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Sample records for hyperactivity disorder boys

  1. Mothers' Attributions for Behavior in Nonproblem Boys, Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte; Chen, Mandy; Ohan, Jeneva

    2006-01-01

    This study compared attributions for child behavior among mothers of 38 nonproblem boys, 26 boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 25 boys with ADHD and oppositional defiant (OD) behavior. Boys ranged from 7 to 10 years of age. To capture different aspects of mothers' attributions, 2 assessment methods were employed: (a)…

  2. Mothers' attributions for behavior in nonproblem boys, boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant behavior.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Charlotte; Chen, Mandy; Ohan, Jeneva

    2006-02-01

    This study compared attributions for child behavior among mothers of 38 nonproblem boys, 26 boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 25 boys with ADHD and oppositional defiant (OD) behavior. Boys ranged from 7 to 10 years of age. To capture different aspects of mothers' attributions, 2 assessment methods were employed: (a) ratings of the internality, controllability, globality, and stability of causes for written descriptions of child behavior and (b) coding of the types of causal attributions that mothers provided in vivo while watching their own child's behavior. In response to the written descriptions of child behavior, mothers of boys with ADHD/OD rated the causes of oppositional and inattentive-impulsive child behaviors as more stable and global than did mothers of nonproblem boys. In identifying causes of their own child's failure on lab tasks, mothers of boys with ADHD/OD provided more child-negative attributional causes than did mothers of either ADHD only or nonproblem boys. Implications for assessing and understanding attributions in families of children with ADHD and OD are discussed.

  3. The Relation between Disinhibition and Emotion Regulation in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy Mangione; Landau, Steven

    2004-01-01

    This study examined group differences of 49 boys ages 6 to 11 years with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in emotion regulation during frustrating peer competition. Half of all boys in each group were explicitly instructed to hide their feelings if they became upset during the competition. Behavioral inhibition, both…

  4. The Relation between Disinhibition and Emotion Regulation in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy Mangione; Landau, Steven

    2004-01-01

    This study examined group differences of 49 boys ages 6 to 11 years with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in emotion regulation during frustrating peer competition. Half of all boys in each group were explicitly instructed to hide their feelings if they became upset during the competition. Behavioral inhibition, both…

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Steenhuis, Mark P.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Kahn, Rene S.; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of increased familial risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on brain morphology. Method: Volumetric cerebral measures based on whole brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from 30 boys with ADHD, 30 of their unaffected siblings, and 30 matched controls were compared. Results: Both subjects with…

  6. Exercise Responses in Boys with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects of Stimulant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Anthony D.; Stephens, Brooke R.; Cole, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The effect of stimulant medication on exercise responses was studied in 14 boys (10.9 plus or minus 1.1 years) with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exercise, with and without medication, was performed at 25 W, 50 W, and 75 W, followed by a peak exercise test. Result: Submaximal heart rate (HR) was significantly…

  7. Exercise Responses in Boys with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects of Stimulant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Anthony D.; Stephens, Brooke R.; Cole, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The effect of stimulant medication on exercise responses was studied in 14 boys (10.9 plus or minus 1.1 years) with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exercise, with and without medication, was performed at 25 W, 50 W, and 75 W, followed by a peak exercise test. Result: Submaximal heart rate (HR) was significantly…

  8. Overweight and basal metabolic rate in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hubel, R; Jass, J; Marcus, A; Laessle, R G

    2006-09-01

    We investigated a possible association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and overweight by measuring weight status and energy expenditure (basal metabolic rate, BMR) in 39 ADHD-boys with hyperactivity (mixed hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive) and 30 healthy boys. The age range for the total group was 8-14 years. Weight and height were measured by a calibrated scales and stadiometer. Body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) were calculated. BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry. Significant differences were obtained between the ADHD- and the control-group, but not between ADHD-subgroups. Both BMI-SDS and BMR were higher in the group of ADHD-boys, whereby the differences were more marked when they were older. More overweight and obese subjects were found in the ADHD-sample. Impulsive behavior in ADHD-boys with hyperactivity may lead to an increased food intake, which is then likely to overcompensate the heightened energy expenditure.

  9. Testosterone and Androgen Receptor Sensitivity in Relation to Hyperactivity Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and hyperactivity symptoms exhibit an incidence that is male-biased. Thus androgen activity can be considered a plausible biological risk factor for these disorders. However, there is insufficient information about the association between increased androgen activity and hyperactivity symptoms in children with ASD. Methods In the present study, the relationship between parameters of androgenicity (plasmatic testosterone levels and androgen receptor sensitivity) and hyperactivity in 60 boys (age 3–15) with ASD is investigated. Given well documented differences in parent and trained examiners ratings of symptom severity, we employed a standardized parent`s questionnaire (Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form) as well as a direct examiner`s rating (Autism diagnostic observation schedule) for assessment of hyperactivity symptoms. Results Although it was found there was no significant association between actual plasmatic testosterone levels and hyperactivity symptoms, the number of CAG triplets was significantly negatively correlated with hyperactivity symptoms (R2 = 0.118, p = 0.007) in the sample, indicating increased androgen receptor sensitivity in association with hyperactivity symptoms. Direct trained examiner´s assessment appeared to be a relevant method for evaluating of behavioral problems in the investigation of biological underpinnings of these problems in our study. Conclusions A potential ASD subtype characterized by increased rates of hyperactivity symptoms might have distinct etiopathogenesis and require a specific behavioral and pharmacological approach. We propose an increase of androgen receptor sensitivity as a biomarker for a specific ASD subtype accompanied with hyperactivity symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for practice and future research. PMID:26910733

  10. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  11. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  12. Mothers' and Fathers' Attributions and Beliefs in Families of Girls and Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mandy; Seipp, Carla M.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    This study examined parent and child gender effects on parents' attributions and beliefs in regards to child symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants included mothers and fathers of 19 girls and 17 boys with ADHD. Groups of boys and girls, aged 5-13 years, were equated on age and medication status, as well as ADHD…

  13. Neuroelectrical signs of selective attention to color in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    van der Stelt, O; van der Molen, M; Boudewijn Gunning, W; Kok, A

    2001-10-01

    In order to gain insight into the functional and macroanatomical loci of visual selective processing deficits that may be basic to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the present study examined multi-channel event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from 7- to 11-year-old boys clinically diagnosed as having ADHD (n=24) and age-matched healthy control boys (n=24) while they performed a visual (color) selective attention task. The spatio-temporal dynamics of several ERP components related to attention to color were characterized using topographic profile analysis, topographic mapping of the ERP and associated scalp current density distributions, and spatio-temporal source potential modeling. Boys with ADHD showed a lower target hit rate, a higher false-alarm rate, and a lower perceptual sensitivity than controls. Also, whereas color attention induced in the ERPs from controls a characteristic early frontally maximal selection positivity (FSP), ADHD boys displayed little or no FSP. Similarly, ADHD boys manifested P3b amplitude decrements that were partially lateralized (i.e., maximal at left temporal scalp locations) as well as affected by maturation. These results indicate that ADHD boys suffer from deficits at both relatively early (sensory) and late (semantic) levels of visual selective information processing. The data also support the hypothesis that the visual selective processing deficits observed in the ADHD boys originate from deficits in the strength of activation of a neural network comprising prefrontal and occipito-temporal brain regions. This network seems to be actively engaged during attention to color and may contain the major intracerebral generating sources of the associated scalp-recorded ERP components.

  14. Physical Development of Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric data collected on groups of 7-year-old New Zealand boys, identified as hyperactive-only, aggressive-hyperactive, aggressive-only and nonaggressive/nonhyperactive did not confirm the hypothesis that hyperactive-only Ss would show delayed maturation. However, hyperactive-only Ss were significantly more lean than Ss in other groups.…

  15. Maternal Attributions and Child Oppositional Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Boys with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte; Hommersen, Paul; Seipp, Carla M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined changes over a 1-year period in mothers' attributions for child behavior and child oppositional behavior among 53 mothers and nonproblem sons and 44 mothers and sons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Boys averaged 8 years of age (SD = 11 months) at Time 1. Families were primarily of European Canadian…

  16. The Emergence and Stability of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Grefer, Marjorie; Flory, Kate; Cornish, Kim; Hatton, Deborah; Roberts, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are at high risk for developing a range of behavioral disorders, including Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, very few studies have investigated the comorbid profile of FXS and ADHD and the possible dissociation from the FXS and ASD profile. The present study examined the relationship of childhood temperament characteristics of the Surgency facet (activity level, impulsivity, approach, shyness, and smiling and laughter) and the severity of ADHD and ASD features at two measurement time points in childhood, preschool (ages 3–4) and at school entry (ages 5–6). Methods The study consisted of males with FXS measured at each time point (preschool and school entry), as well as comparison of typically developing (TD) boys at the preschool measurement time point. Parent reported measures of temperament and behavioral symptoms were collected at each time point. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyze obtained data. Results Elevated activity level scores are associated with ADHD scores at preschool age and elevated shyness and decreased smiling and laughter is strongly associated with ADHD scores upon school entry. Impulsivity emerges as a strong indicator of elevated ADHD scores around school age, but even preschool impulsivity scores demonstrate some predictive value for higher ADHD scores later in school. Finally, no Surgency characteristic was significantly related to ASD scores at any age. Conclusions Impulsivity serves as an indicator of elevated ADHD symptoms across development periods in boys with FXS, while activity level is just indicative of higher ADHD scores at the preschool age. The Surgency facet of temperament at either age does not predict strong relationships of comorbid pathologies of ADHD and ASD in FXS. However, Surgency characteristics may serve as informative discriminative factors when studying behavioral outcomes in boys with FXS

  17. Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2009-01-01

    Hyperactivity is currently considered a core and ubiquitous feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory (WM) and activity level. The current study investigated whether children's activity level is functionally…

  18. Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2009-01-01

    Hyperactivity is currently considered a core and ubiquitous feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory (WM) and activity level. The current study investigated whether children's activity level is functionally…

  19. Attentional Bias towards Emotional Scenes in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pishyareh, Ebrahim; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Mahmoodi-Gharaie, Javad; Khorrami, Anahita; Joudi, Mitra; Ahmadi, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) react explosively and inappropriately to emotional stimuli. It could be hypothesized that these children have some impairment in attending to emotional cues. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted this study to evaluate visual directions of children with ADHD towards paired emotional scenes. Thirty boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years diagnosed with ADHD were compared with 30 age-matched normal boys. All participants were presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the four following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral - neutral. Meanwhile, their visual orientations towards these pictures were evaluated using the eye tracking system. The number and duration of first fixation and duration of first gaze were compared between the two groups using the MANOVA analysis. The performance of each group in different categories was also analyzed using the Friedman test. With regards to duration of first gaze, which is the time taken to fixate on a picture before moving to another picture, ADHD children spent less time on pleasant pictures compared to normal group, while they were looking at pleasant - neutral and unpleasant - pleasant pairs. The duration of first gaze on unpleasant pictures was higher while children with ADHD were looking at unpleasant - neutral pairs (P<0.01). Based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that children with ADHD attend to unpleasant conditions more than normal children which leads to their emotional reactivity.

  20. Growth and pubertal development of adolescent boys on stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Alison S; Melzer, Elaine; Tait, Paul R; Garnett, Sarah P; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A; Clarke, Simon

    2013-01-21

    To investigate the growth and pubertal attainment of boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on stimulant medication. Longitudinal study of boys aged 12.00-15.99 years at recruitment in 2005-2011, with stimulant-treated ADHD for at least 3 years, attending three paediatric practices (subjects), compared with longitudinal data from 174 boys from the Nepean longitudinal study (controls). Subjects' growth parameters before treatment were compared with controls aged 7 or 8 years; growth parameters and longitudinal changes on treatment to ages 12.00-13.99 and 14.00-15.99 years were compared with controls reviewed at 13 and 15 years of age, respectively. The subjects' pubertal staging and height velocity were related to their treatment history. Sixty-five subjects were recruited; mean duration of treatment was 6.3 ± 1.9 years. At baseline, their growth parameters were not significantly different from those of the controls after adjusting for age. Compared with the controls, after adjusting for current age and baseline growth parameter z score, subjects aged 12.00-13.99 years had significantly lower weight and body mass index (P < 0.01), and those aged 14.00-15.99 years had significantly lower height and weight (P < 0.05). At 12.00-13.99 years of age, the subjects were comparable to the controls in their pubertal development adjusted for age, but those aged 14.00-15.99 years reported significant delay (mean Tanner stage, 3.6 for subjects v 4.0 for controls; P < 0.05). The dose of medication was inversely correlated with the height velocity from baseline to 14.00-15.99 years of age (P < 0.05). Prolonged treatment (more than 3 years) with stimulant medication was associated with a slower rate of physical development during puberty. To maintain adequate height velocity during puberty, we recommend keeping the dose as low as possible.

  1. Hyperactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The influence of underlying visuospatial working memory and self-control processes.

    PubMed

    Patros, Connor H G; Alderson, R Matt; Hudec, Kristen L; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E

    2017-02-01

    Changes in motor activity were examined across control and executive function (EF) tasks that differ with regard to demands placed on visuospatial working memory (VS-WM) and self-control processes. Motor activity was measured via actigraphy in 8- to 12-year-old boys with (n=15) and without (n=17) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the completion of VS-WM, self-control, and control tasks. Results indicated that boys with ADHD, relative to typically developing boys, exhibited greater motor activity across tasks, and both groups' activity was greater during EF tasks relative to control tasks. Lastly, VS-WM performance, relative to self-control performance, accounted for significantly more variance in activity across both VS-WM and self-control tasks. Collectively, findings suggest that ADHD-related hyperactivity is positively related to increased cognitive demands and appears to be better explained by deficient VS-WM rather than insufficient self-control.

  2. Teacher Ratings Predict Peer Ratings of Aggression at 3-Year Follow-Up in Boys with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte; Pelham, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Initial and follow-up peer ratings of boys with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) were compared. Peer ratings of aggression improved for boys whom teachers rated below the median on the Iowa Conners Aggression scale but not for boys rated above the median. Subgroups reflecting other teacher and peer ratings were less effective…

  3. Attentional Bias towards Emotional Scenes in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pishyareh, Ebrahim; Mahmoodi-Gharaie, Javad; Khorrami, Anahita; Joudi, Mitra; Ahmadi, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) react explosively and inappropriately to emotional stimuli. It could be hypothesized that these children have some impairment in attending to emotional cues. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted this study to evaluate visual directions of children with ADHD towards paired emotional scenes. Method Thirty boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years diagnosed with ADHD were compared with 30 age-matched normal boys. All participants were presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the four following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral – neutral. Meanwhile, their visual orientations towards these pictures were evaluated using the eye tracking system. The number and duration of first fixation and duration of first gaze were compared between the two groups using the MANOVA analysis. The performance of each group in different categories was also analyzed using the Friedman test. Results With regards to duration of first gaze, which is the time taken to fixate on a picture before moving to another picture, ADHD children spent less time on pleasant pictures compared to normal group, while they were looking at pleasant – neutral and unpleasant – pleasant pairs. The duration of first gaze on unpleasant pictures was higher while children with ADHD were looking at unpleasant – neutral pairs (P<0.01). Conclusion Based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that children with ADHD attend to unpleasant conditions more than normal children which leads to their emotional reactivity. PMID:22952552

  4. Dissociated functional brain abnormalities of inhibition in boys with pure conduct disorder and in boys with pure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B; Mohammed, Majeed; Scott, Steven; Giampietro, Vincent; Taylor, Eric; Brammer, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    Inhibitory dysfunction may be a transdiagnostic etiopathophysiology of disruptive behavior disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of inhibitory control has only been investigated in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including comorbidity with conduct disorder, showing frontal-striatal dysfunction. This study investigates differences and commonalities in functional neural networks mediating inhibitory control between medication-naive adolescents with pure conduct disorder and those with pure ADHD to identify biological markers that distinguish these clinically overlapping disorders. Event-related fMRI was used to compare brain activation of 13 boys with noncomorbid conduct disorder, 20 with noncomorbid ADHD, and 20 normal boys during an individually adjusted tracking stop task that measures the neural substrates of inhibition and stopping failure. During successful inhibition, only patients with ADHD showed reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in relation to comparison subjects and patients with conduct disorder. During inhibition failures compared to go responses, both patient groups shared underactivation in the posterior cingulate gyrus in relation to comparison subjects. Patients with conduct disorder showed reduced activation in bilateral temporal-parietal regions compared to the other groups, which did not differ in this measure. Patients with pure ADHD or pure conduct disorder show qualitative differences in their brain abnormality patterns during inhibitory control. Inhibition-mediating prefrontal regions appear to be specifically reduced in ADHD, whereas posterior temporal-parietal, performance monitoring networks are specifically dysfunctional in conduct disorder. The findings provide pioneering evidence that distinct neurobiological abnormalities may be underlying the overlapping behavioral phenotype of the two disruptive disorders.

  5. [Memory characteristic in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid learning disability].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaomin; Wang, Na; Qian, Qiujin; Yang, Li; Qian, Ying; Liu, Lu; Liu, Yuxin; Cheng, Jia; Sun, Li; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-06-10

    To explore the memory characteristic in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus learning disability (LD). A total of 97 ADHD boys with comorbid LD (ADHD+LD), 97 ADHD boys without comorbid LD (ADHD-LD) and 97 healthy controls (based on the criteria of DSM-IV) were recruited from the outpatient clinic of Peking University Sixth Hospital from December 2003 to September 2012. Individuals across three groups were matched by ages, intelligence quotient (IQ) and ADHD subtypes. The Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) was used to access the characteristics of several memory domains. ADHD +LD group performed the worst and control group the best in memory quotient (MQ) (90 ± 15 vs 98 ± 14 & 104 ± 14) and long-term memory domain ((36.0 ± 10.2) vs (42.1 ± 7.8) & (45.6 ± 6.7) score, all P < 0.05) . ADHD+LD group scored significantly lower than the control group in short-term memory ( (53.0 ± 9.2) vs (58.0 ± 9.7) score, P < 0.05) and immediate memory domains ((10.0 ± 3.3) vs (11.3 ± 3.5) score, P < 0.05). However, ADHD+LD group scored slightly but not significantly lower than the ADHD-LD group ((54.9 ± 10.7),(10.8 ± 3.2) score, P > 0.05). In most subscales of WMS, ADHD+LD group scored significantly lower than both ADHD-LD and control group in current information and orientation, mental control (1→100) , mental control (100→1) and associate learning subscales ( (8.8 ± 3.1) vs (10.0 ± 3.0) & (9.9 ± 2.3) score, (8.7 ± 4.1) vs (10.0 ± 3.9) & (11.1 ± 3.6) score, (10.7 ± 3.9) vs (12.9 ± 2.8) & (13.7 ± 2.2) score, (9.8 ± 3.1) vs (10.8 ± 2.6) & (11.1 ± 2.1) score, all P < 0.05) . In mental control (accumulation) subscale, all pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (all P < 0.05) . In subscales of figure memory, visual reproduction and digit span, ADHD+LD scored significantly lower than the control group (all P < 0.05), but not the ADHD-LD group (all P > 0.05). Boys with ADHD comorbid LD show deficits in overall memory function and

  6. The Relationship between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Aggressive Behaviour in Preschool Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Karaba, Rania

    2005-01-01

    Research regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) among preschoolers is limited. This study explored prevalence rates of AD/HD on a community-based sample of preschoolers in Athens. Moreover, it examined the relationship between AD/HD and aggressive behaviour and explored sex differences in this relationship. Nursery teachers…

  7. Subthreshold and threshold attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in childhood: psychosocial outcomes in adolescence in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Norén Selinus, E; Molero, Y; Lichtenstein, P; Anckarsäter, H; Lundström, S; Bottai, M; Hellner Gumpert, C

    2016-12-01

    To examine the association between different levels of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and sex differences in psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Swedish children (n = 4635) were screened for neuropsychiatric symptoms at age 9 or 12. ADHD symptoms were divided into three levels: screen-negative, screen-intermediate, and screen-positive. At follow-up (age 15), parents and teenagers filled out questionnaires regarding (i) hyperactivity/inattention, (ii) peer problems, (iii) school problems, (iv) internalizing problems, (v) antisocial behaviour, (vi) alcohol misuse, and (vii) drug misuse. All outcomes were controlled for symptoms of diagnostic categories other than ADHD. Increasing levels of ADHD symptoms in childhood were associated with higher proportions of adolescents who displayed negative psychosocial outcomes. More girls than boys reported internalizing problems (all levels) and risky drug use (screen-intermediate and screen-positive only). More boys reported antisocial behaviour at the screen-negative and screen-intermediate levels, but at the screen-positive level, similar proportions of girls and boys displayed antisocial behaviour. The findings support the view that ADHD symptoms, as well as their negative outcomes, are dimensionally distributed in the population and that adolescent girls and boys display different risk profiles. The findings confirm that ADHD symptoms are associated with higher risk of drug misuse in girls. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior modification on boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Pelham, W E; Carlson, C; Sams, S E; Vallano, G; Dixon, M J; Hoza, B

    1993-06-01

    This study evaluated the separate and combined effects of behavior modification and 2 doses of methylphenidate (MPH; 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg) compared with baseline (no behavior modification and a placebo) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of 31 ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) boys attending a summer treatment program. Results revealed significant effects of both interventions, with the mean effect size of medication being more than twice as great as that of behavior modification. Relatively small incremental value was gained by the higher dose of medication or the addition of behavior modification, compared with the effects of the low dose of MPH. In contrast, the addition of either dose of MPH resulted in improvement beyond the effects of behavior modification alone. These group effects reflected those obtained in analyses of individual differences. Furthermore, comparisons of individual responsiveness showed that boys who responded to one treatment also responded to the other.

  9. Processing of affective prosody in boys suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Köchel, Angelika; Schöngaßner, Florian; Feierl-Gsodam, Silke; Schienle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological studies on facial affect recognition have demonstrated reduced response amplitudes to anger cues in patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is still unclear whether a similar deficit exists in the auditory domain. Therefore, this near-infrared spectroscopy study focused on neuronal correlates of affective prosody processing. Fourteen boys suffering from ADHD and fourteen healthy boys were exposed to emotionally intoned, standardized sentences of the categories anger, sadness, happiness, and to affectively neutral sentences. Relative to controls, the patients displayed a diminished activation of the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) when processing anger prosody, which was correlated with aggressive behavior. There were no group differences for the other emotions. Additionally, the ADHD group showed increased supramarginal gyrus (SMG) activation in the anger condition. This might mirror compensatory attention allocation. In summary, we identified a selectively lowered STG activation to auditory anger cues in ADHD patients. Consequently, STG recruitment during anger exposure might be used for evaluation of psychotherapy effects.

  10. Temperament and character dimensions associated with clinical characteristics and treatment outcome in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder boys.

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Cortese, Samuele; Wohl, Mathias; Aubron, Valérie; Orejarena, Silvia; Michel, Gregory; Asch, Muriel; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Gorwood, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Although differential patterns of temperament and character have been documented in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few studies have investigated relations between these dimensions, clinical features of ADHD, and treatment outcome. Ninety-five boys with ADHD and 87 controls participated in the study; 88.5% of the referred patients were reassessed after optimal titration of methylphendiate treatment. Compared with controls, boys with ADHD showed a temperament profile of high novelty seeking, low reward dependence, and persistence, as well as low scores on both self-determination and cooperativeness character dimensions. No significant differences were found between subjects with ADHD and controls in harm avoidance. Temperament and character traits were related to specific symptom domains and comorbidity but did not predict global severity of ADHD. Persistent and immature children with ADHD were more likely to experience short-term remission. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shared and Disorder-Specific Prefrontal Abnormalities in Boys with Pure Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Compared to Boys with Pure CD during Interference Inhibition and Attention Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B.; Mohammad, Majeed; Scott, Stephen; Brammer, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inhibitory and attention deficits have been suggested to be shared problems of disruptive behaviour disorders. Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and patients with conduct disorder (CD) show deficits in tasks of attention allocation and interference inhibition. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  12. Shared and Disorder-Specific Prefrontal Abnormalities in Boys with Pure Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Compared to Boys with Pure CD during Interference Inhibition and Attention Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B.; Mohammad, Majeed; Scott, Stephen; Brammer, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inhibitory and attention deficits have been suggested to be shared problems of disruptive behaviour disorders. Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and patients with conduct disorder (CD) show deficits in tasks of attention allocation and interference inhibition. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  13. Life history interviews with 11 boys diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who had sexually offended: a sad storyline.

    PubMed

    Tidefors, Inga; Strand, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Little is known of the possible relationship between a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sexually offensive behavior in adolescents. Our aim was to understand how adolescents with ADHD who had sexually offended described their childhood experiences and spoke about their diagnostic symptoms. The boys' early lives and relations were unpredictable, and emotional, physical, and sexual limits had been crossed. However, many boys saw themselves or their diagnosis, rather than their parents, school, or "society," as the underlying cause of their behavior. They used different strategies, for example repressing memories or regarding traumatic experiences as normal, to manage their lives. Most boys had difficulty with emotions and expressed sadness or frustration through anger. They spoke of being inattentive and restless in school and impulsive before and during their sexual offenses. The psychiatric assessment was described as a "messy" experience that strengthened their belief that something was wrong with them. Some had incorporated neuropsychiatric language into otherwise limited vocabularies and tended to use their diagnostic symptoms to excuse their offenses. The focus in the assessment on the boys themselves and their behaviors may darken their understandings of themselves, their experiences of abuse, and the offenses they have committed. Further research is needed into the possible consequences of a diagnosis of ADHD on adolescents' self-image and sense of self-control.

  14. Symptoms of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Unique Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment in Boys: Advancing an Evidence Base for DSM-V

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The incremental utility of symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits for predicting psychosocial outcomes across multiple domains was examined in a community sample of 1,517 boys. Method: Several outcomes were assessed…

  15. Symptoms of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Unique Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment in Boys: Advancing an Evidence Base for DSM-V

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The incremental utility of symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits for predicting psychosocial outcomes across multiple domains was examined in a community sample of 1,517 boys. Method: Several outcomes were assessed…

  16. Improving visual memory, attention, and school function with atomoxetine in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-10-01

    Atomoxetine is efficacious in reducing symptoms of attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its effect on visual memory and attention needs more investigation. This study aimed to assess the effect of atomoxetine on visual memory, attention, and school function in boys with ADHD in Taiwan. This was an open-label 12 week atomoxetine treatment trial among 30 drug-naíve boys with ADHD, aged 8-16 years. Before administration of atomoxetine, the participants were assessed using psychiatric interviews, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition (WISC-III), the school function of the Chinese version of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA), the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and the tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) involving visual memory and attention: Pattern Recognition Memory, Spatial Recognition Memory, and Reaction Time, which were reassessed at weeks 4 and 12. Our results showed there was significant improvement in pattern recognition memory and spatial recognition memory as measured by the CANTAB tasks, sustained attention and response inhibition as measured by the CPT, and reaction time as measured by the CANTAB after treatment with atomoxetine for 4 weeks or 12 weeks. In addition, atomoxetine significantly enhanced school functioning in children with ADHD. Our findings suggested that atomoxetine was associated with significant improvement in visual memory, attention, and school functioning in boys with ADHD.

  17. Association of Y-linked variants with impulsivity and aggression in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of Chinese Han descent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Cheng, Jia; Li, Haimei; Su, Yi; Sun, Li; Yang, Li; Qian, Qiujin; Wang, Yufeng

    2017-02-24

    Y chromosome plays important role in brain function and may help to explain the sex difference in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 857 boys with ADHD and 574 male controls were genotyped for 14 Y-linked markers. Analyses for both dichotomous phenotype and quantitative traits and the interaction effects with MAOA were performed. The results indicated significant association of four markers (M88, M95, M175, and M119) with inhibition function and aggression in boys with ADHD. Positive interaction effects with MAOA were also detected. In conclusion, some Y-linked variants may be associated with the impulsivity and aggression in boys with ADHD.

  18. Neuroanatomical deficits correlate with executive dysfunction in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    He, Ning; Li, Fei; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Lanting; Chen, Lizhou; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-07-23

    Previous structural imaging studies have revealed gray matter volume abnormalities to reflect the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however, which are confounded by age, medication and comorbidity and also ignore the core feature of brain structure in the executive impairments of ADHD. In the present study, we explored gray matter volume abnormalities in male children and adolescents with ADHD who were drug-naive and without comorbidities, and tried to connect structural data and behavioral executive dysfunction to provide more information regarding the brain-behavior relationships in ADHD. Seventy-two male subjects (37 patients and 35 controls) underwent three-dimensional high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging and executive function assessments, including the Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Voxel-based morphometry with diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra was used to identify gray matter volume differences between the ADHD and controls. Correlation analyses were performed to identify neuroanatomical deficits that were associated with executive dysfunctions. Significantly reduced gray matter volumes were identified in the right orbitofrontal cortex, right primary motor/premotor cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior midcingulate cortex of ADHD patients compared with controls (P<0.05, corrected for family-wise errors). In patients group, the gray matter volumes of the right orbitofrontal cortex and left posterior midcingulate cortex were positively correlated with the completed categories on the WCST, and the gray matter volume of the left posterior midcingulate cortex was negatively correlated with the total and non-perseverative errors on the WCST (P<0.05). The present findings show gray matter volume reductions in motor regions as well as the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex; this evidence supports theories that suggest frontal

  19. Decreased binding capacity (Bmax) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in fibroblasts from boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jessica; Landgren, Magnus; Fernell, Elisabeth; Lewander, Tommy; Venizelos, Nikolaos

    2013-09-01

    Monoaminergic dysregulation is implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate and amphetamines are the most frequently prescribed pharmacological agents for treating ADHD. However, it has recently been proposed that the core symptoms of the disorder might be due to an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems. In this study, we used fibroblast cell homogenates from boys with and without ADHD as an extraneural cell model to examine the cholinergic receptor density, that is, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). We found that the binding capacity (Bmax) of [³H] Quinuclidinyl benzilate (³H-QNB) to mAChRs was decreased by almost 50 % in the children with ADHD (mean = 30.6 fmol/mg protein, SD = 25.6) in comparison with controls [mean = 63.1 fmol/mg protein, SD = 20.5, p ≤ 0.01 (Student's unpaired t test)]. The decreased Bmax indicates a reduced cholinergic receptor density, which might constitute a biomarker for ADHD. However, these preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger ADHD and comparison cohorts.

  20. Cortisol reactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior problems: the impact of callous unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Christina; Kroeger, Anne; Weyers, Peter; Grasmann, Doerte; Horschinek, Mira; Freitag, Christine; Clement, Hans-Willi

    2011-05-15

    There is a body of literature demonstrating an association between altered hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and aggressive behavior. Aggressive and disruptive behavior also is highly prevalent in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Findings on HPA-axis reactivity in ADHD, however, are rather inconsistent. Specific temperamental risk factors previously were associated with a specific subtype of severe disruptive behavior. These traits might also be characterized by a distinct neurobiological profile across ADHD and disruptive behavior disorders. In this study we focus on psychopathic traits, notably callous unemotional (CU) traits. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether two groups of ADHD patients with high or low CU traits differed in cortisol reactivity. Subjects were 36 boys with ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms aged 8 to 14 years. Salivary cortisol probes were taken before and repeatedly after an experimental standardized stress test. Patients scoring high on CU traits showed a blunted HPA axis reactivity to the experimentally induced stress. Results underscore the need to consider specific personality traits in investigating neurobiological correlates in ADHD with disruptive behavior problems.

  1. Possible Effects of Copper and Ceruloplasmin Levels on Auditory Event Potentials in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    YORBIK, Özgür; MUTLU, Caner; ÖZDAĞ, Mehmet Fatih; OLGUN, Abdullah; ERYILMAZ, Gül; AYTA, Semih

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship between levels of plasma copper (Cu) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) and amplitudes and latencies of P1, N2, and P3 in the parietal and frontal areas of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as to compare these Cu levels and event-related potentials (ERPs) indices in controls. Methods Boys (n=41) with ADHD were divided into two subgroups according to a median split of plasma Cu and Cp levels, separately. ERP indices from the parietal and frontal regions were recorded in children with ADHD and 24 normal boys (control group) using an auditory oddball paradigm. Results Parietal P3 latency was significantly longer, and parietal P3 amplitude, frontal P3 amplitude, and frontal N2 amplitudes were smaller in children with ADHD than in controls (all p values <0.017). Parietal P1 and frontal P1 latencies were significantly shorter in the higher Cu group than in the lower Cu group (both p values <0.017). Decreased latency of parietal P1 was dependent on plasma levels of Cu (p<0.05). Frontal N2 and parietal N2 amplitudes were significantly lower in the ADHD group with lower Cp levels than in the ADHD group with higher Cp levels (both p values <0.017). Decreased frontal N2 and parietal N2 amplitudes were dependent on plasma levels of Cp (both p values <0.05). Conclusion Plasma Cu and Cp levels may have an effect on ERPs in ADHD, thus indicating the existence of effects on information processing. Cu levels may have a negative effect on the neuronal encoding of sound, whereas Cp levels may have a positive effect on the processes of cognitive control, conflict monitoring, and stimulus discrimination in children with ADHD. PMID:28360806

  2. Neurofunctional effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during time discrimination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anna; Cubillo, Ana; Barrett, Nadia; Giampietro, Vincent; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Mick; Rubia, Katya

    2013-10-15

    The catecholamine agonists methylphenidate and atomoxetine effectively treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, dopamine agonists have shown to improve time estimation in ADHD, a core cognitive deficit. However, few have compared the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on brain function in ADHD, and none during time estimation. Using single dose challenges, we investigated shared and drug-specific effects in ADHD adolescents on the neural substrates of time discrimination (TD). Twenty ADHD adolescent male subjects were compared in a randomized double-blind cross-over design after single doses of methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and placebo in functional magnetic resonance imaging during TD. Normalization effects were assessed by comparing brain activation under each drug condition with that of 20 healthy age-matched control subjects. Relative to control subjects, patients under placebo showed TD deficits and reduced activation of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC)/insula, inferior frontal cortex, and supplementary motor area. Performance differences were normalized only by methylphenidate, relative to both atomoxetine and placebo. Both medications, however, significantly upregulated right VLPFC/insula activation within patients and normalized its underactivation in ADHD boys under placebo relative to control subjects. The supplementary motor area and inferior frontal cortex activation differences that were observed under placebo were reduced by methylphenidate and atomoxetine, respectively, but neither survived rigorous testing for normalization. While only methylphenidate had a drug-specific effect of improving TD performance deficits, both drugs significantly upregulated and normalized right VLPFC underactivation in ADHD boys under placebo relative to control subjects, suggesting shared effects of stimulants and nonstimulants on a key prefrontal dysfunction during timing. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of Society

  3. The effects of awareness training on tics in a young boy with Tourette syndrome, Asperger syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wiskow, Katie M; Klatt, Kevin P

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown habit reversal training (HRT) to be effective in reducing tics. In some studies, tics have been reduced by implementing only a few components of HRT. The current study investigated the first step, awareness training, for treating tics in a young boy with Asperger syndrome, Tourette syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed a reduction in all tics. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Altered tryptophan and alanine transport in fibroblasts from boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jessica; Landgren, Magnus; Fernell, Elisabeth; Vumma, Ravi; Åhlin, Arne; Bjerkenstedt, Lars; Venizelos, Nikolaos

    2011-09-24

    The catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems are implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The amino acid tyrosine is the precursor for synthesis of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, while tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin. A disturbed transport of tyrosine, as well as other amino acids, has been found in a number of other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism, when using the fibroblast cell model. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore whether children with ADHD may have disturbed amino acid transport. Fibroblast cells were cultured from skin biopsies obtained from 14 boys diagnosed with ADHD and from 13 matching boys without a diagnosis of a developmental disorder. Transport of the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and alanine across the cell membrane was measured by the cluster tray method. The kinetic parameters, maximal transport capacity (V(max)) and affinity constant (K(m)) were determined. Any difference between the two groups was analyzed by Student's unpaired t-test or the Mann Whitney U test. The ADHD group had significantly decreased V(max) (p = 0.039) and K(m) (increased affinity) (p = 0.010) of tryptophan transport in comparison to controls. They also had a significantly higher V(max)of alanine transport (p = 0.031), but the Km of alanine transport did not differ significantly. There were no significant differences in any of the kinetic parameters regarding tyrosine transport in fibroblasts for the ADHD group. Tryptophan uses the same transport systems in both fibroblasts and at the blood brain barrier (BBB). Hence, a decreased transport capacity of tryptophan implies that less tryptophan is being transported across the BBB in the ADHD group. This could lead to deficient serotonin access in the brain that might cause disturbances in both the serotonergic and the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter systems, since these systems are

  5. Hyperactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The role of executive and non-executive functions.

    PubMed

    Hudec, Kristen L; Alderson, R Matt; Patros, Connor H G; Lea, Sarah E; Tarle, Stephanie J; Kasper, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    Motor activity of boys (age 8-12 years) with (n=19) and without (n=18) ADHD was objectively measured with actigraphy across experimental conditions that varied with regard to demands on executive functions. Activity exhibited during two n-back (1-back, 2-back) working memory tasks was compared to activity during a choice-reaction time (CRT) task that placed relatively fewer demands on executive processes and during a simple reaction time (SRT) task that required mostly automatic processing with minimal executive demands. Results indicated that children in the ADHD group exhibited greater activity compared to children in the non-ADHD group. Further, both groups exhibited the greatest activity during conditions with high working memory demands, followed by the reaction time and control task conditions, respectively. The findings indicate that large-magnitude increases in motor activity are predominantly associated with increased demands on working memory, though demands on non-executive processes are sufficient to elicit small to moderate increases in motor activity as well. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life.

  7. The Impact of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Preadolescent Adjustment May Be Greater for Girls than for Boys

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Irene J.; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Whether gender differences exist in the impairment associated with ADHD is still largely unknown, because most samples have few affected girls or include only one sex. The current study evaluated whether ADHD affects adjustment differently for girls than boys in a population-based cohort of 11-year-olds (520 females; 478 males). Those with a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD (predominantly inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or combined) were compared to those without ADHD on teacher, parent, and child reports of academics, peer relationships, self-concept, clinical symptoms, and treatment. Although boys and girls with ADHD experienced difficulties in all areas, girls with ADHD, especially the inattentive subtype, were more negatively affected in academics and peer relationships. Inattentive girls were less popular and more likely to be bullied than girls without ADHD, whereas inattentive boys were not. The social isolation experienced by many girls with ADHD deserves greater attention. PMID:21722026

  8. Symptoms of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Unique Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment in Boys: Advancing an Evidence Base for DSM-V

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The incremental utility of symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits for predicting psychosocial outcomes across multiple domains was examined in a community sample of 1,517 boys. Method Several outcomes were assessed semiannually across a 2-year follow-up, including antisocial behavior, internalizing problems, peer conflict, and academic difficulties. Official criminal charges were also examined across adolescence. Results CD symptoms emerged as the most robust predictor of future antisocial outcomes. However, ODD symptoms predicted later criminal charges and conduct problems, and CU traits were robustly associated with serious and persistent criminal behavior in boys. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms predicted increases in oppositional defiant behavior and conduct problems over time and were uniquely related to future academic difficulties. Both ADHD and ODD symptoms predicted social and internalizing problems in boys, whereas CU traits were associated with decreased internalizing problems over time. Conclusions The current findings have implications for revisions being considered as part of the DSM-V. Specifically, incorporating CU traits into the diagnostic criteria for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) may help to further delineate boys at risk for severe and persistent delinquency. Although currently prohibited, allowing a diagnosis of ODD when CD is present may provide unique prognostic information about boys who are at risk for future criminal behavior, social problems, and internalizing problems. PMID:20970701

  9. Mother-Son Interactions in Families of Boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder with and without Oppositional Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seipp, Carla M.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Parenting responsiveness and over-reactivity were assessed among 25 mothers of 7-9-year-old sons with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior (Oppositional Defiant, OD), 24 mothers of sons with ADHD only, and 38 mothers of nonproblem sons. Responsiveness was observed during mother-son play and clean-up…

  10. Assessment of Social Competence of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Problematic Peer Entry, Host Responses, and Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronk, Marla J.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotally and empirically, there is clear evidence that children with the Combined subtype of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience disturbed peer relations, yet the field has not clearly established the origin of these difficulties. This is the first known investigation to examine the role of peer entry as a means to…

  11. Late-diagnosed phenylketonuria in an eight-year-old boy with dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Yılmaz; Dursun, Ali; Tokatlı, Ayşegül; Coşkun, Turgay; Sivri, Hatice Serap

    2016-01-01

    Phenylketonuria, previously a common cause of severe intellectual disability, is a metabolic disorder now promptly diagnosed and effectively treated thanks to newborn screening programs. Here, we report a male patient presenting with dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, who was diagnosed with mild phenylketonuria at eight years of age. Earlier recognition and treatment before the establishment of irreversible brain damage would have resulted in better neurobehavioural outcomes. Classical phenylketonuria and milder phenotypes of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of all cognitive and behavioural problems of unknown cause.

  12. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  13. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  14. Successful treatment with atomoxetine of an adolescent boy with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, extreme obesity, and reduced melanocortin 4 receptor function.

    PubMed

    Pott, Wilfried; Albayrak, Ozgür; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Pauli-Pott, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Recent case reports suggest a link between reduced melanocortinergic tone and both obesity and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We present the case of a 13-year-old, male, obese MC4R mutation carrier with ADHD. The boy carries a heterozygous mutation in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R; Met281Val), that leads to a reduced receptor function. Dominant mutations of this type represent major gene effects for obesity. He participated in a lifestyle intervention program for obesity and received treatment with the selective norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor atomoxetine for 31 months. The boy markedly reduced his BMI from 47.2 to 29.6 kg/m². Atomoxetine proved to efficiently reduce weight in a severely obese MC4R mutation carrier with ADHD. We briefly discuss possible mechanisms for our observation, including evidence for the functional connectivity between melanocortinergic, dopaminergic, and norepinephrinergic brain circuitries.

  15. Context influences decision-making in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A comparison of traditional and novel choice-impulsivity paradigms.

    PubMed

    Patros, Connor H G; Alderson, R Matt; Lea, Sarah E; Tarle, Stephanie J

    2017-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by an impaired ability to maintain attention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Impulsivity is frequently defined as the preference for small, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards, and has been associated with a variety of negative outcomes such as risky behavior and academic difficulty. Extant studies have uniformly utilized the traditional paradigm of presenting two response choices, which limits the generalization of findings to scenarios in which children/adolescents are faced with dichotomous decisions. The current study is the first to examine the effect of manipulating the number of available response options on impulsive decision-making in boys with and without ADHD. A total of 39 boys (ADHD = 16, typically developing [TD] = 23) aged 8-12 years completed a traditional two-choice impulsivity task and a novel five-choice impulsivity task to examine the effect of manipulating the number of choice responses (two vs five) on impulsive decision-making. A five-choice task was utilized as it presents a more continuous array of choice options when compared to the typical two-choice task, and is comparable given its methodological similarity to the two-choice task. Results suggested that boys with ADHD were significantly more impulsive than TD boys during the two-choice task, but not during the five-choice task. Collectively, these findings suggest that ADHD-related impulsivity is not ubiquitous, but rather dependent on variation in demands and/or context. Further, these findings highlight the importance of examining ADHD-related decision-making within the context of alternative paradigms, as the exclusive utilization of two-choice tasks may promote inaccurate conceptualizations of the disorder.

  16. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This brief paper summarizes information on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First it identifies eight common characteristics of this disorder: (1) inattentiveness and distractibility, (2) impulsiveness, (3) hyperactivity, (4) attention-demanding behavior, (5) learning difficulties, (6) coordination difficulties, (7) unacceptable…

  18. The use of empathy and transference as interventions in psychotherapy with attention deficit hyperactive disorder latency-aged boys.

    PubMed

    Conway, Francine

    2014-03-01

    Psychodynamic-oriented therapies are uniquely positioned to address the internal experiences of a child whose external presentation is consistent with an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, an area of treatment intervention that is conspicuously absent from common ADHD treatment modalities. This article presents two psychodynamic psychotherapy treatment interventions that demonstrate (1) the importance of empathy in the therapeutic relationship and (2) the use of transference in psychotherapy with ADHD children. Through the use of case examples, the use of empathy is demonstrated in developing the therapeutic alliance, facilitating the development of the child's reflective capacity on affective states, and organizing the child's affective experiences. The benefits of transference interventions with ADHD children are reviewed, and case examples are provided to demonstrate how the therapist worked with the idealized and mirroring transference. Interventions are presented in the context of Object Relations and Self-Psychology Theories.

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  20. Probabilistic diffusion tractography and graph theory analysis reveal abnormal white matter structural connectivity networks in drug-naive boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qingjiu; Shu, Ni; An, Li; Wang, Peng; Sun, Li; Xia, Ming-Rui; Wang, Jin-Hui; Gong, Gao-Lang; Zang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Yu-Feng; He, Yong

    2013-06-26

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is characterized by core symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that these behavioral disturbances are associated with abnormal functional connectivity among brain regions. However, the alterations in the structural connections that underlie these behavioral and functional deficits remain poorly understood. Here, we used diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractography method to examine whole-brain white matter (WM) structural connectivity in 30 drug-naive boys with ADHD and 30 healthy controls. The WM networks of the human brain were constructed by estimating inter-regional connectivity probability. The topological properties of the resultant networks (e.g., small-world and network efficiency) were then analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. Nonparametric permutation tests were applied for between-group comparisons of these graphic metrics. We found that both the ADHD and control groups showed an efficient small-world organization in the whole-brain WM networks, suggesting a balance between structurally segregated and integrated connectivity patterns. However, relative to controls, patients with ADHD exhibited decreased global efficiency and increased shortest path length, with the most pronounced efficiency decreases in the left parietal, frontal, and occipital cortices. Intriguingly, the ADHD group showed decreased structural connectivity in the prefrontal-dominant circuitry and increased connectivity in the orbitofrontal-striatal circuitry, and these changes significantly correlated with the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms, respectively. The present study shows disrupted topological organization of large-scale WM networks in ADHD, extending our understanding of how structural disruptions of neuronal circuits underlie behavioral disturbances in

  1. Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder behaviors in boys with autism spectrum disorder with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder versus several comparison samples.

    PubMed

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D; Devincent, Carla J

    2009-07-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173) community controls. Parents rated children in the three ADHD groups comparably for each symptom of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder. Teacher ratings indicated that the ASD + ADHD group evidenced a unique pattern of ODD symptom severity, differentiating them from the other ADHD groups, and from the ASD Only group. The clinical features of ASD appear to influence co-morbid, DSM-IV-defined ODD, with implications for nosology.

  2. Mother-son interactions in families of boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with and without oppositional behavior.

    PubMed

    Seipp, Carla M; Johnston, Charlotte

    2005-02-01

    Parenting responsiveness and over-reactivity were assessed among 25 mothers of 7-9-year-old sons with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior (Oppositional Defiant, OD), 24 mothers of sons with ADHD only, and 38 mothers of nonproblem sons. Responsiveness was observed during mother-son play and clean-up interactions and over-reactivity was assessed using self-reports of parenting in discipline situations. Mothers of sons with ADHD/OD were less responsive and more over-reactive than mothers of nonproblem sons, and mothers of sons with ADHD only did not differ from the other groups. Mothers of sons with ADHD/OD reported more hostility than mothers of nonproblem sons, and controlling for maternal hostility eliminated the significant group differences in responsiveness during clean-up and in over-reactivity. Controlling for the child's ADHD subtype did not alter the pattern of results. The implications for addressing responsiveness and over-reactivity as components of parent-mediated behavioral treatments for ADHD are considered.

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  5. Motor Control and Sequencing of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) During Computer Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Milner, Nikki; West, John; Douglas, Graham; Lawrence, Vivienne; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary; Durkin, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The motor control of 49 unmedicated boys clinically diagnosed with ADHD, case-matched with 49 non-ADHD boys, was assessed while playing Crash Bandicoot I, a SonyTM Playstation platform computer video game. In Crash Bandicoot participants control the movements of a small-animated figure through a hazardous jungle environment. Operationally defined…

  6. The Effects of Yoga on the Attention and Behavior of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Pauline. S.; Kenny, Dianna T.

    2004-01-01

    Boys diagnosed with ADHD by specialist pediatricians and stabilized on medication were randomly assigned to a 20-session yoga group (n = 11) or a control group (cooperative activities; n = 8). Boys were assessed pre- and post-intervention on the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L & CTRS-R:L; Conners, 1997), the…

  7. The Effects of Yoga on the Attention and Behavior of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Pauline. S.; Kenny, Dianna T.

    2004-01-01

    Boys diagnosed with ADHD by specialist pediatricians and stabilized on medication were randomly assigned to a 20-session yoga group (n = 11) or a control group (cooperative activities; n = 8). Boys were assessed pre- and post-intervention on the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L & CTRS-R:L; Conners, 1997), the…

  8. Motor Control and Sequencing of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) During Computer Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Milner, Nikki; West, John; Douglas, Graham; Lawrence, Vivienne; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary; Durkin, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The motor control of 49 unmedicated boys clinically diagnosed with ADHD, case-matched with 49 non-ADHD boys, was assessed while playing Crash Bandicoot I, a SonyTM Playstation platform computer video game. In Crash Bandicoot participants control the movements of a small-animated figure through a hazardous jungle environment. Operationally defined…

  9. Boys with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-12-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a growing boy's risk of developing an eating disorder. Issues of body image and sexual development can complicate and can distort previously normal eating habits. Students may use powerful and dangerous drugs readily available via the Internet, including growth hormone, creatine, testosterone, and aminophylline, to build muscle and to eliminate fat, potentially causing serious health consequences. School nurses can partner with health and physical education teachers, coaches, school staff, parents, and students to identify and to support boys with eating disorders

  10. Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bos, Dienke J; Oranje, Bob; Veerhoek, E Sanne; Van Diepen, Rosanne M; Weusten, Juliette Mh; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique Gm; Eilander, Ans; Hoeksma, Marco; Durston, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common child psychiatric disorders, and is often treated with stimulant medication. Nonpharmacological treatments include dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, although their effectiveness remains to be shown conclusively. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms and cognitive control in young boys with and without ADHD. A total of 40 boys with ADHD, aged 8-14 years, and 39 matched, typically developing controls participated in a 16-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants consumed 10 g of margarine daily, enriched with either 650 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) each or placebo. Baseline and follow-up assessments addressed ADHD symptoms, fMRI of cognitive control, urine homovanillic acid, and cheek cell phospholipid sampling. EPA/DHA supplementation improved parent-rated attention in both children with ADHD and typically developing children. Phospholipid DHA level at follow-up was higher for children receiving EPA/DHA supplements than placebo. There was no effect of EPA/DHA supplementation on cognitive control or on fMRI measures of brain activity. This study shows that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces symptoms of ADHD, both for individuals with ADHD and typically developing children. This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01554462).

  11. Hyperactivity as a Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Kathleen J.

    While hyperactivity in children has been alternately viewed as a form of minimal brain dysfunction, as a behavior disorder, or as an attention deficit disorder, recent findings on hyperactive adolescents and adults suggest that hyperactivity can be better understood as a personality disorder. Striking similarities appear when characteristics of…

  12. Gene-gene interaction between COMT and MAOA potentially predicts the intelligence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder boys in China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qiu-Jin; Yang, Li; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hao-Bo; Guan, Li-Li; Chen, Yun; Ji, Ning; Liu, Lu; Faraone, S V

    2010-05-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene contains a functional polymorphism (Val158Met) affecting the activity of the enzyme, and the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene contains a VNTR polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) that affects the transcription of the gene. COMT and MAOA each contribute to the enzymatic degradation of dopamine and noradrenaline. Prefrontal cortical (PFC) function, which plays an important role in individual cognitive abilities, including intelligence, is modulated by dopamine. Since our previous association studies between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and these two functional polymorphisms consistently showed the low activity alleles were preferentially transmitted to inattentive ADHD boys, the goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the interaction between COMT Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR may affect the intelligence in a clinical sample of Chinese male ADHD subjects (n = 264). We found that the COMT x MAOA interaction significantly predicted full scale (FSIQ) and performance (PIQ) IQ scores (P = 0.039, 0.011); the MAOA-uVNTR significantly predicted FSIQ, PIQ and verbal IQ (VIQ) (P = 0.009, 0.019, 0.038); COMT Val158Met independently had no effect on any of the IQ scores. Only the COMT x MAOA interaction for PIQ remained significant after a Bonferroni correction. Among all combined genotypes, the valval-3R genotype predicted higher intelligence, (average 106.7 +/- 1.6, 95% C.I. 103.7-109.8 for FSIQ), and the valval-4R predicted lower intelligence (average 98.0 +/- 2.3, 95% C.I. 93.5-102.6 for FSIQ). These results suggest that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between intelligence and dopaminergic activity in our sample. Our finding that gene-gene interaction between COMT and MAOA predicts the intelligence of ADHD boys in China is intriguing but requires replication in other samples.

  13. The increase in theta/beta ratio on resting-state EEG in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is mediated by slow alpha peak frequency.

    PubMed

    Lansbergen, Marieke M; Arns, Martijn; van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Spronk, Desirée; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2011-01-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was found to be characterized by a deviant pattern of electrocortical activity during resting state, particularly increased theta and decreased beta activity. The first objective of the present study is to confirm whether individuals with slow alpha peak frequency contribute to the finding of increased theta activity in ADHD. The second objective is to explore the relation between resting-state brain oscillations and specific cognitive functions. From 49 boys with ADHD and 49 healthy control boys, resting-state EEG during eyes open and eyes closed was recorded, and a variety of cognitive tasks were administered. Theta and beta power and theta/beta ratio were calculated using both fixed frequency bands and individualized frequency bands. As expected, theta/beta ratio, calculated using fixed frequency bands, was significantly higher in ADHD children than control children. However, this group effect was not significant when theta/beta ratio was assessed using individualized frequency bands. No consistent relation was found between resting-state brain oscillations and cognition. The present results suggest that previous findings of increased theta/beta ratio in ADHD may reflect individuals with slow alpha peak frequencies in addition to individuals with true increased theta activity. Therefore, the often reported theta/beta ratio in ADHD can be considered a non-specific measure combining several distinct neurophysiological subgroups such as frontal theta and slowed alpha peak frequencies. Future research should elucidate the functional role of resting-state brain oscillations by investigating neurophysiological subgroups, which may have a clearer relation to cognitive functions than single frequency bands.

  14. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  15. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  16. Atypical outcome in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, K; Freidson, S

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the course of psychiatric illness in two boys. Both presented with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in midchildhood; after puberty, one boy developed a schizophrenic illness while the other boy developed a major affective illness. Although the major ADHD outcome studies have found no link between the childhood occurrence of ADHD and psychosis in adulthood, occasionally such a link may exist. The theoretical and practical implications of this finding are discussed. It should be noted, however, that such outcome is highly atypical and very rare.

  17. Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keown, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…

  18. Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keown, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.

  20. Working memory deficits in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the contribution of central executive and subsystem processes.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Mark D; Alderson, R Matt; Kofler, Michael J; Sarver, Dustin E; Bolden, Jennifer; Sims, Valerie

    2008-08-01

    The current study investigated contradictory findings from recent experimental and meta-analytic studies concerning working memory deficits in ADHD. Working memory refers to the cognitive ability to temporarily store and mentally manipulate limited amounts of information for use in guiding behavior. Phonological (verbal) and visuospatial (nonverbal) working memory were assessed across four memory load conditions in 23 boys (12 ADHD, 11 typically developing) using tasks based on Baddeley's (Working memory, thought, and action, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007) working memory model. The model posits separate phonological and visuospatial storage and rehearsal components that are controlled by a single attentional controller (CE: central executive). A latent variable approach was used to partial task performance related to three variables of interest: phonological buffer/rehearsal loop, visuospatial buffer/rehearsal loop, and the CE attentional controller. ADHD-related working memory deficits were apparent across all three cognitive systems--with the largest magnitude of deficits apparent in the CE--even after controlling for reading speed, nonverbal visual encoding, age, IQ, and SES.

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  2. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  3. Teacher Response to the Methylphenidate (Ritalin) versus Placebo Status of Hyperactive Boys in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Teacher behaviors toward hyperactive boys on methylphenidate (ritalin), toward hyperactive boys on placebo, and toward normal comparison peers were compared. Teachers were more intense and controlling toward hyperactive boys on placebo, but no differences emerged between comparison and medicated groups. Need for broader monitoring of treatment…

  4. Teacher Response to the Methylphenidate (Ritalin) versus Placebo Status of Hyperactive Boys in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Teacher behaviors toward hyperactive boys on methylphenidate (ritalin), toward hyperactive boys on placebo, and toward normal comparison peers were compared. Teachers were more intense and controlling toward hyperactive boys on placebo, but no differences emerged between comparison and medicated groups. Need for broader monitoring of treatment…

  5. A Comprehensive Investigation of Memory Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Park, Joanne; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic assessment of memory functioning in drug-naive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Methods: Boys performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) component (storage and central executive) and verbal and spatial storage load tasks,…

  6. A Comprehensive Investigation of Memory Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Park, Joanne; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic assessment of memory functioning in drug-naive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Methods: Boys performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) component (storage and central executive) and verbal and spatial storage load tasks,…

  7. Social Interactions of Preschool Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elizabeth D.

    Four questions guided this study of 11 noisy and/or overactive preschool boys: (1) Would children considered to be at risk for later diagnosis be more overactive than children who were not considered at risk? (2) How might parent/child social interchanges be categorized in a preschool population? (3) Would parent/child social interchanges be…

  8. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  9. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  10. Altering the function of commands presented to boys with oppositional and hyperactive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Jeffrey S.

    2002-01-01

    Mentalistic and behavioral analyses of noncompliance among children with hyperactive behavior are contrasted. Then, a behavioral training program for 3 boys with behavior characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder is described. The child-focused training was conducted in conjunction with parent training. In an effort to increase the rate of compliance, the child-training program was designed to alter the function of parent commands by teaching the boys to verbalize rules about parent commands and consequences in the context of observing parent—child role-plays. Training was conducted within a multiple baseline design across children. Direct observation of mother—child interactions, telephone interviews, and standardized rating scales showed that training resulted in clinically significant reductions in noncompliance and improved parenting behavior. A 6-month follow-up revealed stable outcomes. PMID:22477227

  11. Depression Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Rieffe, Carolien; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares severity of specific depression symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD) and typically developing boys (Controls). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) and a…

  12. Depression Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Rieffe, Carolien; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares severity of specific depression symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD) and typically developing boys (Controls). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) and a…

  13. Effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior of hyperactive boys.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, M; Milich, R; Stumbo, P; Schultz, F

    1985-04-01

    A challenge design was used in two separate studies to investigate the effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior and learning of hyperactive boys. In both studies, 16 boys were admitted to a clinical research center for 3 successive days, on each of which they were given a sucrose-free diet. On day 1, baseline levels on the learning tasks were established; on days 2 and 3 a challenge drink of either sucrose 1.75 gm/kg or a placebo (aspartame in equivalent sweetness) was presented, in a counterbalanced order. In the first study the challenge drink was administered 1 hour after lunch; in the second study it was given in the morning after an overnight fast. On days 2 and 3 of both studies, 37 behavioral (playroom observation and examiner ratings) and cognitive (learning and memory tasks) measures were collected, starting 1/2 hour after ingestion of the drink. The results of both studies revealed no differences between the boys' performance on the two challenge days. These findings undermine the hypothesis that sucrose plays a major role in accounting for the inappropriate behavior of hyperactive boys.

  14. Polymorphisms of STS gene and SULT2A1 gene and neurosteroid levels in Han Chinese boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an exploratory investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chan, Wen-Ching; Chou, Miao-Chun; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Lee, Min-Jing; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Lin, Pao-Yen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among polymorphisms of the STS gene and SULT2A1 gene, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form (DHEA-S), and characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used cheek swabs to obtain the genomic DNA of 200 ADHD male probands (mean age: 8.7 years), 192 patients’ mothers and 157 patients’ fathers. Three SNPs in the STS gene (rs6639786, rs2270112, and rs17268988) and one SNP in the SULT2A1 gene (rs182420) were genotyped. Saliva samples were collected from the ADHD patients to analyze DHEA and DHEA-S levels. The behavioral symptoms were evaluated with the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, and Version IV Scale for ADHD (SNAP-IV), and the neuropsychological function was assessed using the Conners’ Continuous Performance Tests (CPT). We found the C allele of rs2270112 within the STS gene to be over-transmitted in males with ADHD. Polymorphisms of rs182420 within the SULT2A1 gene were not associated with ADHD. In addition, the C allele carriers of rs2270112 demonstrated significantly higher DHEA-S levels than the G allele carriers. Levels of DHEA were positively correlated with attention as measured by the CPT. These findings support a potential role in the underlying biological pathogenesis of ADHD with regard to STS polymorphisms and neurosteroid levels. PMID:28367959

  15. Polymorphisms of STS gene and SULT2A1 gene and neurosteroid levels in Han Chinese boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chan, Wen-Ching; Chou, Miao-Chun; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Lee, Min-Jing; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Lin, Pao-Yen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-04-03

    This study examined the relationships among polymorphisms of the STS gene and SULT2A1 gene, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form (DHEA-S), and characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used cheek swabs to obtain the genomic DNA of 200 ADHD male probands (mean age: 8.7 years), 192 patients' mothers and 157 patients' fathers. Three SNPs in the STS gene (rs6639786, rs2270112, and rs17268988) and one SNP in the SULT2A1 gene (rs182420) were genotyped. Saliva samples were collected from the ADHD patients to analyze DHEA and DHEA-S levels. The behavioral symptoms were evaluated with the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, and Version IV Scale for ADHD (SNAP-IV), and the neuropsychological function was assessed using the Conners' Continuous Performance Tests (CPT). We found the C allele of rs2270112 within the STS gene to be over-transmitted in males with ADHD. Polymorphisms of rs182420 within the SULT2A1 gene were not associated with ADHD. In addition, the C allele carriers of rs2270112 demonstrated significantly higher DHEA-S levels than the G allele carriers. Levels of DHEA were positively correlated with attention as measured by the CPT. These findings support a potential role in the underlying biological pathogenesis of ADHD with regard to STS polymorphisms and neurosteroid levels.

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that affects 8-12% of children worldwide. Although the rate of ADHD falls with age, at least half of children with the disorder will have impairing symptoms in adulthood. Twin, adoption, and molecular genetic studies show ADHD to be highly heritable, and other findings have recorded obstetric complications and psychosocial adversity as predisposing risk factors. Converging evidence from animal and human studies implicates the dysregulation of frontal-subcortical-cerebellar catecholaminergic circuits in the pathophysiology of ADHD, and molecular imaging studies suggest that abnormalities of the dopamine transporter lead to impaired neurotransmission. Studies during the past decade have shown the safety and effectiveness of new non-stimulant drugs and long-acting formulations of methylphenidate and amfetamine. Other investigations have also clarified the appropriate role of targeted psychosocial treatments in the context of ongoing pharmacotherapy.

  17. Morphometric brain abnormalities in boys with conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R; Herpertz, Sabine C; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-05-01

    Children with the early-onset type of conduct disorder (CD) are at high risk for developing an antisocial personality disorder. Although there have been several neuroimaging studies on morphometric differences in adults with antisocial personality disorder, little is known about structural brain aberrations in boys with CD. Magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry were used to assess abnormalities in gray matter volumes in 23 boys ages 12 to 17 years with CD (17 comorbid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) in comparison with age- and IQ-matched controls. Compared with healthy controls, mean gray matter volume was 6% smaller in the clinical group. Compared with controls, reduced gray matter volumes were found in the left orbitofrontal region and bilaterally in the temporal lobes, including the amygdala and hippocampus on the left side in the CD group. Regression analyses in the clinical group indicated an inverse association of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and widespread gray matter abnormalities in the frontoparietal and temporal cortices. By contrast, CD symptoms correlated primarily with gray matter reductions in limbic brain structures. The data suggest that boys with CD and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder show brain abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that resemble structural brain deficits, which are typically observed in adults with antisocial behavior.

  18. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  19. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  20. Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

  1. Diagnostic Efficiency of Symptoms for Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Irwin D.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    1991-01-01

    Examined diagnostic efficiency of symptoms for experimentally diagnosed oppositional defiant disorder (OD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 102 elementary-age boys. Findings from teacher ratings revealed that, on average, ADHD symptoms were as useful as OD symptoms as exclusion criteria for OD, whereas OD symptoms were nearly…

  2. Impact of gender and age on executive functioning: do girls and boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder differ neuropsychologically in preteen and teenage years?

    PubMed

    Seidman, Larry J; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Valera, Eve; Doyle, Alysa E; Faraone, Stephen V

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is known to have neuropsychological correlates, characterized mainly by executive function (EF) deficits. However, most available data are based on studies of boys through age 12. Our goal was to assess whether girls with ADHD express neuropsychological features similar to those found in boys, and whether these impairments are found in both preteen and teen samples. Participants were 101 girls and 103 boys with DSM-III-R ADHD, and 109 comparison girls and 70 boys without ADHD, ages 9 to 17 years. Information on neuropsychological performance was obtained in a standardized manner blind to clinical status. Primary regression analyses controlled for age, socioeconomic status, learning disability, and psychiatric comorbidity. Girls and boys with ADHD were significantly more impaired on some measures of EFs than healthy comparisons but did not differ significantly from each other. With the exception of 1 test score there were no significant Sex x Diagnosis interactions. Moreover, there were no more significant interactions among age, gender, and diagnosis than would be expected by chance. Neuropsychological measures of EFs were comparably impaired in girls compared to boys with ADHD, and these impairments are found at ages 9 to 12 and ages 13 to 17. These findings suggest that executive dysfunctions are correlates of ADHD regardless of gender and age, at least through the late teen years.

  3. A 30-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study of Hyperactive Boys with Conduct Problems: Adult Criminality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, James H.; Faller, Katherine J.; Crinella, Francis M.; Schell, Anne M.; Swanson, James M.; Homer, Louis D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the official arrest records for a large number of hyperactive boys (N = 179), most with conduct problems, and 75 control boys; to examine childhood IQ, socioeconomic status, and parent reports of childhood hyperactivity and conduct problems for their contribution to criminal behavior in adulthood; and to compare adult outcome…

  4. A 30-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study of Hyperactive Boys with Conduct Problems: Adult Criminality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, James H.; Faller, Katherine J.; Crinella, Francis M.; Schell, Anne M.; Swanson, James M.; Homer, Louis D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the official arrest records for a large number of hyperactive boys (N = 179), most with conduct problems, and 75 control boys; to examine childhood IQ, socioeconomic status, and parent reports of childhood hyperactivity and conduct problems for their contribution to criminal behavior in adulthood; and to compare adult outcome…

  5. A Neuropsychological Examination of the Underlying Deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Frontal Lobe Versus Right Parietal Lobe Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Christine J.; Roberts, Ralph J., Jr.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined front and right parietal lobe theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); subjects were 10- to 14-year-old boys with or without ADHD. Found that non-ADHD boys performed better on frontal- and parietal-domain tasks than unmedicated ADHD boys, unmedicated AHDH boys had greater impairments on frontal than parietal tasks, and…

  6. A Neuropsychological Examination of the Underlying Deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Frontal Lobe Versus Right Parietal Lobe Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Christine J.; Roberts, Ralph J., Jr.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined front and right parietal lobe theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); subjects were 10- to 14-year-old boys with or without ADHD. Found that non-ADHD boys performed better on frontal- and parietal-domain tasks than unmedicated ADHD boys, unmedicated AHDH boys had greater impairments on frontal than parietal tasks, and…

  7. The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Michael R; Kapoor, Mahendra P; Juneja, Lekh R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of L-theanine as an aid to the improvement of objectively measured sleep quality in a population of 98 male children formally diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted involving boys, ages 8-12 years, who had been previously diagnosed with ADHD. An experienced physician confirmed the diagnosis of ADHD in each subject. Randomization was stratified based upon current use of stimulant medication to ensure an equal distribution of stimulant/non-stimulant treated subjects into active and placebo treated groups. Participants consumed two chewable tablets twice daily (at breakfast and after school), with each tablet containing 100 mg of L-theanine (total 400 mg daily Suntheanine®, Taiyo Kagaku, Yokkaichi, Japan) or identical tasting chewable placebo for six weeks. Subjects were evaluated for five consecutive nights using wrist actigraphy at baseline, and again at the end of the six-week treatment period. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) was completed by parents at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Actigraph watch data findings indicated that boys who consumed L-theanine obtained significantly higher sleep percentage and sleep efficiency scores, along with a non-significant trend for less activity during sleep (defined as less time awake after sleep onset) compared to those in the placebo group. Sleep latency and other sleep parameters were unchanged. The PSQ data did not correlate significantly to the objective data gathered from actigraphy, suggesting that parents were not particularly aware of their children's sleep quality. L-theanine at relatively high doses was well tolerated with no significant adverse events. This study demonstrates that 400 mg daily of L-theanine is safe and effective in improving some aspects of sleep quality in boys diagnosed with ADHD. Since sleep problems are a

  8. Acceptability of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte; Hommersen, Paul; Seipp, Carla

    2008-01-01

    One-hundred nine mothers of 5- to 12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated. Mothers read case descriptions of boys with ADHD and of boys with both ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Half of the mothers were randomly assigned to read descriptions of behavioral parent training and half to read…

  9. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  10. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  11. Neuropsychological functioning in stimulant-naive boys with hyperkinetic disorder.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Sinead M; Coghill, David R; Matthews, Keith

    2005-08-01

    Although children with hyperkinetic disorder and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show disordered executive neuropsychological functioning, the nature of these changes remains controversial. Additionally, impairments in non-executive neuropsychological functioning have been relatively unexplored. Here, the authors describe the neuropsychological functioning of a sample of stimulant drug-naive boys with hyperkinetic disorder on a battery of neuropsychological tasks sensitive to impairments of both executive and non-executive functions. Seventy-five stimulant drug-naive boys meeting diagnostic criteria for ICD-10 hyperkinetic disorder were compared with 70 healthy developing controls matched for age but not IQ on computerized tests of neuropsychological functioning from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and a Go/No-Go inhibition task. Boys with hyperkinetic disorder exhibited impairments on tasks with a prominent executive component--working memory, planning, strategy formation, attentional set-shifting and on a reaction time task. However, they were also impaired on tasks without prominent executive components--pattern and spatial recognition, spatial span, delayed matching to sample and paired associates learning. Contrary to predictions, no impairment was observed on the Go/No-Go inhibition task. Medication-naive boys with hyperkinetic disorder displayed a broad range of neuropsychological impairments. Deficits were demonstrated on tasks with and without prominent executive components. Impairments were not confined to tasks dependent upon frontostriatal functioning, cannot wholly be explained by deficits in inhibitory control, nor can they be attributed to intelligence or previous exposure to stimulant medication.

  12. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  13. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lange, Klaus W; Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD.

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Tannock, Rosemary; Franke, Barbara

    2015-08-06

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 5% of children and adolescents and 2.5% of adults worldwide. Throughout an individual's lifetime, ADHD can increase the risk of other psychiatric disorders, educational and occupational failure, accidents, criminality, social disability and addictions. No single risk factor is necessary or sufficient to cause ADHD. In most cases ADHD arises from several genetic and environmental risk factors that each have a small individual effect and act together to increase susceptibility. The multifactorial causation of ADHD is consistent with the heterogeneity of the disorder, which is shown by its extensive psychiatric co-morbidity, its multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment and the wide range of structural and functional brain anomalies associated with it. The diagnosis of ADHD is reliable and valid when evaluated with standard criteria for psychiatric disorders. Rating scales and clinical interviews facilitate diagnosis and aid screening. The expression of symptoms varies as a function of patient developmental stage and social and academic contexts. Although there are no curative treatments for ADHD, evidenced-based treatments can markedly reduce its symptoms and associated impairments. For example, medications are efficacious and normally well tolerated, and various non-pharmacological approaches are also valuable. Ongoing clinical and neurobiological research holds the promise of advancing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to ADHD. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/J6jiwl.

  15. Understanding Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Applying Research to Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soffer, Stephen L.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Power, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    To date, the majority of research on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been completed with boys as the predominate participants in study samples. Over the past decade there has been increased attention focused on the characteristics and needs of girls with ADHD. Although much of the research comparing boys and girls with ADHD…

  16. What Aspects of Peer Relationships are Impaired in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoza, Betsy; Mrug, Sylvie; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Bukowski, William M.; Gold, Joel A.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Pelham, William E.; Wigal, Timothy; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Participants included 165 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 130 boys, 35 girls) and their 1,298 same-sex classmates (1,026 boys, 272 girls) who served as raters. For each child with ADHD, a child of the same sex was randomly selected from the same classroom to serve as a comparison child, which yielded 165 dyads.…

  17. What Aspects of Peer Relationships are Impaired in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoza, Betsy; Mrug, Sylvie; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Bukowski, William M.; Gold, Joel A.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Pelham, William E.; Wigal, Timothy; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Participants included 165 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 130 boys, 35 girls) and their 1,298 same-sex classmates (1,026 boys, 272 girls) who served as raters. For each child with ADHD, a child of the same sex was randomly selected from the same classroom to serve as a comparison child, which yielded 165 dyads.…

  18. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Katja; Döpfner, Manfred; Holtmann, Martin; Rösler, Michael; Romanos, Marcel

    2017-03-03

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, early-onset, persistent developmental disorder of childhood and adolescence, with a prevalence of approximately 5%. This article is based on publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed with an emphasis on pertinent guidelines and systematic reviews. At least 75% of affected children and adolescents develop a comorbid disorder, which impedes diagnosis and treatment and worsens prognosis. The etiology of ADHD is complex and heterogeneous, involving a major genetic component and diverse neurobiological alterations. Prenatal environmental factors also seem to elevate the risk of ADHD. The mainstays of treatment are psychoeducation, behavioral therapy, and psychoactive drugs, which generally have only mild side effects, such as insomnia or decreased appetite. The indication for treatment in the individual case is based on severity, comorbidity, previous therapy attempts, and the familial, social, and educational framework conditions. Translational research is needed to clarify the etiology of ADHD. Epidemiological studies published since 1987 do not reveal any increase in the prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents. Improved diagnosis necessitates an evidence-based and need-adapted approach to treatment.

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Differential Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Warren A.; Emslie, Graham J.

    This paper presents information on the diagnostic criteria and management of disorders that may be wrongly identified as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or may coexist with ADHD thus complicating identification and treatment. The disorders discussed are: depression, mania, primary disorder of vigilance, narcolepsy, developmental…

  20. Co-Occurrence of Conduct Disorder and Depression in a Clinic-Based Sample of Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sprafkin, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Background: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for the development of comorbid conduct disorder (CD) and depression. The current study examined potential psychosocial risk factors for CD and depression in a clinic-based sample of 203 boys (aged 6-10 years) with ADHD. Methods: The boys and their mothers…

  1. Neurological Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews various models in the neurological conceptualization of attention deficit disorder (ADD), with and without hyperactivity. It discusses neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurophysiological perspectives on ADD. (Author/DB)

  2. Aggression, Hyperactivity, and Inattention-Immaturity: Behavior Dimensions Associated with Peer Rejection in Elementary School Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Alice W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Defined peer-rated, narrow-band dimensions of undercontrolled behavior of 362 third through sixth grade boys that was associated with peer rejection. Results revealed three narrow-band dimensions in the peer perceptions of grade school boys: (1) aggression; (2) hyperactivity; and (3) inattention-immaturity. (SH)

  3. The Effects of Biofeedback and Relaxation Training on Memory Tasks among Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study examined the effects of biofeedback and relaxation training on memory tasks among 48 hyperactive boys (9-11 years old). Relaxation training in combination with biofeedback was useful in helping the boys achieve better muscle relaxation and perform better on a paired-associate memory task than did a control group. (Author/CB)

  4. The Effects of Biofeedback and Relaxation Training on Memory Tasks among Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study examined the effects of biofeedback and relaxation training on memory tasks among 48 hyperactive boys (9-11 years old). Relaxation training in combination with biofeedback was useful in helping the boys achieve better muscle relaxation and perform better on a paired-associate memory task than did a control group. (Author/CB)

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, B A; Fletcher, J M; Shaywitz, S E

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter we have reviewed the diagnosis and management of attention deficit disorder, focusing particularly on the role of stimulant therapy in ADHD. Hisorical review suggests that ADHD has roots that extend back almost a century. The definition of ADHD is based on inclusion and exclusion criteria that are established by history and reflect behavioral concerns. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disorder affecting the child's home, school, and community life. The primary symptoms of the disorder manifest a developmental pattern: activity diminishes while attentional deficits persist. Major sources of concern are the secondary and often more resistant problems of learning difficulties, behavioral problems, lack of peer acceptance, and low self-esteem. An often frustrating and perplexing characteristic of the disorder is its marked variability-over time, across situations, and within the same child and similar situations. Educational management represents an important priority and often forms the cornerstone of all other therapies, nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic. Cognitive-behavioral therapies represent the most widely used alternative to pharmacotherapy. Although the effects of CBT alone are disappointing, recent studies suggest that such therapies may provide a useful adjunct to pharmacotherapy and may be helpful when children are tapered off medication. Psychotherapy, or a combination of psychotherapy and medication (termed multimodality therapy), may also be useful. Pharmacotherapy for ADHD originated almost 60 years ago, and at this time the ameliorative effects of medications in ADHD are well established. The general skepticism of experienced clinicians, coupled with a climate where parents are reluctant to medicare children, serves to limit their use except where indicated. Although the effects of stimulants on attention and activity seem well established, effects on cognition, conduct, and social behavior are more controversial

  6. Empathy in Boys with Gender Identity Disorder: A Comparison to Externalizing Clinical Control Boys and Community Control Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen-Anderson, Allison F. H.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Bradley, Susan J.; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The construct of empathy was examined in 20 boys with gender identity disorder (GID), 20 clinical control boys with externalizing disorders (ECC), 20 community control boys (NCB), and 20 community control girls (NCG). The mean age of the children was 6.86 years (range = 4-8 years). It was hypothesized that boys with GID would show…

  7. Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ronald J.; Doyal, Guy T.

    This book is designed for parents and teachers of children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. Chapter 1 describes the symptoms, diagnosis, and causes of ADD, its effect on parents and families, inborn temperament characteristics of children with ADD, and tests and rating scales used to diagnose and treat the disorder. The…

  8. Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ronald J.; Doyal, Guy T.

    This book is designed for parents and teachers of children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. Chapter 1 describes the symptoms, diagnosis, and causes of ADD, its effect on parents and families, inborn temperament characteristics of children with ADD, and tests and rating scales used to diagnose and treat the disorder. The…

  9. Modeling the pathways linking childhood hyperactivity and substance use disorder in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Feske, Ulrike; Vanyukov, Michael

    2007-06-01

    This study modeled direct and mediated pathways linking childhood hyperactivity and substance use disorder (SUD). Boys (n = 112) were administered the revised Drug Use Screening Inventory at age 12-14 years and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV at age 22 years. Six newly derived scales having established heritability were conceptually organized into internalizing and externalizing pathways to SUD emanating from childhood hyperactivity. Hyperactivity directly predicts SUD. Neuroticism, conduct problems, and their respective manifestations of social withdrawal and school problems mediated the association between hyperactivity and SUD. Hyperactivity also predicted neuroticism that, in turn, predicted low self-esteem leading to social withdrawal and SUD. These results indicate that hyperactivity is a diathesis for both internalizing and externalizing disturbances that, in turn, portend differential expression of psychosocial maladjustment presaging SUD.

  10. A social ecology of hyperactive boys: medication effects in structured classroom environments.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, C K; Henker, B; Collins, B E; Finck, D; Dotemoto, S

    1979-01-01

    Hyperactive boys on methylphenidate (Ritalin), hyperactive boys on placebo, and comparison boys were observed in quasi-naturalistic classroom settings. Ambient stimulation (quiet versus noisy conditions) and source of regulation (self-paced versus other-paced activities) were varied in a 2 x 2 design. Compared to their peers, hyperactive boys on placebo showed lower rates of task attention and higher rates of gross motor movement, regular and negative verbalization, noise-making, physical contact, social initiation, disruption, and acts that were perceived as energetic, inappropriate, or unexpected. Self-paced activities resulted in increased rates of verbalization, social initiation, and high-energy episodes. High ambient noise levels reduced task attention and increased the rates of many other behaviors including verbalization, physical contact, gross motor movement, and high-energy acts. Medication-by-situation interactions emerged for both classroom dimensions, with hyperactive boys on placebo being readily distinguishable from their peers under some classroom conditions and indistinguishable under other conditions. Moderate relationships were found between teacher ratings and many individual behavior categories. Discussion focused on (a) the merits and limitations of a social ecological research perspective, and (b) the implications of these findings for the design of intervention strategies. PMID:468749

  11. Gendering attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a discursive analysis of UK newspaper stories.

    PubMed

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Discursive psychology is used to study the gendering of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK national newspapers in the period of 2009-2011. The analysis examines how gendering is embedded in causal attributions and identity constructions. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a predominantly male phenomenon with representations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder being gendered through extreme stories about victims, villains or heroes that depict boys and men as marginalised, exceptional or dangerous. There is also a focus on mothers as the spokespersons and caretakers for parenting and family health while fathers are rendered more invisible. This contributes to our understanding of how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is constructed in the media using a range of gendered representations that draw on cultural stereotypes familiar in Western societies.

  12. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P S

    1995-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder has been redefined in the classifications in the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. The definitions are more concordant than their predecessors and reemphasize the distinction between inattentiveness and hyperactivity. The causes and mechanisms are still uncertain, but dietary sugar or aspartame and thyroid dysfunction do not seem to be major factors. Specific subgroups, such as children with comorbid psychologic disorders, tic disorders, or mental handicap, seem to have different origins, natural history, prognoses, and responses to treatment, reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the disorder. Psychostimulant therapy has unquestioned short-term effects on behavior but less certain benefits on long-term psychosocial outcome or on academic performance.

  13. Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…

  14. Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Parent's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anna M.

    1996-01-01

    A parent and educator who has spent the past 10 years struggling to help her own ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) child offers suggestions for managing the challenges facing such children and enhancing the quality of their lives. Since drug regimens have limitations, parents need to read appropriate literature and receive…

  16. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Empathy in boys with disruptive behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P; Matthys, Walter

    2005-08-01

    The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n=25) and age-matched normal controls (n=24). Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness). Dispositional affective empathy was measured by a self-report questionnaire for children. In line with predictions, results revealed deficits in dispositional and situational empathy among DBD boys, and inverse relationships between both empathy measures and parent-reports of aggressive/disruptive behavior among all children. The study also explored whether DBD boys are less responsive to just any emotion, or to specific emotions. Compared to normal controls, DBD boys responded less empathically to sadness and anger, but equally empathically to happiness. In addition, while DBD boys responded less empathically than the normal controls to each and every sadness vignette, they did not show equally low levels of empathic responses to all sadness vignettes. These findings suggest that situational factors may be involved in DBD boys' reduced responsiveness to another person's sadness.

  18. Cultural Variations in Mothers' Attributions: Influence of Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The attributions made by Chinese immigrant (n = 28) and Euro-Canadian (n = 27) mothers of 5- to 9-year-old boys regarding the causes of child prosocial and problem behaviors exhibited by children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Mothers' attributions were elicited using audio-taped scenarios of…

  19. Teaching Tommy: A Second-Grader with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachin, Katharina

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a second-grade teacher's efforts to help a rough-and-tumble boy diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). After comprehensive behavioral and academic programs (including token rewards, peer tutoring, resource room activities, an inclass aide) failed to stabilize Tommy's behavior, Ritalin was (successfully) prescribed…

  20. Should Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms Be Included in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard D.; Rasmussen, Erik R.; Wood, Catherine; Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of including sluggish cognitive tempo items on the factor and latent class structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes in boys and girls. Method: Parent report of two sluggish cognitive tempo items on a population-based sample of 1,430 female twins and 1,414 male twins were analyzed…

  1. Emotion Regulation and Problem Behaviours in Turkish Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the group differences of 49 boys and girls from two different groups of Turkish children with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) in the following two variables: emotional intensity and perceived self-efficacy. In order to measure emotional intensity and perceived self-efficacy, children completed the…

  2. Teaching Tommy: A Second-Grader with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachin, Katharina

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a second-grade teacher's efforts to help a rough-and-tumble boy diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). After comprehensive behavioral and academic programs (including token rewards, peer tutoring, resource room activities, an inclass aide) failed to stabilize Tommy's behavior, Ritalin was (successfully) prescribed…

  3. Peer-Assessed Outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoza, Betsy; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Mrug, Sylvie; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Bukowski, William M.; Gold, Joel A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Kraemer, Helena C.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Peer-assessed outcomes were examined at the end of treatment (14 months after study entry) for 285 children (226 boys, 59 girls) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were rated by their classmates (2,232 classmates total) using peer sociometric procedures. All children with ADHD were participants in the Multimodal Treatment…

  4. Peer-Assessed Outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoza, Betsy; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Mrug, Sylvie; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Bukowski, William M.; Gold, Joel A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Kraemer, Helena C.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Peer-assessed outcomes were examined at the end of treatment (14 months after study entry) for 285 children (226 boys, 59 girls) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were rated by their classmates (2,232 classmates total) using peer sociometric procedures. All children with ADHD were participants in the Multimodal Treatment…

  5. Should Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms Be Included in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard D.; Rasmussen, Erik R.; Wood, Catherine; Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of including sluggish cognitive tempo items on the factor and latent class structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes in boys and girls. Method: Parent report of two sluggish cognitive tempo items on a population-based sample of 1,430 female twins and 1,414 male twins were analyzed…

  6. Gender and Conduct Problems Predict Peer Functioning among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Lorenzi, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have poor relationships with peers. However, research on this topic has predominantly focused on boys. This study considered child gender, ADHD status, and dimensionally assessed conduct problems as predictors of peer relationship difficulties. Participants were 125 children (ages…

  7. Hyperactivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 20. Read More Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Review Date 5/18/2016 Updated by: Neil ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  8. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mathur, Shachi

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of childhood onset characterized by severe, developmentally inappropriate motor hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness that result in impairment in more than one setting. It affects the home, school, and community life of 39% of school-going children worldwide. There is increasing recognition that ADHD symptoms and clinically defined disorder can persist into adult life and are associated with later drug and alcohol misuse and social and work difficulties. Added to that is the extreme variability of the disorder over time, within the same individual, between individuals, and across different circumstances. Treatment with stimulants and nonstimulants has proven effective in different subgroups, with the effectiveness of specific agents most likely related to the primary neurotransmitter involved. However, stimulants with a short duration of action have been problematic for some patients. Parent training and cognitive behavioral therapies represent the most widely adjunct psychosocial interventions to pharmacotherapy.

  9. The Cheshire Cat Enigma: Emotion Recognition Abilities of Preschool Boys with and without Hyperactivity and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the emotion recognition abilities of preschoolers with and without hyperactivity and aggression. Previous research identified that school age children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have more difficulty understanding facial expressions associated with emotions, take longer than their age-matched peers…

  10. Cardiovascular considerations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: a report of the European Network on Hyperactivity Disorders work group, European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug safety meeting.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Robert M; Rosenthal, Eric; Hulpke-Wette, Martin; Graham, John G I; Sergeant, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug licensing and labelling, along with recent statements from professional associations, raise questions of practice regarding the evaluation and treatment of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To address these issues for the European community, the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders, through its European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group, organised a meeting between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialists, paediatric cardiovascular specialists, and representatives of the major market authorisation holders for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. This manuscript represents their consensus on cardiovascular aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. Although sudden death has been identified in multiple young individuals on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication causing regulatory concern, when analysed for exposure using currently available data, sudden death does not appear to exceed that of the general population. There is no current evidence to suggest an incremental benefit to electrocardiography assessment of the general attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. Congenital heart disease patients have an increased prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can benefit from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapies, including medication. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialist is the appropriate individual to evaluate benefit and risk and recommend therapy in all patients, although discussion with a heart specialist is reasonable for congenital heart disease patients. For attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients with suspected heart disease or risk factor/s for sudden death, assessment by a heart specialist is recommended, as would also be the case for a non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. The

  11. Unraveling the nature of hyperactivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kyoko; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-04-01

    Seated hyperactivity is a defining feature of the combined and predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its underlying nature is unknown. To determine whether hyperactivity is a consequence of an impaired ability to inhibit activity to low levels or to maintain positional stability. Case-control study. Academic research center and school. Sixty-two boys 9 to 12 years of age (of 73 screened), recruited from the community by advertisement, who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD combined subtype on structured interview. Sixty-two controls were selected by matching for age and sex from a community sample of 1168 subjects in 3 participating school districts. Pupils with Conners' Teacher Rating Scores Revised within +/-1 SD of the mean for age were eligible for randomized matching. Intervention Infrared motion analysis of head-marker movements (50 Hz) during performance of a 15-minute cognitive control task. Subjects with ADHD were tested at least 18 hours following their last dose of methylphenidate and again 120 minutes after a 0.4-mg/kg probe dose. Inhibitory control (spike and basal amplitude) and head-marker stability (approximate entropy, Lyapunov, and spectral exponents). Inhibitory control measures were 2-fold higher in subjects with ADHD (d' = 0.63-0.95). Group differences in head-marker stability were even greater (d' = 2.20-4.71; receiver operating characteristic area = 0.956-1.0). Methylphenidate restored inhibitory ability to control levels but only partially corrected stability deficits, which still distinguished subjects with ADHD from controls (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.722-0.995). Children with ADHD have a deficient ability to inhibit activity to low levels and unstable control of head-marker position characterized by deterministic chaos (sensitivity to initial conditions). These deficits differed in degree of correctability by methylphenidate, suggesting that they may be mediated by

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: etiology and pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noorbala, Ahmad-Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2006-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood and adolescence. The etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not well understood. Neurochemical studies suggest, alterations in catecholaminergic, mainly dopaminergic and noradrenergic, transmitter functions markedly contribute to the symptoms of this disorder. The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are significantly ameliorated by the agents that specifically influence these neurotransmitters. Animal studies implicate areas of the brain in which these neurotransmitters are most dominant. Psychostimulant medications are generally the first choice in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Approximately 70% of the children treated show improvement in the primary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and in comorbidity such as conduct disorder, although the benefits may not hold beyond two years. Despite the well-established efficacy and safety of stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alternative medicines are still needed for several reasons. About 30% of children and adolescents with this disorder may not respond to stimulants or may be unable to tolerate potential adverse events such as decreased appetite, mood lability and sleep disturbances. Although stimulants do not increase the risk for later substance abuse in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, concerns have been raised about special prescription rules and a potential for abuse by persons other than the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects. This review focuses on etiology, assessment, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  13. [Treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane

    2006-02-28

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and invalidating condition, whose negative consequences on psychosocial functioning calls for efficacious treatment plans. Several treatments have been proven to be effective: some parent and children treatment programs, psychostimulants, atomoxetine. Most of these therapeutic options are not easily available to patients and families (psychoeducational programs are rarely used in France). Primary care professionals can help families to access valid information, discuss treatment plans and monitor treatment.

  14. Disordered eating behaviors: what about boys?

    PubMed

    Dominé, Françoise; Berchtold, André; Akré, Christina; Michaud, Pierre-André; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-02-01

    To determine the characteristics specific to boys with disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and the general context in which these DEB occur. Data were drawn from the SMASH02 database, a survey carried out among post-mandatory school students in Switzerland aged 16-20 years in 2002. Only males (N=3890) were included, and were classified into into one of four groups based on their level of concern about weight/food and on their eating behaviors, as follows: group 1: one concern without behavior (N=862); group 2: more than one concern without behavior (N=361); group 3: at least one behavior (N=798); and a control group (N=1869), according to previously validated items. Groups were compared for personal, family, school, experience of violence, and health-compromising behaviors variables on the bivariate level. All significant variables were included in a multinomial logistic regression using Stata 9 software. About one-half of the boys reported either a concern or unhealthy eating behavior. Compared with the control group, boys from the three groups were more likely to be students and to report a history of sexual abuse, delinquency, depression, and feeling fat. In addition, boys from group 3 were more likely to report a history of dieting, early puberty, peer teasing, having experienced violence, frequent inebriation, and being overweight. DEB concern adolescent males more frequently than thought and seem to be integrated in a general dysfunctional context, in which violence is predominant. Adolescent males also need to be screened for DEB. Moreover, prevention programs should target the increasing social and media pressure regarding boys ideal body shape and raise public consciousness about this phenomenon.

  15. Empathy in boys with gender identity disorder: a comparison to externalizing clinical control boys and community control boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Owen-Anderson, Allison F H; Jenkins, Jennifer M; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2008-03-01

    The construct of empathy was examined in 20 boys with gender identity disorder (GID), 20 clinical control boys with externalizing disorders (ECC), 20 community control boys (NCB), and 20 community control girls (NCG). The mean age of the children was 6.86 years (range = 4-8 years). It was hypothesized that boys with GID would show similar levels of empathy to those shown by NC girls and higher levels of empathy than the NC and ECC boys. Three measures of empathy were administered: a maternal-report questionnaire, a self-report questionnaire, and an in vivo evaluation in which children's reactions to pain simulations to two adult actors (mother, experimenter) were coded for empathy levels. On the maternal report and in-vivo measures, the NC girls had significantly higher empathy levels than the NC boys, but not on the self-report measure. By maternal report, the NC girls were rated as significantly more empathic than were the GID boys, with a "large" effect size. There were no significant differences between the GID boys and the NC girls on the self-report and in-vivo measures and the effect size differences were "small." No significant differences were observed between the GID and NC boys; however, there were "medium" and "small" effect size differences with boys with GID showing more empathy on the in-vivo and self-report measures, respectively. On the maternal-report measure, the GID boys were rated as significantly more empathic than the ECC boys and there was a trend for the GID boys to show greater levels of empathy than the ECC boys on both the self-report and in-vivo measures. The effect size differences on all three empathy measures were "medium" to "large," with GID boys showing more empathy than ECC boys. Empathy as a dispositional characteristic in the genesis and perpetuation of GID in boys is discussed.

  16. Anxiety and methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-drug trial.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Keren; Karni, Avi; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between attention and anxiety and the response to methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a total of 57 boys, between the ages of 7-12 years, were assessed for their attention and level of anxiety. Methylphenidate was administered for a week in a randomized double-blind drug/placebo-drug cross-over design. The levels of anxiety were evenly distributed between the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive types. Anxiety was significantly correlated with the attention as reported by both teachers and parents. The response to methylphenidate was inversely correlated with the reported anxiety level only in boys with the hyperactive/impulsive and combined types. The higher the level of anxiety, the lower level of response to methylphenidate was observed. In the assessment and treatment of children with ADHD, the level of anxiety should be evaluated and taken into account while planning and monitoring treatment regiment.

  17. [Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder in autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Peña, Joaquín A

    2011-06-01

    According to the DSM-IV-TR, symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity are frequent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This statement is supported by clinical observation and formal assessment. However, ASD diagnosis is still among the exclusion criteria for the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Such exclusion generates controversy and questions regarding the need and benefits of maintaining or not these separations; so much so, that the proposed criteria for the DSM-V eliminate that exclusion condition. It is necessary a better understanding of the comorbidity between both entities in order to be able to have an appropriate sequence of the intervention goals. For that reason, if inattention and hyperactivity in individuals with ASD are considered as a representation of a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, treatment plans for this group would be better adjusted and more likely to offer a real benefit in the outcome of their adaptive functioning.

  18. Depression symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder and comparison samples.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Rieffe, Carolien; Devincent, Carla J

    2012-07-01

    This study compares severity of specific depression symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD) and typically developing boys (Controls). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) and a demographic questionnaire. Mothers' and teachers' ratings generally indicated the most severe symptoms in boys with ASD ± ADHD. Associations of depression with ASD severity and IQ varied considerably for specific symptoms of depression, ASD functional domain, and informant. Findings provide additional support for the differential influence of neurobehavioral syndromes on co-occurring symptom severity and illustrate how more fine-grained analyses of clinical phenotypes may contribute to a better understanding of etiology and current nosology.

  19. [Prevention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Quintero, J; Martin, M; Alcindor, P; Perez-Templado, J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins at an early age and can be present until adulthood. Subjects with ADHD not only have symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity but also have their social and emotional areas affected. In addition, they have an associated increased risk for presenting comorbilities with other psychiatric disorders, overshadowing the development. Considering ADHD as a evolutionary risk factor, prevention should be considered as a primary goal. Most preventive actions on ADHD have been focused on tertiary prevention. The present review aims to study the factors involved in the development of ADHD in order to form a prevention model beyond tertiary prevention. This research focuses on models of primary prevention (early detection of disease) and secondary prevention (to prevent or delay the disease), trying to incorporate them into daily practice. This study reviews risk factors that affect ADHD. Through actions aimed to pursue an early detection, development of the disorder could be improved, and by identifying population at risk, efforts could be concentrated on developing a true primary prevention (perinatal period and early childhood) that eventually could contribute to reduce the incidence of ADHD.

  20. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD.

  1. Association between Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Dennis P.; Baker, Lorian

    1991-01-01

    After a discussion of definitional issues, the article reports on a prospective follow-up study of 600 children with early speech/language impairments which found an increased prevalence of both learning disability (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with LD strongly associated with ADHD in both initial and follow-up samples.…

  2. Evaluation of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Namazi, Shole; Amiri, Shahrokh; Zare, Shahram; Rastikerdar, Najme; Hesam, Ali Akbar; Rahami, Zahra; Ghasemian, Fatemeh; Namazi, Seyyed Shojaeddin; Paknahad, Abbas; Mahmudi, Forugh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Khorgoei, Tahereh; Niknejad, Bahareh; Dehghani, Fatemeh; Asadi, Shima

    2013-01-01

    Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for ADHD in children. Method. In this case-control study, 404 children between 4 and 11 years old were selected by cluster sampling method from preschool children (208 patients as cases and 196 controls). All the participants were interviewed by a child and adolescent psychiatrist to survey risk factors of ADHD. Results. Among cases, 59.3% of children were boys and 38.4% were girls, which is different to that in control group with 40.7% boys and 61.6% girls. The chi-square showed statistically significance (P value < 0.0001). The other significant factors by chi-square were fathers' somatic or psychiatric disease (P value < 0.0001), history of trauma and accident during pregnancy (P value = 0.039), abortion proceeds (P value < 0.0001), unintended pregnancy (P value < 0.0001), and history of head trauma (P value < 0.0001). Conclusions. Findings of our study suggest that maternal and paternal adverse events were associated with ADHD symptoms, but breast feeding is a protective factor. PMID:24319465

  3. Cytogenetic abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bastain, Theresa M; Lewczyk, Caroline M; Sharp, Wendy S; James, Regina S; Long, Robert T; Eagen, Patricia B; Ebens, Christen L; Meck, Jeanne M; Chan, Wai-Yee; Sidransky, Ellen; Rapoport, Judith L; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2002-07-01

    To systematically assess the prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, and other cytogenetic abnormalities in a group of children with attention-defict/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Blood samples were obtained from 100 children (64 boys) with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence and analyzed for the presence of fragile X mutation expansions, the 22q11.2 microdeletion associated with velocardiofacial syndrome, and cytogenetic abnormalities that would be detected with high resolution chromosomal banding. One girl with ADHD had a sex chromosome aneuploidy (47,XXX). One boy had a premutation-sized allele for fragile X; no subjects showed the full mutation. Testing for 22q11.2 microdeletion was negative for all subjects with ADHD screened. None of these differences exceeded those expected by chance. In the absence of clinical signs or positive family history, these relatively expensive laboratory assessments are not clinically indicated for children with ADHD and normal intelligence, and are not recommended as a component of other genetic investigations of this disorder.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Laurence L; Posner, Kelly; Vaughan, Brigette S; Kratochvil, Christopher J

    2008-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a childhood onset of symptoms and impairment. Although it is most frequently identified during elementary school years, epidemiologic data suggest that the onset of ADHD frequently occurs earlier, with presentation as young as 3 years of age. Early identification, however, allows consideration of appropriate interventions. Many data are available on safe and efficacious treatment options for school-aged children who have ADHD; however, little is known about the use of these modalities in preschoolers and, ultimately, the long-term effects of early treatment. Recognition of the preschool presentation of ADHD, appropriate differential diagnosis, and identification of comorbid conditions, and a developmental perspective on the course and potential outcomes of the disorder may guide treatment planning. Newly available data on the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapy and psychosocial intervention for preschoolers who have ADHD may help clinicians make treatment decisions for these young children and their families.

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Magnin, E; Maurs, C

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), although considered a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition, is nevertheless a frequent and disabling condition in adults. A proportion of such patients are not diagnosed during childhood or adolescence, as diagnosis of the syndrome is rather complex, especially when other psychiatric, neurological or other neurodevelopmental conditions are also associated, yet comorbidities and consequences of ADHD are frequently observed in adults and older populations. As ADHD patients present to memory clinics with attentional and executive disorders, neuropsychological examinations of undiagnosed ADHD patients may reveal atypical cognitive profiles that can complicate the usual diagnostic procedure and increase the risk of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Thus, explorations of cognitive and/or behavioral disorders in adult populations should systematically screen for this neurodevelopmental condition. Accurate diagnosis could lead to non-pharmaceutical and/or pharmaceutical treatments to improve symptoms and quality of life for adult ADHD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome in adults].

    PubMed

    Bange, F

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C; Wright, B; Partridge, I

    1999-01-01

    The topic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is fascinating and controversial. A variety of stances have been taken by different clinicians, support groups, and the media. A nature/nurture argument has developed that may have a tendency to polarize views. This review aims to present research findings that inform the debate. It deals with symptomatology, aetiology, and prevalence, with assessment for diagnosis, management, and outcome. The importance of comprehensive management taking into consideration not just attention abilities but a range of other factors that have an impact upon them is stressed. Management should be pragmatic, multifaceted, and based around the establishment of good working relationships with family and school. PMID:10621994

  8. Effortful Control in Typically Developing Boys and in Boys with ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samyn, Vicky; Roeyers, Herbert; Bijttebier, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased interest in the role of effortful control (EC) in developmental disorders, few studies have focused on EC in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and no study so far has directly compared children with ASD and children with ADHD. A first aim of this study was to investigate whether typically developing (TD) boys, boys with ADHD and…

  9. Varieties of Preschool Hyperactivity: Multiple Pathways from Risk to Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Auerbach, Judith; Campbell, Susan B.; Daley, David; Thompson, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the characteristics of preschool attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from both mental disorder and developmental psychopathology points of view. The equivalence of preschool and school-aged hyperactivity as a behavioral dimension is highlighted together with the potential value of extending the use of the ADHD…

  10. Neuronal Mechanisms Underlying Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Avis R.; Arnsten, Amy F.T.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological and imaging studies indicate that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its connections to striatum and cerebellum. Research in animals, in combination with observations of patients with cortical lesions, has shown that the PFC is critical for the regulation of behavior, attention, and affect using representational knowledge. The PFC is important for sustaining attention over a delay, inhibiting distraction, and dividing attention, while more posterior cortical areas are essential for perception and the allocation of attentional resources. The PFC in the right hemisphere is especially important for behavioral inhibition. Lesions to the PFC produce a profile of distractibility, forgetfulness, impulsivity, poor planning, and locomotor hyperactivity. The PFC is very sensitive to its neurochemical environment, and either too little (drowsiness) or too much (stress) catecholamine release in PFC weakens cognitive control of behavior and attention. Recent electrophysiological studies in animals suggest that norepinephrine enhances “signals” through postsynaptic α2A adrenoceptors in PFC, while dopamine decreases “noise” through modest levels of D1 receptor stimulation. α2A-Adrenoceptor stimulation strengthens the functional connectivity of PFC networks, while blockade of α2 receptors in the monkey PFC recreates the symptoms of ADHD, resulting in impaired working memory, increased impulsivity, and locomotor hyperactivity. Genetic alterations in catecholamine pathways may contribute to dysregulation of PFC circuits in this disorder. Medications may have many of their therapeutic effects by optimizing stimulation of α2A adrenoceptors and D1 receptors in the PFC, thus strengthening PFC regulation of behavior and attention. PMID:18591484

  11. What causes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Jefferies, Rachel; Stergiakouli, Evangelia

    2012-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects around 1-3% of children. There is a high level of comorbidity with developmental and learning problems as well as with a variety of psychiatric disorders. ADHD is highly heritable, although there is no single causal risk factor and non-inherited factors also contribute to its aetiology. The genetic and environmental risk factors that have been implicated appear to be associated with a range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outcomes, not just ADHD. The evidence to date suggests that both rare and multiple common genetic variants likely contribute to ADHD and modify its phenotype. ADHD or a similar phenotype also appears to be more common in extreme low birth weight and premature children and those exposed to exceptional early adversity. In this review, the authors consider recent developments in the understanding of risk factors that influence ADHD.

  12. What causes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Jefferies, Rachel; Stergiakouli, Evangelia

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects around 1–3% of children. There is a high level of comorbidity with developmental and learning problems as well as with a variety of psychiatric disorders. ADHD is highly heritable, although there is no single causal risk factor and non-inherited factors also contribute to its aetiology. The genetic and environmental risk factors that have been implicated appear to be associated with a range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outcomes, not just ADHD. The evidence to date suggests that both rare and multiple common genetic variants likely contribute to ADHD and modify its phenotype. ADHD or a similar phenotype also appears to be more common in extreme low birth weight and premature children and those exposed to exceptional early adversity. In this review, the authors consider recent developments in the understanding of risk factors that influence ADHD. PMID:21903599

  13. Updates on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Bledsoe, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to learning disorders was reviewed and included reading disability, mathematics learning disability, and nonverbal learning disability. Genetic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological functioning were examined for each disorder, along with a discussion of any existing literature when ADHD co-occurred with the disorder. All the disorders were found to frequently co-occur with ADHD. A review of the underlying neuroanatomic and neurofunctional data found specific structures that frequently co-occur in these disorders with others that are specific to the individual diagnosis. Aberrations in structure and/or function were found for the caudate, corpus callosum, and cerebellum, making these structures sensitive for the disorder but not specific. Suggestions for future research, particularly in relation to intervention, are provided.

  14. Comorbidity and WISC-III profiles of Greek children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and language disorders.

    PubMed

    Filippatou, Diamanto N; Livaniou, Eleni A

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to (a) examine the prevalence of ADHD and the comorbid difficulties in a sample of 114 children, 3.6 to 17.6 yr. of age (89 boys, 25 girls) referred to our Unit and (b) evaluate the discriminative ability of the WISC-III scores for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 22), Learning Disability (n = 50), and Language Disorder (n = 42). Analysis showed only 18% of 114 children had an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis. Multivariate analysis of variance and stepwise discriminant function analysis were applied. Vocabulary and similarities were the best predictors for distinguishing between language disorders and the other two groups. Moreover, the Language Disorder group scored significantly lower on all the subtests while the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disability groups scored lower on coding and information, respectively. Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disability could not be accurately identified from the WISC-III test or their ACID profile.

  15. Hormone disorder and vitamin deficiency in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).

    PubMed

    Bala, Keziban Aslı; Doğan, Murat; Kaba, Sultan; Mutluer, Tuba; Aslan, Oktay; Doğan, Sekibe Zehra

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze thyroid hormones and antibodies, ferritin, vitamins B12 and D, adrenal and gonadal steroid levels, and celiac antibodies in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Between February 2014 and July 2014, a total of 77 children and adolescents (31 girls, 46 boys) who were admitted to the Van Training and Research Hospital were included in the study. The study population was divided into three groups including ADHD (n=34), ASD (n=16), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=27). The diagnosis of ADHD was made on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and DSM-4 Turkish version with the diagnostic interview and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale (DBDRS). The diagnosis of ASD was based on the DSM-4 and DSM-5 Turkish version with the diagnostic interview and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The blood samples were obtained between 8:00 and 9:00 A.M. There was a statistically significant difference in vitamin B12 and D levels and ferritin values among the three groups. The ASD group had the highest ferritin and the lowest vitamins B12 and D levels. Vitamin D levels of the ADHD group were significantly lower compared to the healthy controls. Our study results highlight the importance of supplementation of vitamins B12 and D in the ASD and ADHD patients.

  16. Are Eating Disorders Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Reinblatt, Shauna P.

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Binge-eating behavior is often impulsive and is the hallmark of the two eating disorders, binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), both of which are associated with significant health impairment. Bingeing behavior is also seen in the binge purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. Individuals with AN of the binge purge subtypes, BN and BED, have been found to exhibit impulsive behaviors that are often not limited to binge eating alone. There is preliminary evidence linking ADHD to BN and to BED in both adults and children. The neurobiological mechanisms behind these associations are only beginning to emerge; however, they suggest that impulse control deficits may play a role in these eating disorders. Additionally, although they may not meet full criteria for one of these eating disorders, some adults and children with ADHD present with dysregulated, impulsive eating disorder behaviors and there is a growing association between ADHD, obesity, and binge-eating behavior in both children and adults. The relationship between ADHD and binge eating is novel, supported by growing evidence and worthy of further research. We will review the underlying neurobiological underpinnings, neuroimaging data, and possible psychopharmacological treatment options, which target both ADHD and binge-eating behaviors as well as future research and treatment directions. PMID:26949595

  17. Are Eating Disorders Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed

    Reinblatt, Shauna P

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Binge-eating behavior is often impulsive and is the hallmark of the two eating disorders, binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), both of which are associated with significant health impairment. Bingeing behavior is also seen in the binge purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. Individuals with AN of the binge purge subtypes, BN and BED, have been found to exhibit impulsive behaviors that are often not limited to binge eating alone. There is preliminary evidence linking ADHD to BN and to BED in both adults and children. The neurobiological mechanisms behind these associations are only beginning to emerge; however, they suggest that impulse control deficits may play a role in these eating disorders. Additionally, although they may not meet full criteria for one of these eating disorders, some adults and children with ADHD present with dysregulated, impulsive eating disorder behaviors and there is a growing association between ADHD, obesity, and binge-eating behavior in both children and adults. The relationship between ADHD and binge eating is novel, supported by growing evidence and worthy of further research. We will review the underlying neurobiological underpinnings, neuroimaging data, and possible psychopharmacological treatment options, which target both ADHD and binge-eating behaviors as well as future research and treatment directions.

  18. [Graphic skills in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Vaquerizo Madrid, J; Macias Pingarron, A; Marquez Armenteros, A M

    2004-02-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood and its prevalence rate is between 3 5%. We describe a study of 601 children aged between 8 and 9 in the 3rd and 4th years of primary education from 17 public schools in the area around Badajoz. The results of the Conners rating scale (CRS) and the drawings of the familial figure done to explore the following variables were analysed and compared: dominant or valued figure, number of colours used, number of anatomical elements (nose, mouth, etc.) and the complements included in the key figure (rings, skirts, etc.). Of all the schoolchildren who drew the picture in the classroom (n = 601), useful information was obtained from the CRS by teachers in 562 cases. 5% presented clinical traits of hyperactivity (HA); 2.5% met attention deficit (AD) criteria; 10% presented behavioural disorders (BD), and 7.5% showed signs of combined ADHD. Prevalence rate by sexes: ratio 3:1 (male: female) for AD; 5.5:1 for HA; 4:1 for BD. Drawing of the family (main variables): dominant figure: father (48%); mean size: 7.258 cm (range: 2.00 16.50 cm; SD: 2.57). Number of colours employed: 6.53 (SD: 2.90). A difference of two colours was observed for children with AD and HA (p = 0.011 and p =.0001, respectively). When this pattern is compared with the results from children with ADHD, a clear graphic deviation is observed in the model of the drawing of the familial figure.

  19. Incontinence in children with treated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, J; Equit, M; Hoffmann, L; von Gontard, A

    2015-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and incontinence (nocturnal enuresis, daytime urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence) are common disorders in childhood. Both disorders are strongly associated with each other. ADHD can affect compliance to incontinence therapy in a negative way; it can also affect outcome. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of incontinence, age of bladder and bowel control, and psychological symptoms in children having treatment for ADHD compared to a control group. Forty children having treatment for ADHD (75% boys, mean age 11.4 years) and 43 matched controls (60.5% boys, mean age 10.7 years) were assessed. Their parents filled out questionnaires to assess: child psychopathology (Child Behavior Checklist), incontinence (Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence; Encopresis Questionnaire - Screening Version) and symptoms of the lower urinary tract (International-Consultation-on-Incontinence-Questionnaire - Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms). The ICD-10 diagnoses and children's IQ were measured by standardized instruments (Kinder-DIPS, Coloured Progressive Matrices/Standard Progressive Matrices). Rates of incontinence in the ADHD group (5% nocturnal enuresis, 5% daytime urinary incontinence, 2.5% fecal incontinence) did not differ significantly from incontinence rates in the control group (4.7% daytime urinary incontinence). More children in the ADHD group had Child Behavior Checklist scores in the clinical range. Further ICD-10 disorders were present in eight children with ADHD and in one control child. More children with ADHD had delayed daytime and nighttime bladder control, as well as delayed bowel control, than the controls. The present study showed that if children are treated for their ADHD, according to standard practice guidelines, incontinence rates are similar to those without ADHD. More children with ADHD reached continence at a later age than the controls, which could be an

  20. Influence of gender on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Europe--ADORE.

    PubMed

    Nøvik, Torunn Stene; Hervas, Amaia; Ralston, Stephen J; Dalsgaard, Søren; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob; Lorenzo, Maria J

    2006-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in girls in Europe is poorly understood; it is not known whether they exhibit similar symptom patterns or co-existing problems and receive the same type of treatment as boys. To examine gender differences for referral patterns, social demographic factors, ADHD core symptomatology, co-existing health problems, psychosocial functioning and treatment. Baseline data from the ADHD Observational Research in Europe (ADORE) study, a 24-month, naturalistic, longitudinal observational study in 10 European countries of children (aged 6-18 years) with hyperactive/inattentive/impulsive symptoms but no previous diagnosis of ADHD, were analysed by gender. Data from 1,478 children were analysed: 231 girls (15.7%) and 1,222 boys (84.3%) (gender data missing for 25 patients). Gender ratios (girl:boy) varied by country, ranging from 1:3 to 1:16. Comparisons showed few gender effects in core ADHD symptomatology and clinical correlates of ADHD. Compared with boys, girls had significantly more parent-rated emotional symptoms and prosocial behaviour and were more likely to be the victim of bullying and less likely to be the bully. Girls and boys had similar levels of co-existing psychiatric and physical health problems, and received the same type of treatment. Fewer girls than boys are referred for ADHD treatment, but they have a similar pattern of impairment and receive similar treatment.

  1. Using Activity Schedules to Increase On-Task Behavior in Children at Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirelli, Christe A.; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Reeve, Sharon A.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of activity schedules on on-task and on-schedule behavior were assessed with two boys at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and referred by their public school teachers as having difficulty during independent work time. On-task behavior increased for both participants after two training sessions. Teachers, peers,…

  2. Effects of Computer Collaborative Group Work on Peer Acceptance of a Junior Pupil with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Teck Shuenn; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of computer collaborative group work, facilitated by an adult, on peer acceptance of a junior boy with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It aimed to ascertain whether collaborative group work on a computer, with the facilitation of an adult, could help to raise his peer acceptance among his…

  3. Using Activity Schedules to Increase On-Task Behavior in Children at Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirelli, Christe A.; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Reeve, Sharon A.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of activity schedules on on-task and on-schedule behavior were assessed with two boys at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and referred by their public school teachers as having difficulty during independent work time. On-task behavior increased for both participants after two training sessions. Teachers, peers,…

  4. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood.

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Motor Impairment.

    PubMed

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Marques, Juliana C B; De Oliveira, Jorge A

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3-6% of school-aged children; its cardinal symptoms of high activity, impulsivity, and behavioral distractibility might be assumed to have close relationships to interferences with motor skills. A separate body of literature attests to ways that motor problems can severely impact children's daily lives, as motor problems may occur in 30-50% of children with ADHD. This article critically reviews research on motor impairment in children with ADHD, notable differences in motor performance of individuals with ADHD compared with age-matched controls, and possible neural underpinnings of this impairment. We discuss the highly prevalent link between ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and the lack of a clear research consensus about motor difficulties in ADHD. Despite increasing evidence and diagnostic classifications that define DCD by motor impairment, the role of ADHD symptoms in DCD has not been delineated. Similarly, while ADHD may predispose children to motor problems, it is unclear whether any such motor difficulties observed in this population are inherent to ADHD or are mediated by comorbid DCD. Future research should address the exact nature and long-term consequences of motor impairment in children with ADHD and elucidate effective treatment strategies for these disorders together and apart.

  6. [A survey on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Quiviger, S; Caci, H

    2014-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in international classifications and thought to affect about 5% of school-aged children and 3% of adults in the general population. In France, most clinicians are not formally trained in assessing and treating ADHD, leading to underdiagnosis of the disorder. ADHD impacts all the aspects of these children's daily life (school performance, family and social life) and later their adult life. We invited all the private-practice pediatricians in the east of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region (southeast France) to participate in a survey: 57 out of 81 accepted. The results show that their knowledge on ADHD could be improved, and that their a priori conception of the etiology of the disorder (neurodevelopmental syndrome versus societal syndrome) guides their clinical approach. We recommend pediatricians be trained to improve screening, diagnosis, and ADHD treatment monitoring in children. This recommendation might also apply to general practitioners for children and parents/adults.

  7. Neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Ramoz, Nicolas; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Gorwood, Philip; Simonneau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, has been associated with various structural and functional CNS abnormalities but findings about neurobiological mechanisms linking genes to brain phenotypes are just beginning to emerge. Despite the high heritability of the disorder and its main symptom dimensions, common individual genetic variants are likely to account for a small proportion of the phenotype's variance. Recent findings have drawn attention to the involvement of rare genetic variants in the pathophysiology of ADHD, some being shared with other neurodevelopmental disorders. Traditionally, neurobiological research on ADHD has focused on catecholaminergic pathways, the main target of pharmacological treatments. However, more distal and basic neuronal processes in relation with cell architecture and function might also play a role, possibly accounting for the coexistence of both diffuse and specific alterations of brain structure and activation patterns. This article aims to provide an overview of recent findings in the rapidly evolving field of ADHD neurobiology with a focus on novel strategies regarding pathophysiological analyses.

  8. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  9. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects.

  10. [Neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Grosbellet, Edith; Gorwood, Philip; Simonneau, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent and disabling condition in school children, with cognitive and behavioral symptoms persisting into adulthood in a majority of patients. Etiology of ADHD is considered multifactorial and heterogenous, with an important contribution of genetic factors. Apart from genetic risk factors, emphasis has been put on the early environment, and prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with subsequent ADHD symptoms. This article reviews recent findings in neurobiology, genetics and neuroimaging of ADHD. Despite their clinical heterogeneity and frequent comorbidities, key symptoms of ADHD, such as impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention are regularly improved by dopaminergic agonists, leading to consider dopaminergic dysfunction a possibly contributing factor in ADHD. Norepinephrine agonists also have clinical efficacy on ADHD symptoms and several other neurotransmission systems are likely involved in the etiology of ADHD. Dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems have been related to impairments of sustained attention, inhibitory control and working memory. Cognitive tasks focusing on reaction time and verbal working memory fit certain criteria for ADHD endophenotypes, offering a pathway to bridge the gap between observed traits and genetic vulnerability. Despite ADHD being a highly heritable disorder, most candidate genes with replicated findings across association studies only account for a small proportion of genetic variance. Neuroimaging studies using treatment effect or cognitive tasks show differential activation patterns in ADHD patients, with trends towards normalization under treatment. Further insight into neurobiological mechanisms involved in ADHD will arise from collaborative networks and combination of imaging, genetic and neurobiological techniques with consideration of the developmental aspects of ADHD.

  11. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  12. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Søren

    2013-02-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make the criteria more appropriate for children, adolescents and adults. The age of onset will also be changed from 7 to 12 years, the subtyping of the disorder will change, and pervasive developmental disorders will no longer be an exclusion criterion. Although the main concept is unchanged, the suggested changes will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes and the impact they may have, and in addition, the paper will make an overview of the main characteristics of some of the international and national guidelines for assessment and treatment of ADHD and how these impact the clinical practice.

  14. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: an update.

    PubMed

    Dopheide, Julie A; Pliszka, Steven R

    2009-06-01

    Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that impairs social, academic, and occupational functioning in children, adolescents, and adults. In patients with ADHD, neurobiologic research has shown a lack of connectivity in key brain regions, inhibitory control deficits, delayed brain maturation, and noradrenergic and dopaminergic dysfunction in multiple brain regions. The prevalence of this disorder in the United States is 6-9% in youth (i.e., children and adolescents) and 3-5% in adults. Prevalence rates for youth are similar worldwide. Children with ADHD are at greater risk than children without ADHD for substance abuse and delinquency whether or not they receive drug therapy; however, early treatment with psychoeducation as well as drug therapy and/or behavioral intervention may decrease negative outcomes of ADHD, including the rate of conduct disorder and adult antisocial personality disorder. Drug therapy is effective for all age groups, even preschoolers, and for late-onset ADHD in adults. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, are the most effective therapy and have a good safety profile; although recent concerns of sudden unexplained death, psychiatric adverse effects, and growth effects have prompted the introduction of other therapies. Atomoxetine, a nonstimulant, has no abuse potential, causes less insomnia than stimulants, and poses minimal risk of growth effects. Other drug options include clonidine and guanfacine, but both can cause bradycardia and sedation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil), acetyl-L-carnitine, and iron supplements (for youth with low ferritin levels) show promise in improving ADHD symptoms. As long-term studies show that at least 50% of youth are nonadherent with their drug therapy as prescribed over a 1-year period, long-acting formulations (administered once/day) may improve adherence. Comorbid conditions are common in patients with ADHD, but this patient population can

  15. [Emotional dysfunctions in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Franc, N

    2011-06-01

    Inattention, motor instability, and impulsivity, associated in varying degrees of severity depending on the clinical subtype, constitute the key symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, emotional symptoms are frequent in patients with ADHD and may, in some cases, be responsible for a major part of the negative impact on functioning and outcome. Emotional problems have been described in ADHD even in the absence of characterized comorbid conditions such as depressive or anxiety disorders. They can manifest acutely in the form of severe tantrums and aggressive behaviour, generally in reaction to an environmental trigger, or show a more chronic course of irritable or labile mood. Symptoms of emotional undercontrol seem to occur more frequently when ADHD is associated with oppositional defiant behaviour, but they are not specific and may contribute to difficulties in making a differential diagnosis, especially with bipolar disorder and prodromal symptoms of personality disorders. The frequency and negative impact of emotional symptoms and the need to differentiate them from bipolar disorder has led some authors to the description of a novel clinical entity called "severe mood dysregulation" or "temper dysregulation with dysphoria." This article aims to review the recent literature on emotional symptoms associated with ADHD and to discuss relevant clinical and biological issues. Current research highlights the links between emotional self-regulation and executive functions and possible involvement of motivational systems. The role of environmental factors in the development of emotional regulation and self-control is another important issue, especially because environmental modification is the major focus of current preventive and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute psychosis with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional-defiant disorder comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jonathan; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2014-06-04

    This is a case of an 18-year-old boy who presented with his mother in the emergency room with a 1-week history of paranoia and bizarre behaviour. His comorbidities included attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder and mild intellectual delay. At the emergency room he was incoherent, agitated and uncooperative. He was admitted to the psychiatric inpatient unit and treated with low-dose risperidone. The patient's symptoms improved markedly over a few days, although he remained restless and had episodes of agitation. Nursing staff was concerned about his behaviour and found him difficult to manage. However, after speaking to the patient's family, this was felt to be his baseline. After 11 days the patient was discharged home in stable state. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. A Clinical Comparison Study of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (DSM-IV) and Hyperkinetic Disorder (ICD-10) in Indian children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Bharti, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To compare the usefulness of DSM IV and ICD-10 DCR criteria in clinic children presenting with the symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Methods: 62 children (54 boys and 8 girls) participated in the study. Children were assessed on Kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia--present and lifetime version and…

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P < 0.0001) and age at seizure onset (odds ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.56, 0.94, P = 0.016). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF ... Overview Do you find it hard to pay attention? Do you feel the need to move constantly ...

  20. Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): a neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity).

    PubMed

    Diamond, Adele

    2005-01-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (underarousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal-striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal-parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies.

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Epileptic Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun-Ha; Kim, Ji Yeon; Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin; Rhie, Young Jun; Seo, Won Hee

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is higher in epileptic children than in the general pediatric population. The aim of this study was to compare the accompaniment of ADHD in epileptic children with well-controlled seizures and no significant intellectual disability with that in healthy controls. We included epileptic children between the ages of 6 and 12 yr visiting our clinic for six consecutive months and controls without significant medical or psychiatric illnesses. We excluded patients with intellectual disability or persistent seizures during the recent three months. The diagnosis of ADHD was based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). After exclusion of 84 patients, we enrolled 102 (54.8%) children (mean age, 9.4 ± 2.0 yr). Seven (7 of 102, 6.9%) were diagnosed with ADHD. As compared to control group (4 of 110, 3.6%), there was no difference in ADHD accompaniment (P = 0.29). No difference was observed in ADHD accompaniment according to seizure type and epilepsy syndrome. In conclusion, the accompaniment of ADHD in epileptic children with well-controlled seizures and no intellectual disability may not differ from that of the general pediatric population. PMID:23091322

  2. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Voeller, Kytja K S

    2004-10-01

    Approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are undergoing a major change as a result of information from studies on the genetics of ADHD and the use of new neuroimaging technologies. Moreover, pharmacogenomics, although still in its infancy, will provide a basis for much more sophisticated treatment strategies for ADHD, particularly once more information is available about the genetics of ADHD. Even at this point in time, there is some pertinent information available that, although not ready for application in clinical settings, nonetheless provides a broader perspective for the clinician. In terms of etiology, ADHD is a neuropsychiatric disorder. There is a genetic basis in about 80% of the cases, involving a number of different genes, and in about 20% of the cases, ADHD is the result of an acquired insult to the brain. Some individuals likely have both genetic and acquired forms. Although medication works well in many cases of ADHD, optimal treatment of ADHD requires integrated medical and behavioral treatment. The family plays a crucial role in the management of children with ADHD. Because there is often a very high degree of comorbidity between ADHD and learning disabilities, teachers also have a great deal to contribute in the day-to-day management of these children. Early recognition and treatment prevent the development of more serious psychopathology in adolescence and adulthood.

  3. Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)

    PubMed Central

    DIAMOND, ADELE

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (under-arousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies. PMID:16262993

  4. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Ringling, Jutta; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Vogelgesang, Monika; Rösler, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent mental disorder with childhood onset and high persistence into adulthood. There is much evidence that ADHD increases the risk for the development of other psychiatric disorders and functional problems in several domains of everyday life. In this study, the association of ADHD with gambling disorder (GD) was investigated. 163 adult subjects suffering from GD were examined for childhood and current ADHD according to DSM-5 as well as co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Moreover, characteristics of gambling behavior have been evaluated. The prevalence of lifetime ADHD was 28.8 %, with 25.2 % of the study population presenting ADHD as a full syndrome according to DSM-5. The prevalence of co-morbid substance use disorders and adjustment disorders and cluster B personality disorders was higher in GD patients with current ADHD than in the group without. Also, an increased rate of suicide attempts was detected in gamblers with ADHD. In contrast with gamblers without ADHD, those with ADHD were reported to spend more time with gambling, a sedative effect of gambling and a faster development of GD. The high prevalence of ADHD in patients with GD indicates that childhood ADHD is a risk factor for the development of GD in later life. Moreover, treatment of patients with GD and ADHD is complicated by a high rate of co-morbid disorders. Regarding therapeutic approaches, it should be considered that functional aspects of gambling differ in GD patients with and without ADHD.

  5. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  6. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  7. Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Wild, J; Bradley, S J; Lowry, C B

    1993-02-01

    University students blind to group status rated boys with gender identity disorder and clinical control boys regarding their physical attractiveness. Ratings were made of the face and upper torso from photographs taken at the time of clinical assessment (mean age, 8.1 years). On all five adjectives (attractive, beautiful, cute, handsome, and pretty), boys with gender identity disorder were judged to be more attractive than were the clinical control boys. Attractiveness correlated with extent of behavioral femininity in the clinical control group, but not in the group of boys with gender identity disorder. The extent to which the group differences in attractiveness were due to objective, structural differences in facial attractiveness vs. socially created, or subjective, processes is discussed.

  8. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs.

  9. Sensory Contributions to Balance in Boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; De Clercq, Dirk; Van Coster, Rudy; Oostra, Ann; Dewitte, Griet; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Cambier, Dirk; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined and compared the control of posture during bilateral stance in ten boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) of 6-8 years old and ten matched typically developing boys in four sensory conditions (with or without vision, on a firm or complaint surface). In all conditions mean postural sway velocity was larger for the…

  10. Sensory Contributions to Balance in Boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; De Clercq, Dirk; Van Coster, Rudy; Oostra, Ann; Dewitte, Griet; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Cambier, Dirk; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined and compared the control of posture during bilateral stance in ten boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) of 6-8 years old and ten matched typically developing boys in four sensory conditions (with or without vision, on a firm or complaint surface). In all conditions mean postural sway velocity was larger for the…

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Davids, Eugen; Gastpar, Markus

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood, a systematic review of published follow-up data, mainly from observational studies was done. Electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo and PSYNDEXplus were searched from their earliest entries. All studies suggested significant relationships between ADHD and BPD. From a phenomenological point of view there seem to exist some similarities between these two disorders: deficits in affect regulation and impulse control, substance abuse, low self esteem and disturbed interpersonal relationship are common in both conditions. From a neuropsychological point of view dissociation in BPD might be regarded as a special form of behavioral inhibition and sustained attention comparable to ADHD. Possible therapeutic strategies of comorbid ADHD and BPD are discussed.

  12. Media use and sleep among boys with autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, or typical development.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O; Sohl, Kristin

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the relationships between media use (television, computer, and video games) and sleep among boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or with typical development (TD). Participants included parents of boys with ASD (n = 49), ADHD (n = 38), or TD (n = 41) (ages 8-17 years). Questionnaires assessed daily hours of media use, bedroom access to media, and average sleep hours per night. Bedroom media access was associated with less time spent sleeping per night, irrespective of diagnostic group. Bedroom access to a television or a computer was more strongly associated with reduced sleep among boys with ASD compared with boys with ADHD or TD. Multivariate models showed that, in addition to bedroom access, the amount of time spent playing video games was uniquely associated with less sleep among boys with ASD. In the ASD group only, the relationship between bedroom access to video games and reduced sleep was mediated by hours of video game play. The current results suggest that media-related variables may be an important consideration in understanding sleep disturbances in children with ASD. Further research is needed to better characterize the processes by which media use may affect sleep among individuals with ASD. Overall, the current findings suggest that screen-based media time and bedroom media access should be routinely assessed and may be important intervention targets when addressing sleep problems in children with ASD.

  13. The treatment of fetishism in an adolescent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Chow, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Fetishism is characterized by recurrent, intense sexual fantasy or behavior involving the use of nonliving objects, such as women's undergarments, over a period of at least six months. This disorder occurs mostly in males and usually begins in adolescence. The neurobiological etiologies of fetishism remain unclear, and studies on treatment were limited. We present a 14- year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with fetishistic behavior who was treated successfully with 36 mg extended-release methylphenidate daily and 4 months of cognitive-rational emotive psychotherapy.

  14. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with autism.

    PubMed

    Christakou, A; Murphy, C M; Chantiluke, K; Cubillo, A I; Smith, A B; Giampietro, V; Daly, E; Ecker, C; Robertson, D; Murphy, D G; Rubia, K

    2013-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share behavioural-cognitive abnormalities in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 boys with ADHD to 20 age and IQ matched ASD and 20 healthy boys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. ADHD and ASD boys had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato-thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not patients, suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode network in both disorders. However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in ADHD relative to ASD boys, which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in ADHD patients. ASD boys, on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both ADHD and control boys, presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that ADHD and ASD boys have both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in brain function during sustained attention. Shared deficits were in fronto-striato-parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in ADHD and a disorder-specific fronto-striato-cerebellar dysregulation in ASD.

  15. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Christakou, A; Murphy, C M; Chantiluke, K; Cubillo, A I; Smith, A B; Giampietro, V; Daly, E; Ecker, C; Robertson, D; Murphy, D G; Rubia, K

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share behavioural-cognitive abnormalities in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 boys with ADHD to 20 age and IQ matched ASD and 20 healthy boys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. ADHD and ASD boys had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato–thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not patients, suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode network in both disorders. However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in ADHD relative to ASD boys, which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in ADHD patients. ASD boys, on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both ADHD and control boys, presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that ADHD and ASD boys have both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in brain function during sustained attention. Shared deficits were in fronto–striato–parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in ADHD and a disorder-specific fronto–striato–cerebellar dysregulation in ASD. PMID:22290121

  16. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    McClain, Maryellen Brunson; Hasty Mills, Amber M; Murphy, Laura E

    2017-09-25

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Intellectual Disability (ID) are common co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders; however, limited research exists regarding the presentation and severity of overlapping symptomology, particularly inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, when a child is diagnosed with one of more of these neurodevelopmental disorders. As difficulties with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are symptoms frequently associated with these disorders, the current study aims to determine the differences in the severity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in children diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, ID, and co-occurring diagnosis of ADHD/ID, ASD/ADHD, and ASD/ID. Participants in the current study included 113 children between the ages of 6 and 11 who were diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, ID, ADHD/ID, ASD/ADHD, or ASD/ID. Two MANOVA analyses were used to compare these groups witih respsect to symptom (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity) severity. Results indicated that the majority of diagnostic groups experienced elevated levels of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. However, results yielded differences in inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity severity. In addition, differences in measure sensitivity across behavioral instruments was found. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders often exhibit inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, particularly those with ADHD, ASD, ASD/ADHD, and ADHD/ID; therefore, differential diagnosis may be complicated due to similarities in ADHD symptom severity. However, intellectual abilities may be an important consideration for practitioners in the differential diagnosis process as children with ID and ASD/ID exhibited significantly less inattention and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors. Additionally, the use of multiple behavior rating measures in conjunction with other assessment procedures may help practitioners determine the most

  17. Potential Hormonal Mechanisms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.; Klump, Kelly; Nigg, Joel T.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Hormonal influences on the organization of behavior are apparent to neuroendocrinologists but under-examined in relation to childhood and adolescent mental disorders. A central mystery in the field of developmental psychopathology is the preferential male vulnerability to behavior disorders in childhood and female vulnerability to emotional disorders in adolescence. Relative neglect of a hormonal explanation may be due to lack of simple or unifying conceptual paradigms to guide studies. This paper seeks to stimulate research in this area by drawing upon clinical psychology and neuroscience literatures to offer a heuristic paradigm for clinical research. Two syndromes are selected here for illustration: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), because they have opposite gender risk profiles. Two guiding theories are evaluated. First, prenatal organizational effects of testosterone may modulate striatally-based dopaminergic circuits in such a way as to place boys at greater risk for early developing inattention and disruptive behavioral disorders. Second, activational effects of estradiol at puberty may modulate amygdalar and other circuitry, with particular effects on serotoninergic pathways, in such a way as to place girls at greater risk for internalizing and mood disorders. Hypotheses from these theories are evaluated based on the current available literature, and limitations of, and future directions for, this literature are discussed. PMID:19265696

  18. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  19. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  20. Neuropsychological Profile of Executive Function in Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jessica W.; Dowell, Lauren R.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    The majority of research on neurobehavioral functioning among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. Although functional impairment is well established, available research has yet to specify a neuropsychological profile distinct to girls with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine performance within four components of executive function (EF) in contemporaneously recruited samples of girls and boys with ADHD. Fifty-six children with ADHD (26 girls) and 90 controls (42 girls), ages 8–13, were administered neuropsychological tests emphasizing response inhibition, response preparation, working memory, and planning/shifting. There were no significant differences in age or SES between boys or girls with ADHD or their sex-matched controls; ADHD subtype distribution did not differ by sex. Compared with controls, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on all four EF components. Girls and boys with ADHD showed similar patterns of deficit on tasks involving response preparation and working memory; however, they manifested different patterns of executive dysfunction on tasks related to response inhibition and planning. Girls with ADHD showed elevated motor overflow, while boys with ADHD showed greater impairment during conscious, effortful response inhibition. Girls, but not boys with ADHD, showed impairment in planning. There were no differences between ADHD subtypes on any EF component. These findings highlight the importance of studying boys and girls separately (as well as together) when considering manifestations of executive dysfunction in ADHD. PMID:20639299

  1. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  4. Emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Philip; Stringaris, Argyris; Nigg, Joel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    Although it has long been recognized that many individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also have difficulties with emotion regulation, no consensus has been reached on how to conceptualize this clinically challenging domain. The authors examine the current literature using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Three key findings emerge. First, emotion dysregulation is prevalent in ADHD throughout the lifespan and is a major contributor to impairment. Second, emotion dysregulation in ADHD may arise from deficits in orienting toward, recognizing, and/or allocating attention to emotional stimuli; these deficits implicate dysfunction within a striato-amygdalo-medial prefrontal cortical network. Third, while current treatments for ADHD often also ameliorate emotion dysregulation, a focus on this combination of symptoms reframes clinical questions and could stimulate novel therapeutic approaches. The authors then consider three models to explain the overlap between emotion dysregulation and ADHD: emotion dysregulation and ADHD are correlated but distinct dimensions; emotion dysregulation is a core diagnostic feature of ADHD; and the combination constitutes a nosological entity distinct from both ADHD and emotion dysregulation alone. The differing predictions from each model can guide research on the much-neglected population of patients with ADHD and emotion dysregulation.

  5. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    The term adoption or adoptive filiation is understood as referring to the legal act by which family ties are created between two persons such that a relationship of fatherhood or motherhood is established between them. AIMS. The purpose of this study is to outline the problems derived from prenatal exposure to alcohol and other risk factors, from hypostimulation during the 'critical period' in institutionalised patients (especially those adopted from eastern European countries) and their relation with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This work also seeks to take a deeper look into the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these problems. These children have problems in terms of psychosocial relationships, behavioural problems, delayed language or reading development and, above all, ADHD. In practice it is extremely difficult to separate the two factors during the assessment of children adopted from eastern European countries in neuropaediatric consultations. Exactly how all these factors are interrelated is not well understood. There is a close relationship between prenatal exposure to alcohol and the consequences of adoption. There is a need for placebo-controlled randomised studies, with larger population samples, that test the benefits and profile of side effects, both with psychostimulants and with atomoxetine in this group of patients.

  6. Perception in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Hüpen, Philippa; De Vries, Stefanie M; Müller, Morgana; Kok, Francien M; Koerts, Janneke; Heutink, Joost; Tucha, Lara; Gerlach, Manfred; Tucha, Oliver

    2017-04-11

    A large body of research demonstrated that individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various neuropsychological deficits. In contrast, less is known and only divergent evidence exists on perceptual functions of individuals with ADHD. This is problematic as neuropsychological and perceptual functions are closely interrelated and are often difficult to disentangle in behavioral assessments. This study presents the conduct and results of a systematic literature review on perceptual functions in children and adults with ADHD. This review considers studies using psychophysical methods (objective measurements) and self- and informant reports (subjective measurements). Results indicate that individuals with ADHD have altered perceptual functions in various domains as compared to typically developing individuals. Increased perceptual functions in individuals with ADHD were found with regard to olfactory detection thresholds, whereas reduced perceptual functions were evident for aspects of visual and speech perception. Moreover, individuals with ADHD were found to experience discomfort to sensory stimuli at a lower level than typically developing individuals. Alterations of perceptual functions in individuals with ADHD were shown to be moderated by various factors, such as pharmacological treatment, cognitive functions, and symptom severity. We conclude by giving implications for daily life functioning and clinical practice.

  7. Trauma and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaya, A; Taner, Y; Guclu, B; Taner, E; Kaya, Y; Bahcivan, H G; Benli, I T

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and trauma. Fifty-eight adults admitted to hospital with musculoskeletal trauma were evaluated using scales that determine the presence of ADHD in childhood and adulthood. Each patient was also interviewed by an adult psychiatrist and a child and adolescent psychiatrist. The control group consisted of 30 adult patients with complaints other than trauma who did not have a history of repetitive traumas. There were 36 (62.2%) cases of ADHD in the patient group compared with four (13.3%) in the control group; this difference was statistically significant. When the level of trauma was evaluated, ADHD was identified in 23 of the 26 (88.5%) patients with high energy traumas compared with 14 of the 32 (43.8%) patients with low energy traumas; this difference was also statistically significant. This study shows that patients with adult ADHD are more prone to injuries, particularly high energy traumas such as motor vehicle accidents. Patients who have repeated high energy traumas should be evaluated by a psychiatrist for ADHD.

  8. Driving and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Evans, Ben Lewis; Koerts, Janneke; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Thome, Johannes; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various impairments of cognitive, emotional and social functioning, which can have considerable consequences for many areas of daily living. One of those areas is driving a vehicle. Driving is an important activity of everyday life and requires an efficient interplay between multiple cognitive, perceptual, and motor skills. In the present study, a selective review of the literature on driving-related difficulties associated with ADHD is performed, seeking to answer whether individuals with ADHD show increased levels of unsafe driving behaviours, which cognitive (dys)functions of individuals with ADHD are related to driving difficulty, and whether pharmacological treatment significantly improves the driving behaviour of individuals with ADHD. The available research provides convincing evidence that individuals with ADHD have different and more adverse driving outcomes than individuals without the condition. However, it appears that not all individuals with ADHD are affected uniformly. Despite various cognitive functions being related with driving difficulties, these functions do not appear helpful in detecting high risk drivers with ADHD, nor in predicting driving outcomes in individuals with ADHD, since impairments in these functions are defining criteria for the diagnoses of ADHD (e.g., inattention and impulsivity). Pharmacological treatment of ADHD, in particular stimulant drug treatment, appears to be beneficial to the driving difficulties experienced by individuals with ADHD. However, additional research is needed, in particular further studies that address the numerous methodological weaknesses of many of the previous studies.

  9. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--molecular and genetic aspects].

    PubMed

    Migdalska, Anna; Nawara, Magdalena; Bal, Jerzy; Mazurczak, Tadeusz

    2006-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, affecting approximately 5-10% of children. ADHD is considered to be a multifactorial disorder because both genetic and environmental components may contribute to its progress. The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unknown, however family, twin and adoption studies have suggested that genetic factors are very important in its etiopathogenesis. The research of genetic basis of ADHD consists of linkage analysis, candidate gene approach and association studies. These analyses and also investigations on animal models of disease suggest that mutations in genes involved in dopaminergic, serotonergic and adrenergic systems are likely to be responsible for ADHD.

  10. Altered salience processing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Bunzeck, Nico; Duzel, Emrah; Bonath, Björn; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Attentional problems in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been linked with deficits in cognitive control. Whether these deficits are associated with increased sensitivity to external salient stimuli remains unclear. To address this issue, we acquired functional brain images (fMRI) in 38 boys with and without ADHD (age: 11–16 years). To differentiate the effects of item novelty, contextual rareness and task relevance, participants performed a visual oddball task including four stimulus categories: a frequent standard picture (62.5%), unique novel pictures (12.5%), one repeated rare picture (12.5%), and a target picture (12.5%) that required a specific motor response. As a main finding, we can show considerable overlap in novelty-related BOLD responses between both groups, but only healthy participants showed neural deactivation in temporal as well as frontal regions in response to novel pictures. Furthermore, only ADHD patients, but not healthy controls, engaged wide parts of the novelty network when processing the rare but familiar picture. Our results provide first evidence that ADHD patients show enhanced neural activity in response to novel but behaviorally irrelevant stimuli as well as reduced habituation to familiar items. These findings suggest an inefficient use of neuronal resources in children with ADHD that could be closely linked to increased distractibility. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2049–2060, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25648705

  11. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  12. Low-dose venlafaxine in three adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder improves self-injurious behavior and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carminati, Giuliana Galli; Deriaz, Nicolas; Bertschy, Gilles

    2006-03-01

    In our clinical practice, we have had good experiences with venlafaxine in the treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)-like symptoms in patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), and we report here three cases of possible therapeutic response: (A) a 17-year-old boy with autism and severe behavioral symptoms, including aggression toward self or property, SIB and hyperactivity, who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day); (B) a 23-year-old woman with autism hyperactivity who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day); (C) a 17-year-old girl with autism hyperactivity who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day). Follow-ups occurred respectively 18, 36 and 6 months after treatment initiation, making it possible to observe the stability of the clinical improvement in these cases.

  13. Reduced Cortisol in Boys with Early-Onset Conduct Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    PubMed Central

    von Polier, Georg G.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Wiesler, Kristine; Rieke, Jana; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Bachmann, Christian J.; Vloet, Timo D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A growing body of evidence suggests an association between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and the development of persistent antisocial behavior in children. However the effects of altered cortisol levels remain poorly understood in the complex context of conduct disorder, callous-unemotional (CU) personality traits, and frequent comorbidities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of the current study was to investigate associations among CU traits, antisocial behavior, and comorbid ADHD symptomatology with cortisol levels in male children and adolescents. Methods. The study included 37 boys with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD, mean age 11.9 years) and 38 healthy boys (mean age 12.5 years). Participants were subjected to multiple daytime salivary cortisol measurements and a psychometric characterization. Results. Subjects in the EO-CD group with elevated CU traits showed a diminished cortisol awakening response compared to healthy participants. In the EO-CD group, high CU traits and impulsivity were associated with decreased diurnal cortisol levels, while associations with antisocial behavior were not detected. The cortisol awakening response was significantly inversely associated with hyperactivity (P = 0.02) and marginally significant with CU traits (P = 0.07). Conclusions. These results indicate a specific association between CU traits and a diminished stress response, which is not explained by antisocial behavior in general. PMID:23841064

  14. Prospective effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and sex on adolescent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Irene J; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2007-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an early manifestation of externalizing behavior, may identify children at high risk for later substance abuse. However, the ADHD-substance abuse relationship often disappears when co-occurring conduct disorder (CD) is considered. To determine whether there is a prospective relationship between ADHD and the initiation of substance use and disorders, and whether this relationship depends on the ADHD subtype (hyperactive/impulsive or inattentive), CD, or sex. Dimensional and categorical measures of ADHD and CD were examined via logistic regression analyses in relation to subsequent initiation of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use by 14 years of age and onset of substance use disorders by 18 years of age in a population-based sample of 11-year-old twins (760 female and 752 male twins) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Structured interviews were administered to adolescents and their mothers regarding substance use and to generate diagnoses. For boys and girls, hyperactivity/impulsivity predicted initiation of all types of substance use, nicotine dependence, and cannabis abuse/dependence (for all, P < .05), even when controlling for CD at 2 time points. By contrast, relationships between inattention and substance outcomes disappeared when hyperactivity/impulsivity and CD were controlled for, with the possible exception of nicotine dependence. A categorical diagnosis of ADHD significantly predicted tobacco and illicit drug use only (adjusted odds ratios, 2.01 and 2.82, respectively). A diagnosis of CD between 11 and 14 years of age was a powerful predictor of substance disorders by 18 years of age (all odds ratios, > 4.27). Hyperactivity/impulsivity predicts later substance problems, even after growth in later-emerging CD is considered, whereas inattention alone poses less risk. Even a single symptom of ADHD or CD is associated with increased risk. Failure in previous research to consistently observe relationships

  15. Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder benefit from massage therapy.

    PubMed

    Field, T M; Quintino, O; Hernandez-Reif, M; Koslovsky, G

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-eight adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were provided either massage therapy or relaxation therapy for 10 consecutive school days. The massage therapy group, but not the relaxation therapy group, rated themselves as happier and observers rated them as fidgeting less following the sessions. After the 2-week period, their teachers reported more time on task and assigned them lower hyperactivity scores based on classroom behavior.

  16. Sentence Comprehension in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kover, Sara T.; Haebig, Eileen; Oakes, Ashley; McDuffie, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous research suggests that language comprehension might be particularly impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but this profile has been only broadly characterized. The current study examined sentence comprehension in school-age boys with ASD, including a subgroup with intellectual disability, with particular attention to errors that might differentiate between lexically and syntactically based difficulties. Method Participants were boys with ASD (n = 45; ages 4 – 11 years) and younger typically developing boys (n = 45; ages 2 – 6 years). Comprehension was assessed with the Test for Reception of Grammar-2 (TROG-2). Error types were analyzed for a subset of items. Results Boys with ASD did not differ from younger typically developing boys matched on receptive vocabulary in overall sentence comprehension on the TROG-2 or the number of lexical errors committed. In contrast, the subgroup of boys with ASD and intellectual disability (n = 16) had poorer overall performance and committed more lexical errors than younger typically developing boys matched on nonverbal cognition. Conclusions On average, comprehension is delayed in school-age boys with ASD, but not beyond receptive vocabulary expectations. Boys with ASD and intellectual disability, however, have a weakness in sentence comprehension beyond nonverbal cognitive-expectations. PMID:24687049

  17. Written expression in boys with attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Resta, S P; Eliot, J

    1994-12-01

    32 boys, between the ages of 8 and 13 years, were identified on four teachers' and parents' rating scales (including the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-III for ADD) as showing attention deficits and hyperactivity (ADD + H; n = 10), attention deficits without hyperactivity (ADD-H; n = 11), or without ADD (attention deficits controls; n = 11). All subjects were administered Bender's Visual-motor Gestalt test and the Written Language Assessment. The ADD + H children produced significantly more errors on the Bender-Gestalt test, and both groups with attention deficits had lower (poorer) scores on most of the written language subtests. Results were interpreted as providing evidence that these children possessed significant limitations in their writing, copying, and composition.

  18. [Drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gangoso-Fermoso, A B; Martíínez-Granero, M A

    Quantitative studies have highlighted differences in several drugs approved for use in Spain in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No clear differences are observed, however, in the case of qualitative studies. The number of patients needed to be treated in order for one to reach complete remission (NNT) of methylphenidate (MTF) is from 2.2 to 5, and the effect size (ES) is 0.9. Atomoxetine has an NNT of 4 and an ES of 0.7. The advantages of immediate-release MTF (IR-MTF) over the extended-release version (ER-MTF) lie in its low cost, its flexibility and the better results obtained in quantitative studies. In contrast, ER-MTF offers a lower risk of abuse, needs to be taken fewer times with less need for third parties to control administration, and there is a lower risk of stigmatisation. Combination or changes of IR-MTF and ER-MTF and the combination of MTF with atomoxetine are sometimes necessary to adjust the weekday or weekend doses. Starting treatment with IR-MTF and then maintaining or changing to ER-MTF offers certain advantages as regards safety, dose adjustments and dosage. Atomoxetine is the best alternative if there is a background of adverse events with low or moderate doses of stimulants, or lack of response to high doses of stimulants. In cases of notable comorbid anxiety, both MTF and atomoxetine have the same level of indication. If there is a risk of substance abuse, both atomoxetine and ER-MTF are the preferred treatment. For the other indications, MTF is the preferred treatment.

  19. [Clinical presentation of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a function of the gender].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Montiel-Barbero, Isabel; Peña, Joaquín A

    2007-12-01

    Results from studies comparing boys and girls diagnosed as having Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been non conclusive. In general, the results of such studies report boys as being more hyperactive and presenting more conduct problems, and girls as having more cognitive and learning problems. The aim of this study was to collect information about the characterization of the disorder depending on the gender. 169 children (123 males, 46 females), between 4 and 13 years of age with ADHD were studied. The assessment battery included Conners' rating scales-Revised for parents and teachers, short forms of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), academic achievement measures, developmental history and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV Version-Parents (DISC-IV). The results indicated the lack of significant differences between genders for the studied variables, ADHD boys and girls scored alike in the various behavioral and cognitive measures. The results presented describe homogeneity in the symptoms, demographic characteristics and neuropsychological functioning for children of both genders; suggesting a syndrome with the same criteria and independent of the gender.

  20. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Decade of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This guide to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is organized in three parts which address understanding the problem, getting help, and sustaining hope. A question-and-answer format addresses the following topics: symptoms of ADHD; other conditions which may produce similar symptoms; other disorders which may accompany ADHD; causes of…

  2. An auditable protocol for treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hill, P; Taylor, E

    2001-01-01

    We present an auditable protocol for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or hyperkinetic disorder. The protocol is derived from standard recommendations and evidence, and is intended for outpatient medical clinic practice in secondary care. Suggested side effect rating scales are included.

 PMID:11316683

  3. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  4. Wildland firefighters and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Palmer; Steven Gaskill; Joe Domitrovich; Marcy McNamara; Brian Knutson; Alysha. Spear

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Research has indicated that the prevalence rate of ADHD in adult populations is approximately 4.4 percent and that the majority of those cases go untreated (Kessler et al. 2006). To date,...

  5. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in women and girls: uncovering this hidden diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patricia O; Madhoo, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    To describe the clinical presentation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in women and girls and factors influencing proper diagnosis and treatment. A PubMed search was conducted in April 9, 2012 for English-language publications from the previous 10 years. Search terms included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and AD/HD combined with gender, girls, females, women, continuity, discontinuity, gap, treatment, untreated, and lack of treatment. A total of 41 articles were reviewed for relevance. Reference lists from relevant articles were reviewed for additional publications; sources known to the authors were also included. Attitudes about ADHD among individuals with ADHD and knowledgeable informants (families, teachers, colleagues) vary on the basis of the diagnosed individual's gender. The ADHD prevalence rates are higher among boys than girls. A low index of clinical suspicion exists for girls; their presentation is considered "subthreshold" because inattentiveness is more prominent than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Females with ADHD may develop better coping strategies than males to mask their symptoms. Lastly, anxiety and depression, common comorbidities in female patients with ADHD, can lead to missed or misdiagnosis. If not properly diagnosed and treated, girls with ADHD experience the same negative consequences as boys, including poor academic performance and behavioral problems. Unique issues related to hormonal effects on ADHD expression and treatment response are also experienced by women and girls. Accurate ADHD diagnosis in women and girls requires establishing a symptom history and an understanding of its gender-specific presentation. Coexisting anxiety and depression are prominent in female patients with ADHD; satisfactory academic achievement should not rule out an ADHD diagnosis.

  6. A Review of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Women and Girls: Uncovering This Hidden Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Madhoo, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical presentation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in women and girls and factors influencing proper diagnosis and treatment. Data Sources: A PubMed search was conducted in April 9, 2012 for English-language publications from the previous 10 years. Search terms included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and AD/HD combined with gender, girls, females, women, continuity, discontinuity, gap, treatment, untreated, and lack of treatment. Study Selection/Data Extraction: A total of 41 articles were reviewed for relevance. Reference lists from relevant articles were reviewed for additional publications; sources known to the authors were also included. Results: Attitudes about ADHD among individuals with ADHD and knowledgeable informants (families, teachers, colleagues) vary on the basis of the diagnosed individual’s gender. The ADHD prevalence rates are higher among boys than girls. A low index of clinical suspicion exists for girls; their presentation is considered “subthreshold” because inattentiveness is more prominent than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Females with ADHD may develop better coping strategies than males to mask their symptoms. Lastly, anxiety and depression, common comorbidities in female patients with ADHD, can lead to missed or misdiagnosis. If not properly diagnosed and treated, girls with ADHD experience the same negative consequences as boys, including poor academic performance and behavioral problems. Unique issues related to hormonal effects on ADHD expression and treatment response are also experienced by women and girls. Conclusions: Accurate ADHD diagnosis in women and girls requires establishing a symptom history and an understanding of its gender-specific presentation. Coexisting anxiety and depression are prominent in female patients with ADHD; satisfactory academic achievement should not rule out an ADHD diagnosis. PMID:25317366

  7. GAD1 gene polymorphisms are associated with hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bruxel, Estela M; Akutagava-Martins, Glaucia C; Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Genro, Julia P; Zeni, Cristian P; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Chazan, Rodrigo; Schmitz, Marcelo; Rohde, Luis A; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-12-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. Recent studies suggest a role for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on ADHD hyperactive/impulsive symptoms due to behavioral disinhibition resulting from inappropriate modulation of both glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling. The glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1) gene encodes a key enzyme of GABA biosynthesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of GAD1 SNPs rs3749034 and rs11542313 on ADHD susceptibility. The clinical sample consisted of 547 families with ADHD probands recruited at the ADHD Outpatient Clinics from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were evaluated based on parent reports from the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Scale-version IV (SNAP-IV). The C allele of rs11542313 was significantly overtransmitted from parents to ADHD probands (P = 0.02). Hyperactive/impulsive score was higher in rs3749034G allele (P = 0.005, Cohen's D = 0.19) and rs11542313C allele (P = 0.03; Cohen's D = 0.16) carriers. GAD1 haplotypes were also associated with higher hyperactive/impulsive scores in ADHD youths (global P-value = 0.01). In the specific haplotype test, the GC haplotype was the one with the highest hyperactive/impulsive scores (P = 0.03). Our results suggest that the GAD1 gene is associated with ADHD susceptibility, contributing particularly to the hyperactive/impulsive symptom domain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Do Quantitative EEG Measures Differentiate Hyperactivity in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Garth A.; Steffler, Dorothy J.; Lemoine, Daniel E.; Leps, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    Used quantitative electroencephalogram analysis to examine difference in brain wave activity of attention deficit disorders (ADD) with and without hyperactivity while completing a computerized task measuring a variety of constructs associated with attention and impulsivity. Found that although behavioral ratings confirmed differential…

  9. Do Quantitative EEG Measures Differentiate Hyperactivity in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Garth A.; Steffler, Dorothy J.; Lemoine, Daniel E.; Leps, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    Used quantitative electroencephalogram analysis to examine difference in brain wave activity of attention deficit disorders (ADD) with and without hyperactivity while completing a computerized task measuring a variety of constructs associated with attention and impulsivity. Found that although behavioral ratings confirmed differential…

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with vocal fold nodules.

    PubMed

    Erdur, Omer; Herguner, Arzu; Ozturk, Kayhan; Kibar, Ertugrul; Elsurer, Cagdas; Bozkurt, Mete Kaan; Herguner, Sabri

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with vocal fold nodules (VNs). Study group (SG) included children between 4 and 12 years. As a control group (CG), children between 4 and 12 years without VNs were included in the study. Parents of the participants completed the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short Form (CPRS-RS) which was used to analyze the symptoms of ADHD. Forty-five children (30 boys and 15 girls) with VNs and 45 controls (30 boys and 15 girls) were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the CPRS-RS Hyperactivity and Oppositional Subscales were significantly higher in the SG than the CG (p < .05), after controlling the effects of age and gender. Our findings suggest associations between VNs and hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors in children. Clinicians should be aware of ADHD symptoms in children with VNs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: dietary and nutritional treatments.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L Eugene; Hurt, Elizabeth; Lofthouse, Nicholas

    2013-07-01

    Dozens of complementary and alternative treatments have been advocated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Some verge into standard treatment of specific cases. Most do not have conclusive evidence of effectiveness or safety for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but some have enough evidence and are safe, easy, cheap, and sensible enough that individual patient trials can be justified. There is a need to flesh out the evidence base, which could be done cost effectively for supplements or off-label agents that are amenable to placebo control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai--a school based study.

    PubMed

    Ajinkya, Shaunak; Kaur, Darpan; Gursale, Akshay; Jadhav, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    To study the prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai. One hundred twenty two children including both boys and girls aged between 6 y and 11 y were selected from a school at Navi Mumbai and their parents were given the National Innovative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to be filled and returned, which was subsequently analyzed using SPSS (version 16). The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was 12.3 % with boy to girl ratio of 3:2. It was more prevalent in nuclear type of family and in families where a single parent was working especially where the father was the sole breadwinner and doing semi-skilled or unskilled type of work. No significant relation was found between the numbers of work-related hours when parents were away from children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is prevalent in the primary school-going population of Navi Mumbai, especially in boys. The increased prevalence in nuclear families and families with single working parent should further be explored. Further studies with larger sample size and longer period of follow up may be recommended. The study also recommends screening of school children for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for early diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD symptoms may not be as clear as ADHD symptoms in children. In adults, hyperactivity may decrease, but struggles with ... similar to treatment for childhood ADHD, though some ADHD medications approved for children are not approved for adult use. Adult ADHD ...

  14. Helping Children and Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services. Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder www.chadd.org Tel: 301.306.7070 Federation ... information, contact: 4 Helping Children and Youth With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care Attention -Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder Helping ...

  15. Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Elena; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; van Hulzen, Kimm J.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. Method We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype. Results In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusions The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties. PMID:27768717

  16. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or bipolar disorder in childhood?].

    PubMed

    Lazaratou, H

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Even though a strict definition of this entity is constantly sought, ADHD is an often redefined and reconceptualized syndrome. Epidemiological studies show large differences in the incidence, pointing out that the effort of actual taxonomic systems to offer objective diagnostic criteria have not yielded substantial results. Bipolar Disorder (BD) with onset in childhood is distinguished from the adult form by the scarcity of affective symptoms. Very often, neither depressive mood, nor hypomanic euphoria are in the front line being covered by irritability with crises of violence. Children or adolescents have consecutive cycles, which include brief episodes of depressive, hypomanic, manic or mixed periods without free intervals. There was a delay in the recognition of this clinical picture. Τhe diagnostic criteria in the actual taxonomic systems are not separated from those of adults and according to some studies the disorder is under diagnosed mainly in European countries. The contemporary literature deals largely with the relationship ADHD - BD in young people because the two disorders share the same clinical picture with slight variations. Τhe differential diagnosis in favor of BD is mainly based on the presence of affective disorders in the family. The main questions raised are whether there is comorbidity, whether ADHD is overdiagnosed against BD or whether ADHD represents a prodromal manifestation of early onset BD. Children with comorbid ADHD and BD tend to express mostly a stimulant phenotype with a chronic course and have higher rates of antisocial conduct disorder. This particular phenotype suggests a symptomatic continuum between ADHD and early onset BD which is possibly responsible for the difficulties met in differential diagnosis and differences in the rates of

  17. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD.

  19. [Pre- and perinatal risk factors in autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Johanna C; Cholemkery, Hannah; Medda, Juliane; Freitag, Christine M

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate the relevance of pre- and perinatal risk factors for the genesis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. This study compares potential risk factors in a clinical sample of children with ADHD, ASD, the combination of both diseases, ADHD and oppositional defiant or conduct disorder (ADHD & ODD/CD) and examined whether the existence of additional risk factors promotes the occurrence of combined diseases. We compared the pre- and perinatal risk factors of 341 patients (299 boys, 42 girls) from a clinical population, differentiating between children with ADHD (n=80), ASD (n=122), ADHD & ASD (n=55), or ADHD & ODD/CD (n=84). We observed a higher rate of maternal smoking, a higher rate of migration, and lower parental education among the children with ADHD & ODD/CD compared to those with ASD or ADHD. The rate of migration background was higher among the children with ASD compared to children with ADHD. Miscarriage was a specific risk factor for ADHD & ASD. Numerous risk factors described in epidemiological studies occurred only rarely in our clinical sample. The distribution of most risk factors was comparable between the examined diseases.

  20. Early Development of Comorbidity Between Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Breaux, Rosanna P.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates two prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. PMID:26854502

  1. Does reward frequency or magnitude drive reinforcement-learning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Luman, Marjolein; Van Meel, Catharina S; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A; Geurts, Hilde M

    2009-08-15

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show an impaired ability to use feedback in the context of learning. A stimulus-response learning task was used to investigate whether (1) children with ADHD displayed flatter learning curves, (2) reinforcement-learning in ADHD was sensitive to either reward frequency, magnitude, or both, and (3) altered sensitivity to reward was specific to ADHD or would co-occur in a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Performance of 23 boys with ADHD was compared with that of 30 normal controls (NCs) and 21 boys with ASD, all aged 8-12. Rewards were delivered contingent on performance and varied both in frequency (low, high) and magnitude (small, large). The findings showed that, although learning rates were comparable across groups, both clinical groups committed more errors than NCs. In contrast to the NC boys, boys with ADHD were unaffected by frequency and magnitude of reward. The NC group and, to some extent, the ASD group showed improved performance, when rewards were delivered infrequently versus frequently. Children with ADHD as well as children with ASD displayed difficulties in stimulus-response coupling that were independent of motivational modulations. Possibly, these deficits are related to abnormal reinforcement expectancy.

  2. Examining the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders: A familial risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Yule, Amy M; Martelon, MaryKate; Faraone, Stephen V; Carrellas, Nicholas; Wilens, Timothy E; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to use familial risk analysis to examine the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) attending to sex effects and the specificity of alcohol and drug use disorder risks. Subjects were derived from two longitudinal case-control family studies of probands aged 6-17 years with and without DSM-III-R ADHD of both sexes and their first degree relatives followed from childhood onto young adult years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate rates of ADHD and SUDs (any SUD, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence). Logistic regression was used to test both co-segregation and assortative mating. Our sample included 404 probands (ADHD: 112 boys and 96 girls; Control: 105 boys and 91 girls) and their 1336 relatives. SUDs in probands increased the risk for SUDs in relatives irrespective of ADHD status. The risk for dependence to drug or alcohol in relatives was non-specific. There was evidence that even in the absence of a SUD in the proband, ADHD by itself increased the risk of SUDs in relatives. Proband sex did not moderate the familial relationship between ADHD and SUDs. There was evidence of co-segregation between ADHD and SUD. Findings indicate that various independent pathways are involved in the transmission of SUD in ADHD and that these risks were not moderated by proband sex. ADHD children and siblings should benefit from preventive and early intervention strategies to decrease their elevated risk for developing a SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Harstad, Elizabeth; Levy, Sharon

    2014-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders are inextricably intertwined. Children with ADHD are more likely than peers to develop substance use disorders. Treatment with stimulants may reduce the risk of substance use disorders, but stimulants are a class of medication with significant abuse and diversion potential. The objectives of this clinical report were to present practical strategies for reducing the risk of substance use disorders in patients with ADHD and suggestions for safe stimulant prescribing. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Peer Victimization in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Mak, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior…

  5. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  6. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Participating in Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Justice, Michael J.; Rosko, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The participation of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of children with ADHD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these children in the recess setting. Initially, the…

  7. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  8. A Continuing Education Program on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Ron; And Others

    This manual and accompanying videotape are intended to be used as a continuing education program to enhance the skills of special and general educators in serving children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The video can also be used alone to provide a general overview of issues related to children with attention deficit…

  9. The Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramond, Bonnie

    This study examined the incidence of creativity among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the incidence of ADHD among individuals who are highly creative. The ADHD group consisted of 34 students, aged 6 to 15. The highly creative group consisted of 76 participants, ages 13 to 15, from the Torrance Creative Scholars…

  10. DSM-5 further inflates attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-06-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmful consequences of further expansion of this already broad, defined, and inflated DSM category.

  11. Assessment and Classification of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; Rothlind, Johannes

    1991-01-01

    Issues concerning evaluation, assessment, and classification of Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorders (ADHD) are discussed. The diagnosis of ADHD should be a best-estimate diagnosis, based on a behavioral assessment strategy with multimethod assessment. The selection and use of assessment techniques are discussed. (SLD)

  12. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  13. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Symptoms of ADHD include hyperactivity, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, and inattention. While the biological pathways leading to ADHD are not clearly delineated, a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for the disorder are recognized. In the early 1970s, research conducted by Dr. Benjamin Feingold found that when hyperactive children were given a diet free of artificial food additives and dyes, symptoms of hyperactivity were reduced. While some clinical studies supported these findings, more rigorous empirical studies conducted over the next 20 years were less positive. As a result, research on the role of food additives in contributing to ADHD waned. In recent years, however, interest in this area has revived. In response to more recent research and public petitions, in December 2009 the British government requested that food manufacturers remove most artificial food dyes from their products. While these strictures could have positive effects on behavior, the removal of food dyes is not a panacea for ADHD, which is a multifaceted disorder with both biological and environmental underpinnings.

  14. Teens' Perceptions about Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipp, Diana K.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study describes teens' perceptions about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and medications. The four modes of adaptation of the Roy Adaptation Model were the framework for this study. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 15 high school teens aged 14-17 with parent-reported AD/HD. An inductive…

  15. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  16. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  17. Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany M.; Quintino, Olga; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Koslovsky, Gabrielle

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-eight adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were provided either massage therapy or relaxation therapy for 10 consecutive school days. The massage therapy group, but not the relaxation therapy group, self-rated as happier, and observers rated them as fidgeting less following the sessions. Teachers reported more time on…

  18. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  19. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  20. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  1. Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany M.; Quintino, Olga; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Koslovsky, Gabrielle

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-eight adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were provided either massage therapy or relaxation therapy for 10 consecutive school days. The massage therapy group, but not the relaxation therapy group, self-rated as happier, and observers rated them as fidgeting less following the sessions. Teachers reported more time on…

  2. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  3. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  4. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  5. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effective Methods for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on two facets of treatment for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: educational accommodations and interventions for promoting appropriate behavior. It provides information on environmental adaptations, guidelines for effective class rules, implementing response cost, levels of time out, implementing a token…

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Early Identification Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewell, Rebecca R.

    A major aim of this study was to determine if Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) type behaviors observed at the age of 30 months in low birth weight children are predictive of ADHD and school difficulties at 5 and 8 years of age. Three major questions were addressed: (1) Do children who exhibit ADHD characteristics at 30 months differ…

  8. The Neurological Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Shirley; Bolan, Morna; Burton, Michael; Snyder, Sherry; Pasterczyk-Seabolt, Claire; Martin, Don

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examines the role of neurochemical stimulation and signs of neurological deficits. Describes the chemical action of drugs used to treat ADHD, along with cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects, and side effects. Elaborates on drug treatment and basic behavior modification…

  9. Genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder contributes to neurodevelopmental traits in the general population.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2014-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population. Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ≥ 1) ADHD item (n = 3623). Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ≥ 1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003). These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapidly evolving hypopituitarism in a boy with multiple autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Jevalikar, Ganesh; Wong, Sze Choong; Zacharin, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    A 10-year-old boy with acute onset cranial diabetes insipidus and multiple autoimmune disorders had evolving panhypopituitarism, thought to be due to autoimmune hypophysitis. Over 18 months, a dramatic clinical course with progressive hypopituitarism and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus was evident. Serial brain imaging showed changes suggestive of germinoma.

  11. The prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iran: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chimeh, Narges; Najafi, Mostafa; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi-Nouraie, Reza; Rahimi-Mvaghar, Afarin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. Children with ADHD may experience significant functional problems. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of ADHD and its subtypes in Iran. Methods Pubmed, ISI web of science, psychinfo, Iranpsych, Iranmedex, Irandoc were searched. Irandoc, Iranmedex and Iranpsych are Iranian databases of which the last one is especially for psychiatry and psychology literature. Inclusion criteria were: conducting studies by random sampling, using valid instruments to assess ADHD diagnosis or symptoms,and presenting a prevalence of ADHD or attention deficit and / or hyperactivity symptoms. Results After quality assessment, 16 studies were accepted. Their estimation of prevalence was different as different scales were used. Hyperactive type was more prevalent in boys, and inattentive type was more prevalent in girls. Conclusion Being aware of the epidemiology of ADHD in Iran helps us to make improvements in planning the allocation of funds for mental health services. Using one instrument in studying the prevalence of ADHD in a population may lead to more precise estimations. PMID:22952498

  12. Genetic aspects in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, O; Friedel, S; Schimmelmann, B G; Hinney, A; Hebebrand, J

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents with high heritability. Molecular genetic findings support the thesis that dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic neurotransmission pathways account for the etiology of this complex disease. Genetic research comprises formal genetic studies, candidate gene studies, linkage analyses, and recently large-scale genome wide association studies, gene-environement interaction studies, and pharmacogenetics. This article comprehensively reviews the latest findings on the genetics of ADHD.

  13. Communication issues in Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Giddan, J J

    1991-01-01

    Children with Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) evidence a variety of pragmatic deficits and are particularly at risk for other speech and language disorders. Speech and language pathologists in educational settings have the special expertise needed for interpretation and treatment of communication issues associated with ADHD. They should contribute more directly to the multi-modality treatment team in creating management programs for these children.

  14. [Memory disorders and attention deficit modulation in child hyperactivity].

    PubMed

    Cabanyes, J; Polaino-Lorente, A; Avila, C; Moreno, C

    1991-01-01

    The infantile hyperactivity is a disorder of great significance due to its remarkable after-effects on the family, the school and the individual. According to strict diagnostic criteria the study of the memory in these children who present a well defined disorder of the attention, has been planned. The data show that the mnemonic capacity is primarily kept. However the nuclear problem is an attention deficit.

  15. Basal ganglia structure in Tourette's disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Forde, Natalie J; Zwiers, Marcel P; Naaijen, Jilly; Akkermans, Sophie E A; Openneer, Thaira J C; Visscher, Frank; Dietrich, Andrea; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2017-04-01

    Tourette's disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often co-occur and have both been associated with structural variation of the basal ganglia. However, findings are inconsistent and comorbidity is often neglected. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from children (n = 141, 8 to 12 years) with Tourette's disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and controls were processed with the Oxford Centre for Functional MRI [Magnetic resonance imaging] of the Brain (FMRIB) integrated registration and segmentation tool to determine basal ganglia nuclei volume and shape. Across all participants, basal ganglia nuclei volume and shape were estimated in relation to Tourette's disorder (categorical), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity (continuous across all participants), and their interaction. The analysis revealed no differences in basal ganglia nuclei volumes or shape between children with and without Tourette's disorder, no association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity, and no interaction between the two. We found no evidence that Tourette's disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity, or a combination thereof are associated with structural variation of the basal ganglia in 8- to 12-year-old patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: a therapeutic option

    PubMed Central

    Topczewski, Abram

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of a therapeutic regimen to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients. Methods A total of 140 patients initially underwent physical, neurological and laboratory evaluation. Thereafter, treatment was initiated with a compounding product consisting of a tricyclic antidepressant and an anxiolytic. Results The response was positive in 71.43% of patients in controlling hyperactivity and improving dispersion and attention deficit. Conclusion The therapeutic regimen utilized proved to be an effective therapeutic alternative, especially for patients who do not adapt to psychostimulant drugs. PMID:25295451

  17. Sex-Based Dissociation of White Matter Microstructure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Peterson, Daniel J; Rosch, Keri S; Crocetti, Deana; Mori, Susumu; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism is evident in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including subtype prevalence, adverse outcomes, and neural phenotype. Neurobiological studies of ADHD suggest that boys show more abnormalities in motor and premotor structure and function, whereas girls differ from typically developing (TD) peers in prefrontal circuitry. We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to identify ADHD-related sex-specific differences in motor/premotor and prefrontal white matter (WM) microstructure in children. DTI estimated differences in WM microstructure among 120 children 8 to 12 years of age, 60 with ADHD (30 boys and 30 girls) and 60 controls (30 boys and 30 girls), matched on age, IQ, and handedness. Effects of diagnosis and sex on fractional anisotropy (FA) were assessed in motor/premotor and prefrontal regions. Group differences in FA and associations with response control (e.g., reaction time variability [CVRT] and commission error rate) were examined separately within sex. Sex-by-diagnosis interactions were observed for FA in primary motor (M1) and medial orbitofrontal (MOFC) cortex. Post hoc tests revealed that boys with ADHD showed bilateral reductions in FA within M1, compared with TD peers; in contrast, girls with ADHD showed higher FA bilaterally within MOFC. Decreased M1 FA was associated with higher CVRT in boys and higher commission error rates in girls. For MOFC, lower FA was associated with greater CVRT and commission error rates across all participants with ADHD. ADHD affects the white matter of boys and girls differently; boys appear to be more affected in regions responsible for control of basic actions, whereas girls show more abnormalities in regions responsible for higher-level, top-down control. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosis and management of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert E; Kurlansik, Stuart L

    2012-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood can persist into adulthood in at least 30 percent of patients, with 3 to 4 percent of adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., diagnostic criteria. A number of conditions, such as thyroid disease, mood disorders, and substance use disorders, have symptoms similar to those of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Steroids, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, caffeine, and nicotine also can have adverse effects that mimic attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Proper diagnosis and treatment can improve daily functioning. Diagnosis relies on a thorough clinical history, supported by a number of rating scales that take five to 20 minutes to complete, depending on the scale. Clinical guidelines recommend stimulants and the nonstimulant atomoxetine as first-line treatments, followed by antidepressants. Cognitive behavior therapy has also been shown to be helpful as adjunctive treatment with medication. For adults with coexisting depression, the combination of an antidepressant and stimulants has been shown to be safe and effective. To monitor for misuse or diversion of stimulants, family physicians should consider using a controlled substances agreement and random urine drug screening in addition to regular follow-up visits.

  19. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  20. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  1. Comorbidity in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Cumyn, Lucy; French, Lisa; Hechtman, Lily

    2009-10-01

    To examine the prevalence of comorbid Axis I (current and lifetime) and II disorders in adult men and women with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Adult patients (n = 447; 266 men, 181 women) received comprehensive assessments for ADHD and Axis I and II disorders. Adults were aged between 17 and 74 years. Among the patients diagnosed with ADHD (n = 335), there were those with ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) (n = 199), hyperactive-impulsive subtype (ADHD-H) (n = 24), or combined ADHD subtype (ADHD-C) (n = 112). Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between adults with and without ADHD on Axis I and II disorders. Adults with ADHD, compared with those without ADHD, had higher rates of Axis I (46.9% and 27.31%) and Axis II (50.7% and 38.2%) disorders. Adults with ADHD-C were more likely to have mood disorder, anxiety, conduct disorder, and substance use disorder as well as obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, passive-aggressive personality disorder, depressive personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Men with ADHD were more likely to have antisocial personality disorder and had higher rates of current drug abuse than women with ADHD. Women with ADHD had higher rates of past and current panic disorder, and past anorexia and bulimia. Women with ADHD were more likely to have BPD than men with ADHD. Adults with ADHD have very high rates of comorbid Axis I and II disorders, with differences found between men and women on certain comorbid disorders.

  2. Anxiety Disorders Comorbidity in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    GÜMÜŞ, Yusuf Yasin; ÇAKIN MEMİK, Nursu; AĞAOĞLU, Belma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of comorbidity of anxiety disorders (AD) among patients newly diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to compare symptom severity of ADHD and sociodemographic parameters between patients with and without AD. Methods Among 1683 children and adolescents admitted to Kocaeli University Medical Faculty, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Outpatient Clinic, 447 children and adolescents, who were preliminarily diagnosed as ADHD by clinical interview based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), were invited to participate in the second phase of the study. Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia, Present and Lifetime-Turkish Version were applied to children and adolescents with ADHD and one of their parents to support the diagnoses of both ADHD and AD. Mothers, fathers, and teachers of the children were asked to complete DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale. Results Our study group comprised 170 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD of whom 19.4% were girls and 80.6% were boys; 27.6% of patients diagnosed with ADHD showed AD comorbidity. Age of the parents at birth of the patients with AD was significantly lower than that of patients without AD. Conclusion In line with the previous studies, the comorbidity rate of AD was found to be higher among patients with ADHD than general population and clinical sample without ADHD. The possibility of comorbidity of AD in patients with ADHD should be considered because higher rates of AD are observed in ADHD and comorbidities of AD.

  3. Gene-environment interactions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ficks, Courtney A; Waldman, Irwin D

    2009-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and/or hyperactivity in children and adults. Putative environmental risk factors for ADHD include toxin and prenatal smoke exposure, low socioeconomic status, and parental marital instability and discord. Genetic associations with ADHD have been found in the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems, but findings are inconsistent across studies. Herein, we review studies of gene-environment interactions for ADHD to better understand how genetic and environmental risk factors may contribute to the disorder in a nonindependent fashion, which may account in part for the inconsistent findings on genetic associations. Although evidence of interactions between prenatal substance exposure and the dopamine genes DAT1 and DRD4 was found, findings across studies have been mixed. We discuss these findings and the future directions and limitations of current gene-environment research.

  4. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: pharmacological intervention].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria; López-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-09-06

    The cardinal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness--are not specific and may be found in the general population and in other disorders. These symptoms are present in over 50% of patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It thus seems quite clear that both problems can coexist in these patients. The usual pharmacological treatments for ADHD, methylphenidate and atomoxetine, appear to be useful in reducing the above-mentioned symptoms in patients with ADHD and ASD. Effectiveness seems to be lower in patients with ASD and tolerance is slightly poorer. This may be conditioned by a number of variables, including: the complexity of ASD, association with mental retardation, polypharmacotherapy, and so on. Given the long-term tolerance profile of methylphenidate and atomoxetine, these treatments appear to be a good alternative with which to improve the problems of attention and self-control these patients have. Nevertheless, further controlled studies are needed to confirm this proposition.

  5. Sibling sex ratio of boys with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Green, R; Coates, S; Zuger, B; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Zecca, G M; Lertora, V; Money, J; Hahn-Burke, S; Bradley, S J; Blanchard, R

    1997-07-01

    Sibling sex ratio (the ratio of brothers to sisters) was calculated for 444 boys with gender identity disorder (or with behaviors consistent with this diagnosis). The probands were ascertained from several researchers with expertise with this disorder and from the English language case report literature between 1938 and 1995. Among the probands with at least one sibling (N = 333), the results showed that boys with gender identity disorder had a significant excess of brothers to sisters, 131.1:100, when compared with the expected secondary sex ratio of 106:100. The excess of brothers replicated a previous study by Blanchard, Zucker, Bradley, and Hume (1995), in which the sibling sex ratio was 140.6:100. Further analyses showed that the probands were born later relative to their brothers than they were relative to their sisters. These findings are amenable to several psychosocial and biological explanations, which require further investigation.

  6. Role of neurotrophic factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-11-30

    Neurotrophins (NTs), a family of proteins including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4, are essential for neural growth, survival, and differentiation, and are therefore crucial for brain development. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of the disorder, although the precise causes of ADHD have not yet been identified. In this review, we assess the role of NTs in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Preclinical evidence indicates that BDNF knockout mice are hyperactive, and an ADHD rodent model exhibited decreased cerebral BDNF levels. Several lines of evidence from clinical studies, including blood level and genetic studies, have suggested that NTs are involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD and in the mechanism of biological treatments for ADHD. Future directions for research are proposed, such as using blood NTs as ADHD biomarkers, optimizing NT genetic studies in ADHD, considering NTs as a link between ADHD and other comorbid mental disorders, and investigating methods for optimally modulating NT signaling to discover novel therapeutics for treating ADHD.

  7. Psychiatric comorbidities of adults with early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the psychiatric comorbidities in adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a function of recalled symptom onset before and after the age of 7 years and whether the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were associated with psychiatric comorbidities. In all, 214 adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 174 non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls (aged 17-40 years) received psychiatric interviews to confirm their previous and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder status and other psychiatric diagnoses. Demographics and risks of lifetime psychiatric disorders were compared among three groups: (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset <7 years (early-onset); (2) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset between 7 and 12 years (late-onset) and (3) non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls. We also tested the effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on the risk of later psychiatric comorbidities by Cox regression analyses. Regardless of the age of onset, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. There were similar comorbid patterns between early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, increased severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was associated with higher risks of oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dysthymia and sleep disorder but not major depression, which was associated with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Our findings suggest that elevating the threshold of age of onset to 12 years in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  8. Neurological soft signs in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Patankar, V. C.; Sangle, J. P.; Shah, Henal R.; Dave, M.; Kamath, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with wide repercussions. Since it is etiologically related to delayed maturation, neurological soft signs (NSS) could be a tool to assess this. Further the correlation of NSS with severity and type of ADHD and presence of Specific Learning Disability (SLD) would give further insight into it. Aims: To study neurological soft signs and risk factors (type, mode of delivery, and milestones) in children with ADHD and to correlate NSS with type and severity of ADHD and with co-morbid Specific Learning Disability. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in Child care services of a tertiary teaching urban hospital. It was a cross-sectional single interview study. Materials and Methods: 52 consecutive children diagnosed as having ADHD were assessed for the presence of neurological soft signs using Revised Physical and Neurological Examination soft Signs scale (PANESS). The ADHD was rated by parents using ADHD parent rating scale. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed using the chi-squared test and Pearson's co-relational analysis. Results and Conclusions: Neurological soft signs are present in 84% of children. They are equally present in both the inattentive-hyperactive and impulsive-hyperactive types of ADHD. The presence of neurological soft signs in ADHD are independent of the presence of co-morbid SLD. Dysrrhythmias and overflow with gait were typically seen for impulsive-hyperactive type and higher severity of ADHD is related to more errors. PMID:22988324

  9. Rodent models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sagvolden, Terje; Russell, Vivienne A; Aase, Heidi; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Farshbaf, Mehdi

    2005-06-01

    An ideal animal model should be similar to the disorder it models in terms of etiology, biochemistry, symptomatology, and treatment. Animal models provide several advantages over clinical research: simpler nervous systems, easily interpreted behaviors, genetic homogeneity, easily controlled environment, and a greater variety of interventions. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of childhood onset that is characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. Its diagnosis is behaviorally based; therefore, the validation of an ADHD model must be based in behavior. An ADHD model must mimic the fundamental behavioral characteristics of ADHD (face validity), conform to a theoretical rationale for ADHD (construct validity), and predict aspects of ADHD behavior, genetics, and neurobiology previously uncharted in clinical settings (predictive validity). Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fulfill many of the validation criteria and compare well with clinical cases of ADHD. Poor performers in the five-choice serial reaction time task and Naples high-excitability rats (NHE) are useful models for attention-deficit disorder. Other animal models either focus on the less important symptom of hyperactivity and might be of limited value in ADHD research or are produced in ways that would not lead to a clinical diagnosis of ADHD in humans, even if ADHD-like behavior is displayed.

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a selective overview.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multifactorial and clinically heterogeneous disorder that is associated with tremendous financial burden, stress to families, and adverse academic and vocational outcomes. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is highly prevalent in children worldwide, and the prevalence of this disorder in adults is increasingly recognized. Studies of adults with a diagnosis of childhood-onset ADHD indicate that clinical correlates--demographic, psychosocial, psychiatric, and cognitive features--mirror findings among children with ADHD. Predictors of persistence of ADHD include family history of the disorder, psychiatric comorbidity, and psychosocial adversity. Family studies of ADHD have consistently supported its strong familial nature. Psychiatric disorders comorbid with childhood ADHD include oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, whereas mood and anxiety disorders are comorbid with ADHD in both children and adults. Pregnancy and delivery complications, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and adverse family environment variables are considered important risk factors for ADHD. The etiology of ADHD has not been clearly identified, although evidence supports neurobiologic and genetic origins. Structural and functional imaging studies suggest that dysfunction in the fronto-subcortical pathways, as well as imbalances in the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems, contribute to the pathophysiology of ADHD. Medication with dopaminergic and noradrenergic activity seems to reduce ADHD symptoms by blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. Such alterations in dopaminergic and noradrenergic function are apparently necessary for the clinical efficacy of pharmacologic treatments of ADHD.

  11. Sleep in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, L M; Gozal, D

    2004-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychological disorders in children. Sleep disturbances are also very prevalent among the pediatric age range and can lead to substantial behavioral and cognitive consequences that may mimic ADHD. Conversely, children with ADHD may suffer from significant sleep disturbances that may originate in the biochemical disturbances that underlie their deficits in executive function and attention. This review addresses both these issues and provides a concise yet timely assessment of the potential links between sleep disorders and ADHD.

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefacta who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during psychiatric evaluation. Parental expectations and sibling rivalry were further increasing the stress of the index child. Appropriate diagnosis and management lead to treatment compliance and functional improvement in the child. PMID:27195043

  13. Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont, Theodore; Seifert, David

    1976-01-01

    Symptoms of hyperactivity and possible relationships of condition to various hereditary and physical factors are examined. Various methods of dealing with the problem are presented, and the need to provide hyperactive children with appropriate outlets of activity is emphasized. (RW)

  14. Motor examination in children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Asperger Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Augusto; D'Agati, Elisa; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Casarelli, Livia; Curatolo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating whether motor skills could differentiate drug-naive subjects with two neurodevelopmental disorders: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Asperger Syndrome (AS). Thirty-six boys (12 with ADHD, 12 with AS and 12 with typical development) aged 8-12 were evaluated using the Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs. Three primary outcome variables were obtained as follows: (i) total speed of timed activities, (ii) total overflow and (iii) total dysrhythmia. Children with AS performed more slowly than those with ADHD and healthy children independently of age and IQ. Total dysrhythmia differentiates ADHD and AS children from controls. Dysfunction of the fronto-striatal-cerebellar networks related to motor control could be the physiopathological basis of the reported findings. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Ungual fibroma in 12-year-old boy with hypomelanotic macules, intellectual disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder—possible tuberous sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Glavan, Nedeljka; Ljubičić-Bistrović, Ivana; Grahovac, Blaženka; Traven, Luka; Sasso, Anton; Jonjić, Nives

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of a 12-year-old boy with intellectual disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, who came to surgery for an examination due to a minor bulge on the left thumb, which had been growing for the previous month. His mother denied any trauma. Methods: After the removal of the clinically ambiguous bulge and a pathohistological confirmation that it was a periungual fibroma, complete patient analysis was performed due to the presence of hypomelanotic macules and a suspected tuberous sclerosis. Results: Considering the presence of hypomelanotic macules, as one of the main criteria, possible TS diagnosis was set. Conclusion: Early detection of the symptoms of TS enables a timely provision of protocols for further patient monitoring, which affects the patient’s morbidity and mortality. PMID:27621808

  16. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  17. The Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Arabic Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hariri, Ruaa Osama

    2016-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficiency/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) often have co-existing learning disabilities and developmental weaknesses or delays in some areas including speech (Rief, 2005). Seeing that phonological disorders include articulation errors and other forms of speech disorders, studies pertaining to children with ADHD symptoms who…

  18. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  19. Test of Alternative Hypotheses Explaining the Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Willcutt, Erik G.; Hartman, Christie A.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    There is significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The conclusions of studies that examined the causes of comorbidity between ADHD and CD conflict, with some researchers finding support for the three independent disorders model and others finding support for the correlated risk…

  20. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  1. Test of Alternative Hypotheses Explaining the Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Willcutt, Erik G.; Hartman, Christie A.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    There is significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The conclusions of studies that examined the causes of comorbidity between ADHD and CD conflict, with some researchers finding support for the three independent disorders model and others finding support for the correlated risk…

  2. Clinical Precursors of Adolescent Conduct Disorder in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittinger, Naureen S.; Langley, Kate; Fowler, Tom A.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine precursors of adolescent conduct disorder (CD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), investigating the significance of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and ADHD. Method: A total of 151 children with ADHD recruited from child psychiatric and pediatric clinics were assessed through…

  3. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  6. Parent Perceived Impact of Spaniard Boys' and Girls' Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Oppositional Defiant Behaviors on Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Puente, Anibal; Martinez, Jose V.; Cumba, Eduardo; Scandar, Ruben O.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the impact of inattention, hyperactivity, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors and gender on family life. Method: We created scales for the Family Experiences Inventory (FEI) in a nonclinical sample of Spaniard families with children ages 6 to 12 years (N = 369) and analyzed the perceived impact of these…

  7. [Epidemiological study on symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavior disorders in public schools of Florianopolis/SC using the EDAH].

    PubMed

    Poeta, Lisiane Schilling; Rosa Neto, Francisco

    2004-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pathology characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The purpose of this article is to conduct an epidemiological study on symptoms of ADHA and behavior disorders in public schools of Florianopolis/SC. The study involved 1,898 students (1,001 males and 897 females) enrolled in five public schools of Florianopolis, from the 1st up to the 4th grades, aged 6 to 12. The instrument used was the EDAH, filled out by teachers and parents, which classifies children with predominance of the following symptoms: hyperactivity, attention deficit, conduct disorder, hyperactivity with attention deficit and ADHD associated with conduct disorder (global). Of the 1,898 students, 95 (5%) showed symptoms of ADHA associated with behavioral disorders. Regarding gender, the prevalence was higher in boys, in a 3:1 ratio. Our data is in accordance with the literature. The distribution of the ADHD subtypes by gender is similar to the mentioned literature.

  8. Treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kutcher, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral development disorder affecting an estimated 6% to 9% of youth in the United States. The typical manifestations of ADHD, attention difficulties and hyperactivity, cause impairment in social and academic functioning, while common comorbid conditions can add significantly to the disease burden. Diagnosing ADHD requires a comprehensive clinical approach. Many medications have been shown to provide benefit for patients with ADHD, and a positive response to medication can be an important factor in clarifying the diagnosis. Medical therapy is of particular interest when treating athletes, as competitive bodies ban many treatment options. This review provides the sports medicine provider with a framework for the treatment of ADHD in the athlete.

  9. [Psychophysiological disturbances in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Glushchenko, V V

    2010-01-01

    We have studied 128 adolescents, aged 15-16 years, with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using clinico-psychopathological, psychometric and electroencephalographic methods. Taking into account the age dynamics, the following components of ADHD have been singled out: motor (impulsivity-hyperactivity), subjective-cognitive (attention deficit) and somato-autonomic. The significance of subjective-cognitive disturbances, along with neurophysiological dysfunction, in the ADHD pathogenesis has been proved. Quantitative (productivity deficit) and qualitative (concentration deficit) disorders have been assessed. Author substantiated the deficit of emotional-motivational self-regulation measured by the M. Luscher test and the Self-assessment scale. The specific for ADHD pattern of alpha-rhythm reactivity has been found in EEG.

  10. Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Comments on Joseph's review of the genetics of attention deficit disorder, demonstrating errors of scientific logic and oversight of relevant research in Joseph's argument. Argues for the validity of twin studies in supporting a genetic link for ADHD and for the complementary role of nature and nurture in the etiology of the disorder. (JPB)

  11. Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Comments on Joseph's review of the genetics of attention deficit disorder, demonstrating errors of scientific logic and oversight of relevant research in Joseph's argument. Argues for the validity of twin studies in supporting a genetic link for ADHD and for the complementary role of nature and nurture in the etiology of the disorder. (JPB)

  12. Emotion Regulation in Adolescent Males with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Testing the Effects of Comorbid Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Northover, Clare; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to emotion dysregulation, few studies have experimentally investigated this whilst controlling for the effects of comorbid conduct disorder (CD). Economic decision-making games that assess how individuals respond to offers varying in fairness have been used to study emotion regulation. The present study compared adolescent boys with ADHD (n = 90), ADHD + CD (n = 94) and typical controls (n = 47) on the Ultimatum Game and examined the contribution of ADHD and CD symptom scores and callous and unemotional traits to acceptance levels of unfair offers. There were no significant differences in acceptance rates of fair and highly unfair offers between groups, and only boys with ADHD did not significantly differ from the controls. However, the subgroup of boys with ADHD and additional high levels of aggressive CD symptoms rejected significantly more ambiguous (i.e., moderately unfair) offers than any other subgroup, suggesting impaired emotion regulation in those with ADHD and aggressive CD. Correlations within the CD group showed that the rejection rate to moderately unfair offers was predicted by aggressive CD symptom severity, but not callous and unemotional traits. These findings highlight the fact that ADHD is a heterogeneous condition from an emotion regulation point of view. PMID:26371048

  13. [Heritability and genetic comorbidity of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity].

    PubMed

    Puddu, Giannina; Rothhammer, Paula; Carrasco, Ximena; Aboitiz, Francisco; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    This review aims to summarize information about the genetic etiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), with particular reference to the contributions of our research group. We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A high genetic comorbidity was found between E and BD (46%), a moderate comorbidity between MDD and E, MDD and BD and MDD and ADHD (18%, 22% and 10% respectively) and a low comorbidity between E and ASD (2.5%). Furthermore, we show evidence concerning the genetic determination of psychiatric diseases, which is significantly lower when it is estimated from genome-wide SNP´s rather than using traditional quantitative genetic methodology (ADHD = E = 23%, BD = 25%, MDD = 21% and ASD = 17%). From an evolutionary perspective, we suggest that behavioral traits such as hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, which play a role in ADHD and perhaps also other hereditary traits which are part of major psychiatric disorders, could have had a high adaptive value during the early stages of the evolution of Homo sapiens. However, they became progressively less adaptive and definitively disadvantageous, to the extreme that they are involved in frequently diagnosed major psychiatric disorders.

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: overdiagnosed or diagnoses missed?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is about 5% of the child population, and it carries risks for mental health, educational and personal dysfunction, antisociality and death. The diagnosis in practice is made with remarkable differences in frequency between nations. Low rates in the UK, by comparison with research estimates, suggest that the condition may often be missed in clinical practice; the reasons are considered.

  15. Hyperactive Somatostatin Interneurons Contribute to Excitotoxicity in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bo; Schroeder, David; Zhang, Zhong-wei; Cox, Gregory A.; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are overlapping neurodegenerative disorders whose pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Here using TDP-43A315T mice, an ALS and FTD model with profound cortical pathology, we demonstrated that hyperactive somatostatin interneurons disinhibited layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5-PN) and contributed to their excitotoxicity. Focal ablation of somatostatin interneurons efficiently restored normal excitability of L5-PN and alleviated neurodegeneration, suggesting a novel therapeutic target for ALS and FTD. PMID:26900927

  16. Inattention and Hyperactivity Predict Alterations in Specific Neural Circuits among 6-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Tuan, Ta Anh; Zhong, Jidan; Meaney, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of inattention and hyperactivity in preschoolers is highly dependent upon parental reports. Such reports are compromised by parental attitudes and mental health. Our study aimed to examine associations of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity from maternal reports on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) with brain…

  17. A Social Ecology of Hyperactive Boys: Medication Effects in Structured Classroom Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Among the findings were that hyperactive Ss on placebo showed lower rates of task attention and higher rates of gross motor movement, regular and negative verbalization, noise making, physical contact, social initiation, and other responses than did normal Ss and hyperactive Ss on Ritalin. (Author/DLS)

  18. Inattention and Hyperactivity Predict Alterations in Specific Neural Circuits among 6-Year-Old Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Tuan, Ta Anh; Zhong, Jidan; Meaney, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of inattention and hyperactivity in preschoolers is highly dependent upon parental reports. Such reports are compromised by parental attitudes and mental health. Our study aimed to examine associations of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity from maternal reports on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) with brain…

  19. A Social Ecology of Hyperactive Boys: Medication Effects in Structured Classroom Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Among the findings were that hyperactive Ss on placebo showed lower rates of task attention and higher rates of gross motor movement, regular and negative verbalization, noise making, physical contact, social initiation, and other responses than did normal Ss and hyperactive Ss on Ritalin. (Author/DLS)

  20. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to depression.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arunima; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A

    2014-02-01

    The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depression than children without ADHD; (2) the pathway from ADHD to depression is mediated (partly) through anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders; and (3) mediation through anxiety is more prevalent in girls, and mediation through disruptive behavior disorders is more prevalent in boys. From October 2008 to September 2010, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess ADHD, major depressive episodes, anxiety disorders, and disruptive behavior disorders in 1,584 participants from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) cohort. Cox regression was used to model the effects of ADHD, anxiety, and disruptive behaviors on depression. Risk of and pathways to depression were studied in both children with ADHD and children with subthreshold ADHD. Comorbid depression was present in 36% of children with a diagnosis of ADHD, 24% of children with subthreshold ADHD, and 14% of children with no ADHD. Anxiety and disruptive behaviors mediated 32% of depression in ADHD. Pathways through anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders were independent of gender. Disruptive behavior disorder was a stronger mediator than anxiety for both genders (all P < .01). These findings may help forewarn of impending depression and therefore allow opportunities for interventions when comorbid anxiety and/or disruptive behavior disorders are present in a child with ADHD. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Temperament and Character as Endophenotype in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that…

  2. Temperament and Character as Endophenotype in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that…

  3. Common comorbidities seen in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Young, Joel

    2008-08-01

    This article provides an overview of key research on significant comorbidities that occur among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, including disruptive behaviors. Such comorbidities include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, as well as depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, suicidality, eating disorders, sleep disorders, learning disabilities, Internet "addiction," tic disorders, new-onset pediatric epilepsy, and celiac disease.

  4. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Thomas J; Biederman, Joseph; Mick, Eric

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we provide an evidence-based overview of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including diagnosis, prevalence, developmental expression of symptoms, persistence, the heterogeneity of functional outcome, impairment in afflicted adults, psychiatric comorbidity, pathophysiology, genetics, psychosocial and biologic risk factors, and neurobiology. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is an early-onset, highly prevalent neurobehavioral disorder, with genetic, environmental, and biologic etiologies, that persists into adolescence and adulthood in a sizable majority of afflicted children of both sexes. It is characterized by behavioral symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity across the life cycle and is associated with considerable morbidity and disability. Comorbidity is a distinct clinical feature of both childhood and adult ADHD. Although its etiology remains unclear, emerging evidence documents its strong neurobiologic and genetic underpinnings. Despite the high diagnostic reliability and the robust evidence of the validity of ADHD, there are many underlying issues that remain to be resolved. These include establishing developmentally appropriate diagnostic criteria at older ages, further elaborating the impact of gender on symptom expression, and examining risk and protective factors in relationship to prevention or amelioration of ADHD as well as related functional impairments.

  5. Cognition in African children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kashala, Espérance; Elgen, Irene; Sommerfelt, Kristian; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lundervold, Astri

    2005-11-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to describe the performance of African children with symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on selected neuropsychologic tests and compare it with performance among peers of the same age without symptoms; (2) to explore through a factor analysis if the selected tests cover the same functions as known from studies in Europe and North America. A nested case-control approach was used to select the two groups of children. The tests were selected to measure aspects of executive functions, attention and memory functions as well as motor skills. A total of 185 schoolchildren (28 cases and 157 control subjects) aged 85 to 119 months old were included. The findings indicate only minor difference between children with symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and control subjects in most of the tasks. However, children with symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder performed more poorly on tests of motor skills and had more violations of rules on the planning task. The factor analysis indicated a three-factor model, confirming that the selected tests could be used as measures of executive/motor functions, attention, and memory functions. Similar findings have been reported among children in Europe and North America.

  6. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Taylor, Michele M.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Mathews, Tiffany A.; Jones, Sara R.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Miller, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8–12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6–15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.—Richardson, J. R., Taylor, M. M., Shalat, S. L., Guillot III, T. S., Caudle, W. M., Hossain, M. M., Mathews, T. A., Jones, S. R., Cory-Slechta, D. A., Miller, G. W. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25630971

  7. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  8. Personality profiles in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Golay, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Julien; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Ardu, Stefano; Herrmann, François R; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Baud, Patrick

    2016-06-14

    Previous studies suggested that the presence of ADHD in children and young adolescents may affect the development of personality. Whether or not the persistence of ADHD in adult life is associated with distinct personality patterns is still matter for debate. To address this issue, we compared the profiles of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) that assesses personality dimensions in 119 adults ADHD and 403 controls. ANCOVA were used to examine group differences (controls vs. ADHD and ADHD inattentive type vs. ADHD combined + hyperactive/impulsive types) in Temperaments and Characters. Partial correlation coefficients were used to assess correlation between TCI and expression and severity of symptoms of ADHD. High novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) scores as well as low self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) scores were associated with ADHD diagnosis. Low SD was the strongest personality trait associated with adult ADHD. Cases with the ADHD inattentive type showed higher HA and lower SD scores compared to the combined and hyperactive/impulsive types. High HA scores correlated with inattention symptoms whereas high NS and ST scores were related to hyperactive symptoms. Finally low SD and high NS were associated with increased ADHD severity. Distinct temperaments were associated with inattentive versus hyperactive/impulsive symptoms supporting the heterogeneous nature of the disorder.

  9. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Adult Day Services Centers Home Health Care Hospice Care Nursing Home Care Residential Care Communities Screenings Mammography ... and emergency departments) with attention deficit disorder as primary diagnosis: 9.0 million (average annual, 2009-2010) ...

  10. Memantine versus Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadzadeh, Soleiman; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of memantine versus methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Method: Forty participants (34 boys and 6 girls) aged 6-11 who were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on (DSM-IV-TR) criteria were selected for this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: group one (n = 22) received memantine and the other group (n = 18) received methylphenidate for six weeks. Treatment outcomes were assessed using the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression- Severity Scale administered at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6 following the treatment. Also, a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (time- treatment interaction) was used. Results: At 6 weeks, methylphenidate produced a significantly better outcome on the Parent Rating Scale scores and Clinical Global Impression- Severity than memantine. Side effects were observed more often in the memantine group. However, with respect to the frequency of side effects, the difference between the memantine and methylphenidate groups was not significant. The most common side effects associated with memantine are appetite suppression, headache, vomiting, nausea and fatigue. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that although memantine was less effective than methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it may be considered as an alternative treatment. PMID:26884787

  11. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions.

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the impact of methylphenidate on working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bolfer, Cristiana; Pacheco, Sandra Pasquali; Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi; Carreira, Walter Souza; Casella, Beatriz Borba; Casella, Erasmo Barbante

    2017-04-01

    To compare children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), before and after the use of methylphenidate, and a control group, using tests of working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility. Neuropsychological tests were administrated to 53 boys, 9-12 years old: the WISC-III digit span backward, and arithmetic; Stroop Color; and Trail Making Tests. The case group included 23 boys with ADHD, who were combined type, treatment-naive, and with normal intelligence without comorbidities. The control group (n = 30) were age and gender matched. After three months on methylphenidate, the ADHD children were retested. The control group was also retested after three months. Before treatment, ADHD children had lower scores than the control group on the tests (p ≤ 0.001) and after methylphenidate had fewer test errors than before (p ≤ 0.001). Methylphenidate treatment improves the working memory, inhibitory control and mental flexibility of ADHD boys.

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicide: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate suicidality and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this paper aims to systematically review the literature as an extension of previous reviews. METHODS We searched five databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Psychinfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms: (1) suicide; suicidal; suicide behavior; suicide attempt; suicidal thought; and (2) ADHD. RESULTS The search resulted 26 articles. There is a positive association between ADHD and suicidality in both sexes and in all age groups. Comorbid disorders mediate between suicidality and ADHD. CONCLUSION Recognizing ADHD, comorbid conditions and suicidality is important in prevention. PMID:28401048

  14. Personality Traits Elucidate Sex Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Comorbidity During Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica L.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly comorbid with other childhood disorders, and there are striking sex differences in this comorbidity, particularly during early childhood. For example, boys with ADHD are more likely to exhibit comorbid disruptive behavior and neurodevelopmental disorders, compared to girls, during early childhood. Yet, explanations for these well-established sex differences remain in short supply. The current study evaluated the novel hypothesis that personality traits may serve as intermediate phenotypes that help explain sex differences in common ADHD comorbidity profiles during early childhood. Study participants were 109 children between the ages of 3 and 6 and their primary caregivers and teachers/daycare providers, recruited from the community and over-recruited for ADHD-related problems. Primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist, and teachers/daycare providers completed the Teacher Report Form as a measure of child behavior problems. Examiners completed the California Q-Sort as a measure of child personality traits. Moderated mediation analyses suggested that personality traits explain associations between ADHD and oppositional-defiance, aggression, and language problems in a sex-specific manner. While high neuroticism mediated associations between ADHD and oppositional-defiance in girls, disagreeableness mediated associations between ADHD and aggression and low conscientiousness mediated associations between ADHD and neurodevelopmental language problems in boys. Sex differences in trait-psychopathology associations may help explain sex differences in comorbidity profiles with possible implications for child assessment and personalized early intervention. PMID:25598574

  15. Personality Traits Elucidate Sex Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Comorbidity During Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M; Gremillion, Monica L; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2014-06-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly comorbid with other childhood disorders, and there are striking sex differences in this comorbidity, particularly during early childhood. For example, boys with ADHD are more likely to exhibit comorbid disruptive behavior and neurodevelopmental disorders, compared to girls, during early childhood. Yet, explanations for these well-established sex differences remain in short supply. The current study evaluated the novel hypothesis that personality traits may serve as intermediate phenotypes that help explain sex differences in common ADHD comorbidity profiles during early childhood. Study participants were 109 children between the ages of 3 and 6 and their primary caregivers and teachers/daycare providers, recruited from the community and over-recruited for ADHD-related problems. Primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist, and teachers/daycare providers completed the Teacher Report Form as a measure of child behavior problems. Examiners completed the California Q-Sort as a measure of child personality traits. Moderated mediation analyses suggested that personality traits explain associations between ADHD and oppositional-defiance, aggression, and language problems in a sex-specific manner. While high neuroticism mediated associations between ADHD and oppositional-defiance in girls, disagreeableness mediated associations between ADHD and aggression and low conscientiousness mediated associations between ADHD and neurodevelopmental language problems in boys. Sex differences in trait-psychopathology associations may help explain sex differences in comorbidity profiles with possible implications for child assessment and personalized early intervention.

  16. Fundamentals of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: circuits and pathways.

    PubMed

    Arnsten, Amy F T

    2006-01-01

    Neuropsychological and imaging studies have shown that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its connections to striatum and cerebellum. Research in animals, in combination with observations of patients with cortical lesions, has shown that the PFC is critical for the regulation of behavior, attention, and affect using representational knowledge. The PFC is important for sustaining attention over a delay, inhibiting distraction, and dividing attention, while more posterior cortical areas are essential for perception and the allocation of attentional resources. The PFC in the right hemisphere is especially important for behavioral inhibition. Lesions to the PFC produce a profile of distractibility, forgetfulness, impulsivity, poor planning, and locomotor hyperactivity. The PFC is very sensitive to its neurochemical environment, and optimal levels of norepinephrine and dopamine are needed for proper PFC control of behavior and attention. Recent electrophysiologic studies in animals suggest that norepinephrine enhances "signals" through postsynaptic alpha2A-adrenoceptors in PFC, while dopamine decreases "noise" through modest levels of D1-receptor stimulation. Blockade of alpha2-receptors in the monkey PFC re-creates the symptoms of ADHD, resulting in impaired working memory, increased impulsivity, and locomotor hyperactivity. Genetic alterations in catecholamine pathways may contribute to dysregulation of PFC circuits in this disorder. Stimulant medications may have some of their therapeutic effects by increasing endogenous stimulation of alpha2A-adrenoceptors and dopamine D1-receptors in the PFC, optimizing PFC regulation of behavior and attention.

  17. Integrated pharmacologic treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Horst, Robert O; Hendren, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    This article is a review of what is currently known about optimal treatments for patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins with a description of assessment techniques and the differential diagnosis, which includes learning disorders, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. The high rate of comorbidity in patients with ADHD and the impact of comorbidity on treatment decisions are also discussed. Detailed descriptions of various pharmacologic treatments are provided, including a description of the role of combination pharmacotherapy and the integration of nonpharmacologic therapy. A decision-making model for selecting the most appropriate pharmacologic therapy versus combining pharmacotherapy with psychosocial interventions is described. The advantages and disadvantages of various pharmacologic agents--including long-acting stimulants and atomoxetine--are examined. Particular attention is paid to the recent Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, which includes a comparison of long-term pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, or a combination thereof, as well as an evaluation of the role of community-based therapy (i.e., treatment as usual). This article focuses on children and adolescents, because most of the research on ADHD has been conducted in this age group. However, a brief section on adults is also provided.

  18. Increased Anterior Pelvic Angle Characterizes the Gait of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Yatsuga, Chiho; Kubota, Masafumi; Matsuo, Hideaki; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Shimada, Seiichiro; Imai, Yuto; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have motor problems. Previous studies have reported that the characteristic gait in children with ADHD is immature and that subjects demonstrate higher levels of variability in gait characteristics for the lower extremities than healthy controls. However, little is known about body movement during gait in children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristic body movements associated with ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD. Methods Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, we compared gait variables in boys with ADHD (n = 19; mean age, 9.58 years) and boys with typical development (TD) (n = 21; mean age, 10.71 years) to determine the specific gait characteristics related to ADHD symptoms. We assessed spatiotemporal gait variables (i.e. speed, stride length, and cadence), and kinematic gait variables (i.e. angle of pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle) to measure body movement when walking at a self-selected pace. Results In comparison with the TD group, the ADHD group demonstrated significantly higher values in cadence (t = 3.33, p = 0.002) and anterior pelvic angle (t = 3.08, p = 0.004). In multiple regression analysis, anterior pelvic angle was associated with the ADHD rating scale hyperactive/impulsive scores (β = 0.62, t = 2.58, p = 0.025), but not other psychiatric symptoms in the ADHD group. Conclusions Our results suggest that anterior pelvic angle represents a specific gait variable related to ADHD symptoms. Our kinematic findings could have potential implications for evaluating the body movement in boys with ADHD. PMID:28099484

  19. Sex differences between the combined and inattentive types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an EEG perspective.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Franca E; Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated sex differences between the EEGs of Combined and Inattentive types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) within boys and girls aged 8-12 years. Subject groups included 80 AD/HD Combined type (40 boys and 40 girls), 80 AD/HD Inattentive type (40 boys and 40 girls) and 80 controls (40 boys and 40 girls). An eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded and Fourier transformed to provide estimates for absolute and relative power in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands, as well as total power and the theta/beta ratio. The boy AD/HD groups, compared with boy controls, had greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, reduced absolute and relative alpha, and reduced absolute and relative beta. The girl AD/HD groups, compared with girl controls, had greater absolute delta, greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, greater total power, and reduced relative delta and relative beta. Between AD/HD types, Combined type boys had globally greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, and less relative alpha than Inattentive type boys. While topographical differences emerged, there were no significant global differences between AD/HD types in girls. That is, EEG differences between AD/HD types are dissimilar in boys and girls. Different EEG maturational patterns between boys and girls also obscure AD/HD-related EEG abnormalities. These results have important implications for our understanding of AD/HD in girls. Ignoring such sex differences may have compromised the value of previous AD/HD investigations, and these sex differences should be recognised in future research.

  20. School-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a relatively common childhood behavior disorder that typically is treated with psychotropic medication (e.g., methylphenidate), behavioral strategies, or their combination. This article provides an overview of the school-related difficulties associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.…

  1. School-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a relatively common childhood behavior disorder that typically is treated with psychotropic medication (e.g., methylphenidate), behavioral strategies, or their combination. This article provides an overview of the school-related difficulties associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.…

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sensory modulation disorder: a comparison of behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M; Schoen, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these disorders in children, clinical ADHD, SMD, and dual diagnoses were assessed. All groups had significantly more sensory, attention, activity, impulsivity, and emotional difficulties than typical children, but with distinct profiles. Inattention was greater in ADHD compared to SMD. Dual diagnoses had more sensory-related behaviors than ADHD and more attentional difficulties than SMD. SMD had more sensory issues, somatic complaints, anxiety/depression, and difficulty adapting than ADHD. SMD had greater physiological/electrodermal reactivity to sensory stimuli than ADHD and typical controls. Parent-report measures identifying sensory, attentional, hyperactive, and impulsive difficulties varied in agreement with clinician's diagnoses. Evidence suggests ADHD and SMD are distinct diagnoses.

  3. Resting EEG theta activity predicts cognitive performance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hermens, Daniel F; Soei, Eleonore X C; Clarke, Simon D; Kohn, Michael R; Gordon, Evian; Williams, Leanne M

    2005-04-01

    Quantitative electroencephalography has contributed significantly to elucidating the neurobiologic mechanisms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The most consistent and robust electroencephalographic disturbance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder has been abnormally increased theta band during resting conditions. Separate research using attention-demanding tests has elucidated cognitive disturbances that differentiate attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study attempts to integrate electroencephalographic and neuropsychological indices to determine whether cognitive performance is specifically related to increased theta. Theta activity was recorded during a resting condition for 46 children/adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their sex- and age-matched control subjects. Accuracy and reaction time during an auditory oddball and a visual continuous performance test were then recorded. Compared with control subjects, the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder group manifested significantly increased (primarily left) frontal theta. Furthermore, the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder group scored significantly delayed reaction time and decreased accuracy in both tasks. Correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between frontal (primarily left) theta and oddball accuracy for the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder group compared with a significant relationship between posterior (primarily right) theta and reaction time in the continuous performance test for the control group. These results indicate that spatial neurophysiologic deficits in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may be related to disturbances in signal detection. This observation has important implications for the role of trait-like biologic deficits in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder predicting performance in information processing.

  4. Concussion History in Adolescent Athletes with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Atkins, Joseph E; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the rate of concussions in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that high school athletes with ADHD would report a greater history of concussion than students without ADHD. A total of 6529 adolescent and young adult student athletes, between the ages of 13 and 19 years (mean, 15.9; standard deviation, 1.3), completed a preseason health survey in 2010. Of those with ADHD, 26.1% reported a history of one or more concussions, compared to 17.1% of those without ADHD (p<0.00001; odds ratio [OR], 1.71). Stratified by gender, 27.0% of boys with ADHD reported a history of one or more concussions, compared to 20.0% of boys without ADHD (p<0.004; OR, 1.48), and 23.6% of girls with ADHD reported a history of one or more concussions, compared to 13.6% of girls without ADHD (p<0.003; OR, 1.97). Of those with ADHD, 9.8% reported a history of two or more concussions, compared to 5.5% of those without ADHD (p<0.0003; OR, 1.87). Stratified by gender, 10.0% of boys with ADHD reported a history of two or more concussions, compared to 6.7% of boys without ADHD (p<0.033; OR, 1.54), and 9.1% of girls with ADHD reported a history of two or more concussions, compared to 3.8% of girls without ADHD (p<0.006; OR, 2.51). In this large-scale, retrospective survey study, boys and girls with ADHD were significantly more likely to report a history of concussion. Additional research is needed to determine whether students with ADHD are more susceptible to injury (i.e., have a lower threshold) or have different recovery trajectories.

  5. Methylphenidate Normalizes Frontocingulate Underactivation During Error Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Mohammad, Abdul-Majeed; Taylor, Eric; Brammer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have deficits in performance monitoring often improved with the indirect catecholamine agonist methylphenidate (MPH). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of single-dose MPH on activation of error processing brain areas in medication-naive boys with ADHD during a stop task that elicits 50% error rates. Methods Twelve medication-naive boys with ADHD were scanned twice, under either a single clinical dose of MPH or placebo, in a randomized, double-blind design while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop task, designed to elicit 50% failures. Brain activation was compared within patients under either drug condition. To test for potential normalization effects of MPH, brain activation in ADHD patients under either drug condition was compared with that of 13 healthy age-matched boys. Results During failed inhibition, boys with ADHD under placebo relative to control subjects showed reduced brain activation in performance monitoring areas of dorsomedial and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, thalamus, cingulate, and parietal regions. MPH, relative to placebo, upregulated activation in these brain regions within patients and normalized all activation differences between patients and control subjects. During successful inhibition, MPH normalized reduced activation observed in patients under placebo compared with control subjects in parietotemporal and cerebellar regions. Conclusions MPH normalized brain dysfunction in medication-naive ADHD boys relative to control subjects in typical brain areas of performance monitoring, comprising left ventrolateral and dorsomedial frontal and parietal cortices. This could underlie the amelioration of MPH of attention and academic performance in ADHD. PMID:21664605

  6. Methylphenidate normalizes frontocingulate underactivation during error processing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Mohammad, Abdul-Majeed; Taylor, Eric; Brammer, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have deficits in performance monitoring often improved with the indirect catecholamine agonist methylphenidate (MPH). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of single-dose MPH on activation of error processing brain areas in medication-naive boys with ADHD during a stop task that elicits 50% error rates. Twelve medication-naive boys with ADHD were scanned twice, under either a single clinical dose of MPH or placebo, in a randomized, double-blind design while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop task, designed to elicit 50% failures. Brain activation was compared within patients under either drug condition. To test for potential normalization effects of MPH, brain activation in ADHD patients under either drug condition was compared with that of 13 healthy age-matched boys. During failed inhibition, boys with ADHD under placebo relative to control subjects showed reduced brain activation in performance monitoring areas of dorsomedial and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, thalamus, cingulate, and parietal regions. MPH, relative to placebo, upregulated activation in these brain regions within patients and normalized all activation differences between patients and control subjects. During successful inhibition, MPH normalized reduced activation observed in patients under placebo compared with control subjects in parietotemporal and cerebellar regions. MPH normalized brain dysfunction in medication-naive ADHD boys relative to control subjects in typical brain areas of performance monitoring, comprising left ventrolateral and dorsomedial frontal and parietal cortices. This could underlie the amelioration of MPH of attention and academic performance in ADHD. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The merit of sociological accounts of disorder: The Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder case.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Gregory

    2014-07-01

    This article argues in favor of a sociological perspective on health and illness, drawing on recognized positions from the philosophy of health and illness about how to demarcate disorder from non-disorder. The argument specifies that a normative context in which bodies or behaviors are disvalued is a necessary component for identifying what constitutes a disorder, as this normative context allows material differences to be understood as dysfunctional and pathological. Descriptions of material states in themselves are insufficient to distinguish what is legitimately a disorder; some evaluative stance toward those states is also required. This article applies the argument to disorders of inattention and hyperactivity, currently best known as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. These disorders have been controversial since their formalization in the 1970s, the same time that they began receiving sociological attention. Sociological analyses have consistently expressed ambivalence toward recognizing claims about the biological status of such disorders. This ambivalence has at times committed to a problematic relationship between sociological explanation and medical explanation, implicitly allocating sociological explanation to an auxiliary position. This article argues that this is not necessary, as sociological perspectives address disorders on a fundamental, rather than secondary, register. Disorders are only intelligible due to the normative and social context in which they are found, and so medical sociology can recognize the validity of biological claims about disorders, such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, while still asserting the essential social nature of disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an educational cultural model.

    PubMed

    Lundholm-Brown, L; Dildy, M E

    2001-12-01

    This article gives a brief history and background of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood. A review of the medical model, including the diagnostic criteria and recommended protocols for treatment, is presented. An educational cultural model based on a holistic approach in assessing causes of hyperactivity and inattention is described. The Educational Cultural Model (ECM) synthesizes the effects of significant extrinsic factors in the life of the child, such as family dynamics, societal influences, and the educational system, and intrinsic factors, such as individual temperament, energy levels, learning style, giftedness, and personal interests. In addition to the primary purpose of comparing the medical model of ADHD to the conceptual ECM, this article is designed to stimulate thinking about different ways to view ADHD.

  9. Management of boys and men with disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S Faisal; O'Toole, Stuart

    2012-06-01

    This review of disorders of sex development (DSDs) in boys and men will outline the conditions that may lead to this phenotype, present some guidance on how to evaluate and investigate affected cases and then review the medical and surgical management and subsequent outcome. DSDs are a wide range of relatively rare conditions which need multidisciplinary input. The underlying cause is clearer in girls with DSDs, but the actual diagnosis remains unclear in the majority of boys with DSDs. There is a need to improve the diagnostic yield and develop standardized methods for assessing, describing and investigating DSDs as well as for reporting outcome. This will lead to improved clinical management and genetic counselling.

  10. Hemodynamic response of children with attention-deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) to emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Nakato, Emi; Kanazawa, So; Shimamura, Keiichi; Sakuta, Yuiko; Sakuta, Ryoichi; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulty recognizing facial expressions. They identify angry expressions less accurately than typically developing (TD) children, yet little is known about their atypical neural basis for the recognition of facial expressions. Here, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine the distinctive cerebral hemodynamics of ADHD and TD children while they viewed happy and angry expressions. We measured the hemodynamic responses of 13 ADHD boys and 13 TD boys to happy and angry expressions at their bilateral temporal areas, which are sensitive to face processing. The ADHD children showed an increased concentration of oxy-Hb for happy faces but not for angry faces, while TD children showed increased oxy-Hb for both faces. Moreover, the individual peak latency of hemodynamic response in the right temporal area showed significantly greater variance in the ADHD group than in the TD group. Such atypical brain activity observed in ADHD boys may relate to their preserved ability to recognize a happy expression and their difficulty recognizing an angry expression. We firstly demonstrated that NIRS can be used to detect atypical hemodynamic response to facial expressions in ADHD children.

  11. Clinical use of a modified release methylphenidate in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder in childhood, affecting over 5% of children worldwide. As well as the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, patients often exhibit learning difficulties and impairment in social functioning. The frequency of referral is higher for boys than for girls (about 2:1), and girls are generally older at the time of referral. Pharmacological therapy is considered the first-line treatment for patients with severe ADHD and severe impairment. Stimulant medications are licensed in the UK for the management of ADHD in school-age children and young people, and are effective in controlling ADHD symptoms. While immediate-release preparations of methylphenidate (MPH) have proven effective in the treatment of ADHD, there are a number of problems associated with their use, most notably compliance, stigma and medication diversion. Modified release preparations are now available that overcome the need for multiple daily dosing, and which offer different MPH release profiles, thereby enabling the physician to match the medication to the patient's particular requirements. This review describes the diagnosis, referral and treatment pathways for patients with ADHD in the UK and the practical considerations when initiating pharmacological treatment. The clinical experience of treating ADHD with a modified-release MPH preparation (Equasym XL®) is illustrated with case studies. PMID:21962224

  12. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  13. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  14. Atomoxetine Treatment for Pediatric Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Comorbid Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Daniel; Donnelly, Craig; Lopez, Frank; Rubin, Richard; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Sutton, Virginia; Bakken, Rosalie; Paczkowski, Martin; Kelsey, Douglas; Sumner, Calvin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests 25% to 35% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have comorbid anxiety disorders. This double-blind study compared atomoxetine with placebo for treating pediatric ADHD with comorbid anxiety, as measured by the ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator Administered and Scored…

  15. The Relationship between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirbekk, Benedicte; Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Oerbeck, Beate; Kristensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety disorders (AnxDs). One hundred and forty-one children (90 males, 51 females) aged 7-13 years were assigned to four groups, i.e., referred children with comorbid AnxDs…

  16. Discrimination between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Reactive Attachment Disorder in School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follan, Michael; Anderson, Seonaid; Huline-Dickens, Sarah; Lidstone, Emma; Young, David; Brown, Gordon; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether it is possible to discriminate between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) using standardized assessment tools for RAD. The study involved 107 children: 38 with a diagnosis of RAD and 30 with ADHD were recruited through community child and…

  17. Sleep Patterns in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…

  18. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  19. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  20. A Controlled Family Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Tourette's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Illmann, Cornelia; Geller, Daniel A.; Leckman, James F.; King, Robert; Pauls, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently comorbid with Tourette's disorder (TD), it is unclear whether they have a common genetic etiology. Familial relationships between DSM-IVADHD and TD are studied in TD + ADHD, TD-only (TD-ADHD), ADHD-only (ADHD-TD), and control groups. Method: Case-control,…

  1. Atomoxetine Treatment for Pediatric Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Comorbid Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Daniel; Donnelly, Craig; Lopez, Frank; Rubin, Richard; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Sutton, Virginia; Bakken, Rosalie; Paczkowski, Martin; Kelsey, Douglas; Sumner, Calvin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests 25% to 35% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have comorbid anxiety disorders. This double-blind study compared atomoxetine with placebo for treating pediatric ADHD with comorbid anxiety, as measured by the ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator Administered and Scored…

  2. Anxiety and Mood Disorders in Adolescents with Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Pelham, William E.; Hoza, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the association between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence. They compared a group of 142 adolescents ages 13 to 18 years with a history of ADHD in childhood to group of 100 community-recruited adolescents without ADHD. The two groups did not…

  3. Speech-Sound Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Short, Elizabeth J.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Avrich, Allison A.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of speech-sound disorders (SSD) with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the severity of the SSD and the mode of transmission of SSD within the pedigrees of children with SSD. Participants and Methods: The participants were 412 children who were enrolled…

  4. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  5. Sleep Patterns in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…

  6. Family Correlates of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated parental anxiety and parenting practices associated with comorbid Anxiety Disorders among children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clinic-referred families (n = 143) were diagnosed using DSM criteria. Parents and children completed measures of parenting practices. Comorbid anxiety in children was significantly…

  7. Emotional Face Identification in Youths with Primary Bipolar Disorder or Primary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Karen E.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Young, Matthew; Dickstein, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid or confounded; therefore, we evaluated emotional face identification to better understand brain/behavior interactions in children and adolescents with either primary BD, primary ADHD, or typically developing controls (TDC). Method: Participants…

  8. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  9. Developmental Coordination Disorder in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Physical Therapy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watemberg, Nathan; Waiserberg, Nilly; Zuk, Luba; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2007-01-01

    Although physical therapy (PT) is effective in improving motor function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), insufficient data are available on the impact of this intervention in children with combined attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and DCD. This prospective study aimed to establish the prevalence of DCD…

  10. The Relationship between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirbekk, Benedicte; Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Oerbeck, Beate; Kristensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety disorders (AnxDs). One hundred and forty-one children (90 males, 51 females) aged 7-13 years were assigned to four groups, i.e., referred children with comorbid AnxDs…

  11. Discrimination between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Reactive Attachment Disorder in School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follan, Michael; Anderson, Seonaid; Huline-Dickens, Sarah; Lidstone, Emma; Young, David; Brown, Gordon; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether it is possible to discriminate between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) using standardized assessment tools for RAD. The study involved 107 children: 38 with a diagnosis of RAD and 30 with ADHD were recruited through community child and…

  12. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  13. Emotional Face Identification in Youths with Primary Bipolar Disorder or Primary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Karen E.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Young, Matthew; Dickstein, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid or confounded; therefore, we evaluated emotional face identification to better understand brain/behavior interactions in children and adolescents with either primary BD, primary ADHD, or typically developing controls (TDC). Method: Participants…

  14. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in imprisoned individuals--a review.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2011-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders with lifelong impact of the affected individuals. It is usually co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review current knowledge about ADHD in imprisoned individuals. The rate of ADHD in prisoners ranges from 10% to 70% and it has been suggested that ADHD, even without co-morbidity with conduct disorder, is a risk factor for imprisonment. Based on these findings, it may be wise to include the assessment of ADHD symptoms in all adult and adolescent prisoners. This is while available psychiatric resources for the adequate management of ADHD in prisoners are limited. Most of current knowledge on the topic comes from western countries. There is an urgent need for studies that will explore the effect of other cultures on the interactions between ADHD and imprisonment, especially in developing countries worldwide. At this point, ADHD seems to be an ignored research area in developing countries.

  16. Disorder-dissociated effects of fluoxetine on brain function of working memory in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chantiluke, K; Barrett, N; Giampietro, V; Brammer, M; Simmons, A; Rubia, K

    2015-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often co-morbid and share performance and brain dysfunctions during working memory (WM). Serotonin agonists modulate WM and there is evidence of positive behavioural effects in both disorders. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain dysfunctions of WM in these disorders, and the effects of a single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. Age-matched boys with ADHD (n = 17), ASD (n = 17) and controls (n = 22) were compared using fMRI during an N-back WM task. Patients were scanned twice, under either an acute dose of fluoxetine or placebo in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized design. Repeated-measures analyses within patients assessed drug effects on performance and brain function. To test for normalization effects of brain dysfunctions, patients under each drug condition were compared to controls. Under placebo, relative to controls, both ADHD and ASD boys shared underactivation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Fluoxetine significantly normalized the DLPFC underactivation in ASD relative to controls whereas it increased posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) deactivation in ADHD relative to control boys. Within-patient analyses showed inverse effects of fluoxetine on PCC deactivation, which it enhanced in ADHD and decreased in ASD. The findings show that fluoxetine modulates brain activation during WM in a disorder-specific manner by normalizing task-positive DLPFC dysfunction in ASD boys and enhancing task-negative default mode network (DMN) deactivation in ADHD.

  17. Motor Activity in Adult Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mjeldheim, Kristin; Førland, Wenche; Hansen, Anita L.; Dilsaver, Steven; Oedegaard, Ketil J.; Berle, Jan Øystein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hyperactivity is a core symptom of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited information is available on analysis of activity patterns in this disorder. The aim of the study was to analyze motor activity during daily living in adult patients with ADHD. Methods Patients (n=76) from the private psychiatric practice of two of the authors were recruited, and were compared to patients with other psychiatric disorders and to normal controls. Actigraphs were used to record motor activity for six days, with one minute intervals, and data were analysed using linear and non-linear mathematical methods. Results For short recording periods (300 minutes) the activity levels of ADHD patients do not differ from normal controls, but the autocorrelation (lag 1) is lower and Fourier analysis shows higher power in the high frequency range, corresponding to the period from 2-8 min. During recordings for six days there are no significant differences between ADHD patients and the control groups. The combined and inattentive subgroups differ only in the six days recordings. The Fourier analyses show that the combined type has lower power in the high frequency range, corresponding to the period from 4-8 hours, and in the analysis of rhythms the intra-daily variability is lower, compared to the inattentive type. Conclusion Adult ADHD patients do not show evidence of hyperactivity, but have levels of activity similar to normal controls. However, on several measures ADHD patients display altered activity patterns, indicating that the regulation of motor activity in this disorder is different from controls. PMID:26508958

  18. Environmental risk factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tania Das; Middleton, Frank; Faraone, Stephen V

    2007-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common cognitive and behavioural disorder diagnosed among school children. It is characterized by deficient attention and problem solving, along with hyperactivity and difficulty withholding incorrect responses. This highly prevalent disorder is estimated to affect 5-10% of children and in many cases, persists into adulthood, leading to 4% prevalence among adults. Converging evidence from epidemiologic, neuropsychology, neuroimaging, genetic and treatment studies shows that ADHD is a valid medical disorder. The majority of studies performed to assess genetic risk factors in ADHD have supported a strong familial nature of this disorder. Family studies have identified a 2- to 8-fold increase in the risk for ADHD in parents and siblings of children with ADHD. Various twin and adoption studies have also highlighted the highly genetic nature of ADHD. In fact the mean heritability of ADHD was shown to be 0.77, which is comparable to other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, several biological and environmental factors have also been proposed as risk factors for ADHD, including food additives/diet, lead contamination, cigarette and alcohol exposure, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and low birth weight. Many recent studies have specifically examined the relationships between ADHD and these extraneous factors. This review describes some of these possible risk factors. Although a substantial fraction of the aetiology of ADHD is due to genes, the studies reviewed in this article show that many environmental risk factors and potential gene-environment interactions also increase the risk for the disorder.

  19. Sleep architecture and REM sleep measures in prepubertal children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, L; Puig-Antich, J; Goetz, R; Hanlon, C; Davies, M

    1983-01-01

    A 2-night polysomnographic study of 9 rigorously assessed prepubertal children who fit Diagnostic Statistical Manual-III criteria for attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) and a contrast group of 11 control children is reported. Despite the fact that 57% of the ADDH group were reported to experience restless sleep on structured parental rating forms, they did not show any sleep architecture abnormalities on polysomnographic recordings when compared with the normals at baseline other than decreased rapid eye movement (REM) activity. Seven of the ADDH boys were restudied after 6 months of continuous methylphenidate therapy (mean daily dose of 34.4 +/- 14.0 mg or 1.4 +/- 0.7 mg/kg). Across and within (pre-post) group comparisons showed that methylphenidate therapy was associated with delayed sleep onset, lengthened sleep, and changes in certain REM sleep variables.

  20. [Better health care for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Klasen, H; Verhulst, F C

    2005-07-30

    Recently Donker et al. reported a massive rise in the prescription of methylphenidate by general practitioners in the northeast of The Netherlands. On comparing their results with national and international guidelines on the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) it would appear that medication is not always being prescribed to the correct group of children i.e. those with the core problems of ADHD. Girls are under-diagnosed, while boys frequently receive medication for oppositional or conduct problems, which are usually better treated by parent management training. Many children are never given the full multidisciplinary assessment recommended by the guidelines and it is unclear whether other evidence-based treatments such as school liaison or parent management training were offered. Overall it seems children with ADHD do not always receive the treatment they require. Improvement might be achieved if the European and Dutch recommendations are followed.

  1. Empathy and social perspective taking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Marton, Imola; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria; Moore, Chris; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This study explored empathy and social perspective taking in 8 to 12 year old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 92 children, 50 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 42 typically developing comparison children. Although children with ADHD were rated by their parents as less empathic than children without ADHD, this difference was accounted for by co-occurring oppositional and conduct problems among children in the ADHD sample. Children with ADHD used lower levels of social perspective taking coordination in their definition of problems, identification of feelings, and evaluation of outcomes than children without ADHD, and these differences persisted after the role of language abilities, intelligence and oppositional and conduct problems were taken into account. Girls were more empathic and had higher overall social perspective taking scores than boys. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CNS stimulants and sport.

    PubMed

    Hickey, G; Fricker, P

    1999-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 1 to 10% of children and is characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Over one-half of children with ADHD have associated conditions, including learning disabilities, conduct disorders, poor coordination, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and bipolar disorders. CNS stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD is not permitted for use in competition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and this poses a problem for the physicians of patients with ADHD. On the one hand, attention and concentration are improved by stimulant medication and fine motor coordination and balance are improved after methylphenidate administration, but these therapeutic and sport-related benefits are not available to the athlete with ADHD who wishes to compete under IOC rules. It has been suggested that treatment with methylphenidate may be suitable for athletes with ADHD, as cessation of therapy 24 hours before competition is usually adequate to allow drug clearance which should avoid a positive result being returned on drug testing. More research is needed to establish whether stimulant medication for athletes with ADHD provides an unfair advantage in competition.

  3. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities. PMID:21469929

  4. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    PubMed

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  5. Analysis of cardiac autonomic modulation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Tatiana Dias; Wajnsztejn, Rubens; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Marques Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos; Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Adami, Fernando; Valenti, Vitor E; Monteiro, Carlos B M; Leone, Claudio; da Cruz Martins, Karen Cristina; Ferreira, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by decreased attention span, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. Autonomic nervous system imbalance was previously described in this population. We aim to compare the autonomic function of children with ADHD and controls by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV). Methods Children rested in supine position with spontaneous breathing for 20 minutes. Heart rate was recorded beat by beat. HRV analysis was performed in the time and frequency domains and Poincaré plot. Results Twenty-eight children with ADHD (22 boys, aged 9.964 years) and 28 controls (15 boys, age 9.857 years) participated in this study. It was determined that the mean and standard deviation of indexes which indicate parasympathetic activity is higher in children with ADHD than in children without the disorder: high frequency in normalized units, 46.182 (14.159) versus 40.632 (12.247); root mean square of successive differences, 41.821 (17.834) versus 38.150 (18.357); differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds, 199.75 (144.00) versus 127.46 (102.21) (P<0.05); percentage of differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds, 23.957 (17.316) versus 16.211 (13.215); standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat interval, 29.586 (12.622) versus 26.989 (12.983). Conclusion Comparison of the autonomic function by analyzing HRV suggests an increase in the activity of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous systems in children with ADHD in relation to the control group. PMID:24748797

  6. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  7. Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsbourne, Marcel

    Hyperactivity in children is explained in relation to behavioral characteristics, precipitating factors, and stimulant medication therapy. The basic mechanism of hyperactivity is seen to be impulsive style in motility, attention, and socialization. Problems caused by impulsivity are noted to include feeding problems, school difficulties, and peer…

  8. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, George J; Reid, Robert; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Lambert, Matthew C; Watkins, Marley W; Power, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms includes parent and teacher questionnaires. The ADHD Rating Scale-5 was developed to incorporate changes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study examined the fit of a correlated, 2-factor structure of ADHD (i.e., DSM-5 conceptual model) and alternative models; determined whether ADHD symptom ratings varied across teacher and child demographic characteristics; and presented normative data. Two samples were included: (a) 2,079 parents and guardians (1,131 female, 948 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for children (N = 2,079; 1,037 males, 1,042 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 10.68; SD = 3.75) and (b) 1,070 teachers (766 female, 304 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for students (N = 2,140; 1,070 males, 1,070 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 11.53; SD = 3.54) who attended kindergarten through 12th grade. The 2-factor structure was confirmed for both parent and teacher ratings and was invariant across child gender, age, informant, informant gender, and language. In general, boys were higher in symptom frequency than girls; older children were rated lower than younger children, especially for hyperactivity-impulsivity; and non-Hispanic children were rated higher than Hispanic children. Teachers also rated non-Hispanic African American children higher than non-Hispanic White, Asian, and Hispanic children. Non-Hispanic White teachers provided lower hyperactivity-impulsivity ratings than non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic teachers. Normative data are reported separately for parent and teacher ratings by child gender and age. The merits of using the ADHD Rating Scale-5 in a multimodal assessment protocol are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Drug therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like symptoms in autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Problems of inattention and hyperactivity affect one half of individuals with autistic disorder. Care must be taken to ensure that inattention and hyperactivity are not manifestations of other behavioural pathology seen in association with autistic disorder, as this will affect treatment decisions. The prescribing of psychotropic agents to individuals with autistic disorder is increasing but the evidence base is limited, with some exceptions, to uncontrolled studies. Substantial benefit in reducing inattention and hyperactivity is seen with atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone and quetiapine, although weight gain and sedation are common side effects. Moderate benefit is derived from methylphenidate, atomoxetine, some anticonvulsant medications, guanfacine and donepezil. Data show dexamphetamine, clonidine, clomipramine, mirtazapine, and fluoxetine are of unlikely benefit.

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children with autistic disorder: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Charnsil, Chawanun; Sriapai, Payupol

    2011-02-01

    (1) to examine the co-occurrence of attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms in children with autistic disorder, and (2) to study the correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and the severity of autistic disorder. This was a clinical based study. The authors used Childhood Autistic Rating scale (CARs) to evaluate the severity of autistic disorder Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Version IV (SNAP-IV) was used to measure attention deficit and hyperactive symptoms in children with autism. Thirty (n=30) children enrolled in this study. All participants displayed attention deficit symptoms and 18 participants demonstrated hyperactivity as well. Nonparametric correlation showed a high positive correlation (Spa = 0.90, p = 0.00) between the severity of autistic disorder and hyperactivity and not the attention deficit symptoms (Spa = 0.29, p = 0.16). The authors finding shows a high comorbid rate of attention deficit and hyperactive symptoms among the participants.

  11. Extended-Release Guanfacine for Hyperactivity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T; King, Bryan H; Rockhill, Carol; Shah, Bhavik; Politte, Laura; Sanders, Roy; Minjarez, Mendy; Cowen, Jennifer; Mullett, Jennifer; Page, Chris; Ward, Denise; Deng, Yanhong; Loo, Sandra; Dziura, James; McDougle, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and distractibility are common problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Extended-release guanfacine is approved for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder but not well studied in ASD. In a multisite, randomized clinical trial, extended-release guanfacine was compared with placebo in children with ASD accompanied by hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and distractibility. Sixty-two subjects (boys, N=53; girls, N=9; mean age=8.5 years [SD=2.25]) were randomly assigned to guanfacine (N=30) or placebo (N=32) for 8 weeks. The guanfacine group showed a 43.6% decline in scores on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-hyperactivity subscale (least squares mean from 34.2 to 19.3) compared with a 13.2% decrease in the placebo group (least squares mean from 34.2 to 29.7; effect size=1.67). The rate of positive response (much improved or very much improved on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale) was 50% (15 of 30) for guanfacine compared with 9.4% (3 of 32) for placebo. A brief cognitive battery tapping working memory and motor planning showed no group differences before or after 8 weeks of treatment. The modal dose of guanfacine at week 8 was 3 mg/day (range: 1-4 mg/day), and the modal dose was 3 mg/day (range: 2-4 mg/day) for placebo. Four guanfacine-treated subjects (13.3%) and four placebo subjects (12.5%) exited the study before week 8. The most common adverse events included drowsiness, fatigue, and decreased appetite. There were no significant changes on ECG in either group. For subjects in the guanfacine group, blood pressure declined in the first 4 weeks, with return nearly to baseline by endpoint (week 8). Pulse rate showed a similar pattern but remained lower than baseline at endpoint. Extended-release guanfacine appears to be safe and effective for reducing hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and distractibility in children with ASD.

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: how much responsibility are pediatricians taking?

    PubMed

    Stein, Ruth E K; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Heneghan, Amy M; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Kelleher, Kelly J; O'Connor, Karen G; Olson, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the most common childhood behavioral condition, is one that pediatricians think they should identify and treat/manage. Our goals were to explore the relationships between pediatricians' self-reports of their practice behaviors concerning usually inquiring about and treating/managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and (1) attitudes regarding perceived responsibility for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and (2) personal and practice characteristics. We analyzed data from the 59th Periodic Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics for the 447 respondents who practice exclusively in general pediatrics. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to identify attitudes and personal and practice characteristics associated with usually identifying and treating/managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A total of 67% reported that they usually inquire about and 65% reported that they usually treat/manage attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Factors positively associated with usually inquiring about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adjusted multivariable analyses include perceived high prevalence among current patients, attendance at a lecture/conference on child mental health in the past 2 years, having patients who are assigned or can select a specific pediatrician, practicing in suburban communities, practicing for > or =10 years, and being female. Pediatricians' attitudes about responsibility for identification of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were not associated with usually inquiring about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Attitudes about treating/managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with usually treating/managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Those who perceived that pediatricians should be responsible for treating

  13. [Phonological processing in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: is methylphenidate effective?].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Casas, A; Ygual-Fernández, A; Mulas-Delgado, F; Roselló-Miranda, B; Bó, R M

    2002-02-01

    Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is usually associated with language disorders, there are few studies of phonological processing and the efficacy of psychostimulants (methylphenidate) on this. 1. To find whether there are differences in the development of phonological processing, evaluated using linguistic segmentation tests and tests of lexical fluency with a phonetic mediator, between children with ADHD and normal children; and 2. To analyze the effects of methylphenidate on the phonological processing of children with ADHD. For the first objective, 37 children with ADHD and 37 normal children aged between 5 and 12 years were studied. Twenty were boys and 16 girls of lower middle class. Of these children, 18 of the ADHD and 18 of the normal group were studied for the second objective, 15 boys and 3 girls. Three different tests were used to evaluate aspects of phonological processing: induced phonological register, linguistic follow up and lexical fluency with phonetic mediation. Significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups when carrying out all types of phonological processing tasks. In the experimental group, with or without methylphenidate, improvement was seen in lexical fluency tasks whereas linguistic segmentation test improvement was limited. These results show the importance of evaluating phonological processing in children with ADHD since this affects learning to read and write.

  14. Functional neuroimaging of visuospatial working memory tasks enables accurate detection of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rubi; Cooke, Gillian E.; Stein, Mark A.; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Finding neurobiological markers for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is a major objective of clinicians and neuroscientists. We examined if functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from a few distinct visuospatial working memory (VSWM) tasks enables accurately detecting cases with ADHD. We tested 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 typically developed (TD) boys in four VSWM tasks that differed in feedback availability (feedback, no-feedback) and reward size (large, small). We used a multimodal analysis based on brain activity in 16 regions of interest, significantly activated or deactivated in the four VSWM tasks (based on the entire participants' sample). Dimensionality of the data was reduced into 10 principal components that were used as the input variables to a logistic regression classifier. fMRI data from the four VSWM tasks enabled a classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most TDs. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task, or the respective behavioral data. This indicates that task-based fMRI data acquired while participants perform a few distinct VSWM tasks enables improved detection of clinical cases. PMID:26509111

  15. Misdiagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: 'Normal behaviour' and relative maturity.

    PubMed

    Ford-Jones, Polly Christine

    2015-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed disorders in children, yet it remains poorly understood. Substantial controversy exists regarding correct diagnosis of ADHD, and areas of subjectivity in diagnosis have been identified. Concerns for appropriate diagnosis are critical in terms of children's educational outcomes, as well as health concerns associated with the use and potential overuse of stimulant medications. There exists a relative-age effect in which children who are relatively younger than their peers and born closest to the school start age cut-off are more frequently diagnosed and treated for ADHD. Additionally, substantial variation exists in ADHD diagnosis between boys and girls, with boys often presenting with more stereotypical symptoms. Both the relative-age effect and variation in sex diagnosis, as well as the challenges of early preschool diagnosis, emphasize the importance of considering relative maturity in ADHD diagnosis of children. Implications and knowledge translation strategies for practitioners, parents and the education system are presented.

  16. Parenting Stress of Parents of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Judith; Biondic, Daniella; Grimbos, Teresa; Herbert, Monique

    2016-04-01

    This study examined parenting stress among parents of adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 138 adolescents (84 ADHD, 52 boys, 32 girls; 54 non-ADHD, 24 boys, 30 girls) age 13 to 18 and their parents. Mothers (n = 135) and fathers (n = 98) of participating teens completed the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. Mothers and fathers of adolescents with ADHD reported more stress than parents of adolescents without ADHD with regard to their children's challenging behaviors (Adolescent domain stress). Mothers of adolescents with ADHD also reported that they experienced elevated levels of stress in terms of role restrictions, feelings of social alienation, conflict with their partner, feelings of guilt and incompetence (Parent domain stress), and relationship with their children (Adolescent-Parent Relationship domain stress; APR). The extent to which clinical levels of adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms or externalizing behavior in general were associated with parenting stress depended on the rater of these behaviors. Parenting stress was associated with higher levels of ODD and other externalizing behaviors when these behaviors were rated by parents but not when they were rated by teachers. In addition, over and above adolescent ADHD classification, mothers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with higher parenting stress in the Adolescent and Parent domains, and fathers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with lower APR stress. The results suggest directions that should be considered for addressing parenting stress when designing interventions for families of adolescents with ADHD.

  17. Boys with Asperger's disorder, exceptional verbal intelligence, tics, and clumsiness.

    PubMed

    Nass, R; Gutman, R

    1997-10-01

    Five boys with both Asperger's disorder and Tourette syndrome, exceptional verbal intelligence, and clumsiness are reported. Each presented at early elementary school age with a prominent complaint of social difficulties with peers. History was notable for a flapping stereotypy and the neurological examination revealed motor and/or vocal tics and numerous motor soft signs. Highly specialized interests were characteristics. Language prosody and/or pragmatics was impaired. Despite exceptional verbal intelligence, the children were not, according to their teachers and parents, faring well either socially or academically. Motor difficulties, manifested psychometrically as a significant performance IQ disadvantage, interfered with school performance and social adjustment. Tics, although not noted by parents in the clinical history, compounded their social difficulties. Asperger's disorder in these highly verbal children overlaps with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) on account of the socioemotional difficulties and stereotypies seen in both. Asperger's disorder and Tourette syndrome overlap in these children on account of the tics. Finally, Asperger's disorder and the right-hemisphere-based learning disorders overlap on account of the visuoperceptual and attentional deficits that can occur in both.

  18. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: convergences and divergences. Genetics].

    PubMed

    Artigas-Pallarés, Josep

    2013-09-06

    According to the DSM-5, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are different conditions that earlier versions of the DSM stated could not be diagnosed together in the same individual. Yet, over the last few decades the debate on the limits between the two disorders has continued, even though ADHD and ASD are undoubtedly clinically and cognitively different phenotypes, as demonstrated by the simple fact that they have been defined in clearly different ways. Thus, from a perspective anchored in a purely phenomenological view, there would be no grounds whatsoever on which to question the independence between the two disorders. Since, at the present time, the discussion on the convergence between ADHD and ASD cannot be considered to have been solved, this study aims to take the data available from genetics as the basis on which to review the nosological position of the two disorders. The main studies that have addressed this issue are reviewed. The data collected agree on a genetic overlap between ADHD and ASD, which is influenced by common molecular mechanisms that affect the two disorders at the same time. The conclusions that can be drawn from the data collected suggest a new conceptual model not only for ADHD and ASD, but also for complex mental disorders in general. This line of research will transform the way of understanding the treatment of mental disorders and will almost certainly open up new perspectives in this area.

  19. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-01-18

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Telemental Health

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Nancy B.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Geyer, John R.; DeSalvo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders diagnosed in children and adolescents (youth). ADHD is equally distributed geographically, but services are not. Access to expert evaluation and treatment remains limited for youth with ADHD living in rural areas, as well as for ethnic and racial minority youth. Telepsychiatry is a service delivery model with the potential to reach these youth and to develop collaborative models of care among local primary care physicians, remote telepsychiatrists, and local families. Care delivered through telepsychiatry can readily adhere to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Work to date indicates that ADHD is the most common disorder treated through telepsychiatry. This article reviews the status of child and adolescent telepsychiatry, with particular focus on its potential to improve the care and outcomes of underserved populations of youth diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:20625857

  1. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30. Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.

  2. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. Aims To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Method Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30. Results Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Conclusions Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women. PMID:23661765

  3. Toward a theory of childhood learning disorders, hyperactivity, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Mawson, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance.

  4. Toward a Theory of Childhood Learning Disorders, Hyperactivity, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mawson, Anthony R.

    2012-01-01

    Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance. PMID:23762766

  5. A Genetic Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Reading Disability: Aetiological Overlaps and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence; Pieka, Jan; Hay, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occurs with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Reading Disability. Twin studies are an important approach to understanding and modelling potential causes of such comorbidity. Univariate and bivariate genetic models were fitted to maternal report data from 2040 families of…

  6. Psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the major psychosocial treatments that have some efficacy for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Parent training in effective child behavior management methods, classroom behavior modification methods and academic interventions, and special educational placement appear to have the greatest promise of efficacy. Augmenting these, additional family therapy in problem-solving and communication skills and the coordination of multiple school resources across the day may be necessary. To be effective in improving prognosis, treatments must be maintained over extended periods of time.

  7. The nursing student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Martha J; Salzer, Judith Schurr

    2003-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in college-age students presents a complex challenge of coping with academic coursework, refining life skills, and addressing self-limitations. Behaviors that characterize ADHD are particularly problematic for nursing students, especially when the student has difficulty with behaviors that exemplify executive functioning. The authors discuss symptoms and treatments associated with the diagnosis of ADHD and evaluation and interventions for college students, based on guidelines from the Americans With Disabilities Act. Nursing faculty can facilitate academic success by recognizing the problem in nursing students and implementing strategies useful for self-management of ADHD.

  8. Elimination diets' efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ly, Verena; Bottelier, Marco; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N

    2017-02-11

    Nutrition plays an important role in neurodevelopment. This insight has led to increasing research into the efficacy of nutrition-related interventions for treating neurodevelopmental disorders. This review discusses an elimination diet as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder, with a focus on the efficacy of the food additives exclusion diet, gluten-free/casein-free diet and oligoantigenic diet. Furthermore, we discuss the potential mechanisms of elimination diets' effects in these neurodevelopmental disorders. The main candidate mechanism is the microbiome-gut-brain axis possibly involving complex interactions between multiple systems, including the metabolic, immune, endocrine, and neural system. We conclude with practical implications and future directions into the investigation of an elimination diet's efficacy in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

  9. Examining Executive Functioning in Boys with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gordon, Michael

    This study examined executive functioning (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys ages 6-12 on a parent-report measure from Barkley's model. Mothers of 40 boys (20 with ADHD-HI or ADHD-C, and 20 without ADHD) completed the ADHD Symptom Checklist (ADHD-SC4), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-P), School-Home Information Profile…

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). NetNews. Volume 7, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder that is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Between 3% and 7% of school-aged children are affected by ADHD. ADHD is a lifespan condition that affects children, adolescents and adults of all ages. It…

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Rasch Analysis of the SWAN Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deidra J.; Levy, Florence; Martin, Neilson C.; Hay, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been estimated at 3-7% in the population. Children with this disorder are often characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity, which can significantly impact on many aspects of their behaviour and performance. This study investigated the…

  12. Use of Digital Console Game for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chih

    2010-01-01

    ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that…

  13. Attributional Responses to Students with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Who Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jamie G.; Benton, Stephen L.

    2005-01-01

    Preservice teachers' responses to students with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder who reportedly failed a classroom test were investigated. Undergraduate students (n=49), during their semester of student teaching, rated six vignettes that varied by student gender, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, and medication…

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Rasch Analysis of the SWAN Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deidra J.; Levy, Florence; Martin, Neilson C.; Hay, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been estimated at 3-7% in the population. Children with this disorder are often characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity, which can significantly impact on many aspects of their behaviour and performance. This study investigated the…

  18. [Attention deficit - hyperactivity disorder and enuresis in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Zavadenko, N N; Kolobova, N M; Suvorinova, N Iu

    2010-01-01

    Frequency of comorbid disorders and neuropsychological state, executive functions (EF), were studied in two groups of patients aged from 5 to 14 years: 53 patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the association with enuresis and 71 patients with ADHD without enuresis. The most cases of enuresis (50 out of 53 patients) were represented by primary nocturnal enuresis. The significant increase of total number of ADHD cases with comorbidity for oppositional-defiant disorder, anxiety disorder, tics or encopresis (77.7%) was found in the first group compared to the second one (60.6%). The presence of enuresis in ADHD was associated with the significant increase of frequency of anxiety disorders (54.7% versus 39.4%). Moreover, in the group of patients with ADHD and enuresis, the frequency of oppositional-defiant disorder and encopresis was higher in the age of 5-9 years while the frequency of obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics increased in the period of 10-14 years as compared to patients without enuresis. The assessment of executive functions with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test did not reveal any differences between patients of two groups.

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Hyperactive Boys: Comparative and Combined Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of two interventions on hyperactive children's (N=24) social behavior. Results indicated that both methylphenidate (Ritalin) and reinforced self-evaluation were superior to the contrast treatments. Medication plus cognitive-behavioral self-evaluation proved optimal, and placebo plus reinforcement alone was significantly worse…

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Hyperactive Boys: Comparative and Combined Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of two interventions on hyperactive children's (N=24) social behavior. Results indicated that both methylphenidate (Ritalin) and reinforced self-evaluation were superior to the contrast treatments. Medication plus cognitive-behavioral self-evaluation proved optimal, and placebo plus reinforcement alone was significantly worse…

  1. Comorbidity of disruptive behavioral disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--indicator of severity in problematic behavior?

    PubMed

    Nordström, Tanja; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Rodriguez, Alina; Savolainen, Jukka; Moilanen, Irma; Taanila, Anja

    2013-08-01

    Disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both characterized by certain patterns of misbehavior among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine how the comorbidity of DBD and ADHD affects in misbehavior among adolescents. A total of 158 adolescents aged 16-18 years, from a subsample of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), were interviewed with the Finnish translation of the semi-structured Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) in order to obtain DBD, including conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and ADHD diagnoses. The structure of the CD symptoms, obtained from the K-SADS-PL, was compared with the previously formed model about the development of the problematic behavior. The severity of the CD symptoms was compared with adolescents diagnosed with only DBD, only ADHD and with both DBD and ADHD. Also, the associations with other psychiatric disorders diagnosed at age 16 were evaluated. The boys in the study sample were diagnosed with ADHD or with comorbid DBD and ADHD more often than girls. The severity of CD symptoms was statistically significantly associated with the comorbid DBD and ADHD group. The adolescents diagnosed with comorbid DBD and ADHD had an increased risk for anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. The comorbidity of DBD and ADHD seems to indicate the severity of CD symptoms. The comorbidity between DBD and ADHD should be considered in clinical practice because it could indicate more serious problematic behavior than pure disorders alone.

  2. Psychiatric comorbidity distribution and diversities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a study from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yüce, Murat; Zoroglu, Süleyman Salih; Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; Kandemir, Hasan; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine distribution and diversities of psychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in terms of age groups, sex, and ADHD subtype. Materials and methods The sample included 6–18 year old children and adolescents from Turkey (N=108; 83 boys, 25 girls) diagnosed with ADHD. All comorbid diagnoses were determined based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version assessment. Results 96.3% of the cases were found to have at least one psychiatric comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent psychiatric comorbid disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (69.4%) followed by anxiety disorders (49%) and elimination disorders (27.8%). Disruptive behavior disorders were more common in ADHD-combined type. Depression and anxiety disorders were more common in girls. Separation anxiety disorder and elimination disorder were more common in children, whereas depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and social phobia were more common in the adolescents. Conclusion According to our results, when a diagnostic tool was used to assess the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, almost all cases had at least one comorbid diagnosis. Therefore, especially in the clinical sample, ADHD cases should not be solely interpreted with ADHD symptom domains, instead they should be investigated properly in terms of accompanying psychiatric disorders. PMID:24265552

  3. ["Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in forensic psychiatry: A review"].

    PubMed

    Galland, D; Tisserant, I; Notardonato, L

    2017-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and challenging childhood neurobehavioral disorders. ADHD may have behavioral consequences and involvements in minor and serious crimes. Our work aims to establish links between ADHD and forensic psychiatry. A review of international scientific literature concerning the relationship between ADHD and forensic psychiatry was conducted using the PudMed electronic database. We used the Mesh terms: "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" and "forensic psychiatry". We also used the "related articles" function of PubMed, the bibliography of selected articles and the Google Scholar database to identify possible additional papers. The prevalence of ADHD in prison populations may vary but remain higher than those found in the general population. Violence committed by a person with ADHD seems to be against other persons rather than property offences. Reactive-impulsive violence seems to be more prevalent than pro-active instrumental violence. The existence of ADHD does not appear as a risk factor of recidivism. The violence risk may be increased by the occurrence of comorbidities as conduct disorders and mental deficiency. There may exist a preferential association between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder or substance abuse which both increase the risk of violence. To put in perspective forensic psychiatry and ADHD allowed us to identify typology of violence, epidemiological aspect of ADHD in a prison environment and comorbidities involved in the risk of violence. This research permits to precise elements of prevention, diagnosis and assistance in the management of violent behaviour in ADHD and in expert practice. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  5. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  6. Adolescent Boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Experience of Sexuality: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Van Parys, Hanna; Vermeiren, Robert; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder experience their sexuality. Previous research has demonstrated that sexuality is a developmental task for boys with autism spectrum disorder, as it is for their peers. Case studies have suggested a relation between autism spectrum disorder and atypical sexual…

  7. Adolescent Boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Experience of Sexuality: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Van Parys, Hanna; Vermeiren, Robert; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder experience their sexuality. Previous research has demonstrated that sexuality is a developmental task for boys with autism spectrum disorder, as it is for their peers. Case studies have suggested a relation between autism spectrum disorder and atypical sexual…

  8. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  9. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.

  10. [Genetic findings in Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Schimmelmann, Benno Graf; Friedel, Susann; Christiansen, Hanna; Dempfle, Astrid; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2006-11-01

    Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent psychiatric disorder with a prevalence rate of 3-7%. Formal genetic studies provided an estimated heritability of 0.6-0.8 and an approximately five-fold elevated risk for ADHD in first-degree relatives. Currently, four genome scans have led to the identification of chromosomal regions potentially relevant in ADHD; especially the evidence for linkage to chromosome 5p13 is convincing. Meta-analyses of a large number of candidate gene studies suggest association with gene variants of the dopaminergic receptors DRD4 and DRD5, the serotonergic receptor HTR1B, and the synaptosomal receptor protein (SNAP-25). Hyperactivity has been investigated particularly in animal models, focusing on knockout- and quantitative trait loci (QTL) designs, with promising results for the dopaminergic system. It is likely that several gene polymorphisms with moderate to small effect sizes contribute to the phenotype ADHD; different combinations of such predisposing variants presumably underlie ADHD in different individuals. Therefore, large samples for molecular genetic studies are mandatory to detect these polymorphisms. Accordingly, several of today's findings have to be regarded as preliminary. The understanding of ADHD's neurobiology may be advanced by new technologies, such as SNP-based genome scans performed with gene chips comprising 10,000-1,000,000 SNPs, as well as using more sophisticated animal model designs.

  11. Decreased callosal thickness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L; Hamilton, Liberty S; Phillips, Owen R; Thompson, Paul M; Valle, Jessica S; Del'Homme, Melissa; Strickland, Tony; McCracken, James T; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed structural abnormalities in the brains of affected individuals. One of the most replicated alterations is a significantly smaller corpus callosum (CC), for which conflicting reports exist with respect to the affected callosal segments. We applied novel surface-based geometrical modeling methods to establish the presence, direction, and exact location of callosal alterations in ADHD at high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we calculated the thickness of the CC at 100 equidistant midsagittal points in an age-matched male sample of 19 individuals with ADHD and 19 typically developing control subjects. In close agreement with many prior observations, the CC was shown to be significantly thinner in ADHD subjects in anterior and, particularly, posterior callosal sections. Covarying for intelligence did not significantly alter the observed ADHD effects. However, group differences were no longer present in anterior sections when covarying for brain volume and after excluding ADHD subjects comorbid for oppositional defiant disorder. Decreased callosal thickness may be associated with fewer fibers or a decrease in the myelination of fibers connecting the parietal and prefrontal cortices. This might affect interhemispheric communication channels that are necessary to sustain attention or motor control, thus contributing to symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, or inattention, observed in ADHD. Future studies are necessary to determine whether callosal abnormalities reflect maturational delays or persist into adulthood.

  12. Modafinil in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Rugino, Thomas A; Samsock, Teresa C

    2003-08-01

    Previous clinical evidence suggested that modafinil may improve clinical features of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. To test this hypothesis, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design was used. Of 24 children initially randomized into the study, 11 control subjects and 11 treatment patients completed the study, with evaluation before medication and after 5 to 6 weeks. The average Test of Variables of Attention attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder z score improved by 2.53 S.D.s for the modafinil group compared with a decline of 1.02 for control patients (P < or = 0.02). Conners Rating Scales ADHD total t scores for the modafinil group improved from 76.6 to 68.2 compared with improvement from 77.7 to 76.0 for control subjects (P = 0.04). Ten of 11 treatment patients were reported as "significantly" improved, whereas eight of 11 control subjects were reported as manifesting "no" or "slight" improvement (P < 0.001). Adverse effects were few and manageable, with no anorexia. Modafinil may be a useful treatment for children with ADHD, particularly when anorexia limits use of stimulants.

  13. Temperament and character as endophenotype in adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sizoo, Bram B; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that all the endophenotypic impairments that were reviewed in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder were also present in autism spectrum disorder, suggesting a continuity model with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as "a light form of autism spectrum disorder." Using existing data, 75 adults with autism spectrum disorder and 53 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder were directly compared on autistic symptoms with the autism spectrum quotient, and on the endophenotypic measure of temperament and character, using the Abbreviated (Dutch: Verkorte) Temperament and Character Inventory. Based on the hypothesis that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder are disorders on a continuous spectrum, autism spectrum quotient scores and abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory scores were expected to be different from normal controls in both disorders in a similar direction. In addition, the autism spectrum quotient and abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory scores were expected to be closely correlated. These conditions applied to only two of the seven Abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory scales (harm avoidance and self-directedness), suggesting that temperament and character as an endophenotype of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder provides only partial support for the continuity hypothesis of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Shared and disorder-specific task-positive and default mode network dysfunctions during sustained attention in paediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obsessive/compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Norman, Luke J; Carlisi, Christina O; Christakou, Anastasia; Cubillo, Ana; Murphy, Clodagh M; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Simmons, Andrew; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael; Mataix-Cols, David; Rubia, Katya

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load. Performance and brain activation were compared between groups. Only ADHD patients were impaired in performance. Group by sustained attention load interaction effects showed that OCD patients had disorder-specific middle anterior cingulate underactivation relative to controls and ADHD patients, while ADHD patients showed disorder-specific underactivation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). ADHD and OCD patients shared left insula/ventral IFG underactivation and increased activation in posterior default mode network relative to controls, but had disorder-specific overactivation in anterior default mode regions, in dorsal anterior cingulate for ADHD and in anterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex for OCD. In sum, ADHD and OCD patients showed mostly disorder-specific patterns of brain abnormalities in both task positive salience/ventral attention networks with lateral frontal deficits in ADHD and middle ACC deficits in OCD, as well as in their deactivation patterns in medial frontal DMN regions. The findings suggest that attention performance in the two disorders is underpinned by disorder-specific activation patterns.

  15. Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

    2014-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children (4-8 years) with autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were first enrolled in our research protocols as toddlers. Results revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower cognitive functioning, more severe social impairment, and greater delays in adaptive functioning than children with autism spectrum disorder only. Implications for clinical practice include the need to assess for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at an early age in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research is needed to determine efficacious interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to optimize outcomes.

  16. Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children (4–8 years) with autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were first enrolled in our research protocols as toddlers. Results revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower cognitive functioning, more severe social impairment, and greater delays in adaptive functioning than children with autism spectrum disorder only. Implications for clinical practice include the need to assess for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at an early age in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research is needed to determine efficacious interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to optimize outcomes. PMID:23739542

  17. Internet Addiction and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Aviv; Yaacov, Yafa; Manning, Michal; Danon, Pinhas; Weizman, Abraham

    2015-12-01

    Use of the internet and videogames by children and adolescents has risen dramatically over the last decade. Increasing evidence of internet and videogame addiction among children is causing concern due to its harmful physical, emotional and social consequences. There is also emerging evidence for an association between computer and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the relationship between ADHD and internet addiction. We compared 50 male schoolchildren, mean age 13 years, diagnosed with ADHD to 50 male schoolchildren without ADHD on measures of internet addiction, internet use and sleep patterns. Children with ADHD had higher scores on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), used the internet for longer hours, and went to sleep later than those without ADHD. These findings indicate an association of ADHD, sleep disorders and internet/videogame addiction.

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Efron, Daryl

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder and one of the main diagnoses seen by general paediatricians today. Despite the impression often portrayed in the media, it is not a new condition; in fact it has been described for over 200 years. The past 50 years has seen a progressive increase in our understanding of the underlying neurocognitive deficits in ADHD, and over the past 20 years behavioural genetics and neuroimaging studies have shed light on the complex causal factors and neurobiological processes operating. The plethora of ADHD research has advanced our knowledge of the condition, but so far has had little impact on improving clinical practice. Stimulant medication has been the mainstay of symptomatic treatment for over 30 years; however, it is still unclear how developmental trajectories can be modified to achieve best outcomes. It is hoped that novel therapies and more individualised management will evolve over the coming decades.

  19. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Cinnamon Bidwell, L; Dew, Rachel E; Kollins, Scott H

    2010-10-01

    Pharmacologic management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded beyond stimulant medications to include alpha-2 adrenergic agonists. These agents exert their actions through presynaptic stimulation and likely involve facilitation of dopamine and noradrenaline neurotransmission, both of which are thought to play critical roles in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Furthermore, frontostriatal dysfunction giving rise to neuropsychological weaknesses has been well-established in patients with ADHD and may explain how alpha-2 agents exert their beneficial effects. In the following review, we consider relevant neurobiological underpinnings of ADHD with respect to why alpha-2 agents may be effective in treating this condition. We also review new formulations of alpha-2 agonists, emerging data on their use in ADHD, and implications for clinical practice. Integrating knowledge of pathophysiologic mechanisms and mechanisms of drug action may inform our medication choices and facilitate treatment of ADHD and related disorders.

  20. Alpha-2 Adrenergic Receptors and Attention—Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Dew, Rachel E.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded beyond stimulant medications to include alpha 2 adrenergic agonists. These agents exert their actions through presynaptic stimulation and likely involve facilitation of both dopamine and noradrenaline neurotransmission, which are both thought to play critical roles in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Further, frontostratial dysfunction giving rise to neuropsychological weaknesses has been well-established in patients with ADHD and may explain how alpha 2 agents exert their beneficial effects. In the following review, we consider relevant neurobiological underpinnings of ADHD with respect to why alpha 2 agents may be effective in treating this condition. We also review new formulations of alpha 2 agonists, emerging data on their use in ADHD, and implications for clinical practice. Integrating knowledge of pathphysiological mechanisms and mechanisms of drug action may inform our medication choices and facilitate treatment of ADHD and related disorders. PMID:20652773

  1. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  2. Clinical utility of EEG in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Loo, Sandra K; Barkley, Russell A

    2005-01-01

    Electrophysiological measures were among the first to be used to study brain processes in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.], American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and have been used as such for over 30 years (see Hastings & Barkley, 1978, for an early review). More recently, electroencephalography (EEG) has been used both in research to describe and quantify the underlying neurophysiology of ADHD, but also clinically in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD. This review will first provide a brief overview of EEG and then present some of the research findings of EEG correlates in ADHD. Then, the utility of EEG in making an ADHD diagnosis and predicting stimulant response will be examined. Finally, and more controversially, we will review the results of the most recent studies on EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) as a treatment for ADHD and the issues that remain to be addressed in the research examining the efficacy this therapeutic approach.

  3. [Psychotherapy in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    George, Gisèle

    2002-11-15

    Alone or used with psychostimulants, psychotherapy is the keystone of the treatment in children attention deficit disorder hyperactivity (ADHD). This article explains in which matter psychotherapy is essential. To be well done, it's necessary before starting the treatment to analyze precisely the disorder and how it interferes with the child's environment. It describes how this functional analysis must be done in order to be more precise in the choice of the treatment objectives. This article explains why in children ADHD treatment, the individual therapy must be associated with a family training and describes briefly the more studied and recognized psychotherapy techniques in those children ADHD and how other partners (teacher, speech or motor therapist) are also useful.

  4. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brieber, Sarah; Neufang, Susanne; Bruning, Nicole; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fink, Gereon R.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two distinct neurodevelopmental diseases, they share behavioural, neuropsychological and neurobiological characteristics. For the identification of endophenotypes across diagnostic categories, further investigations of phenotypic overlap…

  5. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brieber, Sarah; Neufang, Susanne; Bruning, Nicole; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fink, Gereon R.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two distinct neurodevelopmental diseases, they share behavioural, neuropsychological and neurobiological characteristics. For the identification of endophenotypes across diagnostic categories, further investigations of phenotypic overlap…

  6. Narrative Skill in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estigarribia, Bruno; Martin, Gary E.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Spencer, Amy; Gucwa, Agnieszka; Sideris, John

    2011-01-01

    We examined recalled narratives of boys with fragile X syndrome with autism spectrum disorder (FXS-ASD; N = 28) and without ASD (FXS-O; N = 29), and compared them to those of boys with Down syndrome (N = 33) and typically developing (TD) boys (N = 39). Narratives were scored for mentions of macrostructural story grammar elements (introduction,…

  7. Tentative Evidence for Striatal Hyperactivity in Adolescent Cannabis Using Boys: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Gerry; Block, Robert I.; Luijten, Maartje; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents' risk-taking behavior has been linked to a maturational imbalance between reward (“go”) and inhibitory-control (“stop”) related brain circuitry. This may drive adolescent drug-taking, such as cannabis use. In this study we assessed the non-acute effects of adolescent cannabis use on reward-related brain function. We performed a two-site (United States and Netherlands; pooled data) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with a cross-sectional design. Twenty-one abstinent but frequent cannabis-using boys were compared with 24 non-using peers on reward-related brain function, using a monetary incentive delay task with fMRI. Focus was on anticipatory and response stages of reward and brain areas critically involved in reward processing like the striatum. Performance in users was normal. Region-of-interest analysis indicated striatal hyperactivity during anticipatory stages of reward in users. Intriguingly, this effect was most pronounced during non-rewarding events. Striatal hyperactivity in adolescent cannabis users may signify an overly sensitive motivational brain circuitry. Frequent cannabis use during adolescence may induce diminished ability to disengage the motivational circuit when no reward can be obtained. This could strengthen the search for reinforcements like drugs of abuse, even when facing the negative (non-rewarding) consequences. PMID:23909003

  8. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  9. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  10. Are pervasive developmental disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder distinct disorders?

    PubMed

    Hattori, Junri; Ogino, Tatsuya; Abiru, Kiyoko; Nakano, Kousuke; Oka, Makio; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2006-07-01

    We studied the relationship between patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and those with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), using the High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and ADHD Rating Scale-IV. The ASSQ scores of the PDD group and the ADHD group were significantly higher than the control group. Furthermore, the PDD group scored higher than the ADHD group. Both groups also showed higher scores than the control group in all three domains, that is, restricted and repetitive behavior, social interaction, and communication problem. The PDD and the ADHD group showed no significant difference in the domains of communication problem, and restricted and repetitive behavior. The PDD group had a higher score than the ADHD group only in the social interaction domain. In total score, inattention score, and hyperactivity/impulsivity score on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, both groups were significantly higher than the control group. Between the ADHD and the PDD groups, there was no significant difference in the three scores. The patients with strictly diagnosed ADHD had many PDD-related symptoms, and the patients with PDD had many ADHD-related symptoms. It therefore seems difficult to make a distinction between ADHD and PDD by using the present diagnostic criteria in the DSM-IV. We should evaluate each patient in terms of both sets of criteria.

  11. Co-morbidity in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Study from India.

    PubMed

    Jacob, P; Srinath, S; Girimaji, S; Seshadri, S; Sagar, J V

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatry centre. A total of 63 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were comprehensively assessed for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities. The tools used included the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS), Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. All except 1 subject had neurodevelopmental and / or psychiatric disorder co-morbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; 66.7% had both neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Specific learning disability was the most common co-existing neurodevelopmental disorder and oppositional defiant disorder was the most common psychiatric co-morbidity. The mean baseline ADHD-RS scores were significantly higher in the group with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially in the group with oppositional defiant disorder. Co-morbidity is present at a very high frequency in clinic-referred children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric co-morbidity, specifically oppositional defiant disorder, has an impact on the severity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Co-morbidity needs to be explicitly looked for during evaluation and managed appropriately.

  12. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    PubMed

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment.

  13. Antecedents of opioid dependence and personality disorder: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Modestin, J; Matutat, B; Würmle, O

    2001-01-01

    Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) were explored as possible antecedents of opioid dependence and personality disorder. One hundred adult opioid-dependent, treatment-seeking male inpatients were explored; an extended clinical semistructured interview to collect sociodemographic, drug use related, and clinical data and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV personality disorders SCID-II were carried out. Four groups of patients, namely ADHD alone (4 patients), ADHD + CD (7 patients), CD alone (47 patients) and no ADHD/no CD (42 patients) were identified and compared with each other. The results indicate that ADHD alone does not predispose to the development of opioid dependence in male inpatients. Childhood ADHD may nevertheless be found more frequently in male opioid addicts due to its comorbidity with CD, which was identified in more than half of our sample. Patients with ADHD history seemed to go through the drug abuse career earlier and to develop more frequently histrionic and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Over half of the CD patients developed borderline and/or antisocial personality disorder; both ADHD and CD predispose significantly to the PD development. Early substance use preventive measures are necessary in children and adolescents suffering from CD and from ADHD comorbid with CD.

  14. Otoacoustic emissions measured in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Dennis; Westhafer, J. Gregory; Pasanen, Edward G.; Tucker, David M.; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2003-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally acknowledged to be more prevalent in males than in females. Further, some precursors to ADHD appear early in life. Together these facts suggest that ADHD may be influenced by androgenic mechanisms operating early in development. This reasoning raises the question of whether the otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) of children with ADHD are masculinized. Click-evoked OAEs were measured for one click level in 8 boys and 3 girls diagnosed as ADHD/Combined, in 11 males and 5 females diagnosed as ADHD/Inattentive (IA), and in 17 male and 18 female controls. The ages of these samples ranged between 7 and 15. As in adults, the CEOAEs of the control males were weaker than those of the control females. Further, the CEOAEs of the ADHD/IA males were weaker than in the control males (a hypermasculinization) and the CEOAEs of the IA females were weaker than in the female controls (a masculinization). The CEOAEs of the Combined groups were slightly stronger (feminized) than those of the control males and females. One interpretation is that the IA subgroup of ADHD boys and girls (but not the Combined subgroup) was exposed to higher-than-normal levels of androgens sometime early in development. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  15. Maternal attributions, affect, and parenting in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comparison families.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Alyson C; Hoza, Betsy

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to simultaneously examine maternal attributions, affect, and parenting in mothers of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using a multimethod approach (vignettes, confederate child video clips, and video clips of mother's own child). Of the participants, 23 were 7- to 12-year-old children (19 boys, 4 girls) with ADHD and their mothers, and 29 were 7- to 12-year-old comparison children (21 boys, 8 girls) and their mothers. Results indicated that mothers of children with ADHD attributed inattentive-impulsive behavior to less controllable and intentional factors and reported more negative affect and power assertive parenting in response to it than comparison mothers. They also attributed this behavior to more internal factors than comparison mothers but only when viewing their own children and to more global/stable factors but only when viewing their own children or a confederate child. Interestingly, mothers of children with ADHD reported more positive parenting in response to prosocial behavior while attributing this behavior to less controllable and global/stable factors than comparison mothers; compliance also was seen as less controllable, global/stable, and intentional by mothers of children with ADHD.

  16. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with altered heart rate asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerová, I; Ondrejka, I; Farský, I; Višňovcová, Z; Mešťaník, M; Javorka, M; Jurko, A; Čalkovská, A

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with complex neurocardiac integrity. We aimed to study heart rate time asymmetry as a nonlinear qualitative feature of heart rate variability indicating complexity of cardiac autonomic control at rest and in response to physiological stress (orthostasis) in children suffering from ADHD. Twenty boys with ADHD and 20 healthy age-matched boys at the age of 8 to 12 years were examined. The continuous ECG was recorded in a supine position and during postural change from lying to standing (orthostasis). Time irreversibility indices - Porta's (P%), Guzik's (G%) and Ehlers' (E) - were evaluated. Our analysis showed significantly reduced heart rate asymmetry indices at rest (P%: 49.8 % vs. 52.2 %; G%: 50.2 % vs. 53.2 %; p<0.02), and in response to orthostatic load (P%: 52.4 % vs. 54.5 %, G%: 52.3 % vs. 54.5 %; p<0.05) associated with tachycardia in ADHD children compared to controls. Concluding, our study firstly revealed the altered heart rate asymmetry pattern in children suffering from ADHD at rest as well as in response to posture change from lying to standing (orthostasis). These findings might reflect an abnormal complex cardiac regulatory system as a potential mechanism leading to later cardiac adverse outcomes in ADHD.

  17. Balance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hsun-Ying; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Yang, Ai-Lun; Su, Chia-Ting

    2014-06-01

    The balance ability in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-C) has not been fully examined, particularly dynamic sitting balance. Moreover, the findings of some published studies are contradictory. We examined the static and dynamic sitting balance ability in 20 children with ADHD-C (mean age: 9 years 3 months; 18 boys, 2 girls) and 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-, and IQ-matched healthy and typically developing controls (mean age: 9 years 2 months; 18 boys, 2 girls). The balance subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) were used to compare the two groups, and a mechanical horseback riding test was recorded using a motion-capture system. Compared with the controls, children with ADHD-C had less-consistent patterns of movement, more deviation of movement area, and less-effective balance strategies during mechanical horseback riding. In addition, their performance on the balance subtests of the MABC and BOTMP were not as well as those of the controls. Our findings suggest that balance ability skill levels in children with ADHD-C were generally not as high as those of the controls in various aspects, including static and dynamic balance.

  18. Neural mechanisms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms are stratified by MAOA genotype.

    PubMed

    Nymberg, Charlotte; Jia, Tianye; Lubbe, Steven; Ruggeri, Barbara; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Barker, Gareth; Büchel, Christian; Fauth-Buehler, Mira; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Salatino-Oliveira, Angelica; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor; Smolka, Michael; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rubia, Katya; Loth, Eva; Schumann, Gunter

    2013-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in reward sensitivity and response inhibition. The relative contribution of these frontostriatal mechanisms to ADHD symptoms and their genetic determinants is largely unexplored. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and genetic analysis of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, we investigated how striatal and inferior frontal activation patterns contribute to ADHD symptoms depending on MAOA genotype in a sample of adolescent boys (n = 190). We demonstrate an association of ADHD symptoms with distinct blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses depending on MAOA genotype. In A hemizygotes of the expression single nucleotide polymorphism rs12843268, which express lower levels of MAOA, ADHD symptoms are associated with lower ventral striatal BOLD response during the monetary incentive delay task and lower inferior frontal gyrus BOLD response during the stop signal task. In G hemizygotes, ADHD symptoms are associated with increased inferior frontal gyrus BOLD response during the stop signal task in the presence of increased ventral striatal BOLD response during the monetary incentive delay task. Depending on MAOA genotype, ADHD symptoms in adolescent boys are associated with either reward deficiency or insufficient response inhibition. Apart from its mechanistic interest, our finding may aid in developing pharmacogenetic markers for ADHD. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  19. Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Heather A; Jung, Leah; Murphy, Tanya K

    2011-10-01

    Tic disorders impact quality of life, but when they are co-occurring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the combined impact takes a toll on psychosocial functioning and adds another layer of complexity to treatment approaches. A review of the current literature supports evidence of a unique relationship between comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders, emphasizing the intricate phenotype and impairment associated with these co-occurring conditions. The complexity of these symptoms requires careful diagnosis and appropriate treatment as determined by the level of impairment and can include pharmacotherapy, behavioral interventions, or a combination of therapies. To achieve the greatest benefits in improving quality of life and eliminating further comorbidity, an ideal treatment plan would include a comprehensive evaluation as well as a hierarchical treatment approach involving education of the child, family, and teachers; careful medication management; and cognitive and behavioral training.

  20. Association between childhood dimensions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adulthood clinical severity of bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Etain, Bruno; Lajnef, M; Loftus, J; Henry, C; Raust, A; Gard, S; Kahn, J P; Leboyer, M; Scott, J; Bellivier, F

    2017-04-01

    Clinical features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be frequently observed in cases with bipolar disorders and associated with greater severity of bipolar disorders. Although designed as a screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Wender Utah Rating Scale could, given its factorial structure, be useful in investigating the early history of impulsive, inattentive or mood-related symptoms among patients with bipolar disorders. We rated the Wender Utah Rating Scale in 276 adult bipolar disorder cases and 228 healthy controls and tested its factorial structure and any associations with bipolar disorder phenomenology. We confirmed a three-factor structure for the Wender Utah Rating Scale (' impulsivity/temper', ' inattentiveness' and ' mood/self-esteem'). Cases and controls differed significantly on Wender Utah Rating Scale total score and sub-scale scores ( p-values < 10(-5)). About 23% of bipolar disorder cases versus 5% of controls were classified as ' WURS positive' (odds ratio = 5.21 [2.73-9.95]). In bipolar disorders, higher Wender Utah Rating Scale score was associated with earlier age at onset, severity of suicidal behaviors and polysubstance misuse; multivariate analyses, controlling for age and gender, confirmed the associations with age at onset ( p = 0.001) and alcohol and substance misuse ( p = 0.001). Adults with bipolar disorders who reported higher levels of childhood symptoms on the Wender Utah Rating Scale presented a more severe expression of bipolar disorders in terms of age at onset and comorbidity. The Wender Utah Rating Scale could be employed to screen for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder but also for ' at-risk behaviors' in adult bipolar disorder cases and possibly for prodromal signs of early onset in high-risk subjects.

  1. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, comorbidities, and risk situations.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Marcelo C; Reinhardt, Caciane A U

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent, and its symptoms often represent a significant public health problem; thus, the aim of this study was to verify emergency situations caused by certain comorbidities, or by exposing the patient to a higher risk of accidents. A literature search was carried out in the PubMed database between the years 1992 and 2012, using the key words "adhd", "urgency", "comorbidity", "substance disorder", "alcohol", "eating disorder", "suicide", "trauma", "abuse", "crime", "internet", "videogame", "bullying", and their combinations. The selection considered the most relevant articles according to the scope of the proposed topic, performed in a non-systematic way. Several situations were observed in which ADHD is the most relevant psychiatric diagnosis in relation to its urgency, such as the risk of accidents, suicide risk and addition, exposure to violence, or risk of internet abuse or sexual abuse; or when ADHD is the most prevalent comorbidity and is also correlated with emergency situations, such as in bipolar and eating disorders. The results show several comorbidities and risk situations involving the diagnosis of ADHD, thus reinforcing the importance of their identification for the adequate treatment of this disorder. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Pain Sensitivity in Adolescent Males with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Testing for Associations with Conduct Disorder and Callous and Unemotional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Northover, Clare; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; van Goozen, Stephanie HM

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced processing and experience of aversive emotional cues is a common component of theories on the development and persistence of aggression and antisocial behaviour. Yet physical pain, arguably the most basic aversive cue, has attracted comparatively little attention. Methods This study measured pain sensitivity and physiological response to painful stimuli (skin conductance level, SCL) in adolescent boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 183), who are at high risk for antisocial behaviour. We compared boys with ADHD with and without a comorbid diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (CD) on pain sensitivity, and examined patterns of association between pain measures, on the one hand, and problem severity and callous and unemotional (CU) traits, on the other. Results Boys with comorbid CD exhibited a higher pain threshold and tolerance than boys with ADHD alone, but the groups did not differ in physiology at the time the pain threshold and tolerance were reported. Regression analyses showed that ADHD problem severity positively predicted pain sensitivity, whereas levels of CU traits negatively predicted pain sensitivity. Conclusions These findings on physical pain processing extend evidence of impairments in aversive cue processing among those at risk of antisocial behaviour. The study highlights the importance of considering comorbidity and heterogeneity of disorders when developing interventions. The current findings could be used to identify subgroups within those with ADHD who might be less responsive to interventions that use corrective feedback to obtain behaviour change. PMID:26225935

  3. The alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptor mediates hyperactivity of coloboma mice, a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Kristy J; Hess, Ellen J

    2006-09-01

    Drugs that modify noradrenergic transmission such as atomoxetine and clonidine are increasingly prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the therapeutic targets of these compounds are unknown. Norepinephrine is also implicated in the hyperactivity exhibited by coloboma mice. To identify the receptor subtypes that regulate the hyperactivity, coloboma mice were systematically challenged with adrenergic drugs. The beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol and the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin each had little effect on the hyperactivity. Conversely, the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine reduced the activity of coloboma mice but not control mice. Subtype-selective blockade of alpha(2C)-, but not alpha(2A)- or alpha(2B)-adrenergic receptors, ameliorated hyperactivity of coloboma mice without affecting activity of control mice, suggesting that alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptors mediate the hyperactivity. Localized in the basal ganglia, alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptors are in a prime position to impact locomotor activity and are, therefore, potential targets of pharmacotherapy for ADHD.

  4. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Youth with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Trampush, Joey W.; Harty, Seth C.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment and later substance use disorders (SUDs). We investigated the relationship of childhood maltreatment and other risk factors to SUDs among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Eighty adolescents diagnosed with ADHD when they were 7 to 11…

  5. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Youth with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Trampush, Joey W.; Harty, Seth C.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment and later substance use disorders (SUDs). We investigated the relationship of childhood maltreatment and other risk factors to SUDs among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Eighty adolescents diagnosed with ADHD when they were 7 to 11…

  6. Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bukstein, Oscar

    2008-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders are commonly observed together, particularly in clinical populations of adolescents. The co-occurrence of these problems is common and presents challenges for the clinician in assessment and management. This article will review the extent of the problem, the relationship in terms of risk and prognosis, and management issues, including the use of stimulant and nonstimulant medications and the risk of abuse, misuse, and diversion.

  7. Diagnostic Experiences of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Visser, Susanna N; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Holbrook, Joseph R; Danielson, Melissa L; Bitsko, Rebecca H

    2015-09-03

    This report describes the diagnostic experiences of a sample of children in the United States diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as of 2011–2012. Data were drawn from the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Tourette Syndrome, a follow-up to the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health. The median age at which children with ADHD were first diagnosed with the disorder was 7 years; one-third were diagnosed before age 6. Children with ADHD were diagnosed by a wide variety of health care providers, including primary care physicians and specialists. Regardless of age at diagnosis, the majority of children (53.1%) were first diagnosed by primary care physicians. Notable differences were found by age at diagnosis for two types of specialists. Children diagnosed before age 6 were more likely to have been diagnosed by a psychiatrist, and those diagnosed at ages 6 and over were more likely to have been diagnosed by a psychologist. Among children diagnosed with ADHD, the initial concern about a child’s behavior was most commonly expressed by a family member (64.7%), but someone from school or daycare first expressed concern for about one-third of children later diagnosed with ADHD (30.1%). For approximately one out of five children (18.1%), only family members provided information to the child’s doctor during the ADHD assessment. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  8. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  9. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  10. Callous unemotional traits, autism spectrum disorder symptoms and empathy in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Pijper, Jarla; de Wied, Minet; van Rijn, Sophie; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna; Meeus, Wim

    2016-11-30

    This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12 years. Boys completed a questionnaire measure of empathic sadness and a broader questionnaire measure of affective and cognitive empathy. Parents and teachers reported on CU traits, and parents reported on ASD symptoms. In agreement with predictions, results reveal a negative association between CU traits and empathic sadness, particularly strong for ODD/CD boys with low levels of ASD symptoms. Results also reveal a negative association between ASD symptoms and cognitive empathy. Findings suggest that CU traits and ASD symptoms are associated with distinct empathy deficits with poor empathic sadness being more typical of CU traits than ASD symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Dornelles, Tarcísio Fanha; Barszcz, Karin; Martins, Eduardo Antunes

    2016-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD patients had lower ages on admission (p = 0.004) and at first contact with cocaine (p = 0.033). In ADHD patients, there was a negative correlation between the age at first use of cannabis and the subsequent severity of cannabis use (p = 0.017) and cocaine use (p = 0.033). Though there was no difference in prevalence of drug use among groups, results show that ADHD in patients in therapeutic communities may cause different addiction patterns, such as earlier use of cocaine and admission, and a more severe use of cocaine correlated to earlier contact with cannabis.

  12. Completed suicide, ideation and attempt in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Impey, M; Heun, R

    2012-02-01

      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and suicidal behaviour are common conditions with significant social and emotional morbidity. Although completed suicide in ADHD has been assessed in a previous meta-analysis, other domains of suicidal behaviour such as attempts and ideation have been documented only in individual studies. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the relationship between attention-deficit and suicidality.   Electronic and manual literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHINFO, using a range of search terms around suicidality, attention-deficit and hyperactivity.   Twenty five papers were identified describing a relationship between ADHD and suicide. ADHD occurred more frequently in suicidal groups than controls, with most differences being statistically significant. The direction of results was consistent, with only one sample showing equivocal findings and one showing a reverse pattern. Attempts and ideation were more common in prediagnosed ADHD samples than controls. Three studies showed significant results only for men. Comorbidity had a large influence including delinquency and substance misuse.   There is a positive relationship between ADHD and risk to self. More focussed research needs to take place on younger populations and those without comorbidity. This review highlights the importance of thorough risk assessment in the attention-deficit population. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Sleep microstructure is not altered in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Příhodová, I; Paclt, I; Kemlink, D; Nevšímalová, S

    2012-01-01

    The high rate of occurrence of sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prompted the idea that structural and neurotransmitter changes might give rise to specific sleep pattern abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microstructure of sleep in children with ADHD who had no polysomnographically diagnosed sleep disorder, had never been treated for ADHD, and were free from any psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were 14 patients with ADHD (12 boys and 2 girls aged 7-12 years, mean age 9.6+/-1.6). ADHD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders). Psychiatric comorbidities were ruled out by detailed psychiatric examination. The patients underwent two consecutive overnight video-polysomnographic (PSG) recordings, with the sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern - CAP) scoring during the second night. The data were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Sleep microstructure analysis using CAP revealed no significant differences between the ADHD group and the controls in any of the parameters under study. In conclusions, no ADHD-specific alterations were found in the sleep microstructure.

  14. Maternal Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Dalman, Christina; Widman, Linnea; Arver, Stefan; Lee, Brian K; Magnusson, Cecilia; Gardner, Renee M

    2017-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder, and boys are two to three times more likely to develop ADHD. Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common metabolic disorder associated with excess circulating androgens, has been associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder in the offspring. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether maternal PCOS increases the risk for ADHD in the offspring. We conducted a matched case-control study using health and population data registers for all children born in Sweden from 1984 to 2008. Maternal PCOS was defined by ICD-coded register diagnosis. The outcome of ADHD was defined as an ICD-coded register diagnosis of ADHD and/or registered prescription of medications to treat ADHD. A total of 58,912 ADHD cases (68.8% male) were identified and matched to 499,998 unaffected controls by sex and birth month and year. Maternal PCOS increased the odds of offspring ADHD by 42% after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.58). Exclusion of ADHD cases with comorbid autism spectrum disorder attenuated but did not explain the relationship (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.52). The risk was somewhat elevated for ADHD with comorbid autism spectrum disorder (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.37-2.26). The risk for ADHD was higher among obese mothers with PCOS (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.31-2.17) and was highest among obese mothers with PCOS and other features of metabolic syndrome (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.02-6.58). This study provides evidence that maternal PCOS may subtly influence the neurodevelopment of the offspring, resulting in increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: From parents to children.

    PubMed

    Vélez-van-Meerbeke, A; Talero-Gutiérrez, C; Zamora-Miramón, I; Guzmán-Ramírez, G M

    2017-04-01

    Multiple studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have recognised a heritability factor in that a higher frequency of the disorder is observed in children with an affected relative. Our aim was to determine the association between ADHD symptoms in young children enrolled in five schools in Bogota and a history of ADHD symptoms in their parents using the Wender-Utah Rating Scale. Case-control study of participants selected according to DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC) completed by parents and teachers; the WISC-IV scale was used to exclude children with cognitive deficit. Parents completed the Wender-Utah Rating Scale to retrospectively identify any ADHD symptoms in childhood. A score of 36 was used as a cutoff point. The study included 202 children: 117 cases and 85 controls. A positive history of ADHD symptoms in childhood was identified for 16% of 175 mothers and 20.6% of 141 fathers. The presence of symptoms in either parent, especially the mother, constitutes a significant risk factor for ADHD in children and this relationship persists after controlling for different variables. If both parents have the disorder, the risk tends to increase. Although ADHD has been linked to a genetic component, other environmental factors may be involved in the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. When Is EEG Indicated in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed

    Zaimoğlu, Sennur; Türkdoğan, Dilşad; Mazlum, Betül; Bekiroğlu, Nural; Tetik-Kabil, Aylin; Eyilikeder, Seda

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigated the parameters for predicting epileptiform abnormalities in a group of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 148 subjects aged between 6 and 13 (8.76 ± 1.26; 25.7% female) years. Subtypes of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was applied to all patients. Most of the subjects (89.2%) had wakefulness and sleep electroencephalography examinations lasting about one hour. The authors found out that the coexistence of speech sound disorder (odds ratio [OR] 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-9.48) and higher Digit Span test performance (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.44) predicted the presence of accompanying epileptiform abnormalities. The prevalence of epileptiform abnormalities was 26.4%, and they were frequently localized in the frontal (41%) and centrotemporal (28.2%) regions. Higher percentage of speech sound disorder co-occurrence (64%) in subjects with rolandic spikes suggests that epileptiform abnormalities associated with ADHD can be determined genetically at least in some cases. Pathophysiology of epileptiform abnormalities in ADHD might have complex genetic and maturational background.

  17. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  18. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  19. Influence of methylphenidate on motor performance and attention in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention deficit hyperactive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-06-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children with comorbid DCD and ADHD. Participants were 30 children (24 boys) aged 5.10-12.7 years diagnosed with both DCD and ADHD. Conners' Parent Rating Scale was used to reaffirm ADHD diagnosis and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire was used to diagnose DCD. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 and the online continuous performance test were administrated to all participants twice, with and without methylphenidate. The tests were administered on two separate days in a blind design. Motor performance and attention scores were significantly better with methylphenidate than without it (p<0.001 for improvement in the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 and p<0.006 for the online continuous performance test scores). The findings suggest that methylphenidate improves both attention and motor coordination in children with coexisting DCD and ADHD. More research is needed to disentangle the causality of the improvement effect and whether improvement in motor coordination is directly affected by methylphenidate or mediated by improvement in attention.

  20. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).