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Sample records for hyperplasia tritium tracer

  1. Tritium tracer test to estimate aquifer recharge under irrigated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Tamoh, K.; Candela, L.

    2009-12-01

    Environmental tracers, as tritium, have been generally used to estimate aquifer recharge under natural conditions. A tritium tracer test to estimate recharge under semi-arid and irrigated conditions is presented. The test was carried out in an experimental plot under drip irrigation, located in SE Spain, with annual row crops (rotation lettuce and melon), following common agricultural practices in open air. Tritiated water was applied as an irrigation pulse, soil cores were taken at different depths and a liquid scintillation analyzer was used to measure the concentration of tritium in soil samples. Transport of tritium was simulated with SOLVEG code, a one-dimensional numerical model for simulating transport of heat, water and tritiated water in liquid and gas phase, which has been modified and adapted for this experience, including ground cover, root growth and root water uptake. One crop has been used to calibrate the modeling approach and other three crops to validate it. Results of flow and transport modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated tritium concentration profile. For the period October 2007-September 2008, total drainage obtained value was 441 mm.

  2. Predicted fate of tritium residuum from groundwater tracer experiments in the Amargosa Desert, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Brikowski, T.

    1993-07-01

    Analytic solutions are used in this study to evaluate potential groundwater transport of tritium used in goundwater tracer tests southwest of the Nevada Test Site. Possible transport from this site is of interest because initial radionuclide concentrations were high and the site is close to goundwater discharge points (12 km). Anecdotal evidence indicates that 90 percent of these tracers were removed by pumping at the completion of the tests; this study examines the probable transport of the tracers with and without the removal. Classical dispersive transport analytic solutions are used, treating the tracer test as a point slug injection. Input parameters for the solutions were measured at the site, and consideration of parameter uncertainty is incorporated in the results. With removal of the tracer, the maximum expected region with above-Safe Drinking Water Act (40 CFR 121) concentrations of tritium extends 5 km from the injection point, and does not reach any sites of public access. Detectable tritium from the tests is likely to have reached the Ash Meadows fault zone, but flow along the fault probably diluted the tracer to below detection limits before arrival at springs along the fault. Arrival at the springs would have occurred 20 to 25 years after the tests. Without removal of the tracer, the solutions indicate that tritium concentrations just above Safe Drinking Water Act standards would have reached the Ash Meadows fault zone. In this case, detectable tritium might have been found in Devil`s Hole or Longstreet Spring, the nearest points of possible public exposure.

  3. Tritium tracer movement as an analogy for pump and treat remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    There has been debate over effectiveness of groundwater pump and treat remediation. The goal of the following discussion is to present evidence from a tracer test that illustrates the difficulty in removing contaminants from fractured shale that is typical of portions of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This report provides a brief prelude to more detailed analysis that is in progress. Attempts to remediate groundwater contamination with pump and treat technology have been hampered by difficulties in removing contaminants in slow flow zones. There is interest in using this remediation method on the ORR because it is an existing technology. However, this setting provides a rather extreme contrast between fast flow zones (fractures) and slow flow zones (the matrix surrounding the fractures). Over the past few years, the authors have begun to develop an understanding of how contaminants move in fractures and how contaminant exchange between the fracture and matrix occurs. In particular, they have evidence from a long term tritium tracer test that has direct bearing on potential success or failure of pump and treat remediation in fractured rocks.

  4. Estimating groundwater recharge in Hebei Plain, China under varying land use practices using tritium and bromide tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Jin, M.; Nimmo, J.R.; Yang, L.; Wang, W.

    2008-01-01

    Tritium and bromide were used as applied tracers to determine groundwater recharge in Hebei Plain, North China, to evaluate the impacts of different soil types, land use, irrigation, and crop cultivation practice on recharge. Additional objectives were to evaluate temporal variability of recharge and the effect on results of the particular tracer used. Thirty-nine profiles at representative locations were chosen for investigation. Average recharge rates and recharge coefficient determined by tritium and bromide tracing for different sites were 0.00-1.05 mm/d and 0.0-42.5%, respectively. The results showed relative recharge rates for the following paired influences (items within each pair are listed with the influence producing greater recharge first): flood-irrigated cropland and non-irrigated non-cultivation land, flood irrigation (0.42-0.58 mm/d) and sprinkling irrigation (0.17-0.23 mm/d), no stalk mulch (0.56-0.80 mm/d) and stalk mulch (0.44-0.60 mm/d), vegetable (e.g. Chinese cabbage and garlic, 0.70 mm/d) and wheat-maize (0.38 mm/d), peanut (0.51 mm/d) and peach (0.43 mm/d). The results also showed greater recharge for the first year of tracer travel than for the second. Because total precipitation and irrigation were greater in the first year than in the second, this may reflect temporal variability of recharge. The method may not be applicable where the water table is shallow (less than 3 m). A comparison of the near-ideal tritium tracer with the more common but less ideal bromide showed that bromide moved approximately 23% faster than tritiated water, perhaps because of anion exclusion. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Estimating groundwater recharge in Hebei Plain, China under varying land use practices using tritium and bromide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingguo; Jin, Menggui; Nimmo, John R.; Yang, Lei; Wang, Wenfeng

    2008-07-01

    SummaryTritium and bromide were used as applied tracers to determine groundwater recharge in Hebei Plain, North China, to evaluate the impacts of different soil types, land use, irrigation, and crop cultivation practice on recharge. Additional objectives were to evaluate temporal variability of recharge and the effect on results of the particular tracer used. Thirty-nine profiles at representative locations were chosen for investigation. Average recharge rates and recharge coefficient determined by tritium and bromide tracing for different sites were 0.00-1.05 mm/d and 0.0-42.5%, respectively. The results showed relative recharge rates for the following paired influences (items within each pair are listed with the influence producing greater recharge first): flood-irrigated cropland and non-irrigated non-cultivation land, flood irrigation (0.42-0.58 mm/d) and sprinkling irrigation (0.17-0.23 mm/d), no stalk mulch (0.56-0.80 mm/d) and stalk mulch (0.44-0.60 mm/d), vegetable (e.g. Chinese cabbage and garlic, 0.70 mm/d) and wheat-maize (0.38 mm/d), peanut (0.51 mm/d) and peach (0.43 mm/d). The results also showed greater recharge for the first year of tracer travel than for the second. Because total precipitation and irrigation were greater in the first year than in the second, this may reflect temporal variability of recharge. The method may not be applicable where the water table is shallow (less than 3 m). A comparison of the near-ideal tritium tracer with the more common but less ideal bromide showed that bromide moved approximately 23% faster than tritiated water, perhaps because of anion exclusion.

  6. Parathyroid hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    Enlarged parathyroid glands; Osteoporosis - parathyroid hyperplasia; Bone thinning - parathyroid hyperplasia; Osteopenia - parathyroid hyperplasia; High calcium level - parathyroid hyperplasia; Chronic kidney disease - parathyroid hyperplasia; ...

  7. Simulation of a field scale tritium tracer experiment in a fractured, weathered shale using discrete-fracture/matrix-diffusion and equivalent porous medium models

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, P.L.

    1996-05-01

    Simulations of a tritium tracer experiment in fractured shale saprolite, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, were performed using 1D and 2D equivalent porous medium (EPM) and discrete-fracture/matrix-diffusion (DFMD) models. The models successfully reproduced the general shape of the breakthrough curves in down-gradient monitoring wells which are characterized by rapid first arrival, a slow-moving center of mass, and a persistent ``tail`` of low concentration. In plan view, the plume shows a large degree of transverse spreading with the width almost as great as the length. EPM models were sensitive to dispersivity coefficient values which had to be large (relative to the 3.7m distance between the injection and monitoring wells) to fit the tail and transverse spreading. For example, to fit the tail a longitudinal dispersivity coefficient, {alpha}{sub L}, of 0.8 meters for the 2D simulations was used. To fit the transverse spreading, a transverse dispersivity coefficient, {alpha}{sub T}, of 0.8 to 0.08 meters was used indicating an {alpha}{sub L}/{alpha}{sub T} ratio between 10 and 1. Transverse spreading trends were also simulated using a 2D DFMD model using a few larger aperture fractures superimposed onto an EPM. Of the fracture networks studied, only those with truncated fractures caused transverse spreading. Simulated tritium levels in all of the cases were larger than observed values by a factor of approximately 100. Although this is partly due to input of too much tritium mass by the models it appears that dilution in the wells, which were not purged prior to sampling, is also a significant factor. The 1D and 2D EPM models were fitted to monitoring data from the first five years of the experiment and then used to predict future tritium concentrations.

  8. Dating of young groundwater using tritium and gaseous tracers (SF6, SF5CF3, CFC-12, H-1301): case study from southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Dulinski, Marek; Kuc, Tadeusz; Sliwka, Ireneusz; Mochalski, Pawel; Kania, Jaroslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater is an important source of potable water in many countries. While it covers ca. 50% of the global drinking water needs, in Europe this share is even higher, reaching approximately 70%. Nowadays, this strategic resource is at risk due to anthropogenic pollutants of various nature entering shallow aquifers. Proper management of groundwater resources requires thorough understanding of groundwater dynamics on time scales characteristic for the history of pollutant input to groundwater. The bomb-tritium has been used for several decades now as a tracer of choice to detect recent recharge and to quantify groundwater residence times on time scales extending from several years to several decades. The lumped-parameter modeling was the most often employed approach in this context. Since nowadays atmospheric concentrations of tritium are approaching natural levels in most parts of the world, the usage of this tracer has become more problematic. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alternative indicators of groundwater age in shallow aquifers. Anthropogenic trace gases present in the atmosphere, such as freons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), have been applied in numerous case studies as substitutes of tritium. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study aimed at quantifying mean residence time of groundwater in the recharge area of porous sandy aquifer system located in the southern Poland. The principal economic role of the aquifer, consisting of two water-bearing strata, is to provide potable water for public and private users. The yield of the aquifer is insufficient to meet all the needs and, as a consequence, licensing conflicts arise between water supply companies and industry on the amount of water available for safe exploitation. To quantify residence time distribution (RTD) functions of water parcels arriving at the production wells located in the recharge area of the aquifer, tritium along with several gaseous tracers

  9. Residence time of submarine fresh groundwater discharge in Hachijo Island, Japan: Application of dating tracers of Tritium, CFCs and SF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MOGI, K.; Asai, K.

    2013-12-01

    Hachijo is a volcanic Island in the Western Pacific Ring of Fire. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SGD) distribute around the coastal area of Hachijo Island. In this study, we estimate the residence time of the SGD using the multi age tracer method, to understand the mechanism of SGD. Water samples were collected from 1 SGD, 5 mountain springs and 6 costal wells, and were measured in Tritium, CFCs and SF6 concentrations. All water samples contain detectable tritium, indicating that these waters are mainly recharged at post-bomb period. CFC-12 and SF6 concentration of water samples show wide variations from 163 to 247 pg/kg and from 1.06 to 2.61 fmol/kg, respectively. The SF6-based apparent ages for the mountain springs and shallow well were estimated at less than 6 years, and ranged from 12 to 20 years in the deep wells. Estimated SF6 age of the SGD (13 years) coincide with the age of the deep wells, suggesting that the SGD play a role of outlet of deep groundwater.

  10. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream.

  11. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-06-14

    A system is described for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream. 1 fig.

  12. Condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Uma; Chandra, Subhash; Raju, B H V Rama Krishnam; Anitha, G; Srikanth, K Venkata; Laheji, Afshan

    2012-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH), as the name suggests, affects mandibular condyle producing overgrowth of condyle, which is characterized by a slowly progressive, usually unilateral enlargement of the mandible, facial asymmetry and deviation of chin to the unaffected side. The condition is known to be self-limiting, usually begins around puberty, but may not be recognized until later in life. This paper reports a case of severe facial asymmetry secondary to CH, which was successfully treated by high condylectomy only. PMID:23404027

  13. Somatotroph Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Thorner, M. O.; Perryman, R. L.; Cronin, M. J.; Rogol, A. D.; Draznin, M.; Johanson, A.; Vale, W.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.

    1982-01-01

    A 21-yr-old woman with Turner's syndrome presented with signs and symptoms of acromegaly. The serum growth hormone (GH) (95±9.4 ng/ml; mean±SEM) and somatomedin C (11 U/ml) levels were elevated, and an increase in GH levels after glucose instead of normal suppression, increase after thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) administration instead of no change, and decrease after dopamine administration instead of stimulation were observed. The pituitary fossa volume was greater than normal (1,440 mm3) and the presence of a pituitary tumor was assumed. After tissue removal at transsphenoidal surgery, histological study revealed somatotroph hyperplasia rather than a discrete adenoma. Postoperatively, she remained clinically acromegalic and continued to show increased GH and somatomedin levels. A search was made for ectopic source of a growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF). Computer tomographic scan revealed a 5-cm Diam tumor in the tail of the pancreas. Following removal of this tumor, serum GH fell from 70 to 3 ng/ml over 2 h, and remained low for the subsequent 5 mo. Serum somatomedin C levels fell from 7.2 to normal by 6 wk postoperatively. There were no longer paradoxical GH responses to glucose, TRH, and dopamine. Both the medium that held the tumor cells at surgery and extracts of the tumor contained a peptide with GRF activity. The GRF contained in the tumor extract coeluted on Sephadex G-50 chromatography with rat hypothalamic GH-releasing activity. Stimulation of GH from rat somatotrophs in vitro was achieved at the nanomolar range, using the tumor extract. The patient's course demonstrates the importance of careful interpretation of pituitary histology. Elevated serum GH and somatomedin C levels in a patient with an enlarged sella turcica and the characteristic responses seen in acromegaly to TRH, dopamine, and glucose do not occur exclusively in patients with discrete pituitary tumors and acromegaly. This condition can also occur with somatotroph hyperplasia

  14. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  15. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, Gary J.; Weesner, Forrest J.

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  16. Magmatic tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ({sup 3}H) of deep origin (<0.1 T.U. or <0.32 pCi/kg H{sub 2}O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable {sup 3}H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics.

  17. Circulation of tritium in the Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, R.A.; Reid, J.L.; Goete Ostlund, H.

    1981-01-01

    The input of bomb tritium into the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere waters has demonstrated the spread of a tracer in three dimensions in the North Pacific Ocean. Subsurface tritium maxima in middle and low latitudes clearly show the importance of lateral mixing (along isopycnals) in the upper waters. The tritium pattern as mapped on isopycnal surfaces puts definite time bounds on the exchange between the subtropical anticyclonic gyre of the North Pacific and both the subarctic cyclonic gyre and the system of zonal flows in the equatorial region. The penetration of bomb tritium to depths below 1000 m in the western North Pacific Ocean shows that these waters have been ventilated at least partially in the past 17 years of the post-bomb era. From the tritium pattern the upper waters of the North Pacific can be divided into three regions: a mixed layer that exchanges rapidly with the atmosphere, a laterally ventilated intermediate region (between the mixed layer and at most the winter-outcrop isopycnal) that exchanges on decadal time scales with the atmosphere, and a deeper layer penetrated by vertical diffusion alone, with a longer atmospheric exchange time scale. The greatest percentage of the tritium inventory of the North Pacific is in the intermediate region. This indicates that such lateral ventilations, which take place from all high-latitude regions, are a major source of penetration for atmospheric constituents into the oceans on decadal time scales.

  18. Continuous Aqueous Tritium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-03-29

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a custom designed system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillators coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (=25kBz/L) for tritium break-through detection int he aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium releases to the environment.

  19. STAR facility tritium accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelko, R. J.; Sharpe, J. P.; Denny, B. J.

    2008-07-15

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5 g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed. (authors)

  20. STAR Facility Tritium Accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; B. J. Denny

    2007-09-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed.

  1. Tritium in Australian precipitation: A 50 year record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Hughes, Catherine E.; Crawford, Jagoda; Hollins, Suzanne E.; Chisari, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Tritium in precipitation has been measured in Australia over the past 50 years, as an essential research tool in hydro-climate studies, and to contribute to the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tritium, a component of the water molecule (HTO), is the only true age tracer for waters. The elevated level of tritium in the environment as a result of last century’s atmospheric thermonuclear testing delivers the benefit of tracing groundwater systems over a 100 year timeframe. The concentration of tritium in Australian precipitation reached a maximum of 160 Tritium Units (TU) in 1963, during one of the most intense periods of nuclear weapons testing. From 1963 to present we observe a rapid drop in the concentration of tritium, more than expected from natural decay, and this can be attributed to the wash out of tritium into the oceans and groundwater. Spikes in the tritium level are superimposed over this general trend; the first around 1969, with levels ranging from 39.4 to 84.4 TU was due to French atmospheric weapon testing, and again in 1990, levels peaked between 6.6 and 12.9 TU, which is attributed to tritium leaking from underground tests in the French Pacific. Since 1990 the levels of tritium have declined globally and regionally. Currently the levels of tritium in Australia are stabilising to around 2-3 TU increasing with latitude across the continent, suggesting that today the tritium in precipitation is predominantly natural. The spatial distribution of tritium is presented and found to be dominated by the annual stratosphere-troposphere exchange in combination with latitude and continental effects. A precipitation amount effect is also observed for inland sites.

  2. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  3. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

    2002-02-11

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

  4. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  5. Tracer dating and ocean ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Thiele, G.; Sarmiento, J.L. )

    1990-06-15

    The interpretation of transient tracer observations depends on difficult to obtain information on the evolution in time of the tracer boundary conditions and interior distributions. Recent studies have attempted to circumvent this problem by making use of a derived quantity, age, based on the simultaneous distribution of two complementary tracers, such as tritium and its daughter, helium 3. The age is defined with reference to the surface such that the boundary condition takes on a constant value of zero. The authors use a two-dimensional model to explore the circumstances under which such a combination of conservation equations for two complementary tracers can lead to a cancellation of the time derivative terms. An interesting aspect of this approach is that mixing can serve as a source or sink of tracer based age. The authors define an idealized ventilation age tracer that is conservative with respect to mixing, and they explore how its behavior compares with that of the tracer-based ages over a range of advective and diffusive parameters.

  6. Sources of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

  7. Posttraumatic condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Lineaweaver, W; Vargervik, K; Tomer, B S; Ousterhout, D K

    1989-02-01

    Posttraumatic condylar hyperplasia can result in complex facial asymmetry composed of degrees of condylar and ramus overgrowth, malocclusion, and complementary maxillary deformity. Three patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia are described to illustrate the scope of surgical and orthodontic treatment required to restore facial symmetry. Condylar hyperplasia with facial asymmetry should be recognized as a possible consequence of condylar injury, and further delineation of the onset and natural history of this deformity could lead to investigations or intervention before the establishment of all the components of the deformity. PMID:2735713

  8. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U.; Jacqmin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  9. Tritium monitoring techniques

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J.R.; Buckner, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    As part of their operations, the U.S. Navy is required to store or maintain operational nuclear weapons on ships and at shore facilities. Since these weapons contain tritium, there are safety implications relevant to the exposure of personnel to tritium. This is particularly important for shipboard operations since these types of environments can make low-level tritium detection difficult. Some of these ships have closed systems, which can result in exposure to tritium at levels that are below normally acceptable levels but could still cause radiation doses that are higher than necessary or could hamper ship operations. This report describes the state of the art in commercial tritium detection and monitoring and recommends approaches for low-level tritium monitoring in these environments.

  10. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  11. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  12. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  13. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  14. Methods for tritium labeling

    DOEpatents

    Andres, Hendrik; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.

    1993-01-01

    Reagents and processes for reductively introducing deuterium or tritium into organic molecules are described. The reagents are deuterium or tritium analogs of trialkyl boranes, borane or alkali metal aluminum hydrides. The process involves forming these reagents in situ from alkali metal tritides or deuterides.

  15. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOEpatents

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  16. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children, but much shorter ...

  17. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  18. Epithelial hyperplasia

    Cancer.gov

    Increase in number of cuboidal, columnar, ciliated or mucous cells without atypia. Cells maintain normal architecture of bronchioles and alveoli. The main distinctive features of regenerative hyperplasia are absence of direct link to tumor progression, and presence of inflammation and necrosis due to the inflicting toxic agent.

  19. Study of North Atlantic ventilation using transient tracers. Doctoral Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, S.C.

    1991-08-01

    Tritium, (3)He, and chlorofluorocarbon distributions in the North Atlantic provide constraints on the ventilation time-scales for the thermocline and abyssal water. A new model function based on a factor analysis of the WMO/IAEA precipitation data set is developed for predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of bomb-tritium in precipitation. Model atmospheric and advective tritium inputs to the North Atlantic are compared with the observed bomb-tritium inventories calculated from the 1972 GEOSECS and 1981-1983 TTO data sets. The observed growth of bomb-tritium levels in the deep North Atlantic are used, along with the tracer gradients ((3)H and (3)He) in the Deep Western Boundary Current, to estimate abyssal ventilation rates and boundary current recirculation. The surface boundary conditions for different transient tracers are found to profoundly effect thermocline ventilation rates estimates. Tracers that equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere, such as (3)He and the CFCs, have faster apparent ventilation rates and are more appropriate for estimating oxygen utilization rates than tracers that are reset slowly in the surface ocean (e.g. (3)H and (14)C). The chlorofluorocarbon data for a new section in the eastern North Atlantic are presented and used to illustrate the ventilation time-scales for the major water masses in the region. (Copyright (c) Scott C. Doney, 1991.)

  20. Tritium catalyzed deuterium tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.; Jung, J.; Gilligan, J.

    1984-04-01

    A preliminary assessment of the promise of the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium (TCD) tokamak power reactors relative to that of deuterium-tritium (D-T) and catalyzed deuterium (Cat-D) tokamaks is undertaken. The TCD mode of operation is arrived at by converting the /sup 3/He from the D(D,n)/sup 3/He reaction into tritium, by neutron capture in the blanket; the tritium thus produced is fed into the plasma. There are three main parts to the assessment: blanket study, reactor design and economic analysis and an assessment of the prospects for improvements in the performance of TCD reactors (and in the promise of the TCD mode of operation, in general).

  1. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  2. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  3. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOEpatents

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  4. Active unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Luz, J G; de Rezende, J R; de Araújo, V C; Chilvarquer, I

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of active unilateral condylar hyperplasia which were treated with condylectomy alone are presented. The first case was an adult form and the other a juvenile form. Both were classified as active by using 99Tc bone scintigraphy. Clinical and radiographic features of both cases conformed to the hemimandibular hypertrophy type. Satisfactory facial symmetry and dental occlusion were achieved. Histopathological data confirmed the activity of the articular cartilage layers. PMID:8181091

  5. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  6. Neuroendocrine hyperplasia

    Cancer.gov

    Groups of uniform small cells with scant cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei with dense speckled chromatin form clusters thickening bronchiolar wall and/or protruding into the lumen. Immunohistochemical staining for markers of neuroendocrine differentiation, such as synaptophysin, CGRP and chromogranin, is required for accurate identification. Not reported to occur spontaneously. Neuroendocrine hyperplasia must be differentiated from normal groups of neuroendocrine cells found more prominently in some mouse strains.

  7. Distribution of tritium in precipitation and surface water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Patrick A.; Visser, Ate; Moran, Jean E.; Esser, Brad K.

    2016-03-01

    The tritium concentration in the surface hydrosphere throughout California was characterized to examine the reasons for spatial variability and to enhance the applicability of tritium in hydrological investigations. Eighteen precipitation samples were analyzed and 148 samples were collected from surface waters across California in the Summer and Fall of 2013, with repeat samples from some locations collected in Winter and Spring of 2014 to examine seasonal variation. The concentration of tritium in present day precipitation varied from 4.0 pCi/L near the California coast to 17.8 pCi/L in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Concentrations in precipitation increase in spring due to the 'Spring Leak' phenomenon. The average coastal concentration (6.3 ± 1.2 pCi/L) in precipitation matches estimated pre-nuclear levels. Surface water samples show a trend of increasing tritium with inland distance. Superimposed on that trend, elevated tritium concentrations are found in the San Francisco Bay area compared to other coastal areas, resulting from municipal water imported from inland mountain sources and local anthropogenic sources. Tritium concentrations in most surface waters decreased between Summer/Fall 2013 and Winter/Spring 2014 likely due to an increased groundwater signal as a result of drought conditions in 2014. A relationship between tritium and electrical conductivity in surface water was found to be indicative of water provenance and anthropogenic influences such as agricultural runoff. Despite low initial concentrations in precipitation, tritium continues to be a valuable tracer in a post nuclear bomb pulse world.

  8. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Yolanda; Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Zambrano, Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferation of the oral mucosa with well defined clinical and histological characteristics. It has been associated with infection of the oral mucosa by types 13 and 32 of the human papillomavirus (HPV), and to a lesser extent, with other types. Its clinical course is variable, although it usually persists for months or years; cases with spontaneous resolution have been described, as have others with prolonged persistence. We present the case of an Ecuadorian boy whose visit was motivated by lesions in the oral mucosa consistent with a diagnosis of FEH, which were confirmed in the histological study, and in which HPV type 13 DNA was identified.

  9. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Carlino, P; Di Felice, R; Fiore-Donno, G; Samson, J

    1991-05-01

    Five cases of "focal epithelial hyperplasia" (FEH) of the oral mucosa observed in Switzerland are reported. The patients were of Turkish and North African extraction. The lesions of FEH were multiple, painless, located at various sites of the oral mucosa including the tongue in the form of either soft papules or hard nodules. Evidence of a human papilloma virus origin was ascertained. Among the 1067 cases reported in the literature and reviewed for this study, this condition has been described to occur among American Indians, Eskimos and North African, also in Israeli and European cases the disorder was often reported in individuals of Turkish or North African extraction.

  10. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-10-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFTR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory. The system was commissioned and tested in 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and effluent gases from the tokamak. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, Keith; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Kivler, Paul

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. Bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water.

  12. Hypertrichosis with hereditary gingival hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Winter, G. B.; Simpkiss, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two cases of infantile hypertrichosis who subsequently developed oral abnormalities are described. In one case generalized gingival hyperplasia was associated with retarded eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth and macrodontia. In the second case the mucosal hyperplasia was limited to the palatal surface. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4834021

  13. Oncocytic hyperplasia of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Thawley, S E; Berlin, B P; Berkowitz, W P

    1977-07-01

    Oncocytic hyperplasia of the larynx is rare. The lesion most commonly arises from the false vocal chord. A distinction arises between oncocytomas of the salivary glands which are considered to be neoplasms and extrasalivary oncocytic lesions which are secondary to hyperplasia. Oncocytic lesions of the larynx are benign and treatment is excision. They may be multiple, but recurrences are rare.

  14. Monitoring of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  15. Tritium migration in A/M-Area ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC's) have entered aquifers in Cretaceous-aged sediments in the A/M-Area as a result of site operations. Tritium in A/M-Area ground water was investigated as a tracer to determine the movement of ground water in the subsurface and the transport mechanism of VOC's. The investigation was focused primarily on determining the continuity and integrity of the clay layers in the Ellenton Formation and their effectiveness as aquitards below the aquifers in Tertiary sediments.

  16. Importance of sites of tracer administration and sampling in turnover studies

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.

    1982-01-01

    Our recent studies with tritium and /sup 14/C-labeled lactate and alanine in starved rats revealed that the sites of tracer administration and sampling have a profound effect on the kinetics of the specific activity curves and the calculation of metabolic parameters. The importance of the sites of tracer administration and sampling for the experimental design and interpretation of tracer data in vivo is discussed.

  17. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, K.; Gettelfinger, G.; Kivler, P.

    1999-08-17

    A method is described for separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. The tritium oxide is separated by bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water. 2 figs.

  18. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R J

    1997-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of benign prostatic hyperplasia reflects a complex interplay between benign prostatic enlargement, which will affect almost all men by the age of 80, and the resulting outlet obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms. The disease is now known to adversely affect the quality of life of around one man in three over the age of 50. New medical treatments and new surgical interventions are challenging the previous standard treatment of transurethral resection of prostate, which continues to have a morbidity of 17% and some mortality. Primary care will be increasingly involved in shared care with particular emphasis on monitoring of patients on watchful waiting medical therapy- and following operative intervention. PMID:9196969

  19. Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Deshingkar, S A; Barpande, S R; Bhavthankar, J D

    2011-07-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia (CHH) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by marked unilateral overdevelopment of hard and soft tissues of the face. Asymmetry in CHH is usually evident at birth and accentuated with age, especially at puberty. The affected side grows at a rate proportional to the nonaffected side so that the disproportion is maintained thr oughout the life. Multisystem involvement has resulted in etiological heterogeneity including heredity, chromosomal abnormalities, atypical forms of twinning, altered intrauterine environment, and endocrine dysfunctions; however, no single theory explains the etiology adequately. Deformities of all tissues of face, including teeth and their related tissues in the jaw, are key findings for correct diagnosis of CHH. Here an attempt has been made to present a case of CHH with its archetypal features and to supplement existing clinical knowledge. PMID:22090778

  20. Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Deshingkar, S. A.; Barpande, S. R.; Bhavthankar, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia (CHH) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by marked unilateral overdevelopment of hard and soft tissues of the face. Asymmetry in CHH is usually evident at birth and accentuated with age, especially at puberty. The affected side grows at a rate proportional to the nonaffected side so that the disproportion is maintained thr oughout the life. Multisystem involvement has resulted in etiological heterogeneity including heredity, chromosomal abnormalities, atypical forms of twinning, altered intrauterine environment, and endocrine dysfunctions; however, no single theory explains the etiology adequately. Deformities of all tissues of face, including teeth and their related tissues in the jaw, are key findings for correct diagnosis of CHH. Here an attempt has been made to present a case of CHH with its archetypal features and to supplement existing clinical knowledge. PMID:22090778

  1. Tracer development at ESRI

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.C.; Rose, P.E.; McPherson, P.

    1996-04-10

    At ESRI the Tracer Development Program is divided into three components: liquid-phase tracers, vapor-phase tracers, and pre-test modeling. The liquid-phase project has tested 40 aromatic acids and 10 fluorescent tracers for geothermal use. The vapor-phase project, which develops tracers for reservoirs such as the Geysers, is currently focused on testing SF{sub 6} at high temperatures and examining HPLC methods for the sensitive analysis of alcohol tracers. The pre-test modeling component is exploring the feasibility of using simple numerical models to lower the cost of tracer tests by providing estimates of tracer quantities, flowpaths, and arrival times.

  2. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  3. Tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    A tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium was tested in the laboratory using deuterium and protium. The vessel contains 0.5 kg of depleted uranium and can hold up to 18 grams of tritium. The conditions for activation, tritium loading and tritium unloading were defined. The safety aspects that included air-ingress, tritium diffusion, temperature and pressure potentials were evaluated.

  4. Polarized tritium target development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    Work began on the development of a completely sealed polarized tritium target for experiments at CEBAF. Because of the similarities between optical pumping of tritium and hydrogen, all prototype work is done with hydrogen. We constructed a test station for filling glassware with hydrogen, where we can dissociate molecular hydrogen and monitor the purity of the gas. A simple two-cell glass system was constructed, consisting of a region in which the molecular hydrogen is dissociated with an RF discharge and a region where the atoms can be optically pumped. So far, a clean discharge was obtained in the glassware. With this system, we plan to investigate ways to eliminate the discharge from the optical pumping region and test the quality of the discharge once the pumping cell is coated with drifilm.

  5. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, T.; Ochiai, K.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  6. Tritium implantation in the accelerator production of tritium device

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    We briefly describe the methods we have developed to compute the magnitude and spatial distribution of born and implanted tritons and protons in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (AFT) device. The methods are verified against experimental measurements and then used to predict that 16% of the tritium is implanted in the walls of the APT distribution tubes. The methods are also used to estimate the spatial distribution of implanted tritium, which will be required for determining the possible diffusion of tritium out of the walls and back into the gas stream.

  7. Tritium Storage Material

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-09-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 mn pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a comercial Pd black were measured.

  8. A prototype wearable tritium monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Surette, R. A.; Dubeau, J.

    2008-07-15

    Sudden unexpected changes in tritium-in-air concentrations in workplace air can result in significant unplanned exposures. Although fixed area monitors are used to monitor areas where there is a potential for elevated tritium in air concentrations, they do not monitor personnel air space and may require some time for acute tritium releases to be detected. There is a need for a small instrument that will quickly alert staff of changing tritium hazards. A moderately sensitive tritium instrument that workers could wear would bring attention to any rise in tritium levels that were above predetermined limits and help in assessing the potential hazard therefore minimizing absorbed dose. Hand-held instruments currently available can be used but require the assistance of a fellow worker or restrict the user to using only one hand to perform some duties. (authors)

  9. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  10. Tritium inventory tracking and management

    SciTech Connect

    Eichenberg, T.W.; Klein, A.C.

    1990-09-10

    This investigation has identified a number of useful applications of the analysis of the tracking and management of the tritium inventory in the various subsystems and components in a DT fusion reactor system. Due to the large amounts of tritium that will need to be circulated within such a plant, and the hazards of dealing with the tritium an electricity generating utility may not wish to also be in the tritium production and supply business on a full time basis. Possible scenarios for system operation have been presented, including options with zero net increase in tritium inventory, annual maintenance and blanket replacement, rapid increases in tritium creation for the production of additional tritium supplies for new plant startup, and failures in certain system components. It has been found that the value of the tritium breeding ratio required to stabilize the storage inventory depends strongly on the value and nature of other system characteristics. The real operation of a DT fusion reactor power plant will include maintenance and blanket replacement shutdowns which will affect the operation of the tritium handling system. It was also found that only modest increases in the tritium breeding ratio are needed in order to produce sufficient extra tritium for the startup of new reactors in less than two years. Thus, the continuous operation of a reactor system with a high tritium breeding ratio in order to have sufficient supplies for other plants is not necessary. Lastly, the overall operation and reliability of the power plant is greatly affected by failures in the fuel cleanup and plasma exhaust systems.

  11. Tritium gas transfer pump development

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Non-lubricated, hermetically sealed pumps for tritium service have been selected to replace Sprengel pumps in the existing Tritium Facility. These pumps will be the primary gas-transfer pumps in the planned Replacement Tritium Facility. The selected pumps are Metal Bellows Corporation's bellows pumps and Normetex scroll pumps. Pumping range for a Normetex/Metal Bellows system is from 0.01 torr suction to 2300 torr discharge. Performance characteristics of both pumps are presented. 10 figs.

  12. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Gary L.; Meikrantz, David H.; Ely, Walter E.; Tuggle, Dale G.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Wickham, Keith L.; Maltrud, Herman R.; Baker, John D.

    1992-01-01

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  13. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  14. TFTR tritium operations lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; Raftopoulos, S.; LaMarche, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor which is the progenitor for full D-T operating tokamaks has successfully processed > 81 grams of tritium in a safe and efficient fashion. Many of the fundamental operational techniques associated with the safe movement of tritium through the TFTR facility were developed over the course of many years of DOE tritium facilities (LANL, LLNL, SRS, Mound). In the mid 1980`s The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at LANL began reporting operational techniques for the safe handling of tritium, and became a major conduit for the transfer of safe tritium handling technology from DOE weapons laboratories to non-weapon facilities. TFTR has built on many of the TSTA operational techniques and has had the opportunity of performing and enhancing these techniques at America`s first operational D-T fusion reactor. This paper will discuss negative pressure employing `elephant trunks` in the control and mitigation of tritium contamination at the TFTR facility, and the interaction between contaminated line operations and {Delta} pressure control. In addition the strategy employed in managing the movement of tritium through TFTR while maintaining an active tritium inventory of < 50,000 Ci will be discussed. 5 refs.

  15. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, Keith; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Kivler, Paul

    1998-12-01

    A method is described for separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. Bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water.

  16. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  17. Pharmacotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, P; Indudhara, R

    1994-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a benign neoplasm of the prostate seen in men of advancing age. Microscopic evidence of the disorder is seen in about 70% of men by 70 years of age, whereas symptoms requiring some form of surgical intervention occur in 30% of men during their lifetime. Although the exact cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not clear, it is well recognized that high levels of intraprostatic androgens are required for the maintenance of prostatic growth. In recent years, extensive surveys of patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate reveal an 18% incidence of morbidity that has essentially not changed in the past 30 years. This procedure is also the second highest reimbursed surgical therapy under Medicare. These findings have resulted in an intensive search for alternative therapies for prostatic hyperplasia. An alternative that has now been well defined is the use of alpha-adrenergic blockers to relax the prostatic urethra. This is based on findings that a major component of benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms is spasm of the prostatic urethra and bladder neck, which is mediated by the alpha-adrenergic nerves. A second approach is to block androgens involved in maintaining prostate growth. Several such drugs are now available for clinical use, and we discuss their side effects and use. We also include the newer recommendations on evaluating benign prostatic hyperplasia that are cost-effective yet comprehensive. Images PMID:7528957

  18. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  19. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  20. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  1. Tritium activities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; LaMarche, P.

    1995-07-01

    There have been many significant changes in the status of tritium activities in the US since the 4th Tritium Conference in October, 1991. The replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at Savannah River Site and the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now operational with tritium. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has initiated a highly successful experimental campaign studying DT plasmas, and has produced more than 10 Megawatts (MW) of fusion power in a D-T plasma. Sandia National Laboratory has ceased tritium operations at the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) and many of the activities previously performed there have been transferred to Los Alamos and Savannah River. The tritium laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has reduced the tritium inventory to <5 grams. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos continues to be at the forefront of tritium technology and safety development for the fusion energy program.

  2. Tritium Production from Palladium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Schwab, M.J.; Thoma, D.J.; Teter, D.F.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1998-04-19

    A number of palladium alloys have been loaded with deuterium or hydrogen under low energy bombardment in a system that allows the continuous measurement of tritium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system ({approximately}0.1 nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (>10). We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of palladium alloys (Rh, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate is dependent on alloy type as well as within a specific alloy, dependent on concentration.

  3. Tritium and Stable Isotopes of Precipitation and Surface Water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, P.; Moran, J. E.; Visser, A.; Esser, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Tritium (3H) and stable isotopes (2H and 18O) are effective natural tracers of water molecules through the hydrologic system. The strong topographic gradient in California results in distinct isotopic signatures that are particularly effective in watershed studies. Past studies of meteoric tritium distribution within the United States have focused on large-scale trends, at low spatial resolution. Globally, tritium in precipitation is monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency contributing to the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database. The two tritium monitoring stations in California contributing to the GNIP database were discontinued in 1976 (Santa Maria) and 1993 (Menlo Park). Surface water studies have focused on time series in major rivers nationwide or localized studies. Our study focuses on high spatial resolution water isotope data collection in California. Over 140 tritium and stable water isotope samples were collected from surface water and direct precipitation during the 2013 Summer/Fall and 2014 Winter/Spring flow regimes and analyzed by helium accumulation and noble gas mass spectrometry. Surface water samples are collected as a proxy for precipitation and to investigate trends related to water residence times. Tritium concentrations in precipitation show strong spatial trends, with higher concentrations at inland high elevation locations. Surface water tritium trends with spatial location (latitude and longitude) and elevation (reflecting the precipitation signal) and distance downstream (reflecting water residence times). A local meteoric water line (MWL) for California is developed from stable isotope data and analyzed in comparison to the global MWL. Results have implications for tritium tracer and water provenance studies.

  4. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of lower lip.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaganjot Kaur; Sharma, Manish; Vanaki, Srinivas S

    2011-10-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia (AH) is an uncommon, non-neoplastic swelling on the palate caused due to hyperplasia of the mucinous acini. The lesion clinically presents as a sessile tumor-like nodule resembling pleomorphic adenoma. Histopathologic findings include lobules of enlarged mucinous acini which are filled with secretory granules. The nuclei are squeezed to the basal portions, associated with focal inflammation and ductal dilatation, and a history of trauma is often elicited. Here, we report a rare case of AH of the lower lip in a 20-year-old male patient, which mimics a mucous retention cyst or mucocele. PMID:22135695

  5. Mirror image condylar hyperplasia in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lignelli, John L; Ruprecht, Axel

    2004-02-01

    A Hispanic family with an unusual clinical and radiological pattern of condylar hyperplasia is presented. Mirror images of condylar hyperplasia, malocclusion of teeth, and shift of midline of the mandible were seen in two brothers. The father had a similar abnormality of his left mandibular condyle. The condylar hyperplasia in this family indicates that mandibular condylar hyperplasias could be genetic in origin, possibly Y-linked or autosomal dominant. PMID:14970789

  6. A decade of tritium technology development and operation at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, L.; Besserer, U.; Bekris, N.; Bornschein, B.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Demange, D.; Cristescu, I.; Cristescu, I. R.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Schaefer, P.; Weite, S.; Wendel, J.

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has been designed to handle relevant amounts of tritium for the development of tritium technology for fusion reactors. This paper describes the tritium technology development and experience gained during the upgrade of facilities, interventions, replacement of failed components and operation of the TLK since its commissioning with tritium in 1994. (authors)

  7. INL Tracer Interpretation

    2007-03-27

    This spreadsheet application is for tracer test analysis. The analyses are based on the first temporal moment of a tracer. The governing equations are briefly discussed, and the individual steps required of the user are outlined. A series of Excel macros written in Visual Basic calculate mean residence time, swept pore volume, and flow-storage geometry from a tracer history.

  8. Surgery in mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hampf, G; Tasanen, A; Nordling, S

    1985-04-01

    The experience with 35 patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia is described. Possibilities of distinction between active and non-active cases are discussed as well as the histological findings. Different surgical procedures were used for treatment. Pain in the joint area is a prominent feature in this group. The treatment was effective in this regard in all patients. PMID:3858398

  9. Tritium Elimination System Using Tritium Gas Oxidizing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimasa, Michiko; Awagakubo, Sayuri; Takahashi, Miho; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    2005-07-15

    In order to eliminate atmospheric tritium gas (HT) released from tritium handling apparatus, we proposed to use the HT oxidizing ability (hydrogenase enzyme) of bacterial strains isolated from surface soils instead of a high temperature precious metal catalyst. Among the isolated strains with high HT oxidation activity, several strains were selected to develop a tritium elimination (detritiation) system. Bioreactors were made of bacterial cells grown on agar medium on a cartridge filter and stored in a refrigerator until use. The detritiation ability of these bioreactors at room temperature was investigated during the intentional HT release experiments carried out in the Cassion Assembly for Tritium Safety Study (CATS) in TPL/JAERI. When HT contaminated air from the CATS was introduced into the biological detritiation system, in which three bioreactors were connected in series, 86% of HT in air was removed as tritiated water in these bioreactors at a flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3}/min for 2 hours.

  10. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  11. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  12. Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ellefson, Robert E.; Gill, John T.; Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  13. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls. PMID:19307127

  14. Tritium migration in A/M-Area ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) have entered aquifers in Cretaceous-aged sediments in the A/M-Area as a result of site operations. Tritium in A/M-Area ground water was investigated as a tracer to determine the movement of ground water in the subsurface and the transport mechanism of VOC`s. The investigation was focused primarily on determining the continuity and integrity of the clay layers in the Ellenton Formation and their effectiveness as aquitards below the aquifers in Tertiary sediments.

  15. What Oceanographers are Learning From Transient Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, W. J.

    2002-12-01

    these observations? Firstly, we are learning how to extract the information from the observations, and gaining a sense of the limitations of the tools we use. Secondly, we are able to combine tracer age information with other tracers and geostrophic constraints to estimate absolute velocities, along with mixing and subduction rates in a subtropical gyre. Thirdly, we can accurately calculate oxygen consumption rates, and from this, export production and carbon transport on large space and time scales. Such information is valuable to constraining and modeling large-scale biogeochemical fluxes. In this lecture, I present examples of these approaches, with emphasis on one specific system: tritium and its inert daughter helium-3.

  16. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade for Fusion Tritium and Nuclear Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Taylor, Chase N.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Buchenauer, Dean A.

    2015-11-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of tritium plasma-driven permeation and optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  17. Real-time tritium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.

    1981-09-15

    A real-time image of a tritium-containing titanium film has been made by detecting the secondary electrons produced by tritium ..beta.. decay with a simple two-element electrostatic lens and microchannel plate image intensifier. The obtained image indicates that a resolution of better than 100 ..mu..m is currently obtainable and suggests that image magnification to enhance resolution should be possible.

  18. The global distribution of natural tritium in precipitation simulated with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model and comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquoin, A.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Risi, C.; Fourré, É.; Stenni, B.; Landais, A.

    2015-10-01

    The description of the hydrological cycle in Atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs) can be validated using water isotopes as tracers. Many GCMs now simulate the movement of the stable isotopes of water, but here we present the first GCM simulations modelling the content of natural tritium in water. These simulations were obtained using a version of the LMDZ General Circulation Model enhanced by water isotopes diagnostics, LMDZ-iso. To avoid tritium generated by nuclear bomb testing, the simulations have been evaluated against a compilation of published tritium datasets dating from before 1950, or measured recently. LMDZ-iso correctly captures the observed tritium enrichment in precipitation as oceanic air moves inland (the so-called continental effect) and the observed north-south variations due to the latitudinal dependency of the cosmogenic tritium production rate. The seasonal variability, linked to the stratospheric intrusions of air masses with higher tritium content into the troposphere, is correctly reproduced for Antarctica with a maximum in winter. LMDZ-iso reproduces the spring maximum of tritium over Europe, but underestimates it and produces a peak in winter that is not apparent in the data. This implementation of tritium in a GCM promises to provide a better constraint on: (1) the intrusions and transport of air masses from the stratosphere, and (2) the dynamics of the modelled water cycle. The method complements the existing approach of using stable water isotopes.

  19. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  20. Primer on tritium safe handling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  1. [Evalution of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Desgrandchamps, François

    2005-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a disorder of aging men and according to reasons for consultation its incidence is continually increasing in parallel with the constant increase in life expectancy. Recommendations about its management have been made by numerous national and international, scientific authorities and those responsible for public health. However, despite a rationale based on regularly published data, there are many disparities between them and they are only partially followed up in routine practice. The purpose of a working group during the "2nd Interfaces in Urology" was to make a new assessment on this disorder with regard to the most recent data and existing recommendations, in order to offer clinicians a clearer attitude for the prescription of the initial evaluation of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  2. Prostatic Stromal Hyperplasia with Atypia

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Ryan C.; Wu, Kevin J.; Cheville, John C.; Thiel, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia (PSHA) is a rare histologic finding diagnosed incidentally on prostate biopsies, transurethral resection specimens, and radical prostatectomy specimens. PSHA has a bizarre histologic appearance and these lesions often raise concern for sarcoma; however, their clinical course is indolent and does not include extraprostatic progression. We discuss a case of PHSA discovered on prostate biopsy performed for an abnormal digital rectal examination and review the literature on this rare pathologic finding. PMID:23781384

  3. Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ryan C; Wu, Kevin J; Cheville, John C; Thiel, David D

    2013-01-01

    Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia (PSHA) is a rare histologic finding diagnosed incidentally on prostate biopsies, transurethral resection specimens, and radical prostatectomy specimens. PSHA has a bizarre histologic appearance and these lesions often raise concern for sarcoma; however, their clinical course is indolent and does not include extraprostatic progression. We discuss a case of PHSA discovered on prostate biopsy performed for an abnormal digital rectal examination and review the literature on this rare pathologic finding. PMID:23781384

  4. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.

  5. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  6. Laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Herman, Irving P.; Marling, Jack B.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium, using infrared multiple photon dissociation of tritium-bearing products in the gas phase. One such process involves the steps of (1) catalytic exchange of a deuterium-bearing molecule XYD with tritiated water DTO from sources such as a heavy water fission reactor, to produce the tritium-bearing working molecules XYT and (2) photoselective dissociation of XYT to form a tritium-rich product. By an analogous procedure, tritium is separated from tritium-bearing materials that contain predominately hydrogen such as a light water coolant from fission or fusion reactors.

  7. Recent progresses in tritium radioecology and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Davis, P.; Raskob, W.; Melintescu, A.

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, some aspects of recent progress in tritium radioecology and dosimetry are presented, with emphasis on atmospheric releases to terrestrial ecosystems. The processes involved in tritium transfer through the environment are discussed, together with the current status of environmental tritium models. Topics include the deposition and reemission of HT and HTO, models for the assessment of routine and accidental HTO emissions, a new approach to modeling the dynamics of tritium in mammals, the dose consequences of tritium releases and aspects of human dosimetry. The need for additional experimental data is identified, together with the attributes that would be desirable in the next generation of tritium codes. (authors)

  8. Tritium diffusion in V4Cr-4Ti alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashizume, K.; Masuda, J.; Otsuka, K. T.; Tanabe, T.; Hatano, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Nagasaka, T.; Muroga, T.

    2008-07-15

    Characteristics of the tritium diffusion coefficient DT in V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, including a bending in the Arrhenius plot of DT, are examined. Based on a trap model, the possible trap sources and their binding energies for tritium in the alloy are evaluated using the experimental data of DT in pure V, which are measured with a tritium tracer method, and the literature data of protium diffusion in V-Ti and V-Cr alloys. The result of the evaluation suggests the presence of two trap sources in the alloy. The first would be attributed to a trap at each substitutional alloying atom which is likely to be Ti. The binding energy E{sub B} of 0.08 eV gives the best fit to the observed value of DT above 300 K The bending in the Arrhenius plot below 300 K is caused by a second trap site with a higher E and a lower concentration than those of each alloying atom. The trap is probably formed by the alloying atoms presence to neighboring Ti atoms. The contribution of Cr atom to the trap effect seems to be rather small in this alloy. (authors)

  9. Lipomatosis: a diverse form of hemifacial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Umarji, Hemant R.; Arora, Aman; Ramaswami, Easwaran

    2012-01-01

    A case of hemifacial hyperplasia that presented with muscular, skeletal, and dental hyperplasia along with lipomatous infiltration was described. Advanced imaging was useful in identifying the lipomatous infiltration present in the lesion, which raises the possibility of lipomatosis having a diverse presentation in hemifacial hyperplasia. As there was a scarcity of related literature in the field of dentomaxillofacial radiology, this report would make us familiar with its computed tomographic and magnetic resonance image findings. PMID:23071970

  10. How tritium illuminates catchment structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M.; Morgenstern, U.; McDonnell, J.

    2012-04-01

    Streams contain water which has taken widely-varying times to pass through catchments, and the distribution of ages is likely to change with the flow. Part of the water has 'runoff' straight to the stream with little delay, other parts are more delayed and some has taken years (in some cases decades) to traverse the deeper regolith or bedrock of the catchment. This work aims to establish the significance of the last component, which is important because it can cause catchments to have long memories of contaminant inputs (e.g. nitrate). Results of tritium studies on streams world-wide were accessed from the scientific literature. Most of the studies assumed that there were just two age-components present in the streams (i.e. young and old). The mean ages and proportions of the components were found by fitting simulations to tritium data. It was found that the old component in streams was substantial (average was 50% of the annual runoff) and had considerable age (average mean age was 10 years) (Stewart et al., 2010). Use of oxygen-18 or chloride variations to estimate streamflow mean age usually does not reveal the age or size of this old component, because these methods cannot detect water older than about four years. Consequently, the use of tritium has shown that substantial parts of streamflow in headwater catchments are older than expected, and that deep groundwater plays an active and sometimes even a dominant role in runoff generation. Difficulties with interpretation of tritium in streams in recent years due to interference from tritium due to nuclear weapons testing are becoming less serious, because very accurate tritium measurements can be made and there is now little bomb-tritium remaining in the atmosphere. Mean ages can often be estimated from single tritium measurements in the Southern Hemisphere, because there was much less bomb-tritium in the atmosphere. This may also be possible for some locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Age determination on

  11. Overview of Recent Tritium Experiments in TPE

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Shimada; T. Otsuka; R. J. Pawelko; P. Calderoni; J. P. Sharpe

    2010-10-01

    Tritium retention in plasma-facing components influences the design, operation, and lifetime of fusion devices such as ITER. Most of the retention studies were carried out with the use of either hydrogen or deuterium. Tritium Plasma Experiment is a unique linear plasma device that can handle radioactive fusion fuel of tritium, toxic material of beryllium, and neutron-irradiated material. A tritium depth profiling method up to mm range was developed using a tritium imaging plate and a diamond wire saw. A series of tritium experiments (T2/D2 ratio: 0.2 and 0.5 %) was performed to investigate tritium depth profiling in bulk tungsten, and the results shows that tritium is migrated into bulk tungsten up to mm range.

  12. Concentration profiles of tritium penetrated into concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, H.; Furuichi, K.; Nishikawa, M.; Fukada, S.; Katayama, K.; Takeishi, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Namba, H.

    2008-07-15

    Concentration profiles of tritium in cement paste, mortar and concrete were measured after exposure to tritiated water vapor for a given time. Tritium penetrated a distance of about 5 cm from the exposed surface during an exposure of 6 months. The model of tritium behavior in concrete materials reported by the present authors was developed in this study with the consideration of the effects of sand and aggregate on both the diffusion coefficient of tritiated water vapor and the isotope exchange capacity. Predictive calculations based on the tritium transport model were also carried out in some situations of tritium leakage. The results of the calculations show that a large amount of tritium will be trapped in the concrete walls, and the trapped tritium will be gradually released back to the tritium handling room over the time of months to years even after the decontamination of the room is completed. (authors)

  13. Enhancing radiolytic stability upon concentration of tritium-labeled pharmaceuticals utilizing centrifugal evaporation.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rosemary; Helmy, Roy; Waterhouse, David

    2015-05-30

    Tritium radiopharmaceuticals are often used in drug development because of their desirable specific activity. The inherent instability of these radioactive tracers often leads to a requirement to purify prior to use. Purification methodologies such as preparative chromatography and solid/liquid extractions often utilize water as a solvent, which is not suitable for long-term storage and necessitates removal. Rotary evaporation has traditionally been utilized for the removal of this unwanted solvent, however, this method has been shown to lead to decomposition of the tritium species in some cases. Centrifugal evaporation is a milder concentration method which has been demonstrated to effectively remove solvents. In this study, we show that centrifugal evaporation leads to effective concentration of tritium samples without the decomposition typically observed by rotary evaporation.

  14. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  15. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Heck disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Hebert, A A; Adler-Storthz, K

    1993-09-01

    Two sisters of Mexican ancestry had focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). The lesions on the oral mucosa of the older child were initially misinterpreted as representing sexual abuse. Microscopic evaluation of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained section from a lower lip papule demonstrated the histologic features of FEH. Although human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and HPV32 have been most consistently present in FEH lesions, types 6, 11, 13, and 32 were not detected in the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen of our patient using an in situ hybridization technique. The lesions persisted or recurred during management using destructive modalities; subsequently, they completely resolved spontaneously.

  16. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Axéll, T; Hammarström, L; Larsson, A

    1981-01-01

    A prevalence of 0.11% of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) was found among 20,333 adult Swedes. There was no sex difference, the lesion was most prevalent in age groups above 45 years and the lesion was most frequent on the tongue. The frequency of FEH in 15,132 consecutive routine biopsies was 0.26%. Four FEH-cells were ultrastructurally examined. They exhibited a clear cytoplasm with scattered ribosomes, a peripheral condensation of tonofilaments, a central aggregation of chromatin clumps with loss of nuclear membrane and an accumulation of desmosome fragments. No viral particles could be identified in these FEH-cells.

  17. Tritium control, October 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1986-01-28

    This semi-annual report was previously titled ''Tritium Waste Control''. The current title denotes the enlarged scope of the document, which now includes nonwaste related subjects such as tritium monitoring and improved tritium containment systems. Individual projects are indexed separately.

  18. Proboscis-like Brunner's gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chen-Wang; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Lin, Shee-Chan; Yang, Tsen-Long; Wang, Tsang-En

    2008-10-01

    Hyperplasia of Brunner's glands is a benign lesion discovered incidentally in 2% of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. An asymptomatic 34-year-old woman had a 12-cm duodenal lesion resembling an elephant's proboscis. It was removed surgically and proved to be Brunner's gland hyperplasia. PMID:18585675

  19. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of palatal minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C; Manisali, M; Barrett, A W

    1996-02-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of palatal minor mucous glands is rare but significant because the clinical appearance mimics malignant disease. The typical history of a painless, indolent palatal swelling, together with the histological picture of benign glandular hyperplasia and hypertrophy, are illustrated in this report.

  20. The use of tritium content as an indicator of the groundwater contamination by sanitary landfills leachates in the region of Belo Horizonte City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, J V; Mingote, R M; Baptista, M B; Oliveira, D M; Lima, F P

    2008-01-01

    Tritium content in the leachate of sanitary landfills, in concentrations well above those observed in global precipitation, can be used as a tracer for the evaluation of the contamination of groundwater in piezometers of the landfills and in neighbouring tubular wells. This possibility was first investigated in Brazil for sanitary landfills in the region of Belo Horizonte City. Tritium levels together with the content of metals present in water and the measurement of soil electrical conductivity, proved to be valuable for these studies and also as a tracer for hydrodynamic studies of the surface water in the Ressaca creek.

  1. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.; Fox, E.; Kane, M.; Staack, G.

    2011-01-07

    Effects of tritium gas exposure on various polymers have been studied over the last several years. Despite the deleterious effects of beta exposure on many material properties, structural polymers continued to be used in tritium systems. Improved understanding of the tritium effects will allow more resistant materials to be selected. Currently polymers find use mainly in tritium gas sealing applications (eg. valve stem tips, O-rings). Future uses being evaluated including polymeric based cracking of tritiated water, and polymer-based sensors of tritium.

  2. Ionic tracer movement through highly weathered sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, J. C.; Bertsch, P. M.; Miller, W. P.

    1995-11-01

    A highly-weathered, sandy aquifer material from the Upper Coastal Plain region of the southeastern U.S.A. (Aiken, South Carolina) was used to determine the impact of ionic strength and solution composition on the determination of physical transport parameters using ionic tracers. The mineralogy of the clay fraction consisted primarily of kaolinite, goethite and mica. Repacked saturated columns (bulk density ˜ 1.5 g cm -3) were leached at a constant rate (˜ 0.25 cm min -1) with a given tracer solution. For comparison, tritium (˜ 200 pCi mL -1) was included in leachate of selected columns and several of the experiments were replicated in columns of acid-washed sand. Pore volume estimates based on tritium breakthrough were consistent with those calculated from the bulk density of the repacked matrix. In contrast, solute breakthrough for the sandy geologic material was dependent on concentration, as well as cation and anion type. At low ionic strenghts (0.0005-0.010 M) that are analogous to conditions that may be encountered ins field-scale transport experiments, neither the cation nor the anion acted conservatively, yielding systematically high estimates of column porosity or low estimates of flow velocity. At the higher ionic strengths (˜ 0.10 M), solute breakthrough was essentially conservative regardless of ionic composition. The impact of cation valence and concentration on Br - breakthrough was determined using MgBr 2 and KBr solutions of varying concentrations (0.001-0.1 N). Bromide breakthrough was substantially delayed for concentrations below 0.10 M and was delayed to a greater extent in the presence of a divalent cation (Mg 2+) than in the presence of a monovalent cation (K +). Failure to recognize these interactions in the field could lead to a false interpretation of Br displacement in terms of physical interactions, i.e. flow velocity, dispersivity, etc.

  3. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    SciTech Connect

    Najera, Larry

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  4. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  5. Tritium systems test assembly stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W. G.; Michelotti, R. A.; Anast, K. R.; Tesch, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) was a facility dedicated to tritium technology Research and Development (R&D) primarily for future fusion power reactors. The facility was conceived in mid 1970's, operations commenced in early 1980's, stabilization and deactivation began in 2000 and were completed in 2003. The facility will remain in a Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) mode until the Department of Energy (DOE) funds demolition of the facility, tentatively in 2009. A safe and stable end state was achieved by the TSTA Facility Stabilization Project (TFSP) in anticipation of long term S&M. At the start of the stabilization project, with an inventory of approximately 140 grams of tritium, the facility was designated a Hazard Category (HC) 2 Non-Reactor Nuclear facility as defined by US Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-1027-92 (1997). The TSTA facility comprises a laboratory area, supporting rooms, offices and associated laboratory space that included more than 20 major tritium handling systems. The project's focus was to reduce the tritium inventory by removing bulk tritium, tritiated water wastes, and tritium-contaminated high-inventory components. Any equipment that remained in the facility was stabilized in place. All of the gloveboxes and piping were rendered inoperative and vented to atmosphere. All equipment, and inventoried tritium contamination, remaining in the facility was left in a safe-and-stable state. The project used the End Points process as defined by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (web page http://www.em.doe.- gov/deact/epman.htmtlo) document and define the end state required for the stabilization of TSTA Facility. The End Points process added structure that was beneficial through virtually all phases of the project. At completion of the facility stabilization project the residual tritium inventory was approximately 3,000 curies, considerably less than the 1.6-gram threshold for a HC 3 facility. TSTA is now designated as a

  6. Tritium behavior intentionally released in the room

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Yamanishi, T.; Willms, R. S.; Carlson, R. V.

    2008-07-15

    To construct a fusion reactor with high safety and acceptability, it is necessary to establish and to ensure tritium safe handling technology. Tritium should be well-controlled not to be released to the environment excessively and to prevent workers from excess exposure. It is especially important to grasp tritium behavior in the final confinement area, such as the room and/or building. In order to obtain data for actual tritium behavior in a room and/or building, a series of intentional Tritium Release Experiments (TREs) were planned and carried out within a radiologically controlled area (main cell) at Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) in Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under US-JAPAN collaboration program. These experiments were carried out three times. In these experiments, influence of a difference in the tritium release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope for the initial tritium behavior in the room were suggested. Tritium was released into the main cell at TSTA/LANL. The released tritium reached a uniform concentration about 30 - 40 minutes in all the experiments. The influence of the release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope were not found to be important in these experiments. The experimental results for the initial tritium behavior in the room were also simulated well by the modified three-dimensional eddy flow analysis code FLOW-3D. (authors)

  7. Perspectives of transient tracer applications and limiting cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.; Bullister, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Currently available transient tracers have different application ranges that are defined by their temporal input (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). Transient tracers range from tracers for highly ventilated water masses such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) through tritium (3H) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) up to tracers for less ventilated deep ocean basins such as argon-39 (39Ar) and radiocarbon (14C). In this context, highly ventilated water masses are defined as water masses that have been in contact with the atmosphere during the last decade. Transient tracers can be used to empirically constrain the transit time distribution (TTD), which can often be approximated with an inverse Gaussian (IG) distribution. The IG-TTD provides information about ventilation and the advective/diffusive characteristics of a water parcel. Here we provide an overview of commonly used transient tracer couples and the corresponding application range of the IG-TTD by using the new concept of validity areas. CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 data from three different cruises in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean as well as 39Ar data from the 1980s and early 1990s in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Weddell Sea are used to demonstrate this method. We found that the IG-TTD can be constrained along the Greenwich Meridian south to 46° S, which corresponds to the Subantarctic Front (SAF) denoting the application limit. The Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) describes the limiting water layer in the vertical. Conspicuous high or lower ratios between the advective and diffusive components describe the transition between the validity area and the application limit of the IG-TTD model rather than describing the physical properties of the water parcel. The combination of 39Ar and CFC data places constraints on the IG-TTD in the deep water north of the SAF, but not beyond this limit.

  8. Storage and Assay of Tritium in STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen R.; Anderl, Robert A.; Pawelko, Robert J.; Stoots, Carl J.

    2005-07-15

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently being commissioned to investigate tritium-related safety questions for fusion and other technologies. The tritium inventory for the STAR facility will be maintained below 1.5 g to avoid the need for STAR to be classified as a Category 3 nuclear facility. A key capability in successful operation of the STAR facility is the ability to receive, inventory, and dispense tritium to the various experiments underway there. The system central to that function is the Tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS).The SAS has four major functions: (1) receiving and holding tritium, (2) assaying, (3) dispensing, and (4) purifying hydrogen isotopes from non-hydrogen species.This paper describes the design and operation of the STAR SAS and the procedures used for tritium accountancy in the STAR facility.

  9. Tritium issues in plasma wall interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Tetsuo

    2010-05-01

    Since tritium resources are very limited, not only for safety reason but also for tritium economy, tritium inventory in a reactor must be kept as small as possible. In the present tokamaks, however, hydrogen retention rate in their vacuum vessel is significantly large, i.e. more than 20% of fueled hydrogen is continuously piled up, which must not be allowed in a reactor. After the introduction of tritium as a hydrogen radioisotope, the paper summarizes present tritium issues in plasma wall interactions, in particular, fueling, retention and recovering, considering the handling of large amounts of tritium, i.e. confinement, leakage, contamination, permeation, regulations and tritium accountancy. Progress in overcoming such problems will be also presented.

  10. Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.; Singer, C.E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in non-optimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments.

  11. Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.

    PubMed

    Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R

    2013-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant.

  12. A Pacinian hyperplasia of the foot.

    PubMed

    Satge, D; Nabhan, J; Nandiegou, Y; Hermann, B; Goburdhun, J; Labrousse, F

    2001-04-01

    A case of Pacinian hyperplasia of the right great toe is reported. Pacinian hyperplasia is a rare benign and recently recognized painful lesion composed of an excess of well formed or hyperplastic Pacinian corpuscules, normaly involved in sensory innervation. This lesion that is usually observed in the hand, must be distinguished from nerve tumors harboring onion-bulb structure which are not true well formed Pacinian corpuscules and from Morton neuroma. Pacinian hyperplasia is considered a reactive lesion and not a true neoplasm. To our knowledge, this case is the first described in the foot.

  13. Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Udensi, Udensi K; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment. PMID:27609145

  14. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of oral minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A W; Speight, P M

    1995-04-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia is a rare cause of swelling of the oral minor salivary glands, but is of significance because of its clinical resemblance to salivary gland tumors. The histologic appearance is one of benign hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the minor mucous glands. The clinical and histologic features of 20 new cases are reported, 19 of which occurred in the hard or soft palate. The cause of adenomatoid hyperplasia has hitherto been unclear, but the observation that 14 subjects were tobacco smokers or denture wearers, or both, suggests chronic, local trauma may be an important factor in the development of the condition.

  15. Tritium retention in jet cryopanel samples

    SciTech Connect

    Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. ); Mayaux, C.; Obert, W. )

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that tritium might exchange with water trapped in aluminum anodize cryopanels in JET prompted a test program at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, TSTA, Los Alamos, New Mexico. JET furnished two test pieces of cryopanel which were exposed to tritium at approximately liquid nitrogen temperature and 25 torr pressure for nearly two weeks. One specimen was removed and the retained tritium was measured. The second specimen was subjected to several increasing temperature vacuum bakeouts and the effectiveness of the bakeouts were inferred from the pressure history of the chamber. When the retained tritium in the second specimen was measured it was found that nearly 95% of the tritium, as measured in the first specimen, had been removed during the vacuum bakeouts. If the tritium retained in the cryopanel without bakeout were scaled to JET conditions according to a linear pressure time relationship, the tritium expected to become trapped in the JET cryopanels would be approximately 0.6 gram. Testing is currently underway at TSTA which will determine the tritium retention to be expected under more realistic JET operating conditions and which will assess the effectiveness of various bake or purge schemes in removing the trapped tritium. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  17. Calibration of a transient transport model to tritium measurements in rivers and streams in the Western Lake Taupo catchment, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Toews, M.; Morgenstern, U.; Stewart, M.; Daughney, C.; Hadfield, J.

    2012-08-01

    Here we present a general approach of calibrating transient transport models to tritium concentrations in river waters developed for the MT3DMS/MODFLOW model of the Western Lake Taupo catchment, New Zealand. Tritium is a time-dependent tracer with radioactive half-life of 12.32 yr. In the transport model, the tritium input (measured in rain) passes through the groundwater system, and the modelled tritium concentrations are compared to the measured tritium concentrations in the river outlets for the Waihaha, Whanganui, Whareroa, Kuratau and Omori river catchments from 2000-2007. For the Kuratau River, tritium was also measured between 1960 and 1970, which allowed us to fine-tune the transport model. In order to incorporate all surface flows from rivers to small streams, an 80 m uniform grid cell size was selected in the steady-state MODFLOW model for the model area of 1072 km2. The groundwater flow model was first calibrated to groundwater levels and stream flow observations. Then, the transport model was calibrated to the measured tritium concentrations in the river waters. The MT3DMS model results show good agreement with the measured tritium values in all five river catchments. Finally, the calibrated MT3DMS model is applied to simulate groundwater ages that are used to construct groundwater age distributions for the river catchments.

  18. Radiological training for tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This program management guide describes a recommended implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The standard is to assist those individuals, both within DOE and Managing and Operating contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RCM. This training may also be given to radiological workers using tritium to assist in meeting their job specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  19. Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia and Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Carr, Laurie L; Kern, Jeffrey A; Deutsch, Gail H

    2016-09-01

    Although incidental reactive pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (PNECH) is seen on biopsy specimens in adults with chronic lung disease, disorders characterized by marked PNECH are rare. Primary hyperplasia of neuroendocrine cells in the lung and obstructive lung disease related to remodeling or physiologic constriction of small airways define diffuse idiopathic neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) in the adult and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) in children. DIPENCH and NEHI share a similar physiology, typical imaging appearance, and increased neuroendocrine cells on biopsy. However, there are important differences related to the underlying disease mechanisms leading to disparate outcomes.

  20. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, David E.

    2002-12-17

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (3) Install an improved temperature controller, preferably with a built in chiller, capable of temperature control to {+-}0.001 C.

  1. Development of a tritium monitor combined with an electrochemical tritium pump using a proton conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    The detection of low level tritium is one of the key issues for tritium management in tritium handling facilities. Such a detection can be performed by tritium monitors based on proton conducting oxide technique. We tested a tritium monitoring system composed of a commercial proportional counter combined with an electrochemical hydrogen pump equipped with CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-α} as proton conducting oxide. The hydrogen pump operated at 973 K under electrolysis conditions using tritiated water vapor (HTO). The proton conducting oxide extracts tritium molecules (HT) from HTO and tritium concentration is measured by the proportional counter. The advantage of the proposed tritium monitoring system is that it is able to convert HTO into molecular hydrogen.

  2. Medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Stephen S; Fitzpatrick, John M

    2007-01-01

    Pharmaceutical preparations are commonly used for benign prostate hyperplasia. This article reviews the current understanding of the natural history of the condition and the literature regarding medical treatment. PMID:17308208

  3. Dissecting the mechanisms of Notch induced hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Djiane, Alexandre; Krejci, Alena; Bernard, Frédéric; Fexova, Silvie; Millen, Katherine; Bray, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of the Notch pathway on proliferation depends on cellular context, being growth promotion in some, including several cancers, and growth inhibition in others. Such disparate outcomes are evident in Drosophila wing discs, where Notch overactivation causes hyperplasia despite having localized inhibitory effects on proliferation. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we have used genomic strategies to identify the Notch-CSL target genes directly activated during wing disc hyperplasia. Among them were genes involved in both autonomous and non-autonomous regulation of proliferation, growth and cell death, providing molecular explanations for many characteristics of Notch induced wing disc hyperplasia previously reported. The Notch targets exhibit different response patterns, which are shaped by both positive and negative feed-forward regulation between the Notch targets themselves. We propose, therefore, that both the characteristics of the direct Notch targets and their cross-regulatory relationships are important in coordinating the pattern of hyperplasia. PMID:23232763

  4. Sebaceous hyperplasia: systemic treatment with isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Tagliolatto, Sandra; Santos Neto, Octavio de Oliveira; Alchorne, Maurício Mota de Avelar; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the therapeutic action of isotretinoin in the treatment of sebaceous hyperplasia. During two months, 20 patients with sebaceous hyperplasia took isotretinoin at a dosage of 1mg/kg per day. Their skin lesions were counted and photographed before and after treatment and re-evaluated two years later. The average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions before treatment was 24 per patient. At the end of two months of therapy, the number of lesions decreased to 2 per patient. The statistically analyzed data showed a reduction in the number of lesions following isotretinoin use (p < 0.05). Two years after the end of the treatment, the average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions was 4 per patient. There were no severe side effects. Thus, the data analysis suggests that isotretinoin is a safe and effective drug for treating the disease under study.

  5. Comparison of Tritium Component Failure Rate Data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    Published failure rate values from the US Tritium Systems Test Assembly, the Japanese Tritium Process Laboratory, the German Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, and the Joint European Torus Active Gas Handling System have been compared. This comparison is on a limited set of components, but there is a good variety of data sets in the comparison. The data compared reasonably well. The most reasonable failure rate values are recommended for use on next generation tritium handling system components, such as those in the tritium plant systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the tritium fuel systems of inertial fusion facilities, such as the US National Ignition Facility. These data and the comparison results are also shared with the International Energy Agency cooperative task on fusion component failure rate data.

  6. Tritium Retention and Removal in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2009-02-19

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy. Tritium is an important source term in safety assessments, it is expensive and in short supply. Tritium can be continuously retained in a tokamak by codeposition with eroded carbon or beryllium and JET and TFTR with carbon plasma facing components showed a tritium retention level that would be unacceptable in ITER or future fusion reactors. Asdex-U and Alcator C-mod have shown reduced hydrogenic retention with tungsten clad and molybdenum plasma facing components. Once the tritium inventory approaches the administrative limit, tritium must be removed to permit continued D-T plasma operations. Several candidate techniques are being considered and need to be proven at a relevant speed and efficiency in contemporary tokamaks. Projections for ITER are discussed.

  7. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-11-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  8. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  9. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; J.P. Coad; G. Federici

    2003-11-24

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating.

  10. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  11. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  12. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  13. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  14. Congenital generalized terminal hypertrichosis with gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Sanginés, Esther; Villalobos, Alejandra; Vega-Memije, Ma Elisa; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Canún-Serrano, Sonia; Lacy-Niebla, Rosa Ma

    2002-01-01

    Congenital generalized terminal hypertrichosis is a rare disease, especially when associated with gingival hyperplasia. Congenital hypertrichosis can be a clinical feature of several syndromes, so these patients must be studied by a multidisciplinary team that should include a dermatologist, geneticist, psychologist, odontologist, and an endocrinologist. We report a 7-year-old girl with congenital generalized hypertrichosis and gingival hyperplasia, and analyze the clinical approach, differential diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:11994171

  15. Gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Rasika Ravindra; Deshpande, Gaurav Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Hemifacial hypertrophy is a rare developmental disorder, characterized by unilateral enlargement of facial tissues. The hemifacial hyperplasia is classified as true hemifacial hypertrophy and partial hemifacial hypertrophy. It is unilateral enlargement of viscerocranial condition in which not all structures are enlarged. We present a rare case of gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia highlighting the clinical and radiological findings with the corrective treatment offered for gingival enlargement.

  16. An uncommon focal epithelial hyperplasia manifestation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; Pansani, Cyneu Aguiar; Ferrari, Junia; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Spolidório, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare, contagious disease associated with infection of the oral mucosa by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, characterized by multiple soft papules of the same color as the adjacent normal mucosa. It mainly affects the lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare verrucal lesion located in the upper gingiva that was clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. PMID:19941767

  17. Recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, W.A.

    1984-10-17

    This invention relates to the recovery of tritium from various tritiated molecules by reaction with uranium. More particularly, the invention relates to the recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules by reaction with uranium wherein the reaction is conducted in a reactor which permits the reaction to occur as a moving front reaction from the point where the tritium enters the reactor charged with uranium down the reactor until the uranium is exhausted.

  18. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information.

  19. Universal tracer monitored titrations.

    PubMed

    DeGrandpre, Michael D; Martz, Todd R; Hart, Robert D; Elison, David M; Zhang, Alice; Bahnson, Anna G

    2011-12-15

    Titrations, while primarily known as the chemical rite of passage for fledgling science students, are still widely used for chemical analysis. With its many years of existence and improvement, the method would seem an unlikely candidate for innovation, yet it is desirable, in this age of autonomous sensing where analyzers may be sent into space or to the bottom of the ocean, to have a simplified titrimetric method that does not rely upon volumetric or gravimetric measurement of sample and titrant. In previous work on the measurement of seawater alkalinity, we found that use of a tracer in the titrant eliminates the need to measure mass or volume. Here, we show the versatility of the method for diverse types of titrations and tracers. The results suggest that tracers may be employed in all types of titrations, opening the door for greatly simplified laboratory and field-based chemical analysis.

  20. Tritium in precipitation of Vostok (Antarctica): conclusions on the tritium latitude effect.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Detlef

    2011-09-01

    During the Antarctic summer of 1985 near the Soviet Antarctic station Vostok, firn samples for tritium measurements were obtained down to a depth of 2.40 m. The results of the tritium measurements are presented and discussed. Based on this and other data, conclusions regarding the tritium latitude effect are derived.

  1. Sample preparation for quantitation of tritium by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L; Dingley, Karen H; Roberts, Mark L; Velsko, Carol A; Love, Adam H

    2002-12-15

    The capability to prepare samples accurately and reproducibly for analysis of tritium (3H) content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) greatly facilitates isotopic tracer studies in which attomole levels of 3H can be measured in milligram-sized samples. A method has been developed to convert the hydrogen of organic samples to a solid, titanium hydride, which can be analyzed by AMS. Using a two-step process, the sample is first oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. In the second step, the water is transferred within a heated manifold into a quartz tube, reduced to hydrogen gas using zinc, and reacted with titanium powder. The 3H/1H ratio of the titanium hydride is measured by AMS and normalized to standards whose ratios were determined by decay counting to calculate the amount of 3H in the original sample. Water, organic compounds, and biological samples with 3H activities measured by liquid scintillation counting were utilized to develop and validate the method. The 3H/1H ratios were quantified in samples that spanned 5 orders of magnitude, from 10(-10) to 10(-15), with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10(-15), which is equivalent to 0.02 dpm tritium/mg of material. Samples smaller than 2 mg were analyzed following addition of 2 mg of a tritium-free-hydrogen carrier. Preparation of organic standards containing both 14C and 3H in 2-mg organic samples demonstrated that this sample preparation methodology can also be applied to quantify both of these isotopes from a single sample. PMID:12510750

  2. Storage and Assay of Tritium in STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Robert A. Anderl; Robert J. Pawelko

    2004-09-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has recently been commissioned to investigate tritium-related safety questions for fusion and other technologies. The authorized inventory of tritium is 1.6 grams, the threshold quantity for nuclear facility classification. A key capability in successful operation of the STAR facility is the ability to receive, inventory, and dispense tritium to the various experiments underway there. The system central to that function is the Tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS). The SAS has four major functions: (1) receiving and holding tritium from shipping containers brought into the STAR facility, (2) assaying the amount of tritium in the SAS, (3) dispensing tritium to secondary beds or containers used for transferring it to the experimental systems in the STAR facility, and (4) purifying hydrogen isotopes from non-hydrogen species. To that may be added a fifth, optional function, isotopic separation of hydrogen isotopes using bed-to-bed transfer techniques. This paper documents the design and operation of the STAR SAS and the procedures used for tritium accountancy in the STAR facility.

  3. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.

    1991-07-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic {sup 3}He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering {sup 3}He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. W.

    1991-07-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic He-3 separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering He-3 levels in the feed gas to less than 0.005 percent. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized.

  5. Tritium removal and separation technology developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, I.; Busigin, A.; Shapiro, A.

    2008-07-15

    Recent increased interest from regulators and the public has led more organizations to consider the environmental impact and safety considerations of tritium handling. Examples include the significance of the tritium isotope separation system on ITER licensing, remediation of ground water from power utilities and government facilities and concerns of high tritium concentrations within operational CANDU reactors. GE Healthcare, formerly Amersham pic, has been producing tritium-labelled chemicals since the late 1940's. GE's manufacturing site located near Cardiff, UK has installed a tritium waste treatment and enrichment facility to radically reduce tritium discharges to the environment. This facility employs a continuous processing plant that recovers tritium from a complex mixture of tritiated organic and aqueous waste compounds. Two isotope separation techniques are used to achieve a final pure tritium product, which is used in the manufacturing of labelled compounds. Building upon this experience, together with Special Separations Applications Inc. (SSAI), GE has developed a large-scale diffusion-based isotope separation process as an alternative to conventional cryogenic distillation. Having a tritium inventory an order of magnitude lower than conventional cryogenic distillation, this process is attractive for heavy water detritiation, applicable to single and multi-unit CANDU reactors and research reactors as well as fusion applications. Additionally, the new process has advantages of being cryogen-free, less complex, simple to operate and having improved conventional and radiological safety. (authors)

  6. Distribution of bomb tritium in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.; Ostlund, G.

    1986-12-15

    A global picture of the water column inventories of bomb-produced tritium is constructed from the GEOSECS data set. This picture is compared with that obtained by combining the bomb tritium input function of Weiss and Roether (1980) with the bomb radiocarbon calibrate lateral redistribution model of Broecker et al. (1985). While differences between the calculated and observed distribution exist, they are surprisingly small. Tritium distributions calculated using the lateral redistribution model provide predictions of the changes to be expected in the next few decades. Such predictions are essential to the design of sound strategies for continued monitoring of the tritium transient.

  7. Modeling of the anthropogenic tritium transient, and its decay product Helium-3, in the Mediterranean Sea, using a high-resolution regional model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayache, Mohamed; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Beranger, Karine; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Palmieri, Julien; Le-Vu, Briac; Roether, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    This numerical study provides, for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, a simulation of the anthropogenic tritium invasion and its decay product helium-3. The simulation is starting in 1950 and go up to 2011. It thus covers a 60-year period spanning the entire tritium transient generated by the atmospheric nuclear-weapon tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s. The tritium is known as a passive tracer, which allows a good representation/signature of the upper water stratification, as well as, the high mixing in convection areas and the spreading at intermediate/deep levels. The tracer simulation is done using a high resolution regional model NEMO-MED12 (Beuvier et al., JGR, 2012) with at surface prescribed tritium concentration according to the temporal evolution derived from observations (see Roether et al., OS, 2013). Several measurement of tritium and helium-3 performed along large scale transects in the Mediterranean Sea during the last decades allow a comparison of the simulated results with numerous in situ sections from cruises of Meteor M5/6, M31/1, M44/4, M51/2, M84/3, and Poseidon 234. The results show that the parameterization used for the tritium boundary conditions generates realistic results. Besides we calculate the tracer-age distributions according to the relationship between tritium and its radioactive decay product helium-3. In the eastern basin, the tracer simulation results highlight the weak formation of Adriatic Deep Water (ADW) in the Adriatic Sea followed by a week contribution to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW) in the Ionian sub-basin while it shows a good representation of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) signal from the Aegean Sea followed by a great contribution to the EMDW. In the western basin, the particularly intense deep convection event of winter 2005 in the Gulf of Lions during the Western Mediterranean Transition (WMT) is well simulated. However the spreading of the recently ventilated deep water to

  8. Tritium percolation, convection, and permeation in fusion solid breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Liu, Y.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Models are developed to describe the percolation of released tritium through the breeder interconnected porosity to the purge stream, convection of tritium by the helium purge stream, and leakage or permeation of tritium through the structural material to the primary coolant system. Important parameters in the models are tritium generation rate, breeder microstructure, tritium species in the gas phase, temperatures, tritium diffusivities and permeabilities, and effectiveness of oxide barriers.

  9. Tracer water transport and subgrid precipitation variation within atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Eagleson, Peter S.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1988-01-01

    A capability is developed for monitoring tracer water movement in the three-dimensional Goddard Institute for Space Science Atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM). A typical experiment with the tracer water model follows water evaporating from selected grid squares and determines where this water first returns to the Earth's surface as precipitation or condensate, thereby providing information on the lateral scales of hydrological transport in the GCM. Through a comparison of model results with observations in nature, inferences can be drawn concerning real world water transport. Tests of the tracer water model include a comparison of simulated and observed vertically-integrated vapor flux fields and simulations of atomic tritium transport from the stratosphere to the oceans. The inter-annual variability of the tracer water model results is also examined.

  10. Development of a tritium recovery system from CANDU tritium removal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Draghia, M.; Pasca, G.; Porcariu, F.

    2015-03-15

    The main purpose of the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) is to reduce to a maximum possible extent the release of tritium from the facility following a tritium release in confinement boundaries and also to have provisions to recover both elemental and vapors tritium from the purging gases during maintenance and components replacement from various systems processing tritium. This work/paper proposes a configuration of Tritium Recovery System wherein elemental tritium and water vapors are recovered in a separated, parallel manner. The proposed TRS configuration is a combination of permeators, a platinum microreactor (MR) and a trickle bed reactor (TBR) and consists of two branches: one branch for elemental tritium recovery from tritiated deuterium gas and the second one for tritium recovery from streams containing a significant amount of water vapours but a low amount, below 5%, of tritiated gas. The two branches shall work in a complementary manner in such a way that the bleed stream from the permeators shall be further processed in the MR and TBR in view of achieving the required decontamination level. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed TRS in comparison with state of the art tritium recovery system from tritium processing facilities is also discussed. (authors)

  11. Imaging of tritium implanted into graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.; Causey, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    The extensive use of graphite in plasma-facing surfaces of tokamaks such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, which has planned tritium discharges, makes two-dimensional tritium detection techniques important in helping to determine torus tritium inventories. We have performed experiments in which highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples were first tritium implanted with fluences of approx.10/sup 16/ T/cm/sup 2/ at energies approx. <25 eV and then the near-surface implant distributions were detected in two dimensions using tritium imaging. A portion of the sample was masked off during the implant in order to produce a well-defined implant boundary. Heating of the HOPG samples to temperatures as high as 500 /sup 0/C resulted in no discernible motion of tritium along the basal plane, but did show that significant desorption of the implanted tritium occurred. The current results indicate that tritium in quantities of 10/sup 12/ T/cm/sup 2/ in tritiated components could be readily detected by imaging at lower magnifications.

  12. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Leslie D.

    1982-01-01

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  13. Validation test for CAP88 predictions of tritium dispersion at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Michelotti, Erika; Green, Andrew; Whicker, Jeffrey; Eisele, William; Fuehne, David; McNaughton, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Gaussian plume models, such as CAP88, are used regularly for estimating downwind concentrations from stack emissions. At many facilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) requires that CAP88 be used to demonstrate compliance with air quality regulations for public protection from emissions of radionuclides. Gaussian plume models have the advantage of being relatively simple and their use pragmatic; however, these models are based on simplifying assumptions and generally they are not capable of incorporating dynamic meteorological conditions or complex topography. These limitations encourage validation tests to understand the capabilities and limitations of the model for the specific application. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has complex topography but is required to use CAP88 for compliance with the Clean Air Act Subpart H. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the CAP88 predictions against ambient air measurements using released tritium as a tracer. Stack emissions of tritium from two LANL stacks were measured and the dispersion modeled with CAP88 using local meteorology. Ambient air measurements of tritium were made at various distances and directions from the stacks. Model predictions and ambient air measurements were compared over the course of a full year's data. Comparative results were consistent with other studies and showed the CAP88 predictions of downwind tritium concentrations were on average about three times higher than those measured, and the accuracy of the model predictions were generally more consistent for annual averages than for bi-weekly data.

  14. HYLIFE-II tritium management system

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Dolan, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The tritium management system performs seven functions: (1) tritium gas removal from the blast chamber, (2) tritium removal from the Flibe, (3) tritium removal from helium sweep gas, (4) tritium removal from room air, (5) hydrogen isotope separation, (6) release of non-hazardous gases through the stack, (7) fixation and disposal of hazardous effluents. About 2 TBq/s (5 MCi/day) of tritium is bred in the Flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) molten salt coolant by neutron absorption. Tritium removal is accomplished by a two-stage vacuum disengager in each of three steam generator loops. Each stage consists of a spray of 0.4 mm diameter, hot Flibe droplets into a vacuum chamber 4 m in diameter and 7 m tall. As droplets fall downward into the vacuum, most of the tritium diffuses out and is pumped away. A fraction {Phi}{approx}10{sup {minus}5} of the tritium remains in the Flibe as it leaves the second stage of the vacuum disengager, and about 24% of the remaining tritium penetrates through the steam generator tubes, per pass, so the net leakage into the steam system is about 4.7 MBq/s (11 Ci/day). The required Flibe pumping power for the vacuum disengager system is 6.6 MW. With Flibe primary coolant and a vacuum disengager, an intermediate coolant loop is not needed to prevent tritium from leaking into the steam system. An experiment is needed to demonstrate vacuum disengager operation with Flibe. A secondary containment shell with helium sweep gas captures the tritium permeating out of the Flibe ducts, limiting leaks there to about 1 Ci/day. The tritium inventory in the reactor is about 190 g, residing mostly in the large Flibe recirculation duct walls. The total cost of the tritium management system is 92 M$, of which the vacuum disengagers cost = 56%, the blast chamber vacuum system = 15%, the cryogenic plant = 9%, the emergency air cleanup and waste treatment systems each = 6%, the protium removal system = 3%, and the fuel storage system and inert gas system each = 2%.

  15. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  16. Tritium/ 3He dating of shallow groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, Peter; Stute, Martin; Dörr, Helmut; Sonntag, Christian; Münnich, Karl Otto

    1988-08-01

    Combined tritium/ 3He data from three multi-level sampling wells (DFG 1, DFG 4, DFG 7) located at Liedern/ Bocholt, West Germany, are presented and principles of the tritium/ 3He method in shallow groundwater studies are discussed. The 3He excess produced by radioactive decay of bomb tritium (released mainly between 1952 and 1963) is clearly reflected in the data. The tritiogenic 3He signal can be detected with a good resolution (signal/1σ error: ≈ 350). The confinement of the tritiogenic 3He is estimated to approximately 77-85% at site DFG 4. For the bomb tritium peak the deviation of the tritium/ 3He age from the age determined by identifying the groundwater layer recharged between 1962 and 1965 is about 3 years (15%). The deviation can be explained by diffusive 3He loss across the groundwater table and by flow dispersion.

  17. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  18. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.

    2008-07-15

    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  19. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites.

  20. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15

  1. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Angela

    2014-10-01

    We review the morphology and differential diagnoses of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the bladder, using a study case to illustrate the discussion. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia is a rare, reactive response to an ischemic insult, classically to radiation therapy, and consists of proliferative, pseudoinfiltrative urothelial nests within the stroma. The presence of background radiation therapy-related changes, such as numerous dilated thrombosed vessels, reactive-appearing endothelial and stromal cells, edema, and hemorrhage, can provide clues to the diagnosis. The main differential diagnoses include invasive urothelial carcinoma and the nested variant of urothelial carcinoma; morphologic features, such as the presence or absence of background therapy-related changes and the architecture and the cytologic atypia of the nests, can help distinguish between pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia and urothelial carcinoma.

  2. Trismus Due to Bilateral Coronoid Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moon Gi; Kim, Dong Hyuck; Ki, Eun Jung; Cheon, Hae Myung

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral coronoid hyperplasia causes painless progressive trismus, resulting from coronoid process impingement on the posterior aspect of the zygomatic bone. The etiology of coronoid hyperplasia is unclear, with various theories proposed. An endocrine stimulus, increased temporalis activity, trauma, genetic inheritance and familial occurrence have all been proposed, but no substantive evidence exists to support any of these hypotheses. Multiplanar reformatting of axial scans and 3-dimensional reconstruction permit precise reproduction of the shape and size of the coronoid and malar structures, and relationships of all structures of the temporal and infratemporal fossae. This case shows remarkably increased mouth opening by coronoidectomy in a patient who complained of trismus due to hyperplasia of coronoid process. PMID:27489829

  3. Treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Portis, A. J.; Mador, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine current treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia with emphasis on randomized, clinical trials and our current management approach. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Benign prostatic hyperplasia remains difficult to define clinically or measure objectively. As a result, research has been fairly weak. With newer treatments, however, more definitive studies have been reported. MAIN FINDINGS: Transurethral resection of the prostate remains the criterion standard for severe disease. Watchful waiting, medical management, or early surgical intervention are all valid options for moderate disease and should be tailored to the characteristics and desires of individual patients. Recent minimally invasive surgical techniques, such as microwave and laser surgery, have not yet achieved the quality of evidence to be generally recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia should be individualized to patients' circumstances and personal choices. PMID:9266125

  4. Tracer for circulation determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, H.; Santos, S.; Wysong, R. D.

    1985-03-19

    An improved tracer particle is described comprising an ion exchange core having a polymer coating thereon, the coated ion exchange core having a reaction site capable of reacting with a compound containing an oxirane group, said coated ion exchange core having been treated with a compound containing an oxirane group to react with said coated ion exchange core causing an increase in mass of the tracer particle. Preferably, the ion exchange core is labelled with a radionuclide. These particles have improved characteristics including improved stability against leaching and improved handling properties. Such particles are useful in circulatory determinations involving the injection of the particles as a suspension in a physiologically acceptable carrier or medium into the circulatory system of animals.

  5. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Utilizing the results of Texas A&M University (TAMU) senior design projects on tritium production in four different small modular reactors (SMR), the Savannah River National Laboratory’s (SRNL) developed an optimization model evaluating tritium production versus uranium utilization under a FY2013 plant directed research development (PDRD) project. The model is a tool that can evaluate varying scenarios and various reactor designs to maximize the production of tritium per unit of unobligated United States (US) origin uranium that is in limited supply. The primary module in the model compares the consumption of uranium for various production reactors against the base case of Watts Bar I running a nominal load of 1,696 tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) with an average refueling of 41,000 kg low enriched uranium (LEU) on an 18 month cycle. After inputting an initial year, starting inventory of unobligated uranium and tritium production forecast, the model will compare and contrast the depletion rate of the LEU between the entered alternatives. This is an annual tritium production rate of approximately 0.059 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU (g-T/kg-LEU). To date, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license has not been amended to accept a full load of TPBARs so the nominal tritium production has not yet been achieved. The alternatives currently loaded into the model include the three light water SMRs evaluated in TAMU senior projects including, mPower, Holtec and NuScale designs. Initial evaluations of tritium production in light water reactor (LWR) based SMRs using optimized loads TPBARs is on the order 0.02-0.06 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU used. The TAMU students also chose to model tritium production in the GE-Hitachi SPRISM, a pooltype sodium fast reactor (SFR) utilizing a modified TPBAR type target. The team was unable to complete their project so no data is available. In order to include results from a fast reactor, the SRNL

  6. Tritium emission reduction at Darlington tritium removal facility using a Bubbler System

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanam, K.; Leilabadi, A.; El-Behairy, O.; Williams, G. I. D.; Vogt, H. K.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station operates a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) to reduce and maintain low tritium levels in the Moderator and Heat Transport heavy water systems of Ontario's CANDU fleet by extracting, concentrating, immobilizing and storing as a metal tritide. Minimizing tritium releases to the environment is of paramount importance to ensure that dose to the public is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and to maintain credibility with the Public. Tritium is removed from the Cryogenic Distillation System to the Tritium Immobilization System (TIS) glove box via a transfer line that is protected by a rupture disc and relief valve. An overpressure event in 2003 had caused the rupture disc to blow, resulting in the release of a significant quantity of elemental tritium into the relief valve discharge line, which ties into the contaminated exhaust system. As a result of a few similar events occurring over a number of years of TRF operation, the released elemental tritium would have been converted to tritium oxide in the presence of a stagnant moist air environment in the stainless steel discharge line. A significant amount of tritium oxide hold-up in the discharge line was anticipated. To minimize any further releases to the environment, a Bubbler System was designed to remove and recover the tritium from the discharge line. This paper summarizes the results of several Bubbler recovery runs that were made over a period of a month. Approximately 3500 Ci of tritium oxide and 230 Ci of elemental tritium were removed and collected. The tritium contained in the water produced from the Bubbler system was later safely recovered in the station's downgraded D{sub 2}O clean-up and recovery system. (authors)

  7. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  8. [Benign prostatic hyperplasia: background and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Gratzke, C; Schlenker, B; Weidlich, P; Seitz, M; Reich, O; Stief, C G

    2007-08-16

    Lower UrinaryTracts Symptoms (LUTS) due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) represent an increasing prevalent condition in ageing men. Patients often seek primarily consultation at their general practitioner. Aetiology and natural history of LUTS due to BPH have not been completely clarified. The development of symptomatic LUTS is age-dependent and determined to varying degrees by the presence of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), Benign Prostatic Enlargement (BPE) as well as Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO). A causal relationship does not always exist. Basis for a specific medical or surgical treatment in the individual patient with LUTS due to BPH is an exact diagnosis by the practising urologist. PMID:17912862

  9. Chronic erythroid hyperplasia and accelerated bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, R S; Lutcher, C L

    Bone atrophy is generally thought to be the etiology of the decreased skeletal mass and fractures found in patients with ineffective hematopoiesis and associated erythroid hyperplasia. A bone biopsy from a patient with chronic erythroid hyperplasia and diffuse cortical osteopenia revealed a normal trabecular bone volume, excess osteoid, numerous osteoblasts, and increased osteoclastic resorptive surface. The increased fractional labeled surfaces and widely spaced double tetracycline labels indicated accelerated bone turnover, despite demonstrable iron deposits at the calcification front and cement lines and a low serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The relationship between the expanded marrow space and trabecular bone suggests that local marrow factors may be responsible for the rapid bone remodeling.

  10. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  11. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  12. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  13. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  14. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  15. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  16. Tritium related safety considerations for mirror upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, S.K.

    1983-11-30

    One of the primary objectives of the MFTF-B upgrades is to demonstrate the technology of tritium breeding in a reactor-like configuration. This requires use and processing of tritium, involving an inventory of several hundred grams at the plant. This paper reviews the results of a preliminary assessment of the radiation hazard associated with the handling of tritium. The radiation dose consequences due to tritium release from normal operation and due to postulated accidents on plant personnel and the public were assessed. Maximum credible (probability < 10/sup -3/, but > 10/sup -7//yr) accidental releases were estimated to be 10 gm in the reactor building and 100 gm in the tritium-processing building. Higher probability (> 10/sup -3//yr) accidents or component failures would result in much smaller releases. In the reactor building, the most severe accident would result from the rupture of a plasma exhaust duct from the end cell or the tritium feed pipe to the neutral beam injector, accompanied by a fire. In the tritium processing building, the most severe accident would be the rupture of the Isotope Separation System (ISS) distillation columns and vacuum jackets accompanied by a fire.

  17. Development of tritium technologies at KAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.; Koo, D.; Lee, J.; Park, J.; Yim, S.P.; Yoon, C.; Lim, J.; Choi, W.; Ahn, H.; Kang, H.; Kim, I.; Paek, S.; Yunn, S.H.; Jung, K.J.

    2015-03-15

    Korea has been operating a CANDU nuclear power plant since 1983. Tritium generated in the heavy water of the plant is removed by the Wolsong TRF (Tritium Removal Facility) and measurement campaigns of tritium near the power plant have shown the efficiency of the TRF system. The HANARO reactor uses heavy water as both reflector and moderator. In HANARO the tritiated water removal system consists of compressors, condensers, and adsorption beds. A tritium behavior analysis code (TRIBAC) for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) is under development at KAERI. The TRIBAC computer software has been equipped with models for tritium production, purification, and leakage, as well as chemisorption and tritium behavior, in the hydrogen production system. Korea takes part into the ITER program and is responsible for the supply of an SDS (Tritium Storage and Delivery System). Within this program Korea has launched an experimental program to study the physico-chemical properties of metal and their hydrides in which hydrogen isotope gases can be stored and removed safely.

  18. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  19. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  20. Tracer tomography (in) rocks!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Jimenez Parras, Santos; Bayer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physical behavior of fractured aquifers is rigorously controlled by the presence of interconnected conductive fractures, as they represent the main pathways for flow and transport. Ideally, they are simulated as a discrete fracture network (DFN) in a model to capture the role of fracture system geometry, i.e. fracture length, height, and width (aperture/transmissivity). Such network may be constrained by prior geological information or direct data resources such as field mapping, borehole logging and geophysics. With the many geometric features, however, calibration of a DFN to measured data is challenging. This is especially the case when spatial properties of a fracture network need to be calibrated to flow and transport data. One way to increase the insight in a fractured rock is by combining the information from multiple field tests. In this study, a tomographic configuration that combines multiple tracer tests is suggested. These tests are conducted from a borehole with different injection levels that act as sources. In a downgradient borehole, the tracer is recorded at different levels or receivers, in order to maximize insight in the spatial heterogeneity of the rock. As tracer here we chose heat, and temperature breakthrough curves are recorded. The recorded tracer data is inverted using a novel stochastic trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. An initial DFN solution is generated and sequentially modified given available geological information, such as expected fracture density, orientation, length distribution, spacing and persistency. During this sequential modification, the DFN evolves in a trans-dimensional inversion space through adding and/or deleting fracture segments. This stochastic inversion algorithm requires a large number of thousands of model runs to converge, and thus using a fast and robust forward model is essential to keep the calculation efficient. To reach this goal, an upwind coupled finite difference method is employed

  1. Tracers and Tracer Testing: Design, Implementation, Tracer Selection, and Interpretation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    G. Michael Shook; Shannon L.; Allan Wylie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting a successful tracer test requires adhering to a set of steps. The steps include identifying appropriate and achievable test goals, identifying tracers with the appropriate properties, and implementing the test as designed. When these steps are taken correctly, a host of tracer test analysis methods are available to the practitioner. This report discusses the individual steps required for a successful tracer test and presents methods for analysis. The report is an overview of tracer technology; the Suggested Reading section offers references to the specifics of test design and interpretation.

  2. Multiple tracers of shallow ground-water flow and recharge in hilly loess

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.; Keller, C.K.; Smith, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    Vertical profiles of tritium and nitrate pore-water concentrations were determined to {approximately}8 m depth across two loess hillslopes. Mean recharge fluxes, estimated from chloride mass balance, are 5--10 times larger at the mid- and toe-slope positions than at the top-slope; the magnitudes of the values compare reasonably with results from other methods. The tritium and nitrate profiles exhibit multiple peaks which indicate that piston flow is not the sole flow process in this system. Results of a simple 1-D mixing model suggest that infiltration-exfiltration cycles in zones of plant root activity explain the shallow tritium peaks. Deeper peaks result from preferential vertical and/or lateral flow. The importance of these dispersive processes is underlined by great dilution of observed tritium concentrations, relative to expected concentrations assuming piston flow. In this setting, chloride is useful as a recharge estimator while tritium and nitrate serve as tracers of landscape-scale water movement.

  3. Micro and bulk analysis of prostate tissues classified as hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, W. M.; Banaś, A.; Banaś, K.; Cinque, G.; Dyduch, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Kisiel, A.; Marcelli, A.; Podgórczyk, M.

    2007-07-01

    BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) is the most common benign neoplasm (non cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland), whose prevalence increases with age. The gland, when increased in size, exerts pressure on the urethra, causing obstruction to urine flow. The latter may result in severe urinary tract and kidney conditions. In this work prostate samples from patients diagnosed with BPH were analyzed using synchrotron radiation. Micro-analysis of the hyperplastic samples was carried out on the L-beam line at HASYLAB, DESY (Germany), while bulk analysis on selected samples was performed at the DRX2 beamline at LNF, Frascati (Italy). Microanalysis with a mono-energetic beam 15 μm in diameter confirmed that concentrations of certain elements, such as S, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn, are good indicators of pathological disorders in prostate tissue that may be considered effective tracers of developing compliant. The concentrations of Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn are higher in hyperplastic tissues, as compared to normal ones, while for sulphur the opposite is observed. Additionally, Fe and S K-edge XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy experiments were carried out in order to determine the chemical speciation of these elements in our samples.

  4. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Samson A.; Bennett, Edgar F.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  5. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Cox, S.A.; Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.

    1982-10-21

    Apparatus and method are presented for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  6. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.; Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21 K and 9 K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenyl-alanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritium are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.; Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21/degree/K and 9/degree/K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenylalanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritiums are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins.

  8. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.; Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.

    1988-09-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21 K and 9 K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenyl-alanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when sued as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. The authors study shows that both liquid and solid tritium are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins.

  9. Tritium Pumps for ITER Roughing System

    SciTech Connect

    Antipenkov, Alexander; Day, Christian; Mack, August; Wagner, Robert; Laesser, Rainer

    2005-07-15

    The ITER roughing system provides for both the initial pump-down of the vessel itself and the regular pump-out of the batch-regenerating cryopumps. This system must have a large pumping speed and cope with the radioactive gas tritium at the same time. The present paper shall highlight the results of the ITER roughing train optimization, discuss the modification of a Roots pump for tritium, and present the results of a ferrofluidic seal test and the first tests of a tailor-made tritium-proof Roots pump with inactive gases.

  10. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, George A.; Nelson, David A.; Molton, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium.

  11. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1992-03-31

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  12. Tritium laboratory with multiple purposes at NIPNE Magurele Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Matei, L.; Postolache, C.

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Laboratory from NIPNE (Romania)) is part of Radioisotope Research and Production Center. The Tritium Laboratory has been in operation since 1960, and carries out R and D activities involving tritium sources in gaseous, liquids and solid state, provides specialized service to CANDU NPP Cernavoda (Romania)), and provides tritium assay services to internal and external customers. The paper presents the activities and perspectives of Tritium Laboratory and its performances in accordance with Quality System Management. (authors)

  13. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... germline and somatic mutations are associated with both primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and meningioma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jan;100(1):E119-28. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-2648. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Faucz FR, Zilbermint M, Lodish ...

  14. Microanatomic features of unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Luz, J G; de Rezende, J R; Jaeger, R G; de Araújo, V C

    1994-01-01

    Microanatomic features of unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) are described. The articular surface exhibited clefts with surrounding elevations, and globules varying 0.5-2 microns in diameter. The articular zone presented giant coiled fibers, and the proliferative zone was composed of small round cells. The findings suggest that degenerative changes occur in UCH, both in adult and juvenile forms. PMID:8000234

  15. Condylar hyperplasia following unilateral temporomandibular joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Machon, V; Levorova, J; Hirjak, D; Foltan, R

    2015-06-01

    Total joint replacement of the temporomandibular joint (TJR) can be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications. We report herein the occurrence of a postoperative open bite malocclusion, the result of condylar hyperplasia affecting the non-operated joint at 1 year after unilateral total joint replacement. PMID:25662429

  16. Bacillary angiomatosis associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Amsbaugh, Sean; Huiras, Erin; Wang, Nadia S; Wever, Aaron; Warren, Simon

    2006-02-01

    Bacillary angiomatosis is an opportunistic bacterial infection caused by either Bartonella henselae or B. quintana. The classic histologic presentation of bacillary angiomatosis involves three components: a lobular proliferation of capillaries with enlarged endothelial cells, neutrophilic debris, and clumps of finely granular material identified as bacteria with staining techniques. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is a histologic reaction pattern characterized by epithelial proliferation in response to a variety of stimuli, including mycobacterial, fungal, and bacterial infections. We describe a case of bacillary angiomatosis associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in an immunocompromised patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Histologic examination of a finger lesion demonstrated a capillary proliferation with neutrophilic debris and characteristic amorphous granular deposits. Warthin-Starry and Giemsa staining revealed clumps of coccobacilli. Cervical lymph node tissue also revealed organisms identified as Bartonella with PCR techniques. Stains and cultures for acid fast bacilli, fungus, and bacteria were negative. To our knowledge, there has been only one other report of bacillary angiomatosis presenting with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. We conclude that the differential diagnosis of entities associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia should be expanded to include bacillary angiomatosis.

  17. Tritium Release Estimate from CLWR-Tritium Extraction Facility Waste Overpack

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    2001-05-23

    Spent targets (Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods, TPBARs) from the Commercial Light Water Reactor-Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site will be sent to waste disposal contained in a so-called ''overpack''. The tritium permeation rate through a welded stainless steel overpack was estimated using a finite difference computer program in a previous report. This report is an evaluation of tritium permeation through three additional overpack designs: (1) a stainless steel overpack sealed using a mechanical closure with a metal gasket, (2) a mild steel overpack with the same mechanical closure, and (3) an aluminum overpack sealed by welding.

  18. Procedures for a modified tritium trick-helium doping and residual tritium analysis of vanadium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramey, D. W.; Braski, D. N.

    1985-05-01

    A modified tritium trick technique was used to implant three levels of 3He in V-15% Cr-5% Ti and Vanstar-7 specimens. The modifications include: (1) wrapping of the specimens with tantalum foil to minimize oxygen contamination and (2) tritiation treatment at 400°C to prevent vanadium tritide formation and to produce a 3He bubble distribution similar to that produced during elevated temperature irradiation. Preliminary results show that both modifications were successful. An electrochemical dissolution technique was developed to determine residual tritium levels in the vanadium alloys. Measured residual tritium levels after tritium removal were in the range of 500 to 1400 μCi/g (0.88 to 2.99 appm tritium in the alloy). Tritium solubilities in the alloys were calculated from the tritium decay time and the measured 3He content. Vanstar-7 specimens consistently absorbed about half as much tritium, and subsequently contained half as much 3He as V-15% Cr-5% Ti. Implanting 3He in vanadium alloys via the tritium trick offers a convenient technique to study the mechanism of helium embrittlement without irradiation and should provide a rapid screening method to help develop embrittlement-resistant vanadium alloys.

  19. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Carlson, R.V.; Coffin, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs.

  20. A 1600 Liter Tritium Hydride Storage Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.

    2001-07-26

    Titanium was selected for evaluation as a tritium storage material. Titanium-deuterium desorption isotherm data at 550, 600, 649, 700, ad 760 degrees C are presented and were used to evaluate storage vessel design loading limits.

  1. Tritium target manufacturing for use in accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, P.; Monnin, C.; Van Rompay, M.; Ballanger, A.

    2001-07-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium target on copper substrate, and going to more sophisticated devices. A wide range of possible uses is covered, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets for higher lifetimes, or large size rotating targets for accelerators used in boron neutron therapy. Activity of targets lies in the 1 to 1000 Curie, diameter of targets being up to 30 cm. Special targets are also considered, including surface layer targets for lowering tritium desorption under irradiation, or those made from different kinds of occluders such as titanium, zirconium, erbium, scandium, with different substrates. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output, or lifetime and stability, or thermal behavior.

  2. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  3. Mechanism of tritium diffusion in lithium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, R.; De Vita, A.; Heine, V.; Payne, M.C.

    1996-04-01

    Lithium oxide is a possible candidate for a breeder blanket material in fusion reactors. Tritium is generated in the material, which can be extracted and fed into the fusion reactor to help sustain the fusion reaction. Experimental studies have shown the extraction rate is controlled by diffusion of tritium in the bulk, but the exact mechanism is not clear. Here we present {ital ab} {ital initio} density functional calculations of the various diffusion pathways which have been suggested, including the diffusion of tritium as an interstitial and various vacancy assisted mechanisms. The activation energy has been calculated for each pathway, and by comparison with experimental results we have deduced which mechanism is most likely. This is shown to be a simple two-stage swapping of a lithium and tritium ion. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Tritium Depth Profiles in 316 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torikai, Yuji; Murata, Daiju; Penzhorn, Ralf-Dieter; Akaishi, Kenya; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Matsuyama, Masao

    To investigate the behavior of hydrogen uptake and release by 316 stainless steel (SS316), as-received and finely polished stainless steel specimens were exposed at 573 K to tritium gas diluted with hydrogen. Then tritium concentration in the exposed specimens was measured as a function of depth using a chemical etching method. All the tritium concentration profiles showed a sharp drop in the range of 10 μm from the top surface up to the bulk. The amount of tritium absorbed into the polished specimens was three times larger than that into the as-received specimen. However, the polishing effects disappeared by exposing to the air for a long time.

  5. Tritium Measurements in Slovenia - Chronology Till 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Jasmina Kozar; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2005-07-15

    Almost all the analyses of tritium in Slovenia have been performed by the tritium laboratory at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Nearly 90 % of its measurements have been covered by two national programs, both approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration: the radioactive monitoring program in the environs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the program of global radioactive contamination monitoring in the environment. These programs include samples of groundwaters, surface waters, precipitation and drinking waters, as well as liquid and gaseous effluents from KNPP. Tritium was determined in some research projects and in hydrological studies of thermal waters, groundwater and coalmine waters. Tritium in the Karst region was mapped as well as the springs of entire territory of Slovenia. Around 5500 samples have been analyzed up to 2004.

  6. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Mike Patterson

    2010-10-01

    Idaho National Laboratory developed the Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) for tritium permeation in the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). All the component models in the VHTR were developed and were embedded into the MATHLAB SIMULINK package with a Graphic User Interface. The governing equations of the nuclear ternary reaction and thermal neutron capture reactions from impurities in helium and graphite core, reflector, and control rods were implemented. The TPAC code was verified using analytical solutions for the tritium birth rate from the ternary fission, the birth rate from 3He, and the birth rate from 10B. This paper also provides comparisons of the TPAC with the existing other codes. A VHTR reference design was selected for tritium permeation study from the reference design to the nuclear-assisted hydrogen production plant and some sensitivity study results are presented based on the HTGR outlet temperature of 750 degrees C.

  7. Tritium measurements with a tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.

    1990-06-01

    Tritium concentrations ( 3H: 2H) of less than 10 -15 are readily measurable with almost any tandem accelerator and with an overall detection efficiency as high as 4.5%. The isobar, 3He, and other potential sources of interference (mainly 6Li, 2H and 1H) can all be removed by an absorber in front of the triton detector, so there is little need for analyzing elements other than the negative-and positive-ion magnets found on most tandems. The technique is particularly well suited for detecting tritium in deuterium absorbed in a metal and testing for cold fusion. We caution that tritium can occur in commercial deuterium and heavy water from sources other than cold fusion; one sample was observed to have a tritium-to-deuterium ratio of 10 -10.

  8. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  9. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  10. Tracer testing for reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham, W.E.; Abbaszadeh-Dehghani, M.

    1987-05-01

    When a reservoir is studied in detail for an EOR project, well-to-well tracers should be used as a tool to help understand the reservoir in a quantitative way. Tracers complement the more traditional reservoir evaluation tools. This paper discusses the concepts underlying tracer testing, the analysis methods used to produce quantitative results, and the meaning of these results in terms of conceptual picture of the reservoir. Some of the limitations of these analysis methods are discussed, along with ongoing research on tracer flow.

  11. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I.

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  12. Tritium evolution from various morphologies of palladium

    SciTech Connect

    Tuggle, D.G.; Claytor, T.N.; Taylor, S.F. |

    1994-04-01

    The authors have been able to extend the tritium production techniques to various novel morphologies of palladium. These include small solid wires of various diameters and a type of pressed powder wire and a plasma cell. In most successful experiments, the amount of palladium required, for an equivalent tritium output, has been reduced by a factor of 100 over the older powder methods. In addition, they have observed rates of tritium production (>5 nCi/h) that far exceed most of the previous results. Unfortunately, the methods that they currently use to obtain the tritium are poorly understood and consequently there are numerous variables that need to be investigated before the new methods are as reliable and repeatable as the previous techniques. For instance, it seems that surface and/or bulk impurities play a major role in the successful generation of any tritium. In those samples with total impurity concentrations of >400 ppM essentially no tritium has been generated by the gas loading and electrical simulation methods.

  13. Management of tritium European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ene, D.; Andersson, K.; Jensen, M.; Nielsen, S.; Severin, G.

    2015-03-15

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will produce tritium via spallation and activation processes during operational activities. Within the location of ESS facility in Lund, Sweden site it is mandatory to demonstrate that the management strategy of the produced tritium ensures the compliance with the country regulation criteria. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the different aspects of the tritium management in ESS facility. Besides the design parameter study of the helium coolant purification system of the target the consequences of the tritium releasing into the environment were also analyzed. Calculations show that the annual release of tritium during the normal operations represents a small fraction from the estimated total dose. However, more refined calculations of migration of activated-groundwater should be performed for higher hydraulic conductivities, with the availability of the results on soil examinations. With the assumption of 100% release of tritium to the atmosphere during the occurring of the extreme accidents, it was found as well that the total dose complies with the constraint. (authors)

  14. Recommended tritium surface contamination release guides

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Draper, D.G.; Foulke, J.D.; Hafner, R.S.; Jalbert, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E.; Myers, D.S.; Strain, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This document was prepared to provide scientific basis for recommended changes in specific limits for tritium surface contamination in DOE Order 5480.11. A summary of the physical and biological characteristics of tritium has been provided that illustrate the unique nature of this radionuclide when compared to other pure beta emitters or to beta-gamma emitting radionuclides. This document is divided into nine sections. The introduction and the purpose and scope are addressed in Section 1.0 and Section 2.0, respectively. Section 3.0 contains recommended interpretation of terms used in this document. Section 4.0 addresses recommended methods for evaluating surface contamination. Biological and physical characteristics of tritium compounds are discussed in Section 5.0, as they relate to tritium radiotoxicity. Scenarios and dose calculations for selected, conservatively limiting cases of tritium intake are given and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides conclusions on the information given and recommendations for changes in the surface contamination limits for total tritium to 1 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm per 100 cm{sup 2}. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Using atmospheric tracers to reduce uncertainty in groundwater recharge areas.

    PubMed

    Starn, J Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C; Robbins, Gary A

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo-based approach to assess uncertainty in recharge areas shows that incorporation of atmospheric tracer observations (in this case, tritium concentration) and prior information on model parameters leads to more precise predictions of recharge areas. Variance-covariance matrices, from model calibration and calculation of sensitivities, were used to generate parameter sets that account for parameter correlation and uncertainty. Constraining parameter sets to those that met acceptance criteria, which included a standard error criterion, did not appear to bias model results. Although the addition of atmospheric tracer observations and prior information produced similar changes in the extent of predicted recharge areas, prior information had the effect of increasing probabilities within the recharge area to a greater extent than atmospheric tracer observations. Uncertainty in the recharge area propagates into predictions that directly affect water quality, such as land cover in the recharge area associated with a well and the residence time associated with the well. Assessments of well vulnerability that depend on these factors should include an assessment of model parameter uncertainty. A formal simulation of parameter uncertainty can be used to delineate probabilistic recharge areas, and the results can be expressed in ways that can be useful to water-resource managers. Although no one model is the correct model, the results of multiple models can be evaluated in terms of the decision being made and the probability of a given outcome from each model.

  16. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  17. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, Paul W.

    1997-05-01

    A reliable supply of tritium is necessary to maintain the United States' nuclear defense capability. Because tritium decays to ^3He at the rate of 5.5 percent per year, it must be replenished continously. To make the required amount of tritium using an accelerator, neutrons will be generated by high-energy proton reactions with tungsten and lead, moderated in light water, and captured in ^3He. The plant will be operational in 2007 at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. It will consist of a proton linear accelerator, tritium-production target/blankets, tritium-extraction, and conventional balance-of-plant systems. The accelerator will be a radio-frequency linac operating at 100 percent duty factor. It will have a combination of normal-conducting copper structures to accelerate a 100-mA beam to 217 MeV followed by superconducting niobium cavities to boost the beam energy to 1700 MeV. After acceleration, a high-energy transport system will expand the beam to a rectangular, 16-cm wide by 160-cm high distribution and deliver it to one of two identical target/blanket assemblies where tritium production and extraction will take place. Inside a target/blanket the proton beam will strike heavy-water cooled tungsten rods to produce neutrons. The tungsten will be surrounded by a decoupler consisting of aluminum tubes containing ^3He to reduce parasitic capture. Additional lead modules with aluminum tubes containing ^3He will lie outside the central region. The lead will produce additional neutrons from spallation and (n,xn) reactions. Light water coolant continuously circulated through the lead will moderate the neutrons to low energy, where they will be efficiently captured by ^3He gas to produce tritium. Tritium will be removed by continuous separation using permeation through a heated palladium-silver alloy membrane. Once separated, standard cryogenic distillation techniques will be used to isotopically purify the tritium. This presentation

  18. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. PMID:26551587

  19. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium.

  20. Metal getters for tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Willin, E.; Sirch, M.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Devillers, M.

    1988-09-01

    Whereas titanium is a getter material mainly suitable for the long-term storage of tritium, zirconium cobalt alloy can also be employed for the interim storage and transport of this gas. Activated zirconium cobalt alloy reacts within minutes with hydrogen at room temperature. At the composition of /ZrCoH/sub 0.8/ the dissociation pressure at room temperature is estimated to be 10/sup -3/ Pa. The zirconium cobalt/H/sub 2/ system is not pyrophoric at room temperature. Methane is partially cracked on Ti and on ZrCo at temperatures above 600 and 300/sup 0/C respectively. With titanium the corresponding carbide is formed without affecting the storage properties of the getter. After reaction of ZrCo with CH/sub 4/ or N/sub 2/ the hydrogen adsorption capacity is reduced. Titanium powder, sponge or sheet react with nitrogen at temperatures above 750/sup 0/C with a parabolic rate law. In the overlayer of the metal substrate the phases N dissolved in /alpha/-Ti, Ti/sub 2/N and TiN were identified. The same phases were observed when NH/sub 3/ reacts with this metal.

  1. Information for establishing bioassay measurements and evaluations of tritium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, A.

    1983-06-01

    This report summarizes information and references used in developing regulatory guidance on programs for the bioassay of tritium as well as information useful in planning and conducting tritium bioassay programs and evaluating bioassay data. A review of literature on tritium radiobiology is included to provide a ready source of information useful for estimating internal doses of tritium and risks for the various tritium compounds and forms, including elemental (gaseous) tritium. Simplified and conservative dose conversion factors are derived and tabulated for easy reference in program planning, safety evaluations, and compliance determinations.

  2. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  4. Tritium labeled amino acid conjugates of prostaglandins and thromboxanes as labeled ligands in prostanoid radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Sautebin, L.; Kindahl, H.; Kumlin, M.; Granstroem, E.

    1985-09-01

    Conjugates of prostaglandins and thromboxanes with tritium labeled amino acids were prepared and employed as labeled ligands in prostaglandin and thromboxane radioimmunoassays. Assays for PGF2 alpha, 15-keto-13, 14-dihydro-PGF2 alpha, TXB2 and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-TXB2 were evaluated in comparative studies using either these heterologous ligands or the corresponding homologous tritiated eicosanoid as tracers. Binding properties for the respective antibodies were found to be similar using either tracer. Three biological studies were also conducted, viz. study of the release of TXB2 during collagen induced platelet aggregation, of 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-TXB2 during guinea pig pulmonary anaphylaxis, and of PGF2 alpha during bovine luteolysis. The analyses gave comparable results using either the heterologous or the homologous assay. Thus, this type of labeled prostanoid conjugates may serve as a convenient alternative to homologous tracers in radioimmunoassay. Heterologous tracers may even in certain cases provide the only simple solution to the problem of preparing a labeled ligand of high specific activity.

  5. Results of ground-water tracer tests using tritiated water at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water tracer test were conducted at two sites in the radioactive-waste disposal area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 1977 to 1982. The purpose of the tests was to determine if the regolith beds had weathered sufficiently to permit the substantial flow of water across them. About 50 curies of tritium dissolved in water were used as the tracer in one site, and about 100 curies at the other. Results demonstrated that ground water is able to flow through joints in the weathered bedding and that the direction of the water-table gradient is the primary factor governint flow direction. Nevertheless, the substantial lateral spread of the plume as it developed showed that bedding-plane openings can still exert a significant secondary influence on flow direction in weathered rock. About 3,500 water samples from the injection and observation wells were analyzed for tritium during the test period. Concentrations detected spanned 11 orders of magnitude. Measurable concentrations were still present in the two injection wells and most observation wells 5 years after the tracer was introduced. Matrix diffusion may have played a significant role in these tests. The process would account for the sustained concentrations of tritium at many of the observation wells, the long-term residual concentrations at the injection and observation wells, and the apparent slow movement of the centers of mass across the two well fields. The process also would have implications regarding aquifer remediation. Other tracer tests have been conducted in the regolith of the Conasauga Group. Results differ from the results described in this report.

  6. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26351501

  7. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sabrina; da Silva Fabris, André Luis; Ferreira, Gabriel Ramalho; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Francisconi, Giovanna Barbosa; Souza, Francisley Avila; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel

    2014-05-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a pathologic condition that causes overdevelopment of the condylar head and neck as well as the mandible. Slowly progressive unilateral enlargement of the head and the neck of the condyle causes crossbite malocclusion, facial asymmetry, and shifting of the midpoint of the chin to the unaffected side. The etiology and the pathogenesis of CH remain uncertain. The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiologic examinations and bone scintigraph. A difference in uptake of 10% or more between condyles is regarded as indicative of CH, and the affected condyles had a relative uptake of 55% or more. When the diagnosis of active CH is established, the treatment consists of removal of the growth center by a partial condylectomy. The authors present the case of a 46-year-old male patient with right active type II CH or hemimandibular hyperplasia who underwent a high condylectomy. PMID:24820728

  8. Focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Morency, R; Laliberte, H; Delamarre, R

    1982-02-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) of the oral mucosa has been reported mainly among American Indians, Eskimos, and south Africans. Our investigation is the first among Canadian Indians and combines an epidemiological study of FEH in a Cree Indian population living in Fort Georges. P.Q., and a description of its histologic and ultrastructural features. The sample consists of 150 individuals divided into six age groups. The prevalence rate for all groups is 18.6%. Clinically the lesions are nodular, sessile, and tend to merge with the adjoining mucosa upon stretching. Histologically the hyperplasia is limited to the epithelium. E.M. shows papova-virus-like particles. Otolaryngologists' awareness of this lesion could possibly lead to its recognition on a larger scale.

  9. Multiple myeloma presenting as gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjeev; Kaur, Harjit; Kansal, Gaurav; Gupta, Parul

    2013-05-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplasm that is characterized by a monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. Oral and maxillofacial manifestations as an initial sign or symptom of multiple myeloma are rare. A 58-year-old male patient presented with generalized gingival enlargement for last 6 months. Based on clinical presentation, a diagnosis of gingival hyperplasia was made. After Phase I therapy, excisional biopsy was taken in anterior mandibular region and excised tissue was sent for histopathological examination. The histopathology report revealed a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with foci of ulceration. The subepithelial zone showed infiltration by sheets of mainly binucleate and multinucleate plasma cells, few cells being less differentiated. Rounded cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were identified in many of these cells. After a series of clinical investigations, a case of "multiple myeloma" was diagnosed. Patient presenting with generalized gingival hyperplasia should be worked up for systemic disease like multiple myeloma.

  10. Benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the palate.

    PubMed

    Bradley, G; Main, J H; Birt, B D; From, L

    1987-01-01

    Seven patients with benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the palate are reported. Clinically, these lesions presented as painless non-ulcerated masses that were unilateral in 6 of the cases and bilateral in one. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by a mixed lymphoid infiltrate, germinal centres and vascular channels with hyperplasia of endothelial cells. The patients were followed for 3-10 years subsequent to diagnosis. One patient had 2 sequential lesions on opposite sides of the palate. Another patient with lesions of both submandibular salivary glands in addition to the palate developed rheumatoid arthritis, xerophthalmia and serologic changes consistent with systemic autoimmune disease. To date, none of the patients developed signs and symptoms of lymphoma or leukemia. The etiology of these lesions is unknown. Their distinction from lymphoma of the palate, as well as their possible relationship to the benign lymphoepithelial lesion of palatal mucous glands, is discussed.

  11. Mandibular coronoid hyperplasia in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Jaskolka, Michael S; Eppley, Barry L; van Aalst, John A

    2007-07-01

    Bilateral coronoid hyperplasia is a relatively rare condition in the pediatric population and yet may be an unrecognized cause of limited mouth opening in children. There are multiple theories as to the causes of the hyperplasia, which include temporalis hyperactivity, hormonal stimulus, and genetic inheritance. The resulting excess growth of the coronoids results in impingement on the zygomatic processes leading to mandibular hypomobility. The diagnosis is confirmed with plain films and computed tomography scans. Treatment involves bilateral coronoidectomies to relieve impingement on the zygoma. Postoperative physical therapy is crucial for success; the therapy focuses on maintaining the mouth opening achieved at the time of surgery. Outcome reports have been variable despite good physical therapy, suggesting that the exact pathology of the condition is not well understood.

  12. Tritium in the World Trade Center September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack: It's Possible Sources and Fate

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, P; Semkow, T; Husain, L; Haines, D; Woznial, G; Williams, P; Hafner, R; Rabun, R

    2002-05-03

    two. The fate of tritium in the attack depended on its chemistry. Any tritium present in the vicinity of jet-fuel explosion or fire would convert to HTO. The molecular tritium is also known to quickly exchange with water adsorbed on surfaces at ambient temperatures. Therefore, the end product of reacted tritium was HTO. A part of it would disperse into the atmosphere and a part would remain on site. The dynamic aspect of HTO removal was investigated taking into a consideration water flow at ground zero. Most of ground zero is encircled by the Slurry Wall, 70 ft deep underground, called a Bathtub. Approximately three million gallons of water were hosed on site in the fire-fighting efforts, and 1 million gallons fell as rainwater, between 9/11 and 9/21 (the day of the reported measurement). The combined water percolated through the debris down to the bottom of the Bathtub dissolving and removing HTO with it. That water would meet and combine with the estimated 26 million gallons of water that leaked from the Hudson River as well as broken mains, during the same period of 10 days after the attack. The combined water was collecting in the PATH train tunnel and continuously being pumped out to prevent flooding. A %Box model of water flow was developed to describe the above scenario. Considering the uncertainty in the amount of tritium present from sources other than the aircraft, as well as the dynamic character of tritium removal from the site, it is feasible to provide only a qualitative picture of the fate and behavior of tritium at WTC with the limited experimental data available. If the time history of tritium concentration at WTC had been measured, this study could have been a tracer study of water flow at WTC possibly useful to civil engineering.

  13. New Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Skepasts, Peter K.; Lee, Laurence M.

    1991-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common of all neoplasms. The most common treatment is prostatectomy, but other available therapies include androgen antagonists, α-adrenergic blockers, anticholinergic agents, prostate dilation with a ballon, and urethral stents. Prostatectomy is likely to remain the standard of care for the foreseeable future because it is safe and much more effective than all other current and experimental forms of therapy. PMID:21229073

  14. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia in lepromatous leprosy].

    PubMed

    Jacyk, W; Lechner, W

    1983-10-15

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck (FEH) is most likely caused by human papilloma virus. It mainly occurs in children and young people showing no associated diseases. For the first time, we describe a case of FEH in a patient with lepromatous leprosy who due to persistent erythema nodosum leprosum has been treated with a lang-term glucocorticoid therapy. The question of the competence of lepromatous patients in resisting certain viral infections arises.

  15. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Canöz, Özlem

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferative condition that is more frequently found in children of certain ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 13 and 32 genotypes has been consistently detected in these lesions. In this study a daughter, mother and father had FEH, and HPV 13 was shown by sequence analysis in the lesions of these patients. Cryotherapy was applied to the lesions and the lesions improved, but did not recover properly. In conclusion, HPV genotyping should be performed in FEH cases.

  16. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Durso, Braz Campos; Pinto, José Marcelo Vargas; Jorge, Jacks; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2005-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare benign lesion caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in numerous populations and ethnic groups. A higher incidence in close communities and among family members indicates infectious pathogenesis. A 21-year-old woman with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for 10 years. A literature review is also presented, with emphasis on manifestations in the oral mucosa and histopathological features.

  17. Metformin for endometrial hyperplasia: a Cochrane protocol

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Naomi S; Oliver, Thomas R W; Shiwani, Hunain; Saner, Juliane R F; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Atiomo, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous lesion of the endometrium, commonly presenting with uterine bleeding. If managed expectantly, it frequently progresses to endometrial carcinoma, rates of which are increasing dramatically worldwide. However, the established treatment for endometrial hyperplasia (progestogens) involves multiple side effects and leaves the risk of recurrence. Metformin is the most commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also been linked to the reversal of endometrial hyperplasia and may therefore contribute to decreasing the prevalence of endometrial carcinoma without the fertility and side effect consequences of current therapies. However, the efficacy and safety of metformin being used for this therapeutic target is unclear and, therefore, this systematic review will aim to determine this. Methods and analysis We will search the following trials and databases with no language restrictions: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Google Scholar; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO International Trials Registry Platform portal; OpenGrey and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of use of metformin compared with a placebo or no treatment, conventional medical treatment (eg, progestogens) or any other active intervention. Two review authors will independently assess the trial eligibility, risk of bias and extract appropriate data points. Trial authors will be contacted for additional data. The primary review outcome is the regression of endometrial hyperplasia histology towards normal histology. Secondary outcomes include hysterectomy rate; abnormal uterine bleeding; quality of life scores and adverse reactions to treatments. Ethics and dissemination

  18. Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia mimicking mucocele.

    PubMed

    Jain, K; Singh, B D; Dubey, A; Avinash, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chronic local irritation have been seen commonly in the form of fibroma or mucocele in children. We report a ten year old girl with the chief complaint of swelling in the lower right region of labial mucosa which was diagnosed clinically as mucocele and histologically as fibro-epithelial hyperplasia. Surgical excision was done under local anesthesia with no post-operative complication. PMID:25552222

  19. Inflammatory hyperplasia: From diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pradeep; Dahiya, Varun; Kataria, Prerna; Sabharwal, Shreya

    2014-01-01

    Gingival enlargement, the currently accepted terminology for an increase in the size of the gingiva, is a common feature of gingival disease. Local and systemic factors influence the gingival conditions of the patient. These factors results in a spectrum of diseases that can be developmental, reactive and inflammatory to neoplastic. In this article, the history, etiology, clinical and histopathological features, treatment strategies and preventive protocol of inflammatory hyperplasia are discussed.

  20. Hereditary Pituitary Hyperplasia with Infantile Gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Gläsker, Sven; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Lafferty, Antony R. A.; Hofman, Paul L.; Li, Jie; Weil, Robert J.; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2011-01-01

    Context: We report hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the results of the clinical and laboratory analysis of this rare instance of hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Design: The study is a retrospective analysis of three cases from one family. Setting: The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health, a tertiary referral center. Patients: A mother and both her sons had very early-onset gigantism associated with high levels of serum GH and prolactin. Interventions: The condition was treated by total hypophysectomy. Main Outcome Measure(s): We performed clinical, pathological, and molecular evaluations, including evaluation basal and provocative endocrine testing, neuroradiological assessment, and assessment of the pituitary tissue by microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Results: All three family members had very early onset of gigantism associated with abnormally high serum levels of GH and prolactin. Serum GHRH levels were not elevated in either of the boys. The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and histological findings indicated mammosomatotroph hyperplasia. The pituitary gland of both boys revealed diffuse mammosomatotroph hyperplasia of the entire pituitary gland without evidence of adenoma. Prolactin and GH were secreted by the same cells within the same secretory granules. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of GHRH in clusters of cells distributed throughout the hyperplastic pituitary of both boys. Conclusions: This hereditary condition seems to be a result of embryonic pituitary maldevelopment with retention and expansion of the mammosomatotrophs. The findings suggest that it is caused by paracrine or autocrine pituitary GHRH secretion during pituitary development. PMID:21976722

  1. Histopathological and scintigraphic features of condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gray, R J; Sloan, P; Quayle, A A; Carter, D H

    1990-04-01

    This investigation was undertaken to correlate the scintigraphic and histological features of condylar hyperplasia to identify consistent diagnostic findings. A series of 34 surgically excised condyles were examined from a 5 year period. Of these, 20 were diagnosed clinically and histologically as condylar hyperplasia. In 18 of these the presentation was one of increasing facial asymmetry. In all 20 cases there was an increased uptake of Technetium 99 as determined by gamma scintigraphy. The thickness of the fibrous articular layer, undifferentiated germinal mesenchyme layer and the hyperplastic cartilage layer were measured using an eyepiece graticule and the presence and frequency of islands of cartilage in the subchondral bone were noted. 7 patients received tetracycline hydrochloride 14 and 4 days pre-operatively in an attempt to quantify the calcification rate. An uninterrupted layer of undifferentiated germinal mesenchyme is a consistent feature of condylar hyperplasia. An increased uptake on scintigraphy is proportionally related to the thickness of the hypertrophic cartilage and not only to the presence but also the frequency of cartilage islands in the subchondral bone. PMID:2111360

  2. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium (T) permeation leakage to surroundings is a great safety concern in fission and fusion reactor systems. T permeation potentially occurs from T contaminated water through cooling tubes or storage tank made of metals which dissolve some T evolved by water corrosion. In order to understand behaviors of hydrogen uptake and permeation in pure α-iron (αFe) during water corrosion around room temperature, hydrogen permeation experiments for an αFe membrane have been conducted by means of tritium tracer techniques. The present study suggests that hydrogen produced by water corrosion of αFe is trapped in product oxide layers to delay hydrogen uptake in αFe for a moment. However, the oxide layers do not work as a sufficient barrier for hydrogen uptake. Some of hydrogen dissolved in αFe normally diffuses and permeates through the bulk in the early stage of permeation. In a later stage, hydrogen permeation could be apparently stopped by the disappearance of concentration difference of tritium. Hydrogen partial pressure at the water/αFe interface could be ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 kPa around room temperature.

  3. Measurement of the reaeration coefficients of the North Fork Licking River at Utica, Ohio by radioactive tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hren, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Reaeration coefficients of the North Fork Licking River at Utica, Ohio were measured by the radioactive-tracer method. The tests were conducted on a 2.1-mile reach on September 23 and October 7, 1981, during low-flow conditions. Krypton-85 gas and tritium were the radioopactive tracers, which were used in conjunction with rhodamine-WT dye. The reaertion coefficients determined on September 23 were 3.09 days-1 (subreach 1-2) and 3.32 days-1 (subreach 2-3). On October 7, the values were 2.04 days -1 and 2.23 days-1 respectively.

  4. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004*

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Anderl; G. R. Longhurst; R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; S. T. Schuetz; D. A. Petti

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the current status of the development of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Designated a National User Facility by the US DOE, the primary mission of STAR is to provide laboratory infrastructure to study tritium science and technology issues associated with the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Both tritium and non-tritium fusion safety research is pursued along three key thrust areas: (1) plasma-material interactions of plasma-facing component (PFC) materials exposed to energetic tritium and deuterium ions, (2) fusion safety concerns related to PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, and tritium behavior in fusion systems, and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. STAR comprises a multi-room complex with operations segregated to permit both tritium and non-tritium activities in separately ventilated rooms. Tritium inventory in STAR is limited to 15,000 Ci to maintain its classification as a Radiological Facility. Experiments with tritium are typically conducted in glovebox environments. Key components of the tritium infrastructure have been installed and tested. This includes the following subsystems: (1) a tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS) that uses two 50-g depleted uranium beds for tritium storage and PVT/beta-scintillation analyses for tritium accountability measurements, (2) a Tritium Cleanup System (TCS) that uses catalytic oxidation and molecular sieve water absorption to remove tritiated species from glovebox atmosphere gases and gaseous effluents from experiment and process systems, and (3) tritium monitoring instrumentation for room air, glovebox atmosphere and stack effluent tritium concentration measurements. Integration of the tritium infrastructure subsystems with the experimental and

  5. FINAL REPORT FOR TRITIUM WATER MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.; Ferguson, B.; DiPrete, D.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this Plant Directed Research and Demonstration (PDRD) task was to develop a system to safetly analyze tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to liquid-scintillation counting. The proposed system determines tritium concentrations by measuring Bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions in liquid samples. Results show that, after a short counting period (30 seconds), detection limits are three orders of magnitude below the described concentration of tritiated water in the zeolite beds. Additionally, this report covers the analysis of process samples and the investigation of several cell window materials including beryllium, aluminum, and copper. Final tests reveal that alternate window materials and thicknesses can be used to obtain useful results. In particular, a window of stainless steel of moderate thickness (0.3 cm) can be used for counting relatively high levels of tritium.

  6. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1991-07-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper towels and ethyl alcohol or Swish{trademark}. The surface contamination, as shown by swipe surveys, was reduced from 4{times}10{sup 4}--10{sup 6} disintegrations per minute (dpm)/cm{sup 2} to 2{times}10{sup 2}--4{times}10{sup 4} dpm/cm{sup 2}. Details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given.

  7. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  8. Plant-Based Plume-Scale Monitoring Reveals the Extents and Pathways of Tritium Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraski, B. J.; Michel, R. L.; Halford, K. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Abraham, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to detect contamination near radioactive-waste and other contaminated sites. Such methods should be capable of providing an early warning of contaminant releases and be accurate and robust enough for monitoring the long-term performance of waste-isolation facilities and remediation measures. Plant-based methods were developed adjacent to a closed low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Objectives were to (i) characterize and map the spatial variability of plant-water tritium, (ii) develop empirical relations to predict subsurface tritium contamination from plant-water concentrations, and (iii) gain insight into transport pathways and processes. Tritium was selected because it is a common radionuclide disposed at radioactive waste sites and it is a good tracer of water movement. Solar-distillation and solid-phase-extraction were used to collect and prepare plant (creosote bush, Larrea tridentata) foliage water for direct-scintillation counting. The maximum plant-water tritium concentration was 4,890 Bq/L; background values averaged 2.5 Bq/L. Geostatistical analysis showed that plant concentrations were spatially correlated to a distance of 380 m. Simple-contour and kriged maps of plant concentrations identified "hot spots" that were verified by soil-water-vapor measurements. Empirical linear relations between plant water and soil-water-vapor concentrations measured at the 0.5- and 1.5-m sampling depths were used to map the spatial distributions of root-zone and sub-root-zone tritium, respectively. Results showed that tritium migration away from the waste source primarily occurs in the gas phase with preferential transport through a dry, gravelly layer beneath the root zone, from which it moves upward and is subsequently released to the surface environment. Shallow and deep geologic units controlling preferential transport through the unsaturated zone were mapped by direct-current electrical

  9. A low tritium hydride bed inventory estimation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Shanahan, K.L.; Baker, R.A.; Foster, P.J.

    2015-03-15

    Low tritium hydride beds were developed and deployed into tritium service in Savannah River Site. Process beds to be used for low concentration tritium gas were not fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory measurement method. Low tritium beds contain less than the detection limit of the IBA (In-Bed Accountability) technique used for tritium inventory. This paper describes two techniques for estimating tritium content and uncertainty for low tritium content beds to be used in the facility's physical inventory (PI). PI are performed periodically to assess the quantity of nuclear material used in a facility. The first approach (Mid-point approximation method - MPA) assumes the bed is half-full and uses a gas composition measurement to estimate the tritium inventory and uncertainty. The second approach utilizes the bed's hydride material pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties and a gas composition measurement to reduce the uncertainty in the calculated bed inventory.

  10. Tritium handling safety and operating experience at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a facility designed to develop and demonstrate, in full scale, technologies necessary for safe and efficient operation of tokamak fusion reactors. TSTA currently consists of systems for pumping DT gas mixtures; for removing impurities; for separating the isotopes of hydrogen; for storage of hydrogen isotopes; for gas analysis; and for assuring safety by the necessary control, monitoring, and detritiation of effluent gaseous streams. TSTA also has several small scale experiments to develop and test new equipment and processes necessary for fusion reactors. Tritium was introduced into TSTA in June 1984. Current inventory is approximately 100 grams. Approximately 10{sup 9} Curies of tritium have been processed in closed loop operation at TSTA. Total tritium releases from the facility stack have been less than 75 Curies. Total operating personnel exposures are less than 500 person-mrem. Exposures to the general public from TSTA tritium releases are extremely small (less than 10{sup {minus}2} mrem). Total tritium buried as waste is less than 36,000 Curies. In this paper, data on component reliability, failure types and rates, and waste quantities are presented. Operational experience under normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions is presented. The DOE requirements for the operation of a tritium facility like TSTA include personnel training, emergency preparedness, radiation protection, safety analysis, and preoperational appraisals. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, Saravana C.; Senthilnathan, S.; Kumar, Lokesh D.; Mohan, Anand C. S.; Taranath, M.

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle ‘differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature. PMID:24818099

  12. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bharathi, Saravana C; Senthilnathan, S; Kumar, Lokesh D; Mohan, Anand C S; Taranath, M

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle 'differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature. PMID:24818099

  13. Amlodipine-induced Gingival Hyperplasia - A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Madi, M; Shetty, S R; Babu, S G; Achalli, S

    2015-06-01

    Anticonvulsants, antihypertensive calcium channel blockers and immunosuppressants are the three main classes of drugs known to cause drug-induced gingival hypertrophy or hyperplasia. Among the calcium channel blockers, nifedipine administration has most frequently been associated with medication-related gingival hyperplasia. The incidence with amlodipine, which has a mode of action pharmacodynamically comparable to nifedipine, has rarely been reported. Here, we present a rare case of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in a hypertensive patient.

  14. Denture hyperplasia with areas simulating oral inverted ductal papilloma.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Jorge, Jacks; Rangel, Ana Lúcia Carrinho Ayrosa; León, Jorge Esquiche; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2005-07-01

    Denture hyperplasia is a reactive lesion of the oral mucosa, usually associated to an ill-fitting denture. This lesion is easily diagnosed and in some cases distinct microscopic variations such as osseous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia may be found. These metaplastic alterations probably are associated with the lymphocytic infiltrate usually present in denture hyperplasia. We present a case of denture hyperplasia containing salivary gland tissue with ductal alterations mimicking an oral inverted ductal papilloma.

  15. Hydrogen isotope separation installation for tritium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, B.M.; Perevezentsev, A.N.; Selivanenko, I.L.; Tenyaev, B.N.; Vedeneev, A.I.; Golubkov, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    The separation of hydrogen isotopes in the hydrogen-palladium system in sectioned separation columns with the simulation of counter-current isotopic exchange is described. The separation efficiency of sectioned columns is investigated with the experimental installation as a function of various parameters. The separation of deuterium-tritium mixtures with high tritium concentrations is tested with the pilot installation operating at room temperature and atmospheric hydrogen pressure. Due to very high separation efficiency, flexibility and simplicity of operation separation installations with sectioned columns are ideally suitable for tritium laboratories and facilities dealing with separation of hydrogen isotopes. Estimation of applicability of sectioned columns for regeneration of exhaust gas in a fuel cycle of thermonuclear reactors, such as JET and ITER, shows the number of advantages of separation installations with sectioned columns. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Low-exposure tritium radiotoxicity in mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.

    1982-02-11

    Studies of tritium radiotoxicity involving chronic /sup 3/H0H exposures in mammals demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure - levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. These studies demonstrate also that deleterious effects of /sup 3/H beta radiation do not differ significantly from those of gamma radiation at high exposures. In contrast, however, at low exposures tritium is significantly more effective than gamma rays, rad for rad, by a factor approaching 3. This is important for hazard evaluation and radiation protection because knowledge concerning biological effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure has come mainly from gamma-ray data; and predictions based on gamma-ray data will underestimate tritium effects - especially at low exposures - unless the RBE is fully taken into account.

  17. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  18. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  19. Fabrication of light water reactor tritium targets

    SciTech Connect

    Pilger, J.P.

    1991-11-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Development Task of the Tritium Target Development Project is: to produce a documented technology basis, including specifications and procedures for target rod fabrication; to demonstrate that light water tritium targets can be manufactured at a rate consistent with tritium production requirements; and to develop quality control methods to evaluate target rod components and assemblies, and establish correlations between evaluated characteristics and target rod performance. Many of the target rod components: cladding tubes, end caps, plenum springs, etc., have similar counterparts in LWR fuel rods. High production rate manufacture and inspection of these components has been adequately demonstrated by nuclear fuel rod manufacturers. This summary describes the more non-conventional manufacturing processes and inspection techniques developed to fabricate target rod components whose manufacturability at required production rates had not been previously demonstrated.

  20. The operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; LaMarche, P.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    The TFTR tritium operations staff has successfully received, stored, handled, and processed over five hundred thousand curies of tritium for the purpose of supporting D-T (Deuterium-Tritium) operations at TFTR. Tritium operations personnel nominally provide continuous round the clock coverage (24 hours/day, 7 days/week) in shift complements consisting of I supervisor and 3 operators. Tritium Shift Supervisors and operators are required to have 5 years of operational experience in either the nuclear or chemical industry and to become certified for their positions. The certification program provides formal instruction, as well as on the job training. The certification process requires 4 to 6 months to complete, which includes an oral board lasting up to 4 hours at which time the candidate is tested on their knowledge of Tritium Technology and TFTR Tritium systems. Once an operator is certified, the training process continues with scheduled training weeks occurring once every 5 weeks. During D-T operations at TFTR the operators must evacuate the tritium area due to direct radiation from TFTR D-T pulses. During `` time operators maintain cognizance over tritium systems via a real time TV camera system. Operators are able to gain access to the Tritium area between TFTR D-T pulses, but have been excluded from die tritium area during D-T pulsing for periods up to 30 minutes. Tritium operators are responsible for delivering tritium gas to TFRR as well as processing plasma exhaust gases which lead to the deposition of tritium oxide on disposable molecular sieve beds (DMSB). Once a DMSB is loaded, the operations staff remove the expended DMSB, and replace it with a new DMSB container. The TFIR tritium system is operated via detailed procedures which require operator sign off for system manipulation. There are >300 procedures controlling the operation of the tritium systems.

  1. First tritium results of the KATRIN test experiment TRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Eichelhardt, F.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Kazachenko, O.; Kernert, N.; Sturm, M.

    2008-07-15

    The TRAP experiment (Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been built at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) as a test rig for the Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). TRAP employs a heterogeneous layer of pre-condensed argon to adsorb hydrogen isotopes at {approx} 4.2 K This paper presents results obtained in the first three tritium experiments with TRAP. (authors)

  2. Tracer airflow measurement system (TRAMS)

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Duo

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for measuring fluid flow in a duct is disclosed. The invention uses a novel high velocity tracer injector system, an optional insertable folding mixing fan for homogenizing the tracer within the duct bulk fluid flow, and a perforated hose sampling system. A preferred embodiment uses CO.sub.2 as a tracer gas for measuring air flow in commercial and/or residential ducts. In extant commercial buildings, ducts not readily accessible by hanging ceilings may be drilled with readily plugged small diameter holes to allow for injection, optional mixing where desired using a novel insertable foldable mixing fan, and sampling hose.

  3. Hemimandibular hyperplasia treated by early high condylectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, F; Bianchi, B; De Riu, G; Di Blasio, A; Sesenna, E

    2001-01-01

    A case of hemimandibular hyperplasia in a young patient treated 12 years ago is presented. Clinical and radiographic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of right hemimandibular hyperplasia. An early high condylectomy was performed. In our opinion, the esthetic and functional results after this long-term follow-up are fairly satisfactory. We present a brief review of the literature to make a differentiation between condylar hyperplasia and hemimandibular hyperplasia and to stress the importance of early condylectomy to correct this disease. PMID:12387615

  4. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in a Great Dane.

    PubMed

    Pariser, Marlene S; Berdoulay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A 3 yr old, 70 kg (154 lbs) female spayed Great Dane developed gingival hyperplasia after treatment of systemic hypertension with amlodipine 7.5 mg q 12 hr for 16 mo. Physical examination was unremarkable except for systemic hypertension and severe gingival hyperplasia. Amlodipine was replaced with hydralazine (0.72 mg/kg [0.32 mg/lb]). Nine months later, gingival hyperplasia was nearly resolved and hypertension was well controlled. Calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine are a rare cause of gingival hyperplasia in the canine patient. Recognition of this side effect is important because a full recovery can be achieved when the offending agent is removed.

  5. Simple system for measuring tritium Ad/absorption using a 2. pi. counter and thermal desorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, H.; Matsuyama, M.; Watanabe, K. ); Cowgill, D.F. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, the authors develop a simple system using tritium tracer and thermal desorption techniques to measure the tritium adsorption and/or absorption on/in a material having typical surface conditions: namely, not cleaned surface. The tritium counting devices used were a 2{pi} counter and conventional proportional counter. With this system, the amounts of ad/absorption could be measured without exposing the samples to air after exposing them to tritium gas. The overall efficiency (F) of the 2{pi} counter was described at F = exp({minus}2.64h), where h is the distance from the sample to the detector. Ad/absorption measurements were carried out for several materials used for fabricating conventional vacuum systems. The results were, in the order of decreasing amounts of ad/absorption, as (fiber reinforced plastics(FRP)) {gt} (nickel(Ni), molybdenum disulfide(MoS{sub 2})) {gt} (stainless steel (SS304), iron(Fe), aluminum alloy(A2219)) {gt} (boron nitride(h-BN), silicon carbide (SiC), SS304 passivated by anodic oxidation layers(ASS) and that by boron nitride segregation layers (BSS)). The relative amounts were abut 100 for Ni and 0.1 for ASS and BSS, being normalized to Fe = 1.

  6. Tritium Aging Effects in Palladium on Kieselguhr

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.L.; Holder, J.S.; Wermer, J.R.

    1998-10-01

    50 weight % Pd on kieselguhr (Pd/k) is used in hydrogen isotope separation processes at the Savannah River Site. Long term aging studies on this material were undertaken in June, 1992. P-c-T data showing the aging effect of tritium loading for long periods will be presented and discussed covering from June, 1992 to March, 1997. Lowering of plateau pressures and increasing indications of in homogeneities have been observed in both tritium and deuterium absorption isotherms at 0 C, and desorption isotherms at 80 and 120 C.

  7. Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.R.; Garde, R.

    1981-11-01

    A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory was constructed in 1953 and was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included some 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation.

  8. A tritium target system for. mu. CF

    SciTech Connect

    Zmeskal, J.; Ackerbauer, P. . Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik); Sherman, R.H. ); Durham, W.B.; Heard, H.C. ); Neumann, W. ); Bossy, H. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (

    1990-12-01

    An apparatus has been constructed for the safe handling of tritium as part of a series of muon-catalyzed fusion experiments. The equipment was designed to handle 100 kCi of tritium. The main parts of this system are the oil-free high vacuum and transfer system, and the quadrupole mass analyzer for a direct determination of the target content. The system was used successfully for five continuous periods of operation of over one month each. A new target system was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for ultimate use at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) to investigate the high temperature and high pressure region. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  10. Report of the Task Group on operation Department of Energy tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the operation of DOE Tritium facilities: Environment, Safety, and Health Aspects of Tritium; Management of Operations and Maintenance Functions; Safe Shutdown of Tritium Facilities; Management of the Facility Safety Envelope; Maintenance of Qualified Tritium Handling Personnel; DOE Tritium Management Strategy; Radiological Control Philosophy; Implementation of DOE Requirements; Management of Tritium Residues; Inconsistent Application of Requirements for Measurement of Tritium Effluents; Interdependence of Tritium Facilities; Technical Communication among Facilities; Incorporation of Confinement Technologies into New Facilities; Operation/Management Requirements for New Tritium Facilities; and Safety Management Issues at Department of Energy Tritium Facilities.

  11. [Mechanism of tritium persistence in porous media like clay minerals].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Jie; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Teng, Yan-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Ni

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of tritium persistence in clay minerals, three types of clay soils (montmorillonite, kaolinite and illite) and tritiated water were used in this study to conduct the tritium sorption tests and the other related tests. Firstly, the ingredients, metal elements and heat properties of clay minerals were studied with some instrumental analysis methods, such as ICP and TG. Secondly, with a specially designed fractionation and condensation experiment, the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in the clay minerals separated from the tritium sorption tests were fractionated for investigating the tritium distributions in the different types of adsorptive waters. Thirdly, the location and configuration of tritium adsorbed into the structure of clay minerals were studied with infrared spectrometry (IR) tests. And finally, the forces and mechanisms for driving tritium into the clay minerals were analyzed on the basis of the isotope effect of tritium and the above tests. Following conclusions have been reached: (1) The main reason for tritium persistence in clay minerals is the entrance of tritium into the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in clay minerals. The percentage of tritium distributed in these three types of adsorptive water are in the range of 13.65% - 38.71%, 0.32% - 5.96%, 1.28% - 4.37% of the total tritium used in the corresponding test, respectively. The percentages are different for different types of clay minerals. (2) Tritium adsorbed onto clay minerals are existed in the forms of the tritiated hydroxyl radical (OT) and the tritiated water molecule (HTO). Tritium mainly exists in tritiated water molecule for adsorbed water and interlayer water, and in tritiated hydroxyl radical for structural water. (3) The forces and effects driving tritium into the clay minerals may include molecular dispersion, electric charge sorption, isotope exchange and tritium isotope effect.

  12. A success story in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kriplani, Alka; Lunkad, Amol; Agarwal, Nutan; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Ariachery, C Aminni

    2012-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in adrenal steroidogenic pathways. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95 % of cases. This case was diagnosed to have simple virilizing type of CAH and started on dexamethasone, and underwent genitoplasty and clitoroplasty at 25 years of age, then was married 3 years after surgery and conceived spontaneously 2 years after marriage, to deliver a healthy male baby. Thus, proper diagnosis and treatment with steroids and genitoplasty can give females with CAH a normal sexual, normal menstrual, and reproductive function.

  13. Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for over 90% of CAH cases and when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. This review discusses in detail the epidemiology, genetics, diagnostic, clinical aspects and management of 21OHD. PMID:26038201

  14. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. PMID:27241964

  15. [Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Guallart Doménech, F; Molina Mira, A; González Martínez, M A; Pons Rocher, F; Mompó Romero, L; Serrano Badía, E

    1994-01-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands in an uncommon clinicopathologic entity, first reported, in 1971, by Giansanti and cols. The condition mimics a neoplasm because of its swelling, but the histologic picture agrees with that of normal appearing salivary gland tissue. The interest of this entity is that although benign pseudotumoral lesion, it can be clinically confused with benign or malignant tumors and even, through fine needle aspiration cytology, with low grade mucoepidermoid tumors. We present one case of this condition arising in the soft palate in a patient with unilateral serous otitis media. A review of the published literature on the subject is done.

  16. Redesigning TRACER trial after TRITON.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L

    2015-10-15

    Designing of smart clinical trials is critical for regulatory approval and future drug utilization. Importantly, trial design should be reconsidered if the interim analyses suggest unexpected harm, or conflicting results were yielded from the other trials within the same therapeutic area. With regard to antiplatelet agents, the perfect example is redesigning of the ongoing PRoFESS trial by eliminating aspirin from clopidogrel arm after the earlier MATCH trial results became available. The goal was to aseess the unchanged TRACER trial design in light of the evidence yielded from the earlier completed TRITON trial. TRACER was designed as a triple versus dual antiplatelet trial in NSTEMI patients with no previous long-term outcome data supporting such aggressive strategy. TRITON data represented dual versus dual antiplatelet therapy, and became available before TRACER enrollment starts revealing prasugrel front-loaded early vascular benefit predominantly in STEMI patients with the growing over time bleeding and cancer risks. Moreover, large prasugrel NSTEMI TRITON cohort exhibited trend towards excess mortality in experimental arm warning against aggressive TRACER design. The long-term TRITON results in general, and especially in the NSTEMI patients challenge unchanged TRACER trial design. Applying dual, rather than triple antiplatelet therapy protocol modification should be considered in TRACER to minimize bleeding, cancer, and non-cardiovascular death risks. PMID:26126053

  17. Tritium storage effects on La-Ni-Al alloys: helium, and tritium trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.T.; Mosley, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of La-Ni-Al metal hydrides to process and store tritium presents unique problems to the handling of tritium. All hydrogen isotopes are ''trapped'' in La-Ni-Al alloys as a function of homogeneity and the degree of activation, or number of full cycles the material experiences before being exposed to tritium. To a lesser extent, the mole fraction of aluminum has an effect on the number of cycles needed for full activation. Data is presented which shows the effect of La-rich second phases on the retentium of protium, the x-ray diffraction line broadening as a function of number of cycles, and the observed ''heel'' in the alpha region of the isotherm due to Ni-Al second phases. There also appears to be an increase in solubility of tritium due to the lattice expansion on the metal.

  18. Evaluation of Heat as a Tracer in a Forced-Gradient Test at the MADE Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, A.; Tick, G. R.; Keasberry, A.; Zheng, C.

    2011-12-01

    Tracer tests conducted at the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi have contributed significantly to the understanding of contaminant transport processes in highly-heterogeneous media. Previous experiments have revealed a network of interconnected preferential flow paths within the underlying aquifer. Only solute tracers including bromide and tritium have been used in previous experiments. In this new study, a forced-gradient experiment based on heated water injection was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of heat as a substitute for a solute tracer to study aquifer heterogeneity at the MADE site. We injected a pulse of heated water, recorded the breakthrough curves, and used numerical modeling to characterize the heat transport behavior and its relationship to subsurface heterogeneity. The results were compared with those from a previous experiment based on the bromide tracer. This research suggests heat can be a cheaper and environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional solute tracers, and improves our understanding of contaminant transport processes in highly-heterogeneous systems.

  19. Development of nuclear micro-battery with solid tritium source.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Son, Soon-Hwan; Kim, KwangSin; Park, Jong-Wan; Lim, Hun; Lee, Jae-Min; Chung, Eun-Su

    2009-01-01

    A micro-battery powered by tritium is being developed to utilize tritium produced from the Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility. The 3D p-n junction device has been designed and fabricated for energy conversion. Titanium tritide is adopted to increase tritium density and safety. Sub micron films or nano-powders of titanium tritide is applied on silicon semiconductor device to reduce the self absorption of beta rays. Until now protium has been used instead of tritium for safety. Hydrogen was absorbed up to atomic ratio of approximately 1.3 and approximately 1.7 in titanium powders and films, respectively. PMID:19328704

  20. Operating and maintenance experience in tritium environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tuer, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation is a summary of practical experience gained over more than twenty years from analyzing failures of process equipment operated in tritium and deuterium environments. Significant improvements have been achieved in design and procurement of new equipment, testing and selection of materials, and gradually more favorable maintenance experience. Preferred materials and inspection methods are described. 6 tabs.

  1. Stereo and regioselectivity in ''Activated'' tritium reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenkaufer, R.L.E.; Hembree, W.C.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the stereo and positional selectivity of the microwave discharge activation (MDA) method, the tritium labeling of several amino acids was undertaken. The labeling of L-valine and the diastereomeric pair L-isoleucine and L-alloisoleucine showed less than statistical labeling at the ..cap alpha..-amino C-H position mostly with retention of configuration. Labeling predominated at the single ..beta.. C-H tertiary (methyne) position. The labeling of L-valine and L-proline with and without positive charge on the ..cap alpha..-amino group resulted in large increases in specific activity (greater than 10-fold) when positive charge was removed by labeling them as their sodium carboxylate salts. Tritium NMR of L-proline labeled both as its zwitterion and sodium salt showed also large differences in the tritium distribution within the molecule. The distribution preferences in each of the charge states are suggestive of labeling by an electrophilic like tritium species(s). 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, M.L.; Davis, J.C.

    1993-02-23

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and [sup 3]He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  3. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Mark L.; Davis, Jay C.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and .sup.3 He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  4. Tritium management in fusion synfuel designs

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-25

    Two blanket types are being studied: a lithium-sodium pool boiler and a lithium-oxide- or lithium-sodium pool boiler and a lithium-oxide- or aluminate-microsphere moving bed. For each, a wide variety of current technology was considered in handling the tritium. Here, we show the pool boiler with the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle first developed and now being piloted by the General Atomic Company. The tritium (T/sub 2/) will be generated in the lithium-sodium mixture where the concentration is approx. 10 ppM and held constant by a scavenging system consisting mainly of permeators. An intermediate sodium loop carries the blanket heat to the thermochemical cycle, and the T/sub 2/ in this loop is held to 1 ppM by a similar scavenging system. With this design, we have maintained blanket inventory at 1 kg of tritium, kept thermochemical cycle losses to 5 Ci/d and environmental loss to 10 Ci/d, and held total plant risk inventory at 7 kg tritium.

  5. Tracer ages along a section between Ellesmere Island and the North Pole: Implications for circulation and mean residence times of the upper water colum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, P.; Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Newton, R.; Friedrich, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present age tracer distributions (Tritium/He-3 and SF6) from a section between Ellesmere Island and the North Pole as part of the Switchyard project. The sections cover the period between 2008 and 2013. The tracers are interpreted in the context of circulation patterns and mean residence times of the main water masses. Mixed layer tracer ages range from close to zero to ca. 5 years with most of the ages grouping around 2.5 years. The tracer ages increase rapidly through the halocline waters (roughly 10 years at about 100 and 20 years close to 200 meters depth, respectively) and typically reach their maximum values close to the depth of the core of the Atlantic Water (up to 35 years). Within the AW there are large lateral gradients with higher ages found in the boundary current along the slope of the Canadian Archipelago, and lower ages prevalent close to the North Pole. We also observe temporal variability in the age tracer distributions, mainly in the lateral gradient of the ages in the AW layer. We discuss the age tracer results in the context of the circulation and mean residence times of waters in the Switchyard region of the Arctic Ocean and their variability. We also discuss possible systematic differences between the Tritium/He-3 and SF6 ages and their relevance for our main conclusions.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50

  7. What Are the Treatments for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Treatments for CAH ... pepubs/cah.pdf (PDF - 751 KB) [top] Screening, Technology and Research in Genetics ... Endocrine Society. (2010). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21- ...

  8. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia involving the ear from gout: a diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Kelly A; Garcia-Albea, Victoria; Goldberg, Lynne J

    2014-01-01

    The ear is a characteristic location for deposition of uric acid in patients with gout. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia has not been described in this location. We report three patients with tophaceous gout on the ear whose biopsies exhibited epidermal hyperplasia mimicking squamous cell carcinoma, in order to call attention to this potential diagnostic pitfall.

  9. Giant gingival pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Guolin; Long, Xing; Han, Qianchao; Tian, Lihua

    2012-07-01

    We here describe a case of giant primary gingival pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in a 53-year-old Chinese male patient with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The pathogenesis of the lesion and the deferential diagnosis from invasive SCC are also discussed. To our knowledge, such a hugeous primary pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the gingiva accompanied with lung SCC is unusual.

  10. Clinical and Imaging Findings of True Hemifacial Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bhuta, Bansari A.; Desai, Rajiv S.; Bansal, Shivani P.; Chemburkar, Vipul V.; Dev, Prashant V.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia is a rare developmental disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by a marked unilateral facial asymmetry. It involves the hard (bones and teeth) and soft tissues of the face. We report an interesting case of true hemifacial hyperplasia in a 25-year-old male highlighting the clinical and computed tomography imaging findings. PMID:24349801

  11. Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J. R.; Vogel, J. S.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure. PMID:14735274

  12. Evaluation of Parameter Uncertainty Reduction in Groundwater Flow Modeling Using Multiple Environmental Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Gardner, P.

    2013-12-01

    Calibration of groundwater flow models for the purpose of evaluating flow and aquifer heterogeneity typically uses observations of hydraulic head in wells and appropriate boundary conditions. Environmental tracers have a wide variety of decay rates and input signals in recharge, resulting in a potentially broad source of additional information to constrain flow rates and heterogeneity. A numerical study was conducted to evaluate the reduction in uncertainty during model calibration using observations of various environmental tracers and combinations of tracers. A synthetic data set was constructed by simulating steady groundwater flow and transient tracer transport in a high-resolution, 2-D aquifer with heterogeneous permeability and porosity using the PFLOTRAN software code. Data on pressure and tracer concentration were extracted at well locations and then used as observations for automated calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method and the PEST code. Optimization runs were performed to estimate parameter values of permeability at 30 pilot points in the model domain for cases using 42 observations of: 1) pressure, 2) pressure and CFC11 concentrations, 3) pressure and Ar-39 concentrations, and 4) pressure, CFC11, Ar-39, tritium, and He-3 concentrations. Results show significantly lower uncertainty, as indicated by the 95% linear confidence intervals, in permeability values at the pilot points for cases including observations of environmental tracer concentrations. The average linear uncertainty range for permeability at the pilot points using pressure observations alone is 4.6 orders of magnitude, using pressure and CFC11 concentrations is 1.6 orders of magnitude, using pressure and Ar-39 concentrations is 0.9 order of magnitude, and using pressure, CFC11, Ar-39, tritium, and He-3 concentrations is 1.0 order of magnitude. Data on Ar-39 concentrations result in the greatest parameter uncertainty reduction because its half-life of 269

  13. Defining groundwater transport times near ASR facilities using geochemical tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. F.

    2001-12-01

    Determining groundwater transport and travel times between recharge facilities and wells has become increasingly important in managing Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) projects. This is especially true in the State of California where water reuse rules that consider groundwater travel time in the permitting process are being discussed. Fundamental geochemical approaches for investigating transport include tritium/helium-3 dating and the addition of sulfur hexafluoride tracer in controlled experiments. When combined, groundwater flow can be imaged with time scales on the order of days to decades. The Orange County Water District recharges to their groundwater basin approximately 250,000 acre-ft of surface water annually from a series of spreading ponds and a 9-km section of the Santa Ana River. Sulfur hexafluoride gas was injected into the Santa Ana River over a period of 2 weeks, tagging approximately 3,000 acre-ft of recharged water. Groundwater flow and transport from the river has been determined for more than three years. Results of the gas tracer experiment demonstrate that linear groundwater flow velocities range from less than 1 km/yr to more than 5 km/yr and that the groundwater flow system is stratified. These results will be used to verify and refine numerical models of transport near the ASR facilities in Orange County and have been used to establish flowlines so that in situ water quality changes can be quantified.

  14. Technology benefits associated with accelerator production of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Tuyle, G.J. van

    1998-12-31

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of about 5.5% per year; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within ten years. Important technology benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high power spallation targets. This report addresses those technology benefits.

  15. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  16. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G.; Synakowski, E.

    1996-05-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced an impressive number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ~ 2 MW/m³, comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently, the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. The authors present recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues.

  17. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    PubMed

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface.

  18. REMOTE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-TRITIUM-CONTENT WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Diprete, D; Raymond Sigg, R; Leah Arrigo, L; Donald Pak, D

    2007-08-07

    Systems to safely analyze for tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres are being developed for use at Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities. Analysis results will guide whether the material contains sufficient tritium for economical recovery, or whether it should be stabilized for disposal as waste. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to the process laboratory's routine analysis by liquid-scintillation counting. The newer systems determine tritium concentrations by measuring bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions. One of the systems determines tritium activity in liquid streams, the other determines tritium activity in water vapor. Topics discussed include counting results obtained by modeling and laboratory testing and corrections that are made for low-energy photon attenuation.

  19. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    K. Sugiyama; T. Tanabe; C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile

    2004-06-28

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles.

  20. Torus Hyperplasia of the Pyloric Antrum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chi-Hun; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Byung Kook; Sung, In-Kyung; Seong, Moo Kyung; Lee, Kyung Yung

    2010-01-01

    Primary or idiopathic hypertrophy of the pyloric muscle in adult, so called torus hyperplasia, is an infrequent but an established entity. It is caused by a circular muscle hypertrophy affecting the lesser curvature near the pylorus. Since most of the lesions are difficult to differentiate from tumor, distal gastrectomy is usually preformed to rule out most causes of pyloric lesions including neoplastic ones through a pathological study. A 56-yr-old man with a family history of gastric cancer presented with abdominal discomfort of 1 month duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a 1.0 cm sized irregular submucosal lesion proximal to the pylorus to the distal antrum on the lesser curvature. On colonoscopy examination, a 1.5 cm sized protruding mass was noticed on the appendiceal orifice. Gastrectomy and cecectomy were done, and histological section revealed marked hypertrophy of the distal circular pyloric musculature and an appendiceal mucocele. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of torus hyperplasia with appendiceal mucocele which is found incidentally. PMID:20054408

  1. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  2. Application of tritium in precipitation and baseflow in Japan: a case study of groundwater transit times and storage in Hokkaido watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, Maksym A.; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Michael K.; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Terumasa; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya; Iwami, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the application of tritium in precipitation and baseflow to estimate groundwater transit times and storage volumes in Hokkaido, Japan. To establish the long-term history of tritium concentration in Japanese precipitation, we used tritium data from the global network of isotopes in precipitation and from local studies in Japan. The record developed for Tokyo area precipitation was scaled for Hokkaido using tritium values for precipitation based on wine grown at Hokkaido. Then, tritium concentrations measured with high accuracy in river water from Hokkaido, Japan, were compared to this scaled precipitation record and used to estimate groundwater mean transit times (MTTs). A total of 16 river water samples in Hokkaido were collected in June, July, and October 2014 at 12 locations with altitudes between 22 and 831 m above sea level and catchment areas between 14 and 377 km2. Measured tritium concentrations were between 4.07 (± 0.07) TU and 5.29 (± 0.09) TU in June, 5.06 (± 0.09) TU in July, and between 3.75 (± 0.07) TU and 4.85 (± 0.07) TU in October. We utilised TracerLPM (Jurgens et al., 2012) for MTT estimation and introduced a Visual Basic module to automatically simulate tritium concentrations and relative errors for selected ranges of MTTs, exponential-piston ratios, and scaling factors of tritium input. Using the exponential (70 %) piston flow (30 %) model (E70 %PM), we simulated unique MTTs for seven river samples collected in six Hokkaido headwater catchments because their low tritium concentrations were no longer ambiguous. These river catchments are clustered in similar hydrogeological settings of Quaternary lava as well as Tertiary propylite formations near Sapporo city. However, nine river samples from six other catchments produced up to three possible MTT values with E70 % PM due to the interference by the tritium from the atmospheric hydrogen bomb testing 5-6 decades ago. For these catchments, we show that tritium in

  3. Estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages of groundwater from selected sites-National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Shapiro, Stephanie D.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Widman, Peggy K.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Wayland, Julian E.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents selected age data interpreted from measured concentrations of environmental tracers in groundwater from 1,399 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program groundwater sites across the United States. The tracers of interest were chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He). Tracer data compiled for this analysis primarily were from wells representing two types of NAWQA groundwater studies - Land-Use Studies (shallow wells, usually monitoring wells, in recharge areas under dominant land-use settings) and Major-Aquifer Studies (wells, usually domestic supply wells, in principal aquifers and representing the shallow, used resource). Reference wells (wells representing groundwater minimally impacted by anthropogenic activities) associated with Land-Use Studies also were included. Tracer samples were collected between 1992 and 2005, although two networks sampled from 2006 to 2007 were included because of network-specific needs. Tracer data from other NAWQA Program components (Flow System Studies, which are assessments of processes and trends along groundwater flow paths, and various topical studies) were not compiled herein. Tracer data from NAWQA Land-Use Studies and Major-Aquifer Studies that previously had been interpreted and published are compiled herein (as piston-flow ages), but have not been reinterpreted. Tracer data that previously had not been interpreted and published are evaluated using documented methods and compiled with aqueous concentrations, equivalent atmospheric concentrations (for CFCs and SF6), estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages, and selected ancillary data, such as redox indicators, well construction, and major dissolved gases (N2, O2, Ar, CH4, and CO2). Tracer-based piston-flow ages documented in this report are simplistic representations of the tracer data. Tracer-based piston-flow ages are a convenient means of conceptualizing groundwater age. However, the piston

  4. Tritium effects on germ cells and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.; Kwan, T.C.; Straume, T.

    1982-11-19

    Primordial oocytes in juvenile mice show acute gamma-ray LD/sub 50/ as low as 6 rad. This provides opportunities for determining dose-response relations at low doses and chronic exposure in the intact animal - conditions of particular interest for hazard evaluation. Examined in this way, /sup 3/HOH in body water is found to kill murine oocytes exponentially with dose, the LD/sub 50/ level for chronic exposure being only 2..mu..Ci/ml (delivering 0.4 rad/day). At very low doses and dose rates, where comparisons between tritium and other radiations are of special significance for radiological protection, the RBE of tritium compared with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation reaches approximately 3. Effects on murine fertility from tritium-induced oocyte loss have been quantified by reproductive capacity measurements. Chronic low-level exposure has been examined also in three primate species - squirrel, rhesus, and bonnet monkeys. In squirrel monkeys the ovarian germ-cell supply is 99% destroyed by the time of birth from prenatal exposure to body-water levels of /sup 3/HOH (administered in maternal drinking water) of only 3 ..mu..Ci/ml, the LD/sub 50/ level being 0.5 ..mu..Ci/ml (giving 0.1 rad/day), one fourth that in mice. Though not completely ruled out, similar high sensitivity of female germ cells has not been found in macaques; and it probably does not occur in man. The exquisite radiosensitivity of primordial oocytes in mice is apparently due to vulnerability of the plasma membrane (or something of similar geometry and location), not DNA. Evidence for this comes from tritium data as well as neutron studies. Tritium administered as /sup 3/HOH, and therefore generally distributed, is much more effective in killing murine oocytes than is tritium administered as /sup 3/H-TdR, localized in the nucleus. This situation in the mouse may have implications for estimating radiation genetic risk in the human female.

  5. Use of Tritium Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Tree Ring Analysis

    PubMed Central

    LOVE, ADAM H.; HUNT, JAMES R.; ROBERTS, MARK L.; SOUTHON, JOHN R.; CHIARAPPA - ZUCCA, MARINA L.; DINGLEY, KAREN H.

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns over the health effects associated with low-level and long-term exposure to tritium released from industrial point sources have generated the demand for better methods to evaluate historical tritium exposure levels for these communities. The cellulose of trees accurately reflects the tritium concentration in the source water and may contain the only historical record of tritium exposure. The tritium activity in the annual rings of a tree was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to reconstruct historical annual averages of tritium exposure. Milligram-sized samples of the annual tree rings from a Tamarix located at the Nevada Test Site are used for validation of this methodology. The salt cedar was chosen since it had a single source of tritiated water that was well-characterized as it varied over time. The decay-corrected tritium activity of the water in which the salt cedar grew closely agrees with the organically bound tritium activity in its annual rings. This demonstrates that the milligram-sized samples used in tritium accelerator mass spectrometry are suited for reconstructing anthropogenic tritium levels in the environment. PMID:12144257

  6. Anti-hyperplasia effects of Rosa rugosa polyphenols in rats with hyperplasia of mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Jingjing; Chen, Jinglou; Song, Hongping; Yang, Chuhao

    2015-03-01

    Rosa rugosa (Thunb.) is used in Chinese traditional medicine with the functions of promoting blood circulation, relieving the depressed liver and attenuating breast disorders. This study was to investigate the anti-hyperplasia effects of the polyphenols-rich fraction from R. rugosa (FRR) in rat. Rat model of hyperplasia of mammary gland (HMG) was induced by intramuscularly injected with estrogen (0.5mg/kg/d) for 25 days, and followed with progestogen (5mg/kg/d) for another 5 days. Meanwhile, FRR was orally given for 30 days. Then, the levels of estradiol and oxidative stress were assessed. The mammary expressions of AKT and JNK were evaluated by Western blot analysis. The expressions of NFκB-p65, COX-2 and VEGF were measured by immunohistochemical analysis. The whole results indicated that FRR could exert anti-hyperplasia effects in rat via modulating the mammary expression of JNK and AKT, as well as alleviating the NFκB related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Tritium inventory in ITER plasma-facing materials and tritium removal procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Joachim; Tsitrone, Emmanuelle; Loarer, Thierry; Philipps, Volker; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Loarte, Alberto; Counsell, Glenn F.; Doerner, Russell P.; Schmid, Klaus; Ogorodnikova, Olga V.; Causey, Rion A.

    2008-10-01

    Interactions between the plasma and the vessel walls constitute a major engineering problem for next step fusion devices, such as ITER, determining the choice of the plasma-facing materials. A prominent issue in this choice is the tritium inventory build-up in the vessel, which must be limited for safety reasons. The initial material selection, i.e. beryllium (Be) on the main vessel walls, tungsten (W) on the divertor upper baffle and dome, and carbon fibre composite around the strike points on the divertor plates, results both from the attempt to reduce the tritium inventory and to optimize the lifetime of the plasma-facing components. In the framework of the EU Task Force on Plasma-Wall Interaction (PWI TF), the many physics aspects governing the tritium inventory are brought together. Together with supporting information from international experts represented by the ITPA SOL/DIV section, this paper describes the present status of knowledge of the in-vessel tritium inventory build-up. Firstly, the main results from present fusion devices in this field are briefly reviewed. Then, the processes involved are discussed: implantation, trapping and diffusion in plasma-facing materials are considered as well as surface erosion and co-deposition of tritium with eroded material. The intermixing of the different materials and its influence on hydrogen retention and co-deposition is a major source of uncertainty on present estimates and is also addressed. Based on the previous considerations, estimates for the tritium inventory build-up are given for the initial choice of ITER materials, as well as for alternative options. Present estimates indicate a build-up of the tritium inventory to the administrative limit within a few hundred nominal full power D : T discharges, co-deposition with carbon being the dominant process. Therefore, tritium removal methods are also an active area of research within the EU PWI TF, and are discussed. An integrated operational scheme to slow

  8. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical manifestations and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Santos Dias, José

    2012-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common condition, related to aging and causing symptoms, called lower urinary tract symptoms. On account of its huge prevalence, it is important for clinicians who are involved in the management of patients with BPH to be aware of the very strict recommendations for BPH evaluation. In this article, we describe the different steps and procedures doctors should follow to evaluate these patients; symptoms and signs of BPH are reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation steps and examinations available. The basic evaluation of the patients with BPH should include, according to the recommendations of the most relevant international guidelines, lower urinary tract symptoms evaluation with appropriate symptom scores, digital rectal examination, voiding charts, prostate-specific antigen and creatinine measurement, urinalysis, and imaging of the urinary tract.

  9. [Temporomandibular joint (TMJ): Condyle hyperplasia and condylectomy].

    PubMed

    Ferri, J; Raoul, G; Potier, J; Nicot, R

    2016-09-01

    The mandibular condyle is a special structure. Its embryology and physiology provide to the TMJ a particular behavior that explains the occurrence of specific diseases. Condyle hyperplasia is one of these disorders. It can be explained by a dysregulation of the prechondroblast cell layer within the cartilage cap providing an increase in volume first of the condyle, then of the ramus and finally of the entire affected hemiface. Mandible deformation affects the basal bone, leading to dento-alveolar deformations related to compensation attempts. Controversies, condylectomy is performed by many surgeons. This procedure allows for the correction of some of the dento-alveolar compensations. In some cases, an additional orthognathic surgery will be required to achieve a perfect result. PMID:27567190

  10. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985961

  11. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985968

  12. Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A minireview.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Ester; Laudato, Massimiliano; Griffo, Michele; Capasso, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition affecting older men, with an incidence that is age-dependent. Histological BPH, which typically develops after the age of 40 years, ranges in prevalence from >50% at 60 years to as high as 90% by 85 years of age. Typical symptoms include increased frequency of urination, nocturia, urgency, hesitancy, and weak urine stream. Conventional medicines used for the treatment of BPH include alpha blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. This articles review the mode of action, the efficacy, and the safety, including herb-drug interactions of the most common botanicals (Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica, and Cucurbita pepo) and nutraceuticals (isoflavones, lycopene, selenium, and β-Sitosterol) in controlling the lower urinary tract symptoms associated to BPH. PMID:25165780

  13. Langerhans cell hyperplasia from molluscum contagiosum

    PubMed Central

    Hatter, Alyn D.; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine if molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on biopsy proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. We report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histologic lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive “driver” in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  14. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia: Relevance in Oral Pathology.

    PubMed

    Sarangarajan, R; Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Sivadas, G; Krishnaraj, R; Sarangarajan, Anuradha; Shanmugam, K T

    2015-07-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH), a neglected entity by oral pathologist possesses utmost importance in the field of research. Of all the investigative challenges, PEH, a reactive epithelial proliferation is seen secondary to lesions with infectious, inflammatory, reactive, and degenerative origin. Small sized samples, incomplete excision, improper orientation, and dense inflammatory changes render diagnostic confront to the oral pathologist in exclusion of frankly invasive malignant lesions like squamous cell carcinoma from lesions exhibiting PEH. The diagnosis can occasionally be difficult as they mimic other lesions also, on clinic-pathological assessment. Thus, this article gives an insight regarding the various concepts of etiopathogenesis, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and malignant potential of PEH. A combined effort of a clinician and pathologist benefits every patient to rule out malignancy and render appropriate treatment as the only local conservative approach is essential to remove PEH associated lesions.

  15. Langerhans Cell Hyperplasia From Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Hatter, Alyn D; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis, which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics, which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine whether molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion, demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. Polymerase chain reaction on biopsy-proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion has been performed. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. The authors report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histological lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive "driver" in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  16. Rete testis adenomatous hyperplasia: our experience.

    PubMed

    Martino, Giovanni; Pasta, Vittorio; Ciardi, Antonio; Palmieri, Andrea; Marinaccio, Lucia; Malavenda, Maria Stella; Monti, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The word "adenomatous hyperplasia of rete testis" (AHRT) was used by M. Nistal et Al. for the first time in an article about the cystic dysplasia of the testis (1976). AHRT is a benign lesion of the testis. The patient who came to our attention was studied with a testicular echo color Doppler that identified a solid, well circumscribed and hypoechoic mass of 4.5 x3.8mm as diameter, localized in the upper third of the right testicle and with a perilesional vascularization pattern. The preoperative study was based on an accurate medical history, on an ultrasound with contrast and on a RMI. The treatment consisted in an echo guided excisional biopsy of the testicular lesion, considering this as the best approach for those testicular neoformation difficult to define, with a lot of benefits for the patients, especially for those monorchid. PMID:24311150

  17. Microwave Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Raffoul, George

    2005-01-01

    Microwave ablation in the form of microwave energy applied to a heart muscle by a coaxial catheter inserted in a vein in the groin area can be used to heat and kill diseased heart cells. A microwave catheter has been developed to provide deep myocardial ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia by restoring appropriate electrical activity within the heart and eliminating irregular heartbeats. The resulting microwave catheter design, which is now being developed for commercial use in treating ventricular tachycardia, can be modified to treat prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inasmuch as the occurrence of BPH is increasing currently 350,000 operations per year are performed in the United States alone to treat this condition this microwave catheter has significant commercial potential.

  18. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia: Relevance in Oral Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Sarangarajan, R; Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Sivadas, G; Krishnaraj, R; Sarangarajan, Anuradha; Shanmugam, K T

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH), a neglected entity by oral pathologist possesses utmost importance in the field of research. Of all the investigative challenges, PEH, a reactive epithelial proliferation is seen secondary to lesions with infectious, inflammatory, reactive, and degenerative origin. Small sized samples, incomplete excision, improper orientation, and dense inflammatory changes render diagnostic confront to the oral pathologist in exclusion of frankly invasive malignant lesions like squamous cell carcinoma from lesions exhibiting PEH. The diagnosis can occasionally be difficult as they mimic other lesions also, on clinic-pathological assessment. Thus, this article gives an insight regarding the various concepts of etiopathogenesis, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and malignant potential of PEH. A combined effort of a clinician and pathologist benefits every patient to rule out malignancy and render appropriate treatment as the only local conservative approach is essential to remove PEH associated lesions. PMID:26229388

  19. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. ); Wells, J.E. )

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Measurement of tritium in natural water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meifen

    1985-06-01

    A detergent-scintillation liquid mixture applied to measure low specific activity of tritium in natural water was studied. The DYS-1 low level liquid scintillation counter designed and manufactured by our institute was employed. In comparing the Triton X-100 scintillation liquid mixture with the dioxane-based-scintillation liquid, a better formula for Triton X-100 scintillation liquid mixture was determined, the mixture possesses the quality of high water content; high efficiency and low back-ground in measuring tritium in water. Chemiluminescence of the Triton X-100 scintillation liquid mixture can be totally de-excited in short time. It can be employed at ambient temperature 11 28°C. For 20ml sample in quartz vials, counting efficiency is 15% with a background 2.17 cpm, Y=31 TU (t=30 min).

  1. Apparatus to recover tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering tritium from tritiated compounds is provided, including a preheater for heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. and a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide for receiving the preheated mixture. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide.

  2. Study of Tritium Behavior in Cement Paste

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, H.; Motoshima, T.; Satake, S.; Nishikawa, M.

    2005-07-15

    The concrete materials are used as the partition wall of the tritium handling facilities. It is important to grasp the tritium behavior in the concrete wall for radiation safety. It is considered in this study that the surface water on the concrete materials consists of physically adsorbed water, chemically adsorbed water and structural water as in the case of porous adsorption materials. The adsorption capacity due to physically and chemically adsorption isotherms observed in this study shows that the amount of water adsorption on the cement paste is a quarter of the amount adsorbed onto the surface of activated alumina or molecular sieves 5A (MS-5A). It shows that concrete is easily contaminated with tritiated water.

  3. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  4. Estimated radiation dose from timepieces containing tritium

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell-Boyer, L M

    1980-01-01

    Luminescent timepieces containing radioactive tritium, either in elemental form or incorporated into paint, are available to the general public. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential radiation dose commitments received by the public annually as a result of exposure to tritium which may escape from the timepieces during their distribution, use, repair, and disposal. Much uncertainty is associated with final dose estimates due to limitations of empirical data from which exposure parameters were derived. Maximum individual dose estimates were generally less than 3 ..mu..Sv/yr, but ranged up to 2 mSv under worst-case conditions postulated. Estimated annual collective (population) doses were less than 5 person/Sv per million timepieces distributed.

  5. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  6. Evaluation of Unfixed Tritium Surface Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia

    2005-07-15

    Surface unfixed radioactive contamination represents the amount of surface total radioactive contamination which can be eliminated by pure mechanical processes. This unfixed contamination represents the main risk factor for contamination of the personnel which operates in tritium laboratories. Unfixed contamination was determined using sampling smears type FPCSN-PSE-AA. Those FPCSN-PSE-AA smears are disks of expanded polystyrene which contain acrylic acid fragments superficially grafted. Sampling factor was determinated by contaminated surface wiping with moisten smears in 50 {mu}L butylic alcohol and activity measuring at liquid scintillation measuring device. Sampling factor was determined by the ratio between measured activity and initially real conventional activity. The sampling factor was determined for Tritium Laboratory existent surfaces: stainless steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, linoleum, washable coats, epoxy resins type ALOREX LP-52.The sampling factors and the reproducibility were determined in function of surface nature.

  7. Tritium handling and processing experience at TSTA

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Okuno, K.

    1994-06-01

    In 1987, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) signed a collaborative agreement (Annex IV) for the joint funding and operation of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for a five year period ending June, 1992. After this initial five year collaboration, the Annex IV agreement was extended for another two year period ending June, 1994. During the first five years, a number of the integrated process loop tests of TSTA were conducted, as well as off-line testing of TSTA subsystems. During integrated loop testing the vacuum system, fuel cleanup systems, isotope separation system, transfer pumping system and gas analysis system, are interconnected and tested using 100 g-inventories of tritium to demonstrate steady-state operation of a tritium fuel processing cycle for a fusion reactor. These tests have resulted in a number of significant accomplishments and an experience data base on research, development and operation of the fuel processing system. One of the most significant accomplishments during the initial five year period was the continuous operation of the fuel processing loop for 25 days. During this 25-day extended operation, both the JAERI fuel cleanup system (J-FCU) and the original TSTA fuel cleanup system (FCU) were operated under similar conditions of flow, pressure, and impurity content of the DT gas. Both fuel cleanup systems were demonstrated to provide adequate impurity removal for plasma exhaust gas processing. The isotope separation system was operated continuously, producing pure tritium while rejecting protium as an impurity.

  8. Progress report on the tritium remission simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, J. F.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model has been developed which computes the concentration of tritiated water reemitted into the atmosphere by surface evaporation and plant transpiration using the Penman-Monteith equation. Using these rates, and assuming a deposition velocity for tritium, a coupled set of diffusion equations are then solved which yield the concentration of tritiated water as a function of time. The model is driven by a number of environmental parameters.

  9. Tritium monitoring of groundwater and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.; Aamodt, P.; Bounds, J.; Koster, J.

    1999-03-01

    There are numerous facilities, both within the US and in the rest of the world, within the complex of radiation laboratories and production plants where tritium has been released into the environment because of historic or ongoing mission-related operations. Many of environmental restoration projects have detected low levels of tritium contamination in local streams, ponds, and/or ground water. Typically these waters are moving or have the potential to move offsite and are viewed as a potential risk to the public and environment. Los Alamos National Laboratory will modify the well-proven long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique for detection of ionizing radiation to optimize a system for detecting tritium in groundwater and other surfaces. The LRAD technique relies on detection of ionized air molecules rather than direct detection of ionizing radiation. The detected electrical current is proportional to the number of ionized air molecules present, which is in turn a measure of the amount of contamination present. Although this technique has been used commercially to measure alpha contamination on objects and surfaces, the technique is also ideal for monitoring low-energy beta particles. The authors have demonstrated beta detection using {sup 54}Mn, {sup 14}C, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 36}Cl sources. Thus, the detector technology and detection of beta particles using this technology have both been demonstrated. The extreme short range of tritium beta particles necessitates an optimization of the detector system. In this paper, the authors will discuss these new designs.

  10. Recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1987-01-01

    A method of recovering tritium from tritiated compounds comprises the steps of heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds in a preheater to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. The mixture is injected into a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide. The injected mixture undergoes highly exothermic reactions with the uranium causing reaction temperatures to occur in excess of the melting point of uranium, and complete decomposition of the tritiated compounds to remove tritium therefrom. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. Apparatus used to carry out the method of the invention is also disclosed.

  11. Tritium and tritons in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.; Whitesell, L.; Jabs, H.; Shoemaker, J. )

    1991-05-10

    An analysis is conducted on reports of tritium production and of charged-particle emission from deuterated palladium and titanium. Possible sources of error are outline and the lack of definitive experiments is discussed. Extensive sets of experiments are reported in which two previously reported results are checked in detail. A search for charged-particle emission was conducted on deuterated titanium and 6{minus}6{minus}2 titanium alloy that was subjected to cryogenic cycling. Two delta E-E silicon telescopes were used to count 42 samples for 3--4 cycles each from 84K to room temperature. No charge-one particles were detected and alpha particle yields of a few counters per day corresponded to background levels. A search for tritium production from 1 mm diameter palladium wire was conducted on 130 electrolytic cells in D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O, and in 250 metal samples. Several samples associated with one lot of palladium stock showed latent tritium levels well above background. No evidence was obtained for the occurrence of nuclear reactions in the electrolytic cells.

  12. Tritium labelled alkenes via the Shapiro reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Saljoughian, Manouchehr; Morimoto, Hiromi; Than, Chit; Williams, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    The authors report a simple synthesis of a variety of tritiated alkenes with high specific activity. The labelling steps involved in situ generation of the vinyllithium derivatives of the intermediate trisylhydrazone at low temperature, followed by quenching with high specific activity Tritiated water as an electrophile to generate the final tritiated alkenes. Several ketonic precursors with cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone rings, {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated and large ring cyclic ketones were selected and the corresponding trisylhydrazone derivatives were prepared. The Shapiro reaction conditions were optimized to work at a millimolar scale using deuteriated water as the electrophile. The successful reaction conditions were finally applied to the tritiation reactions. The chemical and radiochemical purity, and the specific radioactivity of the reaction products were determined by radio-hplc, gas chromatography and liquid scintillation counting as well as tritium NMR spectroscopy. The stereochemistry and specificity of tritium labelling was also established with tritium NMR spectroscopy. Application of different organolithium bases and the reaction mechanisms will be discussed.

  13. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  14. Tritium test of a ferro-fluidic rotary seal

    SciTech Connect

    Antipenkov, A.; Day, C.; Adami, H. D.

    2008-07-15

    The ferro-fluidic seal is being investigated as an internal rotary seal for tritium compatible mechanical roots type vacuum pumps. After its successful testing with helium and integration into a small (250 m{sup 3}/h) test roots pump, the seal, made as a cartridge, has been integrated into a special test unit and is currently being tested with tritium in order to define the leak rates and the possible degradation of the ferro-fluid under long term exposure to tritium radiation. The tritium pressure from one side of the seal is 0.125 MPa, the nitrogen pressure from the other side is 0.075 MPa, the rotation speed is maintained at 1500 rpm. The tritium leak through the cartridge contributes to the tritium concentration in the nitrogen, which is continuously measured by an ionisation chamber; the pressure in both chambers is continuously registered by precise pressure gauges. The experimental program is discussed. (authors)

  15. Measurements of tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Kamperschroer, J.

    1996-05-01

    Recent experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have afforded an opportunity to measure the retention of tritium in a graphite limiter that is subject to erosion, codeposition and high neutron flux. The tritium was injected by both gas puff and neutral beams. The isotopic mix of hydrogenic recycling was measured spectroscopically and the tritium fraction T/(H+D+T) increased to as high as 75%. Some tritium was pumped out during the experimental run and some removed in a subsequent campaign using various clean-up techniques. While the short term retention of tritium was high, various conditioning techniques were successful in removing {approx} 8,000 Ci and restoring the tritium inventory to a level well below the administrative limit.

  16. Bioethics. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Cathy, Comp.; Cadoree, Michelle

    This guide lists published materials on many aspects of bioethics, the literature of which is varied and scattered. Related guides in the LC Science Tracer Bullet series are TB 80-9, Terminal Care, TB 80-11, Drug Research on Human Subjects, TB 83-4, Science Policy, and TB 84-7, Biotechnology. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, this…

  17. Tracer-monitored flow titrations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Milton K; Rocha, Diogo L; Rocha, Fábio R P; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of implementing tracer-monitored titrations in a flow system is demonstrated. A dye tracer is used to estimate the instant sample and titrant volumetric fractions without the need for volume, mass or peak width measurements. The approach was applied to spectrophotometric flow titrations involving variations of sample and titrant flow-rates (i.e. triangle programmed technique) or concentration gradients established along the sample zone (i.e. flow injection system). Both strategies required simultaneous monitoring of two absorbing species, namely the titration indicator and the dye tracer. Mixing conditions were improved by placing a chamber with mechanical stirring in the analytical path aiming at to minimize diffusional effects. Unlike most of flow-based titrations, the innovation is considered as a true titration, as it does not require a calibration curve thus complying with IUPAC definition. As an application, acidity evaluation in vinegars involving titration with sodium hydroxide was selected. Phenolphthalein and brilliant blue FCF were used as indicator and dye tracer, respectively. Effects of sample volume, titrand/titrant concentrations and flow rates were investigated aiming at improved accuracy and precision. Results were reliable and in agreement with those obtained by a reference titration procedure.

  18. Following Footsteps: ECD Tracer Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smale, Jim, Editor

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the single 2002 issue of The Bernard van Leer Foundation's "Early Childhood Matters," a periodical addressed to practitioners in the field of early childhood education and including information on projects funded by the Foundation. Articles in this issue focus on early childhood development tracer studies of former…

  19. Tracer-monitored flow titrations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Milton K; Rocha, Diogo L; Rocha, Fábio R P; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of implementing tracer-monitored titrations in a flow system is demonstrated. A dye tracer is used to estimate the instant sample and titrant volumetric fractions without the need for volume, mass or peak width measurements. The approach was applied to spectrophotometric flow titrations involving variations of sample and titrant flow-rates (i.e. triangle programmed technique) or concentration gradients established along the sample zone (i.e. flow injection system). Both strategies required simultaneous monitoring of two absorbing species, namely the titration indicator and the dye tracer. Mixing conditions were improved by placing a chamber with mechanical stirring in the analytical path aiming at to minimize diffusional effects. Unlike most of flow-based titrations, the innovation is considered as a true titration, as it does not require a calibration curve thus complying with IUPAC definition. As an application, acidity evaluation in vinegars involving titration with sodium hydroxide was selected. Phenolphthalein and brilliant blue FCF were used as indicator and dye tracer, respectively. Effects of sample volume, titrand/titrant concentrations and flow rates were investigated aiming at improved accuracy and precision. Results were reliable and in agreement with those obtained by a reference titration procedure. PMID:26703261

  20. Tritium Loading of Pinellas U-Bed No. 874

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1999-09-15

    The DOE-Richland Office has requested WSRC to supply PNNL with a Pinellas U-bed loaded with tritium for permeation experiments. It is desired to have less than 1000 Ci tritium in the bed to allow shipping without excessive packaging requirements. Pinellas U-Bed No. 874 was loaded with approximately 955 Ci of 98 percent purity tritium on the ETM manifold in the Materials Test Facility in Building 232-H.

  1. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium recovery results

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Greenwood, L.R.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.; Fisher, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment was designed to test in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a candidate solid breeder, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/. The results showed that nearly all the tritium generated was recovered. Only < 0.1 wppM tritium remained in the solid after irradiation testing. The heat transfer performance showed that temperature profiles can be effectively controlled.

  2. Utilizing Tritium and CFC-12 to Determine Groundwater Sources in an Unconfined Aquifer Within the Abalone Cove Landslide, Palos Verdes, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, E. L.; Hammond, D. E.; Douglas, R.; Clark, J. F.; Avisar, D.; Dunker, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Abalone Cove landslide occupies 80 acres of an ancient landslide complex on the Palos Verdes peninsula, and was re-activated in 1979. The uphill portion of the ancient landslide complex has remained stable in historic times. Water infiltration into the slide is a short term catalyst for mass movement in the area, so it is important to determine the sources of groundwater throughout the slide mass. Water may enter the slide mass through direct percolation of recent precipitation, inflow along the head scarp of the ancient landslide or by rising through the slide plane from a deeper aquifer. The objective of this contribution is to use geochemical tracers (tritium and CFC-12) in combination with numerical modeling to constrain the importance of each of these sources. Numerical models were constructed to predict geochemical tracer concentrations throughout the basin, assuming that the only source of water to the slide mass is percolation of recent precipitation. Predicted concentrations were then compared to measured tracer values. In the ancient landslide, predicted and measured tracer concentrations are in good agreement, indicating that most of the water in this area is recent precipitation falling within the basin. Groundwater recharged uphill of the ancient landslide contributes minor flow into the complex through the head scarp, with the majority of this water flowing beneath the ancient slide plane. However, predicted tracer concentrations in the toe of the Abalone Cove landslide are not consistent with measured values. Both CFC-12 and tritium concentrations indicate that water is older than predicted and communication between the slide mass and the aquifer beneath the slide plane must occur in this area. Infiltration of this deep circulating water may exert upward hydraulic pressure on the landslide slip surface, increasing the potential for movement. This hypothesis is consistent with the observation that current movement is only occurring in the area in

  3. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON EPDM ELASTOMER

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    2009-12-11

    Samples of four formulations of ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomer were exposed to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for various times up to about 420 days in closed containers. Two formulations were carbon-black-filled commercial formulations, and two were the equivalent formulations without filler synthesized for this work. Tritium effects on the samples were characterized by measuring the sample volume, mass, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties and by noting changes in appearance. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature increased significantly with tritium exposure, and the unfilled formulations ceased to behave as elastomers after the longest tritium exposure. The filled formulations were more resistant to tritium exposure. Tritium exposure made all samples significantly stiffer and therefore much less able to form a reliable seal when employed as O-rings. No consistent change of volume or density was observed; there was a systematic lowering of sample mass with tritium exposure. In addition, the significant radiolytic production of gas, mainly protium (H{sub 2}) and HT, by the samples when exposed to tritium was characterized by measuring total pressure in the container at the end of each exposure and by mass spectroscopy of a gas sample at the end of each exposure. The total pressure in the containers more than doubled after {approx}420 days tritium exposure.

  4. Tritium release during nuclear power operation in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, D J; Chen, X Q; Li, B

    2012-06-01

    Overviews were evaluated of tritium releases and related doses to the public from airborne and liquid effluents from nuclear power plants on the mainland of China before 2009. The differences between tritium releases from various nuclear power plants were also evaluated. The tritium releases are mainly from liquid pathways for pressurised water reactors, but tritium releases between airborne and liquid effluents are comparable for heavy water reactors. The airborne release from a heavy water reactor is obviously higher than that from a pressurised water reactor.

  5. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

    2004-09-10

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

  6. Tritium release from SS316 under vacuum condition

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R.D.

    2015-03-15

    The plasma facing surface of the ITER vacuum vessel, partly made of low carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L, will incorporate tritium during machine operation. In this paper the kinetics of tritium release from stainless steel type 316 into vacuum and into a noble gas stream are compared and modelled. Type 316 stainless steel specimens loaded with tritium either by exposure to 1.2 kPa HT at 573 K or submersion into liquid HTO at 298 K showed characteristic thin surface layers trapping tritium in concentrations far higher than those determined in the bulk. The evolution of the tritium depth profile in the bulk during heating under vacuum was non-discernible from that of tritium liberated into a stream of argon. Only the relative amount of the two released tritium-species, i.e. HT or HTO, was different. Temperature-dependent depth profiles could be predicted with a one-dimensional diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients derived from fitting of the tritium release into an evacuated vessel or a stream of argon were found to be (1.4 ± 1.0)*10{sup -7} and (1.3 ± 0.9)*10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/s at 573 and 423 K, respectively. Polished surfaces on type SS316 stainless steel inhibit considerably the thermal release rate of tritium.

  7. Biokinetic aspects of tissue-bound tritium in algae.

    PubMed

    Strack, S; Kistner, G

    1978-01-01

    For the estimate of the radiation exposure of man and for the calculation of the risk of artificial tritium from nuclear power plants, organic tissue-bound tritium is of decisive importance. In model experiments, a tritium incorporation of 61 to 71% was found from tritiated water (HTO) into organic matter of planctonic algae under under reproducible conditions and this was related to the theoretical value. In further experiments the tritium release from these high tritiated algae was of interest. Kept in darkness in tritium-free, non-sterile river water, so that autolytic processes and bacterial decomposition could occur, the concentration of HTO was measured over a period of three weeks. A relatively long half-life of tissue-bound tritium was found under various temperature conditions. Therefore it must be considered that a significant retention of tritium in biological matter has to be taken into account in a natural ecosystem. In streams into which the cooling water of a nuclear reactor is released all conditions are found already for a long turnover and cycling of artificial tritium in living organisms as well as the conditions for a favourable transport of tritium by food chains to man.

  8. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  9. Oxidation of tritium atoms at a stainless steel surface

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; VanDeventer, E.H.

    1986-10-01

    The dynamic reaction of oxygen and tritium on a stainless steel surface was studied for low oxygen concentrations (less than 1 ppM oxygen in helium). The oxygen was swept over a stainless surface through which 20 to 90 ..mu..Ci/d of tritium permeated. Dynamic conditions were maintained for three to five days with gas flow rates maintained at 40 to 100 mL/min. The ratio between the tritiated water collected and the tritium gas collected was less than one. At oxygen levels greater than 50 ppM, the ratio of tritiated water to tritium gas appears to be greater than 10.

  10. 2012 ACCOMPLISHMENTS - TRITIUM AGING STUDIES ON STAINLESS STEELS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.

    2013-01-31

    This report summarizes the research and development accomplishments during FY12 for the tritium effects on materials program. The tritium effects on materials program is designed to measure the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the structural properties of forged stainless steels which are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. The FY12 R&D accomplishments include: (1) Fabricated and Thermally-Charged 150 Forged Stainless Steel Samples with Tritium for Future Aging Studies; (2) Developed an Experimental Plan for Measuring Cracking Thresholds of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas; (3) Calculated Sample Tritium Contents For Laboratory Inventory Requirements and Environmental Release Estimates; (4) Published report on “Cracking Thresholds and Fracture Toughness Properties of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Stainless Steels”; and, (5) Published report on “The Effects of Hydrogen, Tritium, and Heat Treatment on the Deformation and Fracture Toughness Properties of Stainless Steels”. These accomplishments are highlighted here and references given to additional reports for more detailed information.

  11. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Hans A. Schmutz

    2013-03-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  12. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-10-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  13. Influence of the tritium beta(-) decay on low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up in deuterium-tritium mixtures

    PubMed

    Frolov

    2000-09-01

    Low-temperature (Ttritium mixtures with various deuterium-tritium-helium-3 ratios is considered. The general dependence is studied for the critical burn-up parameter x(c)=rhor(c) upon the initial temperature T, density rho(0), and tritium molar concentration y for the [D]:y[T]:(1-y)[3He] mixture. In particular, it is shown that, if the tritium concentration y decreases, then the critical burn-up parameter x(c)(T,rho(0),y) grows very quickly (at fixed T and rho(0)). This means that tritium beta(-) decay significantly complicates thermonuclear burn-up in deuterium-tritium mixtures.

  14. Ortho-surgical management of condylar hyperplasia: Rare case reports

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Virendra; Verma, Ajay; Attresh, Gyanander; Batra, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is a clinical condition of over-development and growth because of excessive cellular growth of one condylar part of the mandible leading to facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation and enlargement of condyle. The elongation of the condylar neck in turn leads to malocclusion and articular dysfunction. In the past the interceptive and corrective procedures of growth and deformity in condylar hyperplasia were either condylectomy or high condylotomy. However, the deformity ceases after growth is completed. Therefore, other surgical procedures have to be undertaken to correct the manifested deformity of condylar hyperplasia. Further it has to be stressed that no single procedure can completely correct the deformity. So in addition to condylectomy, other orthognathic surgical procedures both on body and ramus and also on maxilla can be undertaken to correct the canting of occlusion. Two rare cases of unilateral hyperplasia encountered in our hospital are presented which required different lines of treatment. PMID:25298720

  15. Ortho-surgical management of condylar hyperplasia: Rare case reports.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra; Verma, Ajay; Attresh, Gyanander; Batra, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is a clinical condition of over-development and growth because of excessive cellular growth of one condylar part of the mandible leading to facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation and enlargement of condyle. The elongation of the condylar neck in turn leads to malocclusion and articular dysfunction. In the past the interceptive and corrective procedures of growth and deformity in condylar hyperplasia were either condylectomy or high condylotomy. However, the deformity ceases after growth is completed. Therefore, other surgical procedures have to be undertaken to correct the manifested deformity of condylar hyperplasia. Further it has to be stressed that no single procedure can completely correct the deformity. So in addition to condylectomy, other orthognathic surgical procedures both on body and ramus and also on maxilla can be undertaken to correct the canting of occlusion. Two rare cases of unilateral hyperplasia encountered in our hospital are presented which required different lines of treatment. PMID:25298720

  16. Condylar hyperplasia and facial asymmetry: report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Divya; Dhasmana, Satish; Kamboj, Mala; Gambhir, Gautam

    2011-03-01

    Condylar hyperplasia of mandible is overdevelopment of condyle, unilaterally or bilaterally, leading to facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and articular dysfunction. This is a series of five such patients managed at our centre. PMID:22379321

  17. Idiopathic gingival hyperplasia and orthodontic treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Clocheret, K; Dekeyser, C; Carels, C; Willems, G

    2003-03-01

    There are many reasons for gingival hyperplasia. Mostly, proper oral hygiene is sufficient to achieve normal healthy gingiva. In some situations, however, gingival hyperplasia is drug-induced or can be a manifestation of a genetic disorder. In the latter, it may exist as an isolated abnormality or as part of a syndrome. If orthodontic treatment is needed in patients with gingival hyperplasia, both orthodontic and periodontal aspects need to be considered. Extreme hereditary gingival fibromatosis was periodontally treated, by removal of all gingival excess using flaps and gingivectomies. After a follow-up period, the orthodontic treatment started with fixed appliances. Monthly periodontal check-ups (scaling and polishing) were scheduled to control the gingival inflammation. After the orthodontic treatment, permanent retention was applied, once more followed by a complete gingivectomy in both maxilla and mandible. One of the most important keys to successful treatment of hyperplasia patients is the cooperation between the periodontist and the orthodontist.

  18. New Developments in Our Understanding of Neointimal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Timmy; Ul Haq, Naveed

    2015-11-01

    The vascular access remains the lifeline for the hemodialysis patient. The most common etiology of vascular access dysfunction is venous stenosis at the vein-artery anastomosis in arteriovenous fistula and at the vein-graft anastomosis in arteriovenous grafts (AVG). This stenotic lesion is typically characterized on histology as aggressive venous neointimal hyperplasia in both arteriovenous fistula and AVG. In recent years, we have advanced our knowledge and understanding of neointimal hyperplasia in vascular access and begun testing several novel therapies. This article will (1) review recent developments in our understanding of the pathophysiology of neointimal hyperplasia development in AVG and fistula failure, (2) discuss atypical factors leading to neointimal hyperplasia development, (3) highlight key novel therapies that have been evaluated in clinical trials, and (4) discuss future opportunities and challenges to improve our understanding of vascular access dysfunction and translate this knowledge into novel and innovative therapies. PMID:26524947

  19. Adenomatoid hyperplasia in the palate: another sheep in wolf's clothing.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Eveson, J W; Richards, A

    1992-09-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia is a rare idiopathic non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic and benign lesion of minor salivary glands, that typically presents with a tumour-like mass in the palate. A 77-year-old patient is described.

  20. Reversible hard palate hyperplasia associated with amlodipine use: case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinwen; Liu, Qing; Dong, Guangying; Wang, Qintao

    2016-09-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are medications often used in the clinical management of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Gingival enlargement is a common side effect of CCB administration with no other oral tissue hyperplasia being reported. Thus, gingival enlargement is considered to be a tissue-specific side effect of CCBs. Here, we report for the first time a case of CCB-related palate hyperplasia in a patient suffering from oral lichen planus and the possible reasons for its occurrence. PMID:27251408

  1. Foveolar hyperplasia at the gastric cardia: prevalence and associations

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, M; Juhola, M; Färkkilä, M; Sipponen, P

    2002-01-01

    Aims: In the gastric antrum and body, foveolar hyperplasia is a feature of reactive gastritis resulting from—for example, duodenogastric bile reflux and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and clinical relevance of gastric cardiac foveolar hyperplasia. Methods: The study population was drawn from a consecutive series of 1698 patients sent for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Only cases without chronic gastritis or Barrett's oesophagus were included. The final study population consisted of 307 patients. Results: Foveolar hyperplasia was seen in the gastric cardiac mucosa in 31 (10%) patients with histologically normal stomach mucosa, but none had endoscopically noticeable hyperplastic polyps. Compared with patients without gastric cardiac hyperplasia, those with hyperplasia more often had chronic inflammation and complete intestinal metaplasia in the junctional biopsies (48% v 77% and 9% v 26%, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that chronic cardiac inflammation (odds ratio (OR), 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3 to 7.8) and intestinal metaplasia of the complete type (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 7.1) were independent risk factors for cardiac foveolar hyperplasia. In univariate analysis, endoscopic erosive oesophagitis (endoscopy positive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease) and the use of NSAIDs were not related to the presence of foveolar hyperplasia. Conclusions: Foveolar hyperplasia in the gastric cardiac mucosa occurs in patients with histologically normal non-gastritic stomachs and may develop as a consequence of chronic inflammation limited to the gastro-oesophageal junction (“junctitis”). It is not associated directly with endoscopy positive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or the use of NSAIDs. PMID:11986340

  2. Reversible hard palate hyperplasia associated with amlodipine use: case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinwen; Liu, Qing; Dong, Guangying; Wang, Qintao

    2016-09-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are medications often used in the clinical management of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Gingival enlargement is a common side effect of CCB administration with no other oral tissue hyperplasia being reported. Thus, gingival enlargement is considered to be a tissue-specific side effect of CCBs. Here, we report for the first time a case of CCB-related palate hyperplasia in a patient suffering from oral lichen planus and the possible reasons for its occurrence.

  3. [A gingival hyperplasia in a patient suffering from neurofibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Nolte, J W; Baart, J A; van der Waal, I

    2012-04-01

    A 30-year-old woman suffering from neurofibromatosis type 1 was referred by her dentist to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery of a university medical centre for excision of a gingival hyperplasia in the mandibular frontal region. The hyperplasia was a neurofibroma, which was surgically removed, as were 2 neurofibromas of the tongue, a postauricular neurofibroma and 2 neurofibromas of the feet.

  4. Time series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride reveal short-term variations in groundwater contribution to a stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvert, C.; Stewart, M. K.; Cendón, D. I.; Raiber, M.

    2016-01-01

    A major limitation to the assessment of catchment transit time (TT) stems from the use of stable isotopes or chloride as hydrological tracers, because these tracers are blind to older contributions. Yet, accurately capturing the TT of the old water fraction is essential, as is the assessment of its temporal variations under non-stationary catchment dynamics. In this study we used lumped convolution models to examine time series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride in rainfall, streamwater and groundwater of a catchment located in subtropical Australia. Our objectives were to determine the different contributions to streamflow and their variations over time, and to understand the relationship between catchment TT and groundwater residence time. Stable isotopes and chloride provided consistent estimates of TT in the upstream part of the catchment. A young component to streamflow was identified that was partitioned into quickflow (mean TT ≈ 2 weeks) and discharge from the fractured igneous rocks forming the headwaters (mean TT ≈ 0.3 years). The use of tritium was beneficial for determining an older contribution to streamflow in the downstream area. The best fits between measured and modelled tritium activities were obtained for a mean TT of 16-25 years for this older groundwater component. This was significantly lower than the residence time calculated for groundwater in the alluvial aquifer feeding the stream downstream ( ≈ 76-102 years), emphasising the fact that water exiting the catchment and water stored in it had distinctive age distributions. When simulations were run separately on each tritium streamwater sample, the TT of old water fraction varied substantially over time, with values averaging 17 ± 6 years at low flow and 38 ± 15 years after major recharge events. This counterintuitive result was interpreted as the flushing out of deeper, older waters shortly after recharge by the resulting pressure wave propagation. Overall, this study shows the

  5. Modelling of the anthropogenic tritium transient and its decay product helium-3 in the Mediterranean Sea using a high-resolution regional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayache, M.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Beranger, K.; Arsouze, T.; Beuvier, J.; Palmieri, J.; Le-vu, B.; Roether, W.

    2014-12-01

    This numerical study provides the first simulation of the anthropogenic tritium invasion and its decay product helium-3 (3He) in the Mediterranean Sea. The simulation covers the entire tritium (3H) transient generated by the atmospheric nuclear-weapon tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s and run till 2011. Tritium, helium-3 and their derived age estimates are particularly suitable for studying intermediate and deep-water ventilation and spreading of water masses at intermediate/deep levels. The simulation is made using a high resolution regional model NEMO-MED12 forced at the surface with prescribed tritium evolution derived from observations. The simulation is compared to measurements of tritium and helium-3 performed along large-scale transects in the Mediterranean Sea during the last few decades on cruises of Meteor M5/6, M31/1, M44/4, M51/2, M84/3, and Poseidon 234. The results show that the input function used for the tritium, generates a realistic distribution of the main hydrographic features of the Mediterranean Sea circulation. In the eastern basin, the results highlight the weak formation of Adriatic Deep Water in the model, which explains its weak contribution to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water in the Ionian sub-basin. It produces a realistic representation of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient signal, simulating a deep-water formation in the Aegean sub-basin at the beginning of the 1993, with a realistic timing of deep-water renewal in the eastern basin. In the western basin, the unusual intense deep convection event of winter 2005 in the Gulf of Lions during the Western Mediterranean Transition is simulated. However the spreading of the recently ventilated deep water toward the South is too weak. The ventilation and spreading of the Levantine Intermediate Water from the eastern basin toward the western basin is simulated with realistic tracer-age distribution compared to observation-based estimates.

  6. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cuhaci, Neslihan; Aydın, Cevdet; Yesilyurt, Ahmet; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH) are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH) if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH. PMID:26558116

  7. Treating benign prostatic hyperplasia with botulinum neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Brisinda, G; Vanella, S; Marniga, G; Crocco, A; Maria, G

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been increasingly used in the interventional treatment of several disorders; the use of this agent has extended to a plethora of conditions including focal dystonia, spasticity, inappropriate contraction in most gastrointestinal sphincters, eye movement disorders, hyperhidrosis, genitourinary disorders and aesthetically undesirable hyperfunctional facial lines. In addition, BoNT is being investigated for the control of pain, and for the management of tension or migraine headaches and myofascial pain syndrome. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in ageing men; the goal of therapy is to reduce the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with BPH and to improve the quality of life. However, medical treatment, including drugs that relax smooth muscle within the prostate and drugs that shrink the gland are not totally effective or without complications. The standard surgical treatment for BPH is progressively changing to minimally invasive therapies, but none of them has provided clear results. The use of BoNT-A to inhibit the autonomic efferent effects on prostate growth and contraction, and inhibit the abnormal afferent effects on prostate sensation, might be an alternative treatment for BPH. BoNT injections have several advantages over drugs and surgical therapies in the management of intractable or chronic disease; systemic pharmacologic effects are rare, permanent destruction of tissue does not occur, and graded degrees of relaxation may be achieved by varying the dose injected. In this paper, clinical experience over the last years with BoNT in BPH impaired patients will be illustrated.

  8. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: from Bench to Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease, especially in old men, and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This chronic disease has important care implications and financial risks to the health care system. LUTS are caused not only by mechanical prostatic obstruction but also by the dynamic component of obstruction. The exact etiology of BPH and its consequences, benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction, are not identified. Various theories concerning the causes of benign prostate enlargement and LUTS, such as metabolic syndrome, inflammation, growth factors, androgen receptor, epithelial-stromal interaction, and lifestyle, are discussed. Incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction encourages focus on symptoms rather than prostate enlargement and the shifting from surgery to medicine as the treatment of BPH. Several alpha antagonists, including alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have shown excellent efficacy without severe adverse effects. In addition, new alpha antagonists, silodosin and naftopidil, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are emerging as BPH treatments. In surgical treatment, laser surgery such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser prostatectomy have been introduced to reduce complications and are used as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. The status of TURP as the gold standard treatment of BPH is still evolving. We review several preclinical and clinical studies about the etiology of BPH and treatment options. PMID:22468207

  9. Multiple-tracer gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-gas tracer system has been designed, built, and used on an explosively fractured oil shale rubble bed. This paper deals exclusively with the hardware, software, and overall operation of the tracer system. This system is a field portable, self-contained unit, which utilizes a mass spectrometer for gas analysis. The unit has a 20 channel sample port capability and is controlled by a desk top computer. The system is configured to provide a dynamic sensitivity range of up to six orders of magnitude. A roots blower is manifolded to the unit to provide continuous flow in all sample lines. The continuous flow process allows representative samples as well as decreasing the time between each measurement. Typical multiplex cycle time to evaluate four unique gases is approximately 12 seconds.

  10. Tracer diffusion inside fibrinogen layers.

    PubMed

    Cieśla, Michał; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Sagués, Francesc; Sokolov, Igor M

    2014-01-28

    We investigate the obstructed motion of tracer (test) particles in crowded environments by carrying simulations of two-dimensional Gaussian random walk in model fibrinogen monolayers of different orientational ordering. The fibrinogen molecules are significantly anisotropic and therefore they can form structures where orientational ordering, similar to the one observed in nematic liquid crystals, appears. The work focuses on the dependence between level of the orientational order (degree of environmental crowding) of fibrinogen molecules inside a layer and non-Fickian character of the diffusion process of spherical tracer particles moving within the domain. It is shown that in general particles motion is subdiffusive and strongly anisotropic, and its characteristic features significantly change with the orientational order parameter, concentration of fibrinogens, and radius of a diffusing probe. PMID:25669566

  11. Tritium and stable isotopes of magmatic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, F.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2000-04-01

    To investigate the isotopic composition and age of water in volcanic gases and magmas, we analyzed samples from 11 active volcanoes ranging in composition from tholeiitic basalt to rhyolite: Mount St. Helens (USA), Kilauea (USA), Pacaya (Guatemala), Galeras (Colombia), Satsuma Iwo-Jima (Japan), Sierra Negra and Alcedo (Ecuador), Vulcano (Italy), Parı´cutin (Mexico), Kudryavy (Russia), and White Island (New Zealand). Tritium at relatively low levels (0.1-5 T.U.) is found in most emissions from high-temperature volcanic fumaroles sampled, even at discharge temperatures >700°C. Although magmatic fluids sampled from these emissions usually contain high CO 2, S total, HCl, HF, B, Br, 3He R/ RA, and low contents of air components, stable isotope and tritium relations of nearly all such fluids show mixing of magmatic volatiles with relatively young meteoric water (model ages≤75 y). Linear δD/ δ18O and 3H/ δ18O mixing trends of these two end-members are invariably detected at arc volcanoes. Tritium is also detected in fumarole condensates at hot spot basalt volcanoes, but collecting samples approaching the composition of end-member magmatic fluid is exceedingly difficult. In situ production of 3H, mostly from spontaneous fission of 238U in magmas is calculated to be <0.001 T.U., except for the most evolved compositions (high U, Th, and Li and low H 2O contents). These values are below the detection limit of 3H by conventional analytical techniques (about 0.01 T.U. at best). We found no conclusive evidence that natural fusion in the Earth produces anomalous amounts of detectable 3H (>0.05 T.U.).

  12. Analysis of arterial intimal hyperplasia: review and hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite a prodigious investment of funds, we cannot treat or prevent arteriosclerosis and restenosis, particularly its major pathology, arterial intimal hyperplasia. A cornerstone question lies behind all approaches to the disease: what causes the pathology? Hypothesis I argue that the question itself is misplaced because it implies that intimal hyperplasia is a novel pathological phenomenon caused by new mechanisms. A simple inquiry into arterial morphology shows the opposite is true. The normal multi-layer cellular organization of the tunica intima is identical to that of diseased hyperplasia; it is the standard arterial system design in all placentals at least as large as rabbits, including humans. Formed initially as one-layer endothelium lining, this phenotype can either be maintained or differentiate into a normal multi-layer cellular lining, so striking in its resemblance to diseased hyperplasia that we have to name it "benign intimal hyperplasia". However, normal or "benign" intimal hyperplasia, although microscopically identical to pathology, is a controllable phenotype that rarely compromises blood supply. It is remarkable that each human heart has coronary arteries in which a single-layer endothelium differentiates early in life to form a multi-layer intimal hyperplasia and then continues to self-renew in a controlled manner throughout life, relatively rarely compromising the blood supply to the heart, causing complications requiring intervention only in a small fraction of the population, while all humans are carriers of benign hyperplasia. Unfortunately, this fundamental fact has not been widely appreciated in arteriosclerosis research and medical education, which continue to operate on the assumption that the normal arterial intima is always an "ideal" single-layer endothelium. As a result, the disease is perceived and studied as a new pathological event caused by new mechanisms. The discovery that normal coronary arteries are

  13. Safety assessment of the tritium recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Safety Assessment (SA) contains descriptions and evaluations of the environmental, health, and safety issues associated with the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) at the Pinellas Plant. It provides: 1. site and facility descriptions, 2. an overall description of the TRS and its operations, 3. an evaluation of the hazards associated with TRS operations, 4. descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate identified hazards, and 5. assessment of potential accidents and their associated risks. This SA contains the results of safety evaluations of TRS operations, equipment, and supplied systems. The evaluations include, as appropriate, preliminary hazards listings, qualitative risk assessments, and quantitative risk assessments.

  14. Tritiation methods and tritium NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Salijoughian, M.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    We have used a simple process for the production of highly tritiated water and characterized the product species by {sup 1}H and {sup 3}H NMR spectroscopy. The water is readily manipulated and used in subsequent reactions either as T{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COOT or CF{sub 3}COOT. Development of tritiated diimide has progressed to the point where cis-hydrogenated products at 1-20 Ci/mmole S.A. are possible. Tri-n-butyl tin tritide has been produced at >95% tritium content and well characterized by multinuclear NMR techniques. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Groundwater environmental tracer data collected from the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers in Montgomery County and adjacent counties, Texas, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The Gulf Coast aquifer system is the primary water supply for Montgomery County in southeastern Texas, including part of the Houston metropolitan area and the cities of Magnolia, Conroe, and The Woodlands Township, Texas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, collected environmental tracer data in the Gulf Coast aquifer system, primarily in Montgomery County. Forty existing groundwater wells screened in the Gulf Coast aquifer system were selected for sampling in Montgomery County (38 wells), Waller County (1 well), and Walker County (1 well). Groundwater-quality samples, physicochemical properties, and water-level data were collected once from each of the 40 wells during March-September 2008. Groundwater-quality samples were analyzed for dissolved gases and the environmental tracers sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, helium-4, and helium-3/tritium. Water samples were collected and processed onsite using methods designed to minimize changes to the water-sample chemistry or contamination from the atmosphere. Replicate samples for quality assurance and quality control were collected with each environmental sample. Well-construction information and environmental tracer data for March-September 2008 are presented.

  16. Polyimide and polyamide-imide in a tritium atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, K.F.; Hockett, J.E.; Buxton, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    Five different commercial polyamide-imide and polyimide specimens were kept in a tritium atmosphere (96.9 mol %, 101 kPa, initial fill conditions) for three months. Selected physical and mechanical properties of the five plastics were examined. Mass spectrometric data showed the growth of protium and HT impurity in the tritium gas.

  17. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    DOEpatents

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  18. Locating tritium sources in a research reactor building.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Masami

    2005-10-01

    Despite renovation of the D2O facility, tritium concentrations in the condensates of reactor room air showed tens of Bq mL before venting resumption on July 1997. This suggested the presence of tritium sources in the research reactor-containment building. An investigation was therefore initiated to locate the source and determine the distribution of tritium in the containment building. Air monitoring in the working area using a dish of water placed in the building suggested that the source of tritium was near the reactor core. Monitoring exhaust air from the two facilities (a cold neutron source and a D(2)O tank) showed high specific activity on the order of 10 Bq mL(-1), suggesting the presence of tritium in condensates near the reactor core. The major concern was whether the leakage of liquid deuterium (4 L) and heavy water (2 x 10(3) L) used as a moderator had occurred. The concentration of tritium in condensates has not increased over the past few years in either the exhaust line or working area, and the deuterium itself has not been found in the surrounding environment. The concentration of tritium measured using an ionization chamber after Ar decay was dependent on the thermal output of the research reactor, indicating that the tritium was produced by the irradiation process within shielding/moderator materials or cover gas with neutrons.

  19. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  20. Tritium measurement technique using in-bed'' calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Mallory, M.K.; Nobile, A. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    One of the new technologies that has been introduced to the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the production scale use of metal hydride technology to store, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. For tritium stored in metal hydride storage beds, a unique relationship does not exist between the amount of tritium in the bed and the pressure-volume-temperature properties of the hydride material. Determining the amount of tritium in a hydride bed after desorbing the contents of the bed to a tank and performing pressure, volume, temperature, and composition (PVTC) measurements is not practical due to long desorption/absorption times and the inability to remove tritium heels'' from the metal hydride materials under normal processing conditions. To eliminate the need to remove tritium from hydride storage beds for measurement purposes, and in-bed'' tritium calorimetric measurement technique has been developed. The steady-state temperature rise of a gas stream flowing through a jacketed metal hydride storage bed is measured and correlated with power input to electric heaters used to simulate the radiolytic power generated by the decay of tritium to {sup 3}He. Temperature rise results for prototype metal hydride storage beds and the effects of using different gases in the bed are shown. Linear regression results shows that for 95% confidence intervals, temperature rise measurements can be obtained in 14 hours and have an accuracy of {plus minus}1.6% of a tritium filled hydride storage bed.

  1. Tritium measurement technique using ``in-bed`` calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Mallory, M.K.; Nobile, A. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    One of the new technologies that has been introduced to the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the production scale use of metal hydride technology to store, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. For tritium stored in metal hydride storage beds, a unique relationship does not exist between the amount of tritium in the bed and the pressure-volume-temperature properties of the hydride material. Determining the amount of tritium in a hydride bed after desorbing the contents of the bed to a tank and performing pressure, volume, temperature, and composition (PVTC) measurements is not practical due to long desorption/absorption times and the inability to remove tritium ``heels`` from the metal hydride materials under normal processing conditions. To eliminate the need to remove tritium from hydride storage beds for measurement purposes, and ``in-bed`` tritium calorimetric measurement technique has been developed. The steady-state temperature rise of a gas stream flowing through a jacketed metal hydride storage bed is measured and correlated with power input to electric heaters used to simulate the radiolytic power generated by the decay of tritium to {sup 3}He. Temperature rise results for prototype metal hydride storage beds and the effects of using different gases in the bed are shown. Linear regression results shows that for 95% confidence intervals, temperature rise measurements can be obtained in 14 hours and have an accuracy of {plus_minus}1.6% of a tritium filled hydride storage bed.

  2. Estimation of transit times in a Karst Aquifer system using environmental tracers: Application on the Jeita Aquifer system-Lebanon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doummar, Joanna; Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Estimating transit times is essential for the assessment of aquifer vulnerability to contaminants. Groundwater in karst aquifer is assumed to be relatively young due to fast preferential pathways; slow flow components are present in water stored in the fissured matrix. Furthermore, transit times are site specific as they depend on recharge rates, temperatures, elevation, and flow media; saturated and unsaturated zones. These differences create significant variation in the groundwater age in karst systems as the water sampled will be a mix of different water that has been transported through different flow pathways (fissured matrix and conduits). Several methods can be applied to estimate water transit time of an aquifer such as artificial tracers, which provide an estimate for fast flow velocities. In this study, groundwater residence times in the Jeita spring aquifer (Lebanon) were estimated using several environmental tracers such as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), Helium-Tritium (3H, 3H- 3He). Additional stable isotope and major ion analysis was performed to characterize water types. Groundwater samples were collected from six different wells in the Jeita catchment area (Jurassic Kesrouane aquifer) as well as from the spring and cave itself. The results are reproducible for the Tritium-Helium method, unlike for the CFC/SF6 methods that yielded poor results due to sampling problems. Tritium concentrations in all groundwater samples show nearly the same concentration (~2.73 TU) except for one sample with relatively lower tritium concentration (~2.26 TU). Ages ranging from 0.07 ± 0.07 years to 23.59 ± 0.00 years were obtained. The youngest age is attributed to the spring/ cave while the oldest ages were obtained in wells tapping the fissured matrix. Neon in these samples showed considerable variations and high delta Ne in some samples indicating high excess air. Four (4) samples showed extreme excess air (Delta-Ne is greater than 70 %) and

  3. Tritium analysis in titanium films by the BIXS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. G.; Sun, H. W.; Zeng, F. Y.; Mao, L.; Wu, Q. Q.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, tritium analyses in titanium films has been carried out by β-decay induced X-ray spectroscopy (BIXS), based on Monte Carlo simulations and the Tikhonov regularization. In our analysis, for the first time the internal bremsstrahlung of tritium β-decay has been taken into account in the BIXS method. Meanwhile, parallel computation using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE has been realized within the frame of a message passing interface. The tritium depth distributions, surface homogeneity and the total tritium content of the analyzed samples have been obtained. The total tritium contents obtained by the present BIXS method are found to be in good agreement with those obtained by the PVT method.

  4. Tritium target fabrication for the rotating target neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, H. L.; Kobisk, E. H.; Byrum, B. L.

    1982-09-01

    The Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepares tritium targets that are used to produce an intense beam of 14.5 MeV neutrons by the 13H( 12H, 01n) 24He reaction. The intense beams of 14.5 MeV neutrons are used in programs involving cancer research, materials evaluation, and materials identification. Many of the tritium targets prepared by IRML for the past four years have been used in support of the Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS) programs at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The tritium targets are prepared by the vacuum evaporation of titanium from a rod-fed electron beam gun. The resulting vapor-condensed titanium layers are exposed to a tritium atmosphere to form titanium tritide. A summary of tritium target development at IRML with an emphasis on the RTNS programs is presented.

  5. Design and construction of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of TSTA is to develop those aspects of tritium technology related to the fuel cycle for fusion power reactors and to develop the environmental and personnel safety systems required for such a tritium facility. The TSTA schedule calls for construction to be completed and the facility to be operational by the end of FY-1981. The project is now somewhat more than halfway through the design-construction phase and is currently on schedule for the 1981 operational milestone. In this paper the current status of the major subsystems will be discussed. The subsystems to be discussed include the: Vacuum Facility; Fuel Cleanup; Isotope Separation; Transfer Pump; Emergency Tritium Cleanup; Tritium Waste Treatment; Tritium Monitoring; Secondary Containment; and, the Master Data Acquisition and Control System.

  6. Neutral Beam Injection in the JET Trace Tritium Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Surrey, E.; Ciric, D.; Cox, S. J.; Hackett, L.; Homfray, D.; Jenkins, I.; Jones, T.T.C.; Keeling, D.; King, R.; Young, A.; Whitehead, D.

    2005-07-15

    Operation of the JET Neutral Beam Injectors with tritium is described. Supplying the tritium feed via the special electrically grounded gas feed compromised the performance of the up-graded high current triode Positive Ion Neutral Injectors (PINI) due to gas starvation of the source and the methods adopted to ameliorate this effect are described. A total of 362 PINI beam pulses were requested, circulating a total of 4.73g tritium, of which 9.3mg was injected into the torus. Safety considerations required a continuous, cumulative total to be maintained of the mass of tritium adsorbed onto the cryo-pumping panel; a daily limit of 0.5g was adopted for the Trace Tritium Experiment (TTE). A subsequent clean up phase using 115keV deuterium beams completed the isotopic exchange of components in the beamline.

  7. Tritium trapping on the plasma irradiated tungsten surface

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, Y.; Alimov, V.K.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Isobe, K.; Oyaidzu, M.; Yamanishi, T.; Ueda, Y.; Kurishita, H.; Philipps, V.; Kreter, A.; Zlobinski, M.

    2015-03-15

    Tungsten (W) is a candidate material for plasma-facing high heat-flux structures in future fusion reactors. The aim of this study is to assess how reasonably one can predict the tritium inventory in actual fusion machines using data on the hydrogen isotope inventory obtained in laboratory experiments. W specimens previously exposed to deuterium (D) plasmas both in the TEXTOR tokamak and high flux linear plasma generator (LPG) were subsequently loaded with tritium at 573 K for 3 h. The retention of tritium in the near-surface W layer was examined by imaging plate technique. The study shows that on the TEXTOR-plasma-exposed W surface, tritium was mainly trapped in carbon deposits, and for LPG-plasma-exposed W specimens, tritium was trapped in defects created in the near-surface layer during the course of D plasma exposure.

  8. A field study of tritium migration in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L X; Zhang, M S; Tu, G R

    1995-12-01

    A field study of tritium migration from an underground nuclear explosion was carried out for more than 7 years. A series of satellite wells was drilled around the explosion cavity, which is within a nuclear test site water-supply aquifer. Samples from various wells were analysed. In this way, variations in the tritium concentration of water from different wells were determined, and the extent of tritium migration during the 7 years after the detonation was examined. The maximum tritium concentration reached in water from various wells is just 52-times higher than the maximum permissible concentration for drinking water and decreased afterwards. According to the results obtained, the flow rate of groundwater was inferred to be about 91 m per year and the maximum contamination distance of water supplies by the tritium were < or = 2 km from the explosion cavity.

  9. Chemical form of tritium released from solid breeder materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Kinjyo, Tomohiro; Nishida, Yoshiteru

    2004-02-01

    The fraction of HTO in total tritium was measured at release of the bred tritium to the purge gas with hydrogen using the thermal release after irradiation method, where neutron irradiation was performed at the Japan Research Reactor-3 (JRR-3) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) or the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR reactor) in Kyoto University. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a small portion of bred tritium is released to the blanket purge gas in the form of HTO from ceramic breeder materials even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. Observation in this study implies that it is necessary to have a bred tritium recovery system useful for both HT and HTO form tritium. The water formation properties from Li 2TiO 3 bed placed in the hydrogen atmosphere were also discussed in this study.

  10. Refurbishment of the tritium laboratories at SCK-CEN

    SciTech Connect

    Braet, J.; Dylst, K.; Vanderbiesen, S.

    2008-07-15

    The SCK-CEN tritium laboratories were commissioned in 1975 for a maximum tritium inventory of 37 TBq. With an aim to improve the infrastructure, the capabilities and safety, SCK-CEN's general management decided to refurbish the laboratories. A new ventilation system, including a stack and gloveboxes equipped with a detritiation installation, will allow a higher tritium inventory limit of 0.37 PBq. This paper discusses the ongoing refurbishment of the two neighboring tritium laboratories. Currently one laboratory has been de-nuclearized whilst the other is still in operation. Nevertheless a number of conclusions can already be drawn. We succeeded in de-nuclearizing most of the equipment and infrastructure without personnel receiving measurable tritium doses. If the free released metals had been disposed off at a nuclear melting facility, 22% of the costs could have been saved, however free release is more socially acceptable. (authors)

  11. Estimation of dose to man from environmental tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwer, P S; Etnier, E L

    1980-01-01

    Factors important for characterization of tritium in environmental pathways leading to exposure of man are reviewed and quantification of those factors is discussed. Parameters characterizing the behavior of tritium in man are also subjected to review. Factors to be discussed include organic binding, bioaccumulation, quality factor and transmutation. A variety of models are presently in use to estimate dose to man from environmental releases of tritium. Results from four representative models are compared and discussed. Site-specific information is always preferable when parameterizing models to estimate dose to man. There may be significant differences in dose potential among geographic regions due to variable factors. An example of one such factor examined is absolute humidity. It is concluded that adequate methodologies exist for estimation of dose to man from environmental tritium although a number of areas are identified where additional tritium research is desirable.

  12. Tritium release from ceramic breeder materials deposited with noble metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munakata, Kenzo; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Wajima, Takaaki; Wada, Kohei; Hara, Keisuke; Shinozaki, Takashi; Takeishi, Toshiharu; Knitter, Regina; Bekris, Nicolas; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Yamana, Hajimu; Okuno, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    Lithium orthosilicate and lithium aluminate are the candidates of the breeder material of the tritium-breeding blanket. To enhance the rate of tritium release from these breeder materials, 0.2 wt.% of palladium was impregnated into the breeder materials by the incipient wet impregnation method. The lithium orthosilicate and the lithium aluminate pebbles with or without Pd were irradiated in the Kyoto university research reactor, and out-of-pile annealing experiments were performed. When the breeder materials were deposited with a catalytic additive, such as Pd the ratio of the tritium discharged in the molecular form of tritium (HT) increased. It was also found that the amount of the tritium discharged from the lithium orthosilicate pebbles with a catalytic additive at the low temperatures is greater compared with lithium aluminate.

  13. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Tritium concentrations in the Columbia River at Richland

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of tritium in the Columbia River, which are measurable using special analytical techniques, have been decreasing during recent years. Tritium levels are significantly greater at the Richland Pumphouse downstream of the Hanford Site than upstream at Priest Rapids Dam. Tritium is known to enter the river along the Hanford Site as direct effluent discharges, which have been virtually eliminated, and through the seepage of ground water contaminated as a result of past operations. The seepage of contaminated ground water has continued, expanding over time to encompass a larger portion of the Hanford shoreline nearer to the downstream Columbia River monitoring station. Cross-sectional sampling of the river was conducted to determine the distribution of tritium across the river and evaluate the relationship between average tritium concentrations in the river and those measured by the downstream river sampling system.

  15. Use of natural and applied tracers to guide targeted remediation efforts in an acid mine drainage system, Colorado Rockies, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowie, Rory; Williams, Mark W.; Wireman, Mike; Runkel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. There is a need to define hydrologic connections between surface water, groundwater, and mine workings to understand the source of both water and contaminants in the drainage tunnel discharge. Source identification will allow targeted remediation strategies to be developed. To identify hydrologic connections we employed a combination of natural and applied tracers including isotopes, ionic tracers, and fluorescent dyes. Stable water isotopes (δ18O/δD) show a well-mixed hydrological system, while tritium levels in mine waters indicate a fast flow-through system with mean residence times of years not decades or longer. Addition of multiple independent tracers indicated that water is traveling through mine workings with minimal obstructions. The results from a simultaneous salt and dye tracer application demonstrated that both tracer types can be successfully used in acidic mine water conditions.

  16. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  17. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baglan, N.; Cossonnet, C.; Fournier, M.; Momoshima, N.; Ansoborlo, E.

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  18. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    SciTech Connect

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  19. Tau neutrino component to tritium beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snyderman, N.J.

    1995-06-01

    A framework is given for explaining anomalous results of neutrino mass experiments that measure the high energy electron spectrum of tritium {beta} decay. The experimental results have been fit to a negative neutrino mass square. We show that there is a consistent phenomenological interpretation due to a positive mass tau neutrino component of the {beta} decay spectrum, with strong near threshold final state interactions with the He nucleus. If this enhancement is due to new interactions between low energy tau neutrinos and nuclei, then the tritium 0 decay experiments could be used as detectors for cosmic background tau neutrinos. The model predicts a distinctive spectrum shape that is consistent with a recent high statistics LLNL experiment. A fit to the experiment gives a tau neutrino mass of 23 eV. Tau neutrinos of this mass would dominate the mass of the universe. Requirements for a theoretical model are given, as well as models that realize different aspects of these requirements. While qualitatively successful, the theoretical models have such severe quantitative difficulties that the accuracy of the molecular physics of the T-{sup 3}He ion, assumed in the analysis of the experimental data, is called into question.

  20. Borehole environmental tracers for evaluating net infiltration and recharge through desert bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, D.K.; Gardner, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Permeable bedrock aquifers in arid regions are being increasingly developed as water supplies, yet little is generally known about recharge processes and spatial and temporal variability. Environmental tracers from boreholes were used in this study to investigate net infiltration and recharge to the fractured Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Vadose zone tracer profiles at the Sand Hollow study site in southwestern Utah look similar to those of desert soils at other sites, indicating the predominance of matrix flow. However, recharge rates are generally higher in the Navajo Sandstone than in unconsolidated soils in similar climates because the sandstone matrix allows water movement but not root penetration. Water enters the vadose zone either as direct infiltration of precipitation through exposed sandstone and sandy soils or as focused infiltration of runoff. Net infiltration and recharge exhibit extreme spatial variability. High-recharge borehole sites generally have large amounts of vadose zone tritium, low chloride concentrations, and small vadose zone oxygen-18 evaporative shifts. Annual net-infiltration and recharge rates at different locations range from about 1 to 60 mm as determined using vadose zone tritium, 0 to 15 mm using vadose zone chloride, and 3 to 60 mm using groundwater chloride. Environmental tracers indicate a cyclical net-infiltration and recharge pattern, with higher rates earlier in the Holocene and lower rates during the late Holocene, and a return to higher rates during recent decades associated with anomalously high precipitation during the latter part of the 20th century. The slightly enriched stable isotopic composition of modern groundwater indicates this recent increase in precipitation may be caused by a stronger summer monsoon or winter southern Pacific El Nin??o storm track. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  1. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  2. [Benign prostatic hyperplasia: prostatectomy and alternatives].

    PubMed

    Sulser, T

    1995-06-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease of men and will lead in most cases to micturition difficulties. Up to now 2 or 4 of 10 men in their sixties are operated for BPH. As standard treatment we know the transurethral resection of the prostate and in some cases of very big adenomas the open adenomectomy carried out in a suprapubic or retropubic way. However, in view of a rare, but as a result of these treatments appearing morbidity we have to ask ourselves whether the surgical resection of the obstructive prostatic tissue remains the only way of treatment. For several years now apart from drug therapy there have also been applied less invasive alternatives. Whether these alternatives of little side effect and further complications are equally effective for the treatment of the obstructive BPH is to verify. This paper provides a general view of the possibilities of the surgical interventions as well as of their alternatives. Because of a lack of dates as to the efficiency of particular procedures a final judgement is outstanding in most cases. Where possible we hear of particular alternatives, though fully promoted, being nothing but a passing tendency. This is certainly true of the hyperthermy, the balloon dilatation and the urethral implants. These by now various conspicuous necrotising procedures (transurethral microwave thermotherapy, laser-ablation, high intensity focused ultrasound, transurethral needle-ablation) are by now in prospective random studies still subject to extensive clinical tests. The question whether one of these alternatives will one day be apt to exceed the TURP as "golden standard" of BPH-treatment, that remains as far as now the question to be put. The advantages of the necrotising procedures, at present highly recommended, consist in the first place of a rare intra- and postoperative morbidity with a simultaneous lack of mortality. These procedures can be performed as a outpatient or as a short stationary treatment and sometime

  3. Residence times and age distributions of spring waters at the Semmering catchment area, Eastern Austria, as inferred from tritium, CFCs and stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Han, Liangfeng; Hacker, Peter; Gröning, Manfred

    2007-03-01

    The groundwater system in the mountainous area of Semmering, Austria, was studied by environmental tracers in several karst springs. The tracers used included stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), tritium ((3)H) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The tracers provided valuable information in regard to (1) the mean altitude of the spring catchment areas; (2) the residence time and age distribution of the spring waters; and (3) the interconnection of the springs to a sinkhole. The combination of the stable isotopic data and the topography/geology provided the estimates of the mean altitudes of the catchment areas. Based on the stable isotopic data the recharge temperature of the spring waters was estimated. The smoothing of precipitation's isotopic signal in spring discharge provided information on the minimum transit time of the spring waters. Due to short observation time, (3)H data alone cannot be used for describing the mean residence time of the karst waters. CFCs, though useful in recognizing the co-existence of young (post-1993) water with old (CFC-free) water, could not be used to resolve age distribution models. It is shown in this article, however, that the combined use of tritium and CFCs can provide a better assessment of models to account for different groundwater age distributions. In Appendix A, a simplified method for collecting groundwater samples for the analysis of CFCs is described. The method provides a real facilitation for fieldwork. Test data are given for this sampling method in regard to potential contamination by atmospheric CFCs.

  4. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a health risk assessment that addresses continuous releases of tritium to the environment from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The NTLF contributes approximately 95% of all tritium releases from LBL. Transport and transformation models were used to determine the movement of tritium releases from the NRLF to the air, surface water, soils, and plants and to determine the subsequent doses to humans. These models were calibrated against environmental measurements of tritium levels in the vicinity of the NTLF and in the surrounding community. Risk levels were determined for human populations in each of these zones. Risk levels to both individuals and populations were calculated. In this report population risks and individual risks were calculated for three types of diseases--cancer, heritable genetic effects, and developmental and reproductive effects.

  5. Variability of Residence Time tracer Concentrations at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory during the California Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Stacy, E.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Bibby, R. K.; Deinhart, A.; Schorzman, K.; Egnatuk, C. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Esser, B.

    2015-12-01

    California water supply from high elevation snow melt is vulnerable to climate change and prolonged drought conditions. Reduced snow pack and earlier snow melt will result in a greater reliance on man-made reservoirs and subsurface catchment storage. To gain insight into the subsurface storage volume of high elevation catchments, we studied the residence time distribution of surface water leaving the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. Since October 2014, we have collected monthly samples of two residence time tracers with contrasting half-lives: sulfur-35 (87.5 days) and tritium (12.32 years). Upstream catchment area at the three nested sampling locations is 1 km2 (P301 sub-catchment), 4 km2 (Providence Creek) and ~50 km2 (Big Creek). Samples were analyzed at LLNL by low level liquid scintillation counting and noble gas mass spectrometry after helium accumulation. Variations in tracer concentrations in precipitation, both for tritium (11-24 pCi/L) and sulfur-35 (24-100 mBq/L), complicate straightforward interpretation of residence times. Sulfur-35 concentrations show that last year precipitation contributes 1% - 10% of total stream flow, even during peak snowmelt. Tritium concentrations in stream flow vary between 40% and 60% of the initial concentration in precipitation (15.5 pCi/L), indicating that water leaving the catchment has a residence time on the order of years to decades. Additional analyses of sodium-22 (2.6 year half-life) will aid in deconvoluting the residence time distribution. These low tracer concentrations can be attributed to current severe drought conditions, resulting in low discharge rates and longer residence times. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675107

  6. Distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia: histopathologic character and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sottiurai, V S; Yao, J S; Batson, R C; Sue, S L; Jones, R; Nakamura, Y A

    1989-01-01

    Although thrombogenicity of the prosthetic graft, progression of the atherosclerotic disease and distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia are known etiologic factors of late graft failure, its occurrence is frequently encountered in the late graft occlusion. Forth-two canine PTFE iliofemoral grafts (all with end-to-side distal anastomosis) were studied. Computer digitization revealed that distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia occurred exclusively at the heel and the toe of the graft and the floor of the host artery. The distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia was 80-130 cells thick. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed a similar architecture of interlamination of cellular elements and extracellular matrix in the hyperplastic cells. Transmission electron microscopy further defined a gradual cell transformation and orientation from the graft to the lumen. The cells near the graft were characterized by a gradual reduction of rough endoplasmic reticulum with a concomitant acquisition of myofilaments, transforming ovoid mesenchymoid cells to slender myofibroblasts. The orientation of cells in distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia was embodied by random cell distribution at the periphery to a well-organized interlamination of myofibroblasts and extracellular matrix near the lumen. Distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia is a biologic entity with active cellular and subcellular events. Its biogenesis appears to be influenced by the hemodynamics of blood flow at the distal anastomosis. PMID:2713229

  7. Condylar hyperplasia. A clinico-pathological analysis of 22 cases.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, P J; Müller, H

    1986-08-01

    A series of 22 cases of unilateral condylar hyperplasia is presented with the emphasis on histopathological aspects. It is concluded that there are two types of condylar hyperplasia. The first manifests itself in the adolescent or the young adult and represents an exaggerated, normally proceeding growth and maturation process. The histological structure of the condyle in these cases is age-dependent as is shown by a conversion of hyaline growth cartilage into fibrocartilage occurring at about 20 years of age. The second type of condylar hyperplasia, seen in older people, probably represents reactive growth as a response to an eliciting agent that mostly can be identified. In these cases the histological architecture of the condyle is distorted by large masses of hyaline cartilage while there are concomitant degenerative changes in the form of arthrosis. In contrast to the patients suffering from the first type of condylar hyperplasia, the latter ones complain of additional joint symptoms, mostly pain. Moreover it is concluded that joint scintigraphy does not clearly discriminate between genuine condylar hyperplasia and reactive processes due to arthrosis, which may have clinical implications. PMID:3461098

  8. Pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma associated with gynaecomastia.

    PubMed Central

    Milanezi, M F; Saggioro, F P; Zanati, S G; Bazan, R; Schmitt, F C

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the prevalence of pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma in gynaecomastia and its immunohistochemical profile in this setting. METHODS: Eighty eight cases of gynaecomastia recovered from the files of the department of pathology, Botucatu School of Medicine from 1976 to 1996 were studied. In the cases associated with pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma, immunoreactivity for cytokeratins (CAM 5.2), vimentin, CD34, factor VIII related antigen, and the oestrogen and progesterone receptors were studied. RESULTS: Pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma was found in 21 of 88 cases of gynaecomastia (23.8%). In all cases, the cells lining the spaces were positive for vimentin, whereas CAM 5.2 and factor VIII related antigen were consistently negative. Nineteen of the 21 cases showed immunoreactivity for CD34. Ductal epithelial cells were positive for both the oestrogen receptor and the progesterone receptor, whereas stromal cells were negative. CONCLUSIONS: Pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma was present in approximately one quarter of the cases of gynaecomastia. This immunohistochemical study confirms the mesenchymal origin of the stromal cells that line the pseudovascular spaces, as has been found in female cases of pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of mammary stroma. Images PMID:9659260

  9. Novel S-35 Intrinsic Tracer Method for Determining Groundwater Travel Time near Managed Aquifer Recharge Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urióstegui, S. H.; Bibby, R. K.; Esser, B. K.; Clark, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Identifying groundwater travel times near managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities is a high priority for protecting public and environmental health. For MAR facilities in California that incorporate tertiary wastewater into their surface-spreading recharge practices, the target subsurface residence time is >9 months to allow for the natural inactivation and degradation of potential contaminants (less time is needed for full advanced treated water). Established intrinsic groundwater tracer techniques such as tritium/helium-3 dating are unable to resolve timescales of <1 year. These limitations provide the motivation for evaluating a novel groundwater tracer method using a naturally occurring radioisotope of sulfur, sulfur-35 (S-35). After its production in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interaction with argon, S-35 enters the hydrologic cycle as dissolved sulfate through precipitation The short half-life of S-35 (3 months) is ideal for investigating recharge and transport of MAR groundwater on the <1 year timescale of interest to MAR managers. The method, however, has not been applied to MAR operations because of the difficulty in measuring S-35 with sufficient sensitivity in high-sulfate waters. We have developed a new method and have applied it at two southern California MAR facilities where groundwater travel times have previously been characterized using deliberate tracers: 1) Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Los Angeles County, and 2) Orange County Groundwater Recharge Facilities in Orange County. Reasonable S-35 travel times of <1 year were identified at both study sites. This method also identified seasonal patterns in subsurface travel times, which may not be revealed by a deliberate tracer study that is dependent on the hydrologic conditions during the tracer injection period.

  10. Determining long-term (decadal) deep drainage rate using multiple tracers.

    PubMed

    Si, Bing C; de Jong, Eeltje

    2007-01-01

    The deep drainage rate is a critical hydrological parameter in understanding contamination mechanisms of soil and groundwater. Little research has been conducted on the temporal variations in deep drainage rate during the last century. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term deep drainage rate on a cultivated loamy soil in the Canadian Prairies. Three tracers were used: KCl applied in 1971, fallout tritium in 1963, and NO3* released during the initial cultivation of the field (1923). Two soil cores to a depth of 3.6 m were taken along a flat portion of the field, and soil Cl(-), 3H, and NO3* concentrations were measured as a function of depth. An additional four cores were taken for soil water content measurements between 2000 and 2003. Distinct peaks in the depth distribution of these three tracers were located at 1.27 m for Cl(-), 1.31 m for 3H, and 1.52 m for NO3*, 32, 40, and 80 yr after the application of Cl(-), 3H, and NO3*, respectively. The average deep drainage rates, calculated as the product of the estimated tracer velocity and volumetric soil water content below the active root zone, were 2.0 mm yr(-1) from the Cl(-) tracer, 2.2 mm yr(-1) from 3H, and 2.5 mm yr(-1) from the NO3* tracer. Therefore, there was little temporal variability in the groundwater recharge over the eight decades that the field has been cultivated. The recharge rates are less than 1% of the mean annual precipitation (333 mm).

  11. Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. ); Harris, B.R. Jr. ); DeRose, W.E. ); Ottaviani, W.L. )

    1992-02-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

  12. Tritium retention in individual metallic dust particles examined by a tritium imaging plate technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, T.; Hatano, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Tritium imaging plate technique (TIPT) has been applied to examine tritium (T) retention in individual particles made of titanium (Ti) with 30 and 100 μm in diameter and tungsten (W) with 50 μm in diameter. Distribution of T radioactivity observed by TIPT corresponded well to spatial distribution of the particles. In a limited case of uniform and high T concentration in the bulk of the individual particle, the amount of T is directly quantified from T radioactivity by a master curve method. Density and size of the particle and T concentration profiles in the bulk of the particle are important factors to change emission behavior of T β-ray and thus accurate quantification of the amount of T in the individual particle.

  13. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.A.; Greene, G.A.; Boyack, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  14. In situ measurement of tritium permeation through stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Walter G. Luscher; David J. Senor; Kevin K. Clayton; Glen R. Longhurst

    2013-06-01

    The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292 degrees C and 330 degrees C. In situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. Results from in situ permeation measurements were compared with predictions based on an ex-reactor permeation correlation in the literature. In situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure over the ranges considered in this study. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330 degrees C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  15. IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM PERMEATION THROUGH STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen R.

    2013-06-01

    The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292° and 330°C. In-situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. An irradiation enhancement factor (IEF) was determined by comparing in-situ permeation data with a correlation for ex-reactor hydrogen permeation through austenitic stainless steel developed from literature data and reported by Le Claire. Nominal values for the IEF ranged between 3 and 5 for 316 SS. In-situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330°C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  16. In Situ Measurement of Tritium Permeation Through Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

    2013-06-01

    The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292° and 330°C. In-situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. An irradiation enhancement factor (IEF) was determined by comparing in-situ permeation data with a correlation for ex-reactor hydrogen permeation through austenitic stainless steel developed from literature data and reported by Le Claire. Nominal values for the IEF ranged between 3 and 5 for 316 SS. In-situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330°C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  17. Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Milora, S.L.; Gouge, M.J.; Fisher, P.W.; Combs, S.K.; Cole, M.J.; Wysor, R.B.; Fehling, D.T.; Foust, C.R.; Baylor, L.R. ); Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    The TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) is designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1{minus} to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a fourshot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns a two -stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  18. MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM DURING VOLOXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 FUEL HULLS

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Laurinat, J.; Stillman, J.

    2010-10-14

    A straightforward method to evaluate the tritium content of Zircaloy-2 cladding hulls via oxidation of the hull and capture of the volatilized tritium in liquids has been demonstrated. Hull samples were heated in air inside a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA was rapidly heated to 1000 C to oxidize the hulls and release absorbed tritium. To capture tritium, the TGA off-gas was bubbled through a series of liquid traps. The concentrations of tritium in bubbler solutions indicated that tritiated water vapor was captured nearly quantitatively. The average tritium content measured in the hulls was 19% of the amount of tritium produced by the fuel, according to ORIGEN2 isotope generation and depletion calculations. Published experimental data show that Zircaloy-2 oxidation follows an Arrhenius model, and that an initial, nonlinear oxidation rate is followed by a faster, linear rate after 'breakaway' of the oxide film. This study demonstrates that the linear oxidation rate of Zircaloy samples at 974 C is faster than predicted by the extrapolation of data from lower temperatures.

  19. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glovebox using SAES St 198

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1994-08-31

    SAES metal getter material St 198 was chosen for glovebox stripper tests to evaluate its effectiveness of removing tritium from a nitrogen atmosphere. The St 198 material is unique from a number of other metal hydride-based getter materials in that it is relatively inert to nitrogen and can thus be used in nitrogen glovebox atmospheres. Six tritium stripper experiments which mock-up the use of a SAES St 198 stripper bed for a full-scale (10,500 liter) nitrogen glovebox have been completed. Experiments consisted of a release of small quantity of protium/deuterium spiked with tritium which were scaled to simulate tritium releases of 0.1 g., 1.0 g., and 10 g. into the glovebox. The tritium spike allows detection using tritium ion chambers. The St 198 stripper system produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two orders of magnitude in 24 hours (6--8 atmosphere turn-overs) of stripper operation.

  20. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF TRITIUM FROM NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Okula, K

    2007-01-17

    Tritium source term analysis and the subsequent dispersion and consequence analyses supporting the safety documentation of Department of Energy nuclear facilities are especially sensitive to the applied software analysis methodology, input data and user assumptions. Three sequential areas in tritium accident analysis are examined in this study to illustrate where the analyst should exercise caution. Included are: (1) the development of a tritium oxide source term; (2) use of a full tritium dispersion model based on site-specific information to determine an appropriate deposition scaling factor for use in more simplified, broader modeling, and (3) derivation of a special tritium compound (STC) dose conversion factor for consequence analysis, consistent with the nature of the originating source material. It is recommended that unless supporting, defensible evidence is available to the contrary, the tritium release analyses should assume tritium oxide as the species released (or chemically transformed under accident's environment). Important exceptions include STC situations and laboratory-scale releases of hydrogen gas. In the modeling of the environmental transport, a full phenomenology model suggests that a deposition velocity of 0.5 cm/s is an appropriate value for environmental features of the Savannah River Site. This value is bounding for certain situations but non-conservative compared to the full model in others. Care should be exercised in choosing other factors such as the exposure time and the resuspension factor.

  1. Technology benefits resulting from accelerator production of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    One of the early and most dramatic uses of nuclear transformations was in development of the nuclear weapons that brought World War II to an end. Despite that difficult introduction, nuclear weapons technology has been used largely as a deterrent to war throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium (a heavy form of hydrogen) needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of about 5.5% per year; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within ten years. Some benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high power spallation targets. The APT may save thousands of lives through the production of medical isotopes, and it may contribute to solving the nation`s problem in disposing of long-lived nuclear wastes. But the most significant benefit may come from advancing the technology, so that the great potential of accelerator applications can be realized during our lifetimes.

  2. Tritium Removal by Laser Heating and Its Application to Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; G. Guttadora; A. Carpe; S. Langish; K.M. Young; M. Nishi; W. Shu

    2001-11-16

    A novel laser heating technique has recently been applied to removing tritium from carbon tiles that had been exposed to deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR). A continuous wave neodymium laser, of power up to 300 watts, was used to heat the surface of the tiles. The beam was focused to an intensity, typically 8 kW/cm{sup 2}, and rapidly scanned over the tile surface by galvanometer-driven scanning mirrors. Under the laser irradiation, the surface temperature increased dramatically, and temperatures up to 2,300 degrees C were recorded by an optical pyrometer. Tritium was released and circulated in a closed-loop system to an ionization chamber that measured the tritium concentration. Most of the tritium (up to 84%) could be released by the laser scan. This technique appears promising for tritium removal in a next-step DT device as it avoids oxidation, the associated deconditioning of the plasma facing surfaces, and the expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. Some engineering aspects of the implementation of this method in a next-step fusion device will be discussed.

  3. In situ measurement of tritium permeation through stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin K.; Longhurst, Glen R.

    2013-06-01

    The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292 °C and 330 °C. In situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. Results from in situ permeation measurements were compared with predictions based on an ex-reactor permeation correlation in the literature. In situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure over the ranges considered in this study. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330 °C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  4. Tritium: An analysis of key environmental and dosimetric questions

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J E; Meyer, H R; Etnier, E L; Bomar, E S; Gentry, R D; Killough, G G; Rohwer, P S; Tennery, V J; Travis, C C

    1980-05-01

    This document summarizes new theoretical and experimental data that may affect the assessment of environmental releases of tritium and analyzes the significance of this information in terms of the dose to man. Calculated doses resulting from tritium releases to the environment are linearly dependent upon the quality factor chosen for tritium beta radiation. A reevaluation of the tritium quality factor by the ICRP is needed; a value of 1.7 would seem to be more justifiable than the old 1.0 value. A new exposure model is proposed, based primarily upon the approach recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Employing a /open quotes/typical/close quotes/ LMFBR reprocessing facility source term, a /open quotes/base case/close quotes/ dose commitment to total body (for a maximally exposed individual) was calculated to be 4.0 /times/ 10/sup /minus/2/ mSv, with 3.2 /times/ 10/sup /minus// mSv of the dose due to intake of tritium. The study analyzes models which exist for evaluating the buildup of global releases of tritium from man-made sources. Scenarios for the release of man-made tritium to the environment and prediction of collective dose commitment to future generations suggest that the dose from nuclear weapons testing will be less than that from nuclear energy even though the weapons source term is greater than that for any of our energy scenarios.

  5. Current understanding of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Baglan, N; Davis, P A

    2013-12-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that organically bound tritium (OBT) is the more significant tritium fraction with respect to understanding tritium behaviour in the environment. There are many different terms associated with OBT; such as total OBT, exchangeable OBT, non-exchangeable OBT, soluble OBT, insoluble OBT, tritiated organics, and buried tritium, etc. A simple classification is required to clarify understanding within the tritium research community. Unlike for tritiated water (HTO), the environmental quantification and behaviour of OBT are not well known. Tritiated water cannot bio-accumulate in the environment. However, it is not clear whether or not this is the case for OBT. Even though OBT can be detected in terrestrial biological materials, aquatic biological materials and soil samples, its behaviour is still in question. In order to evaluate the radiation dose from OBT accurately, further study will be required to understand OBT measurements and determine OBT fate in the environment. The relationship between OBT speciation and the OBT/HTO ratio in environmental samples will be useful in this regard, providing information on the previous tritium exposure conditions in the environment and the current tritium dynamics. PMID:23962797

  6. Uptake of tritium by plants from atmosphere and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H; Garten Jr, Charles T

    1991-01-01

    Uptake of tritiated water (HTO) by plants was examined under field conditions when tritium was available to leaves from only the atmosphere and when tritium was available from both the soil (root uptake) and the atmosphere. Maple, oak, and elm trees, planted in clean soil, were transported to a tritium-contaminated forest, where the atmospheric tritium concentration was elevated, to examine HTO uptake by tree leaves when the source was only in the atmosphere. The results partially agreed with a diffusion model of tritium uptake by plants. Discrepancies found between predicted and measured leaf HTO/air HTO ratios should be attributed to the existence of some isolated water, which is isolated from the transpiration stream in the leaves, that was not available for rapid turnover. The uptake of tritium by trees, when the source was both in the soil and atmosphere, was also examined using deciduous trees (maple and elm) resident to the tritium-contaminated forest. The results were in agreement with a prediction model.

  7. Tritium uptake by fish in a small stream. [Largemouth Bass

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1992-09-17

    The tritium concentration in the water from freeze drying and the water from combustion of the dry tissue was measured in fish (largemouth bass), stream macrophytes, and streamside vegetation at five sampling locations in Four Mile Branch on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Four Mile Branch has elevated tritium concentration, largely from migration of water through the soil from adjacent seepage basins that received industrial wastewater containing tritium. The stream water and the vegetation, through the food chain, are thought to be the two sources of tritium reaching the fish. Comparision of the tritium activity of the freeze-dried water from fish flesh and of the sources of tritium, indicates that the fish flesh approaches a steady-state concentration with the stream water. The freeze-dry water from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than the stream water. The water of combustion from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than stream water. The water of combustion from the fish flesh is somewhat higher in specific activity than the stream water or the water in the fish. The distribution of tritium among the components of this system can be explain in terms of the turnover of water and organic hydrogen in the components.

  8. Tritium uptake by fish in a small stream. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1992-09-17

    The tritium concentration in the water from freeze drying and the water from combustion of the dry tissue was measured in fish (largemouth bass), stream macrophytes, and streamside vegetation at five sampling locations in Four Mile Branch on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Four Mile Branch has elevated tritium concentration, largely from migration of water through the soil from adjacent seepage basins that received industrial wastewater containing tritium. The stream water and the vegetation, through the food chain, are thought to be the two sources of tritium reaching the fish. Comparision of the tritium activity of the freeze-dried water from fish flesh and of the sources of tritium, indicates that the fish flesh approaches a steady-state concentration with the stream water. The freeze-dry water from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than the stream water. The water of combustion from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than stream water. The water of combustion from the fish flesh is somewhat higher in specific activity than the stream water or the water in the fish. The distribution of tritium among the components of this system can be explain in terms of the turnover of water and organic hydrogen in the components.

  9. Effects of submesoscale turbulence on ocean tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Katherine M.; Hamlington, Peter E.; Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    2016-01-01

    Ocean tracers such as carbon dioxide, nutrients, plankton, and oil advect, diffuse, and react primarily in the oceanic mixed layer where air-sea gas exchange occurs and light is plentiful for photosynthesis. There can be substantial heterogeneity in the spatial distributions of these tracers due to turbulent stirring, particularly in the submesoscale range where partly geostrophic fronts and eddies and small-scale three-dimensional turbulence are simultaneously active. In this study, a large eddy simulation spanning horizontal scales from 20 km down to 5 m is used to examine the effects of multiscale turbulent mixing on nonreactive passive ocean tracers from interior and sea-surface sources. The simulation includes the effects of both wave-driven Langmuir turbulence and submesoscale eddies, and tracers with different initial and boundary conditions are examined in order to understand the respective impacts of small-scale and submesoscale motions on tracer transport. Tracer properties are characterized using spatial fields and statistics, multiscale fluxes, and spectra, and the results detail how tracer mixing depends on air-sea tracer flux rate, tracer release depth, and flow regime. Although vertical fluxes of buoyancy by submesoscale eddies compete with mixing by Langmuir turbulence, vertical fluxes of tracers are often dominated by Langmuir turbulence, particularly for tracers that are released near the mixed-layer base or that dissolve rapidly through the surface, even in regions with pronounced submesoscale activity. Early in the evolution of some tracers, negative eddy diffusivities occur co-located with regions of negative potential vorticity, suggesting that symmetric instabilities or other submesoscale phenomenon may act to oppose turbulent mixing.

  10. Characterisation of HTO diffusion properties by an in situ tracer experiment in Opalinus clay at Mont Terri.

    PubMed

    Palut, J-M; Montarnal, Ph; Gautschi, A; Tevissen, E; Mouche, E

    2003-03-01

    A long-term single borehole diffusion experiment using tritiated water as tracer was carried out in Opalinus clay, an argillaceous rock formation that is accessible at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory, situated in the Swiss Jura. The tracer was diluted in reconstituted formation water and introduced into a packed-off section of a borehole located in saturated rock. Pressure in this interval was maintained equal to the pore pressure of the surrounding rock in order to prevent any hydraulic gradient around the borehole and to avoid advective transport processes. The evolution of the tracer concentration in the injection system was monitored over time. After 1 year of diffusion, the claystone surrounding the interval was retrieved by overcoring the whole borehole and packer system, and by an adjacent oblique borehole. Compressed air was used as drilling fluid to reduce rock disturbances. The recovered overcore was sampled along profiles perpendicular to the borehole wall with a view to determining the tracer-concentration profiles in the rock. To avoid further evaporation of tritiated water, subsamples were immediately transferred into polyethylene bottles and disaggregated by adding a known amount of tracer-free water. Fifteen profiles were determined and showed a decreasing tracer concentration with distance into the rock. The pore-water contents were constant along those profiles, confirming that only very little water was lost during overcoring operations. The evolution of tritium-tracer concentration in the injection system over time and in situ profiles were interpreted with a 3-D numerical simulation of the experiment. That allowed for the identification of the transport parameters (orthotropic diffusion tensor and porosity) by minimising the relative quadratic error between the experimental and simulated data. The fitting is good and the results are consistent with data obtained on drill-core samples. The result of tritiated water is discussed

  11. Characterisation of HTO diffusion properties by an in situ tracer experiment in Opalinus clay at Mont Terri.

    PubMed

    Palut, J-M; Montarnal, Ph; Gautschi, A; Tevissen, E; Mouche, E

    2003-03-01

    A long-term single borehole diffusion experiment using tritiated water as tracer was carried out in Opalinus clay, an argillaceous rock formation that is accessible at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory, situated in the Swiss Jura. The tracer was diluted in reconstituted formation water and introduced into a packed-off section of a borehole located in saturated rock. Pressure in this interval was maintained equal to the pore pressure of the surrounding rock in order to prevent any hydraulic gradient around the borehole and to avoid advective transport processes. The evolution of the tracer concentration in the injection system was monitored over time. After 1 year of diffusion, the claystone surrounding the interval was retrieved by overcoring the whole borehole and packer system, and by an adjacent oblique borehole. Compressed air was used as drilling fluid to reduce rock disturbances. The recovered overcore was sampled along profiles perpendicular to the borehole wall with a view to determining the tracer-concentration profiles in the rock. To avoid further evaporation of tritiated water, subsamples were immediately transferred into polyethylene bottles and disaggregated by adding a known amount of tracer-free water. Fifteen profiles were determined and showed a decreasing tracer concentration with distance into the rock. The pore-water contents were constant along those profiles, confirming that only very little water was lost during overcoring operations. The evolution of tritium-tracer concentration in the injection system over time and in situ profiles were interpreted with a 3-D numerical simulation of the experiment. That allowed for the identification of the transport parameters (orthotropic diffusion tensor and porosity) by minimising the relative quadratic error between the experimental and simulated data. The fitting is good and the results are consistent with data obtained on drill-core samples. The result of tritiated water is discussed

  12. Pathophysiology and management of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Y. S.; Gambone, J. C.; Berek, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is currently the commonest pelvic malignancy affecting American women, most of whom share the same pathophysiologic basis, that is, unopposed estrogenic stimulation. The initial result of hyperestrogenism is the development of endometrial hyperplasia, which is reversible in most cases by appropriate hormonal therapy. Persistent stimulation eventually leads to atypical hyperplasia with nuclear atypia and invasive carcinoma. Because there is no cost-effective screening method for the detection of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, it is essential to survey the high-risk population with appropriate diagnostic techniques. After diagnosis, therapy should be individualized based on pathologic findings (cell type and histologic grade) and extent of disease (International Federation of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians stage, depth of myometrial invasion, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node status). Recent studies suggest that sex hormone receptors and nuclear DNA ploidy patterns provide useful prognostic information independent of histologic grade. Images PMID:2202159

  13. Hereditary gingivo-alveolar hyperplasia: a report of two siblings.

    PubMed

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O H; Ekaputri, Krista

    2015-02-01

    Gingival hyperplasia is characterized by fibrotic gingival overgrowth. The lesion may bury all the crown of the teeth and lead to impairment in masticatory functions and aesthetic disfigurement. This inherited disease is considered rare. We presented two cases of gingival hyperplasia in two siblings: an 11-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, whose mother had also suffered from the disease. The two siblings presented with generalized gingival overgrowth involving the maxillary and mandibular arches and covering almost all of the teeth. We performed surgery to reduce the excessive gingivo-alveolar tissue and disclosed most of the teeth. The patients showed functional and aesthetic improvement. The last follow-up through a phone call, which was conducted 12 months after the surgery, revealed no recurrent hyperplasia. PMID:25692435

  14. Hereditary gingivo-alveolar hyperplasia: a report of two siblings.

    PubMed

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O H; Ekaputri, Krista

    2015-02-01

    Gingival hyperplasia is characterized by fibrotic gingival overgrowth. The lesion may bury all the crown of the teeth and lead to impairment in masticatory functions and aesthetic disfigurement. This inherited disease is considered rare. We presented two cases of gingival hyperplasia in two siblings: an 11-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, whose mother had also suffered from the disease. The two siblings presented with generalized gingival overgrowth involving the maxillary and mandibular arches and covering almost all of the teeth. We performed surgery to reduce the excessive gingivo-alveolar tissue and disclosed most of the teeth. The patients showed functional and aesthetic improvement. The last follow-up through a phone call, which was conducted 12 months after the surgery, revealed no recurrent hyperplasia.

  15. Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lynn W; Trahan, William R; Snow, Jesse E

    2013-01-01

    Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia (LJSGH) is a recently described benign condition that affects the gingiva of children and young adults. Clinically distinctive, LJSGH presents as a localized area of erythema on the attached gingiva, with a subtly papillary surface architecture. The lesions are generally biopsied because of the lack of resolution with conservative oral hygiene therapeutic measures and esthetic concerns. The histopathology has a characteristic appearance of subtle papillary epithelial hyperplasia, acute inflammation, and numerous engorged capillary vascular spaces in the lamina propria, although clinical correlation is necessary to make the diagnosis. The purposes of this paper were to: introduce localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia to the pediatric dental community; document its clinical and histologic features and treatment and the follow-up of three cases; and discuss the most common clinical differential diagnoses.

  16. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in children.

    PubMed

    Moran, C A; Mullick, F G; Ishak, K G

    1991-05-01

    Sixteen cases of nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in children are presented. The patients, 10 girls and 6 boys, were between the ages of 7 months and 13 years, with a median of 6 years. Clinically, nine children presented with hepatomegaly or splenomegaly, with and without signs of portal hypertension. A history of anticonvulsant drug therapy was obtained in four patients. Associated conditions in the remaining three cases were Donohue's syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and angiomyolipoma of the kidney. In five patients a clinical diagnosis of primary intra-abdominal tumor was made. Follow-up showed that six patients died of causes unrelated to the nodular hyperplasia. Two patients were asymptomatic when last seen 5 and 18 years after the initial diagnosis of nodular hyperplasia. Both patients underwent shunt surgery. No follow-up was available for eight patients. The importance of recognizing this entity in the pediatric age group, as well as its histopathologic differential diagnosis, is stressed. PMID:2035739

  17. Regional Groundwater Processes and Flow Dynamics from Age Tracer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike K.; Matthews, Abby

    2016-04-01

    Age tracers are now used in New Zealand on regional scales for quantifying the impact and lag time of land use and climate change on the quantity and quality of available groundwater resources within the framework of the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management 2014. Age tracers provide measurable information on the dynamics of groundwater systems and reaction rates (e.g. denitrification), essential for conceptualising the regional groundwater - surface water system and informing the development of land use and groundwater flow and transport models. In the Horizons Region of New Zealand, around 200 wells have tracer data available, including tritium, SF6, CFCs, 2H, 18O, Ar, N2, CH4 and radon. Well depths range from shallower wells in gravel aquifers in the Horowhenua and Tararua districts, and deeper wells in the aquifers between Palmerston North and Wanganui. Most of the groundwater samples around and north of the Manawatu River west of the Tararua ranges are extremely old (>100 years), even from relatively shallow wells, indicating that these groundwaters are relatively disconnected from fresh surface recharge. The groundwater wells in the Horowhenua tap into a considerably younger groundwater reservoir with groundwater mean residence time (MRT) of 10 - 40 years. Groundwater along the eastern side of the Tararua and Ruahine ranges is significantly younger, typically <5 years MRT. Vertical groundwater recharge rates, as deduced from groundwater depth and MRT, are extremely low in the central coastal area, consistent with confined groundwater systems, or with upwelling of old groundwater close to the coast. Very low vertical recharge rates along the Manawatu River west of the Manawatu Gorge indicate upwelling groundwater conditions in this area, implying groundwater discharge into the river is more likely here than loss of river water into the groundwater system. High recharge rates observed at several wells in the Horowhenua area and in the area east of

  18. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium-contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-01-27

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  19. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  20. Tritium monitor calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bjork, C.J.; Aikin, D.J.; Houlton, T.W.

    1997-08-01

    Tritium in air is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with air breathing instruments based on ionization chambers. Stack emissions are continuously monitored from sample tubes which each connect to a Tritium bubble which differentially collects HTO and HT. A set of glass vials of glycol capture the HTO. The HT is oxidized with a palladium catalyst and the resultant HTO is captured in a second set of vials of glycol. The glycol is counted with a liquid scintillation counter. All calibrations are performed with tritium containing gas. The Radiation Instrumentation and Calibration (RIC) Team has constructed and maintains two closed loop gas handling systems based on femto TECH model U24 tritium ion chamber monitors: a fixed system housed in a fume hood and a portable system mounted on two two wheeled hand trucks. The U24 monitors are calibrated against tritium in nitrogen gas standards. They are used as standard transfer instruments to calibrate other ion chamber monitors with tritium in nitrogen, diluted with air. The gas handling systems include a circulation pump which permits a closed circulation loop to be established among the U24 monitor and typically two to four other monitors of a given model during calibration. Fixed and portable monitors can be calibrated. The stack bubblers are calibrated in the field by: blending a known concentration of tritium in air within the known volume of the two portable carts, coupled into a common loop; releasing that gas mixture into a ventilation intake to the stack; collecting oxidized tritium in the bubbler; counting the glycol; and using the stack and bubbler flow rates, computing the bubbler`s efficiency. Gas calibration has become a convenient and quality tool in maintaining the tritium monitors at LANL.

  1. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk. To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94–1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84–1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71–1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results. Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with

  2. [Intimal hyperplasia within a vascular anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Kur'ianov, P S; Razuvaev, A S; Vavilov, V N

    2008-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) appears to rank high amongst plausible causes of reconstructed arteries restenosis. It always occurs in the area of a surgical intervention on a vessel in response to a mechanical lesion. IH is the cause of thrombosis in 15 to 50% of cases following vascular reconstruction during the first year after the operation (with the exception of early thromboses, which are probably caused by an improperly performed interventional technique). Of a wide variety of clinical situations leading to development of IH in the vascular wall, for the purposes of the present review, we singled out the problem concerning the onset and development of this tissue reaction in intervascular anastomoses, which is currently one of the most important issues. Analysing the publications on the problem concerned showed that amongst significantfactors influencing the development of IH in the anastomosis, the investigators single out different parameters of the anastomoses, configuration (either an end-to-end or an end-to-side anastomosis, the use of special inserts and patches within the latter), as well as the use of autologous or synthetic conduits, blanket suture or interrupted suture, peculiarities of local haemodynamics (linear blood flow rate, distribution of parietal fraction forces, zones of stagnation and flow separation), etc. To a certain degree, the published data are rather controversial. There remain many problems, which are either unaddressed as yet, or insufficiently studied, if at all. For instance, while establishing an anastomosis between a bypass graft and an artery, surgeons often resort to endarterectomy. It is not known whether or not this technique would influence the IH pattern in the anastomosis concerned. Neither is it clear whether the high velocity flow exerts a direct damaging action upon the endothelium, whether it promotes the development of IH in the area of the lesion, and if affirmative, then what the mechanisms of this effect really are

  3. Hydrogen isotope separation installation for the regeneration of tritium from gas mixtures in tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, B.M.; Perevezentsev, A.N.; Selivanenko, I.L.

    1994-12-31

    The advantages and disadvantages of different methods for hydrogen isotope separation are considered in terms of their applicability for tritium regeneration in a tritium facility. Due to low inventory, simplicity of operation, flexibility, and safety the methods of separation using solid phases are preferable for tritium facility. The detail consideration of the separation processes with a solid phase reveals that highest efficiency of separation should be achieved in a counter-current separation column, which allow multiplying the thermodynamic isotopic effect. Because of difficulties of the organization of a solid phase motion in a separation column this method did not found practical application for separation of hydrogen isotopic mixtures. The main efforts of a few researches groups were devoted to improve the chromatographic separation process and equipment. The detail comparison of the separation in sectioned column with that in chromatographic as well as in cryodistillation columns show that counter-current separation in a sectioned column is more effective and has other advantages when middle throughput is required. Complete regeneration of an isotopic mixture with separation into three practically pure isotopes independently from isotopic composition of feed can be provided using two sectioned separation columns. Separation installation can operate continuously as well as periodically.

  4. Tritium Superpermeability: Experimental Investigation and Simulation of Tritium Recirculation in 'Prometheus' Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Musyaev, R.K.; Lebedev, B.S.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Busnyuk, A.A; Notkin, M.E.; Samartsev, A.A.; Livshits, A.I.

    2005-07-15

    The superpermeability phenomenon was suggested to use in fusion machines to separate the fuel mixture from helium ashes, to arrange in-vessel fuel recirculation contours and effective evacuation of fuel mixture out of machine exhaust. To develop this technology and to simulate tritium recirculation in RFNC-VNIIEF at the 'Prometheus' setup the experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through metal membrane were realized.The results of experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through cylindrical niobium membrane are presented. As the experiment has shown, membrane pumping rate is inversely proportional to square root of isotope mass and amount to 2.5 l/cm{sup 2}s for protium, 1.8 l/cm{sup 2}s for deuterium and 1.5 l/cm{sup 2}s for tritium. The possibility of effective pumping, separation of hydrogen isotopes from helium and residual gas, compression and recuperation of hydrogen isotopes by means of superpermeable membrane was demonstrated. It follows from results that the separation of D/T from He with employment of the techniques of superpermeable membranes might reduce the total amount of tritium in fuel cycle and substantially enhance the resource of cryogenic pumps evacuating helium.

  5. Balloon tracer for atmospheric pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Lichfield, E.W.; Ivey, M.D.; Zak, B.D.; Church, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    An operational prototype of the Balloon Tracer was developed and described. This prototype was designed to be capable of meeting all of the desired specifications for the Balloon Tracer. Its buoyancy adjustment subsystem is shown. Three Gilian instrument pumps operating in parallel provide a flow of about 12 litres per minute, depending upon backpressure. The miniature Klippard mechanical valves are actuated by a servo mechanism which only requires power when the state of the valves is being changed. The balloon itself for the operational prototype is just under 3 meters in diameter. A block diagram of the operational prototype payload measures ambient pressure, temperature, and humidity obtained from AIR which outputs its data in ASCII format. The vertical anemometer, which has a measured starting speed of under 2 cm/s, makes use of a Gill styrofoam propeller and a Spaulding Instruments rotation sendor. The command decoder is built around a chip developed originally for remote control television tuners. The command receiver operating on 13.8035 MHz was developed and built by Hock Engineering. The Argos transmitter is a Telonics platform transmitter terminal. The heart of the control system is an Intel 8052AH BASIC microcomputer with both random access and read only memory.

  6. Second national topical meeting on tritium technology in fission, fusion and isotopic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Barlit, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This conference presented information on the following topics: the development of a tritium dispersion code; global environmental transport models for tritium; HT/HTO conversion in mammals; tritium production, releases and population doses at nuclear power reactors; design of tritium processing facilities and equipment for aqueous and gaseous streams; tritium removal from circulating helium by hydriding of rare earth metals; the determination of deuterium and tritium in effluent wastewater by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; tritium surface contamination: process calculations for a moderator detritiation plant; recent developments in magnetically coupled vane pumps for tritium service; recovery and storage of tritium by Zr-V-Fe getter; gas handling systems using titanium-sponge and uranium bulk getters; isotope effects and helium retention behavior in vanadium tritide; interaction of hydrogen isotopes with stainless steel 316 L; and the interaction of polyethylene and tritium gas as monitored by Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Measurement and Control Systems of Tritium Facilities for Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, Yu.I.; Kuryakin, A.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.

    2005-07-15

    The technical approach, equipment and software developed during the creation of measurement and control systems for two complexes are described. The first one is a complex that prepares the gas mixture and targets of the 'TRITON' facility. The 'TRITON' facility is designed for studying muon catalyzed fusion reactions in triple mixtures of H/D/T hydrogen isotopes over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The second one is 'ACCULINNA' - the liquid tritium target designed to investigate the neutron overloaded hydrogen and helium nuclei. These neutron-overloaded nuclei are produced in reactions of tritium beams on a heavy hydrogen and tritium target.

  8. Depth profiling of tritium in materials for fusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicki, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    The paper outlines recent progress in depth profiling of tritium distribution near the surface of materials by two ion beam techniques; elastic recoil detection (ERD) and T(d,/alpha/)n nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The sensitivity and depth-resolution of both methods are examined for a series of tritiated titanium films. Calculated depth profiles and ranges of implanted tritium ions in selected candidate materials for thermonuclear fusion devices are also given. Depth profiles of tritium implanted into specimens of graphite and lithium oxides as a function of temperature are discussed as the examples of applications.

  9. AL-SX permeation studies and evaluation using tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R.W. )

    1992-04-01

    The AL-SX/2 and AL-SX/3 are recently certified Type B shipping containers for tritium reservoirs. Both AL-SX models are sealed with elastomeric O-rings. O-rings of this type allow gases to permeate through the elastomeric material. This report summarizes experiments conducted on a full-size mock-up of the AL-SX sealing geometry that quantify permeation rates through the O-rings. Also, a six month experiment was conducted with tritium and showed that a tritium getter could be used in combination with elastomeric O-rings to meet normal condition leak rate requirements of 10 CFR 71.

  10. Mathematical comparison of three tritium system effluent HTO cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Willms, R.Scott; Gentile, Charles; Rule, Keith; Than, Chit; Williams, Philip

    2002-03-22

    It is important that air emissions from tritium systems be kept as low as reasonably achievable. Thus, over the years a number of gas detritiation systems have been developed. Recently there has been interest in lower-cost, simpler systems which do not convert HT to the much more hazardous HTO form. Examples of such systems are (1) a bubbler/dehumidifier, (2) a bubbler/collector, and (3) an adsorber/collector. A computer model of each configuration was written and run. Each system's performance, including tritium buildup in liquid water, and tritium exhausted to the environment, are presented and compared.

  11. Tritium analyses of COBRA-1A2 beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Selected tritium measurements have been completed for the COBRA-1A2 experiment C03 and D03 beryllium pebbles. The completed results, shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, include the tritium assay results for the 1-mm and 3-mm C03 pebbles, and the 1-mm D03 pebbles, stepped anneal test results for both types of 1-mm pebbles, and the residual analyses for the stepped-anneal specimens. All results have been reported with date-of-count and are not corrected for decay. Stepped-anneal tritium release response is provided in addenda.

  12. Visual tritium imaging of in-vessel surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; Zweben, S.J.; Skinner, C.H.; Young, K.M.; Langish, S.W.; Nishi, M.F.; Shu, W.M.; Parker, J.; Isobe, K.

    2000-05-22

    An imaging detector has been developed for the purpose of providing a non-destructive, real time method of determining tritium concentrations on the surface of internal TFTR vacuum vessel components. The detector employs a green phosphor screen (P31, zinc sulfide: copper) with a wave length peak of 530 nm, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera linked to a computer, and a detection chamber for inserting components recovered from the vacuum vessel. This detector is capable of determining tritium concentrations on the surfaces. The detector provides a method of imaging tritium deposition on the surfaces in a fairly rapid fashion.

  13. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE). PMID:23639690

  14. Glovebox stripper system tritium capture efficiency-literature review

    SciTech Connect

    James, D. W.; Poore, A. S.

    2015-09-28

    Glovebox Stripper Systems (GBSS) are intended to minimize tritium emissions from glovebox confinement systems in Tritium facilities. A question was raised to determine if an assumed 99% stripping (decontamination) efficiency in the design of a GBBS was appropriate. A literature review showed the stated 99% tritium capture efficiency used for design of the GBSS is reasonable. Four scenarios were indicated for GBSSs. These include release with a single or dual stage setup which utilizes either single-pass or recirculation for stripping purposes. Examples of single-pass as well as recirculation stripper systems are presented and reviewed in this document.

  15. Proportional counting techniques for routine tritium analyses at environmental levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, W W; Hughes, M B

    1981-01-01

    Techniques and procedures were developed to routinely analyze samples for tritium as part of research and monitoring programs on the transport of radionuclides released from the Savannah River Plant site. Because tritium concentrations in the environment are low, trace analysis methods were developed. The primary analysis technique involves converting aqueous samples to hydrogen gas which is mixed with propane and assayed in proportional counters. Counter background is reduced by massive shielding, anticoincidence gating with plastic scintillators, and pulse shape discrimination. The overall sensitivity for tritium is 0.02 pCi/g of water with a demonstrated precision of 6.3% at 1 pCi/g of water.

  16. Tritium distribution in ground water around large underground fusion explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, F.W.

    1963-01-01

    Tritium will be released in significant amounts from large underground nuclear fusion explosions in the Plowshare Program. The tritium could become highly concentrated in nearby ground waters, and could be of equal or more importance as a possible contaminant than other long-lived fission-product and induced radionuclides. Behavior of tritiated water in particular hydrologic and geologic environments, as illustrated by hypothetical explosions in dolomite and tuff, must be carefully evaluated to predict under what conditions high groundwater concentrations of tritium might occur.

  17. Tritium Experience in Large Tokamaks: Application to ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D; Gentile, C.; Federici, G.; Haanges, R.

    1998-05-01

    Recent experience with the use of tritium fuel in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the Joint European Torus, together with progress in developing the technical design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor has expanded the technical knowledge base for tritium issues in fusion. This paper reports on an IEA workshop that brought together scientists and engineers to share experience and expertise on all fusion-related tritium issues. Extensive discussion periods were devoted to exploring outstanding issues and identifying potential R{ampersand}D avenues to address them. This paper summarizes the presentations, discussions, and recommendations.

  18. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE).

  19. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-08-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. In order to prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this paper examines the root causes and potential solutions for the production of this radionuclide, including materials selection and inert gas sparging. A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750°C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for one steadystate value of tritium production in the reactor.

  20. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1993-11-23

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched {sup 6}Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated {sup 6}Li(n)T reaction occurs in the coated surface of {sup 6}Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers. 5 figures.

  1. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T.

    1993-01-01

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched .sup.6 Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated .sup.6 Li(n )T reaction occurs in the coated surface of .sup.6 Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers.

  2. Tritium-powered radiation sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc S.; Russo, Johnny A.; Katsis, Dimos

    2016-05-01

    Isotope power supplies offer long-lived (100 years using 63Ni), low-power energy sources, enabling sensors or communications nodes for the lifetime of infrastructure. A tritium beta-source (12.5-year half-life) encapsulated in a phosphor-lined vial couples directly to a photovoltaic (PV) to generate a trickle current into an electrical load. An inexpensive design is described using commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) components that generate 100 μWe for nextgeneration compact electronics/sensors. A matched radiation sensor has been built for long-duration missions utilizing microprocessor-controlled sleep modes, low-power electronic components, and a passive interrupt driven environmental wake-up. The low-power early-warning radiation detector network and isotope power source enables no-maintenance mission lifetimes.

  3. Ignition of deuterium-tritium fuel targets

    DOEpatents

    Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.

    1991-08-27

    Disclosed is a method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom. 5 figures.

  4. Pyrophoricity of tritium-storage bed materials

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G. R.

    1988-03-01

    Experiments were conducted on samples of depleted uranium and on intermetallic compounds of zirconium--cobalt and lanthanum--nickel--aluminide to evaluate the pyrophoricity of the activated materials and their hydrides and deuterides on exposure to air. It was found that none of the materials spontaneously ignited when exposed to room temperature air, but the uranium and the zirconium--cobalt both ignited in air at moderately elevated temperatures. Activated (dehydrided) materials showed stronger reactions than did the hydrides, but they ignited at essentially the same temperatures. Deuterides showed effectively the same characteristics as the hydrides except the ignition temperature of zirconium--cobalt deuteride was reduced by 20--50 K from that of the hydride. The possibility of a fire in tritium storage beds is real, especially if uranium or zirconium--cobalt are used as storage materials, but fires may not occur until the bed is heated. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Pyrophoricity of tritium-storage bed materials

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1988-09-01

    Experiments were conducted on samples of depleted uranium and on intermetallic compounds of zirconium-cobalt and lanthanum-nickel-aluminide to evaluate the pyrophoricity of the activated materials and their hydrides and deuterides on exposure to air. None of the materials spontaneously ignited when exposed to room temperature air, but the uranium and the zirconium-cobalt both ignited in air at moderately elevated temperatures. Activated dehyrdided materials ignited at essentially the same temperatures. Deuterides showed effectively the same characteristics as the hydrides except the ignition temperature of zirconium-cobalt deuteride was reduced by 20 - 50 K from that of the hydride. The pyrophoricity of these materials raises concern about the possibility of fires in tritium-storage beds with attendant damage to the bed and dispersal of tritiated debris, but fires may not occur until the bed is heated.

  6. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McHood, M D

    2000-10-12

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  7. Model of tritium dispersion by ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, A. V.; Mavrin, S. V.; Sten'gach, A. V.

    2000-07-01

    A three-dimensional model of ground-water contamination in the zone of a steady source of tritium is presented. The model is oriented toward long-term modeling of contamination (for up to several decades) on a large area (of up to several hundred square kilometers) where the contaminant arrives through the roof of the aquiferous stratum by infiltration. The three-dimensional equation of convective diffusion is solved numerically by the method of splitting. The convective component is calculated by the method of particles. The dispersion component of the transfer is calculated using the finite-difference method. A transformation of the vertical coordinate is introduced. A solution of the model problem is presented and an interpretation of the results is given.

  8. Tritium Migration Analysis Program Version 4

    1991-06-12

    TMAP4 was developed as a safety analysis code, mainly to analyze tritium retention and loss in fusion reactor structures and systems during normal operational and accident conditions. It incorporates one-dimensional thermal and mass-diffusive transport and trapping calculations through structures and zero dimensional fluid transport between enclosures and across the interface between enclosures and structures. Diffusion structures may be linked together with other structures, and multiple structures may interact with an enclosure. A key feature ismore » the ability to input problem definition parameters as constants, interpolation tables, or FORTRAN equations. The code is specifically intended for use under a DOS operating system on PC type minicomputers, but it has also been run successfully on workstations and mainframe computer systems. Use of the equation-input feature requires access to a FORTRAN-77 compiler, and a linker program is required.« less

  9. HEAT TRANSFER AND TRITIUM PRODUCING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.F.

    1962-06-01

    This invention related to a circulating lithium-containing blanket system in a neution source hav'ing a magnetic field associated therewith. The blanket serves simultaneously and efficiently as a heat transfer mediunm and as a source of tritium. The blanket is composed of a lithium-6-enriched fused salt selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, a mixture of said salts, a mixture of each of said salts with lithium oxide, and a mixture of said salts with each other and with lithium oxide. The moderator, which is contained within the blanket in a separate conduit, can be water. A stellarator is one of the neutron sources which can be used in this invention. (AEC)

  10. Raman spectroscopy at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Schloesser, M.; Bornschein, B.; Fischer, S.; Kassel, F.; Rupp, S.; Sturm, M.; James, T.M.; Telle, H.H.

    2015-03-15

    Raman spectroscopy is employed successfully for analysis of hydrogen isotopologues at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Raman spectroscopy is based on the inelastic scattering of photons off molecules. Energy is transferred to the molecules as rotational/vibrational excitation being characteristic for each type of molecule. Thus, qualitative analysis is possible from the Raman shifted light, while quantitative information can be obtained from the signal intensities. After years of research and development, the technique is now well-advanced providing fast (< 10 s), precise (< 0.1%) and true (< 3%) compositional analysis of gas mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. In this paper, we summarize the recent achievements in the further development on this technique, and the various applications for which it is used at TLK. Raman spectroscopy has evolved as a versatile, highly accurate key method for quantitative analysis complementing the port-folio of analytic techniques at the TLK.

  11. Tritium transfer in pigs - A model test

    SciTech Connect

    Melintescu, A.; Galeriu, D.

    2008-07-15

    In the frame of IAEA EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) programme, there was developed a scenario for models ' testing starting with unpublished data for a sow fed with OBT for 84 days. The scenario includes model predictions for the dynamics of tritium in urine and faeces and HTO and OBT in organs at sacrifice. There have been done two inter-comparison exercises and most of the models succeeded to give predictions better than a factor 3 to 5, excepting faeces. There has been done an analysis of models' structure, performance and limits in order to be able to build a model of moderate complexity with a reliable predictive power, able to be applied for human dosimetry, also, when OBT data are missing. (authors)

  12. Tritium permeation model for plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report documents the development of a simplified one-dimensional tritium permeation and retention model. The model makes use of the same physical mechanisms as more sophisticated, time-transient codes such as implantation, recombination, diffusion, trapping and thermal gradient effects. It takes advantage of a number of simplifications and approximations to solve the steady-state problem and then provides interpolating functions to make estimates of intermediate states based on the steady-state solution. The model is developed for solution using commercial spread-sheet software such as Lotus 123. Comparison calculations are provided with the verified and validated TMAP4 transient code with good agreement. Results of calculations for the ITER CDA diverter are also included.

  13. Atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae of the endometrium. Cytologic and histopathologic confrontations.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, M; Cristea, A; Samoilescu, M; Alexandrescu, M; Virtej, P; Andronescu, A

    1977-01-01

    By cytologic and histopathologic confrontations performed in uterine curettage products, 34 atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae were comparatively analysed with 38 malignant proliferations of the endometrium. The confrontation was made with the aim of knowing the diagnosis significance of some atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae lesions, finally correlated with the diagnosis established on histerectomy pieces. The significance of anomalies and/or atypies generated by disorders occurred in the cytodifferentiation of glandular cells and of those of the covering epithelium of the endometrium are discussed as well as the value of methods for the early diagnosis of the malignant process at the level of endometrium.

  14. Steroid hormone receptors in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khalid, B A; Nurshireen, A; Rashidah, M; Zainal, B Y; Roslan, B A; Mahamooth, Z

    1990-06-01

    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1725553

  15. Technetium-99m bone scintigraphy and mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M J; Wastie, M L; Bromige, M; Selwyn, P; Smith, A

    1990-06-01

    Radionuclide skeletal scintigraphy has been successfully used in the assessment of mandibular condylar hyperplasia (condylar hyperplasia) causing mandibular asymmetry to identify the presence of continued active growth in the condylar region. This study reviews 14 cases of mandibular asymmetry and concludes that symmetrical radionuclide uptake in the condylar regions on the bone scintigram excludes a continuing asymmetrical growth focus. Unilateral increased radionuclide uptake may often indicate an abnormally active condylar growth focus but false positive results may be encountered in patients with associated temporo-mandibular joint disease. PMID:2383957

  16. Chromosomal aberrations in adenomatoid hyperplasia of palatal minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Manor, Esther; Sinelnikov, Igor; Brennan, Peter A; Bodner, Lipa

    2013-03-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands is rare, idiopathic, and benign, and typically presents as a tumour-like mass in the hard or soft palate. Its exact nature is not clear and histological examination usually shows an excess of normal-appearing minor salivary glands. To our knowledge, cytogenetic analysis of it in a minor salivary gland of the palate has not previously been reported. We present the cytogenetic analysis of adenomatoid hyperplasia in the hard palate of a 52-year-old woman.

  17. Recommendations for Tritium Science and Technology Research and Development in Support of the Tritium Readiness Campaign, TTP-7-084

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, David J.

    2013-10-30

    Between 2006 and 2012 the Tritium Readiness Campaign Development and Testing Program produced significant advances in the understanding of in-reactor TPBAR performance. Incorporating these data into existing TPBAR performance models has improved permeation predictions, and the discrepancy between predicted and observed tritium permeation in the WBN1 coolant has been decreased by about 30%. However, important differences between predicted and observed permeation still remain, and there are significant knowledge gaps that hinder the ability to reliably predict other aspects of TPBAR performance such as tritium distribution, component integrity, and performance margins. Based on recommendations from recent Tritium Readiness Campaign workshops and reviews coupled with technical and programmatic priorities, high-priority activities were identified to address knowledge gaps in the near- (3-5 year), middle- (5-10 year), and long-term (10+ year) time horizons. It is important to note that there are many aspects to a well-integrated research and development program. The intent is not to focus exclusively on one aspect or another, but to approach the program in a holistic fashion. Thus, in addition to small-scale tritium science studies, ex-reactor tritium technology experiments such as TMED, and large-scale in-reactor tritium technology experiments such as TMIST, a well-rounded research and development program must also include continued analysis of WBN1 performance data and post-irradiation examination of TPBARs and lead use assemblies to evaluate model improvements and compare separate-effects and integral component behavior.

  18. Study on the Tritium Behaviors in the VHTR System. Part 1: Development of Tritium Analysis Code for VHTR and Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Eung Soo Kim; Chang Ho Oh; Mike Patterson

    2010-07-01

    A tritium permeation analyses code (TPAC) has been developed in Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by using MATLAB SIMULINK package for analysis of tritium behaviors in the VHTRs integrated with hydrogen production and process heat application systems. The modeling is based on the mass balance of tritium containing species and hydrogen (i.e., HT, H2, HTO, HTSO4, and TI) coupled with a variety of tritium source, sink, and permeation models. The code includes (1) tritium sources from ternary fission and neutron reactions with 6Li, 7Li 10B, 3He, (2) tritium purification system, (3) leakage of tritium with coolant, (4) permeation through pipes, vessels, and heat exchangers, (4) electrolyzer for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), and (5) isotope exchange for SI process. Verification of the code has been performed by comparisons with the analytical solutions, the experimental data, and the benchmark code results based on the Peach Bottom reactor design. The results showed that all the governing equations are well implemented into the code and correctly solved. This paper summarizes all the background, the theory, the code structures, and some verification results related to the TPAC code development in Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  19. Time-series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride reveal short-term variations in groundwater contribution to a stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvert, C.; Stewart, M. K.; Cendón, D. I.; Raiber, M.

    2015-08-01

    A major limitation to the accurate assessment of streamwater transit time (TT) stems from the use of stable isotopes or chloride as hydrological tracers, because these tracers are blind to older contributions. Also, while catchment processes are highly non-stationary, the importance of temporal dynamics in older water TT has often been overlooked. In this study we used lumped convolution models to examine time-series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride in rainfall, streamwater and groundwater of a catchment located in subtropical Australia. Our objectives were to assess the different contributions to streamflow and their variations over time, and to understand the relationships between streamwater TT and groundwater residence time. Stable isotopes and chloride provided consistent estimates of TT in the upstream part of the catchment. A young component to streamflow was identified that was partitioned into quickflow (mean TT ≈ 2 weeks) and discharge from the fractured igneous rocks forming the headwaters (mean TT ≈ 0.3 years). The use of tritium was beneficial for determining an older contribution to streamflow in the downstream area. The best fits were obtained for a mean TT of 16-25 years for this older groundwater component. This was significantly lower than the residence time calculated for the alluvial aquifer feeding the stream downstream (≈ 76-102 years), outlining the fact that water exiting the catchment and water stored in it had distinctive age distributions. When simulations were run separately on each tritium streamwater sample, the TT of old water fraction varied substantially over time, with values averaging 17 ± 6 years at low flow and 38 ± 15 years after major recharge events. This was interpreted as the flushing out of deeper, older waters shortly after recharge by the resulting pressure wave propagation. Overall, this study shows the usefulness of collecting tritium data in streamwater to document short-term variations in the older

  20. Diffusion and solubility of tritium in Path A Prime Candidate Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Causey, R.A.; Steck, L.M.; Van Namen, R.

    1985-09-01

    The tritium recoil injection technique was used to determine the tritium diffusion coefficient for Path A Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) over the temperature range 323K to 523K. Dissolution tritium counting of samples saturated in a tritium-hydrogen mixture was used to determine the tritium solubility for PCA over the temperature range 673K to 973K. No evidence of high energy trapping due to the titanium carbide precipitates in PCA was seen.