasomnias, hypersomnias, and circadian rhythm disorders.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Silvestri, Rosalia; Zucconi, Marco; Chandrashekariah, Ranju; Konofal, Eric

    2008-12-15

    Recent evidence has been accumulating that the sleep of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not only disrupted in a nonspecific way but that ADHD has an increased association with simple sleep related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements in sleep (RLS/PLMS), rhythmic movement disorder (body rocking and head banging), and parasomnias, such as disorders of partial arousal (sleep walking, sleep terrors, and confusional arousals). In addition increased associations have been reported between ADHD and hypersomnias such as narcolepsy and sleep apnea as well as circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. These relationships are reviewed and the implications for such associations are explored. Patients with sleep disorders should be queried about the symptoms of ADHD and vice versa.

  9. Decomposing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related effects in response speed and variability.

    PubMed

    Karalunas, Sarah L; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L; Nigg, Joel T

    2012-11-01

    Slow and variable reaction times (RTs) on fast tasks are such a prominent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that any theory must account for them. However, this has proven difficult because the cognitive mechanisms responsible for this effect remain unexplained. Although speed and variability are typically correlated, it is unclear whether single or multiple mechanisms are responsible for group differences in each. RTs are a result of several semi-independent processes, including stimulus encoding, rate of information processing, speed-accuracy trade-offs, and motor response, which have not been previously well characterized. A diffusion model was applied to RTs from a forced-choice RT paradigm in two large, independent case-control samples (NCohort 1 = 214 and NCohort 2 = 172). The decomposition measured three validated parameters that account for the full RT distribution and assessed reproducibility of ADHD effects. In both samples, group differences in traditional RT variables were explained by slow information processing speed, and unrelated to speed-accuracy trade-offs or nondecisional processes (e.g., encoding, motor response). RT speed and variability in ADHD may be explained by a single information processing parameter, potentially simplifying explanations that assume different mechanisms are required to account for group differences in the mean and variability of RTs. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Might the temperament be a bias in clinical study on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?: Novelty Seeking dimension as a core feature of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Di Trani, Michela; Porfirio, Maria Cristina; Giana, Grazia; Miano, Silvia; Andriola, Elda

    2015-06-30

    Some clinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to overlap those of studies on personality, particularly those on the Novelty Seeking trait (NS) as measured by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of NS in clinical research on ADHD. We enroled 146 ADHD children (125 boys; mean age=9.61, S.D.=2.50) and 223 age- and gender-matched control children (178 boys; mean age=9.41, S.D.=2.30). All the parents filled in the JTCI for the evaluation of personality according to Cloninger׳s model. An exploratory factor analysis differentiated the NS items that concern "Impulsivity" (NS1) from those that concern other features (NS2). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVAs) revealed significant differences between ADHD children and non-ADHD children in temperamental dimensions: the scores of ADHD children were higher than those of non-ADHD children in Total NS, NS1-Impulsivity and NS2. Our results show that the NS dimension of the JTCI in ADHD children is higher than in non-ADHD children, even when a correction is made for impulsivity items. This finding suggests that the NS trait plays a central role in ADHD diagnosis even when items referred to impulsivity are removed from the NS scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Common ground in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)-review of recent findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje D; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Considerable overlap in diagnostic criteria and shared psychopathologic symptoms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) have stimulated research activities in this field. Longitudinal studies have shown that BPD is frequently diagnosed in adult patients who had been diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. The question of whether ADHD and BPD randomly co-occur as comorbidities, have similar origins or share common pathological mechanisms remains unresolved. Some authors suggest that ADHD contributes to the development of BPD via various mechanisms, and therefore consider it a risk factor for later BPD development. In this article the evidence for the co-occurrence of these disorders will be reviewed as well as studies on their common genetic and environmental influences. Temperamental and developmental issues will be reviewed, and shared features such as impulsivity and emotion dysregulation discussed. From a therapeutic perspective, few studies have investigated psychotherapeutic treatment of the comorbid condition, though the issue is highly important to the management of patients suffering from both disorders. Some thought is given to how therapeutic methods and approaches can be modified to benefit patients, and to their possible succession.

  12. Parental efficacy and child behavior in a community sample of children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Hendricks, Kristy M; Longacre, Meghan R; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Weiss, Julia E; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-12-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and the presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Sufficient data were achieved for 2,509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n = 240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9 vs. 48.0 %, p < .001) and age 12 or over (16.3 vs. 10.3 %). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes.

  13. Effects of Extended Release Methylphenidate Treatment on Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Associated Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Cynthia W.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Casat, Charles D.; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Jerger, Susan W.; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Results MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms. PMID:23782128

  14. Social skills training for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2011-12-07

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We examined the effects of social skills training on children's social competences, general behaviour, ADHD symptoms, and performance in school. To assess the effects of social skills training in children and adolescents with ADHD. We searched the following electronic databases: CENTRAL (2011, Issue1), MEDLINE (1948 to March 2011), EMBASE (1980 to March 2011), ERIC (1966 to March 2011 ), AMED (1985 to June 2011), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2011), CINAHL (1980 to March 2011), and Sociological Abstracts (1952 to March 2011). We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials on 15 October 2010. We did not apply any language or date restrictions to the searches. We searched online conference abstracts and contacted 176 experts in the field for possible information about unpublished or ongoing RCTs. Randomised trials investigating social skills training for children with ADHD as a stand alone treatment or as an adjunct to pharmacological treatment. We conducted the review according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Two authors (OJS, MS) extracted data independently using an appropriate data collection form. We performed the analyses using Review Manager 5 software. We included 11 randomised trials described in 26 records (all full text articles) in the review. The trials included a total of 747 participants. All participants were between five and 12 years of age. No trials assessed adolescents. In 10 of the trials the participants suffered from different comorbidities.The duration of the interventions ranged from eight to 10 weeks (eight trials) up to two years. The types of

  15. Nonlinear analysis of actigraphic signals for the assessment of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Martín-Martínez, D; Casaseca-de-la-Higuera, P; Alberola-López, S; Andrés-de-Llano, J; López-Villalobos, J A; Ardura-Fernández, J; Alberola-López, C

    2012-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescents; however, its etiology is still unknown, which hinders the existence of reliable, fast and inexpensive standard diagnostic methods. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for automatic diagnosis of the combined type of ADHD based on nonlinear signal processing of 24h-long actigraphic registries. Since it relies on actigraphy measurements, it constitutes an inexpensive and non-invasive objective diagnostic method. Our results on real data reach 96.77% sensitivity and 84.38% specificity by means of multidimensional classifiers driven by combined features from different time intervals. Our analysis also reveals that, if features from a single time interval are used, the whole 24-h interval is the only one that yields classification figures with practical diagnostic capabilities. Overall, our figures overcome those obtained by actigraphy-based methods reported and are comparable with others based on more expensive (and not so convenient) adquisition methods.

  16. Atypical Processing of Gaze Cues and Faces Explains Comorbidity between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Groom, Madeleine J; Kochhar, Puja; Hamilton, Antonia; Liddle, Elizabeth B; Simeou, Marina; Hollis, Chris

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the neurobiological basis of comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared children with ASD, ADHD or ADHD+ASD and typically developing controls (CTRL) on behavioural and electrophysiological correlates of gaze cue and face processing. We measured effects of ASD, ADHD and their interaction on the EDAN, an ERP marker of orienting visual attention towards a spatially cued location and the N170, a right-hemisphere lateralised ERP linked to face processing. We identified atypical gaze cue and face processing in children with ASD and ADHD+ASD compared with the ADHD and CTRL groups. The findings indicate a neurobiological basis for the presence of comorbid ASD symptoms in ADHD. Further research using larger samples is needed.

  17. Sleep Disturbances in Children with Attention - Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Comparative Study with Healthy Siblings.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Sreelakshmi; Shah, Henal; Gayal, Tejas

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances in children with ADHD impact their functioning and overall Quality of Life. This paper's purpose is to study the occurrence of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, in comparison to their healthy siblings and further, within the ADHD group, to look for correlation between sleep disturbances and age, severity of symptoms, presentations of ADHD and illness parameters. The parents of 120 children of age group between 5-16 years, (60 children diagnosed with ADHD as per DSM-5 criteria and 60 of their healthy siblings) consecutively enrolled from a hospital's Child Psychiatry Outpatient services were interviewed using Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and severity of ADHD symptoms was rated using ADHD - RS. Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated children with ADHD than their healthy siblings, reduce with increasing age and are found more in the Predominantly Hyperactive/impulsive presentation of ADHD. Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated ADHD, making it an important aspect of ADHD management.

  18. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  19. The clinical presentation of attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joanna; Thapar, Anita; Owen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children with 22q11.2DS, it remains unclear whether its clinical presentation is similar to that in children with idiopathic ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the ADHD phenotype in children with and without 22q11.2DS by examining ADHD symptom scores, patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, IQ and gender distribution. Methods: Forty‐four children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD (mean age = 9.6), 600 clinic children (mean age = 10.8) and 77 children with ADHD from a population cohort (mean age = 10.8) participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using parent‐report research diagnostic instruments. Results: There was a higher proportion of females in the 22q11.2DS ADHD sample in relation to the clinical sample (χ2 = 18.2, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS group showed a higher rate of ADHD inattentive subtype (χ2 = 114.76, P < 0.001), and fewer hyperactive‐impulsive symptoms compared to the clinical group (z = 8.43, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS ADHD group parents reported fewer oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms (z = 6.33, P < 0.001) and a higher rate of generalized anxiety disorder (χ2 = 4.56, P = 0.03) in relation to the clinical group. Two percent of the 22q11.2 DS ADHD sample had received ADHD treatment. The results were similar when the 22q11.2 ADHD group was compared to the population cohort ADHD group. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of ADHD and patterns of co‐morbidity in 22q11.2DS is different from that in idiopathic ADHD. This could lead to clinical under‐recognition of ADHD in this group. Examining psychopathology in 22q11.2DS can provide insights into the genetic origins of psychiatric problems with implications beyond the 22q11.2DS population. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley

  20. Personal FM Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Erin C.; Mathews, Lauren; Mehta, Smita; Hill, Margaret; Munoz, Ashley; Bishop, Rachel; Moloney, Molly

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this initial investigation was to examine the potential benefit of a frequency modulation (FM) system for 11 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or both disorders through measures of speech recognition performance in noise, observed classroom behavior, and…

  1. Personal FM Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Erin C.; Mathews, Lauren; Mehta, Smita; Hill, Margaret; Munoz, Ashley; Bishop, Rachel; Moloney, Molly

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this initial investigation was to examine the potential benefit of a frequency modulation (FM) system for 11 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or both disorders through measures of speech recognition performance in noise, observed classroom behavior, and…

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and executive functioning in affected and unaffected adolescents and their parents: challenging the endophenotype construct.

    PubMed

    Thissen, A J A M; Rommelse, N N J; Hoekstra, P J; Hartman, C; Heslenfeld, D; Luman, M; van Lieshout, M; Franke, B; Oosterlaan, J; Buitelaar, J K

    2014-03-01

    The results of twin and sibling studies suggest that executive functioning is a prime candidate endophenotype in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, studies have not assessed the co-segregation of executive function (EF) deficits from parents to offspring directly, and it is unclear whether executive functioning is an ADHD endophenotype in adolescents, given the substantial changes in prefrontal lobe functioning, EF and ADHD symptoms during adolescence. We recruited 259 ADHD and 98 control families with an offspring average age of 17.3 years. All participants were assessed for ADHD and EF [inhibition, verbal (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VsWM)]. Data were analysed using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). Parental ADHD was associated with offspring ADHD and parental EF was associated with offspring EF but there were no cross-associations (parental ADHD was not associated with offspring EF or vice versa). Similar results were found when siblings were compared. EF deficits were only found in affected adolescents and not in their unaffected siblings or (un)affected parents. The core EFs proposed to be aetiologically related to ADHD, that is working memory and inhibition, seem to be aetiologically independent of ADHD in adolescence. EF deficits documented in childhood in unaffected siblings were no longer present in adolescence, suggesting that children 'grow out' of early EF deficits. This is the first study to document ADHD and EF in a large family sample with adolescent offspring. The results suggest that, after childhood, the majority of influences on ADHD are independent from those on EF. This has potential implications for current aetiological models of causality in ADHD.

  3. Depression in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Mediating Role of Cognitive-Behavioral Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zvorsky, Ivori; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for depressive disorders but little is known about the potential cognitive and behavioral mechanisms of risk that could shape treatment. This study evaluated the degree to which cognitive-behavioral constructs associated with depression and its treatment—dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive-behavioral avoidance—accounted for variance in depressive symptoms and disorder in adults with ADHD. 77 adults clinically diagnosed with ADHD completed self-report questionnaires, diagnostic interviews, and clinician-administered symptom rating scales. Statistical mediation analysis was employed and indirect effects assessed using bootstrap analysis and bias-corrected confidence intervals. Controlling for recent negative life events, dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive-behavioral avoidance fully accounted for the variance between ADHD symptoms and depressive symptoms. Each independent variable partially mediated the other in accounting for depression symptoms suggesting overlapping and unique variance. Cognitive-behavioral avoidance, however, was more strongly related to meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder than were dysfunctional attitudes. Processes that are targeted in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression were associated with symptoms in adults with ADHD. Current CBT approaches for ADHD incorporate active coping skills and cognitive restructuring and such approaches could be further tailored to address the ADHD-depression comorbidity. PMID:26089578

  4. Depression in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Mediating Role of Cognitive-Behavioral Factors.

    PubMed

    Knouse, Laura E; Zvorsky, Ivori; Safren, Steven A

    2013-12-01

    Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for depressive disorders but little is known about the potential cognitive and behavioral mechanisms of risk that could shape treatment. This study evaluated the degree to which cognitive-behavioral constructs associated with depression and its treatment-dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive-behavioral avoidance-accounted for variance in depressive symptoms and disorder in adults with ADHD. 77 adults clinically diagnosed with ADHD completed self-report questionnaires, diagnostic interviews, and clinician-administered symptom rating scales. Statistical mediation analysis was employed and indirect effects assessed using bootstrap analysis and bias-corrected confidence intervals. Controlling for recent negative life events, dysfunctional attitudes and cognitive-behavioral avoidance fully accounted for the variance between ADHD symptoms and depressive symptoms. Each independent variable partially mediated the other in accounting for depression symptoms suggesting overlapping and unique variance. Cognitive-behavioral avoidance, however, was more strongly related to meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder than were dysfunctional attitudes. Processes that are targeted in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression were associated with symptoms in adults with ADHD. Current CBT approaches for ADHD incorporate active coping skills and cognitive restructuring and such approaches could be further tailored to address the ADHD-depression comorbidity.

  5. Pharmacogenetics of response to methylphenidate in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Contini, Verônica; Rovaris, Diego L; Victor, Marcelo M; Grevet, Eugenio H; Rohde, Luis A; Bau, Claiton H D

    2013-06-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line option in the psychopharmacologic treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, there is a considerable proportion of adult patients who do not respond to treatment with MPH or discontinue drug therapy. Since effects of genetic variants in the response to MPH treatment might explain these negative outcomes, we conducted an electronic systematic search of MEDLINE-indexed literature looking for articles containing information about pharmacogenetics of ADHD in adults published until January, 2012. The keywords used were 'ADHD', 'Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder' and 'gene' in combination with methylphenidate, amphetamine or atomoxetine. Only 5 pharmacogenetic studies on adult ADHD met inclusion criteria. The results evidenced that most findings obtained so far are negative, and all studies focused on MPH response. There is only one positive result, for a polymorphism at the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) gene. The current state of the art in adult ADHD implies that pharmacogenetic tests are far from routine clinical practice. However, the integration of these studies with neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests may help to understand mechanisms of drug action and the pathophysiology of ADHD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Academic buoyancy and academic outcomes: towards a further understanding of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), students without ADHD, and academic buoyancy itself.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Academic buoyancy is students' capacity to successfully overcome setback and challenge that is typical of the ordinary course of everyday academic life. It may represent an important factor on the psycho-educational landscape assisting students who experience difficulties in school and schoolwork. This study investigated the role of academic buoyancy in the achievement and cognitive, affective and behavioural engagement of (1) students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (2) 'regular' (or 'general') students residing in the same classrooms and schools. The study also sought to extend prior research into academic buoyancy by including previously neglected and potentially influential factors such as personality and socio-economic status. Participants were n = 87 high school students with ADHD, n = 3374 non-ADHD peers, and n = 87 randomly drawn non-ADHD students. Survey-based data were analysed using multigroup (ADHD, non-ADHD, randomly weighted non-ADHD) multivariate (multiple independent/covariate and dependent variables) path analysis. The findings revealed a significant and positive association between academic buoyancy and outcomes for students with ADHD that generalized to non-ADHD groups. On occasion where academic buoyancy effects differed between the groups, effects favoured students with ADHD. Furthermore, academic buoyancy explained significant variance in outcomes for both groups of students after covariates (age, gender, parent education, language background, socio-economic status, personality) were entered. It is concluded that there is merit in widely promoting and fostering academic buoyancy among ADHD and non-ADHD students alike - and that academic buoyancy explains variance in outcomes beyond major intrapersonal factors such as personality, socio-economic status, ethnicity, and the like. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during temporal discounting in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism and comorbid ADHD and Autism.

    PubMed

    Chantiluke, Kaylita; Christakou, Anastasia; Murphy, Clodagh M; Giampietro, Vincent; Daly, Eileen M; Ecker, Christina; Brammer, Michael; Murphy, Declan G; Rubia, Katya

    2014-08-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share cognitive abnormalities in temporal foresight. A key question is whether shared cognitive phenotypes are based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies and whether comorbid patients have additive neurofunctional deficits, resemble one of the disorders or have a different pathophysiology. We compared age- and IQ-matched boys with non-comorbid ADHD (18), non-comorbid ASD (15), comorbid ADHD and ASD (13) and healthy controls (18) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a temporal discounting task. Only the ASD and the comorbid groups discounted delayed rewards more steeply. The fMRI data showed both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in the three groups relative to controls in their brain-behaviour associations. The comorbid group showed both unique and more severe brain-discounting associations than controls and the non-comorbid patient groups in temporal discounting areas of ventromedial and lateral prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum and anterior cingulate, suggesting that comorbidity is neither an endophenocopy of the two pure disorders nor an additive pathology.

  8. Need for care and life satisfaction in adult substance use disorder patients with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Linda M; Goossens, Peter J J; van Etten, Derk M; van Achterberg, Theo; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    To identify care needs of adult substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An exploratory study using the European Addiction Severity Index, the Camberwell Assessment of Needs, and the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life to assess and compare care needs and perceived quality of life. All patients are dissatisfied with parts of their existence. SUD patients have fewer care needs than SUD patients with co-occurring ADHD or ASD. The SUD and SUD + ADHD groups report needs in similar domains. The SUD + ASD group shows a greater number of and more extensive care needs. Differences in the care needs of adult SUD patients with and without ADHD or ASD should be taken into account when developing evidence-based nursing care interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Impact of Teacher Factors on Achievement and Behavioural Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jody; Rasmussen, Carmen; Baydala, Lola

    2008-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder known to be associated with behavioural and academic difficulties. Several treatment options are available for children with ADHD, such as medication and behavioural therapy. Although researchers have examined the efficacy of these approaches, much less is understood…

  10. The Impact of Teacher Factors on Achievement and Behavioural Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jody; Rasmussen, Carmen; Baydala, Lola

    2008-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder known to be associated with behavioural and academic difficulties. Several treatment options are available for children with ADHD, such as medication and behavioural therapy. Although researchers have examined the efficacy of these approaches, much less is understood…

  11. A Systematic Review of Parenting in Relation to the Development of Comorbidities and Functional Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deault, Louise C.

    2010-01-01

    This review synthesizes recent research evidence regarding the parenting characteristics associated with families with children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with a range of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its behavioral expression and different developmental…

  12. No association between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Yatsuga, Chiho; Toyohisa, Daiki; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nishitani, Shota; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Matsuura, Naomi; Ikeda, Shinobu; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Hamada, Akinobu; Tomoda, Akemi

    2014-08-01

    This study ascertained the association between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Japanese children and a polymorphism of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a dopamine-control gene. The secondary aim of the study was the evaluation of a putative association between methylphenidate (MPH) effect/adverse effects and the COMT genotype. To ascertain the distribution of the Val158Met variant of COMT, 50 children meeting ADHD inclusion criteria were compared with 32 healthy children. Clinical improvement and the occurrence of adverse effects were measured before and 3 months after MPH administration in children with ADHD, and analyzed for genotype association. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), age, MPH dose were included as co-variables. The occurrence of the COMT Val/Val genotype was significantly higher in children with ADHD (χ(2)(1)=7.13, p<0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the Val/Val genotype according to disorder, and WISC and ADHD rating scale scores, after correcting for the interaction between disorder and COMT genotype. Furthermore, no significant difference in MPH effect/adverse effects was observed in association with the COMT genotype in the ADHD group. These results showed a lack of association between the COMT Val/Val genotype and ADHD in Japan. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yueh; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2007-07-01

    To: (1) determine the association between Internet addiction and depression, self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), social phobia, and hostility for adolescents; and (2) evaluate the sex differences of association between Internet addiction and the above-mentioned psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. A total of 2114 students (1204 male and 910 female) were recruited for the study. Internet addiction, symptoms of ADHD, depression, social phobia, and hostility were evaluated by the self-report questionnaire. The results demonstrated that adolescents with Internet addiction had higher ADHD symptoms, depression, social phobia, and hostility. Higher ADHD symptoms, depression, and hostility are associated with Internet addiction in male adolescents, and only higher ADHD symptoms and depression are associated with Internet addiction in female students. These results suggest that Internet addiction is associated with symptoms of ADHD and depressive disorders. However, hostility was associated with Internet addiction only in males. Effective evaluation of, and treatment for ADHD and depressive disorders are required for adolescents with Internet addiction. More attention should be paid to male adolescents with high hostility in intervention of Internet addiction.

  14. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  15. The opposite end of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder continuum: genetic and environmental aetiologies of extremely low ADHD traits.

    PubMed

    Greven, Corina U; Merwood, Andrew; van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Haworth, Claire M A; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-04-01

    Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to reflect a continuously distributed quantitative trait, it is assessed through binary diagnosis or skewed measures biased towards its high, symptomatic extreme. A growing trend is to study the positive tail of normally distributed traits, a promising avenue, for example, to study high intelligence to increase power for gene-hunting for intelligence. However, the emergence of such a 'positive genetics' model has been tempered for ADHD due to poor phenotypic resolution at the low extreme. Overcoming this methodological limitation, we conduct the first study to assess the aetiologies of low extreme ADHD traits. In a population-representative sample of 2,143 twins, the Strength and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal behaviour (SWAN) questionnaire was used to assess ADHD traits on a continuum from low to high. Aetiological influences on extreme ADHD traits were estimated using DeFries-Fulker extremes analysis. ADHD traits were related to behavioural, cognitive and home environmental outcomes using regression. Low extreme ADHD traits were significantly influenced by shared environmental factors (23-35%) but were not significantly heritable. In contrast, high-extreme ADHD traits showed significant heritability (39-51%) but no shared environmental influences. Compared to individuals with high extreme or with average levels of ADHD traits, individuals with low extreme ADHD traits showed fewer internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems, better cognitive performance and more positive behaviours and positive home environmental outcomes. Shared environmental influences on low extreme ADHD traits may reflect passive gene-environment correlation, which arises because parents provide environments as well as passing on genes. Studying the low extreme opens new avenues to study mechanisms underlying previously neglected positive behaviours. This is different from the current deficit-based model of

  16. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6-13 years of age. We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children's ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a cross-sectional study of Mexican children. Environ Health Perspect 124

  17. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a

  18. Pre- and Peri-Natal Environmental Risks for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Potential Role of Epigenetic Processes in Mediating Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, Jonathan; Petronis, Arturas

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neurobehavioural disorder defined by symptoms of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. As is the norm for most psychiatric phenotypes, traditional aetiological studies have focused primarily on the interplay between genetic and environmental…

  19. Parent Training Interventions for Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children Aged 5 to 18 Years. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2012:2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwi, Morris; Jones, Hannah; Thorgaard, Camilla; York, Ann; Dennis, Jane A.

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that are present before the age of seven years, seen in a range of situations, inconsistent with the child's developmental level and causing social or academic impairment. Parent training…

  20. Pre- and Peri-Natal Environmental Risks for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Potential Role of Epigenetic Processes in Mediating Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, Jonathan; Petronis, Arturas

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neurobehavioural disorder defined by symptoms of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. As is the norm for most psychiatric phenotypes, traditional aetiological studies have focused primarily on the interplay between genetic and environmental…

  1. Sleep in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review of naturalistic and stimulant intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2004-10-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder of childhood. Multiple clinical and research reports suggest extensive sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, however, current data is contradictory. This paper reviewed 47 research studies (13 stimulant intervention and 34 naturalistic) on ADHD that were published since 1980. The main objectives of this review were to provide pediatric clinicians and researchers a clear and concise summary of published sleep data in children with ADHD, to provide a more accurate description of the current knowledge of the relationship between sleep and ADHD, and to provide current information on the effect of stimulant medication on sleep. Twenty-five of the reviewed studies used subjective reports of sleep, six were actigraphic studies, and 16 were overnight polysomnographic sleep studies (two of which also included Multiple Sleep Latency Tests). All participants were between the age of 3 and 19, and 60% were male. The results indicate high rates of parental reports of sleep disturbances in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD, however, the majority of these findings have not been confirmed by objective sleep data. Although, agreement among objective studies is not absolute, the data suggest increased nighttime activity, reduced rapid eye movement sleep, and significant daytime somnolence in unmedicated children with ADHD when compared to controls. Data also suggest a possible increased prevalence of periodic limb movements in sleep in children with ADHD, however, little differences in sleep-disordered breathing. The limited number of studies, small and heterogeneous samples, and other methodological limitations make definite results difficult to determine. Future research will need to further clarify the relationship between sleep and ADHD and the effects of stimulants on sleep of children with ADHD.

  2. Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with OROS methylphenidate: the role of baseline ADHD severity and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Edward V; Covey, Lirio S; Brigham, Gregory; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R; Somoza, Eugene C; Winhusen, Theresa M

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate promotes abstinence from smoking among smokers with ADHD who have greater severity of ADHD symptoms at baseline or greater improvement in ADHD during treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind, 11-week trial conducted between December 2005 and January 2008 at 6 clinical sites; the original trial was sponsored by the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Adult cigarette smokers (aged 18-55 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomly assigned to OROS methylphenidate (72 mg/d) (n = 127) or matching placebo (n = 128). All participants received nicotine patches (21 mg/d) and weekly individual smoking cessation counseling. Logistic regression was used to model prolonged abstinence from smoking (ascertained by self-report and breath carbon monoxide testing) as a function of treatment, baseline ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) score, change in ADHD-RS score during treatment, and their interactions. Treatment interacted with both ADHD-RS score at baseline (P = .01) and change in ADHD-RS score during treatment (P = .008). Among patients with higher ADHD-RS scores (> 36) at baseline and the most improvement in ADHD during treatment (ADHD-RS change score ≥ 24), 70.0% of those who took OROS methylphenidate achieved abstinence from smoking compared to 36.8% of those who took placebo (P = .02). In contrast, among patients with the lowest ADHD-RS baseline scores (≤ 30), 30.3% of those who took OROS methylphenidate achieved abstinence from smoking compared to 60.7% of those who took placebo (P = .02). OROS methylphenidate, in combination with nicotine patch, may be an effective treatment for nicotine dependence among smokers with more severe ADHD and more robust response of ADHD symptoms to medication. OROS methylphenidate may be counterproductive among smokers with lower severity of ADHD

  3. Immediate-release methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Tamir; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Weiser, Mark

    2014-09-18

    Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), diagnosed mainly in children, often persist into adulthood. Adults in this group have a high rate of other psychiatric problems and functional difficulties in a number of key areas such as academic achievement, interpersonal relationships, and employment. Although the usefulness of immediate-release methylphenidate in children has been extensively studied, studies in adults, which are few, demonstrate varying results. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of immediate-release methylphenidate versus placebo in the treatment of adults with ADHD. We searched the following databases in November 2013: CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), and two trials registers. Biosis was searched in December 2013. We inspected references of all relevant papers to identify more studies and contacted authors of recently published trials. We included all randomized trials comparing immediate-release methylphenidate versus placebo in participants aged 18 years or older with ADHD. We excluded trials conducted on subpopulations of adults with ADHD such as adults with both ADHD and substance dependence. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed trial risk of bias. We contacted authors of trials to ask for additional and missing data. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For continuous outcomes, we calculated mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs. Results from the 11 randomized controlled trials (474 participants, counting participants from cross-over studies as a single arm, and counting both arms from parallel studies) included in the review demonstrated improvement in core clinical ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattentiveness, and overall improvement. We were able to pool results from 10 studies, which included 466

  4. Screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): can high-risk children be identified in first grade?

    PubMed

    Holmberg, K; Sundelin, C; Hjern, A

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial long-term effects of an indicated parent support programme for acting out behaviour in pre-school children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits. In this study we wanted to assess different thresholds for screening with the Conners scale for hyperactive-inattentive behaviours in first grade for ADHD in grade four. The study population consisted of 422 first graders (6- to 7-year-olds) in one municipality in Stockholm County who were screened with Conners 10-item scale and followed up by ADHD assessment in grade four. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and positive predictive value (PPV) of the screening by parents and teachers in first grade for being diagnosed with ADHD in fourth grade were calculated. The prevalence of pervasive and situational ADHD was 5.7% and 5.9% respectively. A score ≥ 10 on the Conners scale in first grade in teachers' reports identified 63% [95% confidence interval (CI): 43-79] of children diagnosed with pervasive ADHD in grade four (P < 0.001) with a PPV of 29% and a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 6.72. Parental reports of a score ≥ 10 yielded a lower sensitivity (29%; 95% CI: 15-49), PPV of 20% and LR+ of 4.24 for pervasive ADHD. The best predictor was a combination of parent and teacher scores ≥ 10 with a PPV of 50% and LR+ of 16.63. Associations with situational ADHD were weak with LR+ of 1.81 and 2.49, respectively, for teachers' and parental scores ≥ 10. This study indicates a strong association between a teacher's report of a score ≥ 10 on the Conners scale in first grade and pervasive ADHD in grade four, while parental reports were less predictive. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Co-Occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Parents of Children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; de Ruiter, Saskia W.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan. K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g.,…

  7. The Co-Occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Parents of Children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; de Ruiter, Saskia W.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan. K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g.,…

  8. Coping styles in substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Linda M; Goossens, Peter J J; van Busschbach, Jooske; van Achterberg, Theo; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-07-14

    Patients with a substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often start using substances in an attempt to cope with the stress related to their ADHD or ASD. To improve treatment for these patient groups, it is important to identify and compare the various coping styles between SUD patients with and without ADHD or ASD and with subjects from a general population sample. Cross-sectional study using the Utrecht Coping List (UCL) in 50 SUD patients, 41 SUD + ADHD patients, 31 SUD + ASD patients and 1,200 railway employees. Compared with the reference group, all three SUD groups showed a significant higher mean on the Palliative reaction, Avoidance, and Passive reaction subscales of the UCL. The scores for all UCL subscales of the SUD and the SUD + ADHD groups were very similar. However, the SUD + ASD group scored higher on Passive reaction and lower on Reassuring thoughts than the SUD and the SUD + ADHD groups and lower on Expression of emotions subscale in comparison with the SUD + ADHD group. Regardless of the presence of a co-occurring disorder, SUD patients reported more palliative, avoidant and passive coping when confronted than people in the general population. In addition, SUD patients with co-occurring ASD were different from other SUD patients in their coping and professionals should take this into account when working on more adaptive coping strategies with these patients.

  9. Decreased Glial GABA and Tonic Inhibition in Cerebellum of Mouse Model for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo Sung; Woo, Junsung; Lee, C Justin; Yoon, Bo-Eun

    2017-08-01

    About 5~12% of school-aged children suffer from the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the core mechanism of ADHD remains unclear. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein-1 (GIT1) has recently been reported to be associated with ADHD in human and the genetic deletion of GIT1 result in ADHD-like behaviors in mice. Mice lacking GIT1 shows a shift in neuronal excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. However, the pricise mechanism for E/I imbalance and the role of neuron-glia interaction in GIT1 knockout (KO) mice have not been studied. Especially, a possible contribution of glial GABA and tonic inhibition mediated by astrocytic GABA release in the mouse model for ADHD remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the changes in the amount of GABA and degree of tonic inhibition in GIT1 KO mice. We observed a decreased glial GABA intensity in GIT1 KO mice compared to wild type (WT) mice and an attenuation of tonic current from cerebellar granule cells in GIT1 KO mice. Our study identifies the previously unknown mechanism of reduced astrocytic GABA and tonic inhibition in GIT1 lacking mice as a potential cause of hyperactivity disorder.

  10. [Drug addiction in young prison inmates with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Retz, W; Retz-Junginger, P; Schneider, M; Scherk, H; Hengesch, G; Rösler, M

    2007-05-01

    Prospective studies of children with ADHD have shown a high level of substance use disorder comorbidity, particularly when associated with social maladaptation and antisocial behavior. Conversely, studies of drug abusing participants and delinquents revealed a high prevalence of ADHD comorbidity. In this study 129 young male prison inmates were systematically examined for ADHD and substance use disorders. 64,3 % showed harmful alcohol consumption. 67,4 % fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for any drug abuse or dependence. 28,8 % of these participants were diagnosed with ADHD, combined type, other 52,1 % showed ADHD residual type. Opioid dependence was more common in delinquents without ADHD. Addicted delinquents with ADHD showed worse social environment and a higher degree of psychopathology, including externalizing and internalizing behavior, compared to addicted delinquents without ADHD. Neuroticism and conscientiousness ratings of the addicted ADHD group, but not of those without ADHD, differed from non-addicted delinquents. The results underline the need of adequate therapeutic programs for addicted young prison inmates considering ADHD comorbidity, which is associated with additional psychopathology and social problems.

  11. DRD4 rare variants in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): further evidence from a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Rohde, Luis A; Menezes, Ana M B; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Julia P; Anselmi, Luciana; Hutz, Mara H

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) is one of the most studied candidate genes for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). An excess of rare variants and non-synonymous mutations in the VNTR region of 7R allele in ADHD subjects was observed in previous studies with clinical samples. We hypothesize that genetic heterogeneity in the VNTR is an important factor in the pathophysiology of ADHD. The subjects included in the present study are members of the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (N=5,249). We conducted an association study with the 4,101 subjects who had DNA samples collected. The hyperactivity-inattention scores were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at 11 and 15 years of age. The contribution of allele's length and rare variants to high hyperactivity/inattention scores predisposition was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. No effect of allele length was observed on high scores of hyperactivity-inattention. By contrast, when resequencing/haplotyping was conducted in a subsample, all 7R rare variants as well as non-synonymous 7R rare variants were associated with high hyperactivity/inattention scores (OR=2.561; P=0.024 and OR=3.216; P=0.008 respectively). A trend for association was observed with 4R rare variants. New coding mutations covered 10 novel motifs and many of them are previously unreported deletions leading to different stop codons. Our findings suggest a contribution of DRD4 7R rare variants to high hyperactivity-inattention scores in a population-based sample from a large birth cohort. These findings provide further evidence for an effect of DRD4 7R rare variants and allelic heterogeneity in ADHD genetic susceptibility.

  12. Interactions among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and problem gambling in a probabilistic reward-learning task.

    PubMed

    Abouzari, Mehdi; Oberg, Scott; Gruber, Aaron; Tata, Matthew

    2015-09-15

    Problem gambling is thought to be highly comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that the neurobiological pathologies underlying problem gambling overlap with those in ADHD. In this study, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation among participants with pathological gambling and/or ADHD. The task contained two choice options with different net payouts over the session; a good bet that resulted in a win of +50 points on 60% of trials (and -50 points on 40%), and a bad bet that resulted in +100 points on 40% of the trials (and -100 points on 60%). We quantified participants' preference for the good bet over the session and their sensitivity to reinforcement. Both the control subjects and medicated ADHD nongamblers significantly increased the proportion of good bets over the 400-trial session. Subjects with problem gambling performed worse than controls and ADHD nongamblers, but better than our limited sample of unmedicated ADHD gamblers. Control subjects, medicated ADHD nongamblers, and unmedicated ADHD nongamblers tended to tolerate losses following good bets, whereas unmedicated ADHD gamblers tended to tolerate losses following bad bets. These data reveal that ADHD, particularly when treated with medication, is not associated with poor choices on the IGT, but may exacerbate pathological choices in problem gamblers. It seems that stabilization of dopamine signaling that occurs when ADHD is treated is itself also a treatment for certain forms of problem gambling. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BINGE EATING AND ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) IN TWO PEDIATRIC COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CLINICS

    PubMed Central

    Reinblatt, Shauna P.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Mahone, E. Mark; Forrester, Sarah; Wilcox, Holly C.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been linked with obesity; however its relationship with binge eating (BE) is less clear. We aimed to explore the associations among ADHD, weight and BE in pediatric mental health clinics. Method We retrospectively reviewed consecutive intakes in two pediatric mental health clinics (N=252). BE was assessed using the C-BEDS scale. Associations between ADHD, BE, and BMI-z score were assessed via regression. Results Mean age was 10.8 (3.7 SD) years. Twelve percent (n= 31) had BE. The association between ADHD and BE was statistically significant (OR 16.1, p < 0.001), and persisted after adjusting for comorbid diagnoses, medications, demographic variables and clinic. There was a statistically significant association between ADHD and BMI z-scores (β=0.54, p < 0.001). After adjusting for BE, the relationship between ADHD and BMI z-scores was attenuated (β=0.35, p=0.025), and the coefficient for BE was decreased (β=0.75, p=0.001). Although stimulant use was associated with a three-fold increase in odds of BE (OR 3.16, p=0.006), stimulants were not associated with greater BMI-z scores (β=0.18, p=0.32). Discussion There was a significant association between ADHD and BE in two pediatric mental health clinics. Although these data are cross-sectional, and cannot be used to make causal inferences, these findings are compatible with the hypothesis that BE partially mediates the association between ADHD and BMI z-scores. In mental health clinics, children with ADHD may present as overweight or obese. Further, children with ADHD may exhibit BE. Future prospective studies should elucidate the complex relationships among ADHD, weight, stimulants and BE. PMID:25130278

  14. Intensified testing for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in girls should reduce depression and smoking in adult females and the prevalence of ADHD in the longterm.

    PubMed

    Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan; Brummer, Dagmar; Koelch, Michael; Ludolph, Albert C; Fegert, Joerg M; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2009-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in youth. About a third to one-half of the affected subjects continue to have symptoms in adulthood. Remarkably, the prevalence numbers published for adult females are higher than for girls. The differences in the epidemiological data between the age groups clearly point to underdiagnosed ADHD in girls. Major depression, the most frequent psychiatric condition worldwide in adulthood, is twice as common in female as in male adults. Anxiety and depression are also among the most common comorbidities in adults with ADHD. Therefore, an undiagnosed ADHD may often underlie the psychopathology in depressive women. Another possibly associated phenomenon is the increased frequency of smoking in adult females. Since nicotine indirectly enhances the intrasynaptic dopamine level which presumably is too low both in ADHD and in depression, smoking might be used as a self-medication in women with untreated ADHD and consecutive depression. Furthermore, smoking during pregnancy is a major risk factor for ADHD in the offspring, so the vicious circle is complete. Depression in mothers of children with ADHD is associated with a higher rate of comorbidity in the children. Improved screening for ADHD in girls and treatment in childhood might thus reduce the rate of depression and smoking in adult females. We hypothesize that earlier identification and interventions might not only improve the lives of millions of girls and women but might also reduce the prevalence rates in future generations or at least moderate the deviant behaviour in this highly heritable disorder in which the development and severity of symptoms and the functional impairment depend to a high degree on epigenetic factors.

  15. Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder a Valid Diagnosis in the Presence of High IQ? Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Stallone, Kimberly; Nave, Andrea; Kaufmann, Felice A.; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the validity of diagnosing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in high IQ children and to further characterize the clinical features associated with their ADHD. Methods: We operationalized giftedness/high IQ as having a full scale IQ greater than or equal to 120. We identified 92 children…

  16. Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder a Valid Diagnosis in the Presence of High IQ? Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Stallone, Kimberly; Nave, Andrea; Kaufmann, Felice A.; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the validity of diagnosing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in high IQ children and to further characterize the clinical features associated with their ADHD. Methods: We operationalized giftedness/high IQ as having a full scale IQ greater than or equal to 120. We identified 92 children…

  17. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms: Do the Software and the Instruction Method Affect Their Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonidou, Christina; Garagouni-Areou, Fotina; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use on pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Nine Greek primary school pupils with ADHD symptoms and four others with no such deficit worked on a computer, either individually or collaboratively, once a week for a six-week period.…

  18. An Analysis of the Discourses on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in US Special Education Textbooks, with Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found in textbooks used in pre-service special education programmes in the USA. Five textbooks are examined with the intent of discovering how ADHD is portrayed to future teachers. A discourse analysis framework is utilised, revealing five…

  19. An Analysis of the Discourses on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in US Special Education Textbooks, with Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found in textbooks used in pre-service special education programmes in the USA. Five textbooks are examined with the intent of discovering how ADHD is portrayed to future teachers. A discourse analysis framework is utilised, revealing five…

  20. Alterations in pain response are partially reversed by methylphenidate (Ritalin) in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Treister, Roi; Eisenberg, Elon; Demeter, Naor; Pud, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by dysregulation of sensory processing and neurobiology of dopamine. Although cumulative evidence suggests that dopamine is involved in pain processing, pain perception in ADHD subjects and the effect of dopamine agonists such as methylphenidate (MP, Ritalin) on it have rarely been studied. The aims of this study were to (1) psychophysically assess sensitivity to pain in ADHD subjects as compared to controls and (2) examine the effects of MP on pain response in ADHD subjects. Thirty subjects with ADHD and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in a preliminary trial. Pain threshold, intensity, and tolerance in response to cold pain stimulation were measured for both groups (ADHD with no treatment). In addition, the ADHD group was reassessed following a single dose of MP treatment. The ADHD subjects "without MP" in comparison with controls displayed significantly shorter cold pain threshold (2.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.8 ± 2.5 seconds, respectively, P < 0.001) and cold tolerance (21.8 ± 22.3 vs. 62.8 ± 59.8 seconds, respectively P < 0.001). No differences in pain intensities between the groups were found. Following MP treatment, both cold threshold and tolerance in the ADHD subjects increased significantly compared to those with no treatment (3.6 ± 2.5 seconds, P = 0.011, and 46.4 ± 53.3 seconds, P < 0.001, respectively). These results suggest that adults with ADHD are more sensitive to pain compared with controls and that MP may exert antinociceptive properties in these subjects. Randomized, controlled trials are warranted to verify these findings. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Predictors of adolescent functioning in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the role of childhood ADHD, conduct problems, and peer status.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steve S; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2006-09-01

    Predictors of adolescent functioning were studied in an ethnically diverse sample of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140) and age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls (n = 88) who participated in naturalistic summer programs during childhood. Over a 5-year follow-up (sample retention = 92%; age range = 11.3-18.2 years), conduct problems were predicted by hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms and noncompliance (NC). Academic achievement was predicted only by inattention symptoms, whereas school suspensions and expulsions were predicted by inattention symptoms (ADHD sample only), NC, and negative peer status. Substance use was predicted by NC and HI symptoms. Internalizing problems were predicted by HI symptoms, NC, and covert antisocial behavior. Finally, initial peer status was the only significant predictor of later negative social preference.

  2. Is the ADHD brain wired differently? A review on structural and functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Kerstin; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, a change in perspective in etiological models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has occurred in concordance with emerging concepts in other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. These models shift the focus of the assumed pathology from regional brain abnormalities to dysfunction in distributed network organization. In the current contribution, we report findings from functional connectivity studies during resting and task states, as well as from studies on structural connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging, in subjects with ADHD. Although major methodological limitations in analyzing connectivity measures derived from noninvasive in vivo neuroimaging still exist, there is convergent evidence for white matter pathology and disrupted anatomical connectivity in ADHD. In addition, dysfunctional connectivity during rest and during cognitive tasks has been demonstrated. However, the causality between disturbed white matter architecture and cortical dysfunction remains to be evaluated. Both genetic and environmental factors might contribute to disruptions in interactions between different brain regions. Stimulant medication not only modulates regionally specific activation strength but also normalizes dysfunctional connectivity, pointing to a predominant network dysfunction in ADHD. By combining a longitudinal approach with a systems perspective in ADHD in the future, it might be possible to identify at which stage during development disruptions in neural networks emerge and to delineate possible new endophenotypes of ADHD.

  3. Decreased binding capacity (Bmax) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in fibroblasts from boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jessica; Landgren, Magnus; Fernell, Elisabeth; Lewander, Tommy; Venizelos, Nikolaos

    2013-09-01

    Monoaminergic dysregulation is implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate and amphetamines are the most frequently prescribed pharmacological agents for treating ADHD. However, it has recently been proposed that the core symptoms of the disorder might be due to an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems. In this study, we used fibroblast cell homogenates from boys with and without ADHD as an extraneural cell model to examine the cholinergic receptor density, that is, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). We found that the binding capacity (Bmax) of [³H] Quinuclidinyl benzilate (³H-QNB) to mAChRs was decreased by almost 50 % in the children with ADHD (mean = 30.6 fmol/mg protein, SD = 25.6) in comparison with controls [mean = 63.1 fmol/mg protein, SD = 20.5, p ≤ 0.01 (Student's unpaired t test)]. The decreased Bmax indicates a reduced cholinergic receptor density, which might constitute a biomarker for ADHD. However, these preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger ADHD and comparison cohorts.

  4. Nutritional and environmental approaches to preventing and treating autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Luke T; Patel, Kalpana

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to concisely review the available literature of nutritional and environmental factors on autistic spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Review of journal articles found on the PubMed database and from information from several conference proceedings. Many, but not all, studies link exposure to toxins such as mercury, lead, pesticides, and in utero smoking exposure to higher levels of autism and/or ADHD. Some studies have reported many nutritional deficiencies in autism/ADHD patients. Numerous studies have reported that supplemental nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, zinc, magnesium, and phytochemicals may provide moderate benefits to autism/ADHD patients. Avoidance of food allergens, food chemicals, and chelation therapy may also provide some relief to autism/ADHD patients. Autistic spectrum disorders and ADHD are complicated conditions in which nutritional and environmental factors play major roles. Larger studies are needed to determine optimum multifactorial treatment plans involving nutrition, environmental control,medication, and behavioral/education/speech/physical therapies.

  5. Distractibility in Attention/Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the virtual reality classroom.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rebecca; Finn, Paul; Moes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Kathleen; Rizzo, Albert Skip

    2009-03-01

    Nineteen boys aged 8 to 14 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 16 age-matched controls were compared in a virtual reality (VR) classroom version of a continuous performance task (CPT), with a second standard CPT presentation using the same projection display dome system. The Virtual Classroom included simulated "real-world" auditory and visual distracters. Parent ratings of attention, hyperactivity, internalizing problems, and adaptive skills on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Monitor for ADHD confirmed that the ADHD children had more problems in these areas than controls. The difference between the ADHD group (who performed worse) and the control group approached significance (p = .05; adjusted p = .02) in the Virtual Classroom presentation, and the classification rate of the Virtual Classroom was better than when the standard CPT was used (87.5% versus 68.8%). Children with ADHD were more affected by distractions in the VR classroom than those without ADHD. Results are discussed in relation to distractibility in ADHD.

  6. [A study of temperament and personality in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Bouvard, M; Sigel, L; Laurent, A

    2012-10-01

    The study of children's personality and its development has generated several theoretical models in psychology. In a developmental approach, Buss and Plomin elaborated a genetic model of temperament that involves four dimensions: emotionality (refers to the negative quality of the emotion and the intensity of the emotional reactions), activity (intensity and frequency of a person's energy output in motor movements and speech), sociability (search for social relationships and preference for activities with others) and shyness (behavioural inhibition and feelings of distress when in interaction with strangers). The psychobiological approach postulates a biological model of personality. Thus, in Gray's first model, there are two brain systems that explain behaviours: the Bbehavioural Activation System (BAS) related to impulsivity and the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) linked to anxiety. Finally, dispositional theories seek to identify functional units of the normal personality from the factorial approach. Accordingly, Barbaranelli et al. build a questionnaire, the big five questionnaire for children (BFQ-C), which is intended to estimate the emergence of five fundamental dimensions (energy/extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional instability and intellect/openness) in children from 8 to 18 years. The clinical study we will present concerns the personality of children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). STUDY 1: In a first study, we compared the ratings of 33 children with ADHD regarding their personality, as well as the ratings of their parents, over a one-year interval. The EAS questionnaire tapping into the genetic model put forth by Buss and Plomin evaluates four dimensions: emotionality, activity, sociability and shyness. The BIS/BAS scales for children correspond to Gray's first psychobiological model of personality. The BIS scale is unidimensional and the BAS scale is divided into three subscales (drive, fun

  7. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B; Nilausen, Trine Danvad; Skoog, Maria; Holmskov, Mathilde; Rosendal, Susanne; Groth, Camilla; Magnusson, Frederik L; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R; Gillies, Donna; Buch Rasmussen, Kirsten; Gauci, Dorothy; Zwi, Morris; Kirubakaran, Richard; Forsbøl, Bente; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2015-11-25

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood. Typically, children with ADHD find it difficult to pay attention, they are hyperactive and impulsive.Methylphenidate is the drug most often prescribed to treat children and adolescents with ADHD but, despite its widespread use, this is the first comprehensive systematic review of its benefits and harms. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with ADHD. In February 2015 we searched six databases (CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Conference Proceedings Citations Index), and two trials registers. We checked for additional trials in the reference lists of relevant reviews and included trials. We contacted the pharmaceutical companies that manufacture methylphenidate to request published and unpublished data. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing methylphenidate versus placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents aged 18 years and younger with a diagnosis of ADHD. At least 75% of participants needed to have an intellectual quotient of at least 70 (i.e. normal intellectual functioning). Outcomes assessed included ADHD symptoms, serious adverse events, non-serious adverse events, general behaviour and quality of life. Seventeen review authors participated in data extraction and risk of bias assessment, and two review authors independently performed all tasks. We used standard methodological procedures expected within Cochrane. Data from parallel-group trials and first period data from cross-over trials formed the basis of our primary analyses; separate analyses were undertaken using post-cross-over data from cross-over trials. We used Trial Sequential Analyses to control for type I (5%) and type II (20%) errors, and we assessed and downgraded evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.

  9. A Comparison of Teachers' and Parents' Knowledge and Beliefs About Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John; Taylor, Myra; Houghton, Stephen; Hudyma, Shirlene

    2005-01-01

    The Knowledge about Attention Deficit Disorder Questionnaire (KADD-Q) was administered to 256 teachers and 92 parents. Statistical analysis revealed the KADD-Q to be an internally consistent measure of teachers' and parents' knowledge of ADHD. Findings demonstrated that the levels of teachers' and parents' knowledge about the causes of ADHD was…

  10. Teaching children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic disorder (AD) how to swallow pills.

    PubMed

    Beck, Melissa H; Cataldo, Marilyn; Slifer, Keith J; Pulbrook, Valerie; Guhman, Jaswinder K

    2005-01-01

    One barrier to medication adherence in pediatric populations is difficulty swallowing pills. Some children may not have prerequisite skills for pill swallowing, while others may have developed conditioned anxiety from repeated negative experiences. Eight children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or autistic disorder participated in behavioral training to increase cooperation with pill swallowing. A pill-swallowing protocol was utilized during practice sessions with placebo "pills" of increasing size to implement systematic desensitization. Seven of the 8 children swallowed medication with a therapist. Six of the 8 children maintained treatment gains over time. Interventions used to succeed with these children are presented along with methods to reduce conditioned behavioral distress.

  11. The relationship between cerebral hemisphere volume and receptive language functioning in dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Pavawalla, Shital P; Fancher, Jill B; Naillon, Angela J; Hynd, George W

    2009-04-01

    Because poor comprehension has been associated with small cerebral volume and there is a high comorbidity between developmental dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and specific language impairment, the goal of this study was to determine whether cerebral volume is reduced in dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in general, as some suggest, or whether the reduction in volume corresponds to poor receptive language functioning, regardless of the diagnosis. Participants included 46 children with and without dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, aged 8 to 12 years. Our results indicated that cerebral volume was comparable between those with and without dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder overall. However, when groups were further divided into those with and without receptive language difficulties, children with poor receptive language had smaller volumes bilaterally as hypothesized. Nonetheless, the relationship between cerebral volume and receptive language was not linear; rather, our results suggest that small volume is associated with poor receptive language only in those with the smallest volumes in both dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  12. Differential diagnosis of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): participation, sensation, and attention

    PubMed Central

    Yochman, Aviva; Alon-Beery, Osnat; Sribman, Ahuva; Parush, Shula

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between sensory modulation disorder (SMD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often challenging, since these disorders occur at a high rate of co-morbidity and share several clinical characteristics. Preliminary studies providing evidence that these are distinct disorders have focused solely on body functions, using sophisticated laboratory measurements. Moreover, no studies have compared participation profiles of these populations. This study is the first to compare the profiles of these populations regarding both “body functions” (attention and sensation) and “participation,” using measures applicable for clinical use. The study included 19 children with ADHD without SMD and 19 with SMD without ADHD (diagnosed by both pediatric neurologists and occupational therapists), aged 6–9, and matched by age and gender. All children underwent a broad battery of evaluations: the Evaluation of Sensory Processing, Fabric Prickliness Test (FPT) and Von Frey Test to evaluate sensory processing, and Test of Everyday Attention to evaluate attention components. The Participation in Childhood Occupations Questionnaire was used to evaluate participation. Results support significant group differences in all sensory components, including pain intensity to suprathreshold stimuli and pain “after sensation,” as well as in tactile, vestibular, taste, and olfactory processing. No differences were found in attention components and participation. This study has both theoretical and clinical importance, inter alia, providing further evidence of two distinct disorders as well as indications of specific clinical instruments that might enable clinicians to implement differential diagnoses. In addition, results accord with other previous statements, which indicate that the clinical diagnosis of children with disabilities may not be a major factor in determining their participation profile. PMID:24379772

  13. On the temporal characteristics of performance variability in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Feige, Bernd; Biscaldi, Monica; Saville, Christopher W N; Kluckert, Christian; Bender, Stephan; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Hennighausen, Klaus; Rauh, Reinhold; Fleischhaker, Christian; Klein, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Increased intra-subject variability of reaction times (ISV-RT) is one of the most consistent findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the nature of this phenomenon is still unclear, it has been hypothesised to reflect interference from the Default Mode Network (DMN). So far, ISV-RT has been operationally defined either as a frequency spectrum of the underlying RT time series, or as a measure of dispersion of the RT scores distribution. Here, we use a novel RT analysis framework to link these hitherto unconnected facets of ISV-RT by determining the sensitivity of different measures of RT dispersion to the frequency content of the underlying RT time series. N=27 patients with ADHD and N=26 healthy controls performed several visual N-back tasks. Different measures of RT dispersion were repeatedly modelled after individual frequency bands of the underlying RT time series had been either extracted or suppressed using frequency-domain filtering. We found that the intra-subject standard deviation of RT preserves the "1/f noise" characteristic typical of human RT data. Furthermore and most importantly, we found that the ex-Gaussian parameter τ is rather exclusively sensitive to frequencies below 0.025 Hz in the underlying RT time series and that the particularly slow RTs, which nourish τ, occur regularly as part of an quasi-periodic, ultra-slow RT fluctuation. Overall, our results are compatible with the idea that ISV-RT is modulated by an endogenous, slowly fluctuating process that may reflect DMN interference.

  14. Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Polymorphism in a Sample of Egyptian Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    ElBaz Mohamed, Farida; Kamal, Tarek Mostafa; Zahra, Sally Soliman; Khfagy, Mona Abdel Hakiem; Youssef, Azza Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to detect DRD4 receptor gene polymorphisms in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children and to correlate their phenotype-genotype. Fifty children with ADHD were diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, criteria and were subjected to Conners Parent Rating Scale. All cases and controls were subjected to history taking, physical examination, IQ assessment, and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon 3 genotyping. The 7-repeat allele was present only in controls, whereas 2-repeat allele was present in the ADHD children (heterozygous 2-repeat allele in 16% and homozygous in 26% of cases). Eight percent of cases had homozygous 4-repeat allele vs 28% of controls, whereas 10% of cases had heterozygous 4-repeat allele vs 6% of controls, with its predominance in controls. The 2-repeat and 4-repeat alleles have been associated with more inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity phenotypes. In conclusion, children with ADHD had a significant presence of the 2-repeat allele and absence of the 7-repeat allele.

  15. Functional Genomics of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Risk Alleles on Dopamine Transporter Binding in ADHD and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Madras, Bertha K.; Bonab, Ali A.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Batchelder, Holly; Clarke, Allison; Fischman, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the striatum in individuals with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), attending to the 3′-untranslated region of the gene (3′-UTR) and intron8 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms of the DAT (SLC6A3) gene. Methods Subjects consisted of 68 psychotropic (including stimulant)-naïve and smoking-naïve volunteers between 18 and 55 years of age (ADHD n = 34; control subjects n = 34). Striatal DAT binding was measured with positron emission tomography with 11C altropane. Genotyping of the two DAT (SLC6A3) 3′-UTR and intron8 VNTRs used standard protocols. Results The gene frequencies of each of the gene polymorphisms assessed did not differ between the ADHD and control groups. The ADHD status (t = 2.99; p < .004) and 3′-UTR of SLC6A3 9 repeat carrier status (t = 2.74; p < .008) were independently and additively associated with increased DAT binding in the caudate. The ADHD status was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of 3′-UTR genotype, and 3′-UTR genotype was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of ADHD status. In contrast, there were no significant associations between polymorphisms of DAT intron8 or the 3′-UTR-intron8 haplotype with DAT binding. Conclusions The 3′-UTR but not intron8 VNTR genotypes were associated with increased DAT binding in both ADHD patients and healthy control subjects. Both ADHD status and the 3′-UTR polymorphism status had an additive effect on DAT binding. Our findings suggest that an ADHD risk polymorphism (3′-UTR) of SLC6A3 has functional consequences on central nervous system DAT binding in humans. PMID:23273726

  16. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) profiling tests as diagnostic support for schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Juselius Baghdassarian, Eva; Nilsson Markhed, Maria; Lindström, Eva; Nilsson, Björn M; Lewander, Tommy

    2017-08-14

    To evaluate the performances of two auditory brainstem response (ABR) profiling tests as potential biomarkers and diagnostic support for schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), respectively, in an investigator-initiated blinded study design. Male and female patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and adult ADHD (n=24) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic criteria and healthy controls (n=58) comprised the analysis set (n=108) of the total number of study participants (n=119). Coded sets of randomized ABR recordings were analysed by an independent party blinded to clinical diagnoses before a joint code-breaking session. The ABR profiling test for schizophrenia identified schizophrenia patients versus controls with a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 93.1%. The ADHD test identified patients with adult ADHD versus controls with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 91.4%. The ABR profiling tests discriminated schizophrenia and ADHD versus healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. The methods deserve to be further explored in larger clinical studies including a broad range of psychiatric disorders to determine their utility as potential diagnostic biomarkers.

  17. The Effect of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Foster Care Caseloads: Evidence from Danish Registry Data.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This article uses administrative data on all Danish municipalities (N = 277) and a 10% randomly drawn sample of all Danish children (N = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children's acute behavioral problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  18. Inattention, working memory, and academic achievement in adolescents referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Maria; Hwang, Heungsun; Toplak, Maggie; Weiss, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of inattention and working memory in predicting academic achievement in 145 adolescents aged 13 to 18 referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Path analysis was used to examine whether auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory would mediate the relationships between classroom inattention symptoms and achievement outcomes. Results provide support for the mediational model. Behavioral inattention significantly predicted both auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory performance. Auditory-verbal working memory was strongly associated with adolescents' achievement in reading and mathematics, while visual-spatial working memory was only associated with achievement in mathematics. The path from inattention symptoms to reading was partially mediated by the working memory variables, but the path from inattention to mathematics was not mediated by working memory. The proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data and explained a substantial amount of variance in the adolescents' achievement outcomes. These findings imply that working memory is a risk factor for academic failure for adolescents with attentional problems.

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity: two facets of the same disease?

    PubMed

    Odent, Michel

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that when two pathological conditions or personality traits share the same critical period for gene-environment interaction, we should expect further similarities, particularly from clinical and pathophysiological perspectives. They should therefore be considered as two facets of the same disease. To test this hypothesis we compiled data included in the Primal Health Research Database. This database (www.primalhealthresearch.com) is specialised in studies exploring correlations between what happens during the 'primal period' (fetal life, perinatal period and year following birth) and what happens later on in life in terms of health and personality traits. After mentioning the links between autism and anorexia nervosa, we explore more in depth the links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. We suggest from such examples that the nature of an environmental factor is often less important than the timing of the interaction. We conclude that the concept of gene expression, combined with Primal Health Research, might lead to reconsider conventional nosological classifications. Some previously well-defined pathological entities should be included into the framework of multifaceted diseases. On the other hand some existing pathological entities should be dismantled.

  20. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low.

  1. Depressive symptoms and the role of affective temperament in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A comparison with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Fernando; López, Pablo; Lischinsky, Alicia; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Manes, Facundo

    2017-10-15

    To investigate the characteristics of depressive symptoms and the influence of affective temperament in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in comparison with bipolar disorder (BD) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Sixty patients with ADHD, 50 patients with BD, and 30 HCs were assessed with instruments for measuring depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II), and affective temperaments (Temperament Scale of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego, self-administered version; TEMPS-A). In addition, participants were evaluated with scales for measuring ADHD symptoms, impulsiveness, anxiety, executive dysfunction, and quality of life. ADHD patients showed levels of depressive symptoms similar to BD patients and higher than HCs. Only neurovegetative symptoms of depression differentiated ADHD and BD groups (BD > ADHD). Depressive symptoms in ADHD patients correlated positively with core ADHD, impulsivity, anxiety, and dysexecutive symptoms and negatively with quality of life. Thirty-eight percent of patients with ADHD scored above the cutoff for at least one affective temperament. Cyclothymic was the more common affective temperament (25%). ADHD patients with affective temperamental traits were more depressed and impulsive than patients without those traits and showed a symptomatic profile analogous to BD patients. The small size of resultant samples when ADHD group was stratified by the presence of affective temperament. In addition, results may not generalize to less severe ADHD patients from the community. Concomitant depressive symptoms constitute a common occurrence in adults with ADHD that carries significant psychopathological and functional consequences. The concept of affective temperaments may be an interesting link for explaining depressive symptomatology and emotional impulsivity in a subgroup of patients with ADHD, beyond the classic idea of comorbidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Do children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a diferent gait pattern? Relationship between idiopathic toe-walking and ADHD].

    PubMed

    Soto Insuga, Víctor; Moreno Vinués, Beatriz; Losada Del Pozo, Rebeca; Rodrigo Moreno, María; Martínez González, Marta; Cutillas Ruiz, Raquel; Mateos Carmen, Carmen

    2017-07-10

    Idiopathic toe-walking (ITW) is described as a gait pattern with no contact between the heels and the ground in children older than 3years. The diagnosis is clinical, making it necessary to rule out other neurological and orthopaedic conditions. A relationship between ITW and vestibular dysfunction and/or proprioceptive sensibility has been proposed. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism, language and cognitive disorders) often have ITW. To determine the frequency of ITW in children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD). A study was conducted on children diagnosed with ADHD, with normal neurological examination, with no alterations in MRI scan, cognitive disorder or autism. A complete clinical anamnesis was performed and Achilles shortening was measured with a goniometer. The study included 312 children with a mean age of 11 years (73.7% boys). The ADHD combined subtype was the most frequent (53.8%), followed by the inattentive (44.9%), and hyperactive (1.3%). ITW was observed in 20.8% of patients, particularly in the combined subtype (P=.054). Only 32 of them (49.2%) had Achilles shortening. ITW was associated with sociability disorders (P=.01), absence of pain in legs (P=.022), and family history of ITW (P=.004). Only 11% had previously visited a doctor for this reason. As in other neurodevelopmental disorders, children with ADHD have frequently more ITW and Achilles shortening than controls, especially if they presented with a social communication disorder or a family history of ITW. An early diagnosis is essential to establish effective treatments. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Lindefors, Nils

    2010-12-22

    ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener). The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD) before antisocial personality disorder (APD). Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD and coexisting disorders, such as SUD, ASD, personality

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Methods At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener). The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. Results The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD) before antisocial personality disorder (APD). Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. Conclusions This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD and coexisting disorders

  6. Choice-impulsivity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Patros, Connor H G; Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E; Hudec, Kristen L

    2016-02-01

    Impulsive behavior is a core DSM-5 diagnostic feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that is associated with several pejorative outcomes. Impulsivity is multidimensional, consisting of two sub-constructs: rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity (i.e., choice-impulsivity). While previous research has extensively examined the presence and implications of rapid-response impulsivity in children with ADHD, reviews of choice-impulsive behavior have been both sparse and relatively circumscribed. This review used meta-analytic methods to comprehensively examine between-group differences in choice-impulsivity among children and adolescents with and without ADHD. Twenty-eight tasks (from 26 studies), consisting of 4320 total children (ADHD=2360, TD=1,960), provided sufficient information to compute an overall between-group effect size for choice-impulsivity performance. Results revealed a medium-magnitude between-group effect size (g=.47), suggesting that children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited moderately increased impulsive decision-making compared to TD children and adolescents. Further, relative to the TD group, children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited similar patterns of impulsive decision-making across delay discounting and delay of gratification tasks. However, the use of single-informant diagnostic procedures relative to multiple informants yielded larger between-group effects, and a similar pattern was observed across samples that excluded females relative to samples that included females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Proposals for social policies to improve the quality of life in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD

    PubMed

    Cid Foix, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effects of pre and postnatal stress on the cerebral morphological findings described as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. [ADHD]. The consequences of ADHD cause social problems because these children have difficulties with family, school and social integration. Previous treatments are reviewed up to the present day. The drug that has been used most frequently is Metilphenidate, a psychostimulant, and recently, a new drug, Atomoxetine, a non psychostimulant was introduced. The therapy is combined with physiological training. These drugs give relief to the symptoms but their long term side-effects are unknown. Recent investigations have shown that children with ADHD who are receiving either cognitive or control training have increased cerebral activity without previous medication. With these facts in mind the European ADHD Guidelines group suggests a new focus of attention on the children and adults with this problem with the aim of modifying the treatment followed until now. The ethical motives for this review are: a) to make society more aware of the problems of ADHD with the aim of taking measures to avoid the possible causes of the illness; b) to take into account that the effects of long term psychostimulant drugs on the developing mind are unknown; c) to gather information that supports the view that diagnosis of ADHD has increased.

  8. Behavioural sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, E; Mensah, F K; Gulenc, A; Hiscock, H

    2014-02-12

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly experience behavioural sleep problems, yet these difficulties are not routinely assessed and managed in this group. Presenting with similar symptoms to ADHD itself, sleep problems are complex in children with ADHD and their aetiology is likely to be multifactorial. Common internalising and externalising comorbidities have been associated with sleep problems in children with ADHD; however, this relationship is yet to be fully elucidated. Furthermore, limited longitudinal data exist on sleep problems in children with ADHD, thus their persistence and impact remain unknown. In a diverse sample of children with ADHD, this study aims to: (1) quantify the relationship between sleep problems and internalising and externalising comorbidities; (2) examine sleep problem trajectories and risk factors; and (3) examine the longitudinal associations between sleep problems and child and family functioning over a 12-month period. A prospective cohort study of 400 children with ADHD (150 with no/mild sleep problems, 250 with moderate/severe sleep problems) recruited from paediatric practices across Victoria, Australia. The children's parents and teacher provide data at baseline and 6-month and 12-month post enrolment. Parent report of child's sleep problem severity (no, mild, moderate, severe); specific sleep domain scores assessed using the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire; internalising and externalising comorbidities assessed by the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children IV/Parent version. Multiple variable logistic and linear regression models examining the associations between key measures, adjusted for confounders identified a priori. Ethics approval has been granted. Findings will contribute to our understanding of behavioural sleep problems in children with ADHD. Clinically, they could improve the assessment and management of sleep problems in this group. We will seek to publish in leading

  9. Effect of Pycnogenol® on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Verlaet, Annelies A J; Ceulemans, Berten; Verhelst, Helene; Van West, Dirk; De Bruyne, Tess; Pieters, Luc; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Hermans, Nina

    2017-03-28

    Methylphenidate (MPH), the first choice medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is associated with serious adverse effects like arrhythmia. Evidence on the association of ADHD with immune and oxidant-antioxidant imbalances offers potential for antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory nutritional supplements as ADHD therapy. One small randomised trial in ADHD suggests, despite various limitations, therapeutic benefit from Pycnogenol®, a herbal, polyphenol-rich extract. This phase III trial is a 10-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo and active treatment controlled multicentre trial with three parallel treatment arms to compare the effect of Pycnogenol® to MPH and placebo on the behaviour of 144 paediatric ADHD and attention-deficit disorder (ADD) patients. Evaluations of behaviour (measured by the ADHD-Rating Scale (primary endpoint) and the Social-emotional Questionnaire (SEQ)), immunity (plasma cytokine and antibody levels, white blood cell counts and faecal microbial composition), oxidative stress (erythrocyte glutathione, plasma lipid-soluble vitamins and malondialdehyde and urinary 8-OHdG levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression), serum zinc and neuropeptide Y level, urinary catecholamines and physical complaints (Physical Complaints Questionnaire) will be performed in week 10 and compared to baseline. Acceptability evaluations will be based on adherence, dropouts and reports of adverse events. Dietary habits will be taken into account. This trial takes into account comorbid behavioural and physical symptoms, as well as a broad range of innovative immune and oxidative biomarkers, expected to provide fundamental knowledge on ADHD aetiology and therapy. Research on microbiota in ADHD is novel. Moreover, the active control arm is rather unseen in research on nutritional supplements, but of great importance, as patients and parents are often concerned with the side effects of MPH. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT

  10. [Evolutionary issues in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); from risk factors to comorbidity and social and academic impact].

    PubMed

    Quintero, Javier; Loro, Mercedes; Jiménez, Belén; García Campos, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and at least one-third to one-half will continue through adolescence and adulthood. Moreover it is important the high comorbidity not only in children, but in adolescents and adults. Therefore ADHD becomes especially important when we observe it as a risk factor for the development of another psychopathology that add more complexity to the diagnosis of children and adolescents and also adults, and confers an evolutionary risk throughout the lifetime of the person who suffers from it. A correlational study with a sample of 378 patients diagnosed with ADHD in the childhood between 1988 and 2000 who had initiated treatment after been diagnosed was carried out. 88 patients were evaluated years after (2006) with ages between 18 and 33 years old. 85% of the patients in this study had had combined treatment. The data found in this study show lower comorbidity than other published studies (36.4%), as well as a lower persistence of the complete diagnosis of ADHD in the adulthood (15%). This is a treated population; the results may lead to a possible protector role of the early treatment of ADHD.

  11. Motor cortex excitability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dutra, T G; Baltar, A; Monte-Silva, K K

    2016-09-01

    The core characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that causes developmental or functional impairment. Observational studies have investigated neurophysiological features in individuals with ADHD using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to identify which intracortical mechanisms are associated with the symptoms. This systematic review aimed to assess the quality of these studies and present meta-analyses of the available neurophysiological measures. This systematic review searched the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, with no date restrictions. The methodological quality of observational studies was assessed utilizing the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) criteria for observational studies. The analysis of the mean and standard deviation of the neurophysiological measurements was performed using the RevMan software version 5.0 for the meta-analyses of studies. Nine publications that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated. Most of the AHRQ criteria were satisfied, indicating the good quality of the studies. On comparing subjects with ADHD and controls, the forest plot profiles were similar in respect to the resting motor threshold (RMT), and silent period (SP) but a significant difference was found for short intracortical inhibition (SICI). This meta-analysis found reduced SICI in individuals with ADHD, when compared with controls. Given the small number of studies, it is important that further studies be conducted for a more robust conclusion to be formed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inferring candidate genes for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed by the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS).

    PubMed

    Reuter, M; Kirsch, P; Hennig, J

    2006-07-01

    The present study tests the psychometric properties and validity of the German version of the World Health Organization Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS), which is a short screening instrument for use in the general population. Furthermore, two candidate genes for ADHD, the COMT VAL158MET and the 5-HT2a T102C polymorphisms, were tested for associations with the ASRS subscales inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in N = 203 healthy subjects. The ordinal CFA yielded a two-factorial model corroborating the structure of the official English WHO version. Genetic analysis revealed an association between the VAL allele of COMT and the inattention scale (F(1, 201) = 7.20, p = 0.008), the hyperactivity/impulsivity scale (F(1, 201) = 4.30, p = 0.039), and the total ASRS scale (F(2, 201) = 7.64, p = 0.006) with highest scores in carriers of the MET/MET genotype. The C-allele of 5-HT2a was significantly associated with the hyperactivity/impulsivity scale (F(1, 201) = 5.52, p = 0.020) and the total ASRS scale (F(1, 201) = 4.21, p = 0.042) with highest scores in carriers of the TT genotype. The data provide evidence for the structural as well as for the external validity of the ASRS.

  13. Serum concentrations of kynurenines in adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Aarsland, Tore Ivar Malmei; Landaas, Elisabeth Toverud; Hegvik, Tor-Arne; Ulvik, Arve; Halmøy, Anne; Ueland, Per Magne; Haavik, Jan

    2015-11-05

    The essential amino acid tryptophan is catabolised mainly through the kynurenine pathway. Altered circulating levels of kynurenines have been reported in chronic inflammatory conditions and in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Candidate gene studies suggest that genes related to the kynurenine catabolism may be associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Additionally, ADHD patients often report comorbid depression or anxiety. In this study we investigated serum levels of kynurenines in Norwegian adult ADHD patients and adult controls. We compared serum levels of tryptophan and the seven tryptophan metabolites kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid in 133 adult patients with ADHD and 131 adult controls (18-40 years). Riboflavin (vitamin B2), total vitamin B6 and the nicotine metabolite cotinine were also measured. Serum samples were analysed using mass spectrometry. Patients and controls reported comorbid disorders and past (childhood) and current ADHD symptoms using the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for having an ADHD diagnosis for different serum levels of each metabolite. In addition, we used Spearman's correlation analysis to investigate the correlation between serum levels of tryptophan and kynurenines and ADHD symptom scores. Lower serum concentrations of tryptophan [odds ratio 0.61 (95 % confidence interval 0.45-0.83)], kynurenic acid [0.73 (0.53-0.99)], xanthurenic acid [0.65 (0.48-0.89)] and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid [0.63 (0.46-0.85)], and higher levels of cotinine [7.17 (4.37-12.58)], were significantly associated with ADHD. After adjusting for tryptophan levels, only 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and cotinine remained significant. Lower levels of tryptophan and kynurenine were also found to be correlated

  14. Meta-analysis of social cognition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): comparison with healthy controls and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bora, E; Pantelis, C

    2016-03-01

    Impairment in social cognition is an established finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Emerging evidence suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might be also associated with deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition. However, there are inconsistent findings, and it has been debatable whether such deficits persist beyond childhood and how similar social cognitive deficits are in ADHD v. ASD. We conducted a meta-analysis of social cognition, including emotion recognition and ToM, studies in ADHD compared with healthy controls and ASD. The current meta-analysis involved 44 studies comparing ADHD (n = 1999) with healthy controls (n = 1725) and 17 studies comparing ADHD (n = 772) with ASD (n = 710). Facial and vocal emotion recognition (d = 0.40-0.44) and ToM (d = 0.43) abilities were significantly impaired in ADHD. The most robust facial emotion recognition deficits were evident in anger and fear. Social cognitive deficits were either very subtle (emotion recognition) or non-significant (ToM) in adults with ADHD. Deficits in social cognition, especially ToM, were significantly more pronounced in ASD compared with ADHD. General cognitive impairment has contributed to social cognitive deficits in ADHD. Performance of individuals with ADHD on social cognition lies intermediate between ASD and healthy controls. However, developmental trajectories of social cognition probably differ between ADHD and ASD as social cognitive deficits in ADHD might be improving with age in most individuals. There is a need for studies investigating a potential subtype of ADHD with persistent social cognitive deficits and exploring longitudinal changes in social cognition during development.

  15. A comparison of the postoperative pain experience in children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rosander, Sondra; Nause-Osthoff, Rebecca; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Tait, Alan R

    2015-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may experience pain differently compared to other children, yet the evidence is equivocal regarding whether pain is heightened or dampened. This prospective observational study, therefore, was designed to compare the postoperative pain experiences in children with and without ADHD. Children aged 7-17 years with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 119) who were scheduled for a surgical procedure requiring postoperative pain management and a matched cohort of children without ADHD were recruited (n = 122). Postoperative pain scores and analgesic use were recorded for 1 week, as was parents' estimate of their child's return to normal activity. There were no differences in highest pain scores between children with ADHD (3.3 ± 2.5, 0-10 numerical rating scale) and those without (2.8 ± 1.9). Postoperative opioid use was also similar on day 1 following surgery (0.12 ± 0.3 mg·kg(-1) vs 0.08 mg·kg(-1 ) ± 0.1 morphine equivalents, respectively). Children with ADHD, however, had a significantly longer return to normal activity (4.9 ± 3.8 vs 3.8 ± 3.0 days; P < 0.05). Results suggest that there were no differences in the postoperative pain experiences of children with and without ADHD. However, the observation that children with ADHD took longer to return to baseline activity will be important in educating parents regarding their child's postoperative experience. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The impact of failing to identify suspect effort in patients undergoing adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessment.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul S; Hoelzle, James B; Heyerdahl, Danielle; Nelson, Nathaniel W

    2016-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 28(10) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2016-22725-001). In the article, the penultimate sentence of the abstract should read “These results suggest that a significant percentage of those making a suspect effort will be diagnosed with ADHD using the most commonly employed assessment methods: an interview alone (71%); an interview and ADHD behavior rating scales combined (65%); and an interview, behavior rating scales, and most continuous performance tests combined (62%).” All versions of this article have been corrected.] This retrospective study examines how many adult patients would plausibly receive a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) if performance and symptom validity measures were not administered during neuropsychological evaluations. Five hundred fifty-four patients were extracted from an archival clinical dataset. A total of 102 were diagnosed with ADHD based on cognitive testing, behavior rating scales, effort testing, and clinical interview; 115 were identified as putting forth suspect effort in accordance with the Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria. From a clinical decision-making perspective, suspect effort and ADHD groups were nearly indistinguishable on ADHD behavior, executive function, and functional impairment rating scales, as well as on cognitive testing and key clinical interview questions. These results suggest that a significant percentage of those making a suspect effort will be diagnosed with ADHD using the most commonly employed assessment methods: an interview alone (71%); an interview and ADHD behavior rating scales combined (65%); and an interview, behavior rating scales, and most continuous performance tests combined (62%) [corrected]. This research makes clear that it is essential to evaluate task engagement and possible symptom amplification during clinical evaluations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights

  17. Influence of methylphenidate on spatial attention asymmetry in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Silk, Timothy J; Newman, Daniel P; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Atypical asymmetries of spatial attention have been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may be exacerbated by non-spatial factors such as attentional capacity. Although preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetries of attention in ADHD may be modifiable by the psychostimulant, methylphenidate, further placebo-controlled studies are required. This study first aimed to confirm recent evidence that increasing non-spatial processing load at fixation can unmask a spatial gradient of target detection in children with ADHD but not Controls. Second, we used placebo-controlled randomised trial methodology to ask whether 20mg of methylphenidate (MPH) could remediate any load-dependent asymmetry of spatial attention in adolescents with ADHD. Twelve male adolescents with ADHD were assessed twice in a double-blind, randomized design, under either placebo or an acute dose of methylphenidate. Thirteen typically developing adolescent Controls completed a single session under placebo. Participants completed a computer-based task in which they monitored a centrally presented rapid serial visual presentation stream for a probe stimulus, while also responding to brief peripheral events. The attentional load of the central task was manipulated by varying the target instructions but not the physical stimuli or the frequency of targets. Between-group analyses under placebo conditions indicated that increased attentional load induced a spatial gradient for target detection in the ADHD but not Controls, such that load slowed response times for left, but not, right hemi-field targets. This load-dependent spatial asymmetry in the adolescents with ADHD was abolished by administration of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate may "normalise" target detection between the hemi-fields in ADHD via enhancement of the right-lateralised ventral attention networks that support non-spatial attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Substance Use in Undergraduate Students With Histories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Role of Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Egan, Theresa E; Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T

    2017-08-24

    Emerging adulthood (18-25 years old) is regarded as a time of identity exploration that includes a peak in risky behaviors, such as substance use and misuse. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is also associated with greater levels of risky behaviors, including substance use and misuse; however, there is a lack of research on substance use by emerging adults with ADHD, in particular the potential mechanisms that may facilitate this risk. The present study builds on the existing research regarding the association between ADHD and substance use by examining roles of multiple facets of impulsivity in facilitating this association during emerging adulthood. In a sample of 197 undergraduate students (24 students with an ADHD diagnostic history), we assessed for components of impulsivity (e.g., urgency, sensation-seeking) and rates of alcohol abuse, tobacco use, cannabis use, illicit drug use, and stimulant medication misuse within the past year. Findings indicate that facets of impulsivity, as a whole, explained the association between an ADHD diagnostic history and both illicit drug use and alcohol abuse such that students with ADHD histories tended to report higher levels of impulsivity, which increased risk of alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. Higher levels of specific facets of impulsivity, particularly negative urgency, also facilitated associations between having ADHD and engaging in most forms of substance use tested herein. Conclusions/Importance: Specific facets of impulsivity appear to be important mediators of the association between ADHD and substance use, and should be considered as potential targets of substance use interventions for this population.

  19. A randomised controlled trial of the Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) for childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Karpouzis, Fay; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background An abundance of literature is dedicated to research for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most, is in the area of pharmacological therapies with less emphasis in psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions and even less in the area of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of CAM has increased over the years, especially for developmental and behavioral disorders, such as ADHD. 60–65% of parents with children with ADHD have used CAM. Medical evidence supports a multidisciplinary approach (i.e. pharmacological and psychosocial) for the best clinical outcomes. The Neuro Emotional Technique (NET), a branch of Chiropractic, was designed to address the biopsychosocial aspects of acute and chronic conditions including non-musculoskeletal conditions. Anecdotally, it has been suggested that ADHD may be managed effectively by NET. Design/methods A placebo controlled, double blind randomised clinical trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of NET on a cohort of children with medically diagnosed ADHD. Children aged 5–12 years who met the inclusion criteria were randomised to one of three groups. The control group continued on their existing medical regimen and the intervention and placebo groups had the addition of the NET and sham NET protocols added to their regimen respectively. These two groups attended a clinical facility twice a week for the first month and then once a month for six months. The Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales (CRS) were used at the start of the study to establish baseline data and then in one month and in seven months time, at the conclusion of the study. The primary outcome measures chosen were the Conners' ADHD Index and Conners' Global Index. The secondary outcome measures chosen were the DSM-IV: Inattentive, the DSM-IV:Hyperactive-Impulsive, and the DSM-IV:Total subscales from the Conners' Rating Scales, monitoring changes in inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity

  20. Vitamin D Status at Birth and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Peik; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils; Källén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.02). We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

  1. Planning deficit in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a neurocognitive trait independent from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Loredana; Pitzianti, Maria Bernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is associated with executive dysfunctions and comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 30% to 50% of children. This study was designed to clarify the neurocognitive phenotype observed in neurofibromatosis type 1 by testing the hypothesis that children with neurofibromatosis type 1 have specific planning deficits independently from intellectual level and ADHD comorbidity. Eighteen children with neurofibromatosis type 1 were pair-matched to 18 children with ADHD and 18 healthy controls. All groups were assessed on the presence of ADHD symptoms (Conners Scales) and planning deficits (Tower of London). Compared with control group, groups with neurofibromatosis type 1 and ADHD demonstrated significant impairment of planning and problem solving. The lack of correlation between Tower of London results and Conners subscale scores in neurofibromatosis type 1 group confirmed that the planning and problem-solving deficit is not directly related to inattention level. These findings suggested that the executive impairment probably represents a peculiar trait of neurofibromatosis type 1 neurocognitive phenotype.

  2. Overcoming barriers to effective early parenting interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): parent and practitioner views.

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Koerting, J; Latter, S; Knowles, M M; McCann, D C; Thompson, M; Sonuga-Barke, E J

    2015-01-01

    The importance of early intervention approaches for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been increasingly acknowledged. Parenting programmes (PPs) are recommended for use with preschool children with ADHD. However, low 'take-up' and high 'drop-out' rates compromise the effectiveness of such programmes within the community. This qualitative study examined the views of 25 parents and 18 practitioners regarding currently available PPs for preschool children with ADHD-type problems in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify both barriers and facilitators associated with programme access, programme effectiveness, and continued engagement. Many of the themes mirrored previous accounts relating to generic PPs for disruptive behaviour problems. There were also a number of ADHD-specific themes. Enhancing parental motivation to change parenting practice and providing an intervention that addresses the parents' own needs (e.g. in relation to self-confidence, depression or parental ADHD), in addition to those of the child, were considered of particular importance. Comparisons between the views of parents and practitioners highlighted a need to increase awareness of parental psychological barriers among practitioners and for better programme advertising generally. Clinical implications and specific recommendations drawn from these findings are discussed and presented. © 2014 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Overcoming barriers to effective early parenting interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): parent and practitioner views

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E; Koerting, J; Latter, S; Knowles, M M; McCann, D C; Thompson, M; Sonuga-Barke, E J

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of early intervention approaches for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been increasingly acknowledged. Parenting programmes (PPs) are recommended for use with preschool children with ADHD. However, low ‘take-up’ and high ‘drop-out’ rates compromise the effectiveness of such programmes within the community. Methods This qualitative study examined the views of 25 parents and 18 practitioners regarding currently available PPs for preschool children with ADHD-type problems in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify both barriers and facilitators associated with programme access, programme effectiveness, and continued engagement. Results and conclusions Many of the themes mirrored previous accounts relating to generic PPs for disruptive behaviour problems. There were also a number of ADHD-specific themes. Enhancing parental motivation to change parenting practice and providing an intervention that addresses the parents' own needs (e.g. in relation to self-confidence, depression or parental ADHD), in addition to those of the child, were considered of particular importance. Comparisons between the views of parents and practitioners highlighted a need to increase awareness of parental psychological barriers among practitioners and for better programme advertising generally. Clinical implications and specific recommendations drawn from these findings are discussed and presented. PMID:24814640

  4. Preferences for treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Rudolph, Ina; Lincke, Hans-Joachim; Nübling, Matthias

    2009-08-13

    While there is an increasing emphasis on patient empowerment and shared decision-making, subjective values for attributes associated with their treatment still need to be measured and considered. This contribution seeks to define properties of an ideal drug treatment of individuals concerned with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Because of the lack of information on patient needs in the decision-makers assessment of health services, the individuals' preferences often play a subordinate role at present. Discrete Choice Experiments offer strategies for eliciting subjective values and making them accessible for physicians and other health care professionals. The evidence comes from a Discrete Choice Experiments (DCE) performed in 2007. After reviewing the literature about preferences of ADHS we conducted a qualitative study with four focus groups consisting of five to eleven ADHS-patients each. In order to achieve content validity, we aimed at collecting all relevant factors for an ideal ADHS treatment. In a subsequent quantitative study phase (n = 219), data was collected in an online or paper-pencil self-completed questionnaire. It included sociodemographic data, health status and patients' preferences of therapy characteristics using direct measurement (23 items on a five-point Likert-scale) as well as a Discrete-Choice-Experiment (DCE, six factors in a fold-over design). Those concerned were capable of clearly defining success criteria and expectations. In the direct assessment and the DCE, respondents attached special significance to the improvement of their social situation and emotional state (relative importance 40%). Another essential factor was the desire for drugs with a long-lasting effect over the day (relative importance 18%). Other criteria, such as flexibility and discretion, were less important to the respondents (6% and 9%, respectively). Results point out that ADHD patients and their family members have clear ideas of their needs

  5. Sluggish cognitive tempo and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention in the home and school contexts: Parent and teacher invariance and cross-setting validity.

    PubMed

    Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P; Servera, Mateu; Bernad, Maria Del Mar; García-Banda, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention (IN) symptoms demonstrated cross-setting invariance and unique associations with symptom and impairment dimensions across settings (i.e., home SCT and ADHD-IN uniquely predicting school symptom and impairment dimensions, and vice versa). Mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, academic impairment, social impairment, and peer rejection dimensions for 585 Spanish 3rd-grade children (53% boys). Within-setting (i.e., mothers, fathers; primary, secondary teachers) and cross-settings (i.e., home, school) invariance was found for both SCT and ADHD-IN. From home to school, higher levels of home SCT predicted lower levels of school ADHD-HI and higher levels of school academic impairment after controlling for home ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of home ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of school ADHD-HI, ODD, anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and peer rejection after controlling for home SCT. From school to home, higher levels of school SCT predicted lower levels of home ADHD-HI and ODD and higher levels of home anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment after controlling for school ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of school ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of home ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment after controlling for school SCT. Although SCT at home and school was able to uniquely predict symptom and impairment dimensions in the other setting, SCT at school was a better predictor than ADHD-IN at school of psychopathology and impairment at home. Findings provide additional support for SCT's validity relative to ADHD-IN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)☆

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  7. A Follow-Up Study of Maternal Expressed Emotion Toward Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Relation With Severity and Persistence of ADHD and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jennifer S.; Vásquez, Alejandro Arias; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with conflicted parent–child relationships. The underlying mechanisms of this association are not yet fully understood. We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between externalizing psychopathology in children with ADHD, and expressed emotion (EE; warmth and criticism) and psychopathology in mothers. Method In this 6-year follow-up study 385 children with an ADHD combined subtype were included at baseline (mean=11.5 years, 83.4% male), of which 285 children (74%) were available at follow-up (mean=17.5 years, 83.5% male). At both time points, measures of child psychopathology (i.e., ADHD severity, oppositional, and conduct problems), maternal EE, and maternal psychopathology (i.e., ADHD and affective problems) were obtained. Results EE was not significantly correlated over time. At baseline, we found a nominally negative association (p≤.05) between maternal warmth and child ADHD severity. At follow-up, maternal criticism was significantly associated with child oppositional problems, and nominally with child conduct problems. Maternal warmth was nominally associated with child oppositional and conduct problems. These associations were independent of maternal psychopathology. No longitudinal associations were found between EE at baseline and child psychopathology at follow-up, or child psychopathology at baseline and EE at follow-up. Conclusions The results support previous findings of cross-sectional associations between parental EE and child psychopathology. This, together with the finding that EE was not stable over six years, suggests that EE is a momentary state measure varying with contextual and developmental factors. EE does not appear to be a risk factor for later externalizing behavior in children with ADHD. PMID:24565358

  8. A follow-up study of maternal expressed emotion toward children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): relation with severity and persistence of ADHD and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer S; Vásquez, Alejandro Arias; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2014-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with conflicted parent-child relationships. The underlying mechanisms of this association are not yet fully understood. We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between externalizing psychopathology in children with ADHD, and expressed emotion (EE; warmth and criticism) and psychopathology in mothers. In this 6-year follow-up study, 385 children with an ADHD combined subtype were included at baseline (mean, 11.5 years, 83.4% male), of which 285 children (74%) were available at follow-up (mean, 17.5 years, 83.5% male). At both time points, measures of child psychopathology (i.e., ADHD severity, oppositional, and conduct problems), maternal EE, and maternal psychopathology (i.e., ADHD and affective problems) were obtained. EE was not significantly correlated over time. At baseline, we found a nominally negative association (p ≤ .05) between maternal warmth and child ADHD severity. At follow-up, maternal criticism was significantly associated with child oppositional problems, and nominally with child conduct problems. Maternal warmth was nominally associated with child oppositional and conduct problems. These associations were independent of maternal psychopathology. No longitudinal associations were found between EE at baseline and child psychopathology at follow-up, or child psychopathology at baseline and EE at follow-up. The results support previous findings of cross-sectional associations between parental EE and child psychopathology. This, together with the finding that EE was not stable over 6 years, suggests that EE is a momentary state measure varying with contextual and developmental factors. EE does not appear to be a risk factor for later externalizing behavior in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Memory-guided saccades in youth-onset psychosis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    White, Tonya; Mous, Sabine; Karatekin, Canan

    2014-08-01

    Working memory deficits have been shown to be present in children and adolescents with schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Considering the differences in clinical characteristics between these disorders, it was the goal of this study to assess differences in the specific components of working memory in children and adolescents with psychosis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children and adolescents (age range 8-20 years) with either a non-affective psychotic disorder (n = 25), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 33) and controls (n = 58) were administered an oculomotor delayed-response task using both a recall and a control condition. Memory-guided saccades were measured during delay periods of 2, 8 and 20 s. Although both clinical groups were less accurate than controls, there was no evidence of a disproportionate impairment in recall. In addition, there was no evidence of a delay-dependent impairment in psychosis; however, there was a delay-dependent impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when corrective saccades were included. Speed of information processing was correlated with distance errors in psychosis, suggesting that speed of encoding the stimulus location may have constrained the accuracy of the saccades. Our findings support impairments during encoding in the psychosis group and a delay-dependent deficit in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Is psychological treatment efficacious for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Review of non-pharmacological treatments in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Troncoso, Eduardo; Guidi, Monica; Alda-Díez, José Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents, and has a great impact on the psychological development of affected patients. Even though its efficacy is proven, the use of medication for ADHD has several limitations, and non-pharmacological interventions are considered a necessary component of treatment. This work is a review of evidence-based non-pharmacological treatments with demonstrated efficacy for ADHD in children and adolescents, analyzed by age groups. Non-pharmacological treatments that have shown scientific evidence of efficacy are psychological and psychoeducational interventions. Psychological interventions include behavioral therapy, parent training (PT) and social skills training. Psychoeducational interventions include a set of practices to improve learning and are carried out in the school setting. Scientific evidence of efficacy in preschool children is limited to PT, while different psychological and psychoeducational interventions have been shown to be beneficial in school-age children. The available evidence for non-pharmacological treatment in adolescence is so far insufficient. Though more randomized controlled trials are necessary for non-pharmacological interventions to become established practices, there are clear indications of their efficacy. For more severe cases of ADHD, a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment is recommended.

  11. Personal recovery in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Linda M; Verkerk-Tamminga, Roeliene; Goossens, Peter J J; van den Brink, Wim; van Achterberg, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The process of personal recovery in people diagnosed with substance use disorder and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was mapped. Four general themes representing four consecutive stages in the recovery process were identified in both client groups: (1) crisis and diagnosis; (2) dealing with agitation, symptoms, and burden; (3) reorganization of life; and (4) meaningful life. However, the personal recovery outcomes and the need for support were different for the two clients groups. Based on these findings, mental health nurses can offer recovery supporting care tailored to the challenging needs of these clients. For the SUD+ADHD group, overall, a coaching attitude is preferred. For the SUD+ASD group, overall, instructional, supportive and directive attitude is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between clinical manifestations of nocturnal enuresis and attentional performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Yang, Teng-Kai; Huang, Kuo-How; Chen, Shyh-Chyan; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Yang, Hung-Ju; Guo, Ya-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to be more vulnerable to various forms of voiding dysfunction and nocturnal enuresis (NE). We attempt to compare the clinical manifestations and attentional performance between ADHD children with NE and those without NE. We consecutively enrolled children diagnosed with ADHD in child and adolescent psychiatric clinics. The questionnaires for evaluation of ADHD symptoms and voiding dysfunction symptoms were administered to all study participants. All participants also received the Test Battery for Attention Performance (TAP) for assessment of attentional function. A total of 53 children were enrolled in this study, comprising 47 boys and six girls. The prevalence rate of NE was 28.3%. Children in the NE group had statistically significant higher dysfunctional voiding symptom score (5.40 ± 3.66 vs.3.16 ± 2.74; p = 0.018) and two subscales of "When I wet myself, my underwear is soaked" (p < 0.001) and "I miss having a bowel movement every day" (p = 0.047). There were no significant differences with regard to all psychiatric evaluations between the NE and non-NE groups. In the TAP test, the NE group showed a significantly shorter reaction time in the domain of inhibitory control, working memory, and auditory sustained attention than the non-NE group. Children with ADHD have a high prevalence of NE. ADHD children with NE had a significantly higher dysfunctional voiding symptom score and shorter reaction time in most domains of the TAP test. Further study is needed to discern the impact of NE on the neuropsychological function of ADHD children. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Quantitative and subjective behavioural aspects in the assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

    PubMed

    Söderström, Staffan; Pettersson, Richard; Nilsson, Kent W

    2014-01-01

    Self-rating scales and cognitive tests are instruments used in the assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have examined the differential validity of these kinds of instruments in psychiatric samples. To examine the discriminative validity of two self-report scales (ADHD Self-Report Scale [ASRS v.1.1], Current Symptom Scale [CSS]) and a continuous performance test with measures of motor activity (QBTest Plus). The interrelation between the instruments, and their abilities to differentiate between patients with an ADHD diagnosis and non-ADHD patients referred for psychiatric assessment were examined in a naturalistic sample of 61 adult patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the dichotomized versions of the test variables in all tests ranged from 0.61 to 0.71. The ASRS and CSS exhibited sensitivity of 90.2% and 85.4%, and specificity of 35.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Variables from the QBTest Plus showed the opposite result for the variables QBImpulsivity and QBInattention, with sensitivity of 58.5% and 36.3% and specificity of 80.0% and 100.0%. Sensitivity and specificity of QBActivity were 68.3% and 65.0%, respectively. A stepwise discriminant function analysis showed that two variables from the QBTest Plus--QBInattention and QBActivity--accounted for 22.8% of the between-group variability, with the strongest predictor being QBInattention. The function yielded an overall correct classification of 72.1%. The classification correctly identified 87.8% of patients diagnosed with ADHD and 40.0% of non-ADHD patients. The discriminant validity of self-rating scales and the more objective measure of ADHD symptoms are poor and should be integrated generally with other sources of data.

  14. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Guimarães, Rachel Silvany Quadros; Jagersbacher, João Gabriel; Barretto, Thiago Lima; de Jesus-Silva, Jéssica Regina; Santos, Samantha Nunes; Argollo, Nayara; Lucena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the possible benefits of transcranial direct current stimulation on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been performed. This study assesses the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD on neuropsychological tests of visual attention, visual and verbal working memory, and inhibitory control. An auto-matched clinical trial was performed involving transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD, using SNAP-IV and subtests Vocabulary and Cubes of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III). Subjects were assessed before and after transcranial direct current stimulation sessions with the Digit Span subtest of the WISC-III, inhibitory control subtest of the NEPSY-II, Corsi cubes, and the Visual Attention Test (TAVIS-3). There were 9 individuals with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) criteria. There was statistically significant difference in some aspects of TAVIS-3 tests and the inhibitory control subtest of NEPSY-II. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be related to a more efficient processing speed, improved detection of stimuli, and improved ability to switch between an ongoing activity and a new one.

  15. Assessment of stigma associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: psychometric evaluation of the ADHD stigma questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Kellison, Ida; Bussing, Regina; Bell, Lindsay; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-07-30

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ) among a community sample of 301 adolescents ages 11-19 years at high (n=192) and low risks (n=109) for ADHD. Study subjects were drawn from a cohort study assessing ADHD detection and service use. The 26-item ASQ demonstrated good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis using random parceling supported a three-factor structure with highly correlated subscales of disclosure concerns, negative self image, and concern with public attitudes, and a Schmid-Leiman analysis supported an overall stigma factor. Test-retest stability was assessed after two weeks (n=45) and found to be adequate for all three subscales. Construct validity was supported by relationships with related constructs, including clinical maladjustment, depression, self-esteem, and emotional symptoms, and the absence of a relationship with school maladjustment. Findings indicate that the ASQ has acceptable psychometric properties in a large community sample of adolescents, some of whom met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD.

  16. The co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in parents of children with ASD or ASD with ADHD.

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Richards, Jennifer S; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2012-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g., the tendency to choose a partner that is similar or dissimilar to oneself. Another issue is that of parent-of-origin effect which refers to the possibility of parents differing in the relative quantity of risk factors they transmit to the offspring. The current study sets out to examine (cross-)assortative mating and (cross-)parent-of-origin effects of ASD and ADHD in parents of children with either ASD or ASD with ADHD diagnosis. In total, 121 families were recruited in an ongoing autism-ADHD family genetics project. Participating families consisted of parents and at least one child aged between 2 and 20 years, with either autistic disorder, Asperger disorder or PDD-NOS, and one or more biological siblings. All children and parents were carefully screened for the presence of ASD and ADHD. No correlations were found between maternal and paternal ASD and ADHD symptoms. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were predictive for similar symptoms in the offspring, but with maternal hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, but not paternal symptoms, predicting similar symptoms in daughters. ASD pathology in the parents was not predictive for ADHD pathology in the offspring, but mother's ADHD pathology was predictive for offspring ASD pathology even when corrected for maternal ASD pathology. Cross-assortative mating for ASD and ADHD does not form an explanation for the frequent co-occurrence of these disorders within families. Given that parental ADHD is predictive of offspring' ASD but not vice versa, risk factors underlying ASD may overlap to a larger degree with risk factors underlying ADHD than vice versa. However, future research is needed to clarify

  17. Low-dose venlafaxine in three adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder improves self-injurious behavior and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carminati, Giuliana Galli; Deriaz, Nicolas; Bertschy, Gilles

    2006-03-01

    In our clinical practice, we have had good experiences with venlafaxine in the treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)-like symptoms in patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), and we report here three cases of possible therapeutic response: (A) a 17-year-old boy with autism and severe behavioral symptoms, including aggression toward self or property, SIB and hyperactivity, who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day); (B) a 23-year-old woman with autism hyperactivity who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day); (C) a 17-year-old girl with autism hyperactivity who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day). Follow-ups occurred respectively 18, 36 and 6 months after treatment initiation, making it possible to observe the stability of the clinical improvement in these cases.

  18. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  19. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Suzanne; Wilton, Lynda; Murray, Macey L; Hodgkins, Paul; Asherson, Philip; Wong, Ian C K

    2012-06-19

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5-4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003-2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex. The source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male). A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population) increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6-12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5-5.1) to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8-9.6); 13-17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3-3.9) to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0-7.8); 18-24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2-0.3) to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0-1.3); 25-45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01-0.03) to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06-0.10); >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00-0.01) to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01-0.03). Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6-12 years was 2.1 fold compared to an increase of 1.9 fold for their male counterparts. Prevalence of

  20. Moderators of working memory deficits in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Lisa J; Alderson, R Matt; Hudec, Kristen L

    2012-11-01

    Working memory has assumed a prominent role as a primary neurocognitive deficit or endophenotype in extant models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study updated previous reviews and employed meta-analytic techniques to examine a broad range of moderating variables of effect size heterogeneity across phonological and visuospatial working memory tasks. Collectively, results revealed large between-group effect sizes across both working memory domains. In addition, several sample (percent female) and task (number of experimental trials, recall vs. recognition tasks, and demands on the central executive) moderating variables explained significant effect size variability among phonological and visuospatial studies. These findings suggest that children with ADHD exhibit statistically significant, large magnitude working memory deficits relative to their typically developing peers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amphetamines for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Punja, Salima; Shamseer, Larissa; Hartling, Lisa; Urichuk, Liana; Vandermeer, Ben; Nikles, Jane; Vohra, Sunita

    2016-02-04

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions affecting children and adolescents. Amphetamines are among the most commonly prescribed medications to manage ADHD. There are three main classes of amphetamines: dexamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine and mixed amphetamine salts, which can be further broken down into short- and long-acting formulations. A systematic review assessing their efficacy and safety in this population has never been conducted. To assess the efficacy and safety of amphetamines for ADHD in children and adolescents. In August 2015 we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, ProQuest Dissertation and Theses, and the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov, and checked the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews identified by the searches. No language or date restrictions were applied. Parallel-group and cross-over randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing amphetamine derivatives against placebo in a pediatric population (< 18 years) with ADHD. Two authors independently extracted data on participants, settings, interventions, methodology, and outcomes for each included study. For continuous outcomes, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and for dichotomous outcomes we calculated the risk ratio (RR). Where possible, we conducted meta-analyses using a random-effects model. We also performed a meta-analysis of the most commonly reported adverse events in the primary studies. We included 23 trials (8 parallel-group and 15 cross-over trials), with 2675 children aged three years to 17 years. All studies compared amphetamines to placebo. Study durations ranged from 14 days to 365 days, with the majority lasting less than six months. Most studies were conducted in the United States; three studies were conducted across Europe. We judged 11 included studies to be at a high risk of bias due to insufficient blinding methods

  2. Disorder-specific predictive classification of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to autism using structural magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lena; Marquand, Andre; Cubillo, Ana A; Smith, Anna B; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Simmons, Andrew; Mehta, Mitul; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, but diagnosed by subjective clinical and rating measures. The study's aim was to apply Gaussian process classification (GPC) to grey matter (GM) volumetric data, to assess whether individual ADHD adolescents can be accurately differentiated from healthy controls based on objective, brain structure measures and whether this is disorder-specific relative to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-nine adolescent ADHD boys and 29 age-matched healthy and 19 boys with ASD were scanned. GPC was applied to make disorder-specific predictions of ADHD diagnostic status based on individual brain structure patterns. In addition, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis tested for traditional univariate group level differences in GM. The pattern of GM correctly classified 75.9% of patients and 82.8% of controls, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 79.3%. Furthermore, classification was disorder-specific relative to ASD. The discriminating GM patterns showed higher classification weights for ADHD in earlier developing ventrolateral/premotor fronto-temporo-limbic and stronger classification weights for healthy controls in later developing dorsolateral fronto-striato-parieto-cerebellar networks. Several regions were also decreased in GM in ADHD relative to healthy controls in the univariate VBM analysis, suggesting they are GM deficit areas. The study provides evidence that pattern recognition analysis can provide significant individual diagnostic classification of ADHD patients and healthy controls based on distributed GM patterns with 79.3% accuracy and that this is disorder-specific relative to ASD. Findings are a promising first step towards finding an objective differential diagnostic tool based on brain imaging measures to aid with the subjective clinical diagnosis of ADHD.

  3. Disorder-Specific Predictive Classification of Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Relative to Autism Using Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lena; Marquand, Andre; Cubillo, Ana A.; Smith, Anna B.; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Simmons, Andrew; Mehta, Mitul; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Objective Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, but diagnosed by subjective clinical and rating measures. The study’s aim was to apply Gaussian process classification (GPC) to grey matter (GM) volumetric data, to assess whether individual ADHD adolescents can be accurately differentiated from healthy controls based on objective, brain structure measures and whether this is disorder-specific relative to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method Twenty-nine adolescent ADHD boys and 29 age-matched healthy and 19 boys with ASD were scanned. GPC was applied to make disorder-specific predictions of ADHD diagnostic status based on individual brain structure patterns. In addition, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis tested for traditional univariate group level differences in GM. Results The pattern of GM correctly classified 75.9% of patients and 82.8% of controls, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 79.3%. Furthermore, classification was disorder-specific relative to ASD. The discriminating GM patterns showed higher classification weights for ADHD in earlier developing ventrolateral/premotor fronto-temporo-limbic and stronger classification weights for healthy controls in later developing dorsolateral fronto-striato-parieto-cerebellar networks. Several regions were also decreased in GM in ADHD relative to healthy controls in the univariate VBM analysis, suggesting they are GM deficit areas. Conclusions The study provides evidence that pattern recognition analysis can provide significant individual diagnostic classification of ADHD patients and healthy controls based on distributed GM patterns with 79.3% accuracy and that this is disorder-specific relative to ASD. Findings are a promising first step towards finding an objective differential diagnostic tool based on brain imaging measures to aid with the subjective clinical diagnosis of ADHD. PMID:23696841

  4. The Risk Society and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a critical social research analysis concerning the development and social impact of the ADHD diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kean, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research study that used a critical social research methodology to review the increase in use of the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conceptualized the phenomenon within a theoretical framework based upon Beck's (1992, 1999) periodization of social change, the Risk Society. The study was qualitative in nature. Data were drawn from a wide range of sources including legitimating hearings, reports and studies, texts and seminal documents, field observations in schools and classrooms, and electronic discussion/bulletin board, and in-depth interviews with parents and teachers. The analysis used a critical framework to locate specific instances of claim and counter-claim and to set the historical context for understanding the "modern biological" method of intervention with children considered by parents and teachers as having ADHD. The findings of the study are structured in the context of risks. Further research will inform whether the risks become threats. Through exposure of silences, myths, contradictions and power relationships that create risks surrounding the ADHD phenomenon, it is hoped that discourse concerning the hegemonic medical model of ADHD in research and in the wider community will be further critically examined.

  5. Prospective association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use and abuse/dependence: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steve S; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Flory, Kate; Liu, Rebecca; Glass, Kerrie

    2011-04-01

    Given the clinical and public health significance of substance disorders and the need to identify their early risk factors, we examined the association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with substance use (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana) and abuse/dependence outcomes (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, other). To strengthen a potential causal inference, we meta-analyzed longitudinal studies that prospectively followed children with and without ADHD into adolescence or adulthood. Children with ADHD were significantly more likely to have ever used nicotine and other substances, but not alcohol. Children with ADHD were also more likely to develop disorders of abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances (i.e., unspecified). Sex, age, race, publication year, sample source, and version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) used to diagnose ADHD did not significantly moderate the associations with substance outcomes that yielded heterogeneous effect sizes. These findings suggest that children with ADHD are significantly more likely to develop substance use disorders than children without ADHD and that this increased risk is robust to demographic and methodological differences that varied across the studies. Finally, few studies addressed ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), thus preventing a formal meta-analytic review. However, we qualitatively summarize the results of these studies and conclude that comorbid DBD complicates inferences about the specificity of ADHD effects on substance use outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospective Association of Childhood Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use and Abuse/Dependence: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Steve S.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flory, Kate; Liu, Rebecca; Glass, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Given the clinical and public health significance of substance disorders and the need to identify their early risk factors, we examined the association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with substance use (e.g., nicotine, alcohol) and abuse/dependence outcomes (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, other). To strengthen a potential causal inference, we meta-analyzed longitudinal studies that prospectively followed children with and without ADHD into adolescence or adulthood. Children with ADHD were significantly more likely to have ever used nicotine and other substances, but not alcohol. Children with ADHD were also more likely to develop disorders of abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances (i.e., unspecified). Sex, age, race, publication year, sample source, and version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) used to diagnose ADHD did not significantly moderate the associations with substance outcomes that yielded heterogeneous effect sizes. These findings suggest that children with ADHD are significantly more likely to develop substance use disorders than children without ADHD and that this increased risk is robust to demographic and methodological differences that varied across the studies. Finally, few studies addressed ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), thus preventing a formal meta-analytic review. However, we qualitatively summarize the results of these studies and conclude that comorbid DBD complicates inferences about the specificity of ADHD effects on substance use outcomes. PMID:21382538

  7. Primary School Teachers' Knowledge and Misperceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perold, Mariechen; Louw, Charmaine; Kleynhans, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Putting inclusive education into practice and within diverse classrooms, teachers have to support and teach according to a variety of needs and preferences of learners, among them learners with ADHD. Teachers are seen as some of the most valuable sources of information with regard to referral and diagnosis of this disorder. They are also…

  8. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  9. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  10. Reduced short interval cortical inhibition correlates with atomoxetine response in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Chen, Tina H; Wu, Steve W; Welge, Jeffrey A; Dixon, Stephan G; Shahana, Nasrin; Huddleston, David A; Sarvis, Adam R; Sallee, Floyd R; Gilbert, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    Clinical trials in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show variability in behavioral responses to the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. The objective of this study was to determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked short interval cortical inhibition might be a biomarker predicting, or correlating with, clinical atomoxetine response. At baseline and after 4 weeks of atomoxetine treatment in 7- to 12-year-old children with ADHD, transcranial magnetic stimulation short interval cortical inhibition was measured, blinded to clinical improvement. Primary analysis was by multivariate analysis of covariance. Baseline short interval cortical inhibition did not predict clinical responses. However, paradoxically, after 4 weeks of atomoxetine, mean short interval cortical inhibition was reduced 31.9% in responders and increased 6.1% in nonresponders (analysis of covariance t 41 = 2.88; P = .0063). Percentage reductions in short interval cortical inhibition correlated with reductions in the ADHD Rating Scale (r = 0.50; P = .0005). In children ages 7 to 12 years with ADHD treated with atomoxetine, improvements in clinical symptoms are correlated with reductions in motor cortex short interval cortical inhibition. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Nicotine-induced place conditioning and locomotor activity in an adolescent animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Daniels, Carter W; Watterson, Lucas R; Mazur, Gabriel J; Brackney, Ryan J; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2015-09-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for tobacco use and dependence. This study examines the responsiveness to nicotine of an adolescent model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). The conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure was used to assess nicotine-induced locomotion and conditioned reward in SHR and the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control strain over a range of nicotine doses (0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg). Prior to conditioning, SHRs were more active and less biased toward one side of the CPP chamber than WKY rats. Following conditioning, SHRs developed CPP to the highest dose of nicotine (0.6 mg/kg), whereas WKYs did not develop CPP to any nicotine dose tested. During conditioning, SHRs displayed greater locomotor activity in the nicotine-paired compartment than in the saline-paired compartment across conditioning trials. SHRs that received nicotine (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 mg/kg) in the nicotine-paired compartment showed an increase in locomotor activity between conditioning trials. Nicotine did not significantly affect WKY locomotor activity. These findings suggest that the SHR strain is a suitable model for studying ADHD-related nicotine use and dependence, but highlights potential limitations of the WKY control strain and the CPP procedure for modeling ADHD-related nicotine reward. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Caffeine improves attention deficit in neonatal 6-OHDA lesioned rats, an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Caballero, Miguel; Núñez, Fabiana; Ahern, Siobhán; Cuffí, Maria L; Carbonell, Lourdes; Sánchez, Silvia; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Ciruela, Francisco

    2011-04-20

    Nowadays the pharmacological treatment of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on amphetamine derivatives (i.e. methylphenidate). However, these drugs induce a large array of adverse side effects, thus less aggressive psychostimulant drugs (i.e. caffeine) are being proposed in the management of ADHD. Following this tendency, we decided to study the possible therapeutic use of caffeine in an animal model of ADHD, namely the neonatal 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat. Therefore, at postnatal day 7 rats were lesioned at the left striatum with 6-OHDA or with saline. Thereafter, at postnatal day 25 their activity and attention were measured with the Olton maze before caffeine was administered ad libitum in the drinking water. Next, after 14 days of caffeine treatment, we repeated these measurements to assess the effect of caffeine on motor activity and attention deficit. Interestingly, while no changes in the motor activity measurements were observed before and after caffeine administration, a significant improvement in the attention deficit of the 6-OHDA lesioned rats was achieved after caffeine treatment. Thus, our results led us to hypothesize that caffeine might be useful to manage the attention deficit during the prepubertal period of ADHD.

  13. What are the cognitive effects of stimulant medications? Emphasis on adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Advokat, Claire

    2010-07-01

    The relevant literature concerning cognitive effects of amphetamine and methylphenidate, was reviewed, with an emphasis on research conducted in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. As first-line treatment for ADHD, stimulant drugs are well-known to improve attention and concentration. Yet, there is increasing evidence that (as with children and adolescents), they do not promote learning and academic achievement in adult college students with ADHD. A review of neuropsychological studies indicates that, although response latencies are reduced, performance of ADHD adults on tests of 'distractibility' and 'planning' is also not consistently improved by stimulants. Studies in non-ADHD adults suggest that stimulants do not promote acquisition of new information, might improve retention of previously acquired information, and facilitate memory consolidation, but may actually impair performance of tasks that require adaptation, flexibility and planning. It is still not clear if improvement only occurs when there is a baseline deficit. Stimulants may influence cognition by their effects on physiological arousal. Regardless, the evidence does not support the conclusion that stimulants are cognitive 'enhancers.'

  14. The association between sluggish cognitive tempo and academic functioning in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Becker, Stephen P; Dvorsky, Melissa R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relation between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) and academic functioning in a sample of 52 adolescents (40 males, 12 females) with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; M age = 13.75). This study builds on prior work by utilizing an empirically-based and psychometrically validated measure of SCT, collecting ratings of SCT from both parents and teachers, and examining associations with multiple domains of academic functioning from both the parent and teacher perspective as well as grade point average (GPA). Both SCT and DSM-IV symptoms of inattention were significantly correlated with domains of academic functioning. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the parent-rated SCT Slow subscale predicted overall academic functioning, organizational skills impairment, and homework problems above and beyond ADHD symptoms and child and demographic characteristics known to be associated with academics, including intelligence, academic achievement, and family income. The teacher-rated SCT Low Initiation/Persistence subscale also predicted homework problems and was the only SCT variable to predict school grades above and beyond ADHD symptoms and relevant covariates. Both the SCT Slow and Low Initiation/Persistence subscales include items related to youth seeming apathetic, unmotivated, and lacking initiative, behaviors that are strongly related to ADHD symptoms of inattention but not currently captured by the DSM-IV. Implications of these findings towards supporting the external validity of the SCT construct are discussed along with potential implications for intervention.

  15. Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what can parents do to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment

  16. TRENDS IN ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) AMBULATORY DIAGNOSIS AND MEDICAL TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES, 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, Craig F.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Zhu, Shu; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Conti, Rena; Dusetzina, Stacie B.; Higashi, Ashley; Perrin, James M.; Kornfield, Rachel; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Because of several recent clinical and regulatory changes regarding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the United States, we quantified changes in ADHD diagnosis and medication management from 2000 through 2010. Methods We used the IMS Health National Disease and Therapeutic Index™, a nationally representative audit of office-based providers, to examine aggregate trends among children and adolescents under 18. We also quantified how diagnosis and treatment patterns have evolved based on patient and physician characteristics and the therapeutic classes used. Results From 2000 to 2010, the number of physician outpatient visits where ADHD was diagnosed increased 66% from 6.2 million [M] (95% confidence intervals [CI] 5.5- 6.9M) to 10.4M visits (CI 9.3-11.6M). Of these visits, psychostimulants have remained the dominant treatment, used in 96% of treatment visits in 2000 and 87% of treatment visits in 2010. Atomoxetine use declined from 15% of treatment visits upon product launch in 2003 to 6% of treatment visits by 2010. The use of potential substitute therapies – clonidine, guanfacine, and bupropion – remained relatively constant (between 5-9% of treatment visits) during most of the period examined. Over this period, the ADHD management shifted towards psychiatrists (from 24% to 36% of all visits) without large changes in illness severity or the proportion of ADHD treatment visits accounted for by males (73%-77%). Conclusions In ten years, the ambulatory diagnosis of ADHD increased by two-thirds and is increasingly managed by psychiatrists. The effects of these changing treatment patterns on children's health outcomes and their families are unknown. PMID:22326727

  17. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  18. Spanish validation of the adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS): relevance of clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Richarte, Vanesa; Corrales, Montserrat; Pozuelo, Marian; Serra-Pla, Juanfran; Ibáñez, Pol; Calvo, Eva; Corominas, Margarida; Bosch, Rosa; Casas, Miquel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2017-08-24

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a prevalence between 2.5% and 4% of the general adult population. Over the past few decades, self-report measures have been developed for the current evaluation of adult ADHD. The ADHD-RS is a 18-items scale self-report version for assessing symptoms for ADHD DSM-IV. A validation of Spanish version of the ADHD-RS was performed. The sample consisted of 304 adult with ADHD and 94 controls. A case control study was carried out (adult ADHD vs. non ADHD). The diagnosis of ADHD was evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID-II). To determinate the internal validity of the two dimensions structure of ADHD-RS an exploratory factor analysis was performed. The α-coefficients were taken as a measure of the internal consistency of the dimensions considered. A logistic regression study was carried out to evaluate the model in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). Average age was 33.29 (SD=10.50) and 66% of subjects were men (there were no significant differences between the two groups). Factor analysis was done with a principal component analysis followed by a normalized varimax rotation. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy tests was .868 (remarkable) and the Bartlett's test of sphericity was 2 (153)=1,835.76, P<.0005, indicating the appropriateness of the factor analysis. This two-factor model accounted for 37.81% of the explained variance. The α-coefficient of the two factors was .84 and .82. The original strategy proposed 24 point for cut-off: sensitivity (81.9%), specificity (74.7%), PPV (50.0%), NPV (93.0%), kappa coefficient .78 and area under the curve (AUC) .89. The new score strategy proposed by our group suggests different cut-off for different clinical presentations. The 24 point is the best cut-off for ADHD combined presentation

  19. Familial-Environmental Risk Factors in South African Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Leana; Springer, Priscilla; Kidd, Martin; Steyn, Nellie; Solomons, Regan; van Toorn, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    We investigated familial and environmental risk factors in a cohort of South African children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A prospective, hospital-based case control study was conducted comprising 50 children diagnosed with ADHD and 50 matched non-ADHD controls. The adjusted effect of familial-environmental risk factors on ADHD was determined by systematic assessment. Birth complications, parental psychiatric disorder, maternal ADHD, early childhood trauma, and nonmaternal child care were significant risk factors for ADHD. Prolonged breastfeeding was found to be protective. In a multivariable logistic regression model, 5 criteria (birth complications, breastfeeding <3 months, at least 1 parent with tertiary education, presence of parental psychiatric disorder, and nonmaternal primary caregiver) differentiated ADHD from non-ADHD controls with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 86%, respectively. We found a correlation between certain familial and environmental risk factors and ADHD. A 5-criterion multivariable logistic regression model may offer clinical guidance in ADHD diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life.

  1. The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; Schwebel, David C; Elliott, Marc N; Visser, Susanna N; Toomey, Sara L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Banspach, Stephen W; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls.

  2. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder a valid diagnosis in the presence of high IQ? Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Stallone, Kimberly; Nave, Andrea; Kaufmann, Felice A; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of diagnosing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in high IQ children and to further characterize the clinical features associated with their ADHD. We operationalized giftedness/high IQ as having a full scale IQ >/=120. We identified 92 children with a high IQ who did not have ADHD and 49 children with a high IQ that met diagnostic criteria for ADHD who had participated in the Massachusetts General Hospital Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD. Of our participants with ADHD and a high IQ, the majority (n = 35) met criteria for the Combined subtype. Relative to control participants, children with ADHD and high IQ had a higher prevalence rate of familial ADHD in first-degree relatives, repeated grades more often, had a poorer performance on the WISC-III Block Design, had more comorbid psychopathology, and had more functional impairments across a number of domains. Children with a high IQ and ADHD showed a pattern of familiality as well as cognitive, psychiatric and behavioral features consistent with the diagnosis of ADHD in children with average IQ. These data suggest that the diagnosis of ADHD is valid among high IQ children.

  4. Selective effect of inhibition of literal or numerical irrelevant information in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or arithmetic learning disorder (ALD).

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Marzocchi, Gian Marco; Fiorillo, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated reasons why children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or arithmetic learning disorder (ALD) have difficulties in solving arithmetic word problems. In particular, the aim of this study was to verify whether these difficulties are due to a working memory deficit and defective inhibition of irrelevant information included in the problem wording. Furthermore, the study was geared to test whether children with ADHD or ALD have a specific disability in recalling and handling numerical or literal information. In an attempt to provide an answer to these questions, three groups of children were tested: children with ADHD, children with ALD, and a group of children achieving at normal levels. They were presented with a battery of arithmetic word problems containing irrelevant information (using either numerical or literal information). Children were asked to recall relevant information within the texts and then solve the problems. Children with ADHD recalled significantly more irrelevant literal information. Both children with ADHD and ALD recalled significantly more irrelevant numerical information. On the other hand, in the phase of problem solving, children with ADHD were more impaired by irrelevant literal information (which overloads memory), whereas children with ALD were more impaired by irrelevant numerical information (which may elicit the execution of wrong arithmetic procedures).

  5. Sequencing of sporadic Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) identifies novel and potentially pathogenic de novo variants and excludes overlap with genes associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Burt, Amber A; Ranchalis, Jane E; Wilmot, Beth; Smith, Joshua D; Patterson, Karynne E; Coe, Bradley P; Li, Yatong K; Bamshad, Michael J; Nikolas, Molly; Eichler, Evan E; Swanson, James M; Nigg, Joel T; Nickerson, Deborah A; Jarvik, Gail P

    2017-03-22

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has high heritability; however, studies of common variation account for <5% of ADHD variance. Using data from affected participants without a family history of ADHD, we sought to identify de novo variants that could account for sporadic ADHD. Considering a total of 128 families, two analyses were conducted in parallel: first, in 11 unaffected parent/affected proband trios (or quads with the addition of an unaffected sibling) we completed exome sequencing. Six de novo missense variants at highly conserved bases were identified and validated from four of the 11 families: the brain-expressed genes TBC1D9, DAGLA, QARS, CSMD2, TRPM2, and WDR83. Separately, in 117 unrelated probands with sporadic ADHD, we sequenced a panel of 26 genes implicated in intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to evaluate whether variation in ASD/ID-associated genes were also present in participants with ADHD. Only one putative deleterious variant (Gln600STOP) in CHD1L was identified; this was found in a single proband. Notably, no other nonsense, splice, frameshift, or highly conserved missense variants in the 26 gene panel were identified and validated. These data suggest that de novo variant analysis in families with independently adjudicated sporadic ADHD diagnosis can identify novel genes implicated in ADHD pathogenesis. Moreover, that only one of the 128 cases (0.8%, 11 exome, and 117 MIP sequenced participants) had putative deleterious variants within our data in 26 genes related to ID and ASD suggests significant independence in the genetic pathogenesis of ADHD as compared to ASD and ID phenotypes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prescribing trends of attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in UK primary care, 1995–2015

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju‐Young; Dell'Aniello, Sophie; Fergusson, Emma; Suissa, Samy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim The aim of the present study was to describe the prescription of medications for attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the UK between 1995 and 2015. Methods Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), we defined a cohort of all patients aged 6–45 years, registered with a general practitioner between January 1995 and September 2015. All prescriptions of methylphenidate, dexamphetamine/lisdexamphetamine and atomoxetine were identified and annual prescription rates of ADHD were estimated using Poisson regression. Results Within a cohort of 7 432 735 patients, we identified 698 148 prescriptions of ADHD medications during 41 171 528 person‐years of follow‐up. Usage was relatively low until 2000, during which the prescription rate was 42.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 20.9, 87.2] prescriptions per 10 000 persons, increasing to 394.4 (95% CI 296.7, 524.2) in 2015, corresponding to an almost 800% increase (rate ratio 8.87; 95% CI 7.10, 11.09). The increase was seen in all age groups and in both sexes but was steepest in boys aged 10–14 years. The prescription rate in males was almost five times that of females. Methylphenidate remained the most prescribed drug during the 20‐year study period, representing 88.9% of all prescriptions in the 6–24‐year‐old group, and 63.5% of all prescriptions in adults (25–45 years of age). Conclusions Prescription rates of ADHD medications have increased dramatically in the past two decades. This may be due, at least in part, to both an increase in the number of patients diagnosed with ADHD over time and a higher percentage of those patients treated with medication. PMID:27145886

  7. Critique of the Article by Visser and Jehan (2009): "ADHD--A Scientific Fact or a Factual Opinion? A Critique of the Veracity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to evaluate and take further the discussion put forward by Visser and Jehan ("Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties" 14, no. 2: 127-40). It begins by focusing on the biomedical discourse, its dominance in the academic and professional literature and why the existence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a…

  8. Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins' Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Lucy A.; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,500 g. Maternal warmth, a component of expressed emotion, was coded from mothers' audiotaped…

  9. Critique of the Article by Visser and Jehan (2009): "ADHD--A Scientific Fact or a Factual Opinion? A Critique of the Veracity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to evaluate and take further the discussion put forward by Visser and Jehan ("Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties" 14, no. 2: 127-40). It begins by focusing on the biomedical discourse, its dominance in the academic and professional literature and why the existence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a…

  10. Altered tryptophan and alanine transport in fibroblasts from boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jessica; Landgren, Magnus; Fernell, Elisabeth; Vumma, Ravi; Åhlin, Arne; Bjerkenstedt, Lars; Venizelos, Nikolaos

    2011-09-24

    The catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems are implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The amino acid tyrosine is the precursor for synthesis of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, while tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin. A disturbed transport of tyrosine, as well as other amino acids, has been found in a number of other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism, when using the fibroblast cell model. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore whether children with ADHD may have disturbed amino acid transport. Fibroblast cells were cultured from skin biopsies obtained from 14 boys diagnosed with ADHD and from 13 matching boys without a diagnosis of a developmental disorder. Transport of the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and alanine across the cell membrane was measured by the cluster tray method. The kinetic parameters, maximal transport capacity (V(max)) and affinity constant (K(m)) were determined. Any difference between the two groups was analyzed by Student's unpaired t-test or the Mann Whitney U test. The ADHD group had significantly decreased V(max) (p = 0.039) and K(m) (increased affinity) (p = 0.010) of tryptophan transport in comparison to controls. They also had a significantly higher V(max)of alanine transport (p = 0.031), but the Km of alanine transport did not differ significantly. There were no significant differences in any of the kinetic parameters regarding tyrosine transport in fibroblasts for the ADHD group. Tryptophan uses the same transport systems in both fibroblasts and at the blood brain barrier (BBB). Hence, a decreased transport capacity of tryptophan implies that less tryptophan is being transported across the BBB in the ADHD group. This could lead to deficient serotonin access in the brain that might cause disturbances in both the serotonergic and the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter systems, since these systems are

  11. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  13. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  14. The efficacy of atomoxetine in treating adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Vinutha; Chowdappa, Suresh Vedaveni; Benegal, Vivek; Muralidharan, Kesavan

    2016-12-01

    Atomoxetine, a non-stimulant, is FDA approved drug used in the management of adult ADHD. Since the presentation of adult ADHD is different from the childhood onset condition, there is an urgent need to study the efficacy of atomoxetine on the different symptom domains of adult ADHD. To study the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating adult ADHD compared to placebo, we performed a Medline search for English language publications of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing atomoxetine to placebo for adult ADHD using the keywords "adult ADHD", "atomoxetine" and "placebo". A total of 41 RCTs were returned of which we included 13 relevant RCTs reporting data on 1824 patients with adult ADHD in the analysis. Standardized mean difference between atomoxetine and placebo for the mean baseline-to-endpoint change in total ADHD scores, impulsivity/hyperactivity and inattention scores was calculated, with a 95% confidence limit. Atomoxetine had superior efficacy than placebo on overall adult ADHD scores [-0.45; 95% CI -0.54, -0.35; overall effect p<0.00001]. Atomoxetine was superior to placebo on the domains of both inattention [-0.42; 95% CI -0.49, -0.35; overall effect p<0.00001] and impulsivity/hyperactivity [-0.36; 95% CI -0.44, -0.29; overall effect p<0.00001]. Atomoxetine was significantly more efficacious (p<0.00001) in treating inattention than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Atomoxetine is efficacious in treating adult ADHD compared to placebo, though the efficacy is significantly superior for inattention than hyperactivity/impulsivity.

  15. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  17. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful. PMID:26529403

  18. International consensus statement on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs): clinical implications and treatment practice suggestions.

    PubMed

    Kutcher, Stan; Aman, Michael; Brooks, Sarah J; Buitelaar, Jan; van Daalen, Emma; Fegert, Jörg; Findling, Robert L; Fisman, Sandra; Greenhill, Laurence L; Huss, Michael; Kusumakar, Vivek; Pine, Daniel; Taylor, Eric; Tyano, Sam

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians worldwide share concerns that many youngsters with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) do not receive appropriate treatment despite availability of effective therapies. At the request of Johnson and Johnson (sponsor), 11 international experts in child and adolescent psychiatry were selected by Professor Stan Kutcher (chair) to address these concerns. This paper describes the experts' consensus conclusions, including treatment practice suggestions for physicians involved in the early treatment of youngsters with ADHD (or hyperkinetic disorder, in countries preferring this classification) and/or DBDs internationally: suggested first-line treatment for ADHD without comorbidity is psychostimulant medication aided by psychosocial intervention. For ADHD with comorbid conduct disorder (CD), psychosocial intervention combined with pharmacotherapy is suggested. For primary CD, suggested first-line treatment is psychosocial intervention, with pharmacotherapy considered as an 'add-on' when aggression/impulsivity is marked and persistent. Pharmacotherapy requires careful titration; full-day coverage is the suggested goal. Regular long-term follow-up is recommended.

  19. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  20. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  1. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  2. Sleep Disturbances in Children with Attention – Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Comparative Study with Healthy Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Sreelakshmi; Shah, Henal; Gayal, Tejas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbances in children with ADHD impact their functioning and overall Quality of Life. This paper’s purpose is to study the occurrence of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, in comparison to their healthy siblings and further, within the ADHD group, to look for correlation between sleep disturbances and age, severity of symptoms, presentations of ADHD and illness parameters. Methods The parents of 120 children of age group between 5–16 years, (60 children diagnosed with ADHD as per DSM-5 criteria and 60 of their healthy siblings) consecutively enrolled from a hospital’s Child Psychiatry Outpatient services were interviewed using Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and severity of ADHD symptoms was rated using ADHD – RS. Results Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated children with ADHD than their healthy siblings, reduce with increasing age and are found more in the Predominantly Hyperactive/impulsive presentation of ADHD. Conclusion Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated ADHD, making it an important aspect of ADHD management. PMID:27924144

  3. Reading comprehension, word decoding and spelling in girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD): performance and predictors.

    PubMed

    Asberg, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Berg-Kelly, Kristina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties with aspects of literacy are often seen in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). The bases of the connections between these disorders and literacy difficulties are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is not clear if existing research is representative for girls. There were three aims: (1) to compare performance in reading comprehension, word decoding, and spelling in girls with ASD (n = 20), AD/ HD (n = 36), and community girls with typical developing (girls; n = 54); (2) to assess rates of reading and writing disorders within groups; and (3) to examine the predictive value of measures of autistic and AD/HD symptomatology to reading comprehension in the whole girl sample. Participants were aged between 8 and 17 years, and had a full scale IQ>70. Standardized tests of literacy, oral vocabulary, and non-verbal ability were administered. Parent ratings of degree of autistic symptomatology and both parent and teacher ratings of AD/HD symptomatology were collected for all girls. Girls with diagnosed ASD could not be separated significantly from typically developing girls or girls with AD/HD on average performance on any literacy test. However, among girls with ASD, 40% had at least one reading and writing disorder. Girls with AD/HD performed lower than typically developing girls in reading comprehension, word decoding, and spelling, and 56% had at least one reading and writing disorder. In regression analysis, using the total sample, both degrees of autistic and AD/HD symptomatology negatively contributed to the variance in reading comprehension after controlling for oral vocabulary, word decoding, and non-verbal ability. Whereas AD/HD contributed to the variance in reading comprehension once autistic symptomatology was controlled for, the opposite was not true. However, a large bivariate correlation between autistic and AD/HD symptomatology somewhat complicates the interpretation of that result

  4. Assessing risk of bias in randomized controlled trials of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Tartari, Raíssa; Swardfager, Walter; Salum, Giovanni A; Rohde, Luís A; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo

    2017-09-04

    To test how reliable the tool recommend by Cochrane Collaboration for assessing risk of bias systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials is in the context of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate a unidimensional model for the 7 indicators, applied to 184 Randomized Clinical Trial (RCTs) within a 2015 Cochrane systematic review titled "Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder." A unidimensional model resulted in excellent adequacy indices, but only 2 indicators had very high factor loadings and low measurement errors. In terms of content, the 7 indicators showed poor reliability (ω = 0.642); however, the set of indicators was precise in evaluating studies with a high amount of bias risk. The Cochrane model of risk of bias as it is, exhibited good fit indices but the majority of the items were not reliable to adequately capture risk of bias in the context of clinical trials of methylphenidate for ADHD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD.

  6. Safety of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data from the Italian National ADHD Registry.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Panei, Pietro; Arcieri, Romano; Germinario, Elena A P; Capuano, Annalisa; Margari, Lucia; Chiarotti, Flavia; Curatolo, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the type and frequency of adverse events (AEs) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with methylphenidate or atomoxetine over a 5-year period in a large naturalistic study. We draw on data from the Italian ADHD Registry, a national database for postmarketing phase IV pharmacovigilance of ADHD medications across 90 centers. AEs were defined as severe or mild as per the classification of the Italian Medicines Agency. AE frequency in the two treatment groups was compared using incidence rates per 100 person-years (IR100PY) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IRRs were calculated to control for psychiatric comorbidity. A total of 1350 and 753 participants (aged 6-18 years, mean age 10.7 ± 2.8) were treated with methylphenidate and atomoxetine, respectively, from 2007 to 2012. Ninety participants (7 %) were switched from methylphenidate to atomoxetine, and 138 (18 %) from atomoxetine to methylphenidate. Thirty-seven children treated with atomoxetine and 12 with methylphenidate had their medication withdrawn. Overall, 645 patients (26.8 %) experienced at least one mild AE (including decreased appetite and irritability, for both drugs) and 95 patients (3.9 %) experienced at least one severe AE (including severe gastrointestinal events). IR100PY were significantly higher in the atomoxetine-treated group compared with the methylphenidate-treated group for a number of mild and severe AEs and for any severe or mild AEs. After controlling for comorbidities, IRR was still significantly higher in the atomoxetine group compared with the methylphenidate group for a number of mild (decreased appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, stomach ache, irritability, mood disorder and dizziness) and severe (gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular) AEs. In this naturalistic study, methylphenidate had a better safety profile than atomoxetine.

  7. Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence and its Implications for Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Goodman, David W; Mitchell, Sara; Rhodewalt, Lauren; Surman, Craig B H

    2016-01-01

    Although previously considered a disorder of childhood, studies in the last decade have demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues to impair function into adulthood and responds to pharmacotherapy. Due to age-specific changes in roles and challenges, it is possible that presentation and response to intervention may differ between older and younger adults. A literature search for papers that identified older adults with ADHD, including papers describing its epidemiology, manifestation, and treatment, was the basis for this paper. There is a paucity of data on ADHD in older adults; however, small observational studies have characterized the presence, impact, and treatment of ADHD in adults over the age of 50 years, and larger epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ADHD symptoms exist in older adulthood. Optimal criteria for diagnosis of ADHD and methods of treating ADHD in older individuals have not been systematically explored. In light of the limited data, this review discusses considerations for differential diagnosis and safe pharmacotherapy of ADHD in older adults.

  8. Expert recommendation: contributions to clinical practice of the new prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Alda, José A; Soutullo, César; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Quintero, Javier; Hervás, Amaia; Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Sans-Fitó, Anna; Cardo-Jalón, Esther Cardo-Jalón; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Fernández-Pérez, Maximino; Hidalgo-Vicario, M Inés; Eddy-Ives, Lefa S; Sánchez, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobiological disorders in childhood, and is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsiveness, with an estimated prevalence of 5.29%. ADHD can have a negative impact upon all areas of the life of the patient. The main clinical guides accept multimodal treatment, involving both pharmacological and psychological measures, as the best management approach in ADHD (psychoeducational, behavioural and academic). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a new drug for the treatment of ADHD. A multidiscipline expert document has been developed, compiling the scientific evidence referred to this new molecule. The study also addresses the existing shortcomings in current drug therapy for ADHD and the contributions of LDX to routine clinical practice, in an attempt to help and guide physicians in the use of this new treatment. This document is endorsed by the ADHD and Psychoeducational Development task Group of the Spanish Society of Primary Care Pediatrics (Grupo de TDAH y Desarrollo Psicoeducativo de la Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria, AEPap), the Spanish Society of Pediatric Neurology (Sociedad Española de Neurología Pediátrica, SENEP) and the Spanish Society of Out-hospital Pediatrics and Primary Care (Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria, SEPEAP).

  9. The neural basis of decision-making and reward processing in adults with euthymic bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Ibanez, Agustin; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Petroni, Agustin; Urquina, Hugo; Baez, Sandra; Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Kamienkowski, Juan Esteban; Torralva, Teresa; Torrente, Fernando; Strejilevich, Sergio; Teitelbaum, Julia; Hurtado, Esteban; Guex, Raphael; Melloni, Margherita; Lischinsky, Alicia; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) share DSM-IV criteria in adults and cause problems in decision-making. Nevertheless, no previous report has assessed a decision-making task that includes the examination of the neural correlates of reward and gambling in adults with ADHD and those with BD. We used the Iowa gambling task (IGT), a task of rational decision-making under risk (RDMUR) and a rapid-decision gambling task (RDGT) which elicits behavioral measures as well as event-related potentials (ERPs: fERN and P3) in connection to the motivational impact of events. We did not observe between-group differences for decision-making under risk or ambiguity (RDMUR and IGT); however, there were significant differences for the ERP-assessed RDGT. Compared to controls, the ADHD group showed a pattern of impaired learning by feedback (fERN) and insensitivity to reward magnitude (P3). This ERP pattern (fERN and P3) was associated with impulsivity, hyperactivity, executive function and working memory. Compared to controls, the BD group showed fERN- and P3-enhanced responses to reward magnitude regardless of valence. This ERP pattern (fERN and P3) was associated with mood and inhibitory control. Consistent with the ERP findings, an analysis of source location revealed reduced responses of the cingulate cortex to the valence and magnitude of rewards in patients with ADHD and BD. Our data suggest that neurophysiological (ERPs) paradigms such as the RDGT are well suited to assess subclinical decision-making processes in patients with ADHD and BD as well as for linking the cingulate cortex with action monitoring systems.

  10. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account.

    PubMed

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF). Both the meta-analytic and narrative reviews showed evidence of smaller brain structures and lower brain activity in individuals with ODD/CD in mainly hot EF-related areas: bilateral amygdala, bilateral insula, right striatum, left medial/superior frontal gyrus, and left precuneus. Evidence was present in both structural and functional studies, and irrespective of the presence of ADHD comorbidity. There is strong evidence that abnormalities in the amygdala are specific for ODD/CD as compared to ADHD, and correlational studies further support the association between abnormalities in the amygdala and ODD/CD symptoms. Besides the left precuneus, there was no evidence for abnormalities in typical cool EF related structures, such as the cerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Resulting areas are associated with emotion-processing, error-monitoring, problem-solving and self-control; areas associated with neurocognitive and behavioural deficits implicated in ODD/CD. Our findings confirm the involvement of hot, and to a smaller extent cool, EF associated brain areas in ODD/CD, and support an integrated model for ODD/CD (e.g. Blair, Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891, 2005).

  11. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  12. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lange, Klaus W; Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD.

  13. Caffeine improves spatial learning deficits in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) -- the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).

    PubMed

    Prediger, Rui D S; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Fernandes, Daniel; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2005-12-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is generally considered to be a suitable genetic model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), since it displays hyperactivity, impulsivity, poorly sustained attention, and deficits in learning and memory processes. Converging evidence suggests a primary role of disturbance in the dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD patients and in SHR, and in addition, some studies have also demonstrated alterations in adenosinergic neurotransmission in SHR. In the present study, adult female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats received caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before a test session in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. The effect of caffeine administration on WIS and SHR blood pressure was also measured. SHR needed significantly more trials in the training session to acquire the spatial information, but they displayed a similar profile to that of WIS rats in the test session (48 h later), demonstrating a selective deficit in spatial learning. Pre-training administration of caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) improved this spatial learning deficit in SHR, but did not alter the WIS performance. In contrast, post-training administration of caffeine (3 mg/kg i.p.) did not alter the SHR test performance, but increased memory retention in WIS rats. No dose of caffeine tested altered the mean blood pressure of WIS or SHR. These results demonstrate a selective spatial learning deficit in SHR which can be attenuated by pre-training administration of caffeine. In addition, the present findings indicate that the spatial learning deficit in SHR is not directly related to hypertension.

  14. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement.

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Differential Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Warren A.; Emslie, Graham J.

    This paper presents information on the diagnostic criteria and management of disorders that may be wrongly identified as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or may coexist with ADHD thus complicating identification and treatment. The disorders discussed are: depression, mania, primary disorder of vigilance, narcolepsy, developmental…

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that affects 8-12% of children worldwide. Although the rate of ADHD falls with age, at least half of children with the disorder will have impairing symptoms in adulthood. Twin, adoption, and molecular genetic studies show ADHD to be highly heritable, and other findings have recorded obstetric complications and psychosocial adversity as predisposing risk factors. Converging evidence from animal and human studies implicates the dysregulation of frontal-subcortical-cerebellar catecholaminergic circuits in the pathophysiology of ADHD, and molecular imaging studies suggest that abnormalities of the dopamine transporter lead to impaired neurotransmission. Studies during the past decade have shown the safety and effectiveness of new non-stimulant drugs and long-acting formulations of methylphenidate and amfetamine. Other investigations have also clarified the appropriate role of targeted psychosocial treatments in the context of ongoing pharmacotherapy.

  17. Medical treatment of children and youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a Norwegian Prescription Registry Based Study.

    PubMed

    Norum, Jan; Olsen, Aina Iren; Nohr, Frank Ivar; Heyd, Anca; Totth, Arpad

    2014-04-14

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a lifelong neurological condition with a profound effect on quality of life. Prescription databases may document pattern of use. In this study we aimed to explore the use in Norway employing such a database. All prescriptions on drugs for the treatment of ADHD between 2004 and 2011, as registered in the Norwegian Prescription Database (NPD) were analyzed. The following drugs were included: Amphetamine, dexamphetamine, methylphenidate and atomoxetine. In-hospital drug administration was excluded. Numbers of users per 1,000 inhabitants were calculated according to gender, age and residence. A sub-analysis compared users born in January-June with those born in July-December. Drug costs were calculated and converted into Euros (€ 1 = N.kr 7.4540). Drugs for the treatment of ADHD was significantly more often prescribed in northern Norway than in any other Norwegian health region (P < 0.001). Within the northern region, Nordland County was the "culprit" (P < 0.02). Compared to Norwegian figures, significantly more females (aged 10-19 years) were treated in northern Norway [male/female ratios 3:1 and 2.2:1 (P < 0.01)] and especially in Nordland County (ratio 2.1:1). The subanalysis did not indicate a northern overtreatment of those being a younger group in their grade. The annual drug cost per user in Norway was € 919. The prescription rate was significantly higher in northern Norway and Nordland County was the culprit. A prescription database may be a tool for monitoring the national use of these drugs.

  18. Change over time in adolescent and friend alcohol use: Differential associations for youth with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Pedersen, Sarah L; King, Kevin M; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems by adulthood. However, few studies have examined contextual factors that may contribute to this risk. The current study examined 1 widely investigated social-contextual risk factor, friend alcohol use, in a sample of adolescents with and without a history of ADHD. One hundred and 59 adolescents (14-17 years old) with childhood ADHD and 117 demographically similar youth without ADHD were interviewed annually in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study. Adolescents reported the frequency of their own alcohol use in the prior 12 months and the number of friends who used alcohol regularly or occasionally (perceived friend alcohol use). Multiple-group parallel process models indicated that increases in friend alcohol use were more strongly associated with increases in adolescent alcohol use over time for individuals with ADHD (r = .15, SE = 0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.08, 0.22]) than for those without ADHD (r = .06, SE = 0.03; 95% CI [0.00, 0.11]). These results suggest that social factors are an important part of escalating alcohol use among adolescents with ADHD histories, and they highlight the possibility that interventions focused on the peer context could be important for these at-risk youth. Additional social network research on adolescent alcohol use within the larger context of other relationships (e.g., family and romantic relationships) is indicated.

  19. Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs) and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs) blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6) were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index). This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively. PMID:23134619

  20. Does maternal warmth moderate the effects of birth weight on twins' attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ?

    PubMed

    Tully, Lucy A; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Morgan, Julia

    2004-04-01

    The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,500 g. Maternal warmth, a component of expressed emotion, was coded from mothers' audiotaped descriptions of each child. Both parents and teachers rated children's ADHD symptoms, and the children were administered an IQ test. Results showed a significant interaction between children's birth weight and maternal warmth in predicting mothers' and teachers' ratings of ADHD. The interaction was not significant for IQ. The findings suggest that the effect of children's birth weight on their ADHD symptoms can be moderated by maternal warmth and that enhancing maternal warmth may prevent behavior problems among the increasing population of low-birth- weight children.

  1. Disrupted response inhibition toward facial anger cues in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Köchel, Angelika; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2014-04-01

    This event-related potential study focused on neural correlates of inhibitory affective control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sixteen boys with ADHD and 16 healthy boys underwent an emotional Go/NoGo task with pictures of facial expressions from the categories anger, sadness, happiness, and neutral. The participants were instructed to execute or withhold a motor response to specific emotions. Patients relative to controls displayed a severe impairment in response inhibition toward anger cues, which was accompanied by a reduced P300 amplitude (positive voltage deflection about 300 ms after picture onset). The control group showed a P300 differentiation of the affective categories that was absent in the ADHD group. The pronounced anger-processing deficit in ADHD patients might be linked to their interpersonal difficulties and should be addressed in psychotherapy.

  2. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... education, social and family situations and relationships, employment, self-esteem, and emotional health. It is never too late ... tasks. It can also address feelings of low self-esteem and help adults with ADHD gain confidence, as ...

  3. Comparison between the efficacies of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among preschoolers: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Forough; Tashakori, Ashraf; Abdi, Leila

    2016-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disease with a worldwide pooled prevalence of 5.29%. To compare the efficacy of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among 3- to 6-year-old children. In a 6-week double-blind clinical trial, the efficacy of Risperidone 0.5-2 mg with a dose of maximum Haloperidol 0.075 mg/kg was assessed in 39 children aged 3-6 years. This study was conducted at the Golestan Psychiatric Clinic (Ahvaz, Iran). Measurement tools included the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48), Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Fisher's exact tests in the SPSS 19. During the 6 weeks, the decline in points was seen in Conner's rating scale and in ADHD-RS score in Risperidone and Haloperidol groups (p<0.001). On the CGAS scale, an increase of performance in both groups for six weeks was statistically significant (p<0.001). In the scales of ADHD-RS and CPRS-48, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups; i.e., in terms of reducing the rate during weeks of two, four, and six (p>0.05). Haloperidol and Risperidone possibly can be an acceptable treatment choice in the ADHD treatment of 3- to 6-year-old children. The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015082623766N1. This work was financially supported by grant (ref. no.: U-93130) from the vice chancellor for Research Affairs of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.

  4. Comparison between the efficacies of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among preschoolers: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Forough; Tashakori, Ashraf; Abdi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disease with a worldwide pooled prevalence of 5.29%. Objective To compare the efficacy of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among 3- to 6-year-old children. Methods In a 6-week double-blind clinical trial, the efficacy of Risperidone 0.5–2 mg with a dose of maximum Haloperidol 0.075 mg/kg was assessed in 39 children aged 3–6 years. This study was conducted at the Golestan Psychiatric Clinic (Ahvaz, Iran). Measurement tools included the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48), Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Fisher’s exact tests in the SPSS 19. Results During the 6 weeks, the decline in points was seen in Conner’s rating scale and in ADHD-RS score in Risperidone and Haloperidol groups (p<0.001). On the CGAS scale, an increase of performance in both groups for six weeks was statistically significant (p<0.001). In the scales of ADHD-RS and CPRS-48, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups; i.e., in terms of reducing the rate during weeks of two, four, and six (p>0.05). Conclusions Haloperidol and Risperidone possibly can be an acceptable treatment choice in the ADHD treatment of 3- to 6-year-old children. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015082623766N1. Funding This work was financially supported by grant (ref. no.: U-93130) from the vice chancellor for Research Affairs of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27790334

  5. Neurotrophic factor-related gene polymorphisms and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) score in a high-risk male population.

    PubMed

    Conner, Alex C; Kissling, Christian; Hodges, Edward; Hünnerkopf, Regina; Clement, R Marc; Dudley, Edward; Freitag, Christine M; Rösler, Michael; Retz, Wolfgang; Thome, Johannes

    2008-12-05

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely under-reported but nevertheless common condition with a clear heritable component. Several genes have been proposed to play a role in the childhood onset of this neurodevelopmental disorder; however, association studies of persistence of ADHD into adulthood have rarely been performed. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to be involved in several aspects of neuronal development and neural plasticity in adults. They have also been linked, particularly through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) interaction with dopamine transport, to the pathophysiology of ADHD. This study compares the genotypes of six different single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes within the neurotrophin system and their possible association with adult ADHD score in 143 high-risk male subjects referred to a forensic psychiatric unit. The genes included NTF3, NTRK2 (TrkB), NTRK3 (TrkC), BDNF, and p75(NTR). While none of the SNPs showed significant association with ADHD symptoms, one polymorphism within the exon of NTF3 (rs6332) showed a trend toward an association between the A-allele and increased scores using both the retrospective childhood analysis Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS-k) (P = 0.05) and the adult ADHD assessment Wender-Reimherr interview (P = 0.03). This SNP is a silent mutation which might be in linkage disequilibrium with a functional risk variant for ADHD. As the association was only suggestive, however, this finding needs replication in a larger study with higher power.

  6. Functional gene-set analysis does not support a major role for synaptic function in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hammerschlag, Anke R; Polderman, Tinca J C; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Posthuma, Danielle

    2014-07-22

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite high heritability estimates, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have failed to find significant genetic associations, likely due to the polygenic character of ADHD. Nevertheless, genetic studies suggested the involvement of several processes important for synaptic function. Therefore, we applied a functional gene-set analysis to formally test whether synaptic functions are associated with ADHD. Gene-set analysis tests the joint effect of multiple genetic variants in groups of functionally related genes. This method provides increased statistical power compared to conventional GWAS. We used data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium including 896 ADHD cases and 2455 controls, and 2064 parent-affected offspring trios, providing sufficient statistical power to detect gene sets representing a genotype relative risk of at least 1.17. Although all synaptic genes together showed a significant association with ADHD, this association was not stronger than that of randomly generated gene sets matched for same number of genes. Further analyses showed no association of specific synaptic function categories with ADHD after correction for multiple testing. Given current sample size and gene sets based on current knowledge of genes related to synaptic function, our results do not support a major role for common genetic variants in synaptic genes in the etiology of ADHD.

  7. A review of fronto-striatal and fronto-cortical brain abnormalities in children and adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and new evidence for dysfunction in adults with ADHD during motivation and attention.

    PubMed

    Cubillo, Ana; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna; Taylor, Eric; Rubia, Katya

    2012-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has long been associated with abnormalities in frontal brain regions. In this paper we review the current structural and functional imaging evidence for abnormalities in children and adults with ADHD in fronto-striatal, fronto-parieto-temporal, fronto-cerebellar and fronto-limbic regions and networks. While the imaging studies in children with ADHD are more numerous and consistent, an increasing number of studies suggests that these structural and functional abnormalities in fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical networks persist into adulthood, despite a relative symptomatic improvement in the adult form of the disorder. We furthermore present new data that support the notion of a persistence of neurofunctional deficits in adults with ADHD during attention and motivation functions. We show that a group of medication-naïve young adults with ADHD behaviours who were followed up 20 years from a childhood ADHD diagnosis show dysfunctions in lateral fronto-striato-parietal regions relative to controls during sustained attention, as well as in ventromedial orbitofrontal regions during reward, suggesting dysfunctions in cognitive-attentional as well as motivational neural networks. The lateral fronto-striatal deficit findings, furthermore, were strikingly similar to those we have previously observed in children with ADHD during the same task, reinforcing the notion of persistence of fronto-striatal dysfunctions in adult ADHD. The ventromedial orbitofrontal deficits, however, were associated with comorbid conduct disorder (CD), highlighting the potential confound of comorbid antisocial conditions on paralimbic brain deficits in ADHD. Our review supported by the new data therefore suggest that both adult and childhood ADHD are associated with brain abnormalities in fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical systems that mediate the control of cognition and motivation. The brain deficits in ADHD therefore appear to be multi

  8. The prevalence and effects of Adult Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Fayyad, John; ten Have, Margreet; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gasquet, Isabelle; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Ann ADHD screen was administered to 18–44 year-old respondents in ten national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or self employment; response rate 45.9–87.7% across countries). Blinded clinical reappraisal interviews were administered in the US to calibrate the screen. Days out of role were measured in the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS). Questions were also asked about ADHD treatment. Results An average of 3.5% of workers in the ten countries was estimated to meet DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD (inter-quartile range: 1.3–4.9%). ADHD was more common among males than females and less common among professionals than other workers. ADHD was associated with a statistically significant 22.1 annual days of excess lost role performance compared to otherwise similar respondents without ADHD. No difference in the magnitude of this effect was found by occupation, education, age, gender, or partner status. This effect was most pronounced in Colombia, Italy, Lebanon, and the US. Although only a small minority of workers with ADHD ever received treatment for this condition, higher proportions were treated for comorbid mental-substance disorders. Conclusions ADHD is a relatively common condition among working people in the countries studied and is associated with high work impairment in these countries. This impairment, in conjunction with the low treatment rate and the availability of cost-effective therapies, suggests that ADHD would be a good candidate for targeted workplace screening and treatment programs. Main messages A high proportion of childhood ADHD persists into adulthood. An average of 3.5% of workers in nationally representative surveys carried out in 10 countries met criteria for current DSM-IV adult ADHD. Workers with ADHD have an average 8.4 excess sickness absence

  9. Parent-reported and clinician-observed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): implications for practice under DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Dick, Catherine; Lord, Catherine; Bishop, Somer

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with social difficulties, though the extent to which these clearly overlap with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not well understood. We explored parent-reported and directly-observed ASD symptoms on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in children referred to ASD-specialty clinics who received diagnoses of either ADHD (n = 48) or ASD (n = 164). Of the ADHD sample, 21 % met ASD cut-offs on the ADOS and 30 % met ASD cut-offs on all domains of the ADI-R. Four social communication ADOS items (Quality of Social Overtures, Unusual Eye Contact, Facial Expressions Directed to Examiner, and Amount of Reciprocal Social Communication) adequately differentiated the groups while none of the items on the ADI-R met the criteria for adequate discrimination. Results of this work highlight the challenges that clinicians and researchers face when distinguishing ASD from other disorders in verbally fluent, school-age children.

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is found to be related to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings and the male gender, but not to birth order, when compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.

  11. Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Kollins, Scott H.; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Dew, Rachel E.; Lane, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs – the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD – influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n=16) and without (n=17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money following oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD. PMID:24099358

  12. Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S; McClernon, F Joseph; Dew, Rachel E; Lane, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Written Expression Performance in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBono, Tony; Hosseini, Armita; Cairo, Cassandra; Ghelani, Karen; Tannock, Rosemary; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined written expression performance in a sample of adolescents with ADHD and subthreshold ADHD using two different strategies: examining performance on standardized measures of written expression and using other indicators of written expression developed in this study. We examined associations between standardized measures of written…

  14. College Student's Perceptions of Living and Learning with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Michael P.; Mahar, Patricia; Chalmers, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    How does the K-12 special education system prepare children with ADHD for the rigors and independent learning of higher education? This article examines the K-12 experiences, including special education, of three college students diagnosed with ADHD during their early elementary years. In their own words, they provide insight into what benefited…

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) neurofeedback as a treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Anna-Maria; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Furdea, Adrian; Holtmann, Martin; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Gevensleben, Holger; Freitag, Christine M.; Fuchsenberger, Yvonne; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Strehl, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) neurofeedback was investigated as a new method for the treatment of Attention Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of children with ADHD was measured and fed back. 12 sessions of NIRS-neurofeedback were compared to the intermediate outcome after 12 sessions of EEG-neurofeedback (slow cortical potentials, SCP) and 12 sessions of EMG-feedback (muscular activity of left and right musculus supraspinatus). The task was either to increase or decrease hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex (NIRS), to produce positive or negative shifts of SCP (EEG) or to increase or decrease muscular activity (EMG). In each group nine children with ADHD, aged 7–10 years, took part. Changes in parents’ ratings of ADHD symptoms were assessed before and after the 12 sessions and compared within and between groups. For the NIRS-group additional teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms, parents’ and teachers’ ratings of associated behavioral symptoms, childrens’ self reports on quality of life and a computer based attention task were conducted before, 4 weeks and 6 months after training. As primary outcome, ADHD symptoms decreased significantly 4 weeks and 6 months after the NIRS training, according to parents’ ratings. In teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms there was a significant reduction 4 weeks after the training. The performance in the computer based attention test improved significantly. Within-group comparisons after 12 sessions of NIRS-, EEG- and EMG-training revealed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms in the NIRS-group and a trend for EEG- and EMG-groups. No significant differences for symptom reduction were found between the groups. Despite the limitations of small groups and the comparison of a completed with two uncompleted interventions, the results of this pilot study are promising. NIRS-neurofeedback could be a time-effective treatment for ADHD and an

  16. Medio-frontal and anterior temporal abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an acoustic antisaccade task as revealed by electro-cortical source reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Goepel, Johanna; Kissler, Johanna; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Paul-Jordanov, Isabella

    2011-01-12

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in children and adolescence. Impulsivity is one of three core symptoms and likely associated with inhibition difficulties. To date the neural correlate of the antisaccade task, a test of response inhibition, has not been studied in children with (or without) ADHD. Antisaccade responses to visual and acoustic cues were examined in nine unmedicated boys with ADHD (mean age 122.44 ± 20.81 months) and 14 healthy control children (mean age 115.64 ± 22.87 months, three girls) while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Brain activity before saccade onset was reconstructed using a 23-source-montage. When cues were acoustic, children with ADHD had a higher source activity than control children in Medio-Frontal Cortex (MFC) between -230 and -120 ms and in the left-hemispheric Temporal Anterior Cortex (TAC) between -112 and 0 ms before saccade onset, despite both groups performing similarly behaviourally (antisaccades errors and saccade latency). When visual cues were used EEG-activity preceding antisaccades did not differ between groups. Children with ADHD exhibit altered functioning of the TAC and MFC during an antisaccade task elicited by acoustic cues. Children with ADHD need more source activation to reach the same behavioural level as control children.

  17. Callous-Unemotional Traits Among Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Associations with Parenting.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Fabiano, Gregory; Willoughby, Michael T; Waschbusch, Daniel; Morris, Karen; Schatz, Nicole; Vujnovic, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the extent to which positive and negative parenting relates to conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits among 172 adolescents (72 % males; M(age) = 16.91 years, SD = .67) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and whether CU traits moderate the link between parenting and CP. Mothers reported on their adolescents' CP, CU traits, and their own parenting practices. Maternal behaviors were observed during a problem-solving communication task. Parents who engaged in more positive parenting (self-reported and observed) reported their adolescents as having lower levels of CU traits. No effect was found for negative parenting. Moderation analyses indicated that lower levels of positive maternal behavior was only associated with higher CP in the presence of higher levels of CU traits. Negative parenting was positively related to CP regardless of CU traits. Positive parenting, irrespective of measurement approach, uniquely relates to adolescents' CU traits while both positive and negative parenting relate to CP.

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Tannock, Rosemary; Franke, Barbara

    2015-08-06

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 5% of children and adolescents and 2.5% of adults worldwide. Throughout an individual's lifetime, ADHD can increase the risk of other psychiatric disorders, educational and occupational failure, accidents, criminality, social disability and addictions. No single risk factor is necessary or sufficient to cause ADHD. In most cases ADHD arises from several genetic and environmental risk factors that each have a small individual effect and act together to increase susceptibility. The multifactorial causation of ADHD is consistent with the heterogeneity of the disorder, which is shown by its extensive psychiatric co-morbidity, its multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment and the wide range of structural and functional brain anomalies associated with it. The diagnosis of ADHD is reliable and valid when evaluated with standard criteria for psychiatric disorders. Rating scales and clinical interviews facilitate diagnosis and aid screening. The expression of symptoms varies as a function of patient developmental stage and social and academic contexts. Although there are no curative treatments for ADHD, evidenced-based treatments can markedly reduce its symptoms and associated impairments. For example, medications are efficacious and normally well tolerated, and various non-pharmacological approaches are also valuable. Ongoing clinical and neurobiological research holds the promise of advancing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to ADHD. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/J6jiwl.

  19. A systematic review of parenting in relation to the development of comorbidities and functional impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Deault, Louise C

    2010-04-01

    This review synthesizes recent research evidence regarding the parenting characteristics associated with families with children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with a range of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its behavioral expression and different developmental trajectories. The current review adopts a developmental psychopathology perspective to conceptualize the risk and protective factors that might shape the developmental pathways of the disorder across different domains. Following from Johnston and Mash's review (Johnston and Mash, Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 4:183-207, 2001), the present review systematically examines empirical studies from 2000-2008 that investigate parenting variables in relation to the development of children with ADHD, with a particular focus on the development of externalizing and internalizing comorbidities, as well as functional impairments in academic and social contexts. The most recent research evidence uses correlational designs to show that ADHD is associated with problematic family functioning, including greater stress within the family, higher rates of parental psychopathology and conflicted parent-child relationships, which appears to be exacerbated in children with comorbid oppositional and conduct problems. However, there is an absence of literature that considers the role that parents play in contributing to children's development in areas such as academic achievement and peer competence, as well as the development of internalizing difficulties. Future research should examine family factors that are associated with resilience in children with ADHD, using longitudinal designs that reflect the dynamic changes associated with a developmental psychopathology framework.

  20. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD.

  1. Hyperactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The role of executive and non-executive functions.

    PubMed

    Hudec, Kristen L; Alderson, R Matt; Patros, Connor H G; Lea, Sarah E; Tarle, Stephanie J; Kasper, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    Motor activity of boys (age 8-12 years) with (n=19) and without (n=18) ADHD was objectively measured with actigraphy across experimental conditions that varied with regard to demands on executive functions. Activity exhibited during two n-back (1-back, 2-back) working memory tasks was compared to activity during a choice-reaction time (CRT) task that placed relatively fewer demands on executive processes and during a simple reaction time (SRT) task that required mostly automatic processing with minimal executive demands. Results indicated that children in the ADHD group exhibited greater activity compared to children in the non-ADHD group. Further, both groups exhibited the greatest activity during conditions with high working memory demands, followed by the reaction time and control task conditions, respectively. The findings indicate that large-magnitude increases in motor activity are predominantly associated with increased demands on working memory, though demands on non-executive processes are sufficient to elicit small to moderate increases in motor activity as well. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Development of a Swedish Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Söderström, Staffan; Pettersson, Richard; Edlund-Söderström, Kerstin; Ganse, Gunnar; Holmkvist, Eva; Westin, Olof; Haglund, Lena

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a phenomenon that attracts a lot of attention in society today. Advances in research have made it clear that many conditions that make people seek medical and psychiatric care may have pervasive deficits in attention, motor control and impulsivity at their roots. Since ADHD in adults is a relatively new and very versatile concept, there is a great need for systemized classification of the ramifications of the deficit that extends into every aspect of these patients' lives. To develop a Swedish Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for adult patients with ADHD. A national expert survey was conducted using the Delphi technique and a formal consensus conference. Forty-two experts from different professions and organizations, including psychiatrists and physicians, psychologists, occupational therapists, a counsellor, a specialist nurse, representatives from a patient organization and representatives from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, participated in the Delphi process and 28 participants from the expert group attended the consensus conference. At the formal consensus conference, 66 categories from the ICF were identified and included in the national Comprehensive Core Set for ADHD: 21 categories from the component body functions, 26 categories from the component activities and participation, and 19 categories from the component environmental factors. The Comprehensive Core Set for ADHD should be regarded as national and preliminary, and should be further tested and evaluated by experts in ADHD in clinical settings in Sweden.

  3. Factor Structure and Predictive Validity of a Homework Motivation Measure for Use With Middle School Students With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Smith, Zoe R; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Molitor, Stephen J; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Eadeh, Hana-May; Oddo, Lauren E

    2017-08-31

    Many students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit deficits in motivation to pursue long-term goals. Students with ADHD have particular difficulty with motivation to complete homework-related tasks and often fail to complete assignments. Although these problems are common and may impact academic performance, no homework-motivation measures have been validated for use with students with ADHD. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure and predictive validity of a homework-motivation measure based upon the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. A sample of 285 middle school students with ADHD completed the measure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the proposed factor structure and associations with parent and teacher ratings of homework performance. A 2-factor structure emerged, and model fit was excellent. Further, student-rated ability-expectancy beliefs demonstrated significant associations with parent-rated homework problems and performance and with teacher-rated homework performance and percentage of assignments turned in above and beyond ADHD symptoms. Future directions for studying the importance of motivation in students with ADHD are provided, with particular attention to the role that reward sensitivity may play in motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  5. Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice.

  6. Decision making with uncertain reinforcement in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Renate; Rizzo, Patrizia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Reward-related processes are impaired in children with ADHD. Whether these deficits can be ascribed to an aversion to delay or to an altered responsiveness to magnitude, frequency, valence, or the probability of rewards still needs to be explored. In the present study, children with ADHD and normal controls aged 7 to 10 years performed a simple probabilistic discounting task. They had to choose between alternatives where the magnitude of rewards was inversely related to the probability of outcomes. As a result, children with ADHD opted more frequently for less likely but larger rewards than normal controls. Shifts of the response category after positive or negative feedback, however, occurred as often in children with ADHD as in control children. In children with ADHD, the frequency of risky choices was correlated with neuropsychological measures of response time variability but unrelated to measures of inhibitory control. It is concluded that the tendency to select less likely but larger rewards possibly represents a separate facet of dysfunctional reward processing, independent of delay aversion or altered responsiveness to feedback.

  7. Narrative production in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Kuijper, Sanne J M; Hartman, Catharina A; Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Suzanne T M; Hendriks, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the similarities and differences in language production between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we investigated whether Theory of Mind (ToM), working memory, and response inhibition are associated with language production. Narratives, produced by 106 Dutch-speaking children (36 with ASD, 34 with ADHD, and 36 typically developing) aged 6 to 12 during ADOS assessment, were examined on several linguistic measures: verbal productivity, speech fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical semantics, and discourse pragmatics. Children were tested on ToM, working memory, and response inhibition and parents filled in the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2). Gold-standard diagnostic measures (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schema [ADOS], Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised [ADI-R], and the Parent Interview for Child Symptoms [PICS]) were administered to all children to confirm diagnosis. Regarding similarities, both clinical groups showed impairments in narrative performance relative to typically developing children. These were confirmed by the CCC-2. These impairments were not only present on pragmatic measures, such as the inability to produce a narrative in a coherent and cohesive way, but also on syntactic complexity and their production of repetitions. As for differences, children with ADHD but not children with ASD showed problems in their choice of referring expressions and speech fluency. ToM and working memory performance but not response inhibition were associated with many narrative skills, suggesting that these cognitive mechanisms explain some of the impairments in language production. We conclude that children with ASD and children with ADHD manifest multiple and diverse language production problems, which may partly relate to their problems in ToM and working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. A Controlled Family Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Tourette's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Illmann, Cornelia; Geller, Daniel A.; Leckman, James F.; King, Robert; Pauls, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently comorbid with Tourette's disorder (TD), it is unclear whether they have a common genetic etiology. Familial relationships between DSM-IVADHD and TD are studied in TD + ADHD, TD-only (TD-ADHD), ADHD-only (ADHD-TD), and control groups. Method: Case-control,…

  9. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  10. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  11. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  12. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  13. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  14. Motor preparation, motor execution, attention, and executive functions in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Mattingley, Jason B; Sheppard, Dianne M; Lee, Paul; Bradshaw, John L

    2005-04-01

    Attention and executive functions were investigated in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD combined type using a novel selective reaching task. This task involved responding as rapidly as possible to a target while at times having to ignore a distractor. Results indicated that unmedicated children with ADHD showed slow and inaccurate responding. Slow responding reflected problems at the stage of movement preparation but not movement execution. An attentional impairment, rather than a motor planning problem per se, appeared to underlie the slow movement preparation. Inaccurate responding reflected problems with response inhibition and selective attention, impulsivity, set-shifting, and difficulties in maintaining vigilance. Although medicated children with ADHD did not show slow movement preparation, they did show some response inaccuracy, resulting especially from impulsive responding. These findings suggest that ADHD is characterized by slow motor preparation (but not motor execution), and deficits in selective attention, vigilance, and executive functions. Preliminary results suggest that stimulant medication may resolve some of these motor, attentional and executive function deficits.

  15. Assessment and Intervention Practices for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A National Survey of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borick, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined school psychologists' assessment and intervention practices regarding ADHD. Five hundred school psychologists who practiced in a school setting and were regular members of the National Association of School Psychologists were randomly selected to complete and return a questionnaire titled Assessment and Intervention Practices…

  16. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD.

  17. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Brooke S.G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n=436); to test whether (a) medication at follow-up, (b) cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or (c) both relate to substance use/SUD; to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n=261). Method Mixed-effects regression models with planned contrasts were used for all tests except the important cumulative stimulant treatment question, for which propensity score matching analysis was used. Results The originally randomized treatment groups did not differ significantly on substance use/SUD by the 8 year follow-up or earlier (M age = 17 years). Neither medication at follow-up (mostly stimulants) nor cumulative stimulant treatment was associated with adolescent substance use/SUD. Substance use at all time points, including use of two or more substances and SUD, were each greater in the ADHD than non-ADHD samples, regardless of sex. Conclusions Medication for ADHD did not protect from, nor contribute to, visible risk of substance use or SUD by adolescence, whether analyzed as randomized treatment assignment in childhood, as medication at follow-up, or as cumulative stimulant treatment over an 8 year follow-up from childhood. These results suggest the need to identify alternative or adjunctive adolescent-focused approaches to substance abuse prevention and treatment for boys and girls with ADHD, especially given their increased risk for use and abuse of multiple substances that is not improved with stimulant medication. Clinical trial registration information—Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://clinical trials.gov/; NCT00000388. PMID:23452682

  18. Adolescent substance use in the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a function of childhood ADHD, random assignment to childhood treatments, and subsequent medication.

    PubMed

    Molina, Brooke S G; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Eugene Arnold, L; Swanson, James M; Pelham, William E; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B; Greenhill, Laurence L; Jensen, Peter S; Wells, Karen C; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-03-01

    To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or both relate to substance use/SUD; and to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n = 261). Mixed-effects regression models with planned contrasts were used for all tests except the important cumulative stimulant treatment question, for which propensity score matching analysis was used. The originally randomized treatment groups did not differ significantly on substance use/SUD by the 8-year follow-up or earlier (mean age = 17 years). Neither medication at follow-up (mostly stimulants) nor cumulative stimulant treatment was associated with adolescent substance use/SUD. Substance use at all time points, including use of two or more substances and SUD, were each greater in the ADHD than in the non-ADHD samples, regardless of sex. Medication for ADHD did not protect from, or contribute to, visible risk of substance use or SUD by adolescence, whether analyzed as randomized treatment assignment in childhood, as medication at follow-up, or as cumulative stimulant treatment over an 8-year follow-up from childhood. These results suggest the need to identify alternative or adjunctive adolescent-focused approaches to substance abuse prevention and treatment for boys and girls with ADHD, especially given their increased risk for use and abuse of multiple substances that is not improved with stimulant medication. Clinical trial registration information-Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://clinical trials.gov/; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent

  19. Co-occurring symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based sample of adolescents screened for depression.

    PubMed

    Lundervold, Astri J; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Sørensen, Lin; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2016-02-25

    Depression is common in adolescents, with a gender bias towards girls. Symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to co-occur in depressed adolescents. This may be related to common features between the two symptom domains, but co-occurring ADHD symptoms may also inflate the severity of depression. The present study investigates the frequency and influence of ADHD symptoms co-occurring with depression in a gender balanced population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. A sample of 9614 adolescents (16-19 years) completed a questionnaire including the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), with items reflecting symptoms associated with depression and ADHD, respectively. The sMFQ sum score was used as a proxy for severity of depression, and adolescents with a score equal to or above the 90th percentile were defined as depressed. A high response on any of the ASRS items was used to define the presence of an ADHD symptom, and the number of high scores was used to indicate severity. ADHD symptoms were frequently reported by the adolescents, with a higher frequency in girls than in boys. The gender differences were, however, minor when the analysis was restricted to the adolescents defined as depressed. Each severe symptom reported on the ASRS contributed significantly to increase the sum score on the sMFQ, and more than 20 % of the adolescents defined as depressed reported six or more symptoms within the ASRS inattention subscale. The results emphasize the importance of screening for symptoms associated with ADHD when assessing adolescents presenting symptoms indicating depression. Although girls reported higher frequency of symptoms within both domains, the gender bias was dependent on the overall symptom severity. Awareness of co-occurrence of symptoms and gender biases are of importance for both clinical work and future research on mental health and service use in

  20. The Increased Risk of Road Crashes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Adult Drivers: Driven by Distraction? Results from a Responsibility Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. Methods A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. Results A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR)  = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06–2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50–3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22–3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06–16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Discussion Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also

  1. The increased risk of road crashes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult drivers: driven by distraction? Results from a responsibility case-control study.

    PubMed

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06-2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50-3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22-3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06-16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also increasingly relevant for these drivers.

  2. Phenomenology of hoarding in children with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The perceptions of parents.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Fiona A; Moulding, Richard; McGillivray, Jane A

    2017-03-16

    Individuals with ADHD and comorbid hoarding disorder are vulnerable to severe consequences from hoarding symptoms. Despite this, and the early onset of hoarding disorder, the nature of hoarding symptoms in children with comorbid ADHD is unknown. We therefore explored the phenomenology of hoarding symptoms among ten 8-12year olds with ADHD and clinically significant hoarding symptoms through parental perceptions. Parents completed in-depth semi-structured interviews. The data was analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Six superordinate themes were identified: emotional distress; parental avoidance and accommodating behaviors; family impacts of hoarding; excessive acquisition and saving; executive functioning; parental insight and intervention. In contrast to previous suggestions that emotional distress was not associated with hoarding in ADHD, these findings highlight that emotional distress appeared to be core to the hoarding disorder profile of the present sample of children with ADHD. This has important implications for health practitioners who may consider conceptualizing, assessing, and treating hoarding symptoms in children with comorbid ADHD using a cognitive behavioral model of hoarding disorder.

  3. Epidemiology of Treated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) across the Lifespan in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chen; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We used insurance claims of a nationally representative population-based cohort to assess the longitudinal treated prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults. Methods Participants were identified from among National Health Insurance enrollees in Taiwan from 1999 to 2005. We identified study subjects who had at least one service claim during these years with a principal diagnosis of ADHD. A total of 6,173 patients were recorded in the treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Results There was a significant increase in the treated prevalence rate of ADHD during the study period, from 64.65 per 100,000 in 2000 to 145.40 per 100,000 in 2005 (p = .001). An increase in the treated incidence rate of ADHD, from 44.67 per 100,000 in 2000 to 81.20 per 100,000 in 2005, was also observed (p = .013). However, the treated prevalence of ADHD was still lower than that of the community data in Taiwan. The peak treated prevalence of ADHD was at age 7–12 years for both males and females, and the peak treated incidence of ADHD was at age 0–6 for females and age 7–12 for males. Overall, the treated incidence and prevalence rates dropped abruptly after age 13–18 (both p<.001) for males and females (p<.001 for both). Male vs. female ratios of treated prevalence and incidence were both above 1 before age 25–30 years, but below 1 thereafter. Conclusion Although an increasing number of people with ADHD sought treatment during 1999–2005 in Taiwan, the treated prevalence of ADHD was still lower than that of the community data. The treated incidence and prevalence of ADHD fell dramatically after age 13–18. However, more women than men sought treatment in adulthood. There may be under-diagnosis and under-treatment of ADHD, especially among females and adults. PMID:24736469

  4. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  5. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  6. Measured Gene by Environment Interaction in Relation to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective Summarize and evaluate the state of knowledge regarding the role of measured gene by environment interactions in relation to ADHD. Method A selective review of methodological issues is followed by a systematic search for relevant articles on measured GxE; the search yielded 16 studies, which are discussed in qualitative fashion. Results Relatively consistent evidence points to the interaction of genotype with psychosocial factors in the development of ADHD. The next step is to identify the mechanisms on the environment side and the gene combinations on the genetic side accounting for this effect. By contrast, evidence for gene-environment interactions involving pre- and peri-natal risk factors is generally negative or unreplicated. The aggregate effect size for psychosocial interaction with genotype is more than double that for the interaction of pre- and perinatal risks with genotype. Only a small fraction of candidate environments and gene markers have been studied, and multivariate methods to integrate multiple gene or environment markers have yet to be implemented. Conclusions GxE appears likely to prove fruitful in understanding the etiology of ADHD. Findings to date already suggest new avenues of investigation particularly involving psychosocial mechanisms and their interplay with genotype. Further pursuit of theoretically promising leads is recommended. PMID:20732623

  7. High self-perceived stress and many stressors, but normal diurnal cortisol rhythm, in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder).

    PubMed

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Lindholm, Torun; Nordenström, Anna; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Lajic, Svetlana

    2009-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant impairment in many life activities and may thus increase the risk of chronic stress in everyday life. We compared adults with a DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (n=28) with healthy controls (n=28) regarding subjective stress and amounts of stressors in everyday life, diurnal salivary cortisol in the everyday environment and salivary cortisol before and after cognitive stress in a laboratory setting. The association between cortisol concentrations and impulsivity was also investigated. Consistent with assumptions, individuals with ADHD reported significantly more self-perceived stress than controls, and subjective stress correlated with the amount of stressors in everyday life. The two groups were comparable with respect to overall diurnal cortisol levels and rhythm, as well as in pre- and post-stress cortisol concentrations. Post-stress cortisol (but not baseline cortisol) concentration was positively correlated with impulsivity. The group with high post-stress cortisol also reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as self-perceived stress and stressors in every-day life. The diagnosis of ADHD significantly increased the risk of belonging to the group with high post-stress cortisol levels. The results in this study warrant a focus not only on the primary diagnosis of ADHD, but also calls for a broader assessment of stressors and subjective stress in everyday life, as well as support comprising stress management and coping skills.

  8. Randomised sham-controlled study of high-frequency bilateral deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) to treat adult attention hyperactive disorder (ADHD): Negative results.

    PubMed

    Paz, Yaniv; Friedwald, Keren; Levkovitz, Yeheal; Zangen, Abraham; Alyagon, Uri; Nitzan, Uri; Segev, Aviv; Maoz, Hagai; Koubi, May; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-01-31

    Recent studies support the possible effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and possible efficacy of bilateral prefrontal deep rTMS for the treatment of adult ADHD. Twenty-six adult ADHD patients were randomised blindly to sham or actual deep TMS (dTMS). Twenty daily sessions were conducted using the bilateral H5 dTMS coil (Brainsway, IL) in order to stimulate the prefrontal cortex at 120% of the motor threshold at high frequency. For assessment, Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale questionnaire and a computerised continuous performance test, Test of Variables of Attention, were used. No differences in clinical outcomes were detected between the actual dTMS and sham groups. The presented evidence does not support the utility of bilateral prefrontal stimulation to treat adult ADHD. Due to the small sample size, caution must be exercised in interpreting our preliminary findings.

  9. Influence of a latrophilin 3 (LPHN3) risk haplotype on event-related potential measures of cognitive response control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Jacob, Christian P; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Muenke, Maximilian; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current research strategies have made great efforts to further elucidate the complex genetic architecture of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the impact of an LPHN3 haplotype that has recently been associated with ADHD (Arcos-Burgos et al., 2010) on neural activity in a visual Go-NoGo task. Two hundred sixteen adult ADHD patients completed a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) while the ongoing EEG was simultaneously recorded. Results showed that patients carrying two copies of the LPHN3 risk haplotype (n=114) made more omission errors and had a more anterior Go-centroid of the P300 than patients carrying at least one LPHN3 non-risk haplotype (n=102). Accordingly, the NoGo-Anteriorization (NGA; topographical ERP difference of the Go- and NoGo-condition), a neurophysiological marker of prefrontal functioning, was reduced in the LPHN3 high risk group. However, in the NoGo-condition itself no marked differences attributable to the LPHN3 haplotype could be found. Our findings indicate that, within a sample of ADHD patients, the LPHN3 gene impacts behavioral and neurophysiological measures of cognitive response control. The results of our study further strengthen the concept of an LPHN3 risk haplotype for ADHD and support the usefulness of the endophenotype approach in psychiatric and psychological research.

  10. Do parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) receive adequate information about the disorder and its treatments? A qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rana; Borst, Jacqueline M; Yong, Cheng Wei; Aslani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent pediatric neurodevelopmental condition, commonly treated using pharmacological agents such as stimulant medicines. The use of these agents remains contentious, placing parents in a difficult position when deciding to initiate and/or continue their child’s treatment. Parents refer to a range of information sources to assist with their treatment decision-making. This qualitative study aimed to investigate 1) parents’ ADHD-related knowledge pre- and post-diagnosis, 2) the information sources accessed by parents, 3) whether parents’ information needs were met post-diagnosis, and 4) parents’ views about strategies to meet their information needs. Methods Three focus groups (n=16 parents), each lasting 1.0–1.5 hours were conducted. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using the framew