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Sample records for hyperactivity disorder adhd

  1. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  2. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  3. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ADHD Health Capsules Genetic Sites Tied to Schizophrenia Helping Older Adults Talk With Their Doctors Featured ... and child mental health expert at NIH. “The diagnosis is made because the level of hyperactivity or ...

  4. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  5. [Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): current issues].

    PubMed

    Bader, M; Perroud, N

    2012-09-19

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has prevalence between 3 and 7% in childhood and adolescence. As high as 60% of childhood cases continue to have clinically significant symptoms of ADHD as adults. Psychiatric comorbidities are often found in ADHD subjects including, in childhood, emotional, behavior and learning disorders. Psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents and adults suffering from ADHD include mood and substance use disorders. Although may one fear giving psychostimulants to ADHD patients with comorbidities, recent studies have shown the benefits of such treatment not only in the clinical but also in the educational and socioprofessional point of views. Psychotherapeutic approaches should ideally accompany pharmacological treatments.

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): review for primary care clinicians

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Up to 5% of primary school age children have ADHD. Both genes and environment play a role in the aetiology of ADHD. If left untreated, children with ADHD demonstrate a range of poor long-term psychosocial outcomes. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) may be used to screen children for a range of psychiatric disorders, including ADHD.1 Principal management options include medication (methylphenidate and atomoxetine are the first line), parent training programmes and school based interventions. It is important to provide a dedicated child mental health specialist service for children with ADHD. In addition to following the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines,2 the authors recommend the use of wider systemic approaches and early intervention to optimise the effectiveness of recommended treatment options. PMID:25949618

  7. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  8. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850

  9. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). NetNews. Volume 7, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder that is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Between 3% and 7% of school-aged children are affected by ADHD. ADHD is a lifespan condition that affects children, adolescents and adults of all ages. It…

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option. PMID:26417832

  12. The dopamine theory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Levy, F

    1991-06-01

    Clinical, animal and neuroanatomical studies of differential isomer and dosage effects of CNS stimulant medications on behaviour are reviewed. Wender's hypothesis that an underlying biochemical abnormality and a disorder of reinforcement was the primary deficit in "MBD" children is restated in terms of a disorder of polysynaptic dopaminergic circuits, between prefrontal and striate centres. Wender's notion of a disorder of reinforcement is broadened to include a disorder of planning and correction of behaviour, including capacity for cortical control of automatic instinctual motor programmes. The dopamine hypothesis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is examined from the point of view of differential dose effects of CNS stimulant medications, and theories of neural control. Clinical, animal and neuropharmacological studies are reviewed. Implications of the findings for understanding clinical and side effects in ADHD children of stimulants are discussed.

  13. Body Movements of Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during Computer Video Game Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrace-DiZinno, Anna Marie; Douglas, Graham; Houghton, Stephen; Lawrence, Vivienne; West, John; Whiting, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that recorded the type and severity of body movements of 79 boys with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and 67 non-ADHD boys while playing a computer video game. Results of multivariate analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in body movements between ADHD and non-ADHD boys. (Author/LRW)

  14. Review of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Like Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Brieana M.; Findling, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that…

  15. Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Distinct or Related Disorders across Measurement Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert; Walle, Johan Vande

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding differences and similarities between the inattentive (IA) and combined (C) subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in order to detail challenges concerning further conceptualization, diagnostics, and treatment. The literature on ADHD-IA and…

  16. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  17. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures. PMID:26893231

  18. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  19. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  20. Pediatric Integrative Medicine Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Esparham, Anna; Evans, Randall G.; Wagner, Leigh E.; Drisko, Jeanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches. Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. Pediatric integrative medicine practitioners are increasing in number throughout the United States because of improvement in patient health outcomes. However, limited funding and poor research design interfere with generalizable treatment approaches utilizing integrative medicine. The use of research designs originally intended for drugs and procedures are not suitable for many integrative medicine approaches. This article serves to highlight integrative medicine approaches in use today for children with ADHD, including dietary therapies, nutritional supplements, environmental hygiene, and neurofeedback. PMID:27417475

  1. Use and Management of Medications for Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.; Barkley, Russell A.; DuPaul, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides information and guidelines for the effective use of medication in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Basic principles of psychopharmacology, different types of medications that have been used successfully to treat ADHD, and best practices for assessing the effects of medication in children with ADHD are…

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Alternative Treatment Plans for School Age Children Diagnosed with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell, Claudia L.

    This literature review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for children diagnosed with ADHD. It describes the complexity of ADHD, its symptoms, treatments, and implications on a child's social and academic development as well as strategies for assisting such children. Individual sections…

  3. Developmental Differences in Structure of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) between Childhood and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The current paper utilizes a bifactor modeling approach to evaluate the structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood and assess developmental continuity of ADHD structure between childhood and adulthood. The study compared traditional one-factor, two-factor, three-factor, and second-order factor models of ADHD with a…

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  5. 'ADHD Does Bad Stuff to You': Young People's and Parents' Experiences and Perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travell, Chris; Visser, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study of young people's and parents' experiences and perspectives of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from five positions: the 'symptoms' of ADHD and their consequences, the process of diagnosis and treatment, interventions, a personal diagnosis, and participation and voice. It questions the…

  6. Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2009-01-01

    Hyperactivity is currently considered a core and ubiquitous feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory (WM) and activity level. The current study investigated whether children's activity level is functionally…

  7. Perceived Effectiveness of Classroom Management Interventions with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforti, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers are concerned about their ability to work effectively with students who have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to determine the perceived efficacy of common interventions used to address negative ADHD behaviors in the elementary and middle school classrooms. The…

  8. Electrophysiological Indices of Abnormal Error-Processing in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Cahill, John D.; Bates, Alan T.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Calton, Timothy G.; Liddle, Peter F.; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been frequently observed in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and might underlie the excessive hyperactivity and impulsivity in this population. We investigated behavioural and electrophysiological indices relevant to one domain of cognitive control; namely…

  9. The Relationships between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Problematic Drug Use (PDU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alastair

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and problematic drug use (PDU). The review considers the main debates around the structure and aetiology of ADHD and the main theoretical frameworks offered to explain the…

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Is ADHD a Vulnerability Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, L. A.; Kunz, M.; Chua, H. C.; Rotrosen, J.; Resnick, S. G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence suggesting a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study examined the association between PTSD and ADHD using retrospective and current clinical evaluations. Method: Twenty-five male veterans with PTSD and 22 male veterans with panic …

  11. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population.

  12. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population. PMID:27125066

  13. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  14. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  16. [Mindfulness-based intervention in attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mindfulness means paying attention and being aware of the experiences occurring in the present moment, and it is usually developed by the practice of meditation. Research shows that mindfulness training is associated with improved attention systems and self-regulation, and that it therefore fosters those skills that are underdeveloped in individuals with ADHD. Although only few studies have investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness training in ADHD (many of which showing methodological limitations), the findings do suggest that mindfulness may be useful in ADHD interventions.

  17. Increased levels of serum neopterin in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; Uneri, Ozden Sukran; Guney, Esra; Ergin, Merve; Alisik, Murat; Goker, Zeynep; Senses Dinc, Gulser; Karaca Kara, Fatma; Erel, Ozcan

    2014-08-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently occurring neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood with an etiology that is not fully understood. A number of reviews that have addressed the neurobiology of ADHD have focused on imaging and genetics. Relatively little attention has been given to factors/mechanisms involved in the brain dysfunction. We suggest that changes in cellular immunity may be involved. Neopterin is a good indicator of cellular immunity, and we evaluated serum levels of neopterin in patients with ADHD. The study group consisted of 49 patients with ADHD. An age- and gender-matched control group was composed of 31 healthy subjects. Venous blood samples were collected, and the levels of neopterin were measured. The levels of neopterin were significantly higher in ADHD than in the comparison subjects. Cellular immunity may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of ADHD.

  18. Reading Motivational Differences among Groups: Reading Disability (RD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), RD + ADHD, and Typical Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the reading motivation of 133 students at individual grade levels (2nd-5th), who were divided in subgroups with and without reading disabilities/difficulties (RD) and with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Major findings were that students in the RD subgroup had lower reading motivation (intrinsic,…

  19. Comorbidity and continuity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adolescence in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cak, H Tuna; Dinc, Gulser Senses; Tuzun, Zeynep; Evinc, S Gulin; Cop, Esra; Cuhadaroglu Cetin, Fusun

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes, psychiatric comorbidity and neuropsychological characteristics in Turkish adolescents with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in childhood. A total of 45 children with ADHD diagnosis and 28 children with a psychiatric diagnosis other than ADHD in a 1-year cohort of 7-10-year-olds were reevaluated 6 years later using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Stroop Test TBAG version. This study shows that the clinical outcomes and the comorbidity patterns for ADHD from childhood to adolescence in Turkey are similar to reported rates in the Western countries. In the ADHD group, 75.6 % still has impairing ADHD symptoms and 46.6 % has comorbid psychiatric disorders. The main difference is anxiety disorders being the most common comorbid disorders (37.8 %) in Turkish ADHD youth. These findings stress the high comorbidity associated with ADHD and support the importance of assessment and treatment for ADHD and comorbidities during adolescence. PMID:23893566

  20. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  1. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment. PMID:25466366

  2. Increasing Awareness and Understanding of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Education to Promote Better Academic Outcomes for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinussen, Rhonda L.; Tannock, Rosemary; Chaban, Peter; McInnes, Alison; Ferguson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review three areas of research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that have implications for the educational context. These areas are: (a) gender differences in ADHD, (b) inattention symptoms and academic risk, and (c) working memory and ADHD. We highlight the critical role that the school context plays in…

  3. Beyond ADHD: A Consideration of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Pedagogy in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Brenton J.

    2008-01-01

    A psycho-medical discourse that explains behavioural dysfunction through neurological deficit has dominated debate about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, if only medical questions are asked, only medical answers will be found, resulting in more or less drug treatment. When behavioural dysfunction results in impairment…

  4. The Neural Correlates of Deficient Error Awareness in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Hester, Robert; Garavan, Hugh; Fitzgerald, Michael; Foxe, John J.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to detect and correct errors is critical to adaptive control of behaviour and represents a discrete neuropsychological function. A number of studies have highlighted that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with abnormalities in behavioural and neural responsiveness to performance errors. One limitation of…

  5. The STARS Program: Social Empowerment Training for Preadolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), there has been a dramatic increase in the number of children being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the last several years. School nursing interventions need to be developed, implemented, and evaluated to address complexities experienced by this population. The…

  6. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:24992694

  7. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD.

  8. Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Trott, Kate

    2013-12-01

    It has been increasingly believed that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with lifelong course associated with cognitive difficulties including among others, language production, verbal learning, and verbal fluency. However, research is limited to children and adolescents, and very few researchers have examined the impact of ADHD in adulthood on the cognitive domain. The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of adults, diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. It is hypothesized that adults with ADHD will perform worse on both tasks than matched controls. Sixty university students (30 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 30 matched controls) of mean age 20.5 participated in the study. They all completed two verbal fluency tasks. The ADHD group had statistically significant lower scores than the non-ADHD group on the phonemic, but not the semantic task. The study provides some evidence that ADHD in childhood has a negative impact on adults' phonemic verbal fluency. This finding could be probably explained by the fact that phonemic fluency is considered more cognitively demanding and impacting more on the frontal lobe functions, known to be impaired in ADHD, than semantic fluency.

  9. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  10. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an updated review of the essential facts.

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2014-11-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder that can affect individuals across the lifespan. It is associated with substantial heterogeneity in terms of aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment outcome and is the subject of extensive research. Because of this, it can be difficult for clinicians to stay up to date with the most relevant findings and know how best to respond to parents' questions and concerns about the disorder and interventions. This is a narrative review that aims to summarize key findings from recent research into ADHD and its treatment that clinicians can share with families in order to increase their knowledge about ADHD and intervention options. ADHD develops as a result of complex interplay between interdependent genetic and non-genetic factors. The disorder is associated with substantial impairments in functioning and poor long-term outcomes. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options are available for symptom management and to improve function, but functioning outcomes often fail to normalize in children with ADHD. Despite extensive advances in understanding this complex disorder, it is clear that there is still a long way to go. In particular, we address the need for future non-pharmacological interventions to be more specifically targeted for ADHD symptoms and its commonly associated functioning deficits in order to ensure the best long-term outcomes for children with ADHD. PMID:24725022

  11. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an updated review of the essential facts.

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2014-11-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder that can affect individuals across the lifespan. It is associated with substantial heterogeneity in terms of aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment outcome and is the subject of extensive research. Because of this, it can be difficult for clinicians to stay up to date with the most relevant findings and know how best to respond to parents' questions and concerns about the disorder and interventions. This is a narrative review that aims to summarize key findings from recent research into ADHD and its treatment that clinicians can share with families in order to increase their knowledge about ADHD and intervention options. ADHD develops as a result of complex interplay between interdependent genetic and non-genetic factors. The disorder is associated with substantial impairments in functioning and poor long-term outcomes. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options are available for symptom management and to improve function, but functioning outcomes often fail to normalize in children with ADHD. Despite extensive advances in understanding this complex disorder, it is clear that there is still a long way to go. In particular, we address the need for future non-pharmacological interventions to be more specifically targeted for ADHD symptoms and its commonly associated functioning deficits in order to ensure the best long-term outcomes for children with ADHD.

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  13. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnosis: An Activation-Executive Model

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Debora; González-Pienda, Julio A.

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit with, or without, hyperactivity and impulsivity (ADHD) is categorized as neuro-developmental disorder. ADHD is a common disorder in childhood and one of the most frequent conditions affecting school ages. This disorder is characterized by a persistent behavioral pattern associated with inattention, over-activity (or hyperactivity), and difficulty in controlling impulses. Current research suggests the existence of certain patterns of cortical activation and executive control, which could more objectively identify ADHD. Through the use of a risk and resilience model, this research aimed to analyze the interaction between brain activation variables (nirHEG and Q-EEG) and executive variables (Continuous performance test -CPT-) in subjects with ADHD. The study involved 499 children, 175 females (35.1%) and 324 males (64.91%); aged from 6 to 16 years (M = 11.22, SD = 1.43). Two hundred and fifty six of the children had been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and 243 were without ADHD. For the analysis of this objective, a causal model was designed to include the following different measures of task-execution: CPT TOVA (omissions, commissions, response time, variability, D prime and the ADHD Index); electrical activity (using Q-EEG); and blood-flow oxygenation activity (using nirHEG). The causal model was tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The model that had been constructed was based upon three general assumptions: (1) There are different causal models for children with ADHD and those without ADHD; (2) The activation measures influence students’ executive performance; and (3) There are measurable structural differences between the ADHD and control group models (executive and activation). In general, the results showed that: (a) activation measures influence executive patterns differently, (b) the relationship between activation variables (nirHEG and Q-EEG) depends on the brain zone being studied, (c

  14. Diagnosis of children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its association with cytomegalovirus infection with ADHD: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Xia, Qun; Shen, Huaiyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yongli; Xu, Jiali

    2015-01-01

    As the most common mental disorder identified in children and teenagers, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects millions of children and their families, making it a critical health issue worldwide. This article reviewed the historical opinions about the diagnosis of ADHD and defined different subtypes of this disorder. It also summarized the current diagnostic criteria and available medications. After re-visiting the etiology of ADHD in the sense of both genetic and environment factors, it was further hypothesized that viral infection might be involved in ADHD pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may be associated with ADHD, although both clinical observations and animal studies need to be performed for validation. PMID:26550354

  15. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), inhibition processes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - an overview].

    PubMed

    Hoegl, Thomas; Bender, Stephan; Buchmann, Johannes; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2014-11-01

    Motor system excitability can be tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation CFMS). In this article, an overview of recent methodological developments and research findings related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is provided. Different TMS parameters that reflect the function of interneurons in the motor cortex may represent neurophysiological markers of inhibition in ADHD, particularly the so-called intracortical inhibition. In children with a high level of hyperactivity and impulsivity, intracortical inhibition was comparably low at rest as shortly before the execution of a movement. TMS-evoked potentials can also be measured in the EEG so that investigating processes of excitability is not restricted to motor areas in future studies. The effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability may be interpreted in the sense of a 'fine-tuning' with these mainly dopaminergic effects also depending on genetic parameters (DAT1 transporter). A differentiated view on the organization of motor control can be achieved by a combined analysis of TMS parameters and event-related potentials. Applying this bimodal approach, strong evidence for a deviant implementation of motor control in children with ADHD and probably compensatory mechanisms (with involvement of the prefrontal cortex) was obtained. These findings, which contribute to a better understanding of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inhibitory processes and motor control in ADHD as well as the mechanisms of medication, underline the relevance of TMS as a neurophysiological method in ADHD research.

  16. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation.

    PubMed

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. PMID:26762193

  17. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2012) Detailed Information by State Top of Page Peer Relationships [ Read abstract ] Parents of children with a ... of ADHD report almost 3 times as many peer problems as those without a history of ADHD ( ...

  18. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Is it ADHD? Symptoms Checklist Fill out the symptoms checklist and ... more about other concerns and conditions . How is ADHD diagnosed? Healthcare professionals use the guidelines in the ...

  19. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    PubMed

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  20. Clinical observations on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Qing; Li, Fu-Hai; Zhu, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Ruo-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with frontal lobe epilepsy and related factors. The medical records of 190 children diagnosed with frontal lobe epilepsy at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively collected, and a follow-up analysis of the prevalence of ADHD in these children was conducted. Of the 161 children with an effective follow-up, 59.0% (95/161) with frontal lobe epilepsy suffered from ADHD as well. Analysis of epilepsy and ADHD-related factors indicated that the incidence of ADHD was 89.4% (76/85) in children with abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) discharges on the most recent EEG, which was significantly higher than the ADHD incidence of 25% (19/76) in children with normal readings on the most recent EEG (P < .01). Children with frontal lobe epilepsy have a high incidence of ADHD. Sustained abnormal discharge on the electroencephalogram is associated with increased comorbidity of ADHD with frontal lobe epilepsy.

  1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the early years: diagnostic issues and educational relevance.

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    In this study we discuss implications of the dimensional versus categorical approach in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and focus on the educational relevance of an early assessment. In a longitudinal study in a German community sample we investigated the development of ADHD symptoms from kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 as well as the association to pre-academic skills and later academic performance. At three time points in kindergarten, children (original sample N = 793; Mn age 4 years 10 months) were assessed in regard to school-relevant precursors of reading, spelling and mathematical abilities; ADHD symptoms were rated by parents and preschool teachers. In elementary school academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was measured with standardized tests. Results show that stability of ADHD symptoms during preschool was high considering the dimensional approach, whereas in regard to the categorical classification many children crossing the cut-off point at one measurement point did not do so at the next assessment. Furthermore, preschool ADHD symptoms were negatively correlated with all school-relevant precursors. This was more pronounced for symptoms of inattention than for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Observing later development, preschool ADHD symptoms predicted academic achievement in mathematics and reading at the end of Grade 1 even after individual differences in nonverbal intelligence and specific precursors had been statistically controlled for. PMID:23785052

  2. The human figure drawing as related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Perets-Dubrovsky, Sharon; Kaveh, Michelle; Deutsh-Castel, Tsofia; Cohen, Ayala; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2010-06-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of the human figure drawing test among children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or learning disability, boys (n = 136) between the ages of 8 and 10 years, with either or both ADHD and learning disability, were included. Two drawings were used: person and house, tree and person. The drawings were analyzed using the Koppitz emotional and developmental scales. Conners teacher and parent rating scales and the Matching Familiar Figure Test were administered. High intertest reliability for the emotional scale and a significant negative correlation between the 2 scales were found. The reported anxiety and learning were significantly correlated with the cognitive score. A combination of cognitive and emotional items resulted in 67% correct classification of ADHD and learning disability. This test can be used as part of the assessment of ADHD/learning disability. PMID:20332384

  3. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schoolchildren in Athens, Greece. Association of ADHD subtypes with social and academic impairment.

    PubMed

    Skounti, M; Giannoukas, S; Dimitriou, E; Nikolopoulou, S; Linardakis, E; Philalithis, A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and academic impairment in 6- to 11-year-old children residents of Athens, Greece. We screened 603 elementary schoolchildren following grades first to sixth. A two-stage screening process was employed including a standardized ADHD test for teachers and the Teacher Report Form (TRF). Among the 603 children, 36 (6.0%) met the study criteria for ADHD. The estimated prevalence was 8% for boys and 3.8% for girls. The most prevalent subtype of ADHD was the combined type (3.8%), followed by the ADHD inattentive (1.7%) and the ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (0.5%). The ADHD-combined type was strongly associated with clinical impairment in both areas of functioning (academic and social), where the ADHD inattentive subtype was found to be strongly associated with academic problems. The ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was the less prevalent and the less impaired subtype in this study. None of the 36 children had been previously diagnosed as having ADHD or other primary disorder. In conclusion, the prevalence of ADHD among schoolchildren in Athens and the risk factors were found to be comparable to those reported in other countries worldwide. Additionally, impairment in social and academic functioning was strongly associated with the subtypes of the disorder. PMID:21432598

  4. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Review.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Belen; Boes, Aaron D; Laganiere, Simon; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jeurissen, Danique; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population. The clinical management of ADHD is currently limited by a lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and inadequate therapy for a minority of patients who do not respond to standard pharmacotherapy. There is optimism that noninvasive brain stimulation may help to address these limitations. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation are 2 methods of noninvasive brain stimulation that modulate cortical excitability and brain network activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used diagnostically to probe cortical neurophysiology, whereas daily use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation can induce long-lasting and potentially therapeutic changes in targeted networks. In this review, we highlight research showing the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric ADHD. We also discuss the safety and ethics of using these tools in the pediatric population. PMID:26661481

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Hemodynamic response of children with attention-deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) to emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Nakato, Emi; Kanazawa, So; Shimamura, Keiichi; Sakuta, Yuiko; Sakuta, Ryoichi; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulty recognizing facial expressions. They identify angry expressions less accurately than typically developing (TD) children, yet little is known about their atypical neural basis for the recognition of facial expressions. Here, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine the distinctive cerebral hemodynamics of ADHD and TD children while they viewed happy and angry expressions. We measured the hemodynamic responses of 13 ADHD boys and 13 TD boys to happy and angry expressions at their bilateral temporal areas, which are sensitive to face processing. The ADHD children showed an increased concentration of oxy-Hb for happy faces but not for angry faces, while TD children showed increased oxy-Hb for both faces. Moreover, the individual peak latency of hemodynamic response in the right temporal area showed significantly greater variance in the ADHD group than in the TD group. Such atypical brain activity observed in ADHD boys may relate to their preserved ability to recognize a happy expression and their difficulty recognizing an angry expression. We firstly demonstrated that NIRS can be used to detect atypical hemodynamic response to facial expressions in ADHD children.

  7. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Scassellati, Catia; Zanardini, Roberta; Tiberti, Alessandra; Pezzani, Marco; Valenti, Vera; Effedri, Paola; Filippini, Elena; Conte, Stefano; Ottolini, Alberto; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2014-03-01

    It has been proposed that the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) etiopathogenesis. Alterations in BDNF serum levels have been observed in childhood/adulthood neurodevelopmental pathologies, but no evidence is available for BDNF serum concentrations in ADHD. The study includes 45 drug-naïve ADHD children and 45 age-sex matched healthy subjects. Concentration of serum BDNF was determined by the ELISA method. BDNF serum levels in patients with ADHD were not different from those of controls (mean ± SD; ADHD: 39.33 ± 10.41 ng/ml; controls: 38.82 ± 8.29 ng/ml, t = -0.26, p = 0.80). Our findings indicate no alteration of serum BDNF levels in untreated patients with ADHD. A further stratification for cognitive, neuropsychological and psychopathological assessment in a larger sample could be useful to clarify the role of BDNF in the endophenotype characterization of ADHD.

  8. ADHD: A Scientific Fact or a Factual Opinion? A Critique of the Veracity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, John; Jehan, Zenib

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the debate on the phenomenon of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It explores how and why the discourses surrounding the aetiology and interventions are dominated by a bio-medical understanding of ADHD. Competing discourses are examined, particularly those marginalised because they do not support the…

  9. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  10. Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

  11. Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths

    PubMed Central

    Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

  12. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  13. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  14. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domains at Population-Typical Exposure Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly; Mark Knottnerus, G.; Cavanagh, Kevin; Friderici, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domains are related to blood lead level, even at background exposure levels typical in western countries. However, recent studies disagreed as to whether lead was related to inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity within the ADHD…

  15. [Awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Greece].

    PubMed

    Pehlivanidis, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopment disorder of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. In adults, the clinical picture of ADHD is complex and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is the rule. The documentation that the disorder had a childhood onset and the various comorbid symptomatologies present both in childhood and adult life represent the most influential obstacles for the accurate clinical diagnosis of the disorder. In 75% of cases with adult ADHD there is at least one coexisting comorbid disorder, with anxiety and mood disorders as well as substance abuse and impulse control disorders being the most prevalent ones. Adult psychiatrists have limited experience in the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of the disorder. Greece is a member of the European Network Adult ADHD (ENAA), founded in 2003, aiming to increase awareness of the disorder and to improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. A clinic where diagnosis as well as treatment recommendations are given after a thorough assessment of adult ADHD patients, is hosted at the First Department of Psychiatry of the Athens National and Kapodistian University. The clinic is in close collaboration with ENAA. The diagnosis of ADHD is given after a detailed evaluation of the patient, based on history taken, self-administered questionnaires and a specific psychiatric interview. The reliable trace of the symptoms' onset back in early childhood, current symptomatology, as well as its impact on at least two major areas of functioning (school, home, work or personal relationships) are pivotal for the assessment procedure. Special attention should be paid in the distinction of symptoms often coexisting with the core symptoms of the ADHD, such as emotional liability, incessant mental activity, avoidance of situations like queuing, especially when there is also frustration, from those indicating a comorbid

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed.

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed. PMID:25411986

  18. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat neglected in the literature and mostly omitted from reviews on ADHD. There is therefore a lack of integrative reviews on the up-to-date evidence on neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits of timing in ADHD and their significance with respect to other behavioural and cognitive deficits. The present review provides a synthetic overview of the evidence for neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits in ADHD in timing functions, and integrates this evidence with the cognitive neuroscience literature of the neural substrates of timing. The review demonstrates that ADHD patients are consistently impaired in three major timing domains, in motor timing, perceptual timing and temporal foresight, comprising several timeframes spanning milliseconds, seconds, minutes and longer intervals up to years. The most consistent impairments in ADHD are found in sensorimotor synchronisation, duration discrimination, reproduction and delay discounting. These neurocognitive findings of timing deficits in ADHD are furthermore supported by functional neuroimaging studies that show dysfunctions in the key inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar and fronto-parietal networks that mediate the timing functions. Although there is evidence that these timing functions are inter-correlated with other executive functions that are well established to be impaired in the disorder, in particular working memory, attention, and to a lesser degree inhibitory control, the key timing deficits appear to survive when these functions are controlled for, suggesting independent cognitive deficits in the temporal domain. There is furthermore strong evidence for an association between timing deficits and behavioural

  19. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance.

  20. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving.

  1. Widespread Cortical Thinning Is a Robust Anatomical Marker for Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Narr, Katherine L; Woods, Roger P; Lin, James; Kim, John; Phillips, Owen R; Del'Homme, Melissa; Caplan, Rochelle; Toga, Arthur W; McCracken, James T; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Objective This cross-sectional study sought to confirm the presence and regional profile of previously reported changes in laminar cortical thickness in children and adolescents with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing healthy subjects. Method High-resolution MR images were obtained from 22 (19 male, 3 female; mean age: 11.7 years) children and adolescents with ADHD and 22 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (mean age: 11.7 years). Brain tissue volumes were estimated for each subject. Cortical pattern matching methods were used to sample measures of laminar thickness at high spatial frequency across homologous regions of cortex. Volume and thickness measures were compared across diagnostic groups with and without controlling for general intelligence. False discovery rate (FDR) correction confirmed regional results. Results Subjects with ADHD exhibited significant reductions in overall brain volume, gray matter volume and mean cortical thickness compared to healthy controls, while white matter volumes were significantly increased in ADHD. Highly significant cortical thinning (FDR-corrected p < .0006) was observed over large areas of frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices and aspects of motor cortex, but not within primary sensory regions. Conclusions Cortical thickness reductions present a robust neuroanatomical marker for child and adolescent ADHD. Observations of widespread cortical thinning expand upon earlier cross-sectional findings and provide further evidence to support that the neurobiological underpinnings of ADHD extend beyond prefrontal and subcortical circuits. PMID:19730275

  2. [Family-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Miika; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Nissinen, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial family-based interventions--family therapy, cognitive-behavioral parent training and family-based treatment protocols--are empirically supported treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Well-researched interventions such as remote and group-based parent training programs relate to improvements in parenting quality, positive parenting, and the child's decreased ADHD and conduct behavioral problems, whereas individual family-based treatments are sometimes required, depending on symptom severity. Specific family-based treatment protocols are tailored for older children and adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems. Considering the above, empirically supported programs are used more in Finland, compared to licensed Anglo-American treatment protocols. PMID:26548103

  3. [Family-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Miika; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Nissinen, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial family-based interventions--family therapy, cognitive-behavioral parent training and family-based treatment protocols--are empirically supported treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Well-researched interventions such as remote and group-based parent training programs relate to improvements in parenting quality, positive parenting, and the child's decreased ADHD and conduct behavioral problems, whereas individual family-based treatments are sometimes required, depending on symptom severity. Specific family-based treatment protocols are tailored for older children and adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems. Considering the above, empirically supported programs are used more in Finland, compared to licensed Anglo-American treatment protocols.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  5. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. PMID:24736898

  6. Dietary patterns in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-04-01

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the "traditional" pattern, the "seaweed-egg" pattern, the "traditional-healthy" pattern, and the "snack" pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12-0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. PMID:24736898

  7. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD): adolescents perspective.

    PubMed

    Brook, Uzi; Boaz, Mona

    2005-08-01

    Three hundred and eight pupils in the age group 12-18 years were interviewed and examined. They had been diagnosed as having attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD), and were attending a high school devoted to special education. Their classification into subgroups was as follows: ADHD - inattentive (I) = 22.1%, ADHD - hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) = 12.3% and combined = 42.2%. Only 25% of them were treated by methylphenidate (Ritalin). Ninety-four percent of them were diagnosed with comorbidity of 'learning disabilities'. Thirty-four percent of them reported being severely stressed when going to school and sitting in class. Their complaints were: tiredness and excessive needs to sleep, frequent quarrelling with close friends, feeling different from other classmates and having low self-esteem (SE). They complaint that their parents don't understand them. Things that irritated them the most were being lied to and coercion by others. The authors suggest to consider ADHD/LD as neurobehavioral disability. It is mandatory to prepare them for adult life with proper social skills and a suitable occupation. PMID:16009295

  8. The cognitive genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): sustained attention as a candidate phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bellgrove, Mark A; Hawi, Ziarih; Gill, Michael; Robertson, Ian H

    2006-08-01

    Here we describe the application of cognitive genetics to the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive genetics owes much to the pioneering work of cognitive neuropsychologists such as John Marshall, whose careful observations of cognitive dissociations between brain-lesioned patients greatly advanced the theoretical understanding of normal cognitive function. These theories have in turn helped to constrain linkages between candidate genes and cognitive processes and thus help to drive the relatively new field of cognitive genetics in a hypothesis-driven fashion. We examined the relationship between sustained attention deficits in ADHD and genetic variation in a catecholamine-related gene, dopamine beta hydroxylase (DbetaH). DBH encodes the enzyme that converts dopamine to noradrenaline and is crucial to catecholamine regulation. A polymorphism with the DBH gene has been associated with ADHD. In fifty-two children with ADHD, we examined whether variation in the Taq I DBH gene polymorphism was related to sustained attention performance. Participants performed the Sustained Attention to Response Test (SART). Performance on the SART discriminates ADHD from control children, and in imaging work, is associated with right frontoparietal activation. A significant effect of DBH genotype was found on SART performance measures. Children possessing two copies of the ADHD-associated risk allele (A2) had significantly poorer sustained attention than those ADHD children who did not possess this allele or a non-genotyped control group. The DBH gene may contribute to the susceptibility for ADHD, in part because of its varying effects on the development of brain mechanisms mediating sustained attention.

  9. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention. PMID:26429569

  10. Regulation of sadness via acceptance or suppression in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Sadohara, Chiharu; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-12-15

    Emotion dysregulation is a recognized symptom of adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study is to induce sadness in adults suffering from ADHD and to investigate the impact of emotion regulation strategies on sadness intensity, and psychophysiological measures. Thirty-six adults diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either expressive suppression (SUPP) or acceptance (ACC) of emotion. Sadness was induced using a film clip. Participants estimated the intensity of sadness and the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion before (T1), immediately after (T2) and 2 min after the film (T3). Physiological measures were obtained. Sadness induction was effective in both conditions. The perception of being overwhelmed with emotion increased between T1 and T2 in both conditions, but persisted until T3 only in the expressive suppression condition whereas a decrease was observed in the acceptance condition. In ADHD expressive suppression of sadness seems to be associated to a prolonged recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. Emotion-regulation via acceptance in contrast appears to allow faster recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify suppression as a critical mediator between an induced emotion and delayed recovery from emotional reactions in adult ADHD.

  11. Quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Goulardins, Juliana Barbosa; Marques, Juliana Cristina Fernandes Bilhar; Casella, Erasmo Barbante

    2011-08-01

    The knowledge of psychomotor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may help in defining therapeutic approaches in order to minimize losses in their quality of life. The study objectives were to evaluate the quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with ADHD and check your correlation. Fourteen children, from seven to ten years, with ADHD combined type were evaluate using the scales PedsQL™ and Motor Development Scale. Results showed adverse effects of ADHD on quality of life and a deficit in motor skills. Nine participants (64.2%) were classified in motor development as "Normal Medium", followed by the classification "Normal Low" in four (28.5%) and "Low" in one subject (7.1%). We observed a positive correlation between quality of life and psychomotor development of children with ADHD, especially in areas: fine motor and spatial organization with social and psychosocial aspects, gross motor control with the emotional and temporal organization with the emotional, psychosocial and overall quality of life.

  12. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulant medications as cognitive enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Advokat, Claire; Scheithauer, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses, and the escalation of stimulant prescriptions, has raised concern about diversion and abuse of stimulants, as well as the ethics of using these drugs as “cognitive enhancers.”Such concern appears misplaced in the face of substantial evidence that stimulant drugs do not improve the academic performance of ADHD-diagnosed students. Moreover, numerous studies have found little or no benefit of stimulants on neuropsychological tests of ADHD-diagnosed as well as normal, individuals. This paper examines the apparent paradox: why don't drugs that improve “attention,” produce better academic outcomes in ADHD-diagnosed students? We found that stimulant drugs significantly improved impairment of episodic memory in ADHD-diagnosed undergraduate students. Nevertheless, we also found consistent academic deficits between ADHD students and their non-ADHD counterparts, regardless of whether or not they used stimulant medications. We reviewed the current literature on the behavioral effects of stimulants, to try to find an explanation for these conflicting phenomena. Across a variety of behavioral tasks, stimulants have been shown to reduce emotional reactions to frustration, improve the ability to detect errors, and increase effortful behavior. However, all of these effects would presumably enhance academic performance. On the other hand, the drugs were also found to promote “risky behavior” and to increase susceptibility to environmental distraction. Such negative effects, including the use of drugs to promote wakefulness for last minute study, might explain the lack of academic benefit in the “real world,” despite their cognitive potential. Like many drugs, stimulants influence behavior in multiple ways, depending on the environmental contingencies. Depending on the circumstances, stimulants may, or may not, enhance cognition. PMID:23754970

  13. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulant medications as cognitive enhancers.

    PubMed

    Advokat, Claire; Scheithauer, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses, and the escalation of stimulant prescriptions, has raised concern about diversion and abuse of stimulants, as well as the ethics of using these drugs as "cognitive enhancers."Such concern appears misplaced in the face of substantial evidence that stimulant drugs do not improve the academic performance of ADHD-diagnosed students. Moreover, numerous studies have found little or no benefit of stimulants on neuropsychological tests of ADHD-diagnosed as well as normal, individuals. This paper examines the apparent paradox: why don't drugs that improve "attention," produce better academic outcomes in ADHD-diagnosed students? We found that stimulant drugs significantly improved impairment of episodic memory in ADHD-diagnosed undergraduate students. Nevertheless, we also found consistent academic deficits between ADHD students and their non-ADHD counterparts, regardless of whether or not they used stimulant medications. We reviewed the current literature on the behavioral effects of stimulants, to try to find an explanation for these conflicting phenomena. Across a variety of behavioral tasks, stimulants have been shown to reduce emotional reactions to frustration, improve the ability to detect errors, and increase effortful behavior. However, all of these effects would presumably enhance academic performance. On the other hand, the drugs were also found to promote "risky behavior" and to increase susceptibility to environmental distraction. Such negative effects, including the use of drugs to promote wakefulness for last minute study, might explain the lack of academic benefit in the "real world," despite their cognitive potential. Like many drugs, stimulants influence behavior in multiple ways, depending on the environmental contingencies. Depending on the circumstances, stimulants may, or may not, enhance cognition. PMID:23754970

  14. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  15. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with autism.

    PubMed

    Christakou, A; Murphy, C M; Chantiluke, K; Cubillo, A I; Smith, A B; Giampietro, V; Daly, E; Ecker, C; Robertson, D; Murphy, D G; Rubia, K

    2013-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share behavioural-cognitive abnormalities in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 boys with ADHD to 20 age and IQ matched ASD and 20 healthy boys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. ADHD and ASD boys had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato-thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not patients, suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode network in both disorders. However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in ADHD relative to ASD boys, which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in ADHD patients. ASD boys, on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both ADHD and control boys, presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that ADHD and ASD boys have both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in brain function during sustained attention. Shared deficits were in fronto-striato-parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in ADHD and a disorder-specific fronto-striato-cerebellar dysregulation in ASD.

  16. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  17. Therapeutic Eurythmy-movement therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Majorek, Magdalena; Tüchelmann, Tobias; Heusser, Peter

    2004-02-01

    This paper considers Therapeutic Eurythmy (TE) as a possible therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).ADHD manifests as a complex psychological disturbance in which deficit of attention such as forgetfulness or distraction is the main symptom. It would seem that a growing number of children seem to be affected by this syndrome and an increasing number of alternative approaches to treatment are being sought. Therapeutic Eurythmy is a movement Therapy in the context of anthroposophical medicine. As a holistic therapy TE affects both physical and spiritual aspects of illness. TE entails the practice of movement exercises learned from a trained therapist. In this exploratory study, the effects of TE on behavioural functioning were examined.This paper addresses five single cases where the therapy induced positive changes to client's attention span, concentration, tempo of work and motor skills such as coordination, dexterity and social behaviour. Standard psychological tests parameters for movement, and for attention were used to assess aspects of performance.A positive shift was observed with reference to concentration and development of movement skills. Results were less pronounced but showed positive improvements on working speed and social behaviour problems. Hyperactivity also diminished to some extent. Generally, children were considered to be more mature in their development after therapy. The results of these case studies suggest that TE may be helpful for children with ADHD. However, more systematic research is warranted.

  18. Pre-Service and In-Service Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge about Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Limeng; Gao, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-method inquiry into pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers' knowledge about Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward students with this disorder in Hong Kong. The inquiry revealed no differences between pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers concerning their…

  19. Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Medication Effects in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in school-aged children and is usually treated with stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin[R], Ritalin-LA[R], Concerta[R], Metadate[R], or Focalin[R]) and other drug compounds (e.g., Adderall[R], Adderall-XR[R], or Dexedrine).…

  20. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in Childhood: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Clinton, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This article examines recent literature related to the diagnosis of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in childhood. First, the article discusses diagnostic criteria presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Next, it explores the diagnostic procedures for AD/HD…

  1. [Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Silva, Bianca Del Ponte da; Anselmi, Luciana; Schmidt, Vera; Santos, Iná S

    2015-04-01

    This aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. The systematic multiple-stage literature search in PubMed, LILACS, BIREME, and PsycINFO was limited to research in human subjects and published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. A total of 373 references were retrieved. Of these, only five met the study's objectives and were kept in the review. Most of the studies employed a longitudinal design, were conducted in developed countries, and were published in the last five years. Only one study found a positive association. Studies on caffeine consumption during pregnancy and ADHD are scarce, with conflicting results and several methodological difficulties such as lack of standardized outcome measures. PMID:25945978

  2. A dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes.

    PubMed

    Sagvolden, Terje; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Aase, Heidi; Russell, Vivienne Ann

    2005-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Inattentiveness, overactivity, and impulsiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. The dynamic developmental behavioral theory is based on the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic function plays a pivotal role by failing to modulate nondopaminergic (primarily glutamate and GABA) signal transmission appropriately. A hypofunctioning mesolimbic dopamine branch produces altered reinforcement of behavior and deficient extinction of previously reinforced behavior. This gives rise to delay aversion, development of hyperactivity in novel situations, impulsiveness, deficient sustained attention, increased behavioral variability, and failure to "inhibit" responses ("disinhibition"). A hypofunctioning mesocortical dopamine branch will cause attention response deficiencies (deficient orienting responses, impaired saccadic eye movements, and poorer attention responses toward a target) and poor behavioral planning (poor executive functions). A hypofunctioning nigrostriatal dopamine branch will cause impaired modulation of motor functions and deficient nondeclarative habit learning and memory. These impairments will give rise to apparent developmental delay, clumsiness, neurological "soft signs," and a "failure to inhibit" responses when quick reactions are required. Hypofunctioning dopamine branches represent the main individual predispositions in the present theory. The theory predicts that behavior and symptoms in ADHD result from the interplay between individual predispositions and the surroundings. The exact ADHD symptoms at a particular time in life will vary and be influenced by factors having positive or negative effects on symptom development. Altered or deficient learning and motor functions will produce special needs for optimal parenting and societal styles. Medication will to some degree

  3. Classical conditioning in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders: a test of Quay's model.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R; Hatch, J P; Borcherding, S H; Rogeness, G A

    1993-08-01

    Quay (1988) put forward a model of childhood mental disorders based on Gray's (1982) theory that there exists within the brain a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), which processes signals related to aversive or punishing stimuli. According to this model, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show lower than optimal levels of activity in this system, which leads to less responsiveness at a physiological level to signals related to punishment. Children with ADHD and controls were compared on a classical conditioning paradigm. Skin conductance and cardiac responses were measured in response to a conditioned stimulus that had been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. There were no differences between the groups, suggesting that, in terms of classical conditioning, ADHD children are equally responsive to signals related to punishment as controls.

  4. Classical conditioning in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders: a test of Quay's model.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R; Hatch, J P; Borcherding, S H; Rogeness, G A

    1993-08-01

    Quay (1988) put forward a model of childhood mental disorders based on Gray's (1982) theory that there exists within the brain a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), which processes signals related to aversive or punishing stimuli. According to this model, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show lower than optimal levels of activity in this system, which leads to less responsiveness at a physiological level to signals related to punishment. Children with ADHD and controls were compared on a classical conditioning paradigm. Skin conductance and cardiac responses were measured in response to a conditioned stimulus that had been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. There were no differences between the groups, suggesting that, in terms of classical conditioning, ADHD children are equally responsive to signals related to punishment as controls. PMID:8408987

  5. Effective management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through structured re-assessment: the Dundee ADHD Clinical Care Pathway.

    PubMed

    Coghill, David; Seth, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become a major aspect of the work of child and adolescent psychiatrists and paediatricians in the UK. In Scotland, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services were required to address an increase in referral rates and changes in evidence-based medicine and guidelines without additional funding. In response to this, clinicians in Dundee have, over the past 15 years, pioneered the use of integrated psychiatric, paediatric, nursing, occupational therapy, dietetic and psychological care with the development of a clearly structured, evidence-based assessment and treatment pathway to provide effective therapy for children and adolescents with ADHD. The Dundee ADHD Clinical Care Pathway (DACCP) uses standard protocols for assessment, titration and routine monitoring of clinical care and treatment outcomes, with much of the clinical work being nurse led. The DACCP has received international attention and has been used as a template for service development in many countries. This review describes the four key stages of the clinical care pathway (referral and pre-assessment; assessment, diagnosis and treatment planning; initiating treatment; and continuing care) and discusses translation of the DACCP into other healthcare systems. Tools for healthcare professionals to use or adapt according to their own clinical settings are also provided. PMID:26587055

  6. Interactions among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and problem gambling in a probabilistic reward-learning task.

    PubMed

    Abouzari, Mehdi; Oberg, Scott; Gruber, Aaron; Tata, Matthew

    2015-09-15

    Problem gambling is thought to be highly comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that the neurobiological pathologies underlying problem gambling overlap with those in ADHD. In this study, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation among participants with pathological gambling and/or ADHD. The task contained two choice options with different net payouts over the session; a good bet that resulted in a win of +50 points on 60% of trials (and -50 points on 40%), and a bad bet that resulted in +100 points on 40% of the trials (and -100 points on 60%). We quantified participants' preference for the good bet over the session and their sensitivity to reinforcement. Both the control subjects and medicated ADHD nongamblers significantly increased the proportion of good bets over the 400-trial session. Subjects with problem gambling performed worse than controls and ADHD nongamblers, but better than our limited sample of unmedicated ADHD gamblers. Control subjects, medicated ADHD nongamblers, and unmedicated ADHD nongamblers tended to tolerate losses following good bets, whereas unmedicated ADHD gamblers tended to tolerate losses following bad bets. These data reveal that ADHD, particularly when treated with medication, is not associated with poor choices on the IGT, but may exacerbate pathological choices in problem gamblers. It seems that stabilization of dopamine signaling that occurs when ADHD is treated is itself also a treatment for certain forms of problem gambling.

  7. Classifying adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on functional and structural imaging.

    PubMed

    Iannaccone, Reto; Hauser, Tobias U; Ball, Juliane; Brandeis, Daniel; Walitza, Susanne; Brem, Silvia

    2015-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disabling psychiatric disorder associated with consistent deficits in error processing, inhibition and regionally decreased grey matter volumes. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, interviews and questionnaires, which are to some degree subjective and would benefit from verification through biomarkers. Here, pattern recognition of multiple discriminative functional and structural brain patterns was applied to classify adolescents with ADHD and controls. Functional activation features in a Flanker/NoGo task probing error processing and inhibition along with structural magnetic resonance imaging data served to predict group membership using support vector machines (SVMs). The SVM pattern recognition algorithm correctly classified 77.78% of the subjects with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.78% based on error processing. Predictive regions for controls were mainly detected in core areas for error processing and attention such as the medial and dorsolateral frontal areas reflecting deficient processing in ADHD (Hart et al., in Hum Brain Mapp 35:3083-3094, 2014), and overlapped with decreased activations in patients in conventional group comparisons. Regions more predictive for ADHD patients were identified in the posterior cingulate, temporal and occipital cortex. Interestingly despite pronounced univariate group differences in inhibition-related activation and grey matter volumes the corresponding classifiers failed or only yielded a poor discrimination. The present study corroborates the potential of task-related brain activation for classification shown in previous studies. It remains to be clarified whether error processing, which performed best here, also contributes to the discrimination of useful dimensions and subtypes, different psychiatric disorders, and prediction of treatment success across studies and sites.

  8. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  9. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Well-Being: Is Social Impairment an Issue for College Students with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the psychological well-being of college students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was analyzed. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates aged 18-25 at a Southern university (N = 317). Well-being was measured using Ryff's (1989) 6 likert scales of psychological well-being. Students with…

  10. The Cognitive Abilities and Skills of Children Who Suffer from Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Kuwait State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ali Mohammed Haidar

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the level of cognitive skills and abilities of children who suffer from the Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the differences in the level of cognitive skills and abilities according to the age group and the level of academic achievement. To achieve the objective of the study, a…

  11. Knowledge and Misconceptions about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Comparison of Greek General and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Antonopoulou, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    School teachers play an important role in the identification and assessment of pupils' difficulties, and have been considered one of the most valuable sources of information with regard to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. The study examines and compares general and special education teachers' knowledge and misconceptions…

  12. Larger Deficits in Brain Networks for Response Inhibition than for Visual Selective Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, James R.; Burman, Douglas D.; Meyer, Joel R.; Lei, Zhang; Trommer, Barbara L.; Davenport, Nicholas D.; Li, Wei; Parrish, Todd B.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    2005-01-01

    Background: Brain activation differences between 12 control and 12 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children (9- to 12-year-olds) were examined on two cognitive tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Visual selective attention was measured with the visual search of a conjunction target (red triangle) in a…

  13. Review of the possible relationship and hypothetical links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the simple sleep related movement disorders, parasomnias, hypersomnias, and circadian rhythm disorders.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Silvestri, Rosalia; Zucconi, Marco; Chandrashekariah, Ranju; Konofal, Eric

    2008-12-15

    Recent evidence has been accumulating that the sleep of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not only disrupted in a nonspecific way but that ADHD has an increased association with simple sleep related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements in sleep (RLS/PLMS), rhythmic movement disorder (body rocking and head banging), and parasomnias, such as disorders of partial arousal (sleep walking, sleep terrors, and confusional arousals). In addition increased associations have been reported between ADHD and hypersomnias such as narcolepsy and sleep apnea as well as circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. These relationships are reviewed and the implications for such associations are explored. Patients with sleep disorders should be queried about the symptoms of ADHD and vice versa. PMID:19110891

  14. Understanding the Psycho-Social and Cultural Factors That Influence the Experience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Chinese American College Students: A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Edmund Wong Din-Mond

    2012-01-01

    A review of the extant research literature reveals limited data on college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Even less information is known in regards to minority populations living with ADHD, specifically Asian American college student. This research project was focused on Chinese American college students with ADHD.…

  15. A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

  16. Might the temperament be a bias in clinical study on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?: Novelty Seeking dimension as a core feature of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Di Trani, Michela; Porfirio, Maria Cristina; Giana, Grazia; Miano, Silvia; Andriola, Elda

    2015-06-30

    Some clinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to overlap those of studies on personality, particularly those on the Novelty Seeking trait (NS) as measured by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of NS in clinical research on ADHD. We enroled 146 ADHD children (125 boys; mean age=9.61, S.D.=2.50) and 223 age- and gender-matched control children (178 boys; mean age=9.41, S.D.=2.30). All the parents filled in the JTCI for the evaluation of personality according to Cloninger׳s model. An exploratory factor analysis differentiated the NS items that concern "Impulsivity" (NS1) from those that concern other features (NS2). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVAs) revealed significant differences between ADHD children and non-ADHD children in temperamental dimensions: the scores of ADHD children were higher than those of non-ADHD children in Total NS, NS1-Impulsivity and NS2. Our results show that the NS dimension of the JTCI in ADHD children is higher than in non-ADHD children, even when a correction is made for impulsivity items. This finding suggests that the NS trait plays a central role in ADHD diagnosis even when items referred to impulsivity are removed from the NS scale.

  17. Might the temperament be a bias in clinical study on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?: Novelty Seeking dimension as a core feature of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Di Trani, Michela; Porfirio, Maria Cristina; Giana, Grazia; Miano, Silvia; Andriola, Elda

    2015-06-30

    Some clinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to overlap those of studies on personality, particularly those on the Novelty Seeking trait (NS) as measured by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of NS in clinical research on ADHD. We enroled 146 ADHD children (125 boys; mean age=9.61, S.D.=2.50) and 223 age- and gender-matched control children (178 boys; mean age=9.41, S.D.=2.30). All the parents filled in the JTCI for the evaluation of personality according to Cloninger׳s model. An exploratory factor analysis differentiated the NS items that concern "Impulsivity" (NS1) from those that concern other features (NS2). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVAs) revealed significant differences between ADHD children and non-ADHD children in temperamental dimensions: the scores of ADHD children were higher than those of non-ADHD children in Total NS, NS1-Impulsivity and NS2. Our results show that the NS dimension of the JTCI in ADHD children is higher than in non-ADHD children, even when a correction is made for impulsivity items. This finding suggests that the NS trait plays a central role in ADHD diagnosis even when items referred to impulsivity are removed from the NS scale. PMID:25895488

  18. Familial-Environmental Risk Factors in South African Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Leana; Springer, Priscilla; Kidd, Martin; Steyn, Nellie; Solomons, Regan; van Toorn, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    We investigated familial and environmental risk factors in a cohort of South African children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A prospective, hospital-based case control study was conducted comprising 50 children diagnosed with ADHD and 50 matched non-ADHD controls. The adjusted effect of familial-environmental risk factors on ADHD was determined by systematic assessment. Birth complications, parental psychiatric disorder, maternal ADHD, early childhood trauma, and nonmaternal child care were significant risk factors for ADHD. Prolonged breastfeeding was found to be protective. In a multivariable logistic regression model, 5 criteria (birth complications, breastfeeding <3 months, at least 1 parent with tertiary education, presence of parental psychiatric disorder, and nonmaternal primary caregiver) differentiated ADHD from non-ADHD controls with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 86%, respectively. We found a correlation between certain familial and environmental risk factors and ADHD. A 5-criterion multivariable logistic regression model may offer clinical guidance in ADHD diagnosis.

  19. Parental efficacy and child behavior in a community sample of children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Hendricks, Kristy M; Longacre, Meghan R; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Weiss, Julia E; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-12-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and the presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Sufficient data were achieved for 2,509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n = 240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9 vs. 48.0 %, p < .001) and age 12 or over (16.3 vs. 10.3 %). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes.

  20. [Atomoxetine: a new treatment for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Fourneret, P; Wohl, M; Rénéric, J-P

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a review of safety and efficacy data as well as of pharmacological characteristics of atomoxetine, a new drug treatment for the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). To date, the only pharmacological treatment available in France for children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD is methylphenidate, a psychostimulant drug. However, the clinical response to methylphenidate may be absent or insufficient in about 20-30% drug-treated children while the occurrence of adverse effects with methylphenidate (sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, tics increase...) may sometimes require a dose reduction or even the discontinuation of the treatment. Atomoxetine is an alternative candidate drug for the treatment of ADHD. The drug has been developed with respect to the actual standards of investigation of drugs intended to a -pediatric use. Atomoxetine has been recently licensed in the USA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a potent inhibitor of the norepinephrine transporter that shows only mini-mal affinity for other neurotransmitter systems. Although pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine is influenced by the polymorphism of the CYP2D6 metabolic pathway, safety and -tolerability data reported during clinical trials did not show any difference in poor versus extensive metabolizers. In addition, atomoxetine does not inhibit nor induce the CYP2D6 enzymatic function. The major metabolite of atomoxetine is 4-hydroxyatomoxetine, a pharmacologically active metabolic found in very low plasma concentrations in pediatric patients, suggesting that it plays only a minor role in the norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. Preliminary studies were aimed to assess the effective dose range of atomoxetine and to evaluate its safety and efficacy on the reduction of ADHD symptoms in adults and children diagnosed with ADHD. Main data on the child and adolescent population were obtained in four double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials: two identical pivotal

  1. Personal FM Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Erin C.; Mathews, Lauren; Mehta, Smita; Hill, Margaret; Munoz, Ashley; Bishop, Rachel; Moloney, Molly

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this initial investigation was to examine the potential benefit of a frequency modulation (FM) system for 11 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or both disorders through measures of speech recognition performance in noise, observed classroom behavior, and…

  2. Detecting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with intellectual disability The use of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS).

    PubMed

    La Malfa, G; Lassi, S; Bertelli, M; Pallanti, S; Albertini, G

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. It is also thought that ADHD is more prevalent in the field of intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population, but there are not many experimental studies. Since ADHD diagnosis in adults is more difficult, specific rating scales correlated to the main diagnostic systems have been created but have not been applied to people with ID. This work presents an application of an ADHD screening rating scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) screening version to 46 adults with ID. The resulting prevalence of "ADHD-positive" was 19.6%. These data are in accord with results reported in the general adult literature. Our data suggest that ID and attention disorders can co-occur. Therefore, not only can ADHD be a valid psychiatric diagnosis for a child with ID but for an adult with ID as well. The CAARS can be considered a useful clinical instrument to survey ADHD in ID. PMID:17416484

  3. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  4. Pharmacogenetics of response to methylphenidate in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Contini, Verônica; Rovaris, Diego L; Victor, Marcelo M; Grevet, Eugenio H; Rohde, Luis A; Bau, Claiton H D

    2013-06-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line option in the psychopharmacologic treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, there is a considerable proportion of adult patients who do not respond to treatment with MPH or discontinue drug therapy. Since effects of genetic variants in the response to MPH treatment might explain these negative outcomes, we conducted an electronic systematic search of MEDLINE-indexed literature looking for articles containing information about pharmacogenetics of ADHD in adults published until January, 2012. The keywords used were 'ADHD', 'Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder' and 'gene' in combination with methylphenidate, amphetamine or atomoxetine. Only 5 pharmacogenetic studies on adult ADHD met inclusion criteria. The results evidenced that most findings obtained so far are negative, and all studies focused on MPH response. There is only one positive result, for a polymorphism at the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) gene. The current state of the art in adult ADHD implies that pharmacogenetic tests are far from routine clinical practice. However, the integration of these studies with neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests may help to understand mechanisms of drug action and the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  5. A Systematic Review of Parenting in Relation to the Development of Comorbidities and Functional Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deault, Louise C.

    2010-01-01

    This review synthesizes recent research evidence regarding the parenting characteristics associated with families with children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with a range of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its behavioral expression and different developmental…

  6. The Impact of Teacher Factors on Achievement and Behavioural Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jody; Rasmussen, Carmen; Baydala, Lola

    2008-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder known to be associated with behavioural and academic difficulties. Several treatment options are available for children with ADHD, such as medication and behavioural therapy. Although researchers have examined the efficacy of these approaches, much less is understood…

  7. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  8. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a

  9. Pre- and Peri-Natal Environmental Risks for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Potential Role of Epigenetic Processes in Mediating Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, Jonathan; Petronis, Arturas

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neurobehavioural disorder defined by symptoms of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. As is the norm for most psychiatric phenotypes, traditional aetiological studies have focused primarily on the interplay between genetic and environmental…

  10. Parent Training Interventions for Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children Aged 5 to 18 Years. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2012:2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwi, Morris; Jones, Hannah; Thorgaard, Camilla; York, Ann; Dennis, Jane A.

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that are present before the age of seven years, seen in a range of situations, inconsistent with the child's developmental level and causing social or academic impairment. Parent training…

  11. The Co-Occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Parents of Children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; de Ruiter, Saskia W.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan. K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g.,…

  12. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.

  14. Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder a Valid Diagnosis in the Presence of High IQ? Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Stallone, Kimberly; Nave, Andrea; Kaufmann, Felice A.; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the validity of diagnosing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in high IQ children and to further characterize the clinical features associated with their ADHD. Methods: We operationalized giftedness/high IQ as having a full scale IQ greater than or equal to 120. We identified 92 children…

  15. An Analysis of the Discourses on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in US Special Education Textbooks, with Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found in textbooks used in pre-service special education programmes in the USA. Five textbooks are examined with the intent of discovering how ADHD is portrayed to future teachers. A discourse analysis framework is utilised, revealing five…

  16. Decreased binding capacity (Bmax) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in fibroblasts from boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jessica; Landgren, Magnus; Fernell, Elisabeth; Lewander, Tommy; Venizelos, Nikolaos

    2013-09-01

    Monoaminergic dysregulation is implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate and amphetamines are the most frequently prescribed pharmacological agents for treating ADHD. However, it has recently been proposed that the core symptoms of the disorder might be due to an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems. In this study, we used fibroblast cell homogenates from boys with and without ADHD as an extraneural cell model to examine the cholinergic receptor density, that is, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). We found that the binding capacity (Bmax) of [³H] Quinuclidinyl benzilate (³H-QNB) to mAChRs was decreased by almost 50 % in the children with ADHD (mean = 30.6 fmol/mg protein, SD = 25.6) in comparison with controls [mean = 63.1 fmol/mg protein, SD = 20.5, p ≤ 0.01 (Student's unpaired t test)]. The decreased Bmax indicates a reduced cholinergic receptor density, which might constitute a biomarker for ADHD. However, these preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger ADHD and comparison cohorts.

  17. On the Temporal Characteristics of Performance Variability in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Feige, Bernd; Biscaldi, Monica; Saville, Christopher W. N.; Kluckert, Christian; Bender, Stephan; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Hennighausen, Klaus; Rauh, Reinhold; Fleischhaker, Christian; Klein, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Increased intra-subject variability of reaction times (ISV-RT) is one of the most consistent findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the nature of this phenomenon is still unclear, it has been hypothesised to reflect interference from the Default Mode Network (DMN). So far, ISV-RT has been operationally defined either as a frequency spectrum of the underlying RT time series, or as a measure of dispersion of the RT scores distribution. Here, we use a novel RT analysis framework to link these hitherto unconnected facets of ISV-RT by determining the sensitivity of different measures of RT dispersion to the frequency content of the underlying RT time series. N=27 patients with ADHD and N=26 healthy controls performed several visual N-back tasks. Different measures of RT dispersion were repeatedly modelled after individual frequency bands of the underlying RT time series had been either extracted or suppressed using frequency-domain filtering. We found that the intra-subject standard deviation of RT preserves the “1/f noise” characteristic typical of human RT data. Furthermore and most importantly, we found that the ex-Gaussian parameter τ is rather exclusively sensitive to frequencies below 0.025 Hz in the underlying RT time series and that the particularly slow RTs, which nourish τ, occur regularly as part of an quasi-periodic, ultra-slow RT fluctuation. Overall, our results are compatible with the idea that ISV-RT is modulated by an endogenous, slowly fluctuating process that may reflect DMN interference. PMID:24204553

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  19. Functional Genomics of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Risk Alleles on Dopamine Transporter Binding in ADHD and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Madras, Bertha K.; Bonab, Ali A.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Batchelder, Holly; Clarke, Allison; Fischman, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the striatum in individuals with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), attending to the 3′-untranslated region of the gene (3′-UTR) and intron8 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms of the DAT (SLC6A3) gene. Methods Subjects consisted of 68 psychotropic (including stimulant)-naïve and smoking-naïve volunteers between 18 and 55 years of age (ADHD n = 34; control subjects n = 34). Striatal DAT binding was measured with positron emission tomography with 11C altropane. Genotyping of the two DAT (SLC6A3) 3′-UTR and intron8 VNTRs used standard protocols. Results The gene frequencies of each of the gene polymorphisms assessed did not differ between the ADHD and control groups. The ADHD status (t = 2.99; p < .004) and 3′-UTR of SLC6A3 9 repeat carrier status (t = 2.74; p < .008) were independently and additively associated with increased DAT binding in the caudate. The ADHD status was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of 3′-UTR genotype, and 3′-UTR genotype was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of ADHD status. In contrast, there were no significant associations between polymorphisms of DAT intron8 or the 3′-UTR-intron8 haplotype with DAT binding. Conclusions The 3′-UTR but not intron8 VNTR genotypes were associated with increased DAT binding in both ADHD patients and healthy control subjects. Both ADHD status and the 3′-UTR polymorphism status had an additive effect on DAT binding. Our findings suggest that an ADHD risk polymorphism (3′-UTR) of SLC6A3 has functional consequences on central nervous system DAT binding in humans. PMID:23273726

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Methods At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener). The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. Results The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD) before antisocial personality disorder (APD). Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. Conclusions This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD and coexisting disorders

  1. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low.

  2. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low. PMID:26936058

  3. [Proposals for social policies to improve the quality of life in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD

    PubMed

    Cid Foix, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effects of pre and postnatal stress on the cerebral morphological findings described as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. [ADHD]. The consequences of ADHD cause social problems because these children have difficulties with family, school and social integration. Previous treatments are reviewed up to the present day. The drug that has been used most frequently is Metilphenidate, a psychostimulant, and recently, a new drug, Atomoxetine, a non psychostimulant was introduced. The therapy is combined with physiological training. These drugs give relief to the symptoms but their long term side-effects are unknown. Recent investigations have shown that children with ADHD who are receiving either cognitive or control training have increased cerebral activity without previous medication. With these facts in mind the European ADHD Guidelines group suggests a new focus of attention on the children and adults with this problem with the aim of modifying the treatment followed until now. The ethical motives for this review are: a) to make society more aware of the problems of ADHD with the aim of taking measures to avoid the possible causes of the illness; b) to take into account that the effects of long term psychostimulant drugs on the developing mind are unknown; c) to gather information that supports the view that diagnosis of ADHD has increased. PMID:22040136

  4. [Proposals for social policies to improve the quality of life in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD

    PubMed

    Cid Foix, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effects of pre and postnatal stress on the cerebral morphological findings described as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. [ADHD]. The consequences of ADHD cause social problems because these children have difficulties with family, school and social integration. Previous treatments are reviewed up to the present day. The drug that has been used most frequently is Metilphenidate, a psychostimulant, and recently, a new drug, Atomoxetine, a non psychostimulant was introduced. The therapy is combined with physiological training. These drugs give relief to the symptoms but their long term side-effects are unknown. Recent investigations have shown that children with ADHD who are receiving either cognitive or control training have increased cerebral activity without previous medication. With these facts in mind the European ADHD Guidelines group suggests a new focus of attention on the children and adults with this problem with the aim of modifying the treatment followed until now. The ethical motives for this review are: a) to make society more aware of the problems of ADHD with the aim of taking measures to avoid the possible causes of the illness; b) to take into account that the effects of long term psychostimulant drugs on the developing mind are unknown; c) to gather information that supports the view that diagnosis of ADHD has increased.

  5. [Evolutionary issues in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); from risk factors to comorbidity and social and academic impact].

    PubMed

    Quintero, Javier; Loro, Mercedes; Jiménez, Belén; García Campos, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and at least one-third to one-half will continue through adolescence and adulthood. Moreover it is important the high comorbidity not only in children, but in adolescents and adults. Therefore ADHD becomes especially important when we observe it as a risk factor for the development of another psychopathology that add more complexity to the diagnosis of children and adolescents and also adults, and confers an evolutionary risk throughout the lifetime of the person who suffers from it. A correlational study with a sample of 378 patients diagnosed with ADHD in the childhood between 1988 and 2000 who had initiated treatment after been diagnosed was carried out. 88 patients were evaluated years after (2006) with ages between 18 and 33 years old. 85% of the patients in this study had had combined treatment. The data found in this study show lower comorbidity than other published studies (36.4%), as well as a lower persistence of the complete diagnosis of ADHD in the adulthood (15%). This is a treated population; the results may lead to a possible protector role of the early treatment of ADHD.

  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: urinary diagnostic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Dolina, S; Margalit, D; Malitsky, S; Rabinkov, A

    2014-01-01

    The data obtained in children with different forms of epilepsy allowed us to consider epilepsy as an inborn error of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) metabolism (Dolina et al., 2012). Mutual interconnections between ADHD and epilepsy indicate that such an approach is reasonable for ADHD. To check such an assumption we analyzed in ADHD patients the same parameters of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent tryptophan (TRP) degradation, which were analyzed in epileptic children. The level of TRP and concentrations of compounds formed or metabolized by TRP degradation, the ratios between some of them, and the level of 4-pyridoxic acid were HPLC detected in ADHD children and healthy controls. The data obtained, including low values of 4PA/TRP, IND/TRP and IND/KYN ratios, have evidenced dramatically impaired activity of pyridoxine-dependent enzymes in ADHD patients. Ritalin treatment did not change the general pattern of TRP degradation, but still created a kind of balance between some of detected metabolites. However, the 4PA/TRP, IND/TRP and IND/KYN ratios remained as low as in untreated patients, keeping the importance of diagnostic markers. Almost identical parameters of TRP degradation in untreated ADHD and epileptic patients allow to assume that inborn disorders of vitamin B6 metabolism are the common biochemical background of both diseases. The disturbed activity of PLP dependent enzymes apparently forms those profound disturbances of neurotransmitter systems, which are inherent in ADHD: low concentrations of monoamines and disordered amino acid metabolism. If vitamin B6 disorders are the core biochemical disturbances inherent in ADHD, then the long-term pyridoxine treatment is pathogenetically based replacement therapy of the disease. According to our data, multi-year pyridoxine treatment normalizes completely the pattern of ADHD behavior, without causing any serious side effects. PMID:24321736

  7. Influence of methylphenidate on spatial attention asymmetry in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Silk, Timothy J; Newman, Daniel P; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Atypical asymmetries of spatial attention have been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may be exacerbated by non-spatial factors such as attentional capacity. Although preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetries of attention in ADHD may be modifiable by the psychostimulant, methylphenidate, further placebo-controlled studies are required. This study first aimed to confirm recent evidence that increasing non-spatial processing load at fixation can unmask a spatial gradient of target detection in children with ADHD but not Controls. Second, we used placebo-controlled randomised trial methodology to ask whether 20mg of methylphenidate (MPH) could remediate any load-dependent asymmetry of spatial attention in adolescents with ADHD. Twelve male adolescents with ADHD were assessed twice in a double-blind, randomized design, under either placebo or an acute dose of methylphenidate. Thirteen typically developing adolescent Controls completed a single session under placebo. Participants completed a computer-based task in which they monitored a centrally presented rapid serial visual presentation stream for a probe stimulus, while also responding to brief peripheral events. The attentional load of the central task was manipulated by varying the target instructions but not the physical stimuli or the frequency of targets. Between-group analyses under placebo conditions indicated that increased attentional load induced a spatial gradient for target detection in the ADHD but not Controls, such that load slowed response times for left, but not, right hemi-field targets. This load-dependent spatial asymmetry in the adolescents with ADHD was abolished by administration of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate may "normalise" target detection between the hemi-fields in ADHD via enhancement of the right-lateralised ventral attention networks that support non-spatial attention.

  8. A randomised controlled trial of the Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) for childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Karpouzis, Fay; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background An abundance of literature is dedicated to research for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most, is in the area of pharmacological therapies with less emphasis in psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions and even less in the area of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of CAM has increased over the years, especially for developmental and behavioral disorders, such as ADHD. 60–65% of parents with children with ADHD have used CAM. Medical evidence supports a multidisciplinary approach (i.e. pharmacological and psychosocial) for the best clinical outcomes. The Neuro Emotional Technique (NET), a branch of Chiropractic, was designed to address the biopsychosocial aspects of acute and chronic conditions including non-musculoskeletal conditions. Anecdotally, it has been suggested that ADHD may be managed effectively by NET. Design/methods A placebo controlled, double blind randomised clinical trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of NET on a cohort of children with medically diagnosed ADHD. Children aged 5–12 years who met the inclusion criteria were randomised to one of three groups. The control group continued on their existing medical regimen and the intervention and placebo groups had the addition of the NET and sham NET protocols added to their regimen respectively. These two groups attended a clinical facility twice a week for the first month and then once a month for six months. The Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales (CRS) were used at the start of the study to establish baseline data and then in one month and in seven months time, at the conclusion of the study. The primary outcome measures chosen were the Conners' ADHD Index and Conners' Global Index. The secondary outcome measures chosen were the DSM-IV: Inattentive, the DSM-IV:Hyperactive-Impulsive, and the DSM-IV:Total subscales from the Conners' Rating Scales, monitoring changes in inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity

  9. Vitamin D Status at Birth and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H.; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A.; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Material Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92–0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.02). Conclusion We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. PMID:26509435

  10. Corpus Callosum Segment Circumference Is Associated With Response Control in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Melanie A.; Crocetti, Deana; Mahone, E. Mark; Denckla, Martha B.; Suskauer, Stacy J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Response control is impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given the corpus callosum's role in response control, we compared callosal morphology in 64 children with ADHD and 64 typically developing children, aged 7 to 13 years, and investigated the relationships between callosal morphology and response control. Area and circumference of 5 callosal segments (genu, rostral body, midbody, isthmus, and splenium) were normalized for cerebral volume and examined for correlation with mean reaction time, intrasubject variability, and/or commission error rate from a go/no-go task. There were no between-group differences in segment areas or circumferences. Reaction time correlated with midbody circumference for boys with ADHD and isthmus circumference for girls with ADHD. For the entire cohort, rostral body circumference correlated with intra-subject variability. Impaired response control in ADHD is associated with anomalies in frontal interhemispheric connections. Future studies examining callosal shape will illuminate the anatomic basis of correlations between callosal segment circumference and response control. PMID:20139403

  11. Planning deficit in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a neurocognitive trait independent from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Loredana; Pitzianti, Maria Bernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is associated with executive dysfunctions and comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 30% to 50% of children. This study was designed to clarify the neurocognitive phenotype observed in neurofibromatosis type 1 by testing the hypothesis that children with neurofibromatosis type 1 have specific planning deficits independently from intellectual level and ADHD comorbidity. Eighteen children with neurofibromatosis type 1 were pair-matched to 18 children with ADHD and 18 healthy controls. All groups were assessed on the presence of ADHD symptoms (Conners Scales) and planning deficits (Tower of London). Compared with control group, groups with neurofibromatosis type 1 and ADHD demonstrated significant impairment of planning and problem solving. The lack of correlation between Tower of London results and Conners subscale scores in neurofibromatosis type 1 group confirmed that the planning and problem-solving deficit is not directly related to inattention level. These findings suggested that the executive impairment probably represents a peculiar trait of neurofibromatosis type 1 neurocognitive phenotype.

  12. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)☆

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  13. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Guimarães, Rachel Silvany Quadros; Jagersbacher, João Gabriel; Barretto, Thiago Lima; de Jesus-Silva, Jéssica Regina; Santos, Samantha Nunes; Argollo, Nayara; Lucena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the possible benefits of transcranial direct current stimulation on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been performed. This study assesses the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD on neuropsychological tests of visual attention, visual and verbal working memory, and inhibitory control. An auto-matched clinical trial was performed involving transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD, using SNAP-IV and subtests Vocabulary and Cubes of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III). Subjects were assessed before and after transcranial direct current stimulation sessions with the Digit Span subtest of the WISC-III, inhibitory control subtest of the NEPSY-II, Corsi cubes, and the Visual Attention Test (TAVIS-3). There were 9 individuals with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) criteria. There was statistically significant difference in some aspects of TAVIS-3 tests and the inhibitory control subtest of NEPSY-II. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be related to a more efficient processing speed, improved detection of stimuli, and improved ability to switch between an ongoing activity and a new one.

  14. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  15. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis.

  16. Prospective Association of Childhood Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use and Abuse/Dependence: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Steve S.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flory, Kate; Liu, Rebecca; Glass, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Given the clinical and public health significance of substance disorders and the need to identify their early risk factors, we examined the association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with substance use (e.g., nicotine, alcohol) and abuse/dependence outcomes (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, other). To strengthen a potential causal inference, we meta-analyzed longitudinal studies that prospectively followed children with and without ADHD into adolescence or adulthood. Children with ADHD were significantly more likely to have ever used nicotine and other substances, but not alcohol. Children with ADHD were also more likely to develop disorders of abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances (i.e., unspecified). Sex, age, race, publication year, sample source, and version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) used to diagnose ADHD did not significantly moderate the associations with substance outcomes that yielded heterogeneous effect sizes. These findings suggest that children with ADHD are significantly more likely to develop substance use disorders than children without ADHD and that this increased risk is robust to demographic and methodological differences that varied across the studies. Finally, few studies addressed ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), thus preventing a formal meta-analytic review. However, we qualitatively summarize the results of these studies and conclude that comorbid DBD complicates inferences about the specificity of ADHD effects on substance use outcomes. PMID:21382538

  17. Ramelteon for Insomnia Related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Fargason, Rachel E.; Gamble, Karen; Avis, Kristin T.; Besing, Rachel C.; Jackson, Cherry W.; Cates, Marshall E.; May, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the efficacy of ramelteon for insomnia in adult subjects with ADHD. Experimental Design For this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 8 mg of ramelteon was given nightly, within three hours of bedtime, to ADHD-insomnia subjects confirmed by DSM-IV-TR, ADHD-RS, MINI, and clinical interview. All subjects underwent two weeks each of ramelteon and placebo. Objective sleep measures were obtained by actigraphy. Subjective measures included: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and ADHD-RS. Principal observations Of 36 subjects entering the study, 58% met criteria for circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD), delayed sleep phase type. During ramelteon period, mid-sleep time, an indicator of circadian phase, occurred significantly earlier, by ~45 minutes compared to placebo period. An association was noted between the magnitude of the sleep phase advance and the timing of ramelteon administration in relationship to sleep start time, but did not reach statistical significance; maximal efficacy was noted 1.5 hours before bedtime. Paradoxically, ramelteon marginally, but significantly increased sleep fragmentation and ESS scores compared to the placebo state. Conclusions Ramelteon is efficacious in maintaining an earlier sleep/wake cycle in adults with ADHD and CRSD but can have paradoxical fragmenting effects on sleep and exacerbate daytime sleepiness. In the presence of a circadian rhythm disorder, the usual dosing and timing parameters for ramelteon need to be carefully considered.

  18. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  1. Reduced short interval cortical inhibition correlates with atomoxetine response in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Chen, Tina H; Wu, Steve W; Welge, Jeffrey A; Dixon, Stephan G; Shahana, Nasrin; Huddleston, David A; Sarvis, Adam R; Sallee, Floyd R; Gilbert, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    Clinical trials in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show variability in behavioral responses to the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. The objective of this study was to determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked short interval cortical inhibition might be a biomarker predicting, or correlating with, clinical atomoxetine response. At baseline and after 4 weeks of atomoxetine treatment in 7- to 12-year-old children with ADHD, transcranial magnetic stimulation short interval cortical inhibition was measured, blinded to clinical improvement. Primary analysis was by multivariate analysis of covariance. Baseline short interval cortical inhibition did not predict clinical responses. However, paradoxically, after 4 weeks of atomoxetine, mean short interval cortical inhibition was reduced 31.9% in responders and increased 6.1% in nonresponders (analysis of covariance t 41 = 2.88; P = .0063). Percentage reductions in short interval cortical inhibition correlated with reductions in the ADHD Rating Scale (r = 0.50; P = .0005). In children ages 7 to 12 years with ADHD treated with atomoxetine, improvements in clinical symptoms are correlated with reductions in motor cortex short interval cortical inhibition.

  2. Nicotine-induced place conditioning and locomotor activity in an adolescent animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Daniels, Carter W; Watterson, Lucas R; Mazur, Gabriel J; Brackney, Ryan J; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2015-09-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for tobacco use and dependence. This study examines the responsiveness to nicotine of an adolescent model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). The conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure was used to assess nicotine-induced locomotion and conditioned reward in SHR and the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control strain over a range of nicotine doses (0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg). Prior to conditioning, SHRs were more active and less biased toward one side of the CPP chamber than WKY rats. Following conditioning, SHRs developed CPP to the highest dose of nicotine (0.6 mg/kg), whereas WKYs did not develop CPP to any nicotine dose tested. During conditioning, SHRs displayed greater locomotor activity in the nicotine-paired compartment than in the saline-paired compartment across conditioning trials. SHRs that received nicotine (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 mg/kg) in the nicotine-paired compartment showed an increase in locomotor activity between conditioning trials. Nicotine did not significantly affect WKY locomotor activity. These findings suggest that the SHR strain is a suitable model for studying ADHD-related nicotine use and dependence, but highlights potential limitations of the WKY control strain and the CPP procedure for modeling ADHD-related nicotine reward.

  3. Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what can parents do to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment

  4. Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what can parents do to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment

  5. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  6. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  7. The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; Schwebel, David C; Elliott, Marc N; Visser, Susanna N; Toomey, Sara L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Banspach, Stephen W; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls.

  8. The Association Between Youth Violence Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in a Sample of Fifth-Graders

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Terri; Elliott, Marc N.; Toomey, Sara L.; Cuccaro, Paula; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Schwebel, David C.; Visser, Susanna N.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls. PMID:26460708

  9. Selecting a College for Students with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Juliana M.; West, Lynda L.

    This digest discusses how secondary students with learning disabilities or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can investigate postsecondary programs and find the right college to meet their needs. It begins by exploring when students should begin their college planning and the role of transition plans in determining student goals and vision…

  10. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  12. Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins' Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Lucy A.; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,500 g. Maternal warmth, a component of expressed emotion, was coded from mothers' audiotaped…

  13. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities.

  14. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. PMID:26365689

  15. Transgenerational transmission of hyperactivity in a mouse model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinmin; Lee, Kevin P; Spencer, Thomas J; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2014-02-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder affecting children and adults. Genetic and environmental factors are associated with the etiology of ADHD. Among the environmental factors, exposure of the developing brain to nicotine is considered a major risk factor. Recent evidence suggests that environmental influences on the brain and behavior may be transmitted from one generation to the next. We used a prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) mouse model of ADHD to test the hypothesis that PNE-induced hyperactivity, a proxy for human ADHD phenotype, is transmitted from one generation to the next. Our data reveal transgenerational transmission of PNE-induced hyperactivity in mice via the maternal but not the paternal line of descent. We suggest that transgenerational transmission is a plausible mechanism for propagation of environmentally induced ADHD phenotypes in the population. PMID:24553919

  16. Transgenerational Transmission of Hyperactivity in a Mouse Model of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinmin; Lee, Kevin P.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder affecting children and adults. Genetic and environmental factors are associated with the etiology of ADHD. Among the environmental factors, exposure of the developing brain to nicotine is considered a major risk factor. Recent evidence suggests that environmental influences on the brain and behavior may be transmitted from one generation to the next. We used a prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) mouse model of ADHD to test the hypothesis that PNE-induced hyperactivity, a proxy for human ADHD phenotype, is transmitted from one generation to the next. Our data reveal transgenerational transmission of PNE-induced hyperactivity in mice via the maternal but not the paternal line of descent. We suggest that transgenerational transmission is a plausible mechanism for propagation of environmentally induced ADHD phenotypes in the population. PMID:24553919

  17. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  18. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD. PMID:24787685

  19. [Effectiveness of an Educator Training about the Attention-Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Both, Franziska; Schmiedeler, Sandra; Abelein, Philipp; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of a workshop for teachers focussing on ADHD. A total of 44 educators answered a short version of the Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorders Scale (KADDS) and self-report questions before, shortly after, and three month subsequent (follow-up) to a 2.5 hour long workshop. Results showed a significant increase in the educators’ knowledge at post-test, which remained stable in the follow-up. Whereas uncertainties (“don’t-know”-answers) decreased, heterogeneous results were found concerning the number of misconceptions. Educators upgraded their knowledge perception as well as their certainty in dealing with an affected child at post-test. The results show that even a relatively short workshop had a positive and persistent impact on educators’ ADHD expertise, which illustrates the potential of such workshops.

  20. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  2. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful. PMID:26529403

  3. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD.

  4. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  5. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  6. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  7. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD.

  8. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD. PMID:26963175

  9. Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence and its Implications for Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Goodman, David W; Mitchell, Sara; Rhodewalt, Lauren; Surman, Craig B H

    2016-01-01

    Although previously considered a disorder of childhood, studies in the last decade have demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues to impair function into adulthood and responds to pharmacotherapy. Due to age-specific changes in roles and challenges, it is possible that presentation and response to intervention may differ between older and younger adults. A literature search for papers that identified older adults with ADHD, including papers describing its epidemiology, manifestation, and treatment, was the basis for this paper. There is a paucity of data on ADHD in older adults; however, small observational studies have characterized the presence, impact, and treatment of ADHD in adults over the age of 50 years, and larger epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ADHD symptoms exist in older adulthood. Optimal criteria for diagnosis of ADHD and methods of treating ADHD in older individuals have not been systematically explored. In light of the limited data, this review discusses considerations for differential diagnosis and safe pharmacotherapy of ADHD in older adults.

  10. Expert recommendation: contributions to clinical practice of the new prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Alda, José A; Soutullo, César; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Quintero, Javier; Hervás, Amaia; Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Sans-Fitó, Anna; Cardo-Jalón, Esther Cardo-Jalón; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Fernández-Pérez, Maximino; Hidalgo-Vicario, M Inés; Eddy-Ives, Lefa S; Sánchez, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobiological disorders in childhood, and is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsiveness, with an estimated prevalence of 5.29%. ADHD can have a negative impact upon all areas of the life of the patient. The main clinical guides accept multimodal treatment, involving both pharmacological and psychological measures, as the best management approach in ADHD (psychoeducational, behavioural and academic). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a new drug for the treatment of ADHD. A multidiscipline expert document has been developed, compiling the scientific evidence referred to this new molecule. The study also addresses the existing shortcomings in current drug therapy for ADHD and the contributions of LDX to routine clinical practice, in an attempt to help and guide physicians in the use of this new treatment. This document is endorsed by the ADHD and Psychoeducational Development task Group of the Spanish Society of Primary Care Pediatrics (Grupo de TDAH y Desarrollo Psicoeducativo de la Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria, AEPap), the Spanish Society of Pediatric Neurology (Sociedad Española de Neurología Pediátrica, SENEP) and the Spanish Society of Out-hospital Pediatrics and Primary Care (Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria, SEPEAP).

  11. Expert recommendation: contributions to clinical practice of the new prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Alda, José A; Soutullo, César; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Quintero, Javier; Hervás, Amaia; Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Sans-Fitó, Anna; Cardo-Jalón, Esther Cardo-Jalón; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Fernández-Pérez, Maximino; Hidalgo-Vicario, M Inés; Eddy-Ives, Lefa S; Sánchez, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobiological disorders in childhood, and is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsiveness, with an estimated prevalence of 5.29%. ADHD can have a negative impact upon all areas of the life of the patient. The main clinical guides accept multimodal treatment, involving both pharmacological and psychological measures, as the best management approach in ADHD (psychoeducational, behavioural and academic). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a new drug for the treatment of ADHD. A multidiscipline expert document has been developed, compiling the scientific evidence referred to this new molecule. The study also addresses the existing shortcomings in current drug therapy for ADHD and the contributions of LDX to routine clinical practice, in an attempt to help and guide physicians in the use of this new treatment. This document is endorsed by the ADHD and Psychoeducational Development task Group of the Spanish Society of Primary Care Pediatrics (Grupo de TDAH y Desarrollo Psicoeducativo de la Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria, AEPap), the Spanish Society of Pediatric Neurology (Sociedad Española de Neurología Pediátrica, SENEP) and the Spanish Society of Out-hospital Pediatrics and Primary Care (Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria, SEPEAP). PMID:25644658

  12. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients. PMID:25987323

  13. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account.

    PubMed

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF). Both the meta-analytic and narrative reviews showed evidence of smaller brain structures and lower brain activity in individuals with ODD/CD in mainly hot EF-related areas: bilateral amygdala, bilateral insula, right striatum, left medial/superior frontal gyrus, and left precuneus. Evidence was present in both structural and functional studies, and irrespective of the presence of ADHD comorbidity. There is strong evidence that abnormalities in the amygdala are specific for ODD/CD as compared to ADHD, and correlational studies further support the association between abnormalities in the amygdala and ODD/CD symptoms. Besides the left precuneus, there was no evidence for abnormalities in typical cool EF related structures, such as the cerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Resulting areas are associated with emotion-processing, error-monitoring, problem-solving and self-control; areas associated with neurocognitive and behavioural deficits implicated in ODD/CD. Our findings confirm the involvement of hot, and to a smaller extent cool, EF associated brain areas in ODD/CD, and support an integrated model for ODD/CD (e.g. Blair, Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891, 2005).

  15. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement.

  16. Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs) and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs) blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6) were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index). This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively. PMID:23134619

  17. Disrupted response inhibition toward facial anger cues in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Köchel, Angelika; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2014-04-01

    This event-related potential study focused on neural correlates of inhibitory affective control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sixteen boys with ADHD and 16 healthy boys underwent an emotional Go/NoGo task with pictures of facial expressions from the categories anger, sadness, happiness, and neutral. The participants were instructed to execute or withhold a motor response to specific emotions. Patients relative to controls displayed a severe impairment in response inhibition toward anger cues, which was accompanied by a reduced P300 amplitude (positive voltage deflection about 300 ms after picture onset). The control group showed a P300 differentiation of the affective categories that was absent in the ADHD group. The pronounced anger-processing deficit in ADHD patients might be linked to their interpersonal difficulties and should be addressed in psychotherapy.

  18. Slower extinction of responses maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje

    2005-07-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show performance deficits and excessive motor activity during extinction and in situations where no reinforcer can be identified, suggesting an extinction deficit in ADHD possibly linked to dopamine dysfunction. The present study examined extinction of responding previously maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD using three different extinction procedures. Delivery of electrical pulses were terminated altogether or presented independently of responding using two different current intensities. The results showed that more responses were retained in the SHR, especially during the initial transition from ICSS-maintained responding to response-independent delivery of electrical pulses with current reduced relative to that given during reinforcement. Slower extinction of previously reinforced behavior is suggested as an alternative explanation for the frequently observed increased behavioral output that has previously been interpreted as "disinhibition" of behavior in ADHD.

  19. Comparison between the efficacies of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among preschoolers: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Forough; Tashakori, Ashraf; Abdi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disease with a worldwide pooled prevalence of 5.29%. Objective To compare the efficacy of Risperidone with Haloperidol in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among 3- to 6-year-old children. Methods In a 6-week double-blind clinical trial, the efficacy of Risperidone 0.5–2 mg with a dose of maximum Haloperidol 0.075 mg/kg was assessed in 39 children aged 3–6 years. This study was conducted at the Golestan Psychiatric Clinic (Ahvaz, Iran). Measurement tools included the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48), Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Fisher’s exact tests in the SPSS 19. Results During the 6 weeks, the decline in points was seen in Conner’s rating scale and in ADHD-RS score in Risperidone and Haloperidol groups (p<0.001). On the CGAS scale, an increase of performance in both groups for six weeks was statistically significant (p<0.001). In the scales of ADHD-RS and CPRS-48, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups; i.e., in terms of reducing the rate during weeks of two, four, and six (p>0.05). Conclusions Haloperidol and Risperidone possibly can be an acceptable treatment choice in the ADHD treatment of 3- to 6-year-old children. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015082623766N1. Funding This work was financially supported by grant (ref. no.: U-93130) from the vice chancellor for Research Affairs of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27790334

  20. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... education, social and family situations and relationships, employment, self-esteem, and emotional health. It is never too late ... tasks. It can also address feelings of low self-esteem and help adults with ADHD gain confidence, as ...

  1. The prevalence and effects of Adult Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Fayyad, John; ten Have, Margreet; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gasquet, Isabelle; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Ann ADHD screen was administered to 18–44 year-old respondents in ten national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or self employment; response rate 45.9–87.7% across countries). Blinded clinical reappraisal interviews were administered in the US to calibrate the screen. Days out of role were measured in the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS). Questions were also asked about ADHD treatment. Results An average of 3.5% of workers in the ten countries was estimated to meet DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD (inter-quartile range: 1.3–4.9%). ADHD was more common among males than females and less common among professionals than other workers. ADHD was associated with a statistically significant 22.1 annual days of excess lost role performance compared to otherwise similar respondents without ADHD. No difference in the magnitude of this effect was found by occupation, education, age, gender, or partner status. This effect was most pronounced in Colombia, Italy, Lebanon, and the US. Although only a small minority of workers with ADHD ever received treatment for this condition, higher proportions were treated for comorbid mental-substance disorders. Conclusions ADHD is a relatively common condition among working people in the countries studied and is associated with high work impairment in these countries. This impairment, in conjunction with the low treatment rate and the availability of cost-effective therapies, suggests that ADHD would be a good candidate for targeted workplace screening and treatment programs. Main messages A high proportion of childhood ADHD persists into adulthood. An average of 3.5% of workers in nationally representative surveys carried out in 10 countries met criteria for current DSM-IV adult ADHD. Workers with ADHD have an average 8.4 excess sickness absence

  2. Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S; McClernon, F Joseph; Dew, Rachel E; Lane, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD.

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Tannock, Rosemary; Franke, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 5% of children and adolescents and 2.5% of adults worldwide. Throughout an individual's lifetime, ADHD can increase the risk of other psychiatric disorders, educational and occupational failure, accidents, criminality, social disability and addictions. No single risk factor is necessary or sufficient to cause ADHD. In most cases ADHD arises from several genetic and environmental risk factors that each have a small individual effect and act together to increase susceptibility. The multifactorial causation of ADHD is consistent with the heterogeneity of the disorder, which is shown by its extensive psychiatric co-morbidity, its multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment and the wide range of structural and functional brain anomalies associated with it. The diagnosis of ADHD is reliable and valid when evaluated with standard criteria for psychiatric disorders. Rating scales and clinical interviews facilitate diagnosis and aid screening. The expression of symptoms varies as a function of patient developmental stage and social and academic contexts. Although there are no curative treatments for ADHD, evidenced-based treatments can markedly reduce its symptoms and associated impairments. For example, medications are efficacious and normally well tolerated, and various non-pharmacological approaches are also valuable. Ongoing clinical and neurobiological research holds the promise of advancing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to ADHD. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/J6jiwl. PMID:27189265

  4. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD. PMID:24116285

  5. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD.

  6. Hyperactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The role of executive and non-executive functions.

    PubMed

    Hudec, Kristen L; Alderson, R Matt; Patros, Connor H G; Lea, Sarah E; Tarle, Stephanie J; Kasper, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    Motor activity of boys (age 8-12 years) with (n=19) and without (n=18) ADHD was objectively measured with actigraphy across experimental conditions that varied with regard to demands on executive functions. Activity exhibited during two n-back (1-back, 2-back) working memory tasks was compared to activity during a choice-reaction time (CRT) task that placed relatively fewer demands on executive processes and during a simple reaction time (SRT) task that required mostly automatic processing with minimal executive demands. Results indicated that children in the ADHD group exhibited greater activity compared to children in the non-ADHD group. Further, both groups exhibited the greatest activity during conditions with high working memory demands, followed by the reaction time and control task conditions, respectively. The findings indicate that large-magnitude increases in motor activity are predominantly associated with increased demands on working memory, though demands on non-executive processes are sufficient to elicit small to moderate increases in motor activity as well.

  7. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  8. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. PMID:27449004

  9. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  10. Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice.

  11. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  12. Neural activity associated with executive functions in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Wild-Wall, Nele; Oades, Robert D; Schmidt-Wessels, Marion; Christiansen, Hanna; Falkenstein, Michael

    2009-10-01

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) and flanker-task performance to compare executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, their siblings and independent healthy controls. The aim was to investigate the processing of distracting stimuli, control over inappropriate responses, and the detection of errors in the presence of incompatible and No-go stimuli (arrow-heads and a circle, respectively). Performance showed no major differences between the groups, although No-go errors were numerically increased for the patients. Adolescents with ADHD were not characterised by the absence of post-error response slowing. The ADHD group showed a generally smaller N2 and a missing amplification of the frontal P3 (P3a) in No-go vs. incompatible trials most likely reflecting impaired inhibitory processing. In response-locked potentials error-related negativity (Ne) and positivity (Pe) did not clearly differentiate between the groups. This study shows that ADHD children are more impaired in controlled than automatic response processing and inhibition. This was particularly evident in reduced frontal activity in general and especially after No-go stimuli. Deficient error processing may, however, not be a cardinal feature of adolescents with ADHD. Future work must orient towards determining if there is a subgroup for whom the inhibitory impairment is characteristic.

  13. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. PMID:26072341

  14. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  15. Assessment and Intervention Practices for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A National Survey of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borick, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined school psychologists' assessment and intervention practices regarding ADHD. Five hundred school psychologists who practiced in a school setting and were regular members of the National Association of School Psychologists were randomly selected to complete and return a questionnaire titled Assessment and Intervention Practices…

  16. Issues in Medication Compliance among Children and Families Affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Wheeler, John J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of medication therapy for the treatment of ADHD in children has been cited as the most frequent course of treatment for children diagnosed with this condition with an estimated 3% of school-aged children being prescribed stimulant medication (Kirk, 1999). One issue that is frequently cited when using medication to treat this condition is…

  17. Intervention Types and the Perceptions of Academic Success of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hukriede, Justine; Miernicki, Sonia L.

    2006-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of ADHD interventions were investigated. The different forms of interventions that were focused on included: stimulant medication, classroom/parent environmental interventions, a combination of stimulant medication and classroom/parent environmental interventions, and counseling. Elementary and…

  18. Motor preparation, motor execution, attention, and executive functions in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Mattingley, Jason B; Sheppard, Dianne M; Lee, Paul; Bradshaw, John L

    2005-04-01

    Attention and executive functions were investigated in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD combined type using a novel selective reaching task. This task involved responding as rapidly as possible to a target while at times having to ignore a distractor. Results indicated that unmedicated children with ADHD showed slow and inaccurate responding. Slow responding reflected problems at the stage of movement preparation but not movement execution. An attentional impairment, rather than a motor planning problem per se, appeared to underlie the slow movement preparation. Inaccurate responding reflected problems with response inhibition and selective attention, impulsivity, set-shifting, and difficulties in maintaining vigilance. Although medicated children with ADHD did not show slow movement preparation, they did show some response inaccuracy, resulting especially from impulsive responding. These findings suggest that ADHD is characterized by slow motor preparation (but not motor execution), and deficits in selective attention, vigilance, and executive functions. Preliminary results suggest that stimulant medication may resolve some of these motor, attentional and executive function deficits.

  19. Facts, values, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): an update on the controversies

    PubMed Central

    Parens, Erik; Johnston, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    The Hastings Center, a bioethics research institute, is holding a series of 5 workshops to examine the controversies surrounding the use of medication to treat emotional and behavioral disturbances in children. These workshops bring together clinicians, researchers, scholars, and advocates with diverse perspectives and from diverse fields. Our first commentary in CAPMH, which grew out of our first workshop, explained our method and explored the controversies in general. This commentary, which grows out of our second workshop, explains why informed people can disagree about ADHD diagnosis and treatment. Based on what workshop participants said and our understanding of the literature, we make 8 points. (1) The ADHD label is based on the interpretation of a heterogeneous set of symptoms that cause impairment. (2) Because symptoms and impairments are dimensional, there is an inevitable "zone of ambiguity," which reasonable people will interpret differently. (3) Many other variables, from different systems and tools of diagnosis to different parenting styles and expectations, also help explain why behaviors associated with ADHD can be interpreted differently. (4) Because people hold competing views about the proper goals of psychiatry and parenting, some people will be more, and others less, concerned about treating children in the zone of ambiguity. (5) To recognize that nature has written no bright line between impaired and unimpaired children, and that it is the responsibility of humans to choose who should receive a diagnosis, does not diminish the significance of ADHD. (6) Once ADHD is diagnosed, the facts surrounding the most effective treatment are complicated and incomplete; contrary to some popular wisdom, behavioral treatments, alone or in combination with low doses of medication, can be effective in the long-term reduction of core ADHD symptoms and at improving many aspects of overall functioning. (7) Especially when a child occupies the zone of ambiguity

  20. The Increased Risk of Road Crashes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Adult Drivers: Driven by Distraction? Results from a Responsibility Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. Methods A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. Results A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR)  = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06–2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50–3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22–3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06–16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Discussion Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also

  1. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Brooke S.G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n=436); to test whether (a) medication at follow-up, (b) cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or (c) both relate to substance use/SUD; to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n=261). Method Mixed-effects regression models with planned contrasts were used for all tests except the important cumulative stimulant treatment question, for which propensity score matching analysis was used. Results The originally randomized treatment groups did not differ significantly on substance use/SUD by the 8 year follow-up or earlier (M age = 17 years). Neither medication at follow-up (mostly stimulants) nor cumulative stimulant treatment was associated with adolescent substance use/SUD. Substance use at all time points, including use of two or more substances and SUD, were each greater in the ADHD than non-ADHD samples, regardless of sex. Conclusions Medication for ADHD did not protect from, nor contribute to, visible risk of substance use or SUD by adolescence, whether analyzed as randomized treatment assignment in childhood, as medication at follow-up, or as cumulative stimulant treatment over an 8 year follow-up from childhood. These results suggest the need to identify alternative or adjunctive adolescent-focused approaches to substance abuse prevention and treatment for boys and girls with ADHD, especially given their increased risk for use and abuse of multiple substances that is not improved with stimulant medication. Clinical trial registration information—Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://clinical trials.gov/; NCT00000388. PMID:23452682

  2. Parental Involvement Moderates Etiological Influences on Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Behaviors in Child Twins

    PubMed Central

    Nikolas, Molly A; Klump, Kelly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Although few would now contest the presence of gene x environment (GxE) effects in the development of child psychopathology, it remains unclear how these effects manifest themselves. Alternative GxE models have been proposed (i.e., diathesis-stress, differential susceptibility, bio-ecological), each of which has notably different implications for etiology. Child twin studies present a powerful tool for discriminating between these models. The current study examined whether and how parental involvement moderated etiological influences on ADHD within 500 twin pairs aged 6–11 years. Results indicated moderation of genetic and non-shared environmental contributions to ADHD by parental involvement, and moreover, suggested both differential susceptibility and bio-ecological models of GxE. Results highlight the utility of child twin samples in testing different manifestations of GxE effects. PMID:25263271

  3. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  4. Gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Ho, Chung-Han

    2016-10-30

    To verify the hypothesis that there is different gender ratio of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting among Asian population. The nationwide population-based database containing data on enrollees in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan during 2000-2007 was used in this study, and we investigated the lifetime gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence in healthcare-seeking ADHD patients (n=228,029). The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of child/adolescent ADHD (age <20 years) ranged from 3.39 to 4.07 and 3.87-4.31, respectively. The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of ADHD in the adult group (age 20-65 years) ranged from 0.24 to 0.76 and 0.35-0.98, respectively. In conclusion, there was substantially increased female-to-male ratio in adults ADHD compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting. Further researches on the management and mechanism are needed. PMID:27525828

  5. Gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Ho, Chung-Han

    2016-10-30

    To verify the hypothesis that there is different gender ratio of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting among Asian population. The nationwide population-based database containing data on enrollees in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan during 2000-2007 was used in this study, and we investigated the lifetime gender ratios of administrative prevalence and incidence in healthcare-seeking ADHD patients (n=228,029). The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of child/adolescent ADHD (age <20 years) ranged from 3.39 to 4.07 and 3.87-4.31, respectively. The male-to-female ratios of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of ADHD in the adult group (age 20-65 years) ranged from 0.24 to 0.76 and 0.35-0.98, respectively. In conclusion, there was substantially increased female-to-male ratio in adults ADHD compared to children and adolescents in the clinical setting. Further researches on the management and mechanism are needed.

  6. Influence of a latrophilin 3 (LPHN3) risk haplotype on event-related potential measures of cognitive response control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Jacob, Christian P; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Muenke, Maximilian; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current research strategies have made great efforts to further elucidate the complex genetic architecture of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the impact of an LPHN3 haplotype that has recently been associated with ADHD (Arcos-Burgos et al., 2010) on neural activity in a visual Go-NoGo task. Two hundred sixteen adult ADHD patients completed a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) while the ongoing EEG was simultaneously recorded. Results showed that patients carrying two copies of the LPHN3 risk haplotype (n=114) made more omission errors and had a more anterior Go-centroid of the P300 than patients carrying at least one LPHN3 non-risk haplotype (n=102). Accordingly, the NoGo-Anteriorization (NGA; topographical ERP difference of the Go- and NoGo-condition), a neurophysiological marker of prefrontal functioning, was reduced in the LPHN3 high risk group. However, in the NoGo-condition itself no marked differences attributable to the LPHN3 haplotype could be found. Our findings indicate that, within a sample of ADHD patients, the LPHN3 gene impacts behavioral and neurophysiological measures of cognitive response control. The results of our study further strengthen the concept of an LPHN3 risk haplotype for ADHD and support the usefulness of the endophenotype approach in psychiatric and psychological research.

  7. Working memory deficits in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An examination of orthographic coding and episodic buffer processes.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Patros, Connor H G; Hudec, Kristen L; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The episodic buffer component of working memory was examined in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing peers (TD). Thirty-two children (ADHD = 16, TD = 16) completed three versions of a phonological working memory task that varied with regard to stimulus presentation modality (auditory, visual, or dual auditory and visual), as well as a visuospatial task. Children with ADHD experienced the largest magnitude working memory deficits when phonological stimuli were presented via a unimodal, auditory format. Their performance improved during visual and dual modality conditions but remained significantly below the performance of children in the TD group. In contrast, the TD group did not exhibit performance differences between the auditory- and visual-phonological conditions but recalled significantly more stimuli during the dual-phonological condition. Furthermore, relative to TD children, children with ADHD recalled disproportionately fewer phonological stimuli as set sizes increased, regardless of presentation modality. Finally, an examination of working memory components indicated that the largest magnitude between-group difference was associated with the central executive. Collectively, these findings suggest that ADHD-related working memory deficits reflect a combination of impaired central executive and phonological storage/rehearsal processes, as well as an impaired ability to benefit from bound multimodal information processed by the episodic buffer.

  8. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time. Results Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7). Conclusion Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. PMID:25599016

  9. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  10. Non-pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) delivered in school settings: systematic reviews of quantitative and qualitative research.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Michelle; Moore, Darren A; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Whear, Rebecca; Newlove-Delgado, Tamsin V; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Christopher; Taylor, Eric; Cooper, Paul; Stein, Ken; Garside, Ruth; Ford, Tamsin J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. School can be particularly challenging for children with ADHD. Few reviews have considered non-pharmacological interventions in school settings. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions delivered in school settings for pupils with, or at risk of, ADHD and to explore the factors that may enhance, or limit, their delivery. DATA SOURCES Twenty electronic databases (including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Education Resources Information Centre, The Cochrane Library and Education Research Complete) were searched from 1980 to February-August 2013. Three separate searches were conducted for four systematic reviews; they were supplemented with forward and backwards citation chasing, website searching, author recommendations and hand-searches of key journals. REVIEW METHODS The systematic reviews focused on (1) the effectiveness of school-based interventions for children with or at risk of ADHD; (2) quantitative research that explores attitudes towards school-based non-pharmacological interventions for pupils with ADHD; (3) qualitative research investigating the attitudes and experiences of children, teachers, parents and others using ADHD interventions in school settings; and (4) qualitative research exploring the experience of ADHD in school among pupils, their parents and teachers more generally. Methods of synthesis included a random-effects meta-analysis, meta-regression and narrative synthesis for review 1, narrative synthesis for review 2 and meta-ethnography and thematic analysis for reviews 3 and 4. RESULTS For review 1, 54 controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. For the 36 meta-analysed randomised controlled trials, beneficial effects (p < 0.05) were observed for several symptom and scholastic outcomes. Mean weighted effect sizes ranged from

  11. Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Arnold, L E

    2001-06-01

    A previous review of alternative treatments (Tx) of ADHD--those other than psychoactive medication and behavioral/psychosocial Tx--was supplemented with an additional literature search focused on adults with ADHD. Twenty-four alternative Tx were identified, ranging in scientific documentation from discrediting controlled studies through mere hypotheses to positive controlled double-blind clinical trials. Many of them are applicable only to a specific subgroup. Although oligoantigenic (few-foods) diets have convincing double-blind evidence of efficacy for a properly selected subgroup of children, they do not appear promising for adults. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization, relaxation/EMG biofeedback, and deleading also have controlled evidence of efficacy. Iron supplementation, magnesium supplementation, Chinese herbals, EEG biofeedback, massage, meditation, mirror feedback, channel-specific perceptual training, and vestibular stimulation all have promising prospective pilot data, many of these tests reasonably controlled. Single-vitamin megadosage has some intriguing pilot trial data. Zinc supplementation is hypothetically supported by systematic case-control data, but no systematic clinical trial. Laser acupuncture has promising unpublished pilot data and may be more applicable to adults than children. Essential fatty acid supplementation has promising systematic case-control data, but clinical trials are equivocal. RDA vitamin supplementation, non-Chinese herbals, homeopathic remedies, and antifungal therapy have no systematic data in ADHD. Megadose multivitamin combinations are probably ineffective for most patients and are possibly dangerous. Simple sugar restriction seems ineffective. Amino acid supplementation is mildly effective in the short term, but not beyond 2-3 months. Thyroid treatment is effective in the presence of documented thyroid abnormality. Some alternative Tx of ADHD are effective or probably effective, but mainly for certain patients. In some

  12. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Neuropsychological Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyden, Agneta; Niklasson, Lena; Stahlberg, Ola; Anckarsater, Henrik; Wentz, Elisabet; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess which types of neuropsychological deficits appear to be most commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. The effect of the combination of ASD with ADHD (ASD/ADHD) was also studied. One hundred and sixty-one adult individuals…

  13. A Longitudinal Twin Study on the Association between Inattentive and Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Asherson, Philip; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Plomin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    DSM-IV distinguishes two symptom domains of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. The present study examines the aetiologies and developmental relations underlying the associations between inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity over time, based on a representative population sample…

  14. Abuse and dependence liability analysis of methylphenidate in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Dela Peña, Ike; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Yeni; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2013-04-01

    Methylphenidate is the most prescribed stimulant medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the well documented clinical benefits of the drug, several questions remain unanswered concerning the effects of extended methylphenidate use (e.g. can methylphenidate be abused by ADHD patients? does repeated methylphenidate treatment produce addiction?). Preclinical studies can help address the long-term safety of clinical treatments, moreover animal studies provide valuable information on the details of drug actions. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), bred from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rat strain, is considered as the best validated and the most widely used animal model of ADHD. We reviewed the findings of research reports that investigated the abuse and dependence liability of methylphenidate in SHR. In particular, we surveyed the studies which investigated the effects of methylphenidate pretreatment on subsequent methylphenidate-induced conditioned place preference or self-administration for they may give insights into the abuse or dependence liability of long-term methylphenidate treatment in ADHD.

  15. Cognitive Improvement of Attention and Inhibition in the Late Afternoon in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treated With Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Slama, Hichem; Fery, Patrick; Verheulpen, Denis; Vanzeveren, Nathalie; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Long-acting medications have been developed and approved for use in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These compounds are intended to optimize and maintain symptoms control throughout the day. We tested prolonged effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate on both attention and inhibition, in the late afternoon. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 36 boys (7-12 years) with ADHD and 40 typically developing children. The ADHD children received an individualized dose of placebo or osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate. They were tested about 8 hours after taking with 2 continuous performance tests (continuous performance test-X [CPT-X] and continuous performance test-AX [CPT-AX]) and a counting Stroop. A positive effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate was present in CPT-AX with faster and less variable reaction times under osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate than under placebo, and no difference with typically developing children. In the counting Stroop, we found a decreased interference with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate but no difference between children with ADHD under placebo and typically developing children.

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Decade of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This guide to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is organized in three parts which address understanding the problem, getting help, and sustaining hope. A question-and-answer format addresses the following topics: symptoms of ADHD; other conditions which may produce similar symptoms; other disorders which may accompany ADHD; causes of…

  17. Depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and quality of life in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during three-month methylphenidate treatment.

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Kagan; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoglu, Serhat; Kiliç, Birim G; Aysev, Ayla; Uslu, Runa

    2010-12-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the changes that occur in depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and health-related quality of life during methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty-five treatment naive children with ADHD, aged 8-14, were assessed based on self, parent and teacher reports at the baseline and at the end of the first and third month of MPH treatment regarding changes in inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Changes in the quality of life were also noted. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests with Bonferroni corrections were conducted in order to evaluate the data. Symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity were significantly reduced (p < 0.017) following a three-month MPH treatment. There were significant decreases in depression (p = 0.004), trait anxiety (p = 0.000) and checking compulsion symptom scores (p = 0.001). Moreover, parents reported significant improvements in psychosocial (p = 0.001) and total scores (p = 0.009) of quality of life, despite no change in physical health scores (p > 0.05). Children's ratings of quality of life measures showed no significant changes in physical health and psychosocial scores (p > 0.05), while total scores significantly improved (p = 0.001) after the treatment. Over a three-month MPH treatment, depression, trait anxiety and checking compulsion symptoms decreased and quality of life seemed to improve along with those of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.

  18. The Unity and Diversity of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in ADHD: Evidence for a General Factor with Separable Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Pitch, Ashley; Flora, David B.; Iwenofu, Linda; Ghelani, Karen; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    To examine the unity and diversity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom domains of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of adolescents with ADHD. Parents and adolescents were administered a semi-structured diagnostic interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age…

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  20. Assessment of the QT interval in the electroencephalography (EEG) of children with syncope, epilepsy, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Jha, Om P; Khurana, Divya S; Carvalho, Karen S; Melvin, Joseph J; Legido, Agustin; O'Riordan, Anna C; Valencia, Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    The interpretation of QT interval is often neglected during electroencephalography (EEG) reading. We compared the incidence of prolonged QT interval, as seen in the electrocardiography (ECG) recording lead of the EEG, in children presenting with seizure, syncope, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Abnormal QT was defined as >460 ms. The incidence of prolonged QT in the seizure, syncope, and ADHD groups was 1/50 (2%), 7/50 (14%), and 2/50 (4%), respectively (P = .036, chi-square). The mean +/- SD of QT were 405 +/- 34, 424 +/- 39, and 414 +/- 36, respectively (P = .035, analysis of variance [ANOVA], syncope group, compared with seizure group). The incidence of prolonged QT as measured in the EEG was unexpectedly high in children presenting with seizure, syncope, or ADHD. These data support the concept that QT evaluation should be emphasized during routine EEG reading, as it may aid in identifying cases of undiagnosed cardiac conduction abnormalities. Prospective studies comparing EEG-ECG tracings with 12-lead ECG are warranted.

  1. Prospective observational study protocol to investigate long-term adverse effects of methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) study

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, S K; Carucci, S; Garas, P; Häge, A; Banaschewski, T; Buitelaar, J K; Dittmann, R W; Falissard, B; Hollis, C; Kovshoff, H; Liddle, E; McCarthy, S; Nagy, P; Neubert, A; Rosenthal, E; Sonuga-Barke, E; Wong, I; Zuddas, A; Coghill, D C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Following concerns about its safety, the European Commission called for research into the long-term effects of methylphenidate on children and adolescents with ADHD. The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) research programme was designed to address this call. At the heart of this programme is a 2-year longitudinal naturalistic pharmacovigilance study being conducted in 27 European sites. Methods and analysis 3 cohorts of children and adolescents (aged 6–17) living in the UK, Germany, Italy and Hungary are being recruited: Group 1 (Medicated ADHD): 800 ADHD medication-naive children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD about to start methylphenidate treatment for the first time. Group 2 (Unmedicated ADHD): 400 children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD who have never been treated with ADHD medication and have no intention of beginning medication. Group 3 (Non-ADHD): 400 children and adolescents without ADHD who are siblings of individuals in either group 1 or 2. All participants will be assessed 5 times during their 2-year follow-up period for growth and development, psychiatric, neurological and cardiovascular health. The primary outcome measure will be the height velocity SD score. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Following this approval, patient information leaflets and consent forms were translated as necessary and submissions made by lead sites in each of the other 3 countries to their own ethics committees. Following ethical approval in each country, local ethical permissions at each site were sought and obtained as needed. The study's website (http://www.adhd-adduce.org/page/view/2/Home) provides information for researchers, participants and the general

  2. Professor Perceptions of College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Teresa Ann; Weyandt, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: From April to June 2005, the authors investigated professor perceptions of college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants: 253 participants completed the ADHD Beliefs Survey-Revised, a 40-question survey measuring professor perceptions of ADHD. Methods: Analysis of variance measured false and…

  3. Peer Victimization in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Mak, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior…

  4. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Early Identification Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewell, Rebecca R.

    A major aim of this study was to determine if Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) type behaviors observed at the age of 30 months in low birth weight children are predictive of ADHD and school difficulties at 5 and 8 years of age. Three major questions were addressed: (1) Do children who exhibit ADHD characteristics at 30 months differ…

  6. Clinical Precursors of Adolescent Conduct Disorder in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittinger, Naureen S.; Langley, Kate; Fowler, Tom A.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine precursors of adolescent conduct disorder (CD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), investigating the significance of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and ADHD. Method: A total of 151 children with ADHD recruited from child psychiatric and pediatric clinics were assessed through…

  7. Impact of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on prescription dug spending for children and adolescents: increasing relevance of health economic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Schlander, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background During the last decade, pharmaceutical spending for patients with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been escalating internationally. Objectives First, to estimate future trends of ADHD-related drug expenditures from the perspectives of the statutory health insurance (SHI; Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung, GKV) in Germany and the National Health Service (NHS) in England, respectively, for children and adolescents age 6 to 18 years. Second, to evaluate the budgetary impact on individual prescribers (child and adolescent psychiatrists and pediatricians treating patients with ADHD) in Germany. Methods A model was developed to predict plausible scenarios of future pharmaceutical expenditures for treatment of ADHD. Model inputs were derived from demographic and epidemiological data, a literature review of past spending trends, and an analysis of new pharmaceutical products in development for ADHD. Only products in clinical development phase III or later were considered. Uncertainty was addressed by way of scenario analysis. For each jurisdiction, five scenarios used different assumptions of future diagnosis prevalence, treatment prevalence, rates of adoption and unit costs of novel drugs, and treatment intensity. Results Annual ADHD pharmacotherapy expenditures for children and adolescents will further increase and may exceed €310 m (D; E: ₤78 m) in 2012 (2002: ~€21.8 m; ~₤7.0 m). During this period, overall drug spending by individual physicians may increase 2.3- to 9.5-fold, resulting from the multiplicative effects of four variables: increased number of diagnosed cases, growing acceptance and intensity of pharmacotherapy, and higher unit costs of novel medications. Discussion Even for an extreme low case scenario, a more than six-fold increase of pharmaceutical spending for children and adolescents is predicted over the decade from 2002 to 2012, from the perspectives of both the NHS in England and the GKV in Germany. This budgetary

  8. Learning disabilities and ADHD: overlapping spectrumn disorders.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W

    2000-01-01

    Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist. PMID:15495544

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD. PMID:19497749

  10. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome in adults].

    PubMed

    Bange, F

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities.

  11. Use of Digital Console Game for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chih

    2010-01-01

    ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that specifically…

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sensory modulation disorder: a comparison of behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M; Schoen, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these disorders in children, clinical ADHD, SMD, and dual diagnoses were assessed. All groups had significantly more sensory, attention, activity, impulsivity, and emotional difficulties than typical children, but with distinct profiles. Inattention was greater in ADHD compared to SMD. Dual diagnoses had more sensory-related behaviors than ADHD and more attentional difficulties than SMD. SMD had more sensory issues, somatic complaints, anxiety/depression, and difficulty adapting than ADHD. SMD had greater physiological/electrodermal reactivity to sensory stimuli than ADHD and typical controls. Parent-report measures identifying sensory, attentional, hyperactive, and impulsive difficulties varied in agreement with clinician's diagnoses. Evidence suggests ADHD and SMD are distinct diagnoses.

  13. Parental Involvement in Children's Learning: Comparing Parents of Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Maria A.; Wiener, Judith; Marton, Imola; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined involvement in children's learning among parents of 101 children between 8 and 12 years of age (53 parents of children with ADHD, 48 parents of children without ADHD). Compared to parents of children without ADHD, parents of children with ADHD reported lower self-efficacy in their ability to help their children, felt…

  14. Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource for School and Home, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.

    Designed for educators and families, this resource discusses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It includes information that addresses: (1) characteristics of students with ADHD; (2) causes of ADHD; (3) identification of students with ADHD; (4) legal requirements for identification of students with ADHD; (5) components of a…

  15. Decreased Serum Cu/Zn SOD Associated with High Copper in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Russo, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess serum Cu/Zn SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) concentration in children with ADHD and evaluate its possible relationship to Cu and Zn levels. Subjects and methods Serum from 22 children with ADHD and 20 healthy control children without ADHD and 19 autistic children without ADHD were tested for Cu/Zn SOD using ELISAs and levels of serum Cu and Zn using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results Serum Cu/Zn SOD levels of ADHD children were significantly lower than age and gender matched healthy non-ADHD controls (P < 0.001). Serum Cu/Zn SOD of ADHD children was significantly lower in individuals with high serum copper (P = 0.024). There was no significant correlation between Cu/Zn SOD levels and Zinc or Cu/Zn in ADHD individuals. Discussion These results suggest an association between Cu/Zn SOD serum levels and ADHD, particularly ADHD children with high serum copper. PMID:23861627

  16. [Prevention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Quintero, J; Martin, M; Alcindor, P; Perez-Templado, J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins at an early age and can be present until adulthood. Subjects with ADHD not only have symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity but also have their social and emotional areas affected. In addition, they have an associated increased risk for presenting comorbilities with other psychiatric disorders, overshadowing the development. Considering ADHD as a evolutionary risk factor, prevention should be considered as a primary goal. Most preventive actions on ADHD have been focused on tertiary prevention. The present review aims to study the factors involved in the development of ADHD in order to form a prevention model beyond tertiary prevention. This research focuses on models of primary prevention (early detection of disease) and secondary prevention (to prevent or delay the disease), trying to incorporate them into daily practice. This study reviews risk factors that affect ADHD. Through actions aimed to pursue an early detection, development of the disorder could be improved, and by identifying population at risk, efforts could be concentrated on developing a true primary prevention (perinatal period and early childhood) that eventually could contribute to reduce the incidence of ADHD.

  17. [Methylphenidate use in dogs with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A case report of a Weimaraner bitch].

    PubMed

    Piturru, P

    2014-04-16

    A 10-month-old Weimaraner bitch was presented at the practice exhibiting agitation, hyperactivity, inability to learn and attention deficit. The diagnostic findings were excessive, long-lasting acoustic and locomotory activity with unexpected inappropriate reactions. Hematological and biochemical blood analyses did not demonstrate abnormal findings. The first attempts at behavioral therapy and fluoxetine application were unsatisfactory. Therefore, a test was conducted with medication for central nervous system stimulation to confirm a diagnosis of hyperkinesis. Following the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the therapy was continued with behavioral modifications, with special consideration of rehabituation and resocialization as well as the use of methylphenidate. During the course of the therapy the bitch developed hyperactivity again when on heat. After changing the dosage of methylphenidate and additionally using dog appeasing pheromone, the behavior of the bitch became normal after 8 days. Two months later endoscopic ovarioectomy was performed. Twelve months after the initial use of methylphenidate the medication could be discontinued completely and the dog's behavior was normal. The methylphenidate dosage used during this therapy was much higher than recommended in the literature.

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: management.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, M L; Zolotor, A

    2001-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood and often persists into adulthood. ADHD is a neurophysiologic disorder defined in behavioral terms and associated with significant morbidity in the realms of social and academic success, and self-esteem. ADHD is often associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and learning disabilities, which further impede the successful development of these persons. It is essential that family physicians be knowledgeable about the presentation and diagnosis of ADHD. Stimulant medications continue to be the mainstay of treatment, although many other medications (such as antidepressants and alpha blockers) are helpful adjuvants to therapy. Current recommendations for treatment include an individualized, multimodal approach involving parents, teachers, counselors and the school system. Treatment follow-up includes monitoring response to medications in various settings, as well as side effects. With time and interest, the family physician can develop the skills needed to treat this disorder.

  19. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  20. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  1. Atomoxetine Treatment for Pediatric Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Comorbid Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Daniel; Donnelly, Craig; Lopez, Frank; Rubin, Richard; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Sutton, Virginia; Bakken, Rosalie; Paczkowski, Martin; Kelsey, Douglas; Sumner, Calvin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests 25% to 35% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have comorbid anxiety disorders. This double-blind study compared atomoxetine with placebo for treating pediatric ADHD with comorbid anxiety, as measured by the ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator Administered and Scored…

  2. Sleep Patterns in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…

  3. Parents psychopathology of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children affected by ADHD and of 45 healthy children, matched to age and gender. Parents of ADHD children reported higher levels of ADHD symptoms, depressive disorders and Depressive Personality Disorders than parents of healthy children. Mothers displayed greater presence of depression, while fathers showed problems concerning alcohol use. The occurrence of ADHD symptoms, psychopathology and personality disorders in parents highlights the importance to integrate the treatment programs in the ADHD children with the screening and treatment for psychopathological symptoms of the parents. PMID:23291521

  4. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the ‘Acting in Awareness’ dimension perhaps due to shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence. PMID:19681107

  5. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning.

  6. Using the test of variables of attention to determine the effectiveness of modafinil in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a prospective methylphenidate-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Goez, Helly R; Scott, Ori; Nevo, Neta; Bennett-Back, Odeya; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of modafinil in comparison with methylphenidate in treatment of pediatric attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compared the effect of modafinil versus methylphenidate on continuous attention task in children with ADHD, using the Test of Variables of Attention. Twenty-eight participants completed a baseline test followed by administration of a single dose of either methylphenidate or modafinil, after which the test was repeated. The test was performed a third time, after each subject received a dose of the medication not previously administered. Comparison of scores showed mean baseline, postmethylphenidate, and postmodafinil scores of -2.04, 0.017, and 0.09, respectively. No difference was found between improvements observed with either medication (P < .05). Adverse events for both agents were mild and self-limited, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hyposomnia. The authors conclude that modafinil is as effective as methylphenidate; however, a larger scale long-term study is required to confirm these results. PMID:22447850

  7. Using the test of variables of attention to determine the effectiveness of modafinil in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a prospective methylphenidate-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Goez, Helly R; Scott, Ori; Nevo, Neta; Bennett-Back, Odeya; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of modafinil in comparison with methylphenidate in treatment of pediatric attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compared the effect of modafinil versus methylphenidate on continuous attention task in children with ADHD, using the Test of Variables of Attention. Twenty-eight participants completed a baseline test followed by administration of a single dose of either methylphenidate or modafinil, after which the test was repeated. The test was performed a third time, after each subject received a dose of the medication not previously administered. Comparison of scores showed mean baseline, postmethylphenidate, and postmodafinil scores of -2.04, 0.017, and 0.09, respectively. No difference was found between improvements observed with either medication (P < .05). Adverse events for both agents were mild and self-limited, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hyposomnia. The authors conclude that modafinil is as effective as methylphenidate; however, a larger scale long-term study is required to confirm these results.

  8. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  9. Objectively-Measured Impulsivity and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Testing Competing Predictions from the Working Memory and Behavioral Inhibition Models of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiker, Joseph S.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is a hallmark of two of the three DSM-IV ADHD subtypes and is associated with myriad adverse outcomes. Limited research, however, is available concerning the mechanisms and processes that contribute to impulsive responding by children with ADHD. The current study tested predictions from two competing models of ADHD--working memory (WM)…

  10. Early Identification and Systemic Educational Intervention for Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandau, Hannes; Pretis, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the international experience with early identification and intervention for children with AD/HD. Much less is known about AD/HD in two- to five-year-old preschool children than is known for older school-aged youngsters. Despite this lack of knowledge, AD/HD is increasingly recognized in this population and stimulant…

  11. Sequential Pharmacotherapy for Children with Comorbid Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity and Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; McCracken, James; Davies, Mark; Walkup, John; Riddle, Mark; Oatis, Melvin; Greenhill, Laurence; Skrobala, Anne; March, John; Gammon, Pat; Robinson, James; Lazell, Robert; McMahon, Donald J.; Ritz, Louise

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by clinically significant anxiety, but few empirical data guide treatment of children meeting full DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and anxiety disorders (ADHD/ANX). This study examined the efficacy of sequential pharmacotherapy for ADHD/ANX children. Method: Children, age 6…

  12. Cardiovascular safety of methylphenidate among children and young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): nationwide self controlled case series study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju-Young; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Park, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether treatment with methylphenidate in children and young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was associated with cardiovascular events. Design Self controlled case series analysis. Setting Nationwide health insurance database, 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2011, in South Korea. Participants 1224 patients aged ≤17 who had experienced an incident cardiovascular event and had had at least one incident prescription for methylphenidate. Main outcome measures A recorded diagnosis (either a primary or secondary cause) of any of the following cardiovascular adverse events: arrhythmias (ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision) codes I44, I45, I47, I48, I49), hypertension (codes I10-I15), myocardial infarction (code I21), ischemic stroke (code I63), or heart failure (code I50). Incidence rate ratios were calculated with conditional Poisson regression and adjusted for time varying comorbidity and comedication. Results Increased risk of arrhythmia was observed in all exposed time periods—that is, periods of treatment with methylphenidate—(incidence rate ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 1.74), and the risk was highest in the children who had congenital heart disease. No significant risk of myocardial infarction was observed for all exposed time periods (1.33, 0.90 to 1.98), though risk was higher in the early risk periods between eight and 56 days after the start of treatment with methylphenidate. No significant increased risk was observed for hypertension, ischemic stroke, or heart failure. Conclusion The relative risk of myocardial infarction and arrhythmias is increased in the early period after the start of methylphenidate treatment for ADHD in children and young people. Though the absolute risk is likely to be low, the risk-benefit balance of methylphenidate should be carefully considered, particularly in children with mild ADHD. PMID:27245699

  13. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  14. Parental Efficacy and Child Behavior in a Community Sample of Children with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Hendricks, Kristy M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Weiss, Julia E.; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of ADHD youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. Methods We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Results Sufficient data were achieved for 2509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n=240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9% vs. 48.0%, P<.001) and age 12 or over (16.3% vs. 10.3%). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR= 0.68, 95% CI=0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR= 2.00, 95% CI=1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Conclusions Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes. PMID:22886756

  15. Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Collaborative Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Theodore, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The school setting can be a difficult place for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The core symptoms of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, make meeting the curriculum demands of the classroom challenging. That ADHD negatively impacts not only academic performance but also social and…

  16. The latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an adult sample.

    PubMed

    Marcus, David K; Norris, Alyssa L; Coccaro, Emil F

    2012-06-01

    The vast majority of studies that have examined the latent structure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents have concluded that ADHD has a dimensional latent structure. In other words, ADHD symptomatology exists along a continuum and there is no natural boundary or qualitative distinction (i.e., taxon) separating youth with ADHD from those with subclinical inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity problems. Although adult ADHD appears to be less prevalent than ADHD in youth (which could suggest a more severe adult ADHD taxon), researchers have yet to examine the latent structure of ADHD in adults. The present study used a sample (N = 600) of adults who completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms. The taxometric analyses revealed a dimensional latent structure for inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and ADHD. These findings are consistent with previous taxometric studies that examined ADHD in children and adolescents, and with contemporary polygenic and multifactorial models of ADHD.

  17. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment.

  18. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Conveys Familial Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder through Striatal Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Fossella, John A.; Mulder, Martijn J.; Casey B. J.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Vessaz, M. Nathalie; Van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effect of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results confirm that DAT1 translates the genetic risk of ADHD through striatal activation.

  19. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  20. A clinican's guide to adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Meyer, Andrea; Soovajian, Victoria

    2012-10-01

    While attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been traditionally viewed as a childhood ailment, longitudinal data suggest that it persists into adulthood for most affected individuals. Adult ADHD is now recognized as a legitimate diagnosis with clinical and epidemiological implications. It is estimated that 4% of American adults are afflicted by this disorder. There have been advances in adultADHD screening tools, diagnostic guidelines, medication delivery systems and psychosocial treatments. Despite these gains, there is great variability among clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. This article reviews controversies surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD and suggests strategies to overcome existing obstacles.

  1. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  2. Motor Control and Sequencing of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) During Computer Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Milner, Nikki; West, John; Douglas, Graham; Lawrence, Vivienne; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary; Durkin, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The motor control of 49 unmedicated boys clinically diagnosed with ADHD, case-matched with 49 non-ADHD boys, was assessed while playing Crash Bandicoot I, a SonyTM Playstation platform computer video game. In Crash Bandicoot participants control the movements of a small-animated figure through a hazardous jungle environment. Operationally defined…

  3. Brief Report: The Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Academic Performance in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…

  4. Executive Dysfunctions among Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Performance-Based Test and Parents Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty in executive functions (EF) is a core symptom of ADHD. Yet, the EF assessments are still in controversy. It is still unclear whether the everyday implementation of EF can be assessed under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the purposes of the present study are: (a) to examine EF among boys with ADHD both in everyday behavior (as…

  5. Competing Core Processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do Working Memory Deficiencies Underlie Behavioral Inhibition Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Hudec, Kristen L.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing…

  6. Adrenocortical Functioning in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Subtypes of ADHD and Associated Comorbid Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; Fortier, Isabel; Utendale, William T.; Simard, Louise R.; Robaey, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function have been associated with varying forms of psychopathology in children. Studies suggesting children with ADHD have blunted HPA function have been complicated by the prevalence of comorbid diagnoses and heterogeneity of ADHD. The goals of this research were to assess the relations…

  7. Emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Philip; Stringaris, Argyris; Nigg, Joel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    Although it has long been recognized that many individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also have difficulties with emotion regulation, no consensus has been reached on how to conceptualize this clinically challenging domain. The authors examine the current literature using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Three key findings emerge. First, emotion dysregulation is prevalent in ADHD throughout the lifespan and is a major contributor to impairment. Second, emotion dysregulation in ADHD may arise from deficits in orienting toward, recognizing, and/or allocating attention to emotional stimuli; these deficits implicate dysfunction within a striato-amygdalo-medial prefrontal cortical network. Third, while current treatments for ADHD often also ameliorate emotion dysregulation, a focus on this combination of symptoms reframes clinical questions and could stimulate novel therapeutic approaches. The authors then consider three models to explain the overlap between emotion dysregulation and ADHD: emotion dysregulation and ADHD are correlated but distinct dimensions; emotion dysregulation is a core diagnostic feature of ADHD; and the combination constitutes a nosological entity distinct from both ADHD and emotion dysregulation alone. The differing predictions from each model can guide research on the much-neglected population of patients with ADHD and emotion dysregulation.

  8. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  9. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  10. Working memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an examination of central executive and storage/rehearsal processes.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Hudec, Kristen L; Patros, Connor H G; Kasper, Lisa J

    2013-05-01

    The current study was the first to use a regression approach to examine the unique contributions of central executive (CE) and storage/rehearsal processes to working memory (WM) deficits in adults with ADHD. Thirty-seven adults (ADHD = 21, HC = 16) completed phonological (PH) and visuospatial (VS) working memory tasks. While both groups performed significantly better during the PH task relative to the VS task, adults with ADHD exhibited significant deficits across both working memory modalities. Further, the ADHD group recalled disproportionately fewer PH and VS stimuli as set-size demands increased. Overall, the CE and PH storage/rehearsal processes of adults with ADHD were both significantly impaired relative to those of the healthy control adults; however, the magnitude of the CE effect size was much smaller compared to previous studies of children with the disorder. Collectively, results provide support for a lifelong trajectory of WM deficits in ADHD.

  11. Social Correlates of Bullying in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermanis, Victoria; Wiener, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the levels and social correlates of bullying in adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-four male and female participants (40 ADHD) and their parents and teachers complete standardized questionnaires. Compared to adolescents without ADHD, adolescents with ADHD are more likely to report…

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Childress, Ann C.; Cutler, Andrew J.; Gasior, Maria; Hamdani, Mohamed; Ferreira-Cornwell, M. Celeste; Squires, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) efficacy and safety versus placebo in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Adolescents (13 through 17) with at least moderately symptomatic ADHD (ADHD Rating Scale IV: Clinician Version [ADHD-RS-IV] score greater than or equal to 28) were randomized to…

  13. Interaction of Parenting Styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Andries, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between parenting styles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), utilizing a sample of Iranian parents of children with and without ADHD. Results indicate significant relationships between ADHD and parenting styles. There is a negative relationship between having an ADHD child and applying authoritative…

  14. Teacher Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Middle School Students in South Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Fred R., Jr.; Brown, Michelle S.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the knowledge levels middle school teachers in South Texas have in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study specifically compared teacher knowledge levels among three specific ADHD knowledge areas: (a) general knowledge of ADHD, (b) knowledge of symptoms/diagnosis of ADHD, and (c)…

  15. Current Medications for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Brigette S.; Roberts, Holly J.; Needelman, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is common among children. Fortunately, ADHD is highly treatable with medication. The purpose of this article is to serve as a primer on medication treatment for ADHD for school psychologists. The article discusses the available stimulant and nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD.…

  16. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  17. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  18. Interference Control in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mourik, Rosa; Papanikolau, Alky; van Gellicum-Bijlhout, Joyce; van Oostenbruggen, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Post-Uiterweer, Annebeth; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naive children with ADHD (n = 35 and n = 51 in Experiments…

  19. The Neurological Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Shirley; Bolan, Morna; Burton, Michael; Snyder, Sherry; Pasterczyk-Seabolt, Claire; Martin, Don

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examines the role of neurochemical stimulation and signs of neurological deficits. Describes the chemical action of drugs used to treat ADHD, along with cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects, and side effects. Elaborates on drug treatment and basic behavior modification…

  20. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  1. DSM-5 further inflates attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-06-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmful consequences of further expansion of this already broad, defined, and inflated DSM category.

  2. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  3. Teens' Perceptions about Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipp, Diana K.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study describes teens' perceptions about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and medications. The four modes of adaptation of the Roy Adaptation Model were the framework for this study. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 15 high school teens aged 14-17 with parent-reported AD/HD. An inductive…

  4. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  5. Understanding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder From Childhood to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorders presenting for treatment in children and adolescents. ADHD is often chronic with prominent symptoms and impairment spanning into adulthood. ADHD is often associated with co-occurring disorders including disruptive, mood, anxiety, and substance abuse. The diagnosis of ADHD is clinically established by review of symptoms and impairment. The biological underpinning of the disorder is supported by genetic, neuroimaging, neurochemistry and neuropsychological data. Consideration of all aspects of an individual’s life needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Multimodal treatment includes educational, family, and individual support. Psychotherapy alone and in combination with medication is helpful for ADHD and comorbid problems. Pharmacotherapy including stimulants, noradrenergic agents, alpha agonists, and antidepressants plays a fundamental role in the long-term management of ADHD across the lifespan. PMID:20861593

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Allergy: Is There a Link? A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder usually co-occur in the same individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previous evidence has shown that a frequent coexistence of allergic diseases was noted in patients with ADHD or tic disorder. We attempted to investigate the possible link among ADHD,…

  7. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  8. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults. PMID:25295647

  9. Psychosocial interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: update.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common reason for referral to child and adolescent psychiatry clinics. Although stimulant medications represent an evidence-based approach to managing ADHD, psychosocial interventions for child/adolescent ADHD target functional impairments as the intervention goal, and rely heavily on behavioral therapy techniques and operant conditioning principles. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for managing pediatric ADHD include behavioral parent training, school-based interventions relying on behavioral modification, teaching skills, and operant conditioning principles, and intensive summer treatment programs. The use of conjoint psychosocial treatments with ADHD medications may enable lower doses of each form of treatment. PMID:25455577

  10. [Legal aspects of hyperkinetic disorders/ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, F; Reis, O; Buchmann, J; Bohne-Suraj, S

    2008-07-01

    With a prevalence of 2-6%, hyperkinetic disorders (F 90, ICD-10) and disturbances of activity and attention (F 90.0, ADHD, ICD-10) are among the psychiatric disorders most commonly diagnosed in children, adolescents, and adults. Children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD suffer from hyperactivity and deficits in attention and impulse control. Adults usually have problems focusing on one goal, maintaining their attention, modulating emotions effectively, structuring their tasks, and controlling impulses and in executive functions. Legal implications derive from core symptoms and from treatment with stimulants governed by legislation on narcotics. This paper discusses juridical aspects of ADHD in connection with the administration of medication at school, trips abroad within and outside the Schengen area, driving, competitive sports, military service, the increased risk of delinquency, the individual capacity to incur criminal responsibility, developmental criteria for the ability to act responsibly, and modalities for withdrawal treatment or treatment during detention.

  11. The Effects of Yoga on the Attention and Behavior of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Pauline. S.; Kenny, Dianna T.

    2004-01-01

    Boys diagnosed with ADHD by specialist pediatricians and stabilized on medication were randomly assigned to a 20-session yoga group (n = 11) or a control group (cooperative activities; n = 8). Boys were assessed pre- and post-intervention on the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L & CTRS-R:L; Conners, 1997), the Test…

  12. Conscientiousness as a Mediator of the Association between Masculinized Finger-Length Ratios and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: One often-overlooked biological risk factor that may help explain sex-biased prevalence rates in psychopathology is sex hormones. Personality traits, which also show sex differences, may mediate relations between biological risk factors like hormones and childhood psychopathology such as ADHD (or, alternatively, be independent risk…

  13. Working Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Contribution of Central Executive and Subsystem Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Alderson, R. Matt; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sims, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated contradictory findings from recent experimental and meta-analytic studies concerning working memory deficits in ADHD. Working memory refers to the cognitive ability to temporarily store and mentally manipulate limited amounts of information for use in guiding behavior. Phonological (verbal) and visuospatial…

  14. Lifespan attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms in female patients: a latent class approach.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Fiona; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan

    2011-12-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are frequently comorbid. To contribute to a better understanding of the associations regularly found between ADHD and BPD, on the one hand, and the developmental pathways for these disorders, on the other hand, latent class analyses (LCA) were undertaken to identify classes differing in profiles of childhood symptoms of ADHD and adult symptoms of ADHD and BPD. Diagnostic interviews with 103 female outpatients meeting the criteria for ADHD and/or BPD were used to assess current DSM-IV symptoms; childhood symptoms of ADHD were assessed in parent interviews. The latent classes were examined in relation to the DSM-IV conceptualizations of ADHD and BPD. And relations between childhood and adult classes were examined to hypothesize about developmental trajectories. LCA revealed an optimal solution with four distinct symptom profiles: only ADHD symptoms; BPD symptoms and only ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity; BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity; BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. All patients with BPD had some ADHD symptoms in both adulthood and childhood. Hyperactivity was least discriminative of adult classes. Adult hyperactivity was not always preceded by childhood hyperactivity; some cases of comorbid ADHD and BPD symptoms were not preceded by significant childhood ADHD symptoms; and some cases of predominantly BPD symptoms could be traced back to combined symptoms of ADHD in childhood. The results underline the importance of taking ADHD diagnoses into account with BPD. ADHD classification subtypes may not be permanent over time, and different developmental pathways to adult ADHD and BPD should therefore be investigated.

  15. Does ADHD Predict Substance-Use Disorders? A 10-Year Follow-up Study of Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Martelon, MaryKate; Joshi, Gagan; Bateman, Clancey; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High rates of substance-use disorders (SUD) have been found in samples of adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Predictors of SUD in children with ADHD who are at risk for the development of SUDs remain understudied. The main aims of this study were to identify clinically meaningful characteristics…

  16. [Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder in autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Peña, Joaquín A

    2011-06-01

    According to the DSM-IV-TR, symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity are frequent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This statement is supported by clinical observation and formal assessment. However, ASD diagnosis is still among the exclusion criteria for the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Such exclusion generates controversy and questions regarding the need and benefits of maintaining or not these separations; so much so, that the proposed criteria for the DSM-V eliminate that exclusion condition. It is necessary a better understanding of the comorbidity between both entities in order to be able to have an appropriate sequence of the intervention goals. For that reason, if inattention and hyperactivity in individuals with ASD are considered as a representation of a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, treatment plans for this group would be better adjusted and more likely to offer a real benefit in the outcome of their adaptive functioning.

  17. Examination of spatial working memory performance in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT) and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Vance, Alasdair; Ferrin, Maite; Winther, Jo; Gomez, Rapson

    2013-08-01

    Spatial working memory (SWM) is known to be impaired in children with ADHD-CT, whether anxiety is present or not. Yet, it remains unclear whether anxiety disorders add to the SWM impairments evident in ADHD-CT and whether these findings extend into adolescents with ADHD-CT and anxiety. Further, it is not yet known whether children and adolescents with carefully defined anxiety disorders alone, demonstrate SWM deficits. This study explored the association of SWM and its strategy and spatial span components in carefully defined children and adolescents (age 6-16 years) with ADHD-CT alone (N = 163; 14 % female), ADHD-CT and anxiety (N = 243; 23 % female), anxiety disorders alone (N = 69; 25 % female) compared to age- and gender-matched healthy control participants (N = 116; 19 % female). The relationship between SWM and its strategy and span components and core ADHD-CT symptoms and anxiety symptoms were also examined. There was no evidence of an additive effect of ADHD and anxiety on SWM, strategy and spatial span deficits. But, anxiety disorders alone were associated with impaired SWM and span performance compared to healthy control participants. In contrast, strategy did not differ between children and adolescents with anxiety disorders alone and healthy control participants, suggesting that with anxiety span is the most affected component. Further, these findings were age-independent. This study concurs with and extends current influential models about the cognitive effects of anxiety on performance in the setting of ADHD-CT. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Emotional Face Identification in Youths with Primary Bipolar Disorder or Primary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Karen E.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Young, Matthew; Dickstein, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid or confounded; therefore, we evaluated emotional face identification to better understand brain/behavior interactions in children and adolescents with either primary BD, primary ADHD, or typically developing controls (TDC). Method: Participants…

  19. Fundamental Movement Skills in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chu, Chia-Hua

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the movement skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and those without disabilities. Ninety-one children (ASD, n = 28; ADHD, n = 29; control, n = 34), ages 6-10 years, were of average IQ participated. After controlling for age, both ASD and…

  20. Parenting Practices and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: New Findings Suggest Partial Specificity of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Brandi; Nigg, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The relation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and parenting practices is examined by assessing 182 children for ADHD and non ADHD status through parent semistructured clinical interview. Results show that maternal inconsistent discipline and paternal low involvement is associated with the disorder.

  1. Mechanism of action of guanfacine: a postsynaptic differential approach to the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd).

    PubMed

    Alamo, Cecilio; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sánchez-García, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of ADHD has focused on the use of psychostimulants drugs such as methylphenidate or amphetamine and derivatives, or not stimulants agents, such as atomoxetine. These agents act mainly on catecholaminergic presynaptic mechanisms. Recently the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved another not psychostimulant drug, guanfacine extended release (ER), as a new option to the treatment of ADHD, which acts at postsynaptic level. Guanfacine stimulates postsynaptic alfa-2A adrenergic receptors so it inhibits the production of cAMP and closes HCN channels enhancing the effectiveness of the signal of the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), thus improving working memory and attention. In addition, stimulation of the alpha-2A receptors promotes growth and maturation of the dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons of the medial PFc, that are associated with brain function such as learning and memory. In contrast with psychostimulants or atomoxetine, guanfacine mimics noradrenaline stimulation of postsynaptic receptors alfa-2A on the PFC. PMID:27254403

  2. Substance Use Disorder and ADHD: Is ADHD a Particularly "Specific" Risk Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousha, Maryam; Shahrivar, Zahra; Alaghband-rad, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the pattern of substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescents with and without history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using an Iranian sample in the context of a cultural background and drug availability is differing from Western countries. Method: In this case-control study, the participants were interviewed…

  3. Executive dysfunctions among boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): performance-based test and parents report.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty in executive functions (EF) is a core symptom of ADHD. Yet, the EF assessments are still in controversy. It is still unclear whether the everyday implementation of EF can be assessed under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the purposes of the present study are: (a) to examine EF among boys with ADHD both in everyday behavior (as reported by parents) and in a performance-based test. (b) To examine correlations between the two tests. Both the Behavior Assessment of Dysexecutive Functions for Children (BADS-C) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) were independently applied to 25 boys aged 8-11 years with ADHD and 25 age-matched typical boys. Results of the two assessments were compared between the two groups to indicate differences in EF. Correlations between the two assessments for all participants were evaluated. Overall, significant differences in EF were found between the two groups on both assessments. Significant correlations were found between BADS-C and BRIEF, specifically in metacognition but not in behavioral regulation. Findings indicate that poor EF manifests itself in everyday behavior. These difficulties are found in metacognitive and behavioral regulation components. Nevertheless, applying a valid ecological assessment of behavior regulation merits future research. PMID:22230238

  4. Executive dysfunctions among boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): performance-based test and parents report.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty in executive functions (EF) is a core symptom of ADHD. Yet, the EF assessments are still in controversy. It is still unclear whether the everyday implementation of EF can be assessed under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the purposes of the present study are: (a) to examine EF among boys with ADHD both in everyday behavior (as reported by parents) and in a performance-based test. (b) To examine correlations between the two tests. Both the Behavior Assessment of Dysexecutive Functions for Children (BADS-C) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) were independently applied to 25 boys aged 8-11 years with ADHD and 25 age-matched typical boys. Results of the two assessments were compared between the two groups to indicate differences in EF. Correlations between the two assessments for all participants were evaluated. Overall, significant differences in EF were found between the two groups on both assessments. Significant correlations were found between BADS-C and BRIEF, specifically in metacognition but not in behavioral regulation. Findings indicate that poor EF manifests itself in everyday behavior. These difficulties are found in metacognitive and behavioral regulation components. Nevertheless, applying a valid ecological assessment of behavior regulation merits future research.

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    PubMed Central

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluation, return-to-play, pharmacotherapy, adult, adolescent, student, screening, injury, risk, neuropsychiatry, TBI, traumatic brain injury, and epidemiology. Study Design: Literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: ADHD usually has an early onset, with delayed diagnosis in some patients due to heterogeneous presentations. Suspected cases can be evaluated with available diagnostic tools and confirmed clinically. Athletes with ADHD may participate at all competition levels. Conclusion: Athletes with ADHD are able to participate at all competition levels by following published guidelines and requirements. Exercise benefits many athletes with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and concussion syndromes is currently under investigation. PMID:24587866

  6. Genetic Support for the Dual Nature of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Substantial Genetic Overlap between the Inattentive and Hyperactive-Impulsive Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Grainne; Ronald, Angelica; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, complex and highly heritable disorder, characterised by inattentive, impulsive and overactive behaviour. Evidence for the heritability of ADHD measures in twin population samples has come from the analysis of total scores that combine inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive…

  7. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  8. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  9. Psychotic disorders comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: an important knowledge gap.

    PubMed

    Levy, Emmanuelle; Traicu, Alexandru; Iyer, Srividya; Malla, Ashok; Joober, Ridha

    2015-03-01

    Psychotic disorders (PDs) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequently comorbid. Clinicians are often reticent to treat ADHD in patients with psychosis, fearing that psychostimulants will worsen psychotic symptoms. Advances in neurobiology have challenged the simplistic dichotomy where PD is considered a disorder of high dopamine (DA), treated by DA antagonists, and ADHD a disorder of low DA, treated by DA agonists. In our paper, we review the literature on comorbid ADHD and psychosis. Treating ADHD with psychostimulants may be considered in patients with PD who have been stabilized with antipsychotics (APs). Not treating ADHD may have consequences because ADHD may predispose patients to drug abuse, which further increases the risk of PD. Nevertheless, more systematic studies are needed as there remains some uncertainty on the combined use of APs and psychostimulants in comorbid PD and ADHD.

  10. Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)

    PubMed Central

    DIAMOND, ADELE

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (under-arousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies. PMID:16262993

  11. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Taylor, Michele M.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Mathews, Tiffany A.; Jones, Sara R.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Miller, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8–12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6–15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.—Richardson, J. R., Taylor, M. M., Shalat, S. L., Guillot III, T. S., Caudle, W. M., Hossain, M. M., Mathews, T. A., Jones, S. R., Cory-Slechta, D. A., Miller, G. W. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25630971

  12. "He's Just Enthusiastic. Is That Such a Bad Thing?" Experiences of Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Ruth; Hennessy, Eilis

    2012-01-01

    Parenting a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a challenging experience. The hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention of a child with ADHD often put parenting skills to the test. The present study thus aimed to explore the experiences of parents of children with ADHD in Ireland. Eighteen parents of 7-12-year-old boys…

  13. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Childress, Ann C; Berry, Sally A

    2012-02-12

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioural disorder in children and adolescents, consisting of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. The majority of children with ADHD will continue to experience significant ADHD symptoms as teens. ADHD in adolescents can result in significant functional impairment and poorer quality of life. Children and adolescents with ADHD are at higher risk of developing other psychiatric illnesses such as mood, conduct and substance abuse disorders. Stimulants (amphetamines and methylphenidates) and nonstimulants (atomoxetine, guanfacine extended-release (XR) and clonidine XR) have been found to be effective and are approved by the US FDA for the treatment of ADHD in adolescents in the US. Of the agents approved in the US, only guanfacine XR and clonidine XR are not approved in any other countries. There is growing evidence that treatment of ADHD with stimulants reduces the risk of development of other psychiatric co-morbidities, including substance abuse disorders. To date, all FDA-approved stimulants and nonstimulants that have been adequately studied have been demonstrated to be safe and effective in treating ADHD in both children and adolescents. Therefore, clinical decisions used in selecting pharmacotherapy to treat ADHD in children aged 6-12 years can be applied in the adolescent population. PMID:22316347

  14. Hyperactivity and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... their child has hyperactivity that is part of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or another mental health condition. ... Cunningham N, Jensen P. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. ... eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  15. Distinct Response Time Distributions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Querne, Laurent; Berquin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the issue of response time (RT) profiles in hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI), inattentive (ADHD-IA), and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes of ADHD. We hypothesized that children with ADHD-HI should respond more rapidly than children without ADHD and children with ADHD-IA and ADHD-C should respond more slowly than children without…

  16. Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T; Biederman, J; Wilens, T

    2000-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature documenting the effectiveness of medication in the treatment of ADHD, there has been public and professional concern regarding the possible inappropriate diagnosis and prescription of ADHD medications. Recently the Council of Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association addressed these concerns in a scholarly review. Several factors were identified that contributed to existing controversies: (1) Like most psychiatric disorders, diagnostic criteria for ADHD are based on history and behavioral assessment. There are no pathognomonic laboratory or radiologic tests to confirm the diagnosis. (2) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disorder and requires extended treatment. (3) Treatment includes potentially abusable medications. After a review of the voluminous literature, this distinguished panel concluded that ADHD is one of the best researched disorders in medicine; in fact, the overall data on its validity are far more compelling than for many other medical conditions. They also concluded that there was little evidence of widespread overdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of ADHD or of widespread overprescription of stimulants by physicians. Consistent with the current emphasis on cognitive dysregulation in ADHD, treatment concerns have expanded from a primarily behavioral focus to include enhancement of executive functions in scholastic as well as other settings. Although stimulants have been the most studied compounds, there is a considerable body of literature indicating an important role for other psychopharmacologic agents. Noradrenergic and dopaminergic modulation appears to be necessary for effective anti-ADHD treatment. In addition, promising evidence of newer cholinergic agents may provide other useful alternatives. As with all psychiatric disorders, comorbid conditions are prominent and may lead to high morbidity and disability if not addressed. As with other areas of medicine, it is sometimes necessary to

  17. Effects of Methylphenidate on Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Erin B.; Klorman, Rafael; Thatcher, Joan E.; Borgstedt, Agneta D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of methylphenidate on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes. Method: Nineteen ADHD/inattentive (ADHD/I) and 22 ADHD/combined (ADHD/C) 6- to 12-year-old children entered a 6-week, double-blind trial of placebo and methylphenidate in divided doses (0.94 [plus or minus] 0.02 mg/kg/day = 33.06 [plus…

  18. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  19. A Weak Association between Traits of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Gambling in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Schatz, Nicole K.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been characterized as a comorbidity to pathological gambling (PG). However, contradictory evidence has emerged, and it has not been established whether nonimpulsive features of ADHD (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity) contribute to PG risk, or how robust this relationship is in college samples.…

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced.

    PubMed

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities. PMID:27042070

  1. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects.

  2. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects. PMID:21069642

  3. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sleep in Children.

    PubMed

    Herman, John H

    2015-06-01

    Basic assumptions about ADHD in children and sleep are not supported by research. It is unclear that children with hyperactivity or inattention have disrupted sleep. Parents of children with ADHD consistently report more bedtime resistance, but there is no objective evidence that sleep is subsequently disrupted. Treatment of ADHD with stimulants may disrupt sleep. Studies of comorbid sleep or psychiatric disorders consistently show that they disrupt sleep. Melatonin is an effective treatment of sleep problems in children with ADHD. Before any child is placed on stimulants, the pediatrician or other health care professional should insure that the child is obtaining adequate sleep. PMID:26055862

  4. Epigenetics in Developmental Disorder: ADHD and Endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Trevor; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Blum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors, is expressed in a variety of disorder manifestations: severity, co-morbidities of symptoms, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. Neurodevelopmental influences of genomic imprinting have set the stage for the structural-physiological variations that modulate the cognitive, affective, and pathophysiological domains of ADHD. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors provide rapidly proliferating insights into the developmental trajectory of the condition, both structurally and functionally. Parent-of-origin effects seem to support the notion that genetic risks for disease process debut often interact with the social environment, i.e., the parental environment in infants and young children. The notion of endophenotypes, markers of an underlying liability to the disorder, may facilitate detection of genetic risks relative to a complex clinical disorder. Simple genetic association has proven insufficient to explain the spectrum of ADHD. At a primary level of analysis, the consideration of epigenetic regulation of brain signalling mechanisms, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline is examined. Neurotrophic factors that participate in the neurogenesis, survival, and functional maintenance of brain systems, are involved in neuroplasticity alterations underlying brain disorders, and are implicated in the genetic predisposition to ADHD, but not obviously, nor in a simple or straightforward fashion. In the context of intervention, genetic linkage studies of ADHD pharmacological intervention have demonstrated that associations have fitted the “drug response phenotype,” rather than the disorder diagnosis. Despite conflicting evidence for the existence, or not, of genetic associations between disorder diagnosis and genes regulating the structure and function of neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic

  5. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Eileen

    2008-10-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent, chronic, and pervasive childhood disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate activity level, impulsivity, and inability to sustain attention and concentration. Core symptoms of the disorder are associated with impairment in multiple domains of functioning and often coexist with other psychiatric disorders, the most prevalent being oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. Concerns have been expressed about the overdiagnosis of ADHD, an upsurge in prescription of stimulant medication, and wide variations in practice patterns related to diagnosis and treatment of children with ADHD among primary care providers. Clinical research and expert consensus guidelines over the past decade have increasingly clarified the most effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. Hence, the purpose of this article was to provide primary care providers with the most current, evidence-based information on the assessment and treatment of children with ADHD.

  6. College Students with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...

  7. Fluoxetine Monotherapy in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Non-Bipolar Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Humberto; Butterbaugh, Grant J.; Purnell, William; Layman, Ann K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for developing comorbid non-bipolar mood disorders. Fluoxetine monotherapy is an established treatment for pediatric mood disorders; however its efficacy in ADHD and comorbid mood disorder is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated 30 children who met DSM-IV criteria for…

  8. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brieber, Sarah; Neufang, Susanne; Bruning, Nicole; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fink, Gereon R.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two distinct neurodevelopmental diseases, they share behavioural, neuropsychological and neurobiological characteristics. For the identification of endophenotypes across diagnostic categories, further investigations of phenotypic overlap…

  9. A Coaching Intervention for College Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stacy L.; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we describe coaching as an intervention for college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Coaching college students with ADHD empowers individuals to organize and execute their responsibilities, both in academia and in everyday life. With the assistance of a coach, individuals with ADHD can create structure…

  10. Gender Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning of New Zealand Adolescents with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    Only recently have studies included a female Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) sample when investigating neurocognitive functioning of individuals with ADHD. As such, the generalisability of findings of impaired executive functioning is limited to ADHD males. This study compared four groups aged 13-17 years: 30 male controls, 35…

  11. Predictors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder within 6 Months after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Schachar, Russell J.; Levin, Harvey S.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Dennis, Maureen; Saunders, Ann; Landis, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the phenomenology and predictive factors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (SADHD). Method: Children without preinjury ADHD 5-14 years old with TBI from consecutive admissions (n = 143) to five trauma centers were observed prospectively for 6…

  12. The Prevalence of Features of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Special School in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, S.; Hillery, J.; Guerin, S.; McEvoy, J.; Dodd, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Irish schools is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of features of ADHD in a special school, in order to ascertain the number of children who may need further assessment for ADHD.…

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders among Students in Christian Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jacob J.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores current research, diagnosis, and common problems of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among Christian college and university students. For years, ADHD was believed to dissipate as children mature, but current research contradicts that belief. Proctor (2009) and others detail the continuance of ADHD into…

  14. Why Is There a Gender Gap in Children Presenting for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Visser, Troy A. W.

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed why girls are less likely to be referred for mental health services for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than boys. Ninety-six parents of children with elevated ADHD symptoms and 140 elementary school teachers read vignettes about children with ADHD. Half of the participants read vignettes with boys' names, and…

  15. Empathy and Social Perspective Taking in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Imola; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria; Moore, Chris; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This study explored empathy and social perspective taking in 8 to 12 year old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 92 children, 50 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 42 typically developing comparison children. Although children with ADHD were rated by their parents as less empathic than…

  16. Sustained Attention and Response Inhibition in Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwid, Olga G.; Curko Kera, Elizabeth A.; Marks, David J.; Santra, Amita; Bender, Heidi A.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have variably shown ADHD-related impairment in both inhibitory control and sustained attention. However, few studies have examined ADHD-associated patterns of performance on these tasks among younger children (below age 7…

  17. The Relationship between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Aggressive Behaviour in Preschool Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Karaba, Rania

    2005-01-01

    Research regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) among preschoolers is limited. This study explored prevalence rates of AD/HD on a community-based sample of preschoolers in Athens. Moreover, it examined the relationship between AD/HD and aggressive behaviour and explored sex differences in this relationship. Nursery teachers…

  18. Fundamental Movement Skills and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Peer Comparisons and Stimulant Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fundamental movement skills of 22 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from 6 to 12 years of age, to gender- and age-matched peers without ADHD and assess the effects of stimulant medication on the movement skill performance of the children with ADHD. Repeated measures analyses…

  19. Striatal Sensitivity during Reward Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to deficits in the dopaminergic reward-processing circuitry; yet, existing evidence is limited, and the influence of genetic variation affecting dopamine signaling remains unknown. We investigated striatal responsivity to rewards in ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) using…

  20. Co-Occurrence of Motor Problems and Autistic Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiersen, Angela M.; Constantino, John N.; Todd, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the concurrence between parent-reported motor problems and clinical autistic symptoms in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results suggest that children with ADHD and parent-reported motor problems are likely to have more severe autistic symptoms than those with ADHD alone.

  1. Executive Functioning among Finnish Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Humphrey, Lorie A.; Tapio, Terttu; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Yang, May H.; Dang, Jeff; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that executive function deficit (EFD) was more frequent in ADHD groups than in those without ADHD.

  2. Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…

  3. Attentional Functions in Children and Adolescents with ADHD, Depressive Disorders, and the Comorbid Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Thomas; Konrad, Kerstin; De Brito, Stephane A.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Vloet, Timo D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorders (DDs) often co-occur in children and adolescents, but evidence on the respective influence of these disorders on attention parameters is inconsistent. This study examines the influence of DDs on ADHD in a model-oriented approach that includes selectivity and…

  4. Maternal Parenting Styles and Mother-Child Relationship among Adolescents with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD…

  5. Non-Drug Interventions for Improving Classroom Behavior and Social Functioning of Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliff, David

    This paper explores research on use of medication and non-drug interventions to modify the behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins by discussing the symptoms of ADHD, neurological differences between children with ADHD and those without ADHD, and expected adolescent and adult outcomes for…

  6. The Utility of Home Problem Pervasiveness and Severity in Classifying Children Identified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tammy D.; Pinard, Ferne A.; Barry, Christopher T.; Garland, Beth H.; Lyman, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Given the propensity for clinical assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to focus on core behavioral symptoms, the current study examined how well other predictors classified children who were diagnosed with ADHD by licensed practitioners. Participants were 91 children (39 ADHD-identified, 52 without ADHD), aged 8 to 13…

  7. Gene by Environment Interactions Influencing Reading Disability and the Inattentive Symptom Dimension of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jenni; Pennington, Bruce F.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Olson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reading disability (RD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are comorbid and genetically correlated, especially the inattentive dimension of ADHD (ADHD-I). However, previous research indicates that RD and ADHD enter into opposite gene by environment (G x E) interactions. Methods: This study used behavioral genetic…

  8. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  9. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Symptoms of ADHD include hyperactivity, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, and inattention. While the biological pathways leading to ADHD are not clearly delineated, a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for the disorder are recognized. In the early 1970s, research conducted by Dr. Benjamin Feingold found that when hyperactive children were given a diet free of artificial food additives and dyes, symptoms of hyperactivity were reduced. While some clinical studies supported these findings, more rigorous empirical studies conducted over the next 20 years were less positive. As a result, research on the role of food additives in contributing to ADHD waned. In recent years, however, interest in this area has revived. In response to more recent research and public petitions, in December 2009 the British government requested that food manufacturers remove most artificial food dyes from their products. While these strictures could have positive effects on behavior, the removal of food dyes is not a panacea for ADHD, which is a multifaceted disorder with both biological and environmental underpinnings. PMID:21729092

  10. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Symptoms of ADHD include hyperactivity, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, and inattention. While the biological pathways leading to ADHD are not clearly delineated, a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for the disorder are recognized. In the early 1970s, research conducted by Dr. Benjamin Feingold found that when hyperactive children were given a diet free of artificial food additives and dyes, symptoms of hyperactivity were reduced. While some clinical studies supported these findings, more rigorous empirical studies conducted over the next 20 years were less positive. As a result, research on the role of food additives in contributing to ADHD waned. In recent years, however, interest in this area has revived. In response to more recent research and public petitions, in December 2009 the British government requested that food manufacturers remove most artificial food dyes from their products. While these strictures could have positive effects on behavior, the removal of food dyes is not a panacea for ADHD, which is a multifaceted disorder with both biological and environmental underpinnings.

  11. Duration-dependence of the effect of treadmill exercise on hyperactivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Jun Heon; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder, and its symptoms are hyperactivity and deficits in learning and memory. Physical exercise increases dopamine synthesis and neuronal activity in various brain regions. In the present study, we investigate the duration-dependence of the treadmill exercise on hyperactivity in relation with dopamine expression in ADHD. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were used for the ADHD rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were used for the control rats. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min once daily for 28 consecutive days. For this experiment, open field test and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase were conducted. The present results revealed that ADHD rats showed hyperactivity, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the striatum and substantia nigra were decreased in ADHD rats. Treadmill exercise alleviated hyperactivity and also increased TH expression in ADHD rats. Treadmill exercise for 30 min per day showed most potent suppressing effect on hyperactivity, and this dose of treadmill exercise also most potently inhibited tyrosine hydroxylase expression. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise for 30 min once a day is the most effective therapeutic intervention for ADHD patients. PMID:24877041

  12. Duration-dependence of the effect of treadmill exercise on hyperactivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Jun Heon; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder, and its symptoms are hyperactivity and deficits in learning and memory. Physical exercise increases dopamine synthesis and neuronal activity in various brain regions. In the present study, we investigate the duration-dependence of the treadmill exercise on hyperactivity in relation with dopamine expression in ADHD. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were used for the ADHD rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were used for the control rats. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min once daily for 28 consecutive days. For this experiment, open field test and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase were conducted. The present results revealed that ADHD rats showed hyperactivity, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the striatum and substantia nigra were decreased in ADHD rats. Treadmill exercise alleviated hyperactivity and also increased TH expression in ADHD rats. Treadmill exercise for 30 min per day showed most potent suppressing effect on hyperactivity, and this dose of treadmill exercise also most potently inhibited tyrosine hydroxylase expression. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise for 30 min once a day is the most effective therapeutic intervention for ADHD patients.

  13. Can the Brain Be Trained? Comparing the Literature on the Use of EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback as an Alternative or Complementary Therapy for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankus, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Psychologists, social workers, and school counselors are increasingly adding neurofeedback (NFT), a controversial alternative or complementary therapy to their treatment plans for patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. NFT involves training the patient in self-regulation of brain wave patterns, employing a standard diagnostic…

  14. Infrequent, but Not Frequent, Reinforcers Produce More Variable Responding and Deficient Sustained Attention in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aase, Heidi; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-01-01

    Background: The underlying behavioral/psychological processes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are unclear. Motivational factors, related to dopamine dysfunction, may play an important role in the development of the behavioral symptoms. Particularly, infrequent, but not frequent, reinforcers have been suggested to be associated with…

  15. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Chi-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and epilepsy in clinical settings. We assessed 64 children with ASD, 64 with ADHD, 64 with epilepsy, and 64 typically developing children without any neuropsychiatric disorders by using a sex-and age-matched…

  16. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  17. Is the Inattentive Subtype of ADHD Different from the Combined/Hyperactive Subtype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Paci, Michael; Joober, Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the ADHD combined/hyperactive subtype (ADHD/CH) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD/I) on the level of comorbidity, treatment response, and possible etiological factors. Method: A total of 371 clinically referred children diagnosed with ADHD aged between 6 and 12 years are recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled…

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and telemental health.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Nancy B; Myers, Kathleen M; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn A; Geyer, John R; Desalvo, Amy

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders diagnosed in children and adolescents (youth). ADHD is equally distributed geographically, but services are not. Access to expert evaluation and treatment remains limited for youth with ADHD living in rural areas, as well as for ethnic and racial minority youth. Telepsychiatry is a service delivery model with the potential to reach these youth and to develop collaborative models of care among local primary care physicians, remote telepsychiatrists, and local families. Care delivered through telepsychiatry can readily adhere to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Work to date indicates that ADHD is the most common disorder treated through telepsychiatry. This article reviews the status of child and adolescent telepsychiatry, with particular focus on its potential to improve the care and outcomes of underserved populations of youth diagnosed with ADHD.

  19. Executive Function Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Profiles across Domains and Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happe, Francesca; Booth, Rhonda; Charlton, Rebecca; Hughes, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in "executive function" (EF) are characteristic of several clinical disorders, most notably Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this study, age-and IQ-matched groups with ASD, ADHD, or typical development (TD) were compared on a battery of EF tasks tapping three core domains: response…

  20. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative…

  1. Autism Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Familial Trait which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard J. L; O'Regan, Myra; Chen, Wai; Butler, Louise; Fitzgerald, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Minderaa, Ruud; Nijmeijer, Judith; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buschgens, Cathelijne; Christiansen, Hanna; Franke, Barbara; Gabriels, Isabel; Hartman, Catharina; Kuntsi, Jonna; Marco, Rafaela; Meidad, Sheera; Mueller, Ueli; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Rommelse, Nanda; Thompson, Margaret; Uebel, Henrik; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Phil; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gill, Michael

    2009-01-01

    It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher…

  2. Risperidone Augmentation for Treatment-Resistant Aggression in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenteros, Jorge L.; Lewis, John E.; Davalos, Marisabel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-five children (ages 7-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and significant aggressive behaviors were randomized to risperidone or placebo for 4…

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CNS stimulants and sport.

    PubMed

    Hickey, G; Fricker, P

    1999-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 1 to 10% of children and is characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Over one-half of children with ADHD have associated conditions, including learning disabilities, conduct disorders, poor coordination, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and bipolar disorders. CNS stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD is not permitted for use in competition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and this poses a problem for the physicians of patients with ADHD. On the one hand, attention and concentration are improved by stimulant medication and fine motor coordination and balance are improved after methylphenidate administration, but these therapeutic and sport-related benefits are not available to the athlete with ADHD who wishes to compete under IOC rules. It has been suggested that treatment with methylphenidate may be suitable for athletes with ADHD, as cessation of therapy 24 hours before competition is usually adequate to allow drug clearance which should avoid a positive result being returned on drug testing. More research is needed to establish whether stimulant medication for athletes with ADHD provides an unfair advantage in competition.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CNS stimulants and sport.

    PubMed

    Hickey, G; Fricker, P

    1999-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 1 to 10% of children and is characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Over one-half of children with ADHD have associated conditions, including learning disabilities, conduct disorders, poor coordination, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and bipolar disorders. CNS stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD is not permitted for use in competition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and this poses a problem for the physicians of patients with ADHD. On the one hand, attention and concentration are improved by stimulant medication and fine motor coordination and balance are improved after methylphenidate administration, but these therapeutic and sport-related benefits are not available to the athlete with ADHD who wishes to compete under IOC rules. It has been suggested that treatment with methylphenidate may be suitable for athletes with ADHD, as cessation of therapy 24 hours before competition is usually adequate to allow drug clearance which should avoid a positive result being returned on drug testing. More research is needed to establish whether stimulant medication for athletes with ADHD provides an unfair advantage in competition. PMID:10028130

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the frontal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shue, K L; Douglas, V I

    1992-09-01

    The usefulness of frontal lobe (FL) dysfunction as a conceptual model for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was investigated. Twenty-four ADHD and 24 normal control (NC) children were tested using two batteries of tasks. The first was sensitive to FL deficits in motor control and problem solving skills. The second consisted of memory tasks sensitive to temporal lobe dysfunction. ADHD children differed significantly from NCs on measures of FL function, but not on tests of temporal lobe functions. Where norms were available for normal children on the same FL tests, ADHDs performed like 6- to 7-year-olds, despite their mean age of 10 years and minimum age of 8 years. The differential performance of ADHDs on tasks sensitive to FL and temporal lobe dysfunction supports the hypothesis that ADHD deficits are analogous to FL dysfunction and demonstrates that the children's deficits do not reflect generalized cognitive impairment.

  6. SYMPTOM DIMENSIONS OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND NICOTINE WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

    PubMed Central

    Ameringer, Katherine J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and nicotine withdrawal symptoms are related; however, it is unknown how this relationship extends across ADHD symptom gradations, differs between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptom types, and generalizes to a national sample. This study examined cross-sectional associations between childhood ADHD symptom indexes (total, inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity) and lifetime DSM-IV nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Results showed that each ADHD symptom index associated with almost every withdrawal symptom (Ps < .01). After controlling for hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptom overlap, inattention (but not hyperactivity-impulsivity) retained incremental associations with most withdrawal symptoms. These findings are relevant for understanding mechanisms of ADHD and smoking comorbidity. PMID:23244555

  7. [Clinical Picture of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder].

    PubMed

    Iida, Junzo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is conventionally considered a children's disorder in which the symptoms naturally disappear with age. However, in reality, the functional remission rate is about 10% even in adulthood, and we have come to understand that 75% of people with ADHD in childhood experience a continuation of symptoms through adolescence. Epidemiological studies have reported a global prevalence of 3.4% for adult ADHD. The central distinctive feature of adult ADHD is attention deficit, while hyperactivity and impulsivity weaken or manifest differently over time. Additionally, since symptoms continue from childhood, the characteristics of ADHD become part of the personality of the individual, making it difficult to think of traits as symptoms. Therefore, with adult ADHD and its traits in mind, diagnosis should be made with due care and attention, especially as some of the symptoms of ADHD can also be seen in a number of other mental illnesses. Caution should be exercised in the differential diagnosis of ADHD in order to avoid over-diagnosis. PMID:26721069

  8. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.

  9. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  10. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  11. Parenting Stress in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Tárraga, Raul; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla; Pastor, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 121 children from 5 to 9 years old with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), comorbid ASD+ADHD, and typical development in different domains related to child and parent characteristics using the Parenting Stress…

  12. Medicating Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and ADHD: A State Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runnheim, Veronica A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Wisconsin teachers provided information on 1,300 students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who were receiving medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ADHD/EBD students comprised approximately 26% of all EBD students. The most common medication was Ritalin, and teachers believed the medication effectively…

  13. Temporal Discounting of Monetary Rewards in Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert; Baeyens, Dieter; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    It has been difficult to differentiate attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in terms of some aspects of their cognitive profile. While both show deficits in executive functions, it has been suggested that they may differ in their response to monetary reward. For instance, children with ADHD prefer…

  14. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurocognitive correlates after childhood stroke.

    PubMed

    Max, Jeffrey E; Mathews, Katherine; Manes, Facundo F; Robertson, Brigitte A M; Fox, Peter T; Lancaster, Jack L; Lansing, Amy E; Schatz, Amy; Collings, Nicole

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the frequency and neurocognitive correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and traits of this disorder (ADHD/Traits) after childhood stroke and orthopedic diagnosis in medical controls. Twenty-nine children with focal stroke lesions and individually matched children with clubfoot or scoliosis were studied with standardized psychiatric, intellectual, academic, adaptive, executive, and motivation function assessments. Lifetime ADHD/Traits were significantly more common in stroke participants with no prestroke ADHD than in orthopedic controls (16/28 vs. 7/29; Fisher's Exact p < .02). Lifetime ADHD/Traits in the orthopedic controls occurred exclusively in males with clubfoot (7/13; 54%). Participants with current ADHD/Traits functioned significantly worse (p < .005) than participants without current ADHD/Traits on all outcome measures. Within the stroke group, current ADHD/Traits was associated with significantly lower verbal IQ and arithmetic achievement (p < .04), more nonperseverative errors (p < .005), and lower motivation (p < .004). A principal components analysis of selected outcome variables significantly associated with current ADHD/Traits revealed "impaired neurocognition" and "inattention-apathy" factors. The latter factor was a more consistent predictor of current ADHD/Traits in regression analyses. These findings suggest that inattention and apathy are core features of ADHD/Traits after childhood stroke. This association may provide clues towards the understanding of mechanisms underlying the syndrome.

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C; Wright, B; Partridge, I

    1999-01-01

    The topic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is fascinating and controversial. A variety of stances have been taken by different clinicians, support groups, and the media. A nature/nurture argument has developed that may have a tendency to polarize views. This review aims to present research findings that inform the debate. It deals with symptomatology, aetiology, and prevalence, with assessment for diagnosis, management, and outcome. The importance of comprehensive management taking into consideration not just attention abilities but a range of other factors that have an impact upon them is stressed. Management should be pragmatic, multifaceted, and based around the establishment of good working relationships with family and school. PMID:10621994

  17. Understanding Trait and Sources Effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scales: Mothers', Fathers', and Teachers' Ratings of Children from the Balearic Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Burns, G. Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to model a multitrait (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-inattention, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]) by multisource (mothers, fathers, and teachers) matrix to determine the convergent and discriminant validity of ratings by mothers, fathers, and teachers.…

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities. PMID:27042070

  19. Acceptability of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte; Hommersen, Paul; Seipp, Carla

    2008-01-01

    One-hundred nine mothers of 5- to 12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated. Mothers read case descriptions of boys with ADHD and of boys with both ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Half of the mothers were randomly assigned to read descriptions of behavioral parent training and half to read…

  20. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: pharmacological intervention].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria; López-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    The cardinal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness--are not specific and may be found in the general population and in other disorders. These symptoms are present in over 50% of patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It thus seems quite clear that both problems can coexist in these patients. The usual pharmacological treatments for ADHD, methylphenidate and atomoxetine, appear to be useful in reducing the above-mentioned symptoms in patients with ADHD and ASD. Effectiveness seems to be lower in patients with ASD and tolerance is slightly poorer. This may be conditioned by a number of variables, including: the complexity of ASD, association with mental retardation, polypharmacotherapy, and so on. Given the long-term tolerance profile of methylphenidate and atomoxetine, these treatments appear to be a good alternative with which to improve the problems of attention and self-control these patients have. Nevertheless, further controlled studies are needed to confirm this proposition.

  1. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Accommodations for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold Walker; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Silvia, Loretta; Rosenquist, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: With the increase in diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, it is expected that more resident physicians will require accommodations so that their academic performance and clinical competency can be measured adequately. The authors provide an overview of the requirements and issues…

  3. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  4. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: an overview.

    PubMed

    Faraone, S V; Biederman, J; Spencer, T; Wilens, T; Seidman, L J; Mick, E; Doyle, A E

    2000-07-01

    To assess the validity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we reviewed clinical, family, psychopharmacologic, neurobiological, and outcome studies. We found multiple reports describing adults with clinical features highly reminiscent of the childhood ADHD. These adults, who are impulsive, inattentive, and restless, have the clinical "look and feel" of ADHD children. As with their childhood counterparts, many adults with ADHD suffer from antisocial, depressive, and anxiety disorders. They also show clinically significant impairments--histories of school failure, occupational problems, and traffic accidents. Studies of biological features show correspondences between child and adult cases of ADHD. Both show familial aggregation and a characteristic profile of neuropsychologic deficits; an emerging neuroimaging literature suggests that abnormalities in the same brain regions underlie both the child and adult forms of the disorder. Although these converging lines of evidence support the validity of ADHD in adults, follow-up studies of ADHD children have yielded ambiguous results. This ambiguity is in part due to differences in how researchers define the persistence of ADHD, a problem that suggests future research focus on how best to diagnose ADHD in adulthood.

  6. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV and ICD-10 Criteria for ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung I.; Schachar, Russell J.; Chen, Shirley X.; Ornstein, Tisha J.; Charach, Alice; Barr, Cathy; Ickowicz, Abel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to compare the predictive validity of the two main diagnostic schemata for childhood hyperactivity--attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-IV) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD; "International Classification of Diseases"-10th Edition). Methods: Diagnostic criteria for…

  7. Economic Impact of Childhood and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Jalpa A.; Hodgkins, Paul; Kahle, Jennifer; Sikirica, Vanja; Cangelosi, Michael J.; Setyawan, Juliana; Erder, M. Haim; Neumann, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in children in the United States and often persists into adulthood with associated symptomatology and impairments. This article comprehensively reviews studies reporting ADHD-related incremental (excess) costs for children/adolescents and…

  8. Sleep Disturbances in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comparative Study with Healthy Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Aliza; Stein, Daniel; Barak, Yoram; Teicher, Aharon; Hadjez, Jack; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham

    1998-01-01

    The sleep profiles of 13 children (ages 5-13) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were treated with a fixed dose of methylphenidate for at least one month were compared with those of 16 healthy siblings. Significantly more children with ADHD demonstrated sleep disturbances and higher rates of sleep disorders. (Author/CR)

  9. Atomoxetine for Hyperactivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Placebo-Controlled Crossover Pilot Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Amelia M.; Witwer, Andrea N.; Hall, Kristy L.; Thompson, Susan; Ramadan, Yaser

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore placebo-controlled efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Children ages 5 to 15 with ASD and prominent ADHD symptoms were randomly assigned to order in a crossover of clinically titrated ATX and placebo, 6…

  10. Children's Perceived Parent-Child Relationships and Family Functioning in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Shams, Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare Children's Perceived Parent-Child Relationships (PCR) and family functioning in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a general population sample. Method: A total of 49 ADHD subjects and 51 subjects without any psychiatric disorder were matched for age, sex, educational level, family income, level…

  11. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.; Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method: Measures of nonword…

  12. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  13. Motor Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulardins, Juliana B.; Marques, Juliana C. Bilhar; Casella, Erasmo B.; Nascimento, Roseane O.; Oliveira, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the motor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined type. Method: The case group consisted of 34 treatment-naive, male patients, aged 7-11 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD, combined type, without comorbidities (except oppositional defiant disorder). The…

  14. Executive Functions and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications of Two Conflicting Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    While increasing numbers of articles and books refer to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a disorder of "executive function" of the mind, two conflicting views have emerged about how ADHD and executive function are related. In one view it is argued that some, but not all, who meet the fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and…

  15. Atomoxetine Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Milton, Denai R.; Michelson, David

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine (1) moderating effects of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment response and (2) responses of ODD symptoms to atomoxetine. Method: Children and adolescents (ages 8-18) with ADHD were treated for approximately 8 weeks with placebo or atomoxetine (fixed dosing: 0.5,…

  16. Interference of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in an older adult with a severe personality disorder and dermatillomania.

    PubMed

    Weusten, L H; Heijnen-Kohl, S M J; Ellison, J; van Alphen, S P J

    2014-02-01

    This case of a 65-year-old male with dermatillomania, diffuse anxiety symptoms, and avoidant personality disorder (PD) illustrates the interference of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the diagnostic process and during schema-focused therapy. In conclusion, ADHD in older adults and interference with PD is a subject of clinical importance and worth further investigation.

  17. Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Short, Elizabeth J.; McNamara, Nora K.; Demeter, Christine A.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Whipkey, Resaca; Manos, Michael J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    The short-term efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of youths aged 5 to 17 years with bipolar disorder (BD) and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated. The trial observation showed that euthymic youths with BD and ADHD might benefit from short-term concomitant treatment with methylphenidate.

  18. Living in Chaos and Striving for Control: How Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Deal with Their Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Michele; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a Grounded Theory of "Living in Chaos and Striving for Control" developed in response to the central research question of how adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) deal with their disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 males diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood. "Chaos" emerged…

  19. Working Memory, Processing Speed, and Set-Shifting in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piek, Jan P.; Dyck, Murray J.; Francis, Mona; Conwell, Alistair

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the high levels of comorbidity between attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be attributed to a common underlying neurocognitive mechanism. This study assessed whether children with DCD and ADHD share deficits on tasks measuring working memory, set-shifting, and…

  20. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  1. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  2. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-09-30

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in imprisoned individuals--a review.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2011-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders with lifelong impact of the affected individuals. It is usually co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review current knowledge about ADHD in imprisoned individuals. The rate of ADHD in prisoners ranges from 10% to 70% and it has been suggested that ADHD, even without co-morbidity with conduct disorder, is a risk factor for imprisonment. Based on these findings, it may be wise to include the assessment of ADHD symptoms in all adult and adolescent prisoners. This is while available psychiatric resources for the adequate management of ADHD in prisoners are limited. Most of current knowledge on the topic comes from western countries. There is an urgent need for studies that will explore the effect of other cultures on the interactions between ADHD and imprisonment, especially in developing countries worldwide. At this point, ADHD seems to be an ignored research area in developing countries. PMID:21685851

  4. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  5. Attentional Performance in Children and Adolescents with Tic Disorder and Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from a 2 x 2 Factorial Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greimel, Ellen; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Roessner, Veit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of both tic disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on attentional functions. N = 96 children and adolescents participated in the study, including n = 21 subjects with TD, n = 23 subjects with ADHD, n = 25 subjects with TD+ADHD, and n = 27 controls. Attentional…

  6. Identifying Loci for the Overlap between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Genome-Wide QTL Linkage Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Gill, Michael; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Ebstein, Richard P.; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The genetic basis for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was addressed using a genome-wide linkage approach. Method: Participants of the International Multi-Center ADHD Genetics study comprising 1,143 probands with ADHD and 1,453 siblings were analyzed. The total and…

  7. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to differentiate cases of LI from ADHD; (b) the impact of co-occurring ADHD on children's LI; (c) cross-etiology comparisons of the nonlinguistic abilities of children with ADHD and specific LI (SLI); and (d) the extent to which ADHD contributes to educational and health disparities among individuals with LI. Results Evidence is presented demonstrating the value of using adjusted parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and targeted assessments of children's tense marking, nonword repetition, and sentence recall for differential diagnosis and the identification of comorbidity. Reports suggest that the presence of ADHD does not aggravate children's LI. The potential value of cross-etiology comparisons testing the necessity and sufficiency of proposed nonlinguistic contributors to the etiology of SLI is demonstrated through key studies. Reports suggest that children with comorbid ADHD+LI receive speech-language services at a higher rate than children with SLI. Conclusion The ADHD context is multifaceted and provides the management and study of LI with both opportunities and obstacles. PMID:26502026

  8. The impact of daytime sleepiness on the school performance of college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Becker, Stephen P; Molitor, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    This prospective longitudinal study evaluated the impact of daytime sleepiness on the school performance of 62 college students diagnosed comprehensively with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The primary goal of the study was to determine if self-reported daytime sleepiness rated at the beginning of the academic year could predict academic and overall functioning at the end of the academic year while also considering potentially important covariates, including symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, medication status and whether or not students lived at home or on-campus. Self-reported daytime sleepiness predicted longitudinally school maladjustment, overall functional impairment and the number of D and F grades (i.e. poor and failing) students received in courses above and beyond both self- and parent-report of symptoms, but did not predict overall grade point average. Living at home served as a protective factor and was associated with less school maladjustment and overall impairment. Gender was the only significant predictor in the overall grade point average model, with female gender associated with higher overall grades. The implications of these findings for monitoring and treatment of sleep disturbances in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed.

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Rasch Analysis of the SWAN Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deidra J.; Levy, Florence; Martin, Neilson C.; Hay, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been estimated at 3-7% in the population. Children with this disorder are often characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity, which can significantly impact on many aspects of their behaviour and performance. This study investigated the…

  11. Functional consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on children and their families.

    PubMed

    Usami, Masahide

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms that include hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and inattention, and it is the most common psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents. These core symptoms are continuously recognized throughout the day from childhood to adulthood. Furthermore, children with ADHD from childhood to adulthood might also have various comorbid psychiatric disorders. Recently, bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, a new clinical issue, have been discussed as comorbid disorders or differential disorders associated with ADHD. Furthermore, comorbid disorders of ADHD are related to quality of life and family burden. Children with ADHD have poorer long-term outcomes than controls with respect to: academic achievement and attainment, occupational rank and job performance, risky sexual practices and early unwanted pregnancies, substance use, relationship difficulties, marital problems, traffic violations, and car accidents. Irritability of children with ADHD has been a key symptom that clinicians and researchers have used to evaluate the developmental condition of children with ADHD. ADHD is sometimes a chronic disorder that occurs over a long period, increasing the family burden of these children (including health-care costs), which will increase with aging for unremitted children with ADHD. Therefore, clinicians should evaluate not only the mental condition of the child but also the family burden. Children with ADHD should be treated during childhood to reduce their clinical symptoms and family burden.

  12. Are Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Different Manifestations of One Overarching Disorder? Cognitive and Symptom Evidence from a Clinical and Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meer, Jolanda M. J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Lappenschaar, Martijn G. A.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. Given the heterogeneity of both disorders, several more homogeneous ASD-ADHD comorbidity subgroups may exist. The current study examined whether such subgroups exist, and whether their overlap or distinctiveness in associated…

  13. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD…

  14. Tourette syndrome associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The impact of tics and psychopharmacological treatment options.

    PubMed

    Oluwabusi, Olumide O; Parke, Susan; Ambrosini, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Several studies describe the association between TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty percent of children diagnosed with ADHD have comorbid tic disorder. ADHD related symptoms have been reported in 35% to 90% of children with TS. Since ADHD is the most prevalent comorbid condition with TS and those with concomitant TS and ADHD present with considerable psychosocial and behavioral impairments, it is essential for clinicians to be familiar with these diagnoses and their management. This paper highlights the association between treating ADHD with stimulants and the development of tic disorders. The two cases discussed underscore the fact that children with TS may present with ADHD symptomatology prior to the appearance of any TS related symptoms. Appropriate management of TS in a patient diagnosed with ADHD can lead to quality of life improvements and a reduction in psychosocial impairments.

  15. Tourette syndrome associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The impact of tics and psychopharmacological treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Oluwabusi, Olumide O; Parke, Susan; Ambrosini, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Several studies describe the association between TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty percent of children diagnosed with ADHD have comorbid tic disorder. ADHD related symptoms have been reported in 35% to 90% of children with TS. Since ADHD is the most prevalent comorbid condition with TS and those with concomitant TS and ADHD present with considerable psychosocial and behavioral impairments, it is essential for clinicians to be familiar with these diagnoses and their management. This paper highlights the association between treating ADHD with stimulants and the development of tic disorders. The two cases discussed underscore the fact that children with TS may present with ADHD symptomatology prior to the appearance of any TS related symptoms. Appropriate management of TS in a patient diagnosed with ADHD can lead to quality of life improvements and a reduction in psychosocial impairments. PMID:26862512

  16. Tourette syndrome associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The impact of tics and psychopharmacological treatment options.

    PubMed

    Oluwabusi, Olumide O; Parke, Susan; Ambrosini, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Several studies describe the association between TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty percent of children diagnosed with ADHD have comorbid tic disorder. ADHD related symptoms have been reported in 35% to 90% of children with TS. Since ADHD is the most prevalent comorbid condition with TS and those with concomitant TS and ADHD present with considerable psychosocial and behavioral impairments, it is essential for clinicians to be familiar with these diagnoses and their management. This paper highlights the association between treating ADHD with stimulants and the development of tic disorders. The two cases discussed underscore the fact that children with TS may present with ADHD symptomatology prior to the appearance of any TS related symptoms. Appropriate management of TS in a patient diagnosed with ADHD can lead to quality of life improvements and a reduction in psychosocial impairments. PMID:26862512

  17. Different Neural Patterns Are Associated with Trials Preceding Inhibitory Errors in Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Simona; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Vasa, Roma A.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with difficulty inhibiting impulsive, hyperactive, and off-task behavior. However, no studies have examined whether a distinct pattern of brain activity precedes inhibitory errors in typically developing (TD) children and children with ADHD. In healthy adults, increased…

  18. The Role of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Self-Perceptions of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica L.; Heath, Nancy Lee; Finn, Cindy A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared the teacher ratings and self-perceptions of two groups of children with emotional and/or behavioural difficulties: a) Those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and b) those with average or below average levels of hyperactivity and attention. Results showed that the ADHD group was rated more poorly by…

  19. Substance abuse disorders in the parents of ADHD children, and parents of normal children.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  20. Subcortical Differences among Youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Compared to Those with Bipolar Disorder With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Emily S.; Terry, Janine E.; Breeze, Janis L.; Hodge, Steven M.; Tang, Lena; Kennedy, David N.; Moore, Constance M.; Makris, Nikos; Caviness, Verne S.; Frazier, Jean A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction A significant number of children with bipolar disorder (BP) have co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is unknown if these children have neuroimaging findings unique to their co-morbid presentation, or if their brain findings are similar to children diagnosed with BP alone. Method Fifty three children with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) BP (23 with ADHD, 30 without), 29 healthy controls (HC), and 23 children with ADHD, similar in sex and age, had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans on a 1.5T GE scanner. Volumetric assessments were performed for basal ganglia and limbic subcortical structures. Results Youths with ADHD had smaller caudate and putamen volumes compared to both BP groups and they had moderately smaller total amygdala volumes compared to the other three groups. Youths with BP + ADHD had moderately larger nucleus accumbens volumes than HC, and females in both BP groups had smaller hippocampal volumes compared to ADHD and HC. No differences were found between the BP and BP + ADHD groups. Conclusion These data suggest that morphometric subcortical volumes in youths with BP + ADHD are more similar to those in youths with BP. They do not share subcortical neuroanatomic correlates with the ADHD group. These findings suggest that BP + ADHD is a subtype of pediatric BP rather than severe ADHD. PMID:19232021

  1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the athlete: new advances and understanding.

    PubMed

    Parr, Jesse W

    2011-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain-based behavioral disorder with heterogeneous expression affecting quality of life. Some affected individuals may not experience obvious impairment until after arrival at college. The incidence of ADHD may be increased among athletes who participate at the elite level. Neurotransmitters involved in ADHD also are involved in central fatigue, and fatigue research using medications used to treat ADHD suggests that endurance performance and thermoregulation are affected in ways that may put athletes taking these medications at risk. More information is needed on the effect on exercise of long-term administration of ADHD medication.

  2. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or bipolar disorder in childhood?].

    PubMed

    Lazaratou, H

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Even though a strict definition of this entity is constantly sought, ADHD is an often redefined and reconceptualized syndrome. Epidemiological studies show large differences in the incidence, pointing out that the effort of actual taxonomic systems to offer objective diagnostic criteria have not yielded substantial results. Bipolar Disorder (BD) with onset in childhood is distinguished from the adult form by the scarcity of affective symptoms. Very often, neither depressive mood, nor hypomanic euphoria are in the front line being covered by irritability with crises of violence. Children or adolescents have consecutive cycles, which include brief episodes of depressive, hypomanic, manic or mixed periods without free intervals. There was a delay in the recognition of this clinical picture. Τhe diagnostic criteria in the actual taxonomic systems are not separated from those of adults and according to some studies the disorder is under diagnosed mainly in European countries. The contemporary literature deals largely with the relationship ADHD - BD in young people because the two disorders share the same clinical picture with slight variations. Τhe differential diagnosis in favor of BD is mainly based on the presence of affective disorders in the family. The main questions raised are whether there is comorbidity, whether ADHD is overdiagnosed against BD or whether ADHD represents a prodromal manifestation of early onset BD. Children with comorbid ADHD and BD tend to express mostly a stimulant phenotype with a chronic course and have higher rates of antisocial conduct disorder. This particular phenotype suggests a symptomatic continuum between ADHD and early onset BD which is possibly responsible for the difficulties met in differential diagnosis and differences in the rates of

  3. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  4. Speech-Sound Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Short, Elizabeth J.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Avrich, Allison A.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of speech-sound disorders (SSD) with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the severity of the SSD and the mode of transmission of SSD within the pedigrees of children with SSD. Participants and Methods: The participants were 412 children who were enrolled…

  5. Developmental Coordination Disorder in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Physical Therapy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watemberg, Nathan; Waiserberg, Nilly; Zuk, Luba; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2007-01-01

    Although physical therapy (PT) is effective in improving motor function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), insufficient data are available on the impact of this intervention in children with combined attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and DCD. This prospective study aimed to establish the prevalence of DCD…

  6. The Relationship between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirbekk, Benedicte; Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Oerbeck, Beate; Kristensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety disorders (AnxDs). One hundred and forty-one children (90 males, 51 females) aged 7-13 years were assigned to four groups, i.e., referred children with comorbid AnxDs…

  7. A Comprehensive Investigation of Memory Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Park, Joanne; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic assessment of memory functioning in drug-naive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Methods: Boys performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) component (storage and central executive) and verbal and spatial storage load tasks,…

  8. Intra-Individual Variability in ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorders and Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Verte, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; van Kammen, Serena M.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for response variability to serve as an endophenotype for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) rests, in part, upon the development of reliable and valid methods to decompose variability. This study investigated the specificity of intra-individual variability (IIV) in 53 children with ADHD by comparing them with 25…

  9. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Criminal Outcomes in ADHD Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Nomura, Yoko; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment in childhood and criminality as they enter into adolescence and early adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment on later criminality among adolescents/young adults diagnosed with ADHD in…

  10. A Genetic Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Reading Disability: Aetiological Overlaps and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence; Pieka, Jan; Hay, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occurs with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Reading Disability. Twin studies are an important approach to understanding and modelling potential causes of such comorbidity. Univariate and bivariate genetic models were fitted to maternal report data from 2040 families of…

  11. The Impact of Mindfulness Training on Hyperactive Behaviors Demonstrated by Elementary Age Children with a Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carboni, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders in the United States. Although many children with an ADHD diagnosis are prescribed medication to control symptoms, behavioral concerns are still regularly noted in the classroom, home, and other settings. Therefore, school psychologists are often…

  12. Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Elena; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; van Hulzen, Kimm J.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. Method We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype. Results In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusions The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties. PMID:27768717

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder genomics: update for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Elia, Josephine; Sackett, Jillan; Turner, Terri; Schardt, Martin; Tang, Shih-Ching; Kurtz, Nicole; Dunfey, Maura; McFarlane, Nadia A; Susi, Aita; Danish, David; Li, Alice; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Borgmann-Winter, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is familial and highly heritable. Several candidate genes involved in neurotransmission have been identified, however these confer minimal risk, suggesting that for the most part, ADHD is not caused by single common genetic variants. Advances in genotyping enabling investigation at the level of the genome have led to the discovery of rare structural variants suggesting that ADHD is a genomic disorder, with potentially thousands of variants, and common neuronal pathways disrupted by numerous rare variants resulting in similar ADHD phenotypes. Heritability studies in humans also indicate the importance of epigenetic factors, and animal studies are deciphering some of the processes that confer risk during gestation and throughout the post-natal period. These and future discoveries will lead to improved diagnosis, individualized treatment, cures, and prevention. These advances also highlight ethical and legal issues requiring management and interpretation of genetic data and ensuring privacy and protection from misuse.

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder: Two separate disorders or do they share a common etiology.

    PubMed

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan P; Hasue, Renata H; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Oliveira, Jorge A

    2015-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been described as the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is one of the most prevalent childhood movement disorders. The overlap between the two conditions is estimated to be around 50%, with both substantially interfering with functioning and development, and leading to poorer psychosocial outcomes. This review provides an overview of the relationship between ADHD and DCD, discussing the common presenting features, etiology, neural basis, as well as associated deficits in motor functioning, attention and executive functioning. It is currently unclear which specific motor and cognitive difficulties are intrinsic to each disorder as many studies of ADHD have not been screened for DCD and vice-versa. The evidence supporting common brain underpinnings is still very limited, but studies using well defined samples have pointed to non-shared underpinnings for ADHD and DCD. The current paper suggests that ADHD and DCD are separate disorders that may require different treatment approaches. PMID:26168770

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder: Two separate disorders or do they share a common etiology.

    PubMed

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan P; Hasue, Renata H; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Oliveira, Jorge A

    2015-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been described as the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is one of the most prevalent childhood movement disorders. The overlap between the two conditions is estimated to be around 50%, with both substantially interfering with functioning and development, and leading to poorer psychosocial outcomes. This review provides an overview of the relationship between ADHD and DCD, discussing the common presenting features, etiology, neural basis, as well as associated deficits in motor functioning, attention and executive functioning. It is currently unclear which specific motor and cognitive difficulties are intrinsic to each disorder as many studies of ADHD have not been screened for DCD and vice-versa. The evidence supporting common brain underpinnings is still very limited, but studies using well defined samples have pointed to non-shared underpinnings for ADHD and DCD. The current paper suggests that ADHD and DCD are separate disorders that may require different treatment approaches.

  16. The Complicated Relationship Between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zulauf, Courtney A.; Sprich, Susan E.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders (SUD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasingly presenting in clinical practice. The overlap and role of treatment for these co-occurring disorders remains unclear. A review of the literature was conducted to highlight and update recent evidence on the overlap of ADHD and SUD, the role of ADHD medication on later SUD, and the treatment of ADHD and SUD in adolescents and young adults. Recent work continues to highlight the high risk for comorbid ADHD in patients with SUD; and conversely, the high risk for SUD developing in ADHD across the lifespan, particularly in the context of comorbid conduct disorder. Although the data remains discordant, it appears that ADHD pharmacotherapy does not increase the risk for SUD. Medication treatment alone does not appear to be particularly effective in treating SUD in currently active substance abusing individuals with ADHD. Structured therapies may be effective in treating adolescents and young adults with ADHD and SUD. Further controlled trials evaluating the sequence and effect of structured psychotherapies and/or ADHD pharmacotherapy on SUD relapse in these groups are warranted. PMID:24526271

  17. The complicated relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Zulauf, Courtney A; Sprich, Susan E; Safren, Steven A; Wilens, Timothy E

    2014-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders (SUD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasingly presenting in clinical practice. The overlap and role of treatment for these co-occurring disorders remains unclear. A review of the literature was conducted to highlight and update recent evidence on the overlap of ADHD and SUD, the role of ADHD medication on later SUD, and the treatment of ADHD and SUD in adolescents and young adults. Recent work continues to highlight the high risk for comorbid ADHD in patients with SUD; and conversely, the high risk for SUD developing in ADHD across the lifespan, particularly in the context of comorbid conduct disorder. Although the data remains discordant, it appears that ADHD pharmacotherapy does not increase the risk for SUD. Medication treatment alone does not appear to be particularly effective in treating SUD in currently active substance abusing individuals with ADHD. Structured therapies may be effective in treating adolescents and young adults with ADHD and SUD. Further controlled trials evaluating the sequence and effect of structured psychotherapies and/or ADHD pharmacotherapy on SUD relapse in these groups are warranted. PMID:24526271

  18. The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study: background, methods and study population.

    PubMed

    van de Glind, Geurt; Van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Levin, Frances R; Koeter, Maarten W J; Barta, Csaba; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Demetrovics, Zolt; Fatséas, Mélina; Schillinger, Arild; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Verspreet, Sofie; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V; Ramos-Quiroga, J Antoni; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized comorbid condition in subjects with substance use disorders (SUDs). This paper describes the methods and study population of the International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study. Objectives of the IASP are to determine the prevalence of ADHD in adult treatment seeking patients with SUD in different countries and SUD populations, determine the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale V 1.1 (ASRS) as ADHD screening instrument in SUD populations, investigate the comorbidity profile of SUD patients with and without ADHD, compare risk factors and protective factors in SUD patients with and without a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, and increase our knowledge about the relationship between ADHD and the onset and course of SUD. In this cross-sectional, multi-centre two stage study, subjects were screened for ADHD with the ASRS, diagnosed with the Conner's Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID), and evaluated for SUD, major depression, bipolar disorder, anti social personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Three thousand five hundred and fifty-eight subjects from 10 countries were included. Of these 40.9% screened positive for ADHD. This is the largest international study on this population evaluating ADHD and comorbid disorders. PMID:24022983

  19. Effects of Zinc and Ferritin Levels on Parent and Teacher Reported Symptom Scores in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Ozgur; Oner, Pinar; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Odabas, Elif; Keser, Nilufer; Karadag, Hasan; Kizilgun, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that both low iron and zinc levels might be associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, the association of zinc and iron levels with ADHD symptoms has not been investigated at the same time in a single sample. Method: 118 subjects with ADHD (age = 7-14 years, mean = 9.8,…

  20. Vocational Safety Preference of College Men with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.

    2007-01-01

    For college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is associated with increased accidental injury, mindfulness regarding safety issues in vocational choice may be indicated. In this study, a group of male college students with ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA) reported placing less emphasis on job safety…

  1. Correlates for Academic Performance and School Functioning among Youths with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Szu-Ying; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with academic underachievement and school dysfunction. Little is known whether such association varies with the persistence of ADHD symptoms. The authors investigated school functioning among youths with and without persistent ADHD and identified the clinical correlates for…

  2. Predictors of Secondary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents 6 to 24 Months after Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Schachar, Russell J.; Levin, Harvey S.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Dennis, Maureen; Saunders, Ann; Landis, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the phenomenology and predictive factors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (SADHD). Method: Children without preinjury ADHD 5-14 years old with TBI from consecutive admissions (n = 143) to five trauma centers were observed prospectively from 6 to…

  3. Peer Rejection and Friendships in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Contributions to Long-Term Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hoza, Betsy; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Even after evidence-based treatment, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor long-term outcomes. These outcomes may be partly explained by difficulties in peer functioning, which are common among children with ADHD and which do not respond optimally to standard ADHD treatments. We examined whether peer rejection and…

  4. Practice Brief: Assessing Compensatory Strategies and Motivational Factors in High-Achieving Postsecondary Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Research speculates that high-achieving college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may demonstrate a set of compensatory strategies and experience areas of difficulty and motivational factors that differ from the general ADHD populace. This Practice Brief used informal surveys with seven undergraduates with ADHD who had…

  5. Elements of Working Memory as Predictors of Goal-Setting Skills in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Anna; Taskinen, Taina; Gronroos, Matti; Haataja, Leena; Lahdetie, Jaana; Korhonen, Tapio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how goal-setting skills of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be predicted with elements of working memory. The study involved 30 children with an ADHD diagnosis and 30 healthy volunteers. The IQ of the participants was assessed, and ADHD symptoms were evaluated by parents. Each of…

  6. The Efficacy of Barabasz's Alert Hypnosis and Neurotherapy on Attentiveness, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity in Children with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Dennis A.; Barabasz, Arreed F.; Barabasz, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen children and one young adult ADHD patients were treated with alert hypnosis as an adjunct to neurotherapy. Posttest means for each subscale (Inattentive, Impulsive, and Hyperactive) of the Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale-Home Version were significantly lower than pretest scores. No comparison group was used, and outcomes were…

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type, dysthymic disorder and anxiety disorders: differential patterns of neurodevelopmental deficits.

    PubMed

    Vance, Alasdair; Arduca, Yolanda; Sanders, Michelle; Karamitsios, Mary; Hall, Nicole; Hetrick, Sarah

    2006-08-30

    The associations between neurodevelopmental deficits (NDD) and (1) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT) and (2) internalising disorders have been replicated. To date, the specific association between standardized NDD and carefully defined ADHD-CT alone, dysthymic disorder alone and anxiety disorders alone has not been systematically investigated in children of primary school age. A cross-sectional study of NDD in 99 six- to 12-year-old children with categorically and dimensionally defined ADHD-CT alone, dysthymic disorder alone and anxiety disorders alone and 20 age-matched healthy children was undertaken. The ADHD-CT and dysthymic disorder groups had increased total neurological subtle signs, compared to the anxiety disorders group, which, in turn, had increased total neurological subtle signs compared with the healthy children. Interestingly, the dysthymic disorder children had increased conjugate eye gaze difficulties compared with the other three groups. The differences remained after controlling for full scale IQ. These findings suggest a neurobiological underpinning of dysthymic disorder, while confirming that of ADHD-CT in primary school age children. Future studies will explore whether the above more specific neurological subtle signs are developmental phase specific or independent associations.

  8. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  9. Gender differences in a sample of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Biederman, J; Faraone, S V; Spencer, T; Wilens, T; Mick, E; Lapey, K A

    1994-07-01

    Although originally conceptualized as a childhood disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also be an adult disorder. However, despite increasing media attention to adult ADHD, its validity has only recently been studied in a systematic fashion. The overrepresentation of females in adult samples in comparison to pediatric samples of ADHD raises additional questions about the validity of this disorder in adults. The goal of this article is to explore whether ADHD is a valid clinical entity in female subjects and whether it is expressed differently in male and female adults. To this end, we examined the clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of 128 referred adult ADHD cases of both sexes. Each subject had a clinical diagnosis of childhood-onset ADHD confirmed by structured interview. The male and female ADHD adults were similar to one another but more disturbed and impaired than non-ADHD adult control subjects. Compared with normal control females, ADHD women had higher rates of major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder; and more evidence of school failure and cognitive impairment. The consistency of these findings in both genders further supports the validity of the diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Our results stress the viability and importance of identification of female subjects with ADHD. The underidentification and undertreatment of females with ADHD may have substantial mental health and educational implications, suggesting that research is needed to develop a better understanding of clinical indicators of ADHD in females.

  10. Hyperactivity and sensation seeking as autoregulatory attempts to stabilize brain arousal in ADHD and mania?

    PubMed

    Geissler, Julia; Romanos, Marcel; Hegerl, Ulrich; Hensch, Tilman

    2014-09-01

    Hypoarousal as indicated by skin conductance and electroencephalography (EEG) has been discussed as a pathogenetic factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this paper was to review these arousal-related pathogenetic concepts and to present the more recently proposed vigilance regulation model of affective disorders and ADHD. The latter builds on methodological advances in classifying short EEG segments into vigilance stages (Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig, VIGALL), indicating different states of global brain function ("brain arousal"). VIGALL allows the objective assessment of vigilance regulation under defined conditions, e.g. how fast vigilance declines to lower vigilance stages associated with drowsiness during 15-20-min EEG recordings under resting conditions with eyes closed. According to the vigilance regulation model, the hyperactivity and sensation seeking observed in overtired children, ADHD and mania may be interpreted as an autoregulatory attempt to create a stimulating environment in order to stabilize vigilance. The unstable regulation of vigilance observed in both mania and ADHD may thus explain the attention deficits, which become especially prominent in monotonous sustained attention tasks. Among the arguments supporting the vigilance regulation model are the facts that destabilizing vigilance (e.g., via sleep deprivation) can trigger or exacerbate symptoms of ADHD or mania, whereas stabilizing vigilance (e.g., via psychostimulants, reducing sleep deficits) alleviates these symptoms. The potential antimanic effects of methylphenidate are presently being studied in an international randomized controlled trial. We propose vigilance regulation as a converging biomarker, which could be useful for identifying treatment responders to psychostimulants and forming pathophysiologically more homogeneous ADHD subgroups for research purposes. PMID:24997891

  11. Parenting teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Chaplin, Margaret; Godsay, Viraj; Soovajian, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents in childhood with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and is associated with functional impairments. These children tend to display a variety of disruptive behaviors, which may worsen in adolescence. Teens with ADHD may show high levels of defiance, posing significant challenges for parents. Early efforts to understand parenting in the context of teen ADHD reveal high levels of parental stress and reactivity in response to the teen's ADHD symptoms. Subsequent research recognized that some of these parents have ADHD or other psychopathology that may contribute to maladaptive parenting. However, some parents adjust and demonstrate optimism and resilience in the face of their teens' ADHD. Recent research has identified parental factors (eg, emotional intelligence) and interventions (eg, mindfulness training) that may improve parenting/teen relationships and the developmental outcomes of teens. This article explores parenting teens with ADHD with a focus on these novel interventions.

  12. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  13. A Candidate Gene Analysis of Methylphenidate Response in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Loo, Sandra K.; Manganiello, Marc; Leung, Michael C.; Tietjens, Jeremy R.; Trinh, Thao; Baweja, Shilpa; Suddath, Robert; Smalley, Susan L.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the potential role of candidate genes in moderating treatment effects of methylphenidate (MPH) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Eighty-two subjects with ADHD aged 6 to 17 years participated in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, crossover titration trial of…

  14. Seizure Risk in Patients with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Atomoxetine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernicke, Joachim F.; Holdridge, Karen Chilcott; Jin, Ling; Edison, Timothy; Zhang, Shuyu; Bangs, Mark E.; Allen, Albert J.; Ball, Susan; Dunn, David

    2007-01-01

    The comorbidity of seizures, epilepsy, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prompted the examination of whether atomoxetine use for ADHD is associated with an increased risk of seizures. Seizures and seizure-related symptoms were reviewed from two independent Eli Lilly and Company databases: the atomoxetine clinical trials database…

  15. Bullying and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in 10-Year-Olds in a Swedish Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Kirsten; Hjern, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The association of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with bullying in the peer group in school was studied in an entire population of 577 fourth graders (10-year-olds) in one municipality in Stockholm, Sweden. The schoolchildren were screened for ADHD in a two-step procedure that included Conners' ratings of behavioural problems:…

  16. Study of Level of Stress in the Parents of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethi, Sujata; Gandhi, Raghu; Anand, Vidhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents who have children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience high level of stress related to caring for their children. But not much research has been conducted in this area in India. This study aimed to assess the stress of parenting children with ADHD. Methods: This is a clinic based comparative…

  17. Digit Naming Speed Performance among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Christo, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the "Digit Naming Speed Test" (DNS) performance of 20 children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to 20 carefully matched peers without ADHD. Matching variables included age, grade, gender, and word reading ability. Sample construction included procedures that allowed for the identification and removal from…

  18. Resilient Adolescent Adjustment among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6-13 at baseline and 11-18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood…

  19. Learning and Memory Impairments in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Per N.; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    There are relatively few studies on learning and delayed memory with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the present study was to examine acquisition, free delayed memory, and recognition skills in medication naive children and adolescents aged 8-16 years with ADHD combined subtype (36 participants) and inattentive…

  20. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  1. Use of the Differential Ability Scales for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Braunstein, Dania J.; Dumont, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The validity of the Differential Ability Scales (DAS) was assessed among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a matched control sample. The sample included 45 children with ADHD (69% with comorbidity) and 45 controls matched by age, gender, ethnicity, and parental educational level. Multivariate analysis of variance…

  2. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Context of a High Intellectual Quotient/Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with a high intellectual quotient (IQ) and/or giftedness is controversial with many opinions existing on both sides of the debate. Relationships between IQ and cognitive vulnerabilities frequently described in the ADHD population vary in strength. Data asserting the…

  3. Relationship of Ferritin to Symptom Ratings Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effect of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Pinar; Oner, Ozgur

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relation between behavioral symptoms and hematological variables which are related with iron deficiency and anemia, ferritin, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and reticulosite distribution width (RDW) in children and adolescents with pure Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or ADHD comorbid with…

  4. Does Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Exacerbate Executive Dysfunction in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jonathan M.; Arnold, Shelley S.; Pride, Natalie A.; North, Kathryn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Although approximately 40% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) meet diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the impact of ADHD on the executive functioning of children with NF1 is not understood. We investigated whether spatial working memory and response inhibition are impaired in children with…

  5. The Neural Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An ALE Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Steven G.; Bannon, Katie; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and commonly studied forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Causal models of ADHD have long implicated dysfunction in fronto-striatal and frontal-parietal networks supporting executive function, a hypothesis that can now be examined…

  6. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Holland, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite a reported excess of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with intellectual disability, it has been argued that ADHD symptoms have been under diagnosed and inadequately treated in individuals with intellectual disability. Materials and methods: Published studies focussing on the level of ADHD…

  7. Hemispheric Functioning in Children with Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Mei Hsin Suzanne; Hausmann, Markus; Waldie, Karen E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated line bisection performance in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) subtypes. Previous research with neurotypical children found a rightward bias with right-hand use and a leftward bias with left-hand use; however, research with AD/HD participants has failed to similarly measure the…

  8. Biomarkers and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scassellati, Catia; Bonvicini, Cristian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether peripheral biochemical markers (biomarkers) might differentiate patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from non-ADHD individuals. Method: We conducted a systematic search and a series of meta-analyses of case-control studies comprising studies from 1969 to 2011. Results: We identified 210…

  9. Can Executive Functions Explain the Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the…

  10. The Role of Executive Functions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Testing Predictions from Two Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghyung; Riccio, Cynthia A.; Hynd, George W.

    2004-01-01

    The role of executive functions in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) varies considerably depending on the models of ADHD. We examined the interrelationship of two major executive functions (i.e., inhibition and working memory) with behavioral, emotional, and school problems in a group of children who had a comprehensive…

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. NICHCY Briefing Paper. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Mary

    This briefing paper uses a question-and-answer format to provide basic information about children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). It is intended to help parents, teachers, and others interested in AD/HD know what to look for, what to do, and how to get help. Questions address the following concerns: nature…

  12. Implicit and Explicit Memory Performance in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloisi, Bruno A.; McKone, Elinor; Heubeck, Bernd G.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation examined implicit and explicit memory in 20 children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and 20 matched controls. Consistent with previous research, children with AD/HD performed more poorly than controls on an explicit test of long-term memory for pictures. New results were that (a) there was…

  13. Clonidine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: II. ECG Changes and Adverse Events Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Patel, Nick C.; Robb, Adelaide S.; McDermott, Michael P.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Palumbo, Donna; Harris, Peter; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the safety and tolerance of clonidine, alone or with methylphenidate as a form of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) is conducted. Results conclude that clonidine used alone or in combination with methylphenidate were safe and well tolerated in children with ADHD.

  14. Caregiver Survey of Pharmacotherapy to Treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by a unique neurocognitive and behavioral profile, including increased incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived helpfulness and side effects of medications used to treat ADHD (methylphenidate class,…

  15. From "Spaceman" to "The ADDed Touch": Using Juvenile Literature to Teach about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Mary Anne; Johnstun, Marissa; Munk, Jo Ann

    2005-01-01

    Books can be used to teach others about disabling conditions. We located 29 children and adolescent fiction books that portray a human character with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this article we present an overview of these books and describe how teachers can use them to teach their students about ADHD. Additionally we…

  16. What Aspects of Peer Relationships are Impaired in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoza, Betsy; Mrug, Sylvie; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Bukowski, William M.; Gold, Joel A.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Pelham, William E.; Wigal, Timothy; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Participants included 165 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 130 boys, 35 girls) and their 1,298 same-sex classmates (1,026 boys, 272 girls) who served as raters. For each child with ADHD, a child of the same sex was randomly selected from the same classroom to serve as a comparison child, which yielded 165 dyads.…

  17. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Bathula, Deepti; Herting, Megan; Schmitt, Colleen; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Fair, Damien; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identification of biomarkers is a priority for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies have documented macrostructural brain alterations in ADHD, but few have examined white matter microstructure, particularly in preadolescent children. Given dramatic white matter maturation across childhood, microstructural differences…

  18. Old and New Controversies in the Alternative Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Neal L.; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become widespread in both referral and primary care populations. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected CAM therapies for ADHD. Enduring controversies, such as elimination of artificial…

  19. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  20. Recognizing and Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Young, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally diagnosed in children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now regarded as a life span condition. The academic difficulties experienced by children and adolescents with ADHD have been observed to continue into young adulthood. Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions…