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Sample records for hypersensitive response reveals

  1. Early events in plant hypersensitive response leaves revealed by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccara, Martine; Boue, Christine; De Paepe, Rosine; Boccara, Albert C.

    2001-10-01

    Infrared thermography is used to reveal the establishment of Erwinia amylovora harpin-induced hypersensitive response (HR) in Nicotiana sylvestris leaves. We observed a decrease in temperature (1-2 degree(s)C) in the harpin infiltrated zone, correlated with an increase in stomatal opening, strongly suggesting that the temperature decrease is due to higher transpiration rate. IRT experiments were conducted in a laboratory environment and could be widely applied for genotype screening and monitoring drug effects.

  2. Systematic mutagenesis of all predicted gntR genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris reveals a GntR family transcriptional regulator controlling hypersensitive response and virulence.

    PubMed

    An, Shi-Qi; Lu, Guang-Tao; Su, Hui-Zhao; Li, Rui-Fang; He, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Dong-Jie; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2011-09-01

    The GntR family is one of the most abundant and widely distributed groups of helix-turn-helix transcriptional regulators in bacteria. Six open reading frames in the genome of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris were predicted to encode GntR regulators. All six of the predicted GntR-encoding genes were individually mutagenized and mutants from five of them were successfully obtained. Plant disease response assays revealed that one, whose product belongs to the YtrA subfamily and has been named HpaR1, is involved in the hypersensitive response (HR) and virulence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and in vitro transcription assays revealed that HpaR1 could repress its own transcription level through binding to its promoter sequence, indicating an autoregulatory feedback inhibition mechanism for HpaR1 expression. Promoter-gusA reporter and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that HpaR1 positively and negatively affects the expression of HR and pathogenicity (hrp) genes in host plant and standard media, respectively. Constitutive expression of the key hrp regulator, hrpG, in the hpaR1 mutant could bypass the requirement of HpaR1 for the induction of wild-type HR, suggesting that HpaR1 regulates the expression of hrp genes that encode the type III secretion system via hrpG.

  3. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals That Ethylene/H2O2-Mediated Hypersensitive Response and Programmed Cell Death Determine the Compatible Interaction of Sand Pear and Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Jing; Chang, Youhong; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A major restriction on sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) production is black spot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata. However, the pear response mechanism to A. alternata is unknown at the molecular level. Here, host responses of a resistant cultivar Cuiguan (CG) and a susceptible cultivar Sucui1 (SC1) to A. alternata infection were investigated. We found that the primary necrotic lesion formed at 1 dpi and the expansion of lesions was aggressive in SC1. Data from transcriptomic profiles using RNA-Seq technology identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between CG and SC1 in the early phase of A. alternata infection. K-mean cluster and Mapman analysis revealed that genes involved in ethylene (ET) biosynthesis and ET signaling pathway, such as ACS, ACOs, and ERFs, and in hypersensitive response (HR) and programmed cell death (PCD) were significantly enriched and up-regulated in the susceptible cultivar SC1. Conversely, genes involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were differentially up-regulated in the resistant cultivar CG after inoculation with the fungus. Furthermore, ET levels were highly accumulated in SC1, but not in CG. Higher activities of detoxifying enzymes such as catalases were detected in CG. Our results demonstrate that the ET-/H2O2-mediated PCD and detoxifying processes play a vital role in the interaction of pear and A. alternata. PMID:28261248

  4. A survey of resistance to Tomato bushy stunt virus in the genus Nicotiana reveals that the hypersensitive response is triggered by one of three different viral proteins.

    PubMed

    Angel, Carlos A; Schoelz, James E

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we screened 22 Nicotiana spp. for resistance to the tombusviruses Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), Cucumber necrosis virus, and Cymbidium ringspot virus. Eighteen species were resistant, and resistance was manifested in at least two different categories. In all, 13 species responded with a hypersensitive response (HR)-type resistance, whereas another five were resistant but either had no visible response or responded with chlorotic lesions rather than necrotic lesions. Three different TBSV proteins were found to trigger HR in Nicotiana spp. in an agroinfiltration assay. The most common avirulence (avr) determinant was the TBSV coat protein P41, a protein that had not been previously recognized as an avr determinant. A mutational analysis confirmed that the coat protein rather than the viral RNA sequence was responsible for triggering HR, and it triggered HR in six species in the Alatae section. The TBSV P22 movement protein triggered HR in two species in section Undulatae (Nicotiana glutinosa and N. edwardsonii) and one species in section Alatae (N. forgetiana). The TBSV P19 RNA silencing suppressor protein triggered HR in sections Sylvestres (N. sylvestris), Nicotiana (N. tabacum), and Alatae (N. bonariensis). In general, Nicotiana spp. were capable of recognizing only one tombusvirus avirulence determinant, with the exceptions of N. bonariensis and N. forgetiana, which were each able to recognize P41, as well as P19 and P22, respectively. Agroinfiltration failed to detect the TBSV avr determinants responsible for triggering HR in N. arentsii, N. undulata, and N. rustica. This study illustrates the breadth and variety of resistance responses to tombusviruses that exists in the Nicotiana genus.

  5. Contact hypersensitivity response to isophorone diisocyanate in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.L.; Brown, T.A.; Brown, R.D.; Munson, A.E. )

    1989-09-01

    Isophorone diisocyanate was evaluated for its potential as a sensitizing agent for allergic contact hypersensitivity in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice were sensitized with 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% isophorone diisocyanate and challenged with 3.0% isophorone diisocyanate. Doses of isophorone diisocyanate were selected from assays for primary irritancy. Mice received 20 microliters by direct dermal application, for 5 days, to sites prepared by shaving, dermabrading and, in some mice, with intra dermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The rest period was 7 days. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response in mice was by radioisotopic assay two days after challenge and mouse ear swelling one and two days after challenge. Mice demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent contact hypersensitivity responses to isophorone diisocyanate with or without adjuvant pretreatment.

  6. Differential responses of primary auditory cortex in autistic spectrum disorder with auditory hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Goto, Tetsu; Sanefuji, Wakako; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Sakai, Saeko; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Mohri, Ikuko; Yorifuji, Shiro; Taniike, Masako

    2012-01-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differential responses of the primary auditory cortex to auditory stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder with or without auditory hypersensitivity. Auditory-evoked field values were obtained from 18 boys (nine with and nine without auditory hypersensitivity) with autistic spectrum disorder and 12 age-matched controls. Autistic disorder with hypersensitivity showed significantly more delayed M50/M100 peak latencies than autistic disorder without hypersensitivity or the control. M50 dipole moments in the hypersensitivity group were larger than those in the other two groups [corrected]. M50/M100 peak latencies were correlated with the severity of auditory hypersensitivity; furthermore, severe hypersensitivity induced more behavioral problems. This study indicates auditory hypersensitivity in autistic spectrum disorder as a characteristic response of the primary auditory cortex, possibly resulting from neurological immaturity or functional abnormalities in it.

  7. Hypersensitivity to ticagrelor and low response to clopidogrel: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jing; Ge, Changjiang

    2017-01-01

    Ticagrelor is widely used to treat acute coronary syndrome. Hypersensitivity reaction of ticagrelor is rarely recognized. A low response to clopidogrel, which occurs in up to 23% of patients, is an independent risk factor for stent thrombosis. Management of patients with a low response to clopidogrel and ticagrelor hypersensitivity who are undergoing antithrombotic therapy remains to be a challenge. Herein, we report a patient with low response to clopidogrel and ticagrelor hypersensitivity, who was successfully managed using aspirin and warfarin. PMID:28154807

  8. Two factors responsible for the development of denervation hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rosemary; Vrbová, Gerta

    1974-01-01

    1. Innervated adult skeletal muscle is sensitive to acetylcholine at the end-plate region only. After denervation the entire muscle membrane becomes chemosensitive. The period of greatest increase in sensitivity in rat soleus muscles following section of the sciatic nerve in the thigh is between 48 and 72 hr post-operatively. 2. Direct electrical stimulation was found to prevent the onset of the development of denervation hypersensitivity during the first 2-3 days after nerve section. Thereafter, electrical stimulation only reduced the sensitivity of denervated muscles to acetylcholine (ACh). 3. The period of greatest increase in sensitivity follows loss of transmission and degeneration of the nerve terminals. Once this degeneration is under way, electrical stimulation is no longer as effective in preventing the development of denervation hypersensitivity. 4. Hypersensitivity is also seen in muscles on which a small piece of thread or degenerating nerve has been placed. Hypersensitivity following these procedures declines within a few days, unlike denervation hypersensitivity which persists until innervation is restored. 5. The present results suggest that activity alone cannot prevent the development of hypersensitivity in the presence of degenerating nerve fibres, or muscle damage. Activity does however counteract increased sensitivity. It is suggested that two factors interact to produce denervation hypersensitivity; the presence of degenerating nerve tissue and concomitant cellular changes bring about changes in the muscle fibre membrane causing it to become hypersensitive; and the loss of muscle activity, resulting in the persistence of hypersensitivity until innervation is restored. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:4822574

  9. Ant allergens and hypersensitivity reactions in response to ant stings.

    PubMed

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sitcharungsi, Raweerat

    2015-12-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions caused by ant stings are increasingly recognized as an important cause of death by anaphylaxis. Only some species of ants ( e.g. Solenopsis spp., Myrmecia spp., and Pachycondyla spp.) cause allergic reactions. Ant species are identified by evaluating the morphologic structures of worker ants or by molecular techniques. Ant venom contains substances, including acids and alkaloids, that cause toxic reactions, and those from Solenopsis invicta or the imported fire ant have been widely studied. Piperidine alkaloids and low protein contents can cause local reactions (sterile pustules) and systemic reactions (anaphylaxis). Imported fire ant venoms are cross-reactive; for example, the Sol i 1 allergen from S. invicta has cross-reactivity with yellow jacket phospholipase. The Sol i 3 allergen is a member of the antigen 5 family that has amino acid sequence identity with vespid antigen 5. The clinical presentations of ant hypersensitivity are categorized into immediate and delayed reactions: immediate reactions, such as small local reactions, large local reactions, and systemic reactions, occur within 1-4 hours after the ant stings, whereas delayed reactions, such as serum sickness and vasculitis, usually occur more than 4 hours after the stings. Tools for the diagnosis of ant hypersensitivity are skin testing, serum specific IgE, and sting challenge tests. Management of ant hypersensitivity can be divided into immediate (epinephrine, corticosteroids), symptomatic (antihistamines, bronchodilators), supportive (fluid resuscitation, oxygen therapy), and preventive (re-sting avoidance and immunotherapy) treatments.

  10. Hypersensitive response of beans to Apion godmani (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Garza, R; Vera, J; Cardona, C; Barcenas, N; Singh, S P

    2001-08-01

    High levels of resistance to Apion godinani Wagner have been reported in bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., landraces from Mexico. We report on the role of hypersensitivity to A. godmani in five resistant and three susceptible bean genotypes. In susceptible genotypes (cultivars 'Canario 107','Jamapa', and 'Zacatecas 45'), the eggs and first instars of A. godmani were embedded in the pod mesocarp and usually were surrounded by healthy tissue. In contrast, in resistant landraces ('Amarillo 154', 'Amarillo 155', 'J-117', 'Puebla 36', and 'Pinto 168'), necrotic tissues developed concentrically around the oviposition site, encapsulating eggs and dead larvae. An inverse relationship between percentage egg and larval encapsulation at the early immature pod stages and percentage of damaged seeds at harvest was found. Results indicate that hypersensitivity in developing pods plays an important role in antibiosis to A. godmani in beans. This information will facilitate future genetic and biochemical research and provide much needed information concerning the phenotypic basis of resistance to A. godmani in bean.

  11. Calcium Efflux as a Component of Hypersensitive Response of Nicotiana benthamiana to Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a model plant Nicotiana benthamiana we have demonstrated that initial calcium uptake in response to HR (hypersensitive response)-causing pathogen, P. syringae pv syringae 61 is followed by the net calcium efflux initiated at about 12 hrs after the bacterial challenge and sustained for at least...

  12. USE OF THE RIBONUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAY FOR IDENTIFYING CHEMICALS WHICH ELLICIT HYPERSENSITIVITY RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of the Ribonuclease Protection Assay (RPA) for Identifying Chemicals that Elicit Hypersensitivity Responses. L.M. Plitnick, 1, D.M. Sailstad, 2, and R.J. Smialowicz, 2 1UNC, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC and 2USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC.

    The incidence of aller...

  13. The hypersensitive glucocorticoid response specifically regulates period 1 and expression of circadian genes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Timothy E; Gertz, Jason; Crawford, Gregory E; Garabedian, Michael J; Myers, Richard M

    2012-09-01

    Glucocorticoids regulate gene expression by binding and activating the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). While ligand affinity determines the global sensitivity of the response, additional proteins act on the genome to tune sensitivity of some genes. However, the genomic extent and specificity of dose-specific glucocorticoid responses are unknown. We show that dose-specific glucocorticoid responses are extraordinarily specific at the genomic scale, able to distinctly express a single gene, the circadian rhythm gene for Period 1 (PER1), at concentrations consistent with the nighttime nadir of human cortisol. We mapped the PER1 response to a single GR binding site. The specific GR binding sequence did not impact sensitivity, and we instead attributed the response to a combination of additional transcription factors and chromatin accessibility acting in the same locus. The PER1 hypersensitive response element is conserved in the mouse, where we found similar upregulation of Per1 in pituitary cells. Targeted and transient overexpression of PER1 led to regulation of additional circadian rhythm genes hours later, suggesting that hypersensitive expression of PER1 impacts circadian gene expression. These findings show that hypersensitive GR binding occurs throughout the genome, drives targeted gene expression, and may be important to endocrine mediation of peripheral circadian rhythms.

  14. High cytokinin levels induce a hypersensitive-like response in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Novák, Jan; Pavlů, Jaroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Nožková-Hlaváčková, Vladimíra; Špundová, Martina; Hlavinka, Jan; Koukalová, Šárka; Skalák, Jan; Černý, Martin; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Cytokinins are positive regulators of shoot development. However, it has previously been demonstrated that efficient activation of the cytokinin biosynthesis gene ipt can cause necrotic lesions and wilting in tobacco leaves. Some plant pathogens reportedly use their ability to produce cytokinins in disease development. In response to pathogen attacks, plants can trigger a hypersensitive response that rapidly kills cells near the infection site, depriving the pathogen of nutrients and preventing its spread. In this study, a diverse set of processes that link ipt activation to necrotic lesion formation were investigated in order to evaluate the potential of cytokinins as signals and/or mediators in plant defence against pathogens. Methods The binary pOp-ipt/LhGR system for dexamethasone-inducible ipt expression was used to increase endogenous cytokinin levels in transgenic tobacco. Changes in the levels of cytokinins and the stress hormones salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acid following ipt activation were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Trends in hydrogen peroxide content and lipid peroxidation were monitored using the potassium iodide and malondialdehyde assays. The subcellular distribution of hydrogen peroxide was investigated using 3,3′-diaminobenzidine staining. The dynamics of transcripts related to photosynthesis and pathogen response were analysed by reverse transcription followed by quantitative PCR. The effects of cytokinins on photosynthesis were deciphered by analysing changes in chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf gas exchange. Key Results Plants can produce sufficiently high levels of cytokinins to trigger fast cell death without any intervening chlorosis – a hallmark of the hypersensitive response. The results suggest that chloroplastic hydrogen peroxide orchestrates the molecular responses underpinning the hypersensitive-like response, including the

  15. Ralstonia solanacearum type III secretion system effector Rip36 induces a hypersensitive response in the nonhost wild eggplant Solanum torvum.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Matsumoto, Iyo; Taguchi, Fumiko; Inagaki, Yoshishige; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Tomonori; Ichinose, Yuki; Mukaihara, Takafumi

    2014-04-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a Gram-negative soil-borne bacterium that causes bacterial wilt disease in more than 200 plant species, including economically important Solanaceae species. In R. solanacearum, the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) type III secretion system is required for both the ability to induce the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost plants and pathogenicity in host plants. Recently, 72 effector genes, called rip (Ralstonia protein injected into plant cells), have been identified in R. solanacearum RS1000. RS1002, a spontaneous nalixidic acid-resistant derivative of RS1000, induced strong HR in the nonhost wild eggplant Solanum torvum in an Hrp-dependent manner. An Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system revealed that Rip36, a putative Zn-dependent protease effector of R. solanacearum, induced HR in S. torvum. A mutation in the putative Zn-binding motif (E149A) completely abolished the ability to induce HR. In agreement with this result, the RS1002-derived Δrip36 and rip36E149A mutants lost the ability to induce HR in S. torvum. An E149A mutation had no effect on the translocation of Rip36 into plant cells. These results indicate that Rip36 is an avirulent factor that induces HR in S. torvum and that a putative Zn-dependent protease motif is essential for this activity.

  16. Immune responses to ectoparasites of horses, with a focus on insect bite hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A D

    2014-11-01

    Horses are affected by a wide variety of arthropod ectoparasites, ranging from lice which spend their entire life on the host, through ticks which feed over a period of days, to numerous biting insects that only transiently visit the host to feed. The presence of ectoparasites elicits a number of host responses including innate inflammatory responses, adaptive immune reactions and altered behaviour; all of which can reduce the severity of the parasite burden. All of these different responses are linked through immune mechanisms mediated by mast cells and IgE antibodies which have an important role in host resistance to ectoparasites, yet immune responses also cause severe pathological reactions. One of the best described examples of such pathological sequelae is insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) of horses; an IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity to the salivary proteins of Culicoides spp. associated with T-helper-2 production of IL4 and IL13. Importantly, all horses exposed to Culicoides have an expanded population of Culicoides antigen-specific T cells with this pattern of cytokine production, but in those which remain healthy, the inflammatory reaction is tempered by the presence of FoxP3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells that express IL10 and TGF-beta, which suppresses the IL4 production by Culicoides antigen-activated T cells.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum

    PubMed Central

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M. K.; McGrath, Desmond J.; Persley, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R) and susceptible (S) capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. Conclusion/Significance DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and

  19. Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on the cutaneous allergic inflammatory response in Ascaris hypersensitive Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Santiago; Brazis, Pilar; Della Valle, Maria Federica; Miolo, Alda; Petrosino, Stefania; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Puigdemont, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator with anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PEA on the cutaneous allergic inflammatory reaction induced by different immunological and non-immunological stimuli in hypersensitive dogs. Six spontaneously Ascaris hypersensitive Beagle dogs were challenged with intradermal injections of Ascaris suum extract, substance P and anti-canine IgE, before and after a single oral administration of PEA at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg. A significant reduction in wheal area induced by both antigen and anti-canine IgE challenge was observed after PEA administration. No significant differences were observed between the two higher doses studied, suggesting that the 10 mg/kg dose had exerted the maximum inhibitory effect. When blood levels of PEA were compared with the effects at different times, an evident correlation was obtained. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of PEA were more long-lasting than their plasma concentrations. The intradermal injection of substance P did not reveal any skin reaction (wheal or erythema formation) at any of the concentrations tested. In conclusion, PEA might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of allergic inflammatory skin diseases in companion animals.

  20. Identification of a Maize Locus that Modulates the Hypersensitive Defense Response, Using Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is the most visible and arguably the most important defense response in plants, although the details of how it is controlled and executed remain patchy. In this paper a novel genetic technique called MAGIC (Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization) i...

  1. Bivariate genomic analysis identifies a hidden locus associated with bacteria hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Biao; Li, Zhuocheng; Xu, Weilin; Feng, Xiao; Wan, Qianhui; Zan, Yanjun; Sheng, Sitong; Shen, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Multi-phenotype analysis has drawn increasing attention to high-throughput genomic studies, whereas only a few applications have justified the use of multivariate techniques. We applied a recently developed multi-trait analysis method on a small set of bacteria hypersensitive response phenotypes and identified a single novel locus missed by conventional single-trait genome-wide association studies. The detected locus harbors a minor allele that elevates the risk of leaf collapse response to the injection of avrRpm1-modified Pseudomonas syringae (P = 1.66e-08). Candidate gene AT3G32930 with in the detected region and its co-expressed genes showed significantly reduced expression after P. syringae interference. Our results again emphasize that multi-trait analysis should not be neglected in association studies, as the power of specific multi-trait genotype-phenotype maps might only be tractable when jointly considering multiple phenotypes. PMID:28338080

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Prunus domestica Undergoing Hypersensitive Response to Plum Pox Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named ‘Jojo’, develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected ‘Jojo’ trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization. PMID:24959894

  3. Variation in plant defense against invasive herbivores: evidence for a hypersensitive response in eastern hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis).

    PubMed

    Radville, Laura; Chaves, Arielle; Preisser, Evan L

    2011-06-01

    Herbivores can trigger a wide array of morphological and chemical changes in their host plants. Feeding by some insects induces a defensive hypersensitive response, a defense mechanism consisting of elevated H(2)O(2) levels and tissue death at the site of herbivore feeding. The invasive hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae ('HWA') and elongate hemlock scale Fiorinia externa ('EHS') feed on eastern hemlocks; although both are sessile sap feeders, HWA causes more damage than EHS. The rapid rate of tree death following HWA infestation has led to the suggestion that feeding induces a hypersensitive response in hemlock trees. We assessed the potential for an herbivore-induced hypersensitive response in eastern hemlocks by measuring H(2)O(2) levels in foliage from HWA-infested, EHS-infested, and uninfested trees. Needles with settled HWA or EHS had higher H(2)O(2) levels than control needles, suggesting a localized hypersensitive plant response. Needles with no direct contact to settled HWA also had high H(2)O(2) levels, suggesting that HWA infestation may induce a systemic defense response in eastern hemlocks. There was no similar systemic defensive response in the EHS treatment. Our results showed that two herbivores in the same feeding guild had dramatically different outcomes on the health of their shared host.

  4. Interleukin-12 reverses the inhibitory impact of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the murine contact hypersensitivity response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simkin, Guillermo O.; Levy, Julia G.; Hunt, David W. C.

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of mice with certain photosensitizers combined with exposure to visible light limits the development of the immunologically-mediated contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response against topically-applied chemical haptens. Understanding of the inhibitory action of photosensitizers upon the CHS response is incomplete. Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, verteporfin), a photosensitizer with immunomodulatory activity, strongly depressed CHS responses to the hapten dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). However, if mice were administered 1 (mu) g of a recombinant preparation of the pro- inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (rIL-12), full-fledged CHS responses to DNFB ensued in animals treated with BPD-MA and light. In contrast, when rIL-12 was given in combination with an anti-IL-12 antibody the restorative effect of rIL-12 on the CHS response of PDT-treated mice was blocked. Evaluation of the cytokine status of spleen and draining lymph node cells showed for DNFB painted animals, that the release of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 was increased by PDT and rIL-12 counter-acted the increase in IL-10 liberation associated with PDT. These studies indicate that IL-10 formation is upregulated and the availability of IL-12 may be limited in mice treated with PDT. These features may contribute to deficient CHS responses observed with PDT.

  5. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, bird fancier’s lung, farmer’s lung, hot tub lung, and humidifier lung. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare immune system disorder that affects the lungs. It occurs in ...

  6. Androgen responsiveness of the murine beta-glucuronidase gene is associated with nuclease hypersensitivity, protein binding, and haplotype-specific sequence diversity within intron 9.

    PubMed Central

    Lund, S D; Gallagher, P M; Wang, B; Porter, S C; Ganschow, R E

    1991-01-01

    The tissue specificity and genetic variability of the murine beta-glucuronidase (GUS) response to androgen provide useful markers for identifying elements which underlie this responsiveness. While GUS is expressed constitutively in all examined cell types, kidney epithelial cells uniquely exhibit a manyfold yet slow rise in GUS mRNA and enzyme levels when stimulated by androgens. Three major phenotypes of this androgen response have been described among inbred strains of mice: (i) a strong response in strains of the Gusa haplotype, (ii) a reduced response in strains of the Gusb and Gush haplotypes, and (iii) no response, as observed in Gusor mice. These response variants define a cis-active element(s) which is tightly linked to the GUS structural gene. Nuclease hypersensitivity scans of kidney chromatin within and surrounding the structural gene revealed an androgen-inducible hypersensitive site in intron 9 of the gene in Gusa but not in Gusor mice. When a radiolabeled fragment of Gusa DNA containing this hypersensitive site was incubated with kidney nuclear extracts and then subjected to gel electrophoresis, two shifted bands were observed whose levels were dramatically higher in extracts of androgen-treated than in those of untreated Gusa mice. The shifted bands reflect binding of a kidney-specific factor(s) to a 57-bp region of complex dyad symmetry in Gusa and Gusor mice which is partially deleted in Gusb and Gush mice. This binding site is located approximately 130 bp downstream of a glucocorticoid response element sequence motif which is totally deleted in [Gus]or mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the androgen responsiveness of GUS in murine kidney epithelial cells is controlled by elements within the proximal end of intron 9 of the GUS structural gene. Images PMID:1922055

  7. A connected set of genes associated with programmed cell death implicated in controlling the hypersensitive response in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rp1-D21 is a maize auto-active resistance gene that confers a spontaneous hypersensitive response (HR). Depending on the genetic background in which it operates; variable levels of HR are observed. This offers a convenient system to identify alleles that modulate HR and genes involved in disease res...

  8. Cytoplasmic and nuclear localizations are important for the hypersensitive response conferred by maize autoactive Rp1-D21 protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease resistance (R-) genes have been isolated from many plant species. Most encode nucleotide binding leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) proteins that trigger a rapid localized programmed cell death termed the hypersensitive response (HR) upon pathogen recognition. Despite their structural similarities, d...

  9. A genome-wide association study of the maize hypersensitive defense response identifies genes that cluster in related pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much remains unknown of molecular events controling the plant hypersensitive response (HR), a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R-) genes. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21), were mappe...

  10. Immunity to Brugia pahangi in athymic nude and normal mice: eosinophilia, antibody and hypersensitivity responses.

    PubMed

    Vickery, A C; Vincent, A L

    1984-11-01

    Congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, immunologically reconstituted by thymus grafting before inoculation with infective larvae, and mice heterozygous for the nu gene (nu/+), mounted potent protective humoral and cellular immune responses to Brugia pahangi. Although responses were not identical, both groups of mice produced IgM, IgG and IgE antibodies specific for adult worm antigen (S-Ag) present in a crude aqueous extract, made immediate and delayed hypersensitivity footpad swelling responses when challenged with S-Ag and eliminated their infection in the early larval stages. Heterozygotes also exhibited a marked eosinophilia which peaked coincident with larval killing. In contrast, thymus grafting of patent nudes had no effect upon microfilaraemias or adult worm burdens and did not completely protect against a challenge larval inoculum although antibodies specific for S-Ag were produced. With the occasional exceptions of moderate immediate footpad swelling and very low titres of IgM specific for S-Ag, no specific immune responses to B. pahangi were found in ungrafted nude mice which allowed full development of adult worms and supported patent infections.

  11. Disruption of Microtubular Cytoskeleton Induced by Cryptogein, an Elicitor of Hypersensitive Response in Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Humbert, Claude; Lecourieux, David; Vantard, Marylin; Pugin, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of microtubular cytoskeleton were studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) cells in response to two different plant defense elicitors: cryptogein, a protein secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea and oligogalacturonides (OGs), derived from the plant cell wall. In tobacco plants cryptogein triggers a hypersensitive-like response and induces systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, whereas OGs induce defense responses, but fail to trigger cell death. The comparison of the microtubule (MT) dynamics in response to cryptogein and OGs in tobacco cells indicates that MTs appear unaffected in OG-treated cells, whereas cryptogein treatment caused a rapid and severe disruption of microtubular network. When hyperstabilized by the MT depolymerization inhibitor, taxol, the MT network was still disrupted by cryptogein treatment. On the other hand, the MT-depolymerizing agent oryzalin and cryptogein had different and complementary effects. In addition to MT destabilization, cryptogein induced the death of tobacco cells, whereas OG-treated cells did not die. We demonstrated that MT destabilization and cell death induced by cryptogein depend on calcium influx and that MT destabilization occurs independently of active oxygen species production. The molecular basis of cryptogein-induced MT disruption and its potential significance with respect to cell death are discussed. PMID:11161014

  12. The Diamine Oxidase Gene Is Associated with Hypersensitivity Response to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Agúndez, José A. G.; Ayuso, Pedro; Cornejo-García, José A.; Blanca, Miguel; Torres, María J.; Doña, Inmaculada; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Canto, Gabriela; Rondon, Carmen; Campo, Paloma; Laguna, José J.; Fernández, Javier; Martínez, Carmen; García-Martín, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs most frequently involved in hypersensitivity drug reactions. Histamine is released in the allergic response to NSAIDs and is responsible for some of the clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical association of functional polymorphisms in the genes coding for enzymes involved in histamine homeostasis with hypersensitivity response to NSAIDs. We studied a cohort of 442 unrelated Caucasian patients with hypersensitivity to NSAIDs. Patients who experienced three or more episodes with two or more different NSAIDs were included. If this requirement was not met diagnosis was established by challenge. A total of 414 healthy unrelated controls ethnically matched with patients and from the same geographic area were recruited. Analyses of the SNPs rs17740607, rs2073440, rs1801105, rs2052129, rs10156191, rs1049742 and rs1049793 in the HDC, HNMT and DAO genes were carried out by means of TaqMan assays. The detrimental DAO 16 Met allele (rs10156191), which causes decreased metabolic capacity, is overrepresented among patients with crossed-hypersensitivity to NSAIDs with an OR  = 1.7 (95% CI  = 1.3–2.1; Pc  = 0.0003) with a gene-dose effect (P = 0.0001). The association was replicated in two populations from different geographic areas (Pc  = 0.008 and Pc  = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions and implications The DAO polymorphism rs10156191 which causes impaired metabolism of circulating histamine is associated with the clinical response in crossed-hypersensitivity to NSAIDs and could be used as a biomarker of response. PMID:23152756

  13. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

  14. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    NELSON, T. A.; HOLMES, S.; ALEKSEYENKO, A. V.; SHENOY, M.; DESANTIS, T.; WU, C. H.; ANDERSEN, G. L.; WINSTON, J.; SONNENBURG, J.; PASRICHA, P. J.; SPORMANN, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Methods Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Key Results Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. Conclusions & Inferences The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS. PMID:21129126

  15. Comprehensive transcriptional and functional analyses of melatonin synthesis genes in cassava reveal their novel role in hypersensitive-like cell death

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yunxie; Hu, Wei; Wang, Qiannan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Chunjie; Zeng, Hongqiu; Yan, Yu; Li, Xiaolin; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is a widely known hormone in animals. Since melatonin was discovered in plants, more and more studies highlight its involvement in a wide range of physiological processes including plant development and stress responses. Many advances have been made in the terms of melatonin-mediated abiotic stress resistance and innate immunity in plants, focusing on model plants such as rice and Arabidopsis. In this study, 7 melatonin synthesis genes were systematically analyzed in cassava. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that all these genes were commonly regulated by melatonin, flg22, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed the subcellular locations and possible roles of these melatonin synthesis genes. Notably, we highlight novel roles of these genes in hypersensitive-like cell death, as confirmed by the results of several physiological parameters. Moreover, transient expression of these genes had significant effects on the transcripts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and defense-related genes, and triggered the burst of callose depositions and papillae-associated plant defense, indicating the possible role of them in plant innate immunity. Taken together, this study reveals the comprehensive transcripts and putative roles of melatonin synthesis genes as well as melatonin in immune responses in cassava. PMID:27739451

  16. A quick and robust method for quantification of the hypersensitive response in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, Mikael B.; Backhaus, Thomas; Andersson, Mats X.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most studied defense reactions of plants against microbial pathogens is the hypersensitive response (HR). The HR is a complex multicellular process that involves programmed cell death at the site of infection. A standard method to quantify plant defense and the HR is to measure the release of cellular electrolytes into water after infiltration with pathogenic bacteria. In this type of experiment, the bacteria are typically delivered into the plant tissue through syringe infiltration. Here we report the development of a vacuum infiltration protocol that allows multiple plant lines to be infiltrated simultaneously and assayed for defense responses. Vacuum infiltration did not induce more wounding response in Arabidopsis leaf tissue than syringe inoculation, whereas throughput and reproducibility were improved. The method was used to study HR-induced electrolyte loss after treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 harboring the effector AvrRpm1, AvrRpt2 or AvrRps4. Specifically, the influence of bacterial titer on AvrRpm1-induced HR was investigated. Not only the amplitude, but also the timing of the maximum rate of the HR reaction was found to be dose-dependent. Finally, using vacuum infiltration, we were able quantify induction of phospholipase D activity after AvrRpm1 recognition in leaves labeled with 33PO4. PMID:26734506

  17. Immunosuppressive Effect of Litsea cubeba L. Essential Oil on Dendritic Cell and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Chun; Chang, Wen-Te; Hseu, You-Cheng; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chuang, Cheng Hsuan; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-01-01

    Litsea cubeba L., also named as Makauy, is a traditional herb and has been used as cooking condiment or tea brewing to treat diseases for aborigines. The present study was undertaken to explore the chemical compositions of the fruit essential oil of L. cubeba (LCEO) and the immunomodulatory effect of LCEO on dendritic cells and mice. The LCEO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with direct injection (DI/GC) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME/GC). In total, 56 components were identified, of which 48 were detected by DI/GC and 49 were detected by HS-SPME/GC. The principal compounds were citral (neral and geranial). An immunosuppressive activity of LCEO was investigated with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) which have a critical role to trigger the adaptive immunity. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of LCEO on immune response was elucidated by performing the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses in mice. Our results clearly showed that LCEO decreases the production of TNF-α and cytokine IL-12 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. CHS response and the infiltrative T cells were inhibited in the tested ears of the mice co-treated with LCEO. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the LCEO mainly containing citral exhibits an immunosuppressive effect on DCs and mice, indicating that LCEO can potentially be applied in the treatment of CHS, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27529236

  18. Does electromagnetic hypersensitivity originate from nocebo responses? Indications from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Dieudonné, Maël

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) is a condition in which symptoms are attributed to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. As electro-hypersensitive (EHS) people have repeatedly been observed, during provocation trials, to report symptoms following perceived rather than actual exposure, the hypothesis has been put forward that IEI-EMF originates from psychological mechanisms, especially nocebo responses. This paper examines this hypothesis, using data from a qualitative study aimed at understanding how EHS people come to regard themselves as such. Forty self-diagnosed EHS people were interviewed. A typified model of their attribution process was then elaborated, inductively, from their narratives. This model is linear and composed of seven stages: (1) onset of symptoms; (2) failure to find a solution; (3) discovery of EHS; (4) gathering of information about EHS; (5) implicit appearance of conviction; (6) experimentation; (7) conscious acceptance of conviction. Overall, symptoms appear before subjects start questioning effects of EMF on their health, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that IEI-EMF originates from nocebo responses to perceived EMF exposure. However, such responses might occur at the sixth stage of the process, potentially reinforcing the attribution. It remains possible that some cases of IEI-EMF originate from other psychological mechanisms.

  19. Immunosuppressive Effect of Litsea cubeba L. Essential Oil on Dendritic Cell and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chun; Chang, Wen-Te; Hseu, You-Cheng; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chuang, Cheng Hsuan; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-08-12

    Litsea cubeba L., also named as Makauy, is a traditional herb and has been used as cooking condiment or tea brewing to treat diseases for aborigines. The present study was undertaken to explore the chemical compositions of the fruit essential oil of L. cubeba (LCEO) and the immunomodulatory effect of LCEO on dendritic cells and mice. The LCEO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with direct injection (DI/GC) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME/GC). In total, 56 components were identified, of which 48 were detected by DI/GC and 49 were detected by HS-SPME/GC. The principal compounds were citral (neral and geranial). An immunosuppressive activity of LCEO was investigated with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) which have a critical role to trigger the adaptive immunity. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of LCEO on immune response was elucidated by performing the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses in mice. Our results clearly showed that LCEO decreases the production of TNF-α and cytokine IL-12 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. CHS response and the infiltrative T cells were inhibited in the tested ears of the mice co-treated with LCEO. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the LCEO mainly containing citral exhibits an immunosuppressive effect on DCs and mice, indicating that LCEO can potentially be applied in the treatment of CHS, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases.

  20. Resolvin E1 inhibits dendritic cell migration in the skin and attenuates contact hypersensitivity responses.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Yu; Honda, Tetsuya; Hanakawa, Sho; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Murata, Teruasa; Ueharaguchi-Tanada, Yuri; Ono, Sachiko; Amano, Wataru; Nakajima, Saeko; Egawa, Gyohei; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kitoh, Akihiko; Dainichi, Teruki; Ogawa, Narihito; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Arita, Makoto; Nakamura, Motonobu; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2015-10-19

    Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is a lipid mediator derived from ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that exerts potent antiinflammatory roles in several murine models. The antiinflammatory mechanism of RvE1 in acquired immune responses has been attributed to attenuation of cytokine production by dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we newly investigated the effect of RvE1 on DC motility using two-photon microscopy in a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model and found that RvE1 impaired DC motility in the skin. In addition, RvE1 attenuated T cell priming in the draining lymph nodes and effector T cell activation in the skin, which led to the reduced skin inflammation in CHS. In contrast, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induced actin filament reorganization in DCs and increased DC motility by activating Cdc42 and Rac1 via BLT1, which was abrogated by RvE1. Collectively, our results suggest that RvE1 attenuates cutaneous acquired immune responses by inhibiting cutaneous DC motility, possibly through LTB4-BLT1 signaling blockade.

  1. Involvement of Plasma Membrane Calcium Influx in Bacterial Induction of the K+/H+ and Hypersensitive Responses in Tobacco 1

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Merelee M.; Keppler, L. Dale; Orlandi, Elizabeth W.; Baker, C. Jacyn; Mischke, Charles F.

    1990-01-01

    An early event in the hypersensitive response of tobacco to Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae is the initiation of a K+/H+ response characterized by specific plasma membrane K+ efflux, extracellular alkalinization, and intracellular acidification. We investigated the role of calcium in induction of these host responses. Suspension-cultured tobacco cells exhibited a baseline Ca2+ influx of 0.02 to 0.06 micromole per gram per hour as determined from 45Ca2+ uptake. Following bacterial inoculation, uptake rates began to increase coincidently with onset of the K+/H+ response. Rates increased steadily for 2 to 3 hours, reaching 0.5 to 1 micromole per gram per hour. This increased Ca2+ influx was prevented by EGTA and calcium channel blockers such as La3+, Co2+, and Cd2+ but not by verapamil and nifedipine. Lanthanum, cobalt, cadmium, and EGTA inhibited the K+/H+ response in both suspension-cultured cells and leaf discs and prevented hypersensitive cell death in leaf discs. We conclude that increased plasmalemma Ca2+ influx is required for the K+/H+ and hypersensitive responses in tobacco. PMID:16667249

  2. Transcriptome analysis of a bacterially induced basal and hypersensitive response of Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Bozsó, Zoltán; Maunoury, Nicolas; Szatmari, Agnes; Mergaert, Peter; Ott, Péter G; Zsíros, László R; Szabó, Erika; Kondorosi, Eva; Klement, Zoltán

    2009-08-01

    Research using the well-studied model legume Medicago truncatula has largely focused on rhizobium symbiosis, while little information is currently available for this species on pathogen-induced transcriptome changes. We have performed a transcriptome analysis of this species with the objective of studying the basal (BR, no visible symptoms) and hypersensitive response (HR, plant cell death) in its leaves at 6 and at 24 h after infection by HR-negative (hrcC mutant) and HR-inducing Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains, respectively. Although there were no visible symptoms at the BR, the alterations in gene expression were comparable to those found with the HR. Both responses resulted in the transcriptional alteration of hundreds of plant genes; however, the responses in the HR were usually more intense. The reactions to HR-inducing and HR-negative bacterial strains were significantly overlapping. Parallel up- or down-regulation of genes with the same function occurred frequently. However, some plant processes were regulated in one direction; for example, most of the protein synthesis-related genes were activated and all of the photosynthetic/chloroplast genes were suppressed during BR. The possible roles of several functional classes (e.g., cell rescue, signaling, defense, cell death, etc.) of transcriptionally altered genes are discussed. The results of the comparison with available mycorrhizal and nodule expression data show that there is a significant overlap between nodulation and the leaf defense response and that during the early stage of the nodulation in roots, Sinorhizobium meliloti induces a fluctuation in the transcription of BR- and HR-responsive genes.

  3. Immunosuppressive effect of zhankuic acid C from Taiwanofungus camphoratus on dendritic cell activation and the contact hypersensitivity response.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Kuem; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chang, Wen-Te; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chen, Jin-Fu; Li, Yi-Rong; Lin, Chi-Chen; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2015-10-15

    Some ergostane triterpenoids from Taiwanofungus camphoratus have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. However, the effect of ergostane triterpenoids on the immune response remains unknown. In this study, we elucidated that ergostane triterpenoids significantly decreased the cytokines and chemokine release by dendritic cells (DC) and that, in the case of zhankuic acid C (ZAC), the decrease was dose-dependent and inhibited DC maturation. ZAC inhibited the contact hypersensitivity response and infiltrative T cells in the ears of DNFB-stimulated mice. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that ZAC exhibits an immunosuppressive effect on DC activation and the contact hypersensitivity response. It is suggested that ZAC can potentially be used for treating chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases.

  4. Drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yawalkar, N

    2009-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity represents an immune-mediated reaction to a drug. Although several drug hypersensitivity reactions are confined to the skin and rather mild, some may be life threatening and also involve further organs such as liver, kidney and bone marrow. The exact pathogenesis of many drug hypersensitivity reactions is still obscure. In this review the concepts on how small molecular drugs can activate the immune system are discussed and the hapten, prohapten and p-i concept are explained. Furthermore, the classification of drug hypersensitivity reactions and some common and severe clinical manifestations of drug-induced T cell mediated reactions are presented.

  5. The Relationship between Photosynthesis and a Mastoparan-Induced Hypersensitive Response in Isolated Mesophyll Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Lisa J.; MacGregor, Kennaway B.; Koop, Randall S.; Bruce, Doug H.; Karner, Julie; Bown, Alan W.

    1999-01-01

    The G-protein activator mastoparan (MP) was found to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in isolated Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells at micromolar concentrations. The HR was characterized by cell death, extracellular alkalinization, and an oxidative burst, indicated by the reduction of molecular O2 to O2⋅−. To our knowledge, this study was the first to monitor photosynthesis during the HR. MP had rapid and dramatic effects on photosynthetic electron transport and excitation energy transfer as determined by variable chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. A large increase in nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence accompanied the initial stages of the oxidative burst. The minimal level of fluorescence was also quenched, which suggests the origin of this nonphotochemical quenching to be a decrease in the antenna size of photosystem II. In contrast, photochemical quenching of fluorescence decreased dramatically during the latter stages of the oxidative burst, indicating a somewhat slower inhibition of photosystem II electron transport. The net consumption of O2 and the initial rate of O2 uptake, elicited by MP, were higher in the light than in the dark. These data indicate that light enhances the oxidative burst and suggest a complex relationship between photosynthesis and the HR. PMID:10198081

  6. Agrosuppression: a bioassay for the hypersensitive response suited to high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, Sophien; Hamada, Walid; Huitema, Edgar

    2003-01-01

    We describe a novel method, agrosuppression, that addresses the need for an assay of the hypersensitive response (HR) in intact plants that is rapid and adapted to high-throughput functional screening of plant and pathogen genes. The agrosuppression assay is based on inoculation of intact plants with a mixture of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains carrying (i) a binary plasmid with one or more candidate HR-inducing genes and (ii) a tumor-inducing (oncogenic) T-DNA. In the absence of HR induction, tumor formation is initiated, resulting in a typical crown gall phenotype. However, upon induction of the HR, tumor formation by the oncogenic T-DNA is suppressed, resulting in a phenotype that can be readily scored. We tested and optimized agrosuppression in Nicotiana benthamiana using the inf1 elicitin gene from the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which specifically induces the HR in Nicotiana spp., and the gene-for-gene pair Avr9/Cf-9 from the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum and Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (currant tomato), respectively. Agrosuppression protocols that can be rapidly performed using simple mechanical wounding of petioles of intact N. benthamiana plants were developed and appeared particularly adapted to intensive high-throughput screening. This assay promises to greatly facilitate the cloning of novel plant R genes and pathogen Avr genes and to accelerate functional analyses and structure-function studies of these genes.

  7. Two distinct types of cellular mechanisms in the development of delayed hypersensitivity in mice: requirement of either mast cells or macrophages for elicitation of the response.

    PubMed Central

    Torii, I; Morikawa, S; Harada, T; Kitamura, Y

    1993-01-01

    Using mast cell-deficient mutant W/Wv mice and their normal counterpart we re-evaluated the significance of participation of mast cells in allergic inflammatory response. W/Wv mice developed immediate hypersensitivity (IH) footpad reaction (FPR) to a somewhat lesser degree than the normal mice, suggesting that the mast cell might amplify the response. To exert classical tuberculin (tbc) delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) mast cells were not an essential cellular component. Vasoactive amines were essential to develop the response, but it did not necessarily originate from mast cells. When mice were immunized with methylated human serum albumin (MHSA) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), mast cells were required to elicit DTH FPR. This was confirmed by the lack of the response in W/Wv mice, and the restoration of FPR by local transplantation of mature mast cells into mutant mice. This mast cell-dependent (MD) DTH was different from tbc DTH as follows: mast cell dependency, macrophage dependency as revealed by ferritin sensitivity, kinetics of sensitization, effect of host's age and histopathology. Thus we concluded that there are two types of DTH in mice; one is macrophage-dependent tbc and the other is mast cell-dependent DTH. The correspondence of the DTH to the Jones-Mote (JM) DTH is discussed, although the dominance of mast cells in MD DTH lesion was not observed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8478030

  8. Protein kinase D1 is essential for the pro-inflammatory response induced by hypersensitivity pneumonitis-causing thermophilic actinomycetes Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-In; Park, Jeoung-Eun; Brand, David D.; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth A.; Yi, Ae-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an interstitial lung disease that results from repeated pulmonary exposure to various organic antigens, including Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (SR, the causative agent of farmer's lung disease). Although the contributions of pro-inflammatory mediators to the disease pathogenesis are relatively well documented, the mechanism(s) involved in initiation of pro-inflammatory responses against the causative microorganisms, and the contribution of signaling molecules involved in host immune defense have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that SR induces activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1) in lung cells in vitro and in vivo. Activation of PKD1 by SR was dependent on MyD88. Inhibition of PKD by pharmacological PKD inhibitor Gö6976, and silencing of PKD1 expression by siRNA, revealed that PKD1 is indispensable for SR-mediated activation of MAPKs and NF-κB and expression of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, compared to controls, mice pretreated with Gö6976 showed significantly suppressed alveolitis and neutrophil influx in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and interstitial lung tissue, and substantially decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung after pulmonary exposure to SR. These results demonstrate that PKD1 is essential for SR-mediated pro-inflammatory immune responses and neutrophil influx in the lung. Our findings also imply the possibility that PKD1 might be one of the critical factors that play a regulatory role in development of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by microbial antigens, and that inhibition of PKD1 activation could be an effective way to control microbial antigen-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis. PMID:20142359

  9. The antagonistic effect of hydroxyl radical on the development of a hypersensitive response in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Deng, Sheng; Yu, Mina; Wang, Ying; Jia, Qin; Lin, Ling; Dong, Hansong

    2010-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signalling molecules in living cells. It is believed that ROS molecules are the main triggers of the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. In the present study of the effect of riboflavin, which is excited to generate ROS in light, on the development of the HR induced by the elicitin protein ParA1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we found that the extent of the ParA1-induced HR was diminished by hydroxyl radical (OH•), a type of ROS. As compared with the zones treated with ParA1 only, the HR symptom in the zones that were infiltrated with ParA1 plus riboflavin was significantly diminished when the treated plants were placed in the light. However, this did not occur when the plants were maintained in the dark. Trypan blue staining and the ion leakage measurements confirmed HR suppression in the light. Further experiments proved that HR suppression is attributed to the involvement of the photoexcited riboflavin, and that the suppression can be eliminated with the addition of hydrogen peroxide scavengers or OH• scavengers. Fenton reagent treatment and EPR measurements demonstrated that it is OH• rather than hydrogen peroxide that contributes to HR suppression. Accompanying the endogenous OH• formation, suppression of the ParA1-induced HR occurred in the tobacco leaves that had been treated with high-level abscisic acid, and that suppression was also removed by OH• scavengers. These results offer evidence that OH•, an understudied and little appreciated ROS, participates in and modulates biologically relevant signalling in plant cells.

  10. Nitric oxide interacts with salicylate to regulate biphasic ethylene production during the hypersensitive response.

    PubMed

    Mur, Luis A J; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Hall, Michael A; Smith, Aileen R

    2008-11-01

    C(2)H(4) is associated with plant defense, but its role during the hypersensitive response (HR) remains largely uncharacterized. C(2)H(4) production in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) following inoculation with HR-eliciting Pseudomonas syringae pathovars measured by laser photoacoustic detection was biphasic. A first transient rise (C(2)H(4)-I) occurred 1 to 4 h following inoculation with HR-eliciting, disease-forming, and nonpathogenic strains and also with flagellin (flg22). A second (avirulence-dependent) rise, at approximately 6 h (C(2)H(4)-II), was only seen with HR-eliciting strains. Tobacco leaves treated with the C(2)H(4) biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine, suggested that C(2)H(4) influenced the kinetics of a HR. Challenging salicylate hydroxylase-expressing tobacco lines and tissues exhibiting systemic acquired resistance suggested that C(2)H(4) production was influenced by salicylic acid (SA). Disrupted expression of a C(2)H(4) biosynthesis gene in salicylate hydroxylase tobacco plants implicated transcriptional control as a mechanism through which SA regulates C(2)H(4) production. Treating leaves to increase oxidative stress or injecting with SA initiated monophasic C(2)H(4) generation, but the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside initiated biphasic rises. To test whether NO influenced biphasic C(2)H(4) production during the HR, the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was coinoculated with the avirulent strain of P. syringae pv phaseolicola into tobacco leaves. The first transient C(2)H(4) rise appeared to be unaffected by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, but the second rise was reduced. These data suggest that NO and SA are required to generate the biphasic pattern of C(2)H(4) production during the HR and may influence the kinetics of HR formation.

  11. Sulfate supply influences compartment specific glutathione metabolism and confers enhanced resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus during a hypersensitive response

    PubMed Central

    Király, Lóránt; Künstler, András; Höller, Kerstin; Fattinger, Maria; Juhász, Csilla; Müller, Maria; Gullner, Gábor; Zechmann, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient sulfate supply has been linked to the development of sulfur induced resistance or sulfur enhanced defense (SIR/SED) in plants. In this study we investigated the effects of sulfate (S) supply on the response of genetically resistant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Plants grown with sufficient sulfate (+S plants) developed significantly less necrotic lesions during a hypersensitive response (HR) when compared to plants grown without sulfate (−S plants). In +S plants reduced TMV accumulation was evident on the level of viral RNA. Enhanced virus resistance correlated with elevated levels of cysteine and glutathione and early induction of a Tau class glutathione S-transferase and a salicylic acid-binding catalase gene. These data indicate that the elevated antioxidant capacity of +S plants was able to reduce the effects of HR, leading to enhanced virus resistance. Expression of pathogenesis-related genes was also markedly up-regulated in +S plants after TMV-inoculation. On the subcellular level, comparison of TMV-inoculated +S and −S plants revealed that +S plants contained 55–132 % higher glutathione levels in mitochondria, chloroplasts, nuclei, peroxisomes and the cytosol than −S plants. Interestingly, mitochondria were the only organelles where TMV-inoculation resulted in a decrease of glutathione levels when compared to mock-inoculated plants. This was particularly obvious in −S plants, where the development of necrotic lesions was more pronounced. In summary, the overall higher antioxidative capacity and elevated activation of defense genes in +S plants indicate that sufficient sulfate supply enhances a preexisting plant defense reaction resulting in reduced symptom development and virus accumulation. PMID:22122784

  12. Context of action of Proline Dehydrogenase (ProDH) in the Hypersensitive Response of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proline (Pro) dehydrogenase (ProDH) potentiates the oxidative burst and cell death of the plant Hypersensitive Response (HR) by mechanisms not yet elucidated. ProDH converts Pro into ∆1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and can act together with P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH) to produce Glu, or with P5C reductase (P5CR) to regenerate Pro and thus stimulate the Pro/P5C cycle. To better understand the effects of ProDH in HR, we studied the enzyme at three stages of the defense response differing in their ROS and cell death levels. In addition, we tested if ProDH requires P5CDH to potentiate HR. Results Control and infected leaves of wild type and p5cdh plants were used to monitor ProDH activity, in vivo Pro catabolism, amino acid content, and gene expression. Wild type plants activated ProDH at all HR stages. They did not consume Pro during maximal ROS accumulation, and maintained almost basal P5C levels at all conditions. p5cdh mutants activated ProDH as wild type plants. They achieved maximum oxidative burst and cell death levels producing normal HR lesions, but evidenced premature defense activation. Conclusion ProDH activation has different effects on HR. Before the oxidative burst it leads to Pro consumption involving the action of P5CDH. During the oxidative burst, ProDH becomes functionally uncoupled to P5CDH and apparently works with P5CR. The absence of P5CDH does not reduce ROS, cell death, or pathogen resistance, indicating this enzyme is not accompanying ProDH in the potentiation of these defense responses. In contrast, p5cdh infected plants displayed increased ROS burst and earlier initiation of HR cell death. In turn, our results suggest that ProDH may sustain HR by participating in the Pro/P5C cycle, whose action on HR must be formally evaluated in a future. PMID:24410747

  13. α2δ-1 Gene Deletion Affects Somatosensory Neuron Function and Delays Mechanical Hypersensitivity in Response to Peripheral Nerve Damage

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ryan; Bauer, Claudia S.; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Margas, Wojciech; Ferron, Laurent; Chaggar, Kanchan; Crews, Kasumi; Ramirez, Juan D.; Bennett, David L. H.; Schwartz, Arnold; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2013-01-01

    The α2δ-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is upregulated after sensory nerve injury and is also the therapeutic target of gabapentinoid drugs. It is therefore likely to play a key role in the development of neuropathic pain. In this study, we have examined mice in which α2δ-1 gene expression is disrupted, to determine whether α2δ-1 is involved in various modalities of nociception, and for the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). We find that naive α2δ-1−/− mice show a marked behavioral deficit in mechanical and cold sensitivity, but no change in thermal nociception threshold. The lower mechanical sensitivity is mirrored by a reduced in vivo electrophysiological response of dorsal horn wide dynamic range neurons. The CaV2.2 level is reduced in brain and spinal cord synaptosomes from α2δ-1−/− mice, and α2δ-1−/− DRG neurons exhibit lower calcium channel current density. Furthermore, a significantly smaller number of DRG neurons respond to the TRPM8 agonist menthol. After PSNL, α2δ-1−/− mice show delayed mechanical hypersensitivity, which only develops at 11 d after surgery, whereas in wild-type littermates it is maximal at the earliest time point measured (3 d). There is no compensatory upregulation of α2δ-2 or α2δ-3 after PSNL in α2δ-1−/− mice, and other transcripts, including neuropeptide Y and activating transcription factor-3, are upregulated normally. Furthermore, the ability of pregabalin to alleviate mechanical hypersensitivity is lost in PSNL α2δ-1−/− mice. Thus, α2δ-1 is essential for rapid development of mechanical hypersensitivity in a nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. PMID:24133248

  14. α2δ-1 gene deletion affects somatosensory neuron function and delays mechanical hypersensitivity in response to peripheral nerve damage.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ryan; Bauer, Claudia S; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Margas, Wojciech; Ferron, Laurent; Chaggar, Kanchan; Crews, Kasumi; Ramirez, Juan D; Bennett, David L H; Schwartz, Arnold; Dickenson, Anthony H; Dolphin, Annette C

    2013-10-16

    The α2δ-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is upregulated after sensory nerve injury and is also the therapeutic target of gabapentinoid drugs. It is therefore likely to play a key role in the development of neuropathic pain. In this study, we have examined mice in which α2δ-1 gene expression is disrupted, to determine whether α2δ-1 is involved in various modalities of nociception, and for the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). We find that naive α2δ-1(-/-) mice show a marked behavioral deficit in mechanical and cold sensitivity, but no change in thermal nociception threshold. The lower mechanical sensitivity is mirrored by a reduced in vivo electrophysiological response of dorsal horn wide dynamic range neurons. The CaV2.2 level is reduced in brain and spinal cord synaptosomes from α2δ-1(-/-) mice, and α2δ-1(-/-) DRG neurons exhibit lower calcium channel current density. Furthermore, a significantly smaller number of DRG neurons respond to the TRPM8 agonist menthol. After PSNL, α2δ-1(-/-) mice show delayed mechanical hypersensitivity, which only develops at 11 d after surgery, whereas in wild-type littermates it is maximal at the earliest time point measured (3 d). There is no compensatory upregulation of α2δ-2 or α2δ-3 after PSNL in α2δ-1(-/-) mice, and other transcripts, including neuropeptide Y and activating transcription factor-3, are upregulated normally. Furthermore, the ability of pregabalin to alleviate mechanical hypersensitivity is lost in PSNL α2δ-1(-/-) mice. Thus, α2δ-1 is essential for rapid development of mechanical hypersensitivity in a nerve injury model of neuropathic pain.

  15. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    MedlinePlus

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis usually occurs in people who work in places where there are high levels of organic dusts, fungus, or molds. Long-term exposure can lead to lung inflammation and acute lung disease . ...

  16. Hymenolepis nana: adoptive transfer of protective immunity and delayed type hypersensitivity response with mesenteric lymph node cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Asano, K; Muramatsu, K; Okamoto, K

    1991-01-01

    A marked degree of footpad swelling was observed in BALB/c mice infected with Hymenolepis nana eggs, when soluble egg antigen was injected into their footpads 4 to 21 days after the egg infection, indicating delayed type hypersensitivity responses in infected mice. Adoptive transfer with mesenteric lymph node cells from donor mice (BALB/c strain; +/+) infected with eggs 4 days before cell collection could confer this hypersensitivity to recipient nude mice (BALB/c strain; nu/nu). These mesenteric lymph node cells were then divided into two fractions, blast-enriched and blast-depleted cells, by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll. The recipients intravenously injected with the blast-depleted cell fraction showed a marked increase in footpad thickness, whereas the intravenous transfer of the blast-enriched cell fraction resulted in an insignificant increase in footpad thickness. The transfer of the blast-enriched cell fraction, but not of the blast-depleted cell fraction, conferred a strong adoptive immunity on syngeneic recipient nude mice, when the immunity transferred was assessed by examining cysticercoids developed in the intestinal villi on Day 4 of challenge infection. The lack of delayed type hypersensitivity response in mice that received the blast-enriched cell population was not due to a lack of the capacity of the cells to induce the response, because the cells were capable of inducing a significant increase in thickness of footpads of normal mice when these cells were locally injected into the footpad together with soluble egg antigen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Hypersensitive Response-Inducing Elicitor from Magnaporthe oryzae that Triggers Defense Response in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingjia; Zeng, Hongmei; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Xiufen; Shi, Huaixing; Zhou, Tingting; Zhao, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnaporthe oryzae, the rice blast fungus, might secrete certain proteins related to plant-fungal pathogen interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report the purification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein elicitor (MoHrip1) secreted by M. oryzae. The protein fraction was purified and identified by de novo sequencing, and the sequence matched the genomic sequence of a putative protein from M. oryzae strain 70-15 (GenBank accession No. XP_366602.1). The elicitor-encoding gene mohrip1 was isolated; it consisted of a 429 bp cDNA, which encodes a polypeptide of 142 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.322 kDa and a pI of 4.53. The deduced protein, MoHrip1, was expressed in E. coli. And the expression protein collected from bacterium also forms necrotic lesions in tobacco. MoHrip1 could induce the early events of the defense response, including hydrogen peroxide production, callose deposition, and alkalization of the extracellular medium, in tobacco. Moreover, MoHrip1-treated rice seedlings possessed significantly enhanced systemic resistance to M. oryzae compared to the control seedlings. The real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of some pathogenesis-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction could also be induced by MoHrip1. Conclusion/Significance The results demonstrate that MoHrip1 triggers defense responses in rice and could be used for controlling rice blast disease. PMID:22624059

  18. Artificial light at night alters delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in response to acute stress in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Kaugars, Katherine E; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    Several physiological and behavioral processes rely on precisely timed light information derived from the natural solar cycle. Using this information, traits have adapted to allow individuals within specific niches to optimize survival and reproduction, but urbanization by humans has significantly altered natural habitats. Nighttime light exposure alters immune function in several species, which could lead to decreased fitness or survival, particularly in the face of an environmental challenge. We exposed male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to five lux of light at night for four weeks, and then administered six hours of acute restraint stress. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed immediately following stress. Acute restraint increased the DTH reaction in dark nights, but exposure to nighttime light prevented this response. Exposure to light at night prolonged the DTH response in non-stressed control hamsters. These results suggest that light pollution may significantly alter physiological responses in Siberian hamsters, particularly in response to a salient environmental challenge such as stress.

  19. Laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Hull, J H; Menon, A

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic cough often report symptoms arising in the throat, in response to non-specific stimuli. Accordingly, the concept of a 'hypersensitivity' of the larynx in chronic cough has evolved over the past ten years. Patients with cough and laryngeal hypersensitivity frequently report features that overlap other laryngeal dysfunction syndromes, including a tendency for the vocal cords to inappropriately adduct. The mechanisms underlying laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough are currently unclear, however recent studies provide new clinical and physiological techniques to aid detection and monitoring of laryngeal hypersensitivity. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field.

  20. Resistance to citrus canker induced by a variant of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri is associated with a hypersensitive cell death response involving autophagy-associated vacuolar processes.

    PubMed

    Roeschlin, Roxana A; Favaro, María A; Chiesa, María A; Alemano, Sergio; Vojnov, Adrián A; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Filippone, María P; Gmitter, Frederick G; Gadea, José; Marano, María R

    2016-09-20

    Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (X. citri) is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a disease that seriously affects most commercially important Citrus species worldwide. We have identified previously a natural variant, X. citri A(T) , that triggers a host-specific defence response in Citrus limon. However, the mechanisms involved in this canker disease resistance are unknown. In this work, the defence response induced by X. citri A(T) was assessed by transcriptomic, physiological and ultrastructural analyses, and the effects on bacterial biofilm formation were monitored in parallel. We show that X. citri A(T) triggers a hypersensitive response associated with the interference of biofilm development and arrest of bacterial growth in C. limon. This plant response involves an extensive transcriptional reprogramming, setting in motion cell wall reinforcement, the oxidative burst and the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and phenolic compounds. Ultrastructural analyses revealed subcellular changes involving the activation of autophagy-associated vacuolar processes. Our findings show the activation of SA-dependent defence in response to X. citri A(T) and suggest a coordinated regulation between the SA and flavonoid pathways, which is associated with autophagy mechanisms that control pathogen invasion in C. limon. Furthermore, this defence response protects C. limon plants from disease on subsequent challenges by pathogenic X. citri. This knowledge will allow the rational exploitation of the plant immune system as a biotechnological approach for the management of the disease.

  1. Analysis of a DNase I-hypersensitive site in transgenic Drosophila reveals a key regulatory element of Sgs3.

    PubMed Central

    Ramain, P; Giangrande, A; Richards, G; Bellard, M

    1988-01-01

    We have undertaken chromatin studies on transformed Drosophila strains carrying DNA sequences modified in the region of the DNase I (EC 3.1.4.5)-hypersensitive sites -750 and -600 base pairs upstream from the Sgs3 start site. Although both sites are developmentally specific, modifications in the -750 site have little or no effect on Sgs3-encoded transcript levels, whereas either deletion or replacement of sequences at the -600 site causes an important reduction in transcript levels. The element associated with the -600 site enhances Sgs3 transcription when displaced with respect to the start site. This combined approach has defined sequence elements necessary both for normal transcript levels as well as the chromatin structure characteristic of Sgs3 activity in vivo. Images PMID:3128796

  2. Copper hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-10-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions.

  3. Use of Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC) to identify novel genetic loci that modify the maize hypersensitive response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The partially-dominant, autoactive maize disease resistance gene Rp1-D21 causes hypersensitive response (HR) lesions to form spontaneously on the leaves and stem in the absence of pathogen recognition. The maize nested association mapping (NAM) population consists of 25 200-line subpopulations each...

  4. If photoinhibition of soybean photosystem II enhances the hypersensitive response, it is not solely due to blockage of electron transfer flow at D1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have suggested that photoinhibition, through inactivation of photosystem II (PSII), could be beneficial to plants during defense to pathogens through enhanced reactive oxygen (ROS), especially during the hypersensitive response (HR). In this study, we addressed this question by focu...

  5. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, contact sensitivity, and phytohemagglutinin skin-test responses of heat- and cold-stressed calves.

    PubMed

    Kelley, K W; Greenfield, R E; Evermann, J F; Parish, S M; Perryman, L E

    1982-05-01

    Three-week-old Holstein bull calves were used to investigate the effect of a 2-week chronic heat (35 C) or cold (-5 C) exposure on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified protein derivative after sensitization with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contact sensitivity (CS) reactions to 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin tests. Heat exposure reduced expression of DTH reactions by 42% and CS reactions by 38% at 24 hours after elicitation of the responses. The PHA-induced skin tests were not affected after 1 week of heat exposure, but this reaction was reduced by 20% after 2 weeks of heat exposure. The immune response of calves exposed to cold air temperatures was more complex. Cold exposure suppressed CS reactions by 39% at the end of both the 1st and 2nd weeks. The PHA response was reduced by 39% after 2 weeks of cold exposure. The DTH response depended on duration of cold exposure. The DTH reaction was increased by 42% after 1 week, but was reduced by 14% after 2 weeks. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stressors alter host resistance by affecting the immune system. Furthermore, these stress-induced changes in immune events depend on the type of immune response, the nature of the environmental stressor, and the length of time that calves are exposed to the stressor.

  6. Hypersensitive response of Sesamum prostratum Retz. elicitated by Fusarium oxysporum f. sesame (Schelt) Jacz Butler.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Reeja; Rajan, S Sajitha; Satheesh, L Shilpa; Harish, S R; Sunukumar, S S; Sandeep, B S; Mohan, T C Kishor; Murugan, K

    2009-10-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the intensity and timing of the ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and expression of antioxidant enzymes as initial responses of calli of Sesamum prostratum (SP) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sesame crude toxin metabolite of varying concentrations. 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) / coconut milk combinations were found to be more efficient among different hormonal regimes (2,4 -D, 2,4-D/casein hydrosylate and 2,4-D/ coconut milk). The concentration of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were higher (13.2 and 5.7-folds, respectively) after 6 h in the treated callus confirmed the oxidative stress. An increase in total phenolics was also detected in inoculated callus. Increased activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) corroborate with the high level of ROSs, such as O2*- and H2O2. The poor activity of catalase confirmed the oxidative burst in the callus leading to necrosis. Activity of peroxidase was at par with total phenolics. Similarly, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) also showed high activity revealing the active phase in the synthesis of secondary metabolites in the plant. The oxidative burst generated in the interaction between Sesamum and F. oxysporum f. sesame toxin might be the first line of defense by the host mounted against the invading necrotrophic pathogen. The results suggested that the rapid production of reactive oxygen species in the callus in response to fungal toxin had been proposed to orchestrate the establishment of different defensive barriers against the pathogens.

  7. Gender differences in delayed-type hypersensitivity response: effects of stress and coping in first-year law students.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sarah McQueary; Schipper, Lindsey J; Roach, Abbey R; Segerstrom, Suzanne C

    2009-07-01

    Law students show significant deficits in emotional and physical well-being compared with groups of students in other areas of higher education. Furthermore, evidence suggests that these effects may be worse for women than for men. The use of active coping can positively affect immunity under stress, but this may be most true for men in the context of law school. The current study examined the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin responses of first-year law students (n=121) and a comparison group (n=30). Students' health behaviors, self-evaluative emotions, and coping strategies were also reported. Male law students had larger DTH responses than females, but this gender effect was not present in the comparison group. Endorsement of perseverance under stress (n=19), an active coping strategy, moderated the gender effect on immunity. Perseverance associated with larger DTH responses and more positive self-evaluative emotion, but only among men. These results indicate that active coping may be less efficacious for women than for men in law school, which in turn may limit women's opportunities to attenuate negative effects of law school.

  8. Decrease in sensitisation rate and intestinal anaphylactic response after nitric oxide synthase inhibition in a food hypersensitivity model.

    PubMed Central

    Fargeas, M J; Theodorou, V; Weirich, B; Fioramonti, J; Buéno, L

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although nitric oxide (NO) has been found to have a role in gut inflammation and to modulate immunoglobulin production, little is known about its part in food hypersensitivities. AIM--This study aimed to evaluate the role of NO through the inhibition of constitutive and inducible NO synthase (cNOS and iNOS respectively) on the sensitisation process (antibody titres) and on intestinal anaphylactic responses (colonic hypersecretion upon antigen challenge). ANIMALS AND METHODS--Guinea pigs sensitised to cow's milk proteins were treated either during the sensitisation period or before antigen challenge by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (inhibiting both cNOS and iNOS) or amino-guanidine (selective iNOS inhibitor). RESULTS--Chronic treatment by L-NAME or aminoguanidine reduced antibody titres and the secretory response to antigen challenge. In contrast, only L-NAME administered before challenge was able to antagonise the hypersecretion induced by the challenge. CONCLUSIONS--NO generated by iNOS has a role in the sensitisation process: iNOS inhibition results in lower rates of antibodies leading to a reduced secretory response upon challenge. In contrast, blockade of colonic hypersecretion by L-NAME but not by aminoguanidine suggests that NO via cNOS is a key mediator in intestinal anaphylactic reactions. PMID:8707095

  9. The hypersensitive response to tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus nuclear shuttle protein is inhibited by transcriptional activator protein.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mazhar; Mansoor, Shahid; Iram, Shazia; Zafar, Yusuf; Briddon, Rob W

    2007-12-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is a common feature of plant disease resistance reactions and a type of programmed cell death (PCD). Many pathogens are able to modulate pathways involved in cell death. In contrast to animal viruses, inhibitors of PCD activity have not been identified for plant-infecting viruses. Previously, we have reported that the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) induces an HR in Nicotiana tabacum and Lycopersicon esculentum plants when expressed under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. However, HR is not evident in plants infected with ToLCNDV, suggesting that the virus encodes a factor (or factors) that counters this response. Analysis of all ToLCNDV-encoded genes pinpointed the transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) as the factor mediating the anti-HR effect. Deletion mutagenesis showed the central region of TrAP, containing a zinc finger domain and nuclear localization signal, to be important in inhibiting the HR. These results demonstrate that TrAP counters HR-induced cell death, the first such activity identified for a plant-infecting virus.

  10. Hypersensitive response and acyl‐homoserine lactone production of the fire blight antagonists Erwinia tasmaniensis and Erwinia billingiae

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Jock, Susanne; Du, Zhiqiang; Geider, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Summary Fire blight caused by the Gram‐negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora can be controlled by antagonistic microorganisms. We characterized epiphytic bacteria isolated from healthy apple and pear trees in Australia, named Erwinia tasmaniensis, and the epiphytic bacterium Erwinia billingiae from England for physiological properties, interaction with plants and interference with growth of E. amylovora. They reduced symptom formation by the fire blight pathogen on immature pears and the colonization of apple flowers. In contrast to E. billingiae, E. tasmaniensis strains induced a hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves and synthesized levan in the presence of sucrose. With consensus primers deduced from lsc as well as hrpL, hrcC and hrcR of the hrp region of E. amylovora and of related bacteria, these genes were successfully amplified from E. tasmaniensis DNA and alignment of the encoded proteins to other Erwinia species supported a role for environmental fitness of the epiphytic bacterium. Unlike E. tasmaniensis, the epiphytic bacterium E. billingiae produced an acyl‐homoserine lactone for bacterial cell‐to‐cell communication. Their competition with the growth of E. amylovora may be involved in controlling fire blight. PMID:21261861

  11. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula is not associated with a switch to a Th2 response

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kelly; Ghosh, Manik C.; Schwingshackl, Andreas; Rapalo, Gabriel; Luellen, Charlean; Waters, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immune-mediated interstitial lung disease that develops following repeated exposure to inhaled environmental antigens. The disease results in alveolitis and granuloma formation and may progress to a chronic form associated with fibrosis; a greater understanding of the immunopathogenic mechanisms leading to chronic HP is needed. We used the Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (SR) mouse model of HP to determine the extent to which a switch to a Th2-type immune response is associated with chronic HP. Exposure of wild-type (WT) and tlr2/9−/− mice to SR for 14 wk resulted in neutrophilic and lymphocytic alveolitis that was not dependent on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 9. Long-term exposure of WT mice to SR resulted in a significant increase in collagen deposition, protein leakage, and IL-1α accompanied by a decrease in quasistatic compliance and total lung capacity compared with unexposed mice. This was associated with an increase in IL-17 but not IL-4 production or recruitment of Th2 cells. tlr2/9−/− mice exhibited an increase in protein leakage but less IL-1α and collagen deposition in the lungs compared with WT mice, yet they still displayed a decrease in quasistatic compliance, although total lung capacity was not affected. These mice exhibited an increase in both IL-13 and IL-17, which suggests that IL-13 may ameliorate some of the lung damage caused by long-term SR exposure. Our results suggest that lung pathology following long-term SR exposure in WT mice is associated with the IL-17 response and that TLRs 2 and 9 may inhibit the development of the IL-13/Th2 response. PMID:26719148

  12. Glycerol monomycolate, a latent tuberculosis-associated mycobacterial lipid, induces eosinophilic hypersensitivity responses in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yuki; Matsunaga, Isamu; Komori, Takaya; Urakawa, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Takashi; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hiromatsu, Kenji; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Sugita, Masahiko

    2011-06-03

    Dynamic changes in the lipid composition of the cell wall occur in pathogenic mycobacteria that are often intended for adaptation to the host environment. Dormant mycobacteria should have evolved efficient maneuvers for cohabitation, allowing the microbes to persist for years within the host. Glycerol monomycolate (GroMM) has been implicated as a specific immune target in human individuals with latent, but not active, tuberculosis, but the in vivo response to GroMM and the relevance of it to latent infection remain poorly understood. Here, we immunized guinea pigs with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) expressing high levels of GroMM and then, monitored skin reactions at the site of challenge with GroMM-containing liposome. We found that BCG-immunized guinea pigs mounted enhanced skin reactions to GroMM with prominent local infiltration by eosinophils. Consistent with this, GroMM-stimulated lymph node cells upregulated the expression of T helper (Th)2-type cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10, that could potentially counteract the microbe-eliminating Th1-type cytokine response. On the basis of these observations, we predict that the host response to GroMM produced by dormant mycobacteria would contribute to their long-term survival in the host.

  13. Transgenic production of cytokinin suppresses bacterially induced hypersensitive response symptoms and increases antioxidative enzyme levels in Nicotiana spp.

    PubMed

    Barna, B; Smigocki, A C; Baker, J C

    2008-11-01

    Responses of cytokinin overproducing transgenic Nicotiana plants to infections with compatible and incompatible Pseudomonas syringae pathovars were compared. Plants used were transformed with the ipt(isopentenyl transferase) gene that catalyzes the synthesis of cytokinin. In cytokinin overproducing lines that carry the ipt gene fused to the CaMV 35S (Nt+ipt), the wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor II (Ntx+ipt), or the light-inducible Rubisco small subunit protein (Npl+ipt) promoter, development of the hypersensitive response (HR) after infection with incompatible bacteria (P. syringae pv. tomato) was significantly inhibited as compared to the untransformed (Nt) controls. Over a 12 h period following inoculation, P. syrinage pv. tomato populations were slightly reduced in leaves of the cytokinin-overproducing Nt-ipt line compared with the Nt control. When the compatible P. syringae. pv. tabaci was used to infect the ipt transformed lines, slight or no significant differences in necrosis development were observed. Following infection, the titer of P. syringae pv. tabaci increased rapidly in both the transgenic and control lines but was higher in Nt+ipt plants. Leaf superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities were about 60% higher in ipt leaf extracts than in the controls. This augmented antioxidant capacity likely decreased the amount of H(2)O(2) that may be associated with the higher tolerance of plants to pathogen-induced necrosis. In addition, the Nt+ipt lines had a significantly lower molar ratio of free sterols to phospholipids. The more stable membrane lipid composition and the higher antioxidant capacity likely contributed to the suppressed HR symptoms in the cytokinin overproducing Nt+ipt plants. In conclusion, the overproduction of cytokinins in tobacco appears to suppress the HR symptoms induced by incompatible bacteria.

  14. Inhibition of murine IgE and immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity responses to ovalbumin by the immunomodulatory agent leflunomide

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, E R; Kuba, A; Montermann, E; Bartlett, R R; Reske-Kunz, A B

    1999-01-01

    Leflunomide has been identified as an immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory compound. Allergic disease is characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, production of allergen-specific IgE and the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells and granulocytes. Here we demonstrate, using an in vivo murine model, the ability of leflunomide to down-regulate levels of total and allergen-specific serum IgE production. Mice receiving leflunomide (45 mg/kg) orally at the time of primary immunization with ovalbumin adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant, showed a reduction in total serum IgE levels of 95%, 41% and 32% following primary, secondary and tertiary immunizations, respectively (P < 0.05). When leflunomide was administered both at the time of primary and subsequent immunizations, reductions in total and specific serum IgE levels of > 80% and > 38%, respectively, were observed (P < 0.05). Administration of leflunomide to mice which had already developed an IgE response resulted in reductions in total and specific serum IgE levels of > 80% and > 45%, respectively (P < 0.05). Following leflunomide treatment, animals failed to develop immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity responses when challenged intradermally with allergen. Down-regulation of immunoglobulin production was not restricted to IgE, since levels of allergen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a in serum were also reduced. The finding of significant reductions in total and allergen-specific IgM suggests that the mechanism of action does not involve selective inhibition of immunoglobulin class switching. A loss in production of the T helper cell-derived B cell differentiation factor IL-5 may account for the reduction in immunoglobulin levels. In adoptive transfer experiments leflunomide did not induce tolerance in allergen-reactive Th2 populations, contrary to animal disease models of transplantation and autoimmunity, where leflunomide was shown to induce tolerance in the effector T cell population. PMID:9933446

  15. A conserved proline residue in Dothideomycete Avr4 effector proteins is required to trigger a Cf-4-dependent hypersensitive response.

    PubMed

    Mesarich, Carl H; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Beenen, Henriek G; Cordovez, Viviane; Guo, Yanan; Karimi Jashni, Mansoor; Bradshaw, Rosie E; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2016-01-01

    CfAvr4, a chitin-binding effector protein produced by the Dothideomycete tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum, protects the cell wall of this fungus against hydrolysis by secreted host chitinases during infection. However, in the presence of the Cf-4 immune receptor of tomato, CfAvr4 triggers a hypersensitive response (HR), which renders the pathogen avirulent. Recently, several orthologues of CfAvr4 have been identified from phylogenetically closely related species of Dothideomycete fungi. Of these, DsAvr4 from Dothistroma septosporum also triggers a Cf-4-dependent HR, but CaAvr4 and CbAvr4 from Cercospora apii and Cercospora beticola, respectively, do not. All, however, bind chitin. To identify the region(s) and specific amino acid residue(s) of CfAvr4 and DsAvr4 required to trigger a Cf-4-dependent HR, chimeric and mutant proteins, in which specific protein regions or single amino acid residues, respectively, were exchanged between CfAvr4 and CaAvr4 or DsAvr4 and CbAvr4, were tested for their ability to trigger an HR in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transgenic for the Cf-4 immune receptor gene. Based on this approach, a single region common to CfAvr4 and DsAvr4 was determined to carry a conserved proline residue necessary for the elicitation of this HR. In support of this result, a Cf-4-dependent HR was triggered by mutant CaAvr4 and CbAvr4 proteins carrying an arginine-to-proline substitution at this position. This study provides the first step in deciphering how Avr4 orthologues from different Dothideomycete fungi trigger a Cf-4-dependent HR.

  16. Pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele; Müller, Monika; Ashraf, Aroosiah; Neziri, Alban Y; Streitberger, Konrad; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Hypersensitivity of pain pathways is considered a relevant determinant of symptoms in chronic pain patients, but data on its prevalence are very limited. To our knowledge, no data on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity are available. We studied the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in 961 consecutive patients with various chronic pain conditions. Pain threshold and nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold to electrical stimulation were used to assess pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity, respectively. Using 10th percentile cutoff of previously determined reference values, the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity (95% confidence interval) was 71.2 (68.3-74.0) and 80.0 (77.0-82.6), respectively. As a secondary aim, we analyzed demographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics as factors potentially associated with pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity using logistic regression models. Both hypersensitivity parameters were unaffected by most factors analyzed. Depression, catastrophizing, pain-related sleep interference, and average pain intensity were significantly associated with hypersensitivity. However, none of them was significant for both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Furthermore, the odds ratios were very low, indicating modest quantitative impact. To our knowledge, this is the largest prevalence study on central hypersensitivity and the first one on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain patients. The results revealed an impressively high prevalence, supporting a high clinical relevance of this phenomenon. Electrical pain thresholds and nociceptive withdrawal reflex explore aspects of pain processing that are mostly independent of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical pain-related characteristics.

  17. The N-terminal fragment of the tomato torrado virus RNA1-encoded polyprotein induces a hypersensitive response (HR)-like reaction in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Przemysław; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2016-07-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is a defence reaction observed during incompatible plant-pathogen interactions in plants infected with a wide range of fungi, bacteria and viruses. Here, we show that an N-terminal polyprotein fragment encoded by tomato torrado virus RNA1, located between the first ATG codon and the protease cofactor (ProCo) motif, induces an HR-like reaction in Nicotiana benthamiana. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression of the first 105 amino acids (the calculated molecular weight of the fragment was ca. 11.33 kDa, hereafter refered to as the 11K domain) from ToTV RNA1 induced an HR-like phenotype in infiltrated leaves. To investigate whether the 11K domain could influence the virulence and pathogenicity of a recombinant virus, we created a potato virus X (PVX) with the 11K coding sequence inserted under a duplicated coat protein promoter. We found that 11K substantially increased the virulence of the recombinant virus. Disease phenotype induced in N. benthamiana by PVX-11K was characterized by strong local and systemic necrosis. This was not observed when the 11K domain was expressed from PVX in an antisense orientation. Further analyses revealed that the 11K domain could not suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the N. benthamiana 16c line. In silico analysis of the predicted secondary structure of the 11K domain indicated the presence of two putative helices that are highly conserved in tomato-infecting representatives of the genus Torradovirus.

  18. Elucidation of the hrp clusters of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola that control the hypersensitive response in nonhost tobacco and pathogenicity in susceptible host rice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Li-Fang; Wang, Xing-Ping; Xiang, Yong; Zhang, Bing; Li, Yu-Rong; Xiao, You-Lun; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Walmsley, Adrian R; Chen, Gong-You

    2006-09-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the cause of bacterial leaf streak in rice, possesses clusters of hrp genes that determine its ability to elicit a hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco and pathogenicity in host rice. A 27-kb region of the genome of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (RS105) was identified and sequenced, revealing 10 hrp, 9 hrc (hrp conserved), and 8 hpa (hrp-associated) genes and 7 regulatory plant-inducible promoter boxes. While the region from hpa2 to hpaB and the hrpF operon resembled the corresponding genes of other xanthomonads, the hpaB-hrpF region incorporated an hrpE3 gene that was not present in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. We found that an hrpF mutant had lost the ability to elicit the HR in tobacco and pathogenicity in adult rice plants but still caused water-soaking symptoms in rice seedlings and that Hpa1 is an HR elicitor in nonhost tobacco whose expression is controlled by an hrp regulator, HrpX. Using an Hrp phenotype complementation test, we identified a small hrp cluster containing the hrpG and hrpX regulatory genes, which is separated from the core hrp cluster. In addition, we identified a gene, prhA (plant-regulated hrp), that played a key role in the Hrp phenotype of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola but was neither in the core hrp cluster nor in the hrp regulatory cluster. A prhA mutant failed to reduce the HR in tobacco and pathogenicity in rice but caused water-soaking symptoms in rice. This is the first report that X. oryzae pv. oryzicola possesses three separate DNA regions for HR induction in nonhost tobacco and pathogenicity in host rice, which will provide a fundamental base to understand pathogenicity determinants of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola compared with those of X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  19. DOLICHOL PHOSPHATE MANNOSE SYNTHASE1 Mediates the Biogenesis of Isoprenyl-Linked Glycans and Influences Development, Stress Response, and Ammonium Hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Jadid, Nurul; Mialoundama, Alexis Samba; Heintz, Dimitri; Ayoub, Daniel; Erhardt, Mathieu; Mutterer, Jérôme; Meyer, Denise; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rahier, Alain; Camara, Bilal; Bouvier, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The most abundant posttranslational modification in nature is the attachment of preassembled high-mannose-type glycans, which determines the fate and localization of the modified protein and modulates the biological functions of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored and N-glycosylated proteins. In eukaryotes, all mannose residues attached to glycoproteins from the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) derive from the polyprenyl monosaccharide carrier, dolichol P-mannose (Dol-P-Man), which is flipped across the ER membrane to the lumen. We show that in plants, Dol-P-Man is synthesized when Dol-P-Man synthase1 (DPMS1), the catalytic core, interacts with two binding proteins, DPMS2 and DPMS3, that may serve as membrane anchors for DPMS1 or provide catalytic assistance. This configuration is reminiscent of that observed in mammals but is distinct from the single DPMS protein catalyzing Dol-P-Man biosynthesis in bakers’ yeast and protozoan parasites. Overexpression of DPMS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in disorganized stem morphology and vascular bundle arrangements, wrinkled seed coat, and constitutive ER stress response. Loss-of-function mutations and RNA interference–mediated reduction of DPMS1 expression in Arabidopsis also caused a wrinkled seed coat phenotype and most remarkably enhanced hypersensitivity to ammonium that was manifested by extensive chlorosis and a strong reduction of root growth. Collectively, these data reveal a previously unsuspected role of the prenyl-linked carrier pathway for plant development and physiology that may help integrate several aspects of candidate susceptibility genes to ammonium stress. PMID:21558543

  20. De Novo Foliar Transcriptome of Chenopodium amaranticolor and Analysis of Its Gene Expression During Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Pei, Xinwu; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Zifeng; Wang, Zhixing; Jia, Shirong; Li, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Background The hypersensitive response (HR) system of Chenopodium spp. confers broad-spectrum virus resistance. However, little knowledge exists at the genomic level for Chenopodium, thus impeding the advanced molecular research of this attractive feature. Hence, we took advantage of RNA-seq to survey the foliar transcriptome of C. amaranticolor, a Chenopodium species widely used as laboratory indicator for pathogenic viruses, in order to facilitate the characterization of the HR-type of virus resistance. Methodology and Principal Findings Using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform, we obtained 39,868,984 reads with 3,588,208,560 bp, which were assembled into 112,452 unigenes (3,847 clusters and 108,605 singletons). BlastX search against the NCBI NR database identified 61,698 sequences with a cut-off E-value above 10−5. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, GO, COG and KEGG terms, respectively. A total number of 738 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and homology sequences of 6 key signaling proteins within the R proteins-directed signaling pathway were identified. Based on this transcriptome data, we investigated the gene expression profiles over the stage of HR induced by Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus by using digital gene expression analysis. Numerous candidate genes specifically or commonly regulated by these two distinct viruses at early and late stages of the HR were identified, and the dynamic changes of the differently expressed genes enriched in the pathway of plant-pathogen interaction were particularly emphasized. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first description of the genetic makeup of C. amaranticolor, providing deep insight into the comprehensive gene expression information at transcriptional level in this species. The 738 RGAs as well as the differentially regulated genes, particularly the common genes regulated by both TMV and CMV, are suitable candidates which merit further functional characterization

  1. Delayed-type skin hypersensitivity and in vitro lymphocyte immunostimulation responses of swine following inoculation with Mycobacterium avium cell walls and a mycobacterial immunopotentiating glycolipid.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, H W; Gessner, J W; Woodard, L F; Everson, D O

    1983-06-01

    Miniature swine (n = 5 per group) were inoculated intradermally with mineral oil-in-water emulsions containing either 150 micrograms of mycobacterial immunopotentiating glycolipid P3 (EP3), 150 micrograms of lyophilized Mycobacterium avium (serotype 8) cell walls (E-MaCW), or 150 micrograms P3 and 150 micrograms M. avium cell walls (EP3-MaCW). Swine vaccinated with E-MaCW and EP3-MaCW developed antigen-sensitive lymphocytes detectable with delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests and lymphocyte transformation assays. Swine injected with EP3 were not sensitized. In general EP3-MaCW evoked a more pronounced in vivo DTH tuberculin skin test and in vitro lymphocyte transformation responses than E-MaCW. Time-course studies indicated a more persistent response in swine injected with EP3-MaCW than in those given E-MaCW. Commercial type Yorkshire swine (n = 5) inoculated intradermally with EP3-MaCW developed cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to avian tuberculin detectable in vivo with delayed-type skin hypersensitivity and in vitro with lymphocyte immunostimulation responses.

  2. Delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions - new concepts.

    PubMed

    Posadas, S J; Pichler, W J

    2007-07-01

    Immune reactions to small molecular compounds such as drugs can cause a variety of diseases mainly involving skin, but also liver, kidney, lungs and other organs. In addition to the well-known immediate, IgE-mediated reactions to drugs, many drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions appear delayed. Recent data have shown that in these delayed reactions drug-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells recognize drugs through their T cell receptors (TCR) in an MHC-dependent way. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-reactive T cells in patients with distinct forms of exanthems revealed that distinct T cell functions lead to different clinical phenotypes. Taken together, these data allow delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) to be further subclassified into T cell reactions, which by releasing certain cytokines and chemokines preferentially activate and recruit monocytes (type IVa), eosinophils (type IVb), or neutrophils (type IVd). Moreover, cytotoxic functions by either CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells (type IVc) seem to participate in all type IV reactions. Drugs are not only immunogenic because of their chemical reactivity, but also because they may bind in a labile way to available TCRs and possibly MHC-molecules. This seems to be sufficient to stimulate certain, probably preactivated T cells. The drug seems to bind first to the fitting TCR, which already exerts some activation. For full activation, an additional interaction of the TCR with the MHC molecules is needed. The drug binding to the receptor structures is reminiscent of a pharmacological interaction between a drug and its (immune) receptor and was thus termed the p-i concept. In some patients with drug hypersensitivity, such a response occurs within hours even upon the first exposure to the drug. The T cell reaction to the drug might thus not be due to a classical, primary response, but is due to peptide-specific T cells which happen to be stimulated by a drug. This new concept has major implications

  3. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 hrpH product, an envelope protein required for elicitation of the hypersensitive response in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H C; He, S Y; Bauer, D W; Collmer, A

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 contains a 25-kb cluster of hrp genes that are required for elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. TnphoA mutagenesis of cosmid pHIR11, which contains the hrp cluster, revealed two genes encoding exported or inner-membrane-spanning proteins (H.-C. Huang, S. W. Hutcheson, and A. Collmer, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 4:469-476, 1991). The gene in complementation group X, designated hrpH, was subcloned on a 3.1-kb SalI fragment into pCPP30, a broad-host-range, mobilizable vector. The subclone restored the ability of hrpH mutant P. syringae pv. syringae 61-2089 to elicit the HR in tobacco. DNA sequence analysis of the 3.1-kb SalI fragment revealed a single open reading frame encoding an 81,956-Da preprotein with a typical amino-terminal signal peptide and no likely inner-membrane-spanning hydrophobic regions. hrpH was expressed in the presence of [35S]methionine by using the T7 RNA polymerase-promoter system and vector pT7-3 in Escherichia coli and was shown to encode a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 83,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The HrpH protein in E. coli was located in the membrane fraction and was absent from the periplasm and cytoplasm. The HrpH protein possessed similarity with several outer membrane proteins that are known to be involved in protein or phage secretion, including the Klebsiella oxytoca PulD protein, the Yersinia enterocolitica YscC protein, and the pIV protein of filamentous coliphages. All of these proteins possess a possible secretion motif, GG(X)12VP(L/F)LXXIPXIGXL(F/L), near the carboxyl terminus, and they lack a carboxyl-terminal phenylalanine, in contrast to other outer membrane proteins with no known secretion function. These results suggest that the P. syringae pv. syringae HrpH protein is involved in the secretion of a proteinaceous HR elicitor. Images PMID:1400238

  4. A simple method for screening of plant NBS-LRR genes that confer a hypersensitive response to plant viruses and its application for screening candidate pepper genes against Pepper mottle virus.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phu-Tri; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-06-01

    Plant NBS-LRR genes are abundant and have been increasingly cloned from plant genomes. In this study, a method based on agroinfiltration and virus inoculation was developed for the simple and inexpensive screening of candidate R genes that confer a hypersensitive response to plant viruses. The well-characterized resistance genes Rx and N, which confer resistance to Potato virus X (PVX) and tobamovirus, respectively, were used to optimize a transient expression assay for detection of hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Infectious sap of PVX and Tobacco mosaic virus were used to induce hypersensitive response in Rx- and N-infiltrated leaves, respectively. The transient expression of the N gene induced local hypersensitive response upon infection of another tobamovirus, Pepper mild mottle virus, through both sap and transcript inoculation. When this method was used to screen 99 candidate R genes from pepper, an R gene that confers hypersensitive response to the potyvirus Pepper mottle virus was identified. The method will be useful for the identification of plant R genes that confer resistance to viruses.

  5. Histone hyperacetylation modulates spinal type II metabotropic glutamate receptor alleviating stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Bai, Guang; Ji, Yaping; Karpowicz, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Stress is often a trigger to exacerbate chronic pain including visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome, a female predominant functional bowel disorder. Epigenetic mechanisms that mediate stress responses are a potential target to interfere with visceral pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, on visceral hypersensitivity induced by a subchronic stressor in female rats and to investigate the involvement of spinal glutamate receptors. Three daily sessions of forced swim induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid prevented or reversed the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity, increased spinal histone 3 acetylation and increased mGluR2 and mGluR3 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed enrichment of H3K9Ac and H3K18Ac at several promoter Grm2 and Grm3 regions. The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 reversed the inhibitory effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In surprising contrast, stress and/or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid had no effect on spinal NMDA receptor expression or function. These data reveal histone modification modulates mGluR2/3 expression in the spinal cord to attenuate stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. HDAC inhibitors may provide a potential approach to relieve visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:27385724

  6. HYPERSENSITIVE TO RED AND BLUE 1, a ZZ-type zinc finger protein, regulates phytochrome B-mediated red and cryptochrome-mediated blue light responses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojun; Chong, Jason; Ni, Min

    2005-03-01

    Plant photoreceptors that regulate photomorphogenic development include red/far-red-light-absorbing phytochromes and blue/UV-A-light-absorbing cryptochromes. We have undertaken a genetic screen to identify additional components downstream of the photoreceptors in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified a short hypocotyl mutant under red and blue light, hypersensitive to red and blue 1 (hrb1). Mutation in HRB1 also enhances the end-of-day far-red light response, inhibits leaf expansion and petiole elongation, and attenuates the expression of CAB3 and CHS. Double mutant analysis indicates that phyB is epistatic to hrb1 under red light, and cry1 cry2 is epistatic to hrb1 under blue light for both hypocotyl growth and light-regulated gene expression responses. HRB1 localizes to the nucleus and belongs to a protein family of Drought induced 19 (Di19). HRB1 and all other family members contain a ZZ-type zinc finger domain, which in other organisms is implicated in protein-protein interactions between dystrophin and calmodulin and between transcriptional adaptors and activators. HRB1 activity is also required for red and blue light-induced expression of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4). pif4 shows a very similar hypersensitive response as hrb1 to both red light and blue light and is epistatic to hrb1 in control of light-regulated gene expression responses. Thus, the roles of HRB1 and PIF4 together in regulating both red and blue light responses may represent points where red light signaling and blue light signaling intersect.

  7. Plant innate immunity induced by flagellin suppresses the hypersensitive response in non-host plants elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Fong; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Deng, Wen-Ling; Wen, Yu-Der; Huang, Hsiou-Chen

    2012-01-01

    A new pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi (Pav), which causes bacterial spot disease on carambola was identified in Taiwan in 1997. Many strains of this pathovar have been isolated from different locations and several varieties of hosts. Some of these strains, such as HL1, are nonmotile and elicit a strong hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco leaves, while other strains, such as PA5, are motile and elicit a weak HR. Based on the image from a transmission electron microscope, the results showed that HL1 is flagellum-deficient and PA5 has normal flagella. Here we cloned and analyzed the fliC gene and glycosylation island from Pav HL1 and PA5. The amino acid sequences of FliC from HL1 and PA5 are identical to P. s. pvs. tabaci (Pta), glycinea and phaseolicola and share very high similarity with other pathovars of P. syringae. In contrast to the flagellin mutant PtaΔfliC, PA5ΔfliC grows as well as wild type in the host plant, but it elicits stronger HR than wild type does in non-host plants. Furthermore, the purified Pav flagellin, but not the divergent flagellin from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is able to impair the HR induced by PA5ΔfliC. PA5Δfgt1 possessing nonglycosylated flagella behaved as its wild type in both bacterial growth in host and HR elicitation. Flagellin was infiltrated into tobacco leaves either simultaneously with flagellum-deficient HL1 or prior to the inoculation of wild type HL1, and both treatments impaired the HR induced by HL1. Moreover, the HR elicited by PA5 and PA5ΔfliC was enhanced by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that the flagellin is one of the PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) contributed to induce the PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Taken together, the results shown in this study reveal that flagellin in Pav is capable of suppressing HR via PTI induction during an incompatible interaction.

  8. Delayed hypersensitivity and granulomatous response after immunization with protein antigens associated with a mycobacterial glycolipid and oil droplets.

    PubMed

    Granger, D L; Yamamoto, K I; Ribi, E

    1976-02-01

    A myocardial glycolipid (P3) mixed with protein antigens in oil-in-water emulsion induced lasting delayed hypersensitivity (DH) and granulomatous inflammation after intradermal injection into guinea pigs. This did not occur when P3 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were given in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. The oil-in-water emulsions consisted of microscopic oil droplets suspended in aqueous medium. By separating oil and aqueous phases from BSA + P3 emulsion it was shown that antigen retained with oil droplets led to DH and granuloma formation. The association of antigen with oil droplets was P3 dependent and was quantitated with 125I-labeled BSA. The same phenomenon occurred with 125I-labeled rabbit gamma-globulin (RGG) + P3 emulsion. Fluorescein-conjugated RGG was observed in a particulate state within or on oil droplets in emulsion containing P3. These physical characteristics of antigen + P3 emulsion appeared to be important for immunogenicity.

  9. Drug hypersensitivity reactions involving skin.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Oliver; Schnyder, Benno; Pichler, Werner J

    2010-01-01

    Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may be fatal. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-specific T cells in patients with delayed reactions confirmed a predominant role for T cells in the onset and maintenance of immune-mediated delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions (type IV reactions). In these reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are stimulated by drugs through their T cell receptors (TCR). Drugs can stimulate T cells in two ways: they can act as haptens and bind covalently to larger protein structures (hapten-carrier model), inducing a specific immune response. In addition, they may accidentally bind in a labile, noncovalent way to a particular TCR of the whole TCR repertoire and possibly also major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-molecules - similar to their pharmacologic action. This seems to be sufficient to reactivate certain, probably in vivo preactivated T cells, if an additional interaction of the drug-stimulated TCR with MHC molecules occurs. The mechanism was named pharmacological interaction of a drug with (immune) receptor and thus termed the p-i concept. This new concept may explain the frequent skin symptoms in drug hypersensitivity to oral or parenteral drugs. Furthermore, the various clinical manifestations of T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity may be explained by distinct T cell functions leading to different clinical phenotypes. These data allowed a subclassification of the delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) into T cell reactions which, by releasing certain cytokines and chemokines, preferentially activate and recruit

  10. Estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity following stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Karpowicz, Jane M; Furman, Andrew J; da Silva, Joyce Teixeira; Traub, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We used functional MRI and a longitudinal design to investigate the brain mechanisms in a previously reported estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity model. We hypothesized that noxious visceral stimulation would be associated with activation of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, and that estrogen-dependent, stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity would both enhance activation of these regions and recruit activation of other brain areas mediating affect and reward processing. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estrogen (17 β-estradiol, E2) or vehicle (n = 5 per group) and scanned in a 7T MRI at three different time points: pre-stress (baseline), 2 days post-stress, and 18 days post-stress. Stress was induced via a forced-swim paradigm. In a separate group of ovariectomized rats, E2 treatment induced visceral hypersensitivity at the 2 days post-stress time point, and this hypersensitivity returned to baseline at the 18 days post-stress time point. Vehicle-treated rats show no hypersensitivity following stress. During the MRI scans, rats were exposed to noxious colorectal distention. Across groups and time points, noxious visceral stimulation led to activations in the insula, anterior cingulate, and left amygdala, parabrachial nuclei, and cerebellum. A group-by-time interaction was seen in the right amygdala, ventral striatum-pallidum, cerebellum, hippocampus, mediodorsal thalamus, and pontine nuclei. Closer inspection of the data revealed that vehicle-treated rats showed consistent activations and deactivations across time, whereas estrogen-treated animals showed minimal deactivation with noxious visceral stimulation. This unexpected finding suggests that E2 may dramatically alter visceral nociceptive processing in the brain following an acute stressor. This study is the first to examine estrogen-stress dependent interactions in response to noxious visceral stimulation using functional MRI. Future studies that include other control

  11. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... often flavored with agents like cinnamon, peppermint or menthol, which can trigger hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible individuals. ... potential allergens such as cinnamon, peppermint, eugenol and menthol. Even dental floss and denture cleansers may contain ...

  12. Immunomodulation of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses by mesenchymal stem cells is associated with bystander T cell apoptosis in the draining lymph node.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jong-Hyung; Kim, Jung-Sik; Yoon, Il-Hee; Shin, Jun-Seop; Nam, Hye-Young; Yang, Seung-Ha; Kim, Sang-Joon; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2010-10-01

    Disease amelioration by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to be closely related to their immunomodulatory functions on the host immune system in many disease models. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these cells affect the immune cells in vivo are not fully understood. In this study, we report findings that a small but significant number of MSCs accumulate in the secondary lymphoid organs and attenuate delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response by inducing apoptotic cell death of surrounding immune cells in the draining lymph node (LN). In the migration study, i.v. infused GFP-MSCs preferentially accumulated at the boundary between the paracortical area and the germinal center in the LNs, in close proximity to various types of immune cells including T, B, and dendritic cells in a dose-dependent manner. As a result, accumulated MSCs markedly attenuated DTH response in proportion to the number of MSCs infused. During the DTH response, the infiltration of T cells in the challenged site was significantly decreased, whereas a number of apoptotic T cells were remarkably increased in the draining LN. Apoptosis was significantly induced in activated T cells (CD3(+) and BrdU(+)), but not in the resting T cells (CD3(+) and BrdU(-)). NO was associated with these apoptotic events. Taken together, we conclude that significant numbers of i.v. infused MSCs preferentially localize in the draining LN, where they induce apoptosis of the activated T cells by producing NO and thus attenuate the DTH response.

  13. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bonnetblanc, J M

    1993-01-01

    Some types of hypersensitivity to drugs are defined either by the generic name of the drug or descriptive terms. They are sometimes assimilated to pseudolymphoma because the causative drugs are often the same, although the eruption lacks clinical and histopathological criteria of pseudolymphoma. It is then suggested to use 'idiosyncratic drug hypersensitivity syndrome' to define this type of drug reaction. As the skin and other organs may be involved, a generic name would help to determine a better definition and a surveillance program.

  14. Ibuprofen-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nanau, Radu M; Neuman, Manuela G

    2010-06-01

    Ibuprofen is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID). With the aging of the population, there will be a significant increase in the prevalence of painful degenerative and inflammatory rheumatic conditions. This increase likely will lead to a parallel increase in the use of NSAIDs, including ibuprofen. The primary effect of the NSAIDs is to inhibit cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin synthase), thereby impairing the ultimate transformation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. Although in the majority of cases it is safe, this NSAID, ibuprofen, can produce an unpredictable, idiosyncratic, type B reaction that may pose a major concern in clinical practice. Type B reactions are known to occur in susceptible individuals. The true hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a systemic disease defined by the triad of fever, rash, and internal organ involvement that starts 1 day to 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. HSR has limited the therapeutic use of many drugs, including ibuprofen. Hypersensitivity syndrome associated with ibuprofen is a host-dependent drug reaction that is idiosyncratic in nature. This reaction likely is caused by a combination of metabolic and immunologic factors. Immune mediated components, such as T-cell and their products cytokines and chemokines, can exacerbate cellular responses and create complex pathways that lead to a variety of clinical manifestations. Our review presents an ibuprofen-induced clinical manifestation of hypersensitivity syndrome and the necessity of wisely monitoring the patients clinically and by laboratory investigations when prescribing this drug.

  15. Tomato 26S Proteasome subunit RPT4a regulates ToLCNDV transcription and activates hypersensitive response in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Sharma, Namisha; Puranik, Swati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of 26S proteasomal subunits in plant pathogen-interactions, and the roles of each subunit in independently modulating the activity of many intra- and inter-cellular regulators controlling physiological and defense responses of a plant were well reported. In this regard, we aimed to functionally characterize a Solanum lycopersicum 26S proteasomal subunit RPT4a (SlRPT4) gene, which was differentially expressed after Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) infection in tolerant cultivar H-88-78-1. Molecular analysis revealed that SlRPT4 protein has an active ATPase activity. SlRPT4 could specifically bind to the stem-loop structure of intergenic region (IR), present in both DNA-A and DNA-B molecule of the bipartite viral genome. Lack of secondary structure in replication-associated gene fragment prevented formation of DNA-protein complex suggesting that binding of SlRPT4 with DNA is secondary structure specific. Interestingly, binding of SlRPT4 to IR inhibited the function of RNA Pol-II and subsequently reduced the bi-directional transcription of ToLCNDV genome. Virus-induced gene silencing of SlRPT4 gene incited conversion of tolerant attributes of cultivar H-88-78-1 into susceptibility. Furthermore, transient overexpression of SlRPT4 resulted in activation of programmed cell death and antioxidant enzymes system. Overall, present study highlights non-proteolytic function of SlRPT4 and their participation in defense pathway against virus infection in tomato. PMID:27252084

  16. Long-range DNase I hypersensitivity mapping reveals the imprinted Igf2r and Air promoters share cis-regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Pauler, Florian M.; Stricker, Stefan H.; Warczok, Katarzyna E.; Barlow, Denise P.

    2005-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms restrict the expression of imprinted genes to one parental allele in diploid cells. At the Igf2r/Air imprinted cluster on mouse chromosome 17, paternal-specific expression of the Air noncoding RNA has been shown to silence three genes in cis: Igf2r, Slc22a2, and Slc22a3. By an unbiased mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) in a 192-kb region flanking Igf2r and Air, we identified 21 DHS, of which nine mapped to evolutionarily conserved sequences. Based on the hypothesis that silencing effects of Air would be directed towards cis regulatory elements used to activate genes, DHS are potential key players in the control of imprinted expression. However, in this 192-kb region only the two DHS mapping to the Igf2r and Air promoters show parental specificity. The remaining 19 DHS were present on both parental alleles and, thus, have the potential to activate Igf2r on the maternal allele and Air on the paternal allele. The possibility that the Igf2r and Air promoters share the same cis-acting regulatory elements, albeit on opposite parental chromosomes, was supported by the similar expression profiles of Igf2r and Air in vivo. These results refine our understanding of the onset of imprinted silencing at this cluster and indicate the Air noncoding RNA may specifically target silencing to the Igf2r promoter. PMID:16204191

  17. Release of palladium from biomechanical prostheses in body fluids can induce or support PD-specific IFNgamma T cell responses and the clinical setting of a palladium hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cristaudo, A; Bordignon, V; Petrucci, F; Caimi, S; De Rocco, M; Picardo, M; Cordiali Fei, P; Ensoli, F

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of Palladium (Pd) for biomedical applications, which has more than doubled in the last ten years, appears to be associated with an increased frequency of adverse reactions to Pd. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the implant of a biomechanical apparatus containing Pd and the setting of a hypersensitivity to Pd by determining the levels of the metal released in biological fluids, assessing the effects of Pd on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production and exploring the clinical setting of skin sensitization. Of a total of 3,093 subjects examined in 2006, sensitization to Pd alone or in association with nickel (Ni) was observed in 1.6% and 13.03% of the individuals, respectively. Of these, a group of six subjects positive to Pd and negative to Ni at patch testing were selected on the basis of the oral clinical symptoms in order to measure both the levels of Pd in biological fluids and the degradation of the dental prostheses. Specific Pd measurements were carried out on salivary fluid, urine and serum samples by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. In addition, the degradation of the dental prostheses was assessed by both a leaching test and an analysis of the micro morphology of orthodontic prostheses. The induction of IFN-gamma production by Pd was assessed in PBMC by the ELISpot assay. Skin sensitization to Pd was evaluated by patch testing and clinical examination. Ten healthy subjects were comparatively tested as controls. We found a specific induction of an IFN-gamma response by Pd in PBMC collected from all the subjects positive to Pd at patch testing. On the contrary, control subjects did not show any response to Pd as assessed by IFN-gamma ELISpot assay or by skin testing. Remarkably, the levels of Pd in all biological samples (saliva, sera, urine) were significantly higher in Pd-sensitized patients than in those collected from controls, reaching the highest

  18. Histopathological Characterization of Cutaneous Delayed-type Hypersensitivity and Correlations with Intestinal Pathology and Systemic Immune Responses in Sheep with Paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gulliver, E L; Plain, K M; Begg, D J; Whittington, R J

    2015-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity has been exploited historically in the diagnosis of mycobacterial diseases through elicitation of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction following intradermal injection of an antigen. Here we describe the histopathological features of the cutaneous DTH reaction and its association with intestinal pathology and systemic immune responses in sheep with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. A mixed mononuclear cellular infiltrate dominated the DTH reaction and was present in perivascular and periadnexal patterns. Multiple multinucleate giant cells were present in the cellular infiltrate in one sheep while plasma cells were an obvious feature in six others. Sheep with paucibacillary intestinal lesions had the greatest degrees of cutaneous induration, more severe cellular infiltration in DTH lesions and high systemic interferon (IFN)-γ production. In contrast, sheep with multibacillary intestinal lesions, and particularly those with dissemination of MAP to extra-intestinal tissues, had minimal cutaneous induration, nil to mild cellular infiltration in DTH lesions and high serum anti-MAP antibody levels. Systemic IFN-γ production generally was augmented following skin sensitization. In general, the gross and histopathological features of the cutaneous DTH response matched the stage of paratuberculosis reflected by intestinal pathology and systemic measures of humoral and cellular immunity.

  19. RepA Protein Encoded by Oat dwarf virus Elicits a Temperature-Sensitive Hypersensitive Response-Type Cell Death That Involves Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Signaling.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yajuan; Hou, Huwei; Shen, Qingtang; Cai, Xinzhong; Sunter, Garry; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is a component of disease resistance that is often induced by pathogen infection, but essentially no information is available for members of the destructive mastreviruses. We have investigated an HR-type response elicited in Nicotiana species by Oat dwarf virus (ODV) and have found that expression of the ODV RepA protein but not other ODV-encoded proteins elicits the HR-type cell death associated with a burst of H2O2. Deletion mutagenesis indicates that the first nine amino acids (aa) at the N terminus of RepA and the two regions located between aa residues 173 and 195 and between aa residues 241 and 260 near the C terminus are essential for HR-type cell-death elicitation. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that the RepA protein is localized in the nuclei of plant cells and might contain bipartite nuclear localization signals. The HR-like lesions mediated by RepA were inhibited by temperatures above 30°C and involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in HR was identified by gain- and loss-of-function experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an elicitor of HR-type cell death from mastreviruses.

  20. Chronic loss of noradrenergic tone produces β-arrestin2-mediated cocaine hypersensitivity and alters cellular D2 responses in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Goertz, Richard B; Puttick, Daniel J; Bowles, Dawn E; Meyer, Rebecca C; Hall, Randy A; Ko, Daijin; Paladini, Carlos A; Weinshenker, David

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine blocks plasma membrane monoamine transporters and increases extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT). The addictive properties of cocaine are mediated primarily by DA, while NE and 5-HT play modulatory roles. Chronic inhibition of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), which converts DA to NE, increases the aversive effects of cocaine and reduces cocaine use in humans, and produces behavioral hypersensitivity to cocaine and D2 agonism in rodents, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We found a decrease in β-arrestin2 (βArr2) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition, and overexpression of βArr2 in the NAc normalized cocaine-induced locomotion in DBH knockout (Dbh -/-) mice. The D2/3 agonist quinpirole decreased excitability in NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from control, but not Dbh -/- animals, where instead there was a trend for an excitatory effect. The Gαi inhibitor NF023 abolished the quinpirole-induced decrease in excitability in control MSNs, but had no effect in Dbh -/- MSNs, whereas the Gαs inhibitor NF449 restored the ability of quinpirole to decrease excitability in Dbh -/- MSNs, but had no effect in control MSNs. These results suggest that chronic loss of noradrenergic tone alters behavioral responses to cocaine via decreases in βArr2 and cellular responses to D2/D3 activation, potentially via changes in D2-like receptor G-protein coupling in NAc MSNs.

  1. Salicylic acid-dependent restriction of Tomato ringspot virus spread in tobacco is accompanied by a hypersensitive response, local RNA silencing, and moderate systemic resistance.

    PubMed

    Jovel, Juan; Walker, Melanie; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2011-06-01

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV, a Nepovirus sp.) systemically infects many herbaceous plants. Viral RNA accumulates in symptomatic leaves and in young, asymptomatic leaves that emerge late in infection. Here, we show that systemic infection by ToRSV is restricted in tobacco. After an initial hypersensitive response in inoculated leaves, only a few plants showed limited systemic symptoms. Viral RNA did not usually accumulate to detectable levels in asymptomatic leaves. ToRSV-derived small-interfering RNAs and PR1a transcripts were only detected in tissues that contained viral RNA, indicating local induction of RNA silencing and salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defense responses. Lesion size and viral systemic spread were reduced with SA pretreatment but enhanced in NahG transgenic lines deficient in SA accumulation, suggesting that SA-dependent mechanisms play a key role in limiting ToRSV spread in tobacco. Restriction of virus infection was enhanced in transgenic lines expressing the P1-HC-Pro suppressor of silencing. Knocking down the SA-inducible RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 exacerbated the necrotic reaction but did not affect viral systemic spread. ToRSV-infected tobacco plants were susceptible to reinoculation by ToRSV or Tobacco mosaic virus, although a small reduction in lesion size was observed. This moderate systemic resistance suggests inefficient induction or spread of RNA silencing and systemic acquired resistance signal molecules.

  2. Reversal of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in a subset of hypersensitive rats by intracolonic lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common gastrointestinal symptom experienced by patients. We have previously shown that IBS patients with visceral hypersensitivity also have evidence of thermal hypersensitivity of the hand and foot that is reversed by rectal lidocaine jelly. We have also recently developed an animal model of chronic visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in rats treated with intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of intracolonic lidocaine on visceral/somatic hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats. A total of 20 hypersensitive rats received either 20 mg intracolonic lidocaine (n = 10) or saline jelly (n = 10). In comparison to saline jelly, intracolonic lidocaine jelly reduced responses to nociceptive visceral/somatic stimuli in hypersensitive rats. The effects were present within 5–30 min after administration of lidocaine and lasted for 6 h. Lidocaine had no effects on recovered rats or control rats that had originally been treated with intracolonic saline instead of TNBS. Local anesthetic blockade of peripheral impulse input from the colon reduces both visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats, similar to results in IBS patients. The results provide further evidence that visceral and secondary somatic hypersensitivity in a subset of TNBS-treated rats reflect central sensitization mechanisms maintained by tonic impulse input from the colon. This study evaluates the reversal of visceral/somatic hypersensitivity in a subset of TNBS-treated rats with intracolonic lidocaine. This animal model may be used in the future to study the mechanisms of local anesthetic agents applied to the gut to reduce visceral pain. PMID:18486344

  3. Cimetidine enhances delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and serum interleukin (IL)-2, -10, -12, and IL-17 levels after burn injury in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, A; Nemati, M; Rezayati, M T; Ebrahimi, M; Hassan, Z M

    2013-01-01

    The immunosuppression that occurs after burn injury causes an increase in susceptibility to infection. The aim was to investigate time-related alterations in various cytokines following thermal injury and to modulate cytokines by use of an immunomodulant, cimetidine. Male Balb/c mice were anesthetized and given a 10% total body surface area full-thickness burn by submerging in 90°C water for 9 s. Time-dependent changes in delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and serum levels of the cytokines IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 and TGFβ were then assessed at various post-burn day (PBD) timepoints. Effects of 10 mg cimetidine/kg on DTH responses and cytokine levels were evaluated up to PBD 14. In comparison to healthy non-burned control mice, levels of IL-2 and IL-17 significantly decreased at PBD 3, 5, 10, and 14, those of IL-10 at PBD 1, 3, 5, and 10, and those of IL-12 at PBD 1, 3, 5, 10, and 14. Administration of cimetidine significantly augmented the levels of IL-2 (at PBD 3, 5, and 10), IL-10 (at PBD 1 and 5), IL-12 (at PBD 3, 5, 10, and 14), and IL-17 (at PBD 3 and 14) as compared to those in burned counterparts who did not receive drug. In comparison to healthy mice, biphasic alterations were observed regarding TGFβ levels; values were significant decreased and increased at PBD 3 and PBD 14, respectively. Cimetidine significantly diminished the elevated TGFβ levels at PBD 14. Cimetidine also significantly augmented DTH responses at PBD 5, 10, and 14 as compared to responses in non-drug-treated burned hosts. Taken together, the results here showed significant time-dependent changes in serum cytokines levels after burn injury and that cimetidine was able to significantly augment IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 levels as well as DTH responses that are normally suppressed following thermal trauma.

  4. Combined dermal exposure to permethrin and cis-urocanic acid suppresses the contact hypersensitivity response in C57BL/6N mice in an additive manner.

    PubMed

    Prater, M R; Blaylock, B L; Holladay, S D

    2005-01-14

    Cutaneous exposure to the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin significantly suppresses contact hypersensitivity (CH) response to oxazolone in C57BL/6N mice. Additionally, cis-urocanic acid (cUCA), an endogenous cutaneous chromophore isomerized to its active form following exposure to ultraviolet radiation, modulates cell-mediated cutaneous immune responses. This study describes cutaneous immune alterations following combined topical permethrin and intradermal cUCA exposure. Female C57BL/6N mice were administered 5, 50 or 100 microg cUCA daily for 5 consecutive days. CH was then evaluated by the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) response to oxazolone. Decreased responses of 52.3%, 76.3% and 76.3%, respectively, as compared to controls were observed. Then, mice were co-exposed to 5 microg cUCA daily for 5 days and 1.5, 5, 15, or 25 microL permethrin, on either day 1, 3 or 5 of the cUCA treatment to evaluate combined immunomodulatory effects of the two chemicals, or cUCA daily for 5 days followed by permethrin on day 3, 5, or 7 after the last cUCA injection to demonstrate prolonged immunosuppressive effects. Two days after final treatment, mice were sensitized with oxazolone and MEST was performed. Mice receiving five cUCA injections and permethrin topically on cUCA injection day 1 showed up to 93.3% suppression of MEST compared to vehicle control. CH was suppressed by 87.5%, 86.6% and 74.2% in mice treated with 25 muL permethrin on days 3, 5 and 7 after cUCA, respectively, compared to vehicle control. Taken together, these data indicate co-exposure to cUCA and permethrin profoundly suppresses cell-mediated cutaneous immunity.

  5. Pepino mosaic virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase POL Domain Is a Hypersensitive Response-Like Elicitor Shared by Necrotic and Mild Isolates.

    PubMed

    Sempere, Raquel N; Gómez-Aix, Cristina; Ruíz-Ramón, Fabiola; Gómez, Pedro; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Aranda, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging pathogen that represents a serious threat to tomato production worldwide. PepMV-induced diseases manifest with a wide range of symptoms, including systemic necrosis. Our results showed that PepMV accumulation depends on the virus isolate, tomato cultivar, and environmental conditions, and associates with the development of necrosis. Substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 67 in the triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein, previously described as a necrosis determinant, led to increased virus accumulation and was necessary but not sufficient to induce systemic necrosis. Systemic necrosis both in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana shared hypersensitive response (HR) features, allowing the assessment of the role of different genomic regions on necrosis induction. Overexpression of both TGB3 and the polymerase domain (POL) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) resulted in necrosis, although only local expression of POL triggered HR-like symptoms. Our results also indicated that the necrosis-eliciting activity of POL resides in its highly conserved "palm" domain, and that necrosis was jasmonic acid-dependent but not salicylic acid-dependent. Altogether, our data suggest that the RdRp-POL domain plays an important role in PepMV necrosis induction, with necrosis development depending on the virus accumulation level, which can be modulated by the nature of TGB3, host genotype and environmental conditions.

  6. Use of Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC) to identify novel genetic loci that modify the maize hypersensitive response.

    PubMed

    Chaikam, Vijay; Negeri, Adisu; Dhawan, Rahul; Puchaka, Bala; Ji, Jiabing; Chintamanani, Satya; Gachomo, Emma W; Zillmer, Allen; Doran, Timothy; Weil, Cliff; Balint-Kurti, Peter; Johal, Guri

    2011-10-01

    The partially dominant, autoactive maize disease resistance gene Rp1-D21 causes hypersensitive response (HR) lesions to form spontaneously on leaves and stems in the absence of pathogen recognition. The maize nested association mapping (NAM) population consists of 25 200-line subpopulations each derived from a cross between the maize line B73 and one of 25 diverse inbred lines. By crossing a line carrying the Rp1-D21 gene with lines from three of these subpopulations and assessing the F(1) progeny, we were able to map several novel loci that modify the maize HR, using both single-population quantitative trait locus (QTL) and joint analysis of all three populations. Joint analysis detected QTL in greater number and with greater confidence and precision than did single population analysis. In particular, QTL were detected in bins 1.02, 4.04, 9.03, and 10.03. We have previously termed this technique, in which a mutant phenotype is used as a "reporter" for a trait of interest, Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC).

  7. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) immune response related with EBV-DNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with autologous dendritic cell vaccination after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Song, Dan; Lu, Yue; Zhu, Huanfeng; Chen, Zhenzhang; He, Xia

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the outcome of an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in patients with stage II/III nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). From 38 patients with stage II/III Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated NPCs after a radiotherapy, 16 human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-positive patients were enrolled and medicated with autologous DCs, which were pulsed with HLA-A2-restricted EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) peptides. The lymphocyte subsets, serum cytokines, and EBV-DNA levels as well as the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were determined after vaccination combined with a radiotherapy/chemotherapy. The serum levels of interleukin-2 and interferon-γ (P<0.05) as well as the percentage of natural killer and CD4+T cells increased significantly (P<0.05) after the vaccination. Nine of 16 (56.25%) patients showed a positive skin response to the HLA-A2 restricted EBV LMP2A peptides in a DTH test. The serum EBV-DNA level decreased significantly from 1519 ± 384 to 1214 ± 211 copies/mL in the 9 DTH-positive patients (P=0.0310). No unanticipated or serious toxicity was observed and the vaccine was well tolerated. In conclusion, in NPC patients vaccinated after radiotherapy with autologous DCs, which were pulsed with EBV LMP2A peptides, Th1-specific immune responses were elicited particularly in DTH test positive individuals. The clinical results obtained are encouraging and the EBV-specific HLA-A2-restricted DC vaccination is a promising treatment for EBV-related NPCs.

  8. Hypersensitivity to hypercapnia: definition/(s).

    PubMed

    Vickers, Kristin

    2012-05-15

    Empirical evidence indicates that panic disorder (PD) patients experience hypersensitivity to hypercapnia, a condition in which the blood level of carbon dioxide exceeds the normal value. The importance of this research line is substantial and indeed, hypercapnic hypersensitivity has been advanced as a possible endophenotype of panic. Definitions of "hypersensitivity," however, have varied. The purpose of this brief review is to delineate and critique different definitions of hypercapnic hypersensitivity. Several definitions - panic attack rate, panic symptoms including dyspnea, subjective anxiety, and respiratory disturbance - are explored. The review concludes that although no ideal definition has emerged, marked anxiety post-hypercapnia has substantial support as a putative trait marker of PD. The term "subjective hypersensitivity" (Coryell et al., 2001) is re-introduced to denote pronounced anxiety post-hypercapnia and recommended for use along with its previous definition: increased self-reported anxiety measured on a continuous visual analog scale, already widely in use. Due to the well-established link between panic and respiration, definitional candidates focusing on aberrant respiratory response - less investigated as trait markers of PD in high risk studies - warrant scrutiny as well. Several reasons why definitional clarity might be beneficial are presented, along with ideas for future research.

  9. [Effect of Corynebacterium parvum on the immune response in guinea pigs. I. Mode of enhancement of the anamnestic response and development of delayted hypersensitivity after treatment with Corynebacterium parvum].

    PubMed

    Halpern, B; Gauthier-Rahman, S; Besluau, D

    1977-01-01

    The effect of Corynebacterium parvum (C. parvuum) on the immune response of the guinea pig to ovalbumin varies with the protocol of immunization. The marked effect of C. parvum on the anamnestic response in the rabbit has been confirmed in the guinea pig when immunization is carried out intradermally with a mixture of C. parvum and ovalbumin. When C. parvum is given intravenously or subcutaneously or intradermally but separately from the antigen, this effect is not observed. Whatever the route of injection guinea pigs treated with C. parvum show skin reactions of delayed type hypersensitivity at the site of an intradermal booster when the latter is given at least 27 days after primary immunization.

  10. Two phenotypically distinct T cells are involved in ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid-induced suppression of the efferent delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.A.; Howie, S.E.; Norval, M.; Maingay, J.

    1987-09-01

    When UVB-irradiated urocanic acid, the putative photoreceptor/mediator for UVB suppression, is administered to mice it induces a dose-dependent suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), of similar magnitude to that induced by UV irradiation of mice. In this study, the efferent suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by UV-irradiated urocanic acid is demonstrated to be due to 2 phenotypically distinct T cells, (Thy1+, L3T4-, Ly2+) and (Thy1+, L3T4+, Ly2-). The suppression is specific for HSV-1. This situation parallels the generation of 2 distinct T-suppressor cells for HSV-1 by UV irradiation of mice and provides further evidence for the involvement of urocanic acid in the generation of UVB suppression.

  11. An Sfp-type PPTase and associated polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthases in Agrobacterium vitis are essential for induction of tobacco hypersensitive response and grape necrosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    An Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) encoding gene F-avi5813 in Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 was found to be required for the induction of a tobacco hypersensitive response (HR) and grape necrosis. Sfp-type PPTases are post-translation modification enzymes that activate acyl-carry protein (ACP) domains in polyketide synthases (PKS) and peptidyl-carrier protein (PCP) domains of nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS). Mutagenesis of PKS and NRPS genes in A. vitis led to the identification of a PKS gene (F-avi4330) and NRPS gene (F-avi3342) that are both required for HR and necrosis. The gene immediately downstream of F-avi4330 (F-avi4329) encoding a predicted aminotransferase was also found to be required for HR and necrosis. Regulation of F-avi4330 and F-avi3342 by quorum-sensing genes avhR, aviR, and avsR and by a lysR-type regulator, lhnR, was investigated. It was determined that F-avi4330 expression is positively regulated by avhR, aviR, and lhnR and negatively regulated by avsR. F-avi3342 was found to be positively regulated by avhR, aviR, and avsR and negatively regulated by lhnR. Our results suggest that a putative hybrid peptide-polyketide metabolite synthesized by F-avi4330 and F-avi3342 is associated with induction of tobacco HR and grape necrosis. This is the first report that demonstrates that NRPS and PKS play essential roles in conferring the unique ability of A. vitis to elicit a non-host-specific HR and host-specific necrosis.

  12. Affinity of Avr2 for tomato cysteine protease Rcr3 correlates with the Avr2-triggered Cf-2-mediated hypersensitive response.

    PubMed

    Van't Klooster, John W; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Vervoort, Jacques; Beekwilder, Jules; Boeren, Sjef; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Thomma, Bart P H J; De Wit, Pierre J G M

    2011-01-01

    The Cladosporium fulvum Avr2 effector is a novel type of cysteine protease inhibitor with eight cysteine residues that are all involved in disulphide bonds. We have produced wild-type Avr2 protein in Pichia pastoris and determined its disulphide bond pattern. By site-directed mutagenesis of all eight cysteine residues, we show that three of the four disulphide bonds are required for Avr2 stability. The six C-terminal amino acid residues of Avr2 contain one disulphide bond that is not embedded in its overall structure. Avr2 is not processed by the tomato cysteine protease Rcr3 and is an uncompetitive inhibitor of Rcr3. We also produced mutant Avr2 proteins in which selected amino acid residues were individually replaced by alanine, and, in one mutant, all six C-terminal amino acid residues were deleted. We determined the inhibitory constant (K(i) ) of these mutants for Rcr3 and their ability to trigger a Cf-2-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato. We found that the two C-terminal cysteine residues and the six amino acid C-terminal tail of Avr2 are required for both Rcr3 inhibitory activity and the ability to trigger a Cf-2-mediated HR. Individual replacement of the lysine-17, lysine-20 or tyrosine-21 residue by alanine did not affect significantly the biological activity of Avr2. Overall, our data suggest that the affinity of the Avr2 mutants for Rcr3 correlates with their ability to trigger a Cf-2-mediated HR.

  13. Pharmacogenetics of drug hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Elizabeth J; Mallal, Simon A

    2010-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions and severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions, such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, are examples of serious adverse drug reactions mediated through a combination of metabolic and immunological mechanisms that could traditionally not have been predicted based on the pharmacological characteristics of the drug alone. The discovery of new associations between these syndromes and specific HLA has created the promise that risk for these reactions could be predicted through pharmacogenetic screening, thereby avoiding serious morbidity and mortality associated with these types of drug reactions. Despite this, several hurdles exist in the translation of these associations into pharmacogenetic tests that could be routinely used in the clinical setting. HLA-B*5701 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome is an example of a test now in widespread routine clinical use in the developed world. PMID:20602616

  14. Reaginic hypersensitivity in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, D. P.; Truelove, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Reaginic hypersensitivity in ulcerative colitis has been investigated in respect of a hypersensitivity to the cow's milk proteins and the frequency of atopic asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Intradermal tests were frequently positive, especially to casein, but the results did not differ from those found in healthy individuals and in groups of patients with Crohn's disease, hypolactasia, and the irritable colon syndrome. No circulating IgE-specific antibodies to the milk proteins were found. An increased frequency of atopic diseases was found in patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (15·7%) and Crohn's disease (13·3%) compared with the findings in a control group (1·2%). It is concluded that, if an allergy to milk proteins is a factor in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis, it is not mediated by reaginic antibodies. It is possible, however, that the frequent occurrence of atopy indicates a susceptibility to develop reaginic responses even though this mechanism does not apply to the milk proteins. PMID:4646293

  15. Glial pannexin1 contributes to tactile hypersensitivity in a mouse model of orofacial pain

    PubMed Central

    Hanstein, Regina; Hanani, Menachem; Scemes, Eliana; Spray, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Drug studies in animal models have implicated pannexin1 (Panx1) in various types of pain, including trigeminal hypersensitivity, neuropathic pain and migraine. However, the tested drugs have limited specificity and efficacy so that direct evidence for Panx1 contribution to pain has been lacking. We here show that tactile hypersensitivity is markedly attenuated by deletion of Panx1 in a mouse model of chronic orofacial pain; in this model, trigeminal ganglion Panx1 expression and function are markedly enhanced. Targeted deletion of Panx1 in GFAP-positive glia or in neurons revealed distinct effects. Panx1 deletion in GFAP-positive glia cells prevented hypersensitivity completely, whereas deletion of neuronal Panx1 reduced baseline sensitivity and the duration of hypersensitivity. In trigeminal ganglia with genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator in GFAP-positive glia or in neurons, both cell populations were found to be hyperactive and hyper-responsive to ATP. These novel findings reveal unique roles for GFAP-positive glial and neuronal Panx1 and describe new chronic pain targets for cell-type specific intervention in this often intractable disease. PMID:27910899

  16. [Food hypersensitivity in children].

    PubMed

    Kolacek, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity affects children and adults with an increasing prevalence, and is therefore an important public health problem in the majority of developed countries. Moreover, self-reported reactions to food are of several times higher prevalence, compared to hypersensitivity diagnosed following well established evidence-based diagnostic guidelines. In children, allergic food reactions are more common compared to non-allergic food hypersensitivity reactions, and 90% of them are caused with only 8 food allergens: cow's milk, soya, egg, fish, shellfish, peanut, tree-nuts and gluten. Diagnosis should be based on challenge tests with the potentially offending food allergens. Concerning other, more conservative diagnostic procedures, negative serology and negative skin-prick tests can exclude IgE-mediated food allergy, but positive tests, due to high rate of false positive reactions are not sufficient for diagnosis. Strict dietary avoidance of incriminated allergens is the only well established management strategy. However, this should be applied only if food allergy is well documented - following the exposition tests. Introducing elimination diet in a paediatric population, particularly with the elimination of multiple foods, could cause inappropriate growth and disturb organ maturation. Concerning allergy prevention, avoidance of allergens is not efficacious either during pregnancy and lactation or weaning period, and is therefore, not recommended neither as a population preventive measure, nor in children at risk.

  17. Targeting a Cross-Reactive Gly m 5 Soy Peptide as Responsible for Hypersensitivity Reactions in a Milk Allergy Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Curciarello, Renata; Smaldini, Paola L.; Candreva, Angela M.; González, Virginia; Parisi, Gustavo; Cauerhff, Ana; Barrios, Ivana; Blanch, Luis Bruno; Fossati, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-reactivity between soybean allergens and bovine caseins has been previously reported. In this study we aimed to map epitopes of the major soybean allergen Gly m 5 that are co-recognized by casein specific antibodies, and to identify a peptide responsible for the cross-reactivity. Methods Cow's milk protein (CMP)-specific antibodies were used in different immunoassays (immunoblotting, ELISA, ELISA inhibition test) to evaluate the in vitro recognition of soybean proteins (SP). Recombinant Gly m 5 (α), a truncated fragment containing the C-terminal domain (α-T) and peptides of α-T were obtained and epitope mapping was performed with an overlapping peptide assay. Bioinformatics tools were used for epitope prediction by sequence alignment, and for modelling the cross-recognized soy proteins and peptides. The binding of SP to a monoclonal antibody was studied by surface Plasmon resonance (SPR). Finally, the in vivo cross-recognition of SP was assessed in a mouse model of milk allergy. Results Both α and α-T reacted with the different CMP-specific antibodies. α-T contains IgG and IgE epitopes in several peptides, particularly in the peptide named PA. Besides, we found similar values of association and dissociation constants between the α-casein specific mAb and the different milk and soy components. The food allergy mouse model showed that SP and PA contain the cross-reactive B and T epitopes, which triggered hypersensitivity reactions and a Th2-mediated response on CMP-sensitized mice. Conclusions Gly m 5 is a cross-reactive soy allergen and the α-T portion of the molecule contains IgG and IgE immunodominant epitopes, confined to PA, a region with enough conformation to be bound by antibodies. These findings contribute to explain the intolerance to SP observed in IgE-mediated CMA patients, primarily not sensitised to SP, as well as it sets the basis to propose a mucosal immunotherapy for milk allergy using this soy peptide. PMID:24416141

  18. Management Strategies for Clopidogrel Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Beavers, Craig J; Carris, Nicolas W; Ruf, Kathryn M

    2015-06-01

    Clopidogrel is a cornerstone of dual antiplatelet therapy. Hypersensitivity reactions potentially limit the use of this treatment and present a significant clinical challenge. The authors have developed recommendations for the management of clopidogrel hypersensitivity with consideration for the etiology, pathophysiology, and critical evaluation of potential management strategies. The clopidogrel hypersensitivity reaction is complex in mechanism and presents generally around day 5 of treatment. Generalized reactions are most common, but the reaction may also be localized or systemic. Screening patients for hypersensitivity is not always possible because the type IV delayed reaction is not detected reliably by conventional skin prick, intradermal challenge, or patch testing. Proposed strategies for management of clopidogrel hypersensitivity include treatment of the reaction with corticosteroids, clopidogrel desensitization, substituting an alternative P2Y12 inhibitor, or clopidogrel avoidance. The safety, efficacy, and cost of each potential strategy must be considered when managing a patient with clopidogrel hypersensitivity.

  19. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos AC; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. PMID:27703382

  20. Immediate-type hypersensitivity drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Shelley F; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Wiese, Michael D; Heddle, Robert J; Brown, Simon G A

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis have been reported for nearly all classes of therapeutic reagents and these reactions can occur within minutes to hours of exposure. These reactions are unpredictable, not directly related to dose or the pharmacological action of the drug and have a relatively high mortality risk. This review will focus on the clinical presentation, immune mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of the most serious form of immediate onset drug hypersensitivity reaction, anaphylaxis. The incidence of drug-induced anaphylaxis deaths appears to be increasing and our understanding of the multiple and complex reasons for the unpredictable nature of anaphylaxis to drugs is also expanding. This review highlights the importance of enhancing our understanding of the biology of the patient (i.e. immune response, genetics) as well as the pharmacology and chemistry of the drug when investigating, diagnosing and treating drug hypersensitivity. Misdiagnosis of drug hypersensitivity leads to substantial patient risk and cost. Although oral provocation is often considered the gold standard of diagnosis, it can pose a potential risk to the patient. There is an urgent need to improve and standardize diagnostic testing and desensitization protocols as other diagnostic tests currently available for assessment of immediate drug allergy are not highly predictive. PMID:24286446

  1. Chromatin studies reveal that an ERE is located far upstream of a vitellogenin gene and that a distal tissue-specific hypersensitive site is conserved for two coordinately regulated vitellogenin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Burch, J B; Fischer, A H

    1990-01-01

    Estrogen induces the expression of three vitellogenin genes in chicken hepatocytes. To survey the vitellogenin III (VTGIII) gene region for possible distal regulatory sequences, we identified tissue-specific hypersensitive (HS) sites within a 45 kb chromatin region spanning this gene. Five constitutive HS sites were found to mark the VTGIII gene region in hormone-naive hepatocytes. Strikingly, the constitutive HS site located 5.5 kb upstream of the VTGIII gene and a previously identified HS site located within the coordinately regulated VTGII gene mapped to nearly identical copies of a 72 bp sequence. Moreover, it would appear that there has been evolutionary pressure to retain specifically this 72 bp of VTGII-like sequence near the VTGIII gene subsequent to the VTGIII and VTGII genes becoming unlinked approximately 16 Myr ago. Two additional sets of HS sites were induced in the VTGIII gene region in response to estrogen. One set mapped immediately upstream of the gene in the vicinity of what we show to be a functional estrogen response element (ERE). The other induced HS site mapped 7.5 kb upstream of the gene. This far-upstream region was sequenced and was found to contain two imperfect ERE consensus sequences spaced 88 bp apart. In transient expression assays neither of these individual imperfect ERE sequences was functional, but a fragment spanning both sequences behaved as a strong ERE. In contrast to this synergism between imperfect ERE sequences, the presence of an NF-1 binding site 23 bp away from the more distal imperfect ERE sequence was not sufficient to render the latter a functional ERE in our assays. Images PMID:2377458

  2. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Housewife Exposed to Aspergillus flavus in Poor Living Conditions: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Estibeiro, Anita Sandhya Mendonca; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) or Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (EAA) is a disease resulting from immunologically induced inflammation in response to inhalation of a wide variety of airborne allergens. The condition develops mainly in non atopic individuals sensitized to organic dust due to repeated exposures. It is a relatively rare disease constituting upto 2% of interstitial lung diseases. Knowledge of classical High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of lung findings aid in early diagnosis. We report a case of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a housewife who despite being symptomatic remained undiagnosed for two years. She showed a good response to therapy, but soon relapsed. Visit to her home revealed that she lived in a damp house full of moldy walls. PMID:26894116

  3. Drought-Responsive Mechanisms in Plant Leaves Revealed by Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cai, Xiaofeng; Xu, Chenxi; Wang, Quanhua; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-10-18

    Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that requires a global view to understand its underlying mechanism. The proteomic aspects of plant drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants, crops and wood plants. In this review, we summarize recent proteomic studies on drought response in leaves to reveal the common and specialized drought-responsive mechanisms in different plants. Although drought-responsive proteins exhibit various patterns depending on plant species, genotypes and stress intensity, proteomic analyses show that dominant changes occurred in sensing and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species scavenging, osmotic regulation, gene expression, protein synthesis/turnover, cell structure modulation, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. In combination with physiological and molecular results, proteomic studies in leaves have helped to discover some potential proteins and/or metabolic pathways for drought tolerance. These findings provide new clues for understanding the molecular basis of plant drought tolerance.

  4. Drought-Responsive Mechanisms in Plant Leaves Revealed by Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cai, Xiaofeng; Xu, Chenxi; Wang, Quanhua; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that requires a global view to understand its underlying mechanism. The proteomic aspects of plant drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants, crops and wood plants. In this review, we summarize recent proteomic studies on drought response in leaves to reveal the common and specialized drought-responsive mechanisms in different plants. Although drought-responsive proteins exhibit various patterns depending on plant species, genotypes and stress intensity, proteomic analyses show that dominant changes occurred in sensing and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species scavenging, osmotic regulation, gene expression, protein synthesis/turnover, cell structure modulation, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. In combination with physiological and molecular results, proteomic studies in leaves have helped to discover some potential proteins and/or metabolic pathways for drought tolerance. These findings provide new clues for understanding the molecular basis of plant drought tolerance. PMID:27763546

  5. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with home ultrasonic humidifiers.

    PubMed

    Suda, T; Sato, A; Ida, M; Gemma, H; Hayakawa, H; Chida, K

    1995-03-01

    We describe five patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) that was related to using home ultrasonic humidifiers. All patients had micronodular infiltrates on their chest radiograph, and their lung biopsy specimens revealed alveolitis with or without epithelioid cell granulomas. Challenge tests were performed on two patients with the humidifier water and three patients using the humidifier. All patients tested exhibited a positive response. Tests for precipitating antibodies against an extract of the humidifier water gave strongly positive reactions in all patients tested. Precipitins to Cephalosporium acremonium and Candida albicans were also present in all cases, whereas precipitins to thermophilic actinomycetes were not detected. Although cultures of the water grew a variety of fungal and bacterial organisms, thermophilic actinomycetes could not be detected. These findings suggest that thermophilic organisms may not be the causative antigens of HP associated with ultrasonic humidifiers. All five patients had an increase in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocytes that were predominantly CD4+ lymphocytes. The T helper cell count (CD4) to suppressor T cell count (CD8) ratio was significantly higher than that observed in summer-type HP, and lower than that observed in bird fancier's lung, indicating that the phenotypes of the BAL lymphocytes may vary with the type of HP.

  6. Clinical heterogeneity of drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Roujeau, Jean-Claude

    2005-04-15

    Skin is the most frequent target of drug reactions that are reported, may be because they are easily detected. Most (probably more than 90%) are related to drug hypersensitivity, i.e. an individually tailored, unexpected effect mediated by a drug specific activation of the immune response. The clinical presentation of "drug eruptions" is highly variable, from the most common transient and benign erythema that occurs 6-9 days after the introduction of a new drug in 1 to 3 % of users to the most severe forms, that fortunately affect less than 1/10,000 users. Even though there are some overlapping or unclassifiable cases, it is important for clinicians to recognize and categorize severe cutaneous adverse reactions/SCAR (bullous fixed drug eruptions/bFDE, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis/AGEP, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms/DRESS, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/SJS, toxic epidermal necrolysis/TEN). First they must suspect rapidly that an unusual eruption with high fever and severe constitutional symptoms is caused by a medication and not by an infection. Second they have to look for involvement of organs that differ according to the type of reaction. Third they can determine a prognosis, the mortality rate being virtually 0 for bFDE, 5% for AGEP, 10% for "hypersensitivity syndrome"/DRESS and 25% for SJS or TEN. In addition if some medications are "usual suspects" for all types (e.g. anticonvulsants), some other are more specific of a given pattern (pristinamycine, hydroxychloroquine, diltiazem for AGEP, minocycline for DRESS, anti-infectious sulfonamides, allopurinol for epidermal necrolysis). The "phenotypic" diversity of the final expression drug reactions can be explained by the engagement of a variety of cytokines and inflammatory cells and by regulatory mechanisms. For example, memory cytotoxic T-Cells are key effectors in both localized blisters of bFDE and in extensive blisters of epidermal necrolysis.

  7. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome: incidence, prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Knowles, S R; Shapiro, L E; Shear, N H

    1999-12-01

    Although the anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome was first described in 1950, confusion still abounds regarding the syndrome. The triad of fever, rash and internal organ involvement occurring 1 to 8 weeks after exposure to an anticonvulsant heralds this rare (1 in 1,000 to 10,000 exposures) but serious reaction. Aromatic anticonvulsants [phenytoin, phenobarbital (phenobarbitone) and carbamazepine] are the most frequently involved drugs; however, there have also been several cases of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome associated with lamotrigine. Fever, in conjunction with malaise and pharyngitis, is often the first sign. This is followed by a rash which can range from a simple exanthem to toxic epidermal necrolysis. Internal organ involvement usually involves the liver, although other organs such as the kidney, CNS or lungs may be involved. Hypothyroidism may be a complication in these patients approximately 2 months after occurrence of symptoms. The aromatic anticonvulsants are metabolised to hydroxylated aromatic compounds, such as arene oxides. If detoxification of this toxic metabolite is insufficient, the toxic metabolite may bind to cellular macromolecules causing cell necrosis or a secondary immunological response. Cross-reactivity among the aromatic anticonvulsants may be as high as 75%. In addition, there is a familial tendency to hypersensitivity to anticonvulsants. Discontinuation of the anticonvulsant is essential in patients who develop symptoms compatible with anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. A minimum battery of laboratory tests, such as liver transaminases, complete blood count and urinalysis and serum creatinine, should be performed. Corticosteroids are usually administered if symptoms are severe. Patients with anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome should avoid all aromatic anticonvulsants; benzodiazepines, valproic acid (sodium valproate) or one of the newer anticonvulsants can be used for seizure control. However, valproic

  8. Equine insect bite hypersensitivity: immunoblot analysis of IgE and IgG subclass responses to Culicoides nubeculosus salivary gland extract.

    PubMed

    Hellberg, W; Wilson, A D; Mellor, P; Doherr, M G; Torsteinsdottir, S; Zurbriggen, A; Jungi, T; Marti, E

    2006-09-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by IgE-mediated reactions to bites of Culicoides and sometimes Simulium spp. The allergens causing IBH are probably salivary gland proteins from these insects, but they have not yet been identified. The aim of our study was to identify the number and molecular weight of salivary gland extract (SGE) proteins derived from Culicoides nubeculosus which are able to bind IgE antibodies (ab) from the sera of IBH-affected horses. Additionally, we sought to investigate the IgG subclass (IgGa, IgGb and IgGT) reactivity to these proteins. Individual IgE and IgG subclass responses to proteins of C. nubeculosus SGE were evaluated by immunoblot in 42 IBH-affected and 26 healthy horses belonging to different groups (Icelandic horses born in Iceland, Icelandic horses and horses from different breeds born in mainland Europe). Additionally, the specific antibody response was studied before exposure to bites of Culicoides spp. and over a period of 3 years in a cohort of 10 Icelandic horses born in Iceland and imported to Switzerland. Ten IgE-binding protein bands with approximate molecular weights of 75, 66, 52, 48, 47, 32, 22/21, 19, 15, 13/12 kDa were found in the SGE. Five of these bands bound IgE from 50% or more of the horse sera. Thirty-nine of the 42 IBH-affected horses but only 2 of the 26 healthy horses showed IgE-binding to the SGE (p<0.000001). Similarly, more IBH-affected than healthy horses had IgGa ab binding to the Culicoides SGE (19/22 and 9/22, respectively, p<0.01). Sera of IBH-affected horses contained IgE, IgGa and IgGT but not IgGb ab against significantly more protein bands than the sera of the healthy horses. The cohort of 10 Icelandic horses confirmed these results and showed that Culicoides SGE specific IgE correlates with onset of IBH. IBH-affected horses that were born in Iceland had IgGa and IgGT ab (p< or =0.01) as well as IgE ab (p=0.06) against a significantly higher number of

  9. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to an ultrasonic humidifier.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Fernández, J A; Quirce, S; Calleja, J L; Cuevas, M; Losada, E

    1998-02-01

    We describe a woman with hypersensitivity pneumonitis that was related to using a home ultrasonic humidifier. A micronodular infiltrate was seen in her chest radiograph. The inhalation challenge test was performed with the humidifier, and she exhibited a positive response. The cultures of the humidifier water grew Candida albicans, Rhodotorula spp., and Aspergillus spp. The test for precipitating antibodies against the humidifier water gave a positive response, and specific IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against extracts of A. fumigatus, C. albicans, and Rhodotorula spp. were demonstrated in the patient's serum by ELISA. A strong, dose-dependent inhibition of Rhodotorula IgG-ELISA by humidifier water was observed, suggesting that Rhodotorula might be the cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in this patient.

  10. Insect and arachnid hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bevier, D E

    1999-11-01

    Insect hypersensitivity reactions can have a large number of clinical presentations. The majority of reactions are pruritic and involve the short- or sparsely haired areas of the body. Most are associated with eosinophilic infiltration into the skin, often in a perivascular pattern. The diagnosis may be based on compatible clinical signs and improvement with aggressive insect control and, in some cases, confirmation via provocative exposure. Intradermal, prick, or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE can be used to document the presence of reaginic antibodies against insect allergens. Treatments include avoidance, aggressive insect control, and symptomatic support; in some cases, immunotherapy may be useful in decreasing the severity of clinical reactions to insects.

  11. Hypersensitivity reactions to fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Kathrin; Bircher, Andreas J

    2005-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics cause immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, and may also affect internal organs and circulating blood cells. The underlying pathomechanisms are only partly understood. The extent of cross-reactivity among different quinolones depends on the type of clinical manifestation and its underlying mechanism. Despite recent advances, reliable diagnostic tests are still lacking. Recent studies have shown quinolone-specific IgE in vitro in more than 50% of patients with immediate-type reactions and a considerable cross-reactivity with related compounds. In maculopapular drug exanthems from ciprofloxacin, specific T-cell clones were identified, and cross-reactivity to related compounds was detected in approximately 50% of the clones. From re-exposure studies in patients with exanthems, cross-reactivity appears to be lower. Cellular tests such as lymphocyte transformation tests are currently not very useful. For prick and intradermal skin tests, widely divergent nonirritant test concentrations have been recommended. Desensitization may be possible in selected patients.

  12. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  13. Estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity following stress in rats: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Karpowicz, Jane M; Furman, Andrew J; da Silva, Joyce Teixeira; Seminowicz, David A; Traub, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We used functional MRI and a longitudinal design to investigate the brain mechanisms in a previously reported estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity model. We hypothesized that noxious visceral stimulation would be associated with activation of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, and that estrogen-dependent, stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity would both enhance activation of these regions and recruit activation of other brain areas mediating affect and reward processing. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estrogen (17 β-estradiol, E2) or vehicle (n = 5 per group) and scanned in a 7T MRI at three different time points: pre-stress (baseline), 2 days post-stress, and 18 days post-stress. Stress was induced via a forced-swim paradigm. In a separate group of ovariectomized rats, E2 treatment induced visceral hypersensitivity at the 2 days post-stress time point, and this hypersensitivity returned to baseline at the 18 days post-stress time point. Vehicle-treated rats show no hypersensitivity following stress. During the MRI scans, rats were exposed to noxious colorectal distention. Across groups and time points, noxious visceral stimulation led to activations in the insula, anterior cingulate, and left amygdala, parabrachial nuclei, and cerebellum. A group-by-time interaction was seen in the right amygdala, ventral striatum-pallidum, cerebellum, hippocampus, mediodorsal thalamus, and pontine nuclei. Closer inspection of the data revealed that vehicle-treated rats showed consistent activations and deactivations across time, whereas estrogen-treated animals showed minimal deactivation with noxious visceral stimulation. This unexpected finding suggests that E2 may dramatically alter visceral nociceptive processing in the brain following an acute stressor. This study is the first to examine estrogen-stress dependent interactions in response to noxious visceral stimulation using functional MRI. Future studies that include other control groups

  14. The C2 protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus acts as a pathogenicity determinant and a 16-amino acid domain is responsible for inducing a hypersensitive response in plants.

    PubMed

    Matić, Slavica; Pegoraro, Mattia; Noris, Emanuela

    2016-04-02

    The role of the C2 protein in the pathogenicity of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) was investigated. Here we report that Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of TYLCSV C2 resulted in a strong hypersensitive response (HR) in Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, with induction of plant cell death and production of H2O2. Since HR is not evident in plants infected by TYLCSV, it is expected that TYLCSV encodes a gene (or genes) that counters this response. HR was partially counteracted by co-agroinfiltration of TYLCSV V2 and Rep, leading to chlorotic reaction, with no HR development. Considering that the corresponding C2 protein of the closely related tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) did not induce HR, alignment of the C2 proteins of TYLCSV and TYLCV were carried out and a hypervariable region of 16 amino acids was identified. Its role in the induction of HR was demonstrated using TYLCSV-TYLCV C2 chimeric genes, encoding two TYLCSV C2 variants with a complete (16 aa) or a partial (10 aa only) swap of the corresponding sequence of TYLCV C2. Furthermore, using NahG transgenic N. benthamiana lines compromised in the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), a key regulator of HR, only a chlorotic response occurred in TYLCSV C2-infiltrated tissue, indicating that SA participates in such plant defense process. These findings demonstrate that TYLCSV C2 acts as a pathogenicity determinant and induces host defense responses controlled by the SA pathway.

  15. An unexpected positive hypersensitive reaction to eugenol.

    PubMed

    Tammannavar, Praveen; Pushpalatha, C; Jain, Shrenik; Sowmya, S V

    2013-09-18

    Eugenol is an active, principal aromatic liquid responsible for several pharmacological activities. It is widely used in dental practice to relieve pain arising from various sources, such as pulpitis and dentinal hypersensitivity. As a primary irritant and sensitiser, it is known to cause contact urticaria as well as chronic urticaria. However, eugenol causes allergic contact dermatitis, possibly because it can react directly with proteins to form conjugate and reactive haptens. It is found that eugenol in various dental preparations-especially in the case of some zinc oxide-contains preparations such as periodontal dressings and root canal cements. This can cause hypersensitivity when it comes in contact with gingiva or teeth. This article presents a case of immediate allergic contact urticaria to eugenol during dental treatment.

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana natural variation reveals connections between UV radiation stress and plant pathogen-like defense responses.

    PubMed

    Piofczyk, Thomas; Jeena, Ganga; Pecinka, Ales

    2015-08-01

    UV radiation is a ubiquitous component of solar radiation that affects plant growth and development. Here we studied growth related traits of 345 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions in response to UV radiation stress. We analyzed the genetic basis of this natural variation by genome-wide association studies, which suggested a specific candidate genomic region. RNA-sequencing of three sensitive and three resistant accessions combined with mutant analysis revealed five large effect genes. Mutations in PHE ammonia lyase 1 (PAL1) and putative kinase At1g76360 rendered Arabidopsis hypersensitive to UV stress, while loss of function from putative methyltransferase At4g22530, novel plant snare 12 (NPSN12) and defense gene activated disease resistance 2 (ADR2) conferred higher UV stress resistance. Three sensitive accessions showed strong ADR2 transcriptional activation, accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and dwarf growth upon UV stress, while these phenotypes were much less affected in resistant plants. The phenotype of sensitive accessions resembles autoimmune reactions due to overexpression of defense related genes, and suggests that natural variation in response to UV radiation stress is driven by pathogen-like responses in Arabidopsis.

  17. Jaundice induced by stanozolol hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Slater, S. D.; Davidson, J. F.; Patrick, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    A 66-year-old male patient developed jaundice after 7 months of treatment with the anabolic steroid, stanozolol. When the drug was withdrawn he made a full and uneventful recovery. A liver biopsy showed the histology of a hypersensitivity reaction. This is believed to be the first time jaundice has been recorded with stanozolol therapy and the first time a hypersensitivity-type jaundice has been recorded with any anabolic steroid. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1273017

  18. Metabolomics reveals insect metabolic responses associated with fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Jiang; Luo, Feifei; Gao, Qiang; Shang, Yanfang; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-06-01

    The interactions between insects and pathogenic fungi are complex. We employed metabolomic techniques to profile insect metabolic dynamics upon infection by the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silkworm larvae were infected with fungal spores and microscopic observations demonstrated that the exhaustion of insect hemocytes was coupled with fungal propagation in the insect body cavity. Metabolomic analyses revealed that fungal infection could significantly alter insect energy and nutrient metabolisms as well as the immune defense responses, including the upregulation of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, and lipids, but the downregulation of eicosanoids and amines. The insect antifeedant effect of the fungal infection was evident with the reduced level of maclurin (a component of mulberry leaves) in infected insects but elevated accumulations in control insects. Insecticidal and cytotoxic mycotoxins like oosporein and beauveriolides were also detected in insects at the later stages of infection. Taken together, the metabolomics data suggest that insect immune responses are energy-cost reactions and the strategies of nutrient deprivation, inhibition of host immune responses, and toxin production would be jointly employed by the fungus to kill insects. The data obtained in this study will facilitate future functional studies of genes and pathways associated with insect-fungus interactions.

  19. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  20. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  1. Visceral and Somatic Hypersensitivity in TNBS induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Caudle, Robert M.; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200g–250g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n=40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n=40) or saline (n=25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von-Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex test were used to evaluate for visceral, mechanical, and thermal sensitivity. The rats demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity at 2–28 days following TNBS (p<0.0001). The ethanol treated rats also demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity that resolved after day 14. TNBS treated rats demonstrated somatic hypersensitivity at days 14–28 (p<0.0001) in response to somatic stimuli of the hind-paw. TNBS colitis is associated with visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in areas of somatotopic overlap. This model of colitis should allow further investigation into the mechanisms of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity. PMID:17703363

  2. Transcriptome and network analyses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that amphotericin B and lactoferrin synergy disrupt metal homeostasis and stress response

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Lai, Yu-Wen; Campbell, Leona T.; Chen, Sharon C.-A.; Carter, Dee A.; Wilkins, Marc R.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are difficult to treat. The few available antifungal drugs have problems with toxicity or efficacy, and resistance is increasing. To overcome these challenges, existing therapies may be enhanced by synergistic combination with another agent. Previously, we found amphotericin B (AMB) and the iron chelator, lactoferrin (LF), were synergistic against a range of different fungal pathogens. This study investigates the mechanism of AMB-LF synergy, using RNA-seq and network analyses. AMB treatment resulted in increased expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis and ATP synthesis. Unexpectedly, AMB-LF treatment did not lead to increased expression of iron and zinc homeostasis genes. However, genes involved in adaptive response to zinc deficiency and oxidative stress had decreased expression. The clustering of co-expressed genes and network analysis revealed that many iron and zinc homeostasis genes are targets of transcription factors Aft1p and Zap1p. The aft1Δ and zap1Δ mutants were hypersensitive to AMB and H2O2, suggesting they are key regulators of the drug response. Mechanistically, AMB-LF synergy could involve AMB affecting the integrity of the cell wall and membrane, permitting LF to disrupt intracellular processes. We suggest that Zap1p- and Aft1p-binding molecules could be combined with existing antifungals to serve as synergistic treatments. PMID:28079179

  3. Hypersensitivity to antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Castells, M C

    2008-01-01

    The need to offer first line therapy for primary and recurrent cancers has spurred the clinical development of rapid desensitizations for chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies. Rapid desensitizations allow patients to be treated with medications to which they have presented with hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), including anaphylaxis. Rapid desensitization achieves temporary tolerization to full therapeutic doses by slow administration of incremental doses of the drug inducing the HSR. Protocols are available for most chemotherapy agents, including taxanes, platins, doxorubicin, monoclonal antibodies, and others. Candidate patients include those who present with type I HSRs, mast cell/IgE dependent, including anaphylaxis, and non-IgE mediated HSRs, during the chemotherapy infusion or shortly after. Idiosyncratic reactions, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are not amenable to rapid desensitization. The recommendation for rapid desensitization can only be made by allergy and immunology specialists and can only be performed in settings with one-to-one nurse-patient care and where resuscitation personnel and resources are readily available. Repeated desensitizations can be safely performed in outpatient settings with similar conditions, which allow cancer patients to remain in clinical studies. We have generated a universal 12-step protocol that was applied to 413 cases of intravenous and intraperitoneal rapid desensitizations using taxanes, platins, liposomal doxorubicin, doxorubicin, rituximab, and other chemotherapy drugs. Under this protocol all patients were able to complete their target dose, and 94% of the patients had limited or no reactions. No deaths or codes were reported, indicating that the procedure was safe and effective in delivering first line chemotherapy drugs.

  4. Hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Tahia D.; Ariza, Adriana; Palomares, Francisca; Montañez, María I.; Salas, María; Martín-Serrano, Angela; Fernández, Rubén; Ruiz, Arturo; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although fluoroquinolones (FQs) are generally well-tolerated antibiotics, increasing numbers of hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These can be evaluated in vitro by basophil activation tests (BATs); however, sensitivity is not optimal. Many factors could influence sensitivity such as basophil activation markers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different activations markers, CD63 and CD203c, on the sensitivity of BAT to FQ. We studied 17 patients with immediate allergic reactions to FQ. BAT was performed with moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin using CD193 (CCR3) for basophil selection and CD203c or CD63 as activation markers. Stimulation with ciprofloxacin induced a significantly higher expression of CD63 in ciprofloxacin-allergic patients compared to moxifloxacin-allergic patients (P = 0.002). In patients allergic to moxifloxacin with anaphylactic shock, we have observed an increase in the percentage of cells that upregulate CD203c, whereas patients with anaphylaxis preferentially upregulate CD63. The best sensitivity–specificity was obtained using a cutoff of 3 and the culprit FQ, using CD203c for moxifloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 36.4%; specificity = 94.4%), and CD63 for ciprofloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 83.3%; specificity = 88.9%). A negative correlation was found between the upregulation of CD63 and CD203c and the time interval between the reaction occurrence and the performance of the test (Spearman r = −0.446; P < 0.001 for CD63 and Spearman r = −0.386; P < 0.001 for CD203c). The performance of BAT for FQ allergy must be optimized for each drug, taking into account possible differences in the stimulation mechanism that leads to the upregulation of different activation markers. PMID:27281069

  5. Ionic mechanisms of spinal neuronal cold hypersensitivity in ciguatera.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ryan; Brice, Nicola L; Lewis, Richard J; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-12-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study examined, for the first time, the neural substrates and molecular components of Pacific ciguatoxin-2-induced cold hypersensitivity. Electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurones were made in non-sentient rats. Subcutaneous injection of 10 nm ciguatoxin-2 into the receptive field increased neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling. In addition, neuronal responses to low-threshold but not noxious punctate mechanical stimuli were also elevated. The resultant cold hypersensitivity was not reversed by 6-({2-[2-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropyl}carbamoyl)pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, an antagonist of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8). Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were completely prevented by co-injection with the Nav 1.8 antagonist A803467, whereas the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist A967079 only prevented hypersensitivity to innocuous cooling and partially prevented hypersensitivity to noxious cooling. In naive rats, neither innocuous nor noxious cold-evoked neuronal responses were inhibited by antagonists of Nav 1.8, TRPA1 or TRPM8 alone. Ciguatoxins may confer cold sensitivity to a subpopulation of cold-insensitive Nav 1.8/TRPA1-positive primary afferents, which could underlie the cold allodynia reported in ciguatera. These data expand the understanding of central spinal cold sensitivity under normal conditions and the role of these ion channels in this translational rat model of ciguatoxin-induced hypersensitivity.

  6. A dominant repressor version of the tomato Sl-ERF.B3 gene confers ethylene hypersensitivity via feedback regulation of ethylene signaling and response components.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchun; Pirrello, Julien; Kesari, Ravi; Mila, Isabelle; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Li, Zhengguo; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher; Regad, Farid

    2013-11-01

    Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are downstream components of the ethylene signal transduction pathway, although their role in ethylene-dependent developmental processes remains poorly understood. As the ethylene-inducible tomato Sl-ERF.B3 has been shown previously to display a strong binding affinity to GCC-box-containing promoters, its physiological significance was addressed here by a reverse genetics approach. However, classical up- and down-regulation strategies failed to give clear clues to its roles in planta, probably due to functional redundancy among ERF family members. Expression of a dominant repressor ERF.B3-SRDX version of Sl-ERF.B3 in the tomato resulted in pleiotropic ethylene responses and vegetative and reproductive growth phenotypes. The dominant repressor etiolated seedlings displayed partial constitutive ethylene response in the absence of ethylene and adult plants exhibited typical ethylene-related alterations such as leaf epinasty, premature flower senescence and accelerated fruit abscission. The multiple symptoms related to enhanced ethylene sensitivity correlated with the altered expression of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes and suggested the involvement of Sl-ERF.B3 in a feedback mechanism that regulates components of ethylene production and response. Moreover, Sl-ERF.B3 was shown to modulate the transcription of a set of ERFs and revealed the existence of a complex network interconnecting different ERF genes. Overall, the study indicated that Sl-ERF.B3 had a critical role in the regulation of multiple genes and identified a number of ERFs among its primary targets, consistent with the pleiotropic phenotypes displayed by the dominant repression lines.

  7. Hypersensitivity to aeroallergens in adult patients with atopic dermatitis develops due to the different immunological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Samochocki, Zbigniew; Owczarek, Witold; Rujna, Paweł; Raczka, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a disease with a complex pathomechanism, it is very difficult to establish the exact factors which can either trigger or exacerbate the disease. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in AD development can be increased by, among others, applying new diagnostic tests and careful assessment of the results obtained. The aim of this study was to determine the allergic mechanisms of hypersensitivity to selected aeroallergens in patients with AD. The study comprised 109 AD patients. In all the patients the total IgE level was measured and atopy patch tests and skin prick tests were performed. We also assessed the presence of specific IgE against house dust mite, birch-tree, mixed grass pollen and cat dander. The highest incidence of positive results was found for house dust mite allergens, irrespective of the test employed. Analysing hypersensitivity to all the examined allergens we revealed the presence of allergic mechanisms in 85.3% of the patients. In 30.2% of the examined individuals we proved a type I immunological response, in 45.9% -- both types I and IV in 9.2% -- only type IV in one patient. In 14.7% of the patients the results of all the tests performed were negative. Analysing hypersensitivity to particular aeroallergens, negative test results to house dust mite were observed in 25.8% of the patients. The percentage of positive results for birch pollen, grass pollen and cat dander were 45.0, 44.1 and 53.2, respectively. Analysis of the results showed that allergic reactions to the same aeroallergens may develop via different mechanisms. We also revealed that the coexistence of various mechanisms involved in the development of hypersensitivity to a particular aeroallergen may occur in individual patients.

  8. Drug Hypersensitivity: How Drugs Stimulate T Cells via Pharmacological Interaction with Immune Receptors.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Werner J; Adam, Jacqueline; Watkins, Stephen; Wuillemin, Natascha; Yun, James; Yerly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Small chemicals like drugs tend to bind to proteins via noncovalent bonds, e.g. hydrogen bonds, salt bridges or electrostatic interactions. Some chemicals interact with other molecules than the actual target ligand, representing so-called 'off-target' activities of drugs. Such interactions are a main cause of adverse side effects to drugs and are normally classified as predictable type A reactions. Detailed analysis of drug-induced immune reactions revealed that off-target activities also affect immune receptors, such as highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigens (HLA) or T cell receptors (TCR). Such drug interactions with immune receptors may lead to T cell stimulation, resulting in clinical symptoms of delayed-type hypersensitivity. They are assigned the 'pharmacological interaction with immune receptors' (p-i) concept. Analysis of p-i has revealed that drugs bind preferentially or exclusively to distinct HLA molecules (p-i HLA) or to distinct TCR (p-i TCR). P-i reactions differ from 'conventional' off-target drug reactions as the outcome is not due to the effect on the drug-modified cells themselves, but is the consequence of reactive T cells. Hence, the complex and diverse clinical manifestations of delayed-type hypersensitivity are caused by the functional heterogeneity of T cells. In the abacavir model of p-i HLA, the drug binding to HLA may result in alteration of the presenting peptides. More importantly, the drug binding to HLA generates a drug-modified HLA, which stimulates T cells directly, like an allo-HLA. In the sulfamethoxazole model of p-i TCR, responsive T cells likely require costimulation for full T cell activation. These findings may explain the similarity of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to graft-versus-host disease, and how systemic viral infections increase the risk of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.

  9. Zeta Inhibitory Peptide as a Novel Therapy to Control Chronic Visceral Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Lixia; Dai, Hengfen; Huang, Yang; Chen, Qianqian; Lin, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of multiple chronic visceral pain syndromes, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is not well known, and as a result current therapies are ineffective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of spinal protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) on visceral pain sensitivity in rats with IBS to better understand the pathogenesis and investigate the effect of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) as a therapy for chronic visceral pain. Methods Visceral hypersensitivity rats were produced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS). Visceral pain sensitivity was assessed by electromyographic (EMG) responses of abdominal muscles to colorectal distention (CRD). Spinal PKMζ and phosphorylated PKMζ (p-PKMζ) were detected by western blot. Varying doses of ZIP were intrathecally administered to investigate the role of spinal PKMζ in chronic visceral hypersensitivity. The open field test was used to determine if ZIP therapy causes spontaneous motor activity side effects. Results Graded CRD pressure significantly increased EMG responses in NMS rats compared to control rats (p < 0.05). p-PKMζ expression increased in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spinal cord in the IBS-like rats with notable concomitant chronic visceral pain compared to control rats (p < 0.05). EMG data revealed that intrathecal ZIP injection (1, 5, and 10 μg) dose-dependently attenuated visceral pain hypersensitivity in IBS-like rats. Conclusions Phosphorylated PKMζ may be involved in the spinal central sensitization of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in IBS, and administration of ZIP could effectively treat chronic visceral pain with good outcomes in rat models. PMID:27776136

  10. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in tobacco. Molecular cloning and gene expression during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus and the response to a fungal elicitor.

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, L; Rohfritsch, O; Fritig, B; Legrand, M

    1994-01-01

    A tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Samsun NN) cDNA clone coding the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was isolated from a cDNA library made from polyadenylated RNA purified from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected leaves. Southern analysis indicated that, in tobacco, PAL is encoded by a small family of two to four unclustered genes. Northern analysis showed that PAL genes are weakly expressed under normal physiological conditions, they are moderately and transiently expressed after wounding, but they are strongly induced during the hypersensitive reaction to TMV or to a fungal elicitor. Ribonuclease protection experiments confirmed this evidence and showed the occurrence of two highly homologous PAL messengers originating from a single gene or from two tightly co-regulated genes. By in situ RNA-RNA hybridization PAL transcripts were shown to accumulate in a narrow zone of leaf tissue surrounding necrotic lesions caused by TMV infection or treatment with the fungal elicitor. In this zone, no cell specificity was observed and there was a decreasing gradient of labeling from the edge of necrosis. Some labeling was also found in various cell types of young, healthy stems and was shown to accumulate in large amounts in the same cell types after the deposition of an elicitor solution at the top of the decapitated plant. PMID:7824656

  11. RXLR and CRN Effectors from the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii Induce Hypersensitive-Like Responses in Resistant Sunflower Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gascuel, Quentin; Buendia, Luis; Pecrix, Yann; Blanchet, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Vear, Felicity; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g., plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower) strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analyzed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances. PMID:28066456

  12. Immunological Mechanisms of Drug Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaoli; Ariza, Adriana; Waddington, James; Park, Kevin; Naisbitt, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are adverse drug reactions that may be divided into several categories; namely pharmacologic intolerance, idiosyncratic reactions, pseudo-allergic reactions and allergic reactions. Drug allergic reactions are those DHRs that are mediated by either antibodies or drug-specific T cells. They vary in terms of severity, time-to-onset of clinical manifestations and target organ. Skin is most commonly implicated in drug hypersensitivity reactions; however, it is now apparent that reactions targeting internal organs fall under the definition of drug hypersensitivity. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diverse immune mechanisms involved and the heterogeneous clinical presentation. The discovery of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk alleles for some DHRs has provided insights in the pathogenesis of these reactions. In this review we summarize immune cells involved in DHRs, discuss the possible immunological mechanisms of DHRs, with an emphasis on the IgE-mediated immediate reactions and T cell-dependent delayed type reactions.

  13. Cockroach hypersensitivity in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Pola, J; Valdivieso, R; Zapata, C; Moneo, I; Duce, F; Larrad, L; Losada, E

    1988-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to cockroach antigen has been recognized as an important cause of perennial allergic rhinitis and asthma. To assess the frequency of cockroach hypersensitivity in our country, 150 asthmatic atopic subjects were studied using skin testing and in vitro assays for cockroach-specific IgE antibodies (Oriental and German cockroaches). Twenty-two of 61 patients who had a positive history of cockroach exposure had positive skin tests, and only 3 of 89 patients who had no history of exposure had positive skin reactions. Of 25 patients with positive skin tests, 23 showed specific IgE antibodies against oriental and German cockroaches using RAST and EIA techniques. In summary, approximately 15% of asthmatic atopics in Madrid area are sensitive to cockroaches (positive skin test + specific IgE antibodies). These results indicate that cockroach hypersensitivity should be considered in every patient with perennial asthma.

  14. An animal model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, V L; Hensley, G T; Fink, J N

    1975-01-01

    This study was devised to produce an animal model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in order to study both the induction and the elicitation of the disease. Rabbits exposed by aerosol to large quantities of pigeon antigens developed a humoral, but not cellular, immunologic response. Moreover, their lungs were essentially normal histologically. A single i.v. injection of killed BCG in oil permitted the induction of pulmonary cell-medid hypersensitivity to the inhaled antigen, as well as the development of pulmonary lesions which were more severe than that caused by the administration of BCG alone. The humoral immunologic response to the inhaled antigen was not increased after BCG injection. Since many individuals are exposed to the etiologic agents of hypersensitivity pneumonitis for extended periods without developing the disease, these findings in animals suggest that some event may occur to induce cell mediated hypersensitivity in order to initiate the disease process. In addition, we have shown that animals with normal lung histology and circulating complement-fixing antibodies undergo serum complement (CH50) depression after an aerosol challenge with the specific antigen. Animals with circulating, complement-fixing antibodies, and inflamed lungs (BCG-induced failed to undergo a complement depression subsequent to an aerosol challenge with specific antigens. These results re consistent with those seen in symptomatic and asymptomatic pigeon breeders and suggest that antigen distribution through the lung is important in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Images PMID:1099122

  15. Use of contact hypersensitivity in immunotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Descotes, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The histopathological examination of lymphoid organs together with a T-dependent antibody (TDAR) assay are the primary components of preclinical immunotoxicity assessment. Additional testing including measurement of cellular immunity may be considered. Besides ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation assays, either delayed or contact hypersensitivity models can be used. Contact hypersensitivity testing is typically performed either in mice or in guinea pigs and is directly derived from classical models used for the detection of contact sensitizing chemicals. Whatever the selected model, it is comprised of a sensitizing phase where the animals are applied a strong contact sensitizer topically, then a rest phase, and finally an eliciting phase where sensitized animals are challenged topically with the same contact sensitizer.In mice, the ear-swelling test is the reference procedure in which mice are sensitized to the ear or shaved abdominal skin and then challenged on the ear. Ear swelling usually measured from ear thickness reflects a cell-mediated immune response. In guinea pigs, a strong sensitizer is applied on the shaved skin of the abdomen or the interscapular area. The sensitized animals are challenged on another area of the shaved abdomen, and the cell-mediated response is assessed semiquantitatively from the magnitude of induced erythema inconsistently associated with edema. Treatment or exposure with immunosuppressive chemicals can result in a significantly decreased ear swelling or skin reaction. Contact hypersensitivity models are seldom used nowadays in preclinical immunotoxicity testing, most likely because of the lack of standardization and extensive validation as well as their use being restricted to mice or guinea pigs.

  16. 5-HT7 receptor activation inhibits mechanical hypersensitivity secondary to capsaicin sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Brenchat, Alex; Romero, Luz; García, Mónica; Pujol, Marta; Burgueño, Javier; Torrens, Antoni; Hamon, Michel; Baeyens, José Manuel; Buschmann, Helmut; Zamanillo, Daniel; Vela, José Miguel

    2009-02-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the potential role of the 5-HT(7) receptor in nociception secondary to a sensitizing stimulus in mice. For this purpose, the effects of relevant ligands (5-HT(7) receptor agonists: AS-19, MSD-5a, E-55888; 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists: SB-258719, SB-269970; 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist: F-13640; 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist: WAY-100635) were assessed on capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, a pain behavior involving hypersensitivity of dorsal horn neurons (central sensitization). For the 5-HT(7) receptor agonists used, binding profile and intrinsic efficacy to stimulate cAMP formation in HEK-293F cells expressing the human 5-HT(7) receptor were also evaluated. AS-19 and E-55888 were selective for 5-HT(7) receptors. E-55888 was a full agonist whereas AS-19 and MSD-5a behaved as partial agonists, with maximal effects corresponding to 77% and 61%, respectively, of the cAMP response evoked by the full agonist 5-HT. Our in vivo results revealed that systemic administration of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists exerted a clear-cut dose-dependent antinociceptive effect that was prevented by 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, but not by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist. The order of efficacy (E-55888>AS-19>MSD-5a) matched their in vitro efficacy as 5-HT(7) receptor agonists. Contrary to agonists, a dose-dependent promotion of mechanical hypersensitivity was observed after administration of 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, substantiating the involvement of the 5-HT(7) receptor in the control of capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These findings suggest that serotonin exerts an inhibitory role in the control of nociception through activation of 5-HT(7) receptors, and point to a new potential therapeutic use of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists in the field of analgesia.

  17. Clozapine-induced hypersensitivity myocarditis presenting as sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Sudarshan; Aggarwal, Kul

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity myocarditis is a rare but serious adverse effect of clozapine, a commonly used psychiatric drug. We report the case of sudden cardiac death from clozapine-induced hypersensitivity myocarditis diagnosed at autopsy. A 54-year-old Caucasian male on clozapine therapy for bipolar disorder presented with a sudden onset of shortness of breath. Laboratory studies were significant for elevated N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide. During his hospital stay, the patient died of sudden cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia. The autopsy revealed hypersensitivity myocarditis, which usually occurs in the first 4 weeks after the initiation of clozapine. A 4-week monitoring protocol, including laboratory assessment of troponin and C-reactive protein, may assist in the early diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition. PMID:28210568

  18. Hypersensitivity to thrombin of platelets from hypercholesterolemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Winocour, P.D.; Rand, M.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-03-01

    Hypersensitivity of platelets to thrombin has been associated with hypercholesterolemia. The authors have examined the mechanisms involved in this hypersensitivity. Rats were given diets rich in milk fat and containing added cholesterol and taurocholate to produce hypercholesterolemia (HC) (262 +/- 25 mg%) or added sitosterol as a normocholesterolemic control (NC) (89 +/- 6 mg%). Washed platelets were prelabelled with /sup 14/C-serotonin. In the presence of acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (to inhibit thromboxane A/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2/) formation) and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) (to remove released ADP), HC platelets aggregated more (26 +/- 1%) and released more /sup 14/C (9.1 +/- 2.0%) than NC platelets (aggregation: 0%, p < 0.001; /sup 14/C release: 1.5 +/- 0.5%, p < 0.002) in response to thrombin (0.075 U/ml). Thus, a pathway independent of released ADP or TXA/sub 2/ formation is involved in the hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin. Total binding of /sup 125/I-thrombin to HC platelets was less than that to NC platelets but HC platelets were smaller and had less protein than NC platelets; the thrombin binding per mg platelet protein was the same for HC and NC platelets, indicating that hypersensitivity to thrombin of HC platelets does not result from increased thrombin binding. Thus, hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin is not due to TXA/sub 2/ formation, the action of released ADP or increased thrombin binding.

  19. Lymphocyte transformation studies in drug hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, R.J.; Tse, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    In a group of patients with clinically diagnosed drug hypersensitivity the in vitro lymphocyte response to the suspected drug was assessed by the lymphocyte transformation test. The test gave positive results in all 15 patients with penicillin-induced immediate or accelerated allergic reactions and positive immediate skin-test reactivity to the major or the minor antigenic determinant of penicillin, or both, but in only 3 of the 12 patients with delayed-onset maculopapular rashes induced by penicillin, despite positive immediate reactivity to the skin-test reagents. Lymphocyte stimulation greater than five times the control level was demonstrated for five patients with penicillin-induced erythroderma, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or a serum-sickness-like illness, or with methicillin-induced interstitial nephritis, all of whom had negative reactions to the appropriate skin-test reagents. A low level of stimulation was seen in eight other skin-test-negative patients with possible allergic reactions induced by penicillins. However, in all subjects tested the stimulation was significantly greater than the mean for control subjects. For 9 of 11 patients with isoniazid-induced hepatitis or maculopapular rashes, but for only 8 of 31 patients with eruptions induced by a variety of drugs other than penicillins and isoniazid, significant stimulation occurred in the lymphocyte transformation test. It is concluded that the lymphocyte transformation test is useful in the detection of hypersensitivity to the penicillins (although in IgE-mediated reactions skin testing is clearly preferable) and isoniazid but is of limited value in the demonstration of hypersensitivity to other drugs. PMID:445303

  20. Lymphocyte transformation studies in drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Warrington, R J; Tse, K S

    1979-05-05

    In a group of patients with clinically diagnosed drug hypersensitivity the in vitro lymphocyte response to the suspected drug was assessed by the lymphocyte transformation test. The test gave positive results in all 15 patients with penicillin-induced immediate or accelerated allergic reactions and positive immediate skin-test reactivity to the major or the minor antigenic determinant of penicillin, or both, but in only 3 of the 12 patients with delayed-onset maculopapular rashes induced by penicillin, despite positive immediate reactivity to the skin-test reagents.Lymphocyte stimulation greater than five times the control level was demonstrated for five patients with penicillin-induced erythroderma, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or a serum-sickness-like illness, or with methicillin-induced interstitial nephritis, all of whom had negative reactions to the appropriate skin-test reagents. A low level of stimulation was seen in eight other skin-test-negative patients with possible allergic reactions induced by penicillins. However, in all subjects tested the stimulation was significantly greater than the mean for control subjects.For 9 of 11 patients with isoniazid-induced hepatitis or maculopapular rashes, but for only 8 of 31 patients with eruptions induced by a variety of drugs other than penicillins and isoniazid, significant stimulation occurred in the lymphocyte transformation test.It is concluded that the lymphocyte transformation test is useful in the detection of hypersensitivity to the penicillins (although in IgE-mediated reactions skin testing is clearly preferable) and isoniazid but is of limited value in the demonstration of hypersensitivity to other drugs.

  1. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the northwest United States

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Wataha, John C.; Heaton, Lisa J.; Rothen, Marilynn; Sobieraj, Martin; Scott, JoAnna; Berg, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity is uncertain, yet appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dentin hypersensitivity require accurate knowledge regarding its prevalence. The authors conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices and to investigate associated risk factors. Methods The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of 787 adult patients from 37 general dental practices within Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). Dentin hypersensitivity was diagnosed by means of participants’ responses to a question regarding pain in their teeth and gingivae, and practitioner-investigators conducted a clinical examination to rule out alternative causes of pain. Participants recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale and the Seattle Scales in response to a one-second air blast. The authors used generalized estimating equation log-linear models to estimate the prevalence and the prevalence ratios. Results The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was 12.3 percent; patients with hypersensitivity had, on average, 3.5 hypersensitive teeth. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was higher among 18- to 44-year olds than among participants 65 years or older; it also was higher in women than in men, in participants with gingival recession than in those without gingival recession and in participants who underwent at-home tooth whitening than in those who did not. Hypersensitivity was not associated with obvious occlusal trauma, noncarious cervical lesions or aggressive toothbrushing habits. Conclusions One in eight participants from general practices had dentin hypersensitivity, which was a chronic condition causing intermittent, low-level pain. Patients with hypersensitivity were more likely to be younger, to be female and to have a high prevalence of gingival recession and at-home tooth whitening. Practical Implications Given dentin

  2. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity.

  3. CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells mediate mechanical inflammatory pain hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemlou, Nader; Chiu, Isaac M.; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Pain hypersensitivity at the site of inflammation as a result of chronic immune diseases, pathogenic infection, and tissue injury is a common medical condition. However, the specific contributions of the innate and adaptive immune system to the generation of pain during inflammation have not been systematically elucidated. We therefore set out to characterize the cellular and molecular immune response in two widely used preclinical models of inflammatory pain: (i) intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) as a model of adjuvant- and pathogen-based inflammation and (ii) a plantar incisional wound as a model of tissue injury-based inflammation. Our findings reveal differences in temporal patterns of immune cell recruitment and activation states, cytokine production, and pain in these two models, with CFA causing a nonresolving granulomatous inflammatory response whereas tissue incision induced resolving immune and pain responses. These findings highlight the significant differences and potential clinical relevance of the incisional wound model compared with the CFA model. By using various cell-depletion strategies, we find that, whereas lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G (Ly)6G+CD11b+ neutrophils and T-cell receptor (TCR) β+ T cells do not contribute to the development of thermal or mechanical pain hypersensitivity in either model, proliferating CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells were necessary for mechanical hypersensitivity during incisional pain, and, to a lesser extent, CFA-induced inflammation. However, inflammatory (CCR2+Ly6Chi) monocytes were not responsible for these effects. The finding that a population of proliferating CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells contribute to mechanical inflammatory pain provides a potential cellular target for its treatment in wound inflammation. PMID:26598697

  4. Genotyping for Severe Drug Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Eric; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis and pharmacogenomics of severe immunologically-mediated adverse drug reactions. Such T-cell-mediated adverse drug reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), drug-induced liver disease (DILI) and other drug hypersensitivity syndromes have more recently been shown to be mediated through interactions with various class I and II HLA alleles. Key examples have included the associations of HLA-B*15:02 and carbamazepine induced SJS/TEN in Southeast Asian populations and HLA-B*57:01 and abacavir hypersensitivity. HLA-B*57:01 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity exemplifies a successful translational roadmap from pharmacogenomic discovery through to widespread clinical implementation. Ultimately, our increased understanding of the interaction between drugs and the MHC could be used to inform drug design and drive pre-clinical toxicity programs to improve drug safety. PMID:24429903

  5. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2010.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2011-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2010. Key epidemiologic observations include an apparent increase in peanut allergy, with more than 1% of children affected, and increasing evidence that early food allergen exposure, rather than avoidance, might improve allergy outcomes. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include improved insights into prognosis and estimation of severity through component-resolved diagnostics and characterization of IgE binding to specific epitopes. Regarding treatment, oral and epicutaneous immunotherapy show promise. Studies of drug allergies show insights into pathophysiology, and studies on insect hypersensitivity reveal improved diagnostic methods. Genetic and functional studies have revealed the important role of epidermal differentiation products in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Cross-talk between the atopic immune response with the innate immune response have also been found to predispose to infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. New therapeutic approaches to control chronic urticaria have also been identified during the past year.

  6. Compensatory Islet Response to Insulin Resistance Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Gedeon, Nicholas; Kahraman, Sevim; De Jesus, Dario F.; Bhatt, Shweta; Kim, Jong-Seo; Clauss, Therese RW; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory islet response is a distinct feature of the pre-diabetic insulin resistant state in humans and rodents. To identify alterations in the islet proteome that characterize the adaptive response, we analyzed islets from five-month-old male control, high-fat diet fed (HFD) or obese ob/ob mice by LC-MS(/MS) and quantified ~1,100 islet proteins (at least two peptides) with a false discovery rate <1%. Significant alterations in abundance were observed for ~350 proteins between groups. A majority of alterations were common to both models, and the changes of a subset of ~40 proteins and 12 proteins were verified by targeted quantification using selected reaction monitoring and Western blots, respectively. The insulin resistant islets in both groups exhibited reduced expression of proteins controlling energy metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, hormone processing, and secretory pathways. Conversely, an increased expression of molecules involved in protein synthesis and folding suggested effects in endoplasmic reticulum stress response, cell survival, and proliferation in both insulin resistant models. In summary, we report a unique comparison of the islet proteome that is focused on the compensatory response in two insulin resistant rodent models that are not overtly diabetic. These data provide a valuable resource of candidate proteins to the scientific community to undertake further studies aimed at enhancing β-cell mass in patients with diabetes. The data are available via the MassIVE repository, with accession MSV000079093. PMID:26151086

  7. Biochemical Analyses of Sorghum Varieties Reveal Differential Responses to Drought

    PubMed Central

    Ogbaga, Chukwuma C.; Stepien, Piotr; Dyson, Beth C.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Ellis, David I.; Goodacre, Royston; Johnson, Giles N.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the biochemical responses of two sorghum cultivars of differing drought tolerance, Samsorg 17 (more drought tolerant) and Samsorg 40 (less drought tolerant), to sustained drought. Plants were exposed to different degrees of drought and then maintained at that level for five days. Responses were examined in terms of metabolic changes and the expression of drought induced proteins—Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and dehydrins (DHNs). Generalised phenotypic changes were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and non-targeted Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to detect changes in metabolites, while changes in protein expression were examined using Western blot analysis. Different response profiles of metabolites, HSPs and DHNs were observed in the two cultivars. Metabolic changes involved variation in amino acids, polysaccharides and their derivatives. A total of 188 compounds, with 142 known metabolites and 46 unknown small molecules, were detected in the two sorghum varieties. Under water deficit conditions, Samsorg 17 accumulated sugars and sugar alcohols, while in Samsorg 40 amino acids increased in concentration. This study suggest that the two Sorghum varieties adopt distinct approaches in response to drought, with Samsorg 17 being better able to maintain leaf function under severe drought conditions. PMID:27153323

  8. Electrocorticography Reveals Enhanced Visual Cortex Responses to Visual Speech.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Inga M; Yoshor, Daniel; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Human speech contains both auditory and visual components, processed by their respective sensory cortices. We test a simple model in which task-relevant speech information is enhanced during cortical processing. Visual speech is most important when the auditory component is uninformative. Therefore, the model predicts that visual cortex responses should be enhanced to visual-only (V) speech compared with audiovisual (AV) speech. We recorded neuronal activity as patients perceived auditory-only (A), V, and AV speech. Visual cortex showed strong increases in high-gamma band power and strong decreases in alpha-band power to V and AV speech. Consistent with the model prediction, gamma-band increases and alpha-band decreases were stronger for V speech. The model predicts that the uninformative nature of the auditory component (not simply its absence) is the critical factor, a prediction we tested in a second experiment in which visual speech was paired with auditory white noise. As predicted, visual speech with auditory noise showed enhanced visual cortex responses relative to AV speech. An examination of the anatomical locus of the effects showed that all visual areas, including primary visual cortex, showed enhanced responses. Visual cortex responses to speech are enhanced under circumstances when visual information is most important for comprehension.

  9. Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver.

    PubMed

    Hinke, Jefferson T; Salwicka, Kasia; Trivelpiece, Susan G; Watters, George M; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z

    2007-10-01

    The responses of predators to environmental variability in the Antarctic Peninsula region have exhibited divergent patterns owing to variation in the geographic settings of colonies and predator life-history strategies. Five breeding colonies of Pygoscelis penguins from King George Island and Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, were examined to (1) compare the responses of sympatric congeners to recent changes in their Antarctic ecosystem and (2) assess underlying causes for such responses. We used linear regression and correlation analyses to compare indices of abundance, recruitment, and summer breeding performance of the Adélie (P. adeliae), gentoo (P. papua), and chinstrap penguins (P. antarctica). Breeding colonies of Adélie and chinstrap penguins have declined by roughly 50% since the mid-1970s, and recruitment indices of Adélie penguins have declined by roughly 80%, but no such patterns are evident for gentoo penguins. Fledging success, however, has remained stable at all breeding colonies. The different trends in abundance and recruitment indices for each species, despite generally similar indices of summer performance, suggest that winter conditions contribute to the divergent responses among the penguins. In particular, strong correlations between indices of penguin and krill recruitment suggest that penguins in the South Shetland Islands may live under an increasingly krill-limited system that has disproportionate effects on the survival of juvenile birds.

  10. Electrocorticography Reveals Enhanced Visual Cortex Responses to Visual Speech

    PubMed Central

    Schepers, Inga M.; Yoshor, Daniel; Beauchamp, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Human speech contains both auditory and visual components, processed by their respective sensory cortices. We test a simple model in which task-relevant speech information is enhanced during cortical processing. Visual speech is most important when the auditory component is uninformative. Therefore, the model predicts that visual cortex responses should be enhanced to visual-only (V) speech compared with audiovisual (AV) speech. We recorded neuronal activity as patients perceived auditory-only (A), V, and AV speech. Visual cortex showed strong increases in high-gamma band power and strong decreases in alpha-band power to V and AV speech. Consistent with the model prediction, gamma-band increases and alpha-band decreases were stronger for V speech. The model predicts that the uninformative nature of the auditory component (not simply its absence) is the critical factor, a prediction we tested in a second experiment in which visual speech was paired with auditory white noise. As predicted, visual speech with auditory noise showed enhanced visual cortex responses relative to AV speech. An examination of the anatomical locus of the effects showed that all visual areas, including primary visual cortex, showed enhanced responses. Visual cortex responses to speech are enhanced under circumstances when visual information is most important for comprehension. PMID:24904069

  11. Compensatory islet response to insulin resistance revealed by quantitative proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Zhou, Jian -Ying; Liew, Chong Wee; Shirakawa, Jun; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas; Kahraman, Sevim; De Jesus, Dario F.; Bhatt, Shweta; Kim, Jong -Seo; Clauss, Therese R. W.; Camp, II, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei -Jun; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2015-07-07

    Compensatory islet response is a distinct feature of the pre-diabetic insulin resistant state in humans and rodents. To identify alterations in the islet proteome that characterize the adaptive response, we analyzed islets from five-month-old male control, high-fat diet fed (HFD) or obese ob/ob mice by LC-MS(/MS) and quantified ~1,100 islet proteins (at least two peptides) with a false discovery rate <1%. Significant alterations in abundance were observed for ~350 proteins between groups. A majority of alterations were common to both models, and the changes of a subset of ~40 proteins and 12 proteins were verified by targeted quantification using selected reaction monitoring and Western blots, respectively. The insulin resistant islets in both groups exhibited reduced expression of proteins controlling energy metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, hormone processing, and secretory pathways. Conversely, an increased expression of molecules involved in protein synthesis and folding suggested effects in endoplasmic reticulum stress response, cell survival, and proliferation in both insulin resistant models. In conclusion, we report a unique comparison of the islet proteome that is focused on the compensatory response in two insulin resistant rodent models that are not overtly diabetic. In conclusion, these data provide a valuable resource of candidate proteins to the scientific community to undertake further studies aimed at enhancing β-cell mass in patients with diabetes. The data are available via the MassIVE repository, with accession MSV000079093.

  12. Compensatory islet response to insulin resistance revealed by quantitative proteomics

    DOE PAGES

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Zhou, Jian -Ying; Liew, Chong Wee; ...

    2015-07-07

    Compensatory islet response is a distinct feature of the pre-diabetic insulin resistant state in humans and rodents. To identify alterations in the islet proteome that characterize the adaptive response, we analyzed islets from five-month-old male control, high-fat diet fed (HFD) or obese ob/ob mice by LC-MS(/MS) and quantified ~1,100 islet proteins (at least two peptides) with a false discovery rate <1%. Significant alterations in abundance were observed for ~350 proteins between groups. A majority of alterations were common to both models, and the changes of a subset of ~40 proteins and 12 proteins were verified by targeted quantification using selectedmore » reaction monitoring and Western blots, respectively. The insulin resistant islets in both groups exhibited reduced expression of proteins controlling energy metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, hormone processing, and secretory pathways. Conversely, an increased expression of molecules involved in protein synthesis and folding suggested effects in endoplasmic reticulum stress response, cell survival, and proliferation in both insulin resistant models. In conclusion, we report a unique comparison of the islet proteome that is focused on the compensatory response in two insulin resistant rodent models that are not overtly diabetic. In conclusion, these data provide a valuable resource of candidate proteins to the scientific community to undertake further studies aimed at enhancing β-cell mass in patients with diabetes. The data are available via the MassIVE repository, with accession MSV000079093.« less

  13. Mediated amperometry reveals different modes of yeast responses to sugars.

    PubMed

    Garjonyte, Rasa; Melvydas, Vytautas; Malinauskas, Albertas

    2016-02-01

    Menadione-mediated amperometry at carbon paste electrodes modified with various yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pulcherrima, Pichia guilliermondii and Debaryomyces hansenii) was employed to monitor redox activity inside the yeast cells induced by glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose or galactose. Continuous measurements revealed distinct modes (transient or gradually increasing) of the current development during the first 2 to 3 min after subjection to glucose, fructose and sucrose at electrodes containing S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains. Different modes (increasing or decreasing) of the current development after yeast subjection to galactose at electrodes with S. cerevisiae or D. hansenii and at electrodes with C. pulcherrima and P. guilliermondii suggested different mechanisms of galactose assimilation.

  14. The Arabidopsis AtNPR1 inversely modulates defense responses against fungal, bacterial, or viral pathogens while conferring hypersensitivity to abiotic stresses in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Quilis, Jordi; Peñas, Gisela; Messeguer, Joaquima; Brugidou, Christophe; San Segundo, Blanca

    2008-09-01

    The nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes (NPR1) protein plays an important role in mediating defense responses activated by pathogens in Arabidopsis. In rice, a disease-resistance pathway similar to the Arabidopsis NPR1-mediated signaling pathway one has been described. Here, we show that constitutive expression of the Arabidopsis NPR1 (AtNPR1) gene in rice confers resistance against fungal and bacterial pathogens. AtNPR1 exerts its protective effects against fungal pathogens by priming the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive endogenous genes, such as the PR1b, TLP (PR5), PR10, and PBZ1. However, expression of AtNPR1 in rice has negative effects on viral infections. The AtNPR1-expressing rice plants showed a higher susceptibility to infection by the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) which correlated well with a misregulation of RYMV-responsive genes, including expression of the SA-regulated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 gene (OsRDR1). Moreover, AtNPR1 negatively regulates the expression of genes playing a role in the plant response to salt and drought stress (rab21, salT, and dip1), which results in a higher sensitivity of AtNPR1 rice to the two types of abiotic stress. These observations suggest that AtNPR1 has both positive and negative regulatory roles in mediating defense responses against biotic and abiotic stresses.

  15. Activation of the IL-1beta-processing inflammasome is involved in contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideki; Gaide, Olivier; Pétrilli, Virginie; Martinon, Fabio; Contassot, Emmanuel; Roques, Stéphanie; Kummer, Jean A; Tschopp, Jürg; French, Lars E

    2007-08-01

    The inflammasome is a cytosolic protein complex regulating the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18 into their active form. The inflammasome is composed of a NACHT-, LRR- and pyrin (NALP) family member that acts as a sensor for danger signals and the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC), which allows the recruitment of caspase-1 in the complex. In the skin, exposure to contact sensitizers (CS) such as trinitro-chlorobenzene causes an immune response called contact hypersensitivity (CHS) or eczema. In this delayed-type hypersensitivity response, efficient priming of the adaptive immunity depends on the concomitant activation of the innate immune system, including IL-1beta/IL-18 activation in the skin. To determine if the inflammasome contributes to CHS, we have analyzed its capacity to react to CS in vitro and in vivo. We show here that key components of the inflammasome are present in human keratinocytes and that CS like trinitro-chlorobenzene induce caspase-1/ASC dependent IL-1beta and IL-18 processing and secretion. We also show that ASC- and NALP3-deficient mice display an impaired response to CS. These findings suggest that CS act as danger signals that activate the inflammasome in the skin, and reveal a new role of NALP3 and ASC as regulators of innate immunity in CHS.

  16. Trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: a disease of fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Gul; Kim, Hyung Hun; Song, Bong Gun; Kim, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    Trichloroethylene is commonly used as an industrial solvent and degreasing agent. The clinical features of acute and chronic intoxication with trichloroethylene are well-known and have been described in many reports, but hypersensitivity syndrome caused by trichloroethylene is rarely encountered. For managing patients with trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome, avoiding trichloroethylene and initiating glucocorticoid have been generally accepted. Generally, glucocorticoid had been tapered as trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome had ameliorated. However, we encountered a typical case of trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome refractory to high dose glucocorticoid treatment. A 54-year-old Korean man developed jaundice, fever, red sore eyes, and generalized erythematous maculopapular rashes. A detailed history revealed occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. After starting intravenous methylprednisolone, his clinical condition improved remarkably, but we could not reduce prednisolone because his liver enzyme and total bilirubin began to rise within 2 days after reducing prednisolone under 60 mg/day. We recommended an extended admission for complete recovery, but the patient decided to leave the hospital against medical advice. The patient visited the emergency department due to pneumonia and developed asystole, which did not respond to resuscitation.

  17. Global response of M-I coulping revealed by AMPERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, C. L.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) provides one of the few in-situ datasets that allows studies of global properties of magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) interactions. The characterisation of the Birkeland currents, sensed by the Iridium constellation of satellites for both hemispheres simultaneously, is possible particularly for storm-time events. Other data sets (e.g. HF radar) that provide large spatial coverage may also be combined with AMPERE data in order to understand hemisphere differences in power input. In this presentation, we focus on the ability of AMPERE data to provide details of M-I coupling in both hemispheres simultaneously. The presentation will be illustrated using examples showing comparisons from north and south hemisphere Birkeland current configurations and Poynting flux.

  18. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals posttranslational responses to aneuploidy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dephoure, Noah; Hwang, Sunyoung; O'Sullivan, Ciara; Dodgson, Stacie E; Gygi, Steven P; Amon, Angelika; Torres, Eduardo M

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploidy causes severe developmental defects and is a near universal feature of tumor cells. Despite its profound effects, the cellular processes affected by aneuploidy are not well characterized. Here, we examined the consequences of aneuploidy on the proteome of aneuploid budding yeast strains. We show that although protein levels largely scale with gene copy number, subunits of multi-protein complexes are notable exceptions. Posttranslational mechanisms attenuate their expression when their encoding genes are in excess. Our proteomic analyses further revealed a novel aneuploidy-associated protein expression signature characteristic of altered metabolism and redox homeostasis. Indeed aneuploid cells harbor increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, increased protein turnover attenuates ROS levels and this novel aneuploidy-associated signature and improves the fitness of most aneuploid strains. Our results show that aneuploidy causes alterations in metabolism and redox homeostasis. Cells respond to these alterations through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03023.001 PMID:25073701

  19. Alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major plus bacille Calmette-Guérrin, a candidate vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: safety, skin-delayed type hypersensitivity response and dose finding in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kamil, A A; Khalil, E A G; Musa, A M; Modabber, F; Mukhtar, M M; Ibrahim, M E; Zijlstra, E E; Sacks, D; Smith, P G; Zicker, F; El-Hassan, A M

    2003-01-01

    In a previous efficacy study, autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) + bacille Calmette-Guérrin (BCG) vaccine was shown to be safe, but not superior to BCG alone, in protecting against visceral leishmaniasis. From June 1999 to June 2000, we studied the safety and immunogenicity of different doses of alum-precipitated ALM + BCG vaccine mixture administered intradermally to evaluate whether the addition of alum improved the immunogenicity of ALM. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers were recruited and sequentially allocated to receive either 10 microg, 100 microg, 200 microg, or 400 microg of leishmanial protein in the alum-precipitated ALM + BCG vaccine mixture. Side effects were minimal for all doses and confined to the site of injection. All volunteers in the 10 microg, 100 microg, and 400 microg groups had a leishmanin skin test (LST) reaction of > or = 5 mm by day 42 and this response was maintained when tested after 90 d. Only 1 volunteer out of 5 in the 200 microg group had a LST reaction of > or = 5 mm by day 42 and the reasons for the different LST responses in this group are unclear. This is the first time that an alum adjuvant with ALM has been in used in humans and the vaccine mixture was safe and induced a strong delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in the study volunteers. On the basis of this study we suggest that 100 1 microg of leishmanial protein in the vaccine mixture is a suitable dose for future efficacy studies, as it induced the strongest DTH reaction following vaccination.

  20. Biomaterial Hypersensitivity: Is It Real? Supportive Evidence and Approach Considerations for Metal Allergic Patients following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mihalko, William M.; Grupp, Thomas M.; Manning, Blaine T.; Dennis, Douglas A.; Goodman, Stuart B.; Saleh, Khaled J.

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of biomaterial hypersensitivity developing in response to joint implant materials was first presented more than 30 years ago. Many studies have established probable causation between first-generation metal-on-metal hip implants and hypersensitivity reactions. In a limited patient population, implant failure may ultimately be related to metal hypersensitivity. The examination of hypersensitivity reactions in current-generation metal-on-metal knee implants is comparatively limited. The purpose of this study is to summarize all available literature regarding biomaterial hypersensitivity after total knee arthroplasty, elucidate overall trends about this topic in the current literature, and provide a foundation for clinical approach considerations when biomaterial hypersensitivity is suspected. PMID:25883940

  1. Application of Diode Laser in the Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Zukanovic, Amila; Pasic, Enes; Pavlic, Veriva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dentine hypersensitivity is characterized by acute, sharp pain arising from the exposed dentine, most commonly in response to thermal, tactile, or chemical stimuli, and which cannot be linked to any other pathological changes in the tooth or the environment. Therapy uses various impregnating agents in the form of solutions or gels and, in more recent times, laser. Aim: The aim of this research was to examine the effects of treatment of hypersensitive dental cervix with diode laser. Materials and Methods: The study included 18 patients with 82 sensitive teeth. The degree of dentine hypersensitivity was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), and the treatment was carried out by application of low-power diode laser over the span of three visits, which depended on the initial sensitivity. Results: There is a significant difference in VAS values measured at the onset of treatment (baseline) and immediately after the first laser treatment (t=9.275; p=0.000), after 7 days, after the second laser treatment (14 days) (t=7.085, p=0.000), as well as after 14 days and the third laser treatment (t=5.517, p=0.000), which confirms the effectiveness of this therapeutic procedure. The results showed a reduction of hypersensitivity in response to tactile stimulus with a probe after the third treatment, even with teeth whose value on the VAS was very high at the beginning of treatment (baseline). Conclusion: Within the scope of the conducted study, laser therapy has provided extremely safe and effective results in the treatment of cervical dentine hypersensitivity. PMID:28210023

  2. Stress induces transient auditory hypersensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Birgit; Haupt, Heidemarie; Joachim, Ricarda; Klapp, Burghard F; Stöver, Timo; Szczepek, Agnieszka J

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to harsh environment induces stress reactions that increase probability of survival. Stress influences the endocrine, nervous and immune systems and affects the functioning of a variety of organs. Numerous researchers demonstrated that a 24-h exposure to an acoustic rodent repellent provokes stress reaction in exposed animals. In addition to the activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, exposed animals had pathological reactions in the reproductive organs, bronchia and skin. Here, we examined the effect of above stress model on the auditory system of Wistar rats. We found that 24-h stress decreases the thresholds and increases the amplitudes of auditory brainstem responses and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Resultant auditory hypersensitivity was transient and most pronounced between 3 and 6h post-stress, returning to control levels one week later. The concentration of corticosterone and tumor necrosis factor alpha was systemically elevated in stressed animals between 3 and 6h post-stress, confirming the activation of the HPA axis. In addition, expression of the HPA-axis-associated genes: glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1a) was modulated in the auditory tissues. In detail, in the inferior colliculus, we found an up-regulation of GR mRNA 3h post-stress and continuous up-regulation of Hif1a up to 24h post-stress. In the spiral ganglion, we found no differences in gene expression between stressed and control animals. In the organ of Corti, expression of GR mRNA remained stable, whereas that of Hif1a was significantly down-regulated one week after stress. In addition, the expression of an outer hair cell marker prestin was significantly up-regulated 6h post-stress. We conclude that 24-h stress induces transient hypersensitivity of the auditory system and modulates gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. Stress-induced auditory hypersensitivity could have evolutionary consequence by giving animals

  3. Mouse Model of Halogenated Platinum Salt Hypersensitivity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Occupational exposure to halogenated platinum salts can trigger the development of asthma. Concern for increased asthma risk exists for the general population due to the use of platinum (Pt) in catalytic converters and its emerging use as a diesel fuel additive. To investigate airway responses to Pt, we developed a mouse model of Pt hypersensitivity. Previously, we confirmed the dermal sensitizing potency of ammonium hexachloroplatinate (AHCP) using an ex vivo [3H]methyl thymidine labeling version of the local lymph node assay in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the ability of AHCP to induce airway responses in mice sensitized by the dermal route. Mice were sensitized through application of 100 µL 1% AHCP in DMSO to the shaved back on days 0, 5 and 19, and 25 µl to each ear on days 10, 11 and 12. Unsensitized mice received vehicle. On day 24, mice were challenged by oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) with 0 or 100 µg AHCP in saline. Before and immediately after challenge, airway responses were assessed using whole body plethysmography (WBP). On day 26, changes in ventilatory responses to methacholine (Mch) aerosol were assessed by WBP; dose-dependent increases in Mch responsiveness occurred in sensitized mice. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid harvested from sensitized mice contained an average of 7.5% eosinophils compared to less than 0.5% in control mice (p < 0.05). This model will be useful for assessing both relative sensitizing potency and cross-reacti

  4. Angioneurotic edema: a rare case of hypersensitivity to metoclopramide

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewski, Aleksander; Matuszewski, Tomasz; Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The case of a 30-year-old woman who had already experienced two incidents of angioneurotic edema and urticaria caused by drugs during the acute gastroenteritis. The allergological workup revealed hypersensitivity to metoclopramide. This case documents that metoclopramide, a drug commonly used to inhibit the vomiting, may cause not only bronchospastic reaction in an asthmatic patient but also angioneurotic edema of the tongue and larynx as well as urticaria. No similar cases in the literature were found. PMID:24278059

  5. Desensitizing Agent Reduces Dentin Hypersensitivity During Ultrasonic Scaling: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Tomonari; Akiyama, Toshiharu; Takano, Takuya; Gokyu, Misa; Sudo, Takeaki; Khemwong, Thatawee; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin hypersensitivity can interfere with optimal periodontal care by dentists and patients. The pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling is intolerable for patient and interferes with the procedure, particularly during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) for patients with gingival recession. Aim This study proposed to evaluate the desensitizing effect of the oxalic acid agent on pain caused by dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. Materials and Methods This study involved 12 patients who were incorporated in SPT program and complained of dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. We examined the availability of the oxalic acid agent to compare the degree of pain during ultrasonic scaling with or without the application of the dentin hypersensitivity agent. Evaluation of effects on dentin hypersensitivity was determined by a questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores after ultrasonic scaling. The statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student t-test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results The desensitizing agent reduced the mean VAS pain score from 69.33 ± 16.02 at baseline to 26.08 ± 27.99 after application. The questionnaire revealed that >80% patients were satisfied and requested the application of the desensitizing agent for future ultrasonic scaling sessions. Conclusion This study shows that the application of the oxalic acid agent considerably reduces pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity experienced during ultrasonic scaling. This pain control treatment may improve patient participation and treatment efficiency. PMID:26501012

  6. Cytomegalovirus reactivation in drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mathuram, Alice J; George, Renu E

    2014-06-01

    Drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome has been reported to a variety of drugs. Reactivation of herpes viruses is associated with relapse of symptoms even as late as five weeks after stopping the inciting drug. We report here a case of drug hypersensitivity with CMV reactivation which was treated successfully.

  7. A cross-sectional study on canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil ratifies a higher prevalence of specific IgG-antibody response than delayed-type hypersensitivity in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Fernando T; Carneiro, Liliane A; Ramos, Patrícia K S; Chagas, Eugênia J; Lima, Luciana V R; Campos, Marliane B; Laurenti, Márcia D; Gomes, Claudia M C; Corbett, Carlos E P

    2012-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study which analyzed the prevalence and the clinical and immunological spectrum of canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in a cohort of 320 mongrel dogs living in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Amazonian Brazil by using, mainly, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT-IgG) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the parasite research by the popliteal lymph node aspiration. The IFAT and DTH reactivity recognized three different immune response profiles: (1) IFAT((+))/DTH((-)) (107 dogs), (2) IFAT((-))/DTH((+)) (18 dogs), and (3) IFAT((+))/DTH((+)) (13 dogs), providing an overall prevalence of infection of 43% (138/320). Thus, the specific prevalence of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) 33.4% (107/320) was higher than those of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) 5.6% (18/320) and IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) 4.0% (13/320). Moreover, the frequency of these profiles among 138 infected dogs showed that the IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) rate of 77.5% (107/138) was also higher than those of 13.0% (18/138) of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) and 9.5% (13/138) of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) rates. The frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105) was higher than those of symptomatic (16.6%-23) and oligosymptomatic ones (7.4%-10). A total of 16 (11.6%) L. (L.) i. chagasi isolates were obtained from infected dogs, all from the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile: 41% (9/22) from symptomatic, 33.3% (3/9) from oligosymptomatic, and 5.2% (4/76) from asymptomatic dogs. These findings strongly suggested that despite the higher frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105), the majority (72.4%-76) was characterized by the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile with a doubtful immunogenetic resistance against infection.

  8. Citrus leprosis virus C Infection Results in Hypersensitive-Like Response, Suppression of the JA/ET Plant Defense Pathway and Promotion of the Colonization of Its Mite Vector

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Gabriella D.; Ramos-González, Pedro L.; Nunes, Maria A.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Camargo, Luis E. A.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Machado, Marcos A.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Leprosis is a serious disease of citrus caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, genus Cilevirus) whose transmission is mediated by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions around the feeding sites of viruliferous mites. To get insight into this unusual pathosystem, we evaluated the expression profiles of genes involved in defense mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana and Citrus sinensis upon infestation with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites by using reverse-transcription qPCR. These results were analyzed together with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the appearance of dead cells as assessed by histochemical assays. After interaction with non-viruliferous mites, plants locally accumulated ROS and triggered the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. ERF branch of the JA/ET pathways was highly activated. In contrast, JA pathway genes were markedly suppressed upon the CiLV-C infection mediated by viruliferous mites. Viral infection also intensified the ROS burst and cell death, and enhanced the expression of genes involved in the RNA silencing mechanism and SA pathway. After 13 days of infestation of two sets of Arabidopsis plants with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites, the number of mites in the CiLV-C infected Arabidopsis plants was significantly higher than in those infested with the non-viruliferous ones. Oviposition of the viruliferous mites occurred preferentially in the CiLV-C infected leaves. Based on these results, we postulated the first model of plant/Brevipalpus mite/cilevirus interaction in which cells surrounding the feeding sites of viruliferous mites typify the outcome of a hypersensitive-like response, whereas viral infection induces changes in the behavior of its vector. PMID:27933078

  9. Maternal Separation Induced Visceral Hypersensitivity from Childhood to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lisha; Zhang, Haiqin; Sun, Huihui; Zhou, Lu; Chen, Ying; Xuan, Liqian; Jiang, Yuanxi; Xu, Shuchang

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Early adverse life events (EALs) are relevant to irritable bowel syndrome in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS), as one of the EALs, has proved to induce visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats. However, the effect of MS on visceral hypersensitvity from the post-weaning period to adulthood remains unknown. Methods One hundred and ten neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: rats in the MS group were exposed to 3 hours daily MS on postnatal day (PND) 2–14; the normal control (NC) group remained undisturbed. Visceral sensitivity was determined by measuring the visceromotor response to colorectal distention on PND21, 35, and 56. Anxiety-like behaviors were measured by the open field test. Results Compared with NC rats, MS rats showed significant visceral hypersensitivity from the post-weaning period to adult. The proportion of visceral hypersensitive rats decreased with age from 87.5% to 70.0% in the female MS group and from 90.0% to 66.7% in the male MS group. The relative VMR ratio of MS and NC on PND21 was higher than PND35 and PND56. MS rats showed decreased ability of movement and exploration to the novel environment in the post-weaning period, obesity in the prepubertal period, and more anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. Conclusions MS can significantly affect visceral sensitivity and behaviors of rats in different age stages, especially in the post-weaning period. Visceral hypersensitivity of MS rats is more pronounced in the post-weaning period and slightly restored in adults. Thus, visceral hypersensitivity in the post-weaning period might play a more meaningful pathophysiologic role in the formation of adult irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:28238254

  10. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins and other betalactams.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, C; Martín, E; Cornejo-García, J A; Blanca-Lopez, N; R-Pena, R; Mayorga, C; Torres, M J; Blanca, M

    2006-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams are IgE mediated and constitute the most frequent allergic reactions mediated by specific immunological mechanisms. IgE responses to benzyl penicillin (BP), the first antibiotic producing the benzyl penicilloyl structure (BPO), are characterized by a quick release of inflammatory mediators, resulting in anaphylactic shock, urticaria and angioedema. With the progressive appearance of other structures, comprising cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams and clavulanic acid, IgE selective responses and cross-reactivity reactions were observed. The diagnosis of betalactam hypersensitivity, classically based on skin testing with major and minor determinants of benzyl penicillin or in vitro IgE antibodies to BP, has been modified by the inclusion of different determinants generated from these compounds, for which amoxicillin (AX) is the most relevant, followed by cephalosporins. Some subjects develop positive responses to several betalactams, mostly within the same family, but others develop a selective response. These are relevant for the appropriate selection of antimicrobial drugs in patients who have immediate hypersensitivity to betalactams.

  11. Spotlight on the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis).

    PubMed

    Baur, Xaver; Fischer, Axel; Budnik, Lygia T

    2015-01-01

    Repeated inhalative exposures to antigenic material from a variety of sources, mainly from moulds, thermophilic Actinomycetes, and avians, respectively, can induce immune responses with the clinical picture of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Delays of years or even decades till the diagnosis is made are not uncommon; frequent misdiagnoses include allergic asthma, COPD, recurrent flue and other infections. We provide here the state of the art references, a detailed case description and recommend a current diagnostics schema.

  12. [Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis)].

    PubMed

    Cebollero, P; Echechipía, S; Echegoyen, A; Lorente, M P; Fanlo, P

    2005-01-01

    Farmer's lung was first described in 1932. We can define hypersensitivity pneumonitis as a pulmonary and systemic disease that is accompanied by dyspnoea and coughing; it is caused by an immunological type of inflammation of the alveolar walls and the terminal airways and it is secondary to the repeated inhalation of a variety of antigens by a susceptible host. It can be said that it is an underdiagnosed disease and only a high degree of clinical manifestations and a detailed history of exposure can lead to an early diagnosis and satisfactory treatment. A combination among clinical-radiological, functional, cytological or pathological findings leads in some cases to a diagnosis. Treatment is based on avoiding further exposure to the causal agent and in the more serious cases the administration of systemic corticoid treatment.

  13. Analysis of Magnaporthe oryzae Genome Reveals a Fungal Effector, Which Is Able to Induce Resistance Response in Transgenic Rice Line Containing Resistance Gene, Pi54

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Soham; Singh, Pankaj K.; Gupta, Deepak K.; Mahato, Ajay K.; Sarkar, Chiranjib; Rathour, Rajeev; Singh, Nagendra K.; Sharma, Tilak R.

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most important diseases of rice. Pi54, a rice gene that imparts resistance to M. oryzae isolates prevalent in India, was already cloned but its avirulent counterpart in the pathogen was not known. After decoding the whole genome of an avirulent isolate of M. oryzae, we predicted 11440 protein coding genes and then identified four candidate effector proteins which are exclusively expressed in the infectious structure, appresoria. In silico protein modeling followed by interaction analysis between Pi54 protein model and selected four candidate effector proteins models revealed that Mo-01947_9 protein model encoded by a gene located at chromosome 4 of M. oryzae, interacted best at the Leucine Rich Repeat domain of Pi54 protein model. Yeast-two-hybrid analysis showed that Mo-01947_9 protein physically interacts with Pi54 protein. Nicotiana benthamiana leaf infiltration assay confirmed induction of hypersensitive response in the presence of Pi54 gene in a heterologous system. Genetic complementation test also proved that Mo-01947_9 protein induces avirulence response in the pathogen in presence of Pi54 gene. Here, we report identification and cloning of a new fungal effector gene which interacts with blast resistance gene Pi54 in rice. PMID:27551285

  14. Analysis of Magnaporthe oryzae Genome Reveals a Fungal Effector, Which Is Able to Induce Resistance Response in Transgenic Rice Line Containing Resistance Gene, Pi54.

    PubMed

    Ray, Soham; Singh, Pankaj K; Gupta, Deepak K; Mahato, Ajay K; Sarkar, Chiranjib; Rathour, Rajeev; Singh, Nagendra K; Sharma, Tilak R

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most important diseases of rice. Pi54, a rice gene that imparts resistance to M. oryzae isolates prevalent in India, was already cloned but its avirulent counterpart in the pathogen was not known. After decoding the whole genome of an avirulent isolate of M. oryzae, we predicted 11440 protein coding genes and then identified four candidate effector proteins which are exclusively expressed in the infectious structure, appresoria. In silico protein modeling followed by interaction analysis between Pi54 protein model and selected four candidate effector proteins models revealed that Mo-01947_9 protein model encoded by a gene located at chromosome 4 of M. oryzae, interacted best at the Leucine Rich Repeat domain of Pi54 protein model. Yeast-two-hybrid analysis showed that Mo-01947_9 protein physically interacts with Pi54 protein. Nicotiana benthamiana leaf infiltration assay confirmed induction of hypersensitive response in the presence of Pi54 gene in a heterologous system. Genetic complementation test also proved that Mo-01947_9 protein induces avirulence response in the pathogen in presence of Pi54 gene. Here, we report identification and cloning of a new fungal effector gene which interacts with blast resistance gene Pi54 in rice.

  15. Heat resistance and salt hypersensitivity in Lactococcus lactis due to spontaneous mutation of llmg_1816 (gdpP) induced by high-temperature growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, William M; Pham, Thi Huong; Lei, Lin; Dou, Junchao; Soomro, Aijaz H; Beatson, Scott A; Dykes, Gary A; Turner, Mark S

    2012-11-01

    During construction of several gene deletion mutants in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 which involved a high-temperature (37.5°C) incubation step, additional spontaneous mutations were observed which resulted in stable heat resistance and in some cases salt-hypersensitive phenotypes. Whole-genome sequencing of one strain which was both heat resistant and salt hypersensitive, followed by PCR and sequencing of four other mutants which shared these phenotypes, revealed independent mutations in llmg_1816 in all cases. This gene encodes a membrane-bound stress signaling protein of the GdpP family, members of which exhibit cyclic dimeric AMP (c-di-AMP)-specific phosphodiesterase activity. Mutations were predicted to lead to single amino acid substitutions or protein truncations. An independent llmg_1816 mutant (Δ1816), created using a suicide vector, also displayed heat resistance and salt hypersensitivity phenotypes which could be restored to wild-type levels following plasmid excision. L. lactis Δ1816 also displayed improved growth in response to sublethal concentrations of penicillin G. High-temperature incubation of a wild-type industrial L. lactis strain also resulted in spontaneous mutation of llmg_1816 and heat-resistant and salt-hypersensitive phenotypes, suggesting that this is not a strain-specific phenomenon and that it is independent of a plasmid integration event. Acidification of milk by the llmg_1816-altered strain was inhibited by lower salt concentrations than the parent strain. This study demonstrates that spontaneous mutations can occur during high-temperature growth of L. lactis and that inactivation of llmg_1816 leads to temperature resistance and salt hypersensitivity.

  16. Hypothesis on how to measure electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tuengler, Andreas; von Klitzing, Lebrecht

    2013-09-01

    Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is an ill-defined term to describe the fact that people who experience health symptoms in the vicinity of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) regard them as causal for their complaints. Up to now most scientists assume a psychological cause for the suffering of electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals. This paper addresses reasons why most provocation studies could not find any association between EMF exposure and EHS and presents a hypothesis on diagnosis and differentiation of this condition. Simultaneous recordings of heart rate variability, microcirculation and electric skin potentials are used for classification of EHS. Thus, it could be possible to distinguish "genuine" electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals from those who suffer from other conditions.

  17. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds.

  18. Low-Dose Tricyclics for Esophageal Hypersensitivity: Is it all Placebo Effect?

    PubMed

    Keefer, Laurie; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    Limsrivilai et al. report on a randomized control trial (RCT) testing the efficacy of imipramine for treating esophageal hypersensitivity and functional heartburn, the first RCT to test this therapy in this indication. Among 43 functional heartburn and esophageal hypersensitivity patients randomized to treatment with 25 mg qhs imipramine and 40 randomized to matched placebo, the response rates, judged by a 50% reduction in gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, were 37.2% and 37.5%, respectively, with no observed difference between patients with hypersensitivity and those with functional heartburn. On the positive side, imipramine treatment was associated with improvement in quality of life as assessed by total SF-36 score. Although negative at first glance, there are several important lessons from this study: (i) low-dose tricyclic is sufficient in these patients; (ii) proton pump inhibitors can (and should) be discontinued when they are ineffective; and (iii) distinguishing between functional heartburn and esophageal hypersensitivity is of unclear clinical relevance.

  19. [Hypersensitivity in patients with Hebra's prurigo caused by flea bite].

    PubMed

    De Almeida, F A; Croce, J

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study of hypersensitivity of patients with Hebra's prurigo (HP) to feleabites. Thirty six patients were studied. With the results obtained the following conclusions are held: 1. Among the probable responsible factors found in the history of patients with HP, the flea bite is the principal factor. 2. Almost all the patients with HP who were studied show hypersensitivity to flea bites. 3. With the flea bites on the patients with HP, one can observe the clinical and histopathology similarity of both the experimental and elementary lesions of the disease. 4. It was possible to show humoral antibodies in the serum of the patients with HP immunodiffusion technique to the 1:40 flea extract.

  20. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: cellular hypersensitivity and selective IgA deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Panush, R. S.; Bianco, N. E.; Schur, P. H.; Rocklin, R. E.; David, J. R.; Stillman, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Although humoral immune mechanisms are currently thought to be of pathogenetic significance in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), little is known about the role of cellular hypersensitivity in this disease. A possible association between abnormalities of humoral and cellular immunity exists in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia, who may have absent IgA, abnormal delayed hypersensitivity, or both. As IgA deficiency has been noted in 2–3% of patients with JRA, we have studied selected aspects of humoral and cellular hypersensitivity in patients with JRA and IgA deficiency and in patients with JRA and normal IgA levels. All patients had normal serum levels of complement, IgG, IgM, and IgD. Cellular hypersensitivity was evaluated by cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity, in vitro migration inhibitory factor production, and antigen induced 3H-thymidine incorporation by lymphocytes using Candida and Streptokinase–Streptodornase antigens. Two of four IgA deficient patients had positive in vitro but negative in vivo responses to antigens. Seven of fourteen JRA patients with normal immunoglobulin levels exhibited a similar dissociation of in vivo and in vitro manifestations of delayed hypersensitivity. This pattern of cellular immune response was associated with activity and chronicity of disease; it was independent of IgA deficiency. PMID:5022450

  1. Sympathoinhibition and hypotension in carotid sinus hypersensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity is a known cause of syncope in humans. The condition is characterized by cardioinhibition and vasodepression, each to varying degrees. The extent and importance of sympathoinhibition has not been determined in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. This study reports on the extent of sympathoinhibition measured directly directly during carotid massage with and without atrioventricular sequential pacing, in a patient with symptomatic carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity. Carotid massage elicited asystole, hypotension and complete inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Carotid massage during atrioventricular pacing produced similar sympathoinhibition, but with minimal hypotension. Therefore, sympathoinhibition did not contribute importantly to the hypotension during carotid massage in the supine position in this patient. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relation of sympathoinhibition to hypotension in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity in the upright position.

  2. Drug-Hypersensitivity Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Rose L.

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder that results in mucocutaneous symptoms ranging in severity from mild pruritus to life-threatening skin and mucosal loss, with different nomenclature depending on the severity of the symptoms. The purpose of this article is to review the recent advances in understanding the pathology of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, as well as current recommendations for both medical and wound management. PMID:24527369

  3. Esophageal hypersensitivity in noncardiac chest pain.

    PubMed

    Min, Yang Won; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2016-09-01

    Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is an often-encountered clinical problem. Although many patients suffer from persistent or recurrent chest pain, treatment remains a challenge owing to its various possible etiologies. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common cause of NCCP. In GERD-related NCCP, proton pump inhibitor treatment appears to be effective. However, the pathophysiology remains to be fully elucidated in NCCP patients without GERD. Treatment for non-GERD-related NCCP has been aimed at esophageal motility disorders and visceral hypersensitivity. As there is growing evidence that esophageal visceral hypersensitivity plays a role in NCCP, pain modulators have become the mainstay of therapy in patients with non-GERD-related NCCP. However, there is an unmet need for the treatment of esophageal hypersensitivity in NCCP due to modest evidence for the benefit of pain modulators, including antidepressants, in non-GERD-related NCCP. Recent studies have demonstrated that esophageal mast cell infiltration and impaired mucosal integrity are related to visceral hypersensitivity in patients with NCCP. Thus, esophageal mast cell stabilization and restoration of esophageal mucosal integrity could be considered potential therapeutic targets in selected NCCP patients with hypersensitivity. However, further observations are necessary to shed light on esophageal hypersensitivity in NCCP.

  4. Genome-wide analysis links NFATC2 with asparaginase hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Christian A.; Smith, Colton; Yang, Wenjian; Mullighan, Charles G.; Qu, Chunxu; Larsen, Eric; Bowman, W. Paul; Liu, Chengcheng; Ramsey, Laura B.; Chang, Tamara; Karol, Seth E.; Loh, Mignon L.; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Winick, Naomi J.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Carroll, William L.; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E.; Devidas, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Asparaginase is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); however, hypersensitivity reactions can lead to suboptimal asparaginase exposure. Our objective was to use a genome-wide approach to identify loci associated with asparaginase hypersensitivity in children with ALL enrolled on St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (SJCRH) protocols Total XIIIA (n = 154), Total XV (n = 498), and Total XVI (n = 271), or Children’s Oncology Group protocols POG 9906 (n = 222) and AALL0232 (n = 2163). Germline DNA was genotyped using the Affymetrix 500K, Affymetrix 6.0, or the Illumina Exome BeadChip array. In multivariate logistic regression, the intronic rs6021191 variant in nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 (NFATC2) had the strongest association with hypersensitivity (P = 4.1 × 10−8; odds ratio [OR] = 3.11). RNA-seq data available from 65 SJCRH ALL tumor samples and 52 Yoruba HapMap samples showed that samples carrying the rs6021191 variant had higher NFATC2 expression compared with noncarriers (P = 1.1 × 10−3 and 0.03, respectively). The top ranked nonsynonymous polymorphism was rs17885382 in HLA-DRB1 (P = 3.2 × 10−6; OR = 1.63), which is in near complete linkage disequilibrium with the HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele we previously observed in a candidate gene study. The strongest risk factors for asparaginase allergy are variants within genes regulating the immune response. PMID:25987655

  5. Type I hypersensitivity reaction as a complication of lepa

    PubMed Central

    Janthli, Deepa Manjunath; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Somashekar, Shruthi; Lohith, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction is defined as response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological functions. Type I hypersensitivity reaction is known as anaphylactic reaction which is due to immediate immunoglobulin E-mediated reaction. It is characterized by symptoms such as fever nausea, back pain, angiodema, rash, flushing, etc. Lepa generally refers to the application of pastes formed by mixing powder of herbs with water, milk, etc., and liquids. Complementary and alternative medicines are frequently used by the general population. Many people consider them to be without side effects. Ayurvedic treatment involves Shodhana (biopurification), Shaman (pacification), Bahya (external therapy), and Abhyantara karma's (internal therapy) for treating different diseases. One such bahya karma or external therapy is lepa. Even though lepa is said as “Aadhya Upakrama,” undue hypersensitivity is observed in many patients. A 60-year-old woman had an adverse reaction to lepa after being administered as an external medication. The observations were erythema, eruptions, and itching. Such case of hypersensitivity is discussed in the present study. PMID:26792959

  6. Type I hypersensitivity reaction as a complication of lepa.

    PubMed

    Janthli, Deepa Manjunath; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Somashekar, Shruthi; Lohith, B A

    2015-12-01

    Adverse drug reaction is defined as response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological functions. Type I hypersensitivity reaction is known as anaphylactic reaction which is due to immediate immunoglobulin E-mediated reaction. It is characterized by symptoms such as fever nausea, back pain, angiodema, rash, flushing, etc. Lepa generally refers to the application of pastes formed by mixing powder of herbs with water, milk, etc., and liquids. Complementary and alternative medicines are frequently used by the general population. Many people consider them to be without side effects. Ayurvedic treatment involves Shodhana (biopurification), Shaman (pacification), Bahya (external therapy), and Abhyantara karma's (internal therapy) for treating different diseases. One such bahya karma or external therapy is lepa. Even though lepa is said as "Aadhya Upakrama," undue hypersensitivity is observed in many patients. A 60-year-old woman had an adverse reaction to lepa after being administered as an external medication. The observations were erythema, eruptions, and itching. Such case of hypersensitivity is discussed in the present study.

  7. Dentinal hypersensitivity: A comparative clinical evaluation of CPP-ACP F, sodium fluoride, propolis, and placebo

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Souparna; Nayak, Moksha; Shenoy, Amarnath; Shetty, Rajesh; Prasad, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dentine hypersensitivity is a transient condition that often resolves with the natural sclerotic obturation of dentinal tubules. A potent topically applied in-office desensitizing treatment is indicated as the choice of treatment when dentine hypersensitivity is localized to one or two teeth. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the clinical efficiency of CPP-ACP F, sodium fluoride, propolis, and distilled water that was used as placebo in treating dentinal hypersensitivity. Materials and Methods: 120 patients aged 20–40 years reporting with dentinal hypersensitivity in relation to canine, premolar and molars with erosion, abrasion, and gingival recession were randomly assigned to four groups of 30 patients each. Response to air jet and tactile stimuli were measured using visual analogue scale initially on 1st, 7th, 15th, 28th, 60th, and final assessment was done on the 90th day. Statistical Analysis: A statistical analysis was done using Anova test (Fischer's test) and Tukey HSD test for multicomparison. Results: The teeth treated with the test group showed decrease in the mean hypersensitivity values compared to control group, over a period of three months. The results showed propolis to be most efficient in treating dentinal hypersensitivity and CPP- ACPF showed to be the least efficient. Conclusion: All test groups were effective in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity, although they differed in rapidity of action over the period of 3 months. Further studies can be done using advanced materials and techniques. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been developed to treat dentinal hypersensitivity including products that impede nerve conduction of pain stimulus, products that mechanically occlude dentinal tubules, and calcium containing products designed to create plugs in the tubules utilizing a demineralization mechanism. PMID:23112475

  8. Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D; Caudle, Robert M; Verne, G Nicholas

    2008-02-01

    Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n = 40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n = 40) or saline (n = 25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex tests were used to evaluate for visceral, mechanical, and thermal sensitivity. The rats demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity at 2-28 days following TNBS administration (P < 0.0001). The ethanol-treated rats also demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity that resolved after day 14. TNBS-treated rats demonstrated somatic hypersensitivity at days 14-28 (P < 0.0001) in response to somatic stimuli of the hind paw. TNBS colitis is associated with visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in areas of somatotopic overlap. This model of colitis should allow further investigation into the mechanisms of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity.

  9. Periaqueductal Grey EP3 Receptors Facilitate Spinal Nociception in Arthritic Secondary Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Drake, R.A.R.; Leith, J.L.; Almahasneh, F.; Martindale, J.; Wilson, A.W.; Lumb, B.

    2016-01-01

    Descending controls on spinal nociceptive processing play a pivotal role in shaping the pain experience after tissue injury. Secondary hypersensitivity develops within undamaged tissue adjacent and distant to damaged sites. Spinal neuronal pools innervating regions of secondary hypersensitivity are dominated by descending facilitation that amplifies spinal inputs from unsensitized peripheral nociceptors. Cyclooxygenase–prostaglandin (PG) E2 signaling within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is pronociceptive in naive and acutely inflamed animals, but its contributions in more prolonged inflammation and, importantly, secondary hypersensitivity remain unknown. In naive rats, PG EP3 receptor (EP3R) antagonism in vlPAG modulated noxious withdrawal reflex (EMG) thresholds to preferential C-nociceptor, but not A-nociceptor, activation and raised thermal withdrawal thresholds in awake animals. In rats with inflammatory arthritis, secondary mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity of the hindpaw developed and was associated with spinal sensitization to A-nociceptor inputs alone. In arthritic rats, blockade of vlPAG EP3R raised EMG thresholds to C-nociceptor activation in the area of secondary hypersensitivity to a degree equivalent to that evoked by the same manipulation in naive rats. Importantly, vlPAG EP3R blockade also affected responses to A-nociceptor activation, but only in arthritic animals. We conclude that vlPAG EP3R activity exerts an equivalent facilitation on the spinal processing of C-nociceptor inputs in naive and arthritic animals, but gains in effects on spinal A-nociceptor processing from a region of secondary hypersensitivity. Therefore, the spinal sensitization to A-nociceptor inputs associated with secondary hypersensitivity is likely to be at least partly dependent on descending prostanergic facilitation from the vlPAG. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT After tissue damage, sensitivity to painful stimulation develops in undamaged areas (secondary

  10. Evaluation of the irritancy and hypersensitivity potential following topical application of didecyldimethylammonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Shane, Hillary; Long, Carrie; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean; Marshall, Nikki B.

    2016-01-01

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a dialkyl-quaternary ammonium compound that is used in numerous products for its bactericidal, virucidal and fungicidal properties. There have been clinical reports of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions in exposed individuals; however, the sensitization potential of DDAC has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the irritancy and sensitization potential of DDAC following dermal exposure in a murine model. DDAC induced significant irritancy (0.5 and 1%), evaluated by ear swelling in female Balb/c mice. Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ranging from 0.0625–1%. A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with a calculated EC3 value of 0.17%. Dermal exposure to DDAC did not induce increased production of IgE as evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node B-cells (IgE+B220+) and measurement of total serum IgE levels. Additional phenotypic analyses revealed significant and dose-responsive increases in the absolute number of B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells and dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, along with significant increases in the percentage of B-cells (0.25% and 1% DDAC) at Day 10 following 4 days of dermal exposure. There was also a significant and dose-responsive increase in the number of activated CD44 + CD4 + and CD8+ T-cells and CD86+ B-cells and dendritic cells following exposure to all concentrations of DDAC. These results demonstrate the potential for development of irritation and hypersensitivity responses to DDAC following dermal exposure and raise concerns about the use of this chemical and other quaternary ammonium compounds that may elicit similar effects. PMID:27216637

  11. Microglia: a newly discovered role in visceral hypersensitivity?

    PubMed Central

    Saab, Carl Y.; Wang, Jing; Gu, Chunping; Garner, Kirsten N.; Al-Chaer, Elie D.

    2007-01-01

    Given the growing body of evidence for a role of glia in pain modulation, it is plausible that the exaggerated visceral pain in chronic conditions might be regulated by glial activation. In this study, we have investigated a possible role for microglia in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity and previously documented altered neuronal function. Experiments were performed on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats pre-treated with neonatal colon irritation (CI) and on control rats. Effects of fractalkine (FKN, a chemokine involved in neuron-to-microglia signaling) and of minocycline (an inhibitor of microglia) on visceral sensitivity were examined. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by recording the electromyographic (EMG) responses to graded colorectal distension (CRD) in mildly sedated rats. Responses to CRD were recorded before and after injection of FKN, minocycline or vehicle. Somatic thermal hyperalgesia was measured by latency of paw withdrawal to radiant heat. The pattern and intensity of microglial distribution at L6–S2 in the spinal cord was also compared in rats with CI and controls by fluorescence microscopy using OX-42. Results show that: (1) FKN significantly facilitated EMG responses to noxious CRD by >52% in control rats. FKN also induced thermal hyperalgesia in control rats, consistent with previous reports; (2) minocycline significantly inhibited EMG responses to noxious CRD by >70% in rats with CI compared to controls 60 min after injection. The anti-nociceptive effect of minocycline lasted for 180 min in rats with CI, reaching peak values 60 min after injection. Our results show that FKN enhances visceral and somatic nociception, whereas minocycline inhibits visceral hypersensitivity in chronically sensitized rats, which indicates a role for microglia in visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:18496611

  12. Hypersensitivity reactions to dapsone: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Maria; Wozel, Gottfried; Schmitt, Jochen

    2012-03-01

    Dapsone is widely used in the treatment of leprosy and several chronic inflammatory dermatological conditions. Hypersensitivity reactions to dapsone are potentially fatal adverse drug reactions with unknown prevalence and risk factors. We performed a systematic review covering all reported cases of hypersensitivity reactions, in order to systematically summarize the published evidence on prevalence, clinical course and fatality rate. Articles were identified through standardized search strategies. Included studies were reviewed for hypersensitivity characteristics and odds ratios were calculated in univariate and multivariate regression models to assess the risk factors for fatal outcome. A total of 114 articles (17 epidemiological studies, 97 case reports) totalling 336 patients with hypersensitivity reactions were included for analysis. From the epidemiological studies a total hypersensitivity reaction prevalence rate of 1.4% (95% confidence interval 1.2–1.7%) was determined. Mucosal involvement, hepatitis, higher age and disease occurrence in non-affluent countries were associated with higher risk of fatal outcome. Overall, the fatality rate was 9.9%.

  13. Physiological and Transcriptional Analyses Reveal Differential Phytohormone Responses to Boron Deficiency in Brassica napus Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Hua, Yingpeng; Huang, Yupu; Ding, Guangda; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones play pivotal roles in the response of plants to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Boron (B) is an essential microelement for plants, and Brassica napus (B. napus) is hypersensitive to B deficiency. However, how auxin responds to B deficiency remained a dilemma for many years and little is known about how other phytohormones respond to B deficiency. The identification of B-efficient/inefficient B. napus indicates that breeding might overcome these constraints in the agriculture production. Here, we seek to identify phytohormone-related processes underlying B-deficiency tolerance in B. napus at the physiological and gene expression levels. Our study indicated low-B reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration in both the shoots and roots of B. napus, and affected the expression of the auxin biosynthesis gene BnNIT1 and the efflux gene BnPIN1 in a time-dependent manner. Low-B increased the jasmonates (JAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations and induced the expression of the ABA biosynthesis gene BnNCED3 and the ABA sensor gene BnPYL4 in the shoot. In two contrasting genotypes, the auxin concentration decreased more drastically in the B-inefficient genotype ‘W10,’ and together the expression of BnNIT1 and BnPIN1 also decreased more significantly in ‘W10’ under long-term B deficiency. While the JAs concentration was considerably higher in this genotype, and the ABA concentration was induced in ‘W10’ compared with the B-efficient genotype ‘QY10.’ Digital gene expression (DGE) profiling confirmed the differential expression of the phytohormone-related genes, indicating more other phyohormone differences involving in gene regulation between ‘QY10’ and ‘W10’ under low-B stress. Additionally, the activity of DR5:GFP was reduced in the root under low-B in Arabidopsis, and the application of exogenous IAA could partly restore the B-defective phenotype in ‘W10.’ Overall, our data suggested that low-B disturbed phytohormone

  14. Involvement of protein kinase ζ in the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiqin; Bao, Chengjia; Tang, Ying; Luo, Xiaoqing; Guo, Lixia; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was implicated in the formation of visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome in our previous study. Recent studies have shown that protein kinase M ζ (PKMζ) may be responsible for the maintenance of LTP in memory formation. However, it remains unclear whether PKMζ is involved in the visceral hypersensitivity. In this study, a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity was generated by neonatal maternal separation (NMS). The visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by recording responses of the external oblique abdominal muscle to colorectal distension. Our results demonstrated that hippocampal LTP and visceral hypersensitivity were enhanced significantly in rats of NMS. ζ-Pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptide (ZIP) could dose dependently inhibit the maintenance of Cornu Ammonis area 1 LTP in rats of NMS. Furthermore, Western blot data showed that the expression of hippocampal phosphorylated PKMζ (p-PKMζ) significantly increased in rats of NMS. In addition, bilateral intrahippocampal injections of ZIP attenuated the visceral hypersensitivity dose dependently in rats of NMS. The maximal inhibition was observed at 30 min, and significant inhibition lasted for 1.5–2 h after ZIP application. Besides, data from the open-field test and Morris water maze showed that ZIP did not influence the movement and spatial procedural memory in rats of NMS. In conclusion, p-PKMζ might be a critical protein in the maintenance of hippocampal LTP, which could result in visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:25761958

  15. Involvement of protein kinase ζ in the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiqin; Bao, Chengjia; Tang, Ying; Luo, Xiaoqing; Guo, Lixia; Liu, Bin; Lin, Chun

    2015-05-01

    The hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was implicated in the formation of visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome in our previous study. Recent studies have shown that protein kinase M ζ (PKMζ) may be responsible for the maintenance of LTP in memory formation. However, it remains unclear whether PKMζ is involved in the visceral hypersensitivity. In this study, a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity was generated by neonatal maternal separation (NMS). The visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by recording responses of the external oblique abdominal muscle to colorectal distension. Our results demonstrated that hippocampal LTP and visceral hypersensitivity were enhanced significantly in rats of NMS. ζ-Pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptide (ZIP) could dose dependently inhibit the maintenance of Cornu Ammonis area 1 LTP in rats of NMS. Furthermore, Western blot data showed that the expression of hippocampal phosphorylated PKMζ (p-PKMζ) significantly increased in rats of NMS. In addition, bilateral intrahippocampal injections of ZIP attenuated the visceral hypersensitivity dose dependently in rats of NMS. The maximal inhibition was observed at 30 min, and significant inhibition lasted for 1.5-2 h after ZIP application. Besides, data from the open-field test and Morris water maze showed that ZIP did not influence the movement and spatial procedural memory in rats of NMS. In conclusion, p-PKMζ might be a critical protein in the maintenance of hippocampal LTP, which could result in visceral hypersensitivity.

  16. Eye Tracking Reveals Impaired Attentional Disengagement Associated with Sensory Response Patterns in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatos-DeVito, Maura; Schipul, Sarah E.; Bulluck, John C.; Belger, Aysenil; Baranek, Grace T.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a gap-overlap paradigm to examine the impact of distractor salience and temporal overlap on the ability to disengage and orient attention in 50 children (4-13 years) with ASD, DD and TD, and associations between attention and sensory response patterns. Results revealed impaired disengagement and orienting accuracy in ASD.…

  17. TRPA1 Contributes to Cold Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Camino, Donato del; Murphy, Sarah; Heiry, Melissa; Barrett, Lee B.; Earley, Taryn J.; Cook, Colby A.; Petrus, Matt J.; Zhao, Michael; D'Amours, Marc; Deering, Nate; Brenner, Gary J.; Costigan, Michael; Hayward, Neil J.; Chong, Jayhong A.; Fanger, Christopher M.; Woolf, Clifford J.; Patapoutian, Ardem; Moran, Magdalene M.

    2010-01-01

    TRPA1 is a non-selective cation channel expressed by nociceptors. While it is widely accepted that TRPA1 serves as a broad irritancy receptor for a variety of reactive chemicals, its role in cold sensation remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that mild cooling markedly increases agonist-evoked rat TRPA1 currents. In the absence of an agonist, even noxious cold only increases current amplitude slightly. These results suggest that TRPA1 is a key mediator of cold hypersensitivity in pathological conditions where reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory activators of the channel are present, but likely plays a comparatively minor role in acute cold sensation. Supporting this, cold hypersensitivity can be induced in wild-type but not Trpa1-/- mice by subcutaneous administration of a TRPA1 agonist. Furthermore, the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 reduces cold hypersensitivity in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:21068322

  18. A naturally hypersensitive glucocorticoid receptor elicits a compensatory reduction of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity early in ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Jaeger, Alexandra; Görres, Andreas; Tuchscherer, Armin; Wimmers, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively characterized the effects of a unique natural gain-of-function mutation in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), GRAla610Val, in domestic pigs to expand current knowledge of the phenotypic consequences of GR hypersensitivity. Cortisol levels were consistently reduced in one-week-old piglets, at weaning and in peripubertal age, probably due to a reduced adrenal capacity to produce glucocorticoids (GC), which was indicated by an adrenocortical thinning in GRAla610Val carriers. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels were significantly reduced in one-week-old piglets only. Expression analyses in peripubertal age revealed significant downregulation of hypothalamic expression of CRH and AVP, the latter only in females, and upregulation of hepatic expression of SERPINA6, by GRAla610Val. Transcriptional repression of proinflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from GRAla610Val carriers was more sensitive to dexamethasone treatment ex vivo. However, no significant effects on growth, body composition, blood chemistry or cell counts were observed under baseline conditions. These results suggest that GRAla610Val-induced GR hypersensitivity elicits a compensatory reduction in endogenous, bioactive glucocorticoid levels via readjustment of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis early in ontogeny to maintain an adequate response, but carriers are more sensitive to exogenous GC. Therefore, GRAla610Val pigs represent a valuable animal model to explore GR-mediated mechanisms of HPA axis regulation and responses to glucocorticoid-based drugs. PMID:27440422

  19. Unusual formaldehyde-induced hypersensitivity in two schoolgirls

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B. ); Hanna, W.T.; Painter, P.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Two schoolgirls developed a syndrome resembling Henoch-Schonlein purpura while attending a recently opened school insulated with urea-formaldehyde foam (UFFI). Skin rashes and swellings were accompanied by bizarre, blue-green discoloration of the skin. Subsequent investigations by county, state and federal authorities, and low measured concentrations of formaldehyde, prompted initial conclusions that in-school formaldehyde exposures were not responsible for the girls' problems. Subsequent controlled exposures to UFFI and formaldehyde while in hospital elicited the whole cascade of symptoms. The chronology of the onset and amplification of systems make it probable that the formaldehyde exposures precipitating the girls' hypersensitivity, occurred in the school. 3 refs.

  20. Delayed cutaneous manifestations of drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Andreas J; Scherer, Kathrin

    2010-07-01

    Drugs may elicit a considerable variety of clinical signs, often affecting the skin and the mucous membranes. The most common are maculopapular exanthemas and urticaria, more rarely pustules, bullae vasculitic lesions, and lichenoid lesions may also be observed. Apart from the morphology, the chronology of the occurrence and the evolution of single skin lesions and exanthema are also paramount in the clinical diagnosis of cutaneous drug hypersensitivity. Often, the skin represents the only organ manifestation; however, it may be the herald for a systemic involvement of internal organs, such as in severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndromes or anaphylaxis.

  1. [Pathogenesis and treatment of hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Ando, M

    2000-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a granulomatous interstitial lung disease resulting from an immunologic reaction to the repeated inhalation of organic dusts and active chemicals. There are 50 or more groups of HP, but the prevalence varies from country to country, and even within a country, depending on a variety of occupational or environmental inhalants. In Western coutries farmer's lung, bird fancier's disease, humidifier lung, and air-conditioner disease are common, but in Japan summer-type HP is the most prevalent group. Summer-type HP is a house-related illnes induced by Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon mucoides which contaminate the patients' home environments in hot and humid conditions. The polysaccharide antigen contains mannan backbone attached with short side chains consi-sting of mannose, xylose, and glucuronic acid residues. Both immune complex-mediated and T cell-mediated immune responses to the yeast are involved in the induction and development of the disease. Host factors such as HLA-DQw3 and cigarette smoking also play an important role in the develop-ment or suppression of the disease. An assay for serum anti-Trichosporon antibody by a Triko Kit is very useful for the serodiagnosis, and sanitization by cleaning, disinfecting, and removing from the colonizing location of Trichosporon prevents recurrence of the disease. Summer-type HP induced by Trichosporon is a new type of HP. It can be found in other countries including most Western countries, because Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon mucoides distribute in the temperate and subtropical areas of the world.

  2. How to manage asparaginase hypersensitivity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Outcomes for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved significantly in recent decades, primarily due to dose-intensified, multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, of which asparaginase has played a prominent role. Despite this success, hypersensitivity remains a significant problem, often requiring the termination of asparaginase. Failure to complete the entire asparaginase therapy course due to clinical hypersensitivity, subclinical hypersensitivity (i.e., silent inactivation), or other treatment-related toxicity is associated with poor ALL outcomes. Thus, it is critical to rapidly identify patients who develop clinical/subclinical hypersensitivity and switch these patients to an alternate asparaginase formulation. This article provides an overview of asparaginase hypersensitivity, identification and management of hypersensitivity and subclinical hypersensitivity, and issues related to switching patients to asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi following hypersensitivity reaction.

  3. PERSISTENT SUPPRESSION OF CONTACT HYPERSENSITIVITY, AND ALTERED T-CELL PARAMETERS IN F344 RATS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    The outcome of perinatal low-level TCDD exposure on the T cell-mediated contact hypersensitivity response (CHS) in adult F344 rats was investigated. Suppression of the 2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-specific contact hypersensitivity reponse occurred in mature off...

  4. Low-level laser therapy of dentin hypersensitivity: a short-term clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Kaan; Aksoy, Umut; Can-Karabulut, Deniz C; Kalender, Atakan

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate low-level laser therapy in cervical dentin hypersensitivity. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted with a total of 64 teeth. Dentin desensitizer and diode laser were applied on the cervical dentin surfaces. Distilled water and placebo laser was used as the placebo groups. The irradiance used was 4 J/cm(2) per treatment site. The baseline measurement of hypersensitivity was made by using visual analog scale (VAS). Twenty-four hours and 7 days after the application of desensitizer, diode laser and placebo groups, a new VAS analysis was conducted for the patients' sensitivity level. The mean pain scores of placebo groups were significantly higher than the desensitizer's and diode laser's mean scores (ANOVA, p < 0.05). The VAS analysis revealed a significant decrease in dentin hypersensitivity in 7 days with the use of the desensitizer and low-level laser therapy and no statistically significant difference was observed between these two treatments (p > 0.05). Although low-level laser and glutaraldehyde containing desensitizer present distinct modes of action, experimental agents caused a significant reduction of dentin hypersensitivity without showing secondary effects, not irritating the pulp or causing pain, not discoloring or staining the teeth, and not irritating the soft tissues at least for a period of 1 week with no drawbacks regarding handling and/or ease of application. Low-level laser therapy and desensitizer application had displayed similar effectiveness in reducing moderate dentin hypersensitivity.

  5. Restoring Spinal Noradrenergic Inhibitory Tone Attenuates Pain Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether restoring descending noradrenergic inhibitory tone can attenuate pain in a PD rat model, which was established by stereotaxic infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the bilateral striatum (CPu). PD rats developed thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity at the 4th week after surgery. HPLC analysis showed that NE content, but not dopamine or 5-HT, significantly decreased in lumbar spinal cord in PD rats. Additional noradrenergic depletion by injection of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) aggravated pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. At the 5th week after injection of 6-OHDA, systemic treatment with pharmacological norepinephrine (NE) precursor droxidopa (L-DOPS) or α2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine significantly attenuated thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Furthermore, application of norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, but not 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors sertraline, significantly inhibited thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Systemic administration of Madopar (L-DOPA) or the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole slightly inhibited the thermal, but not mechanical, hypersensitivity in PD rats. Thus, our study revealed that impairment of descending noradrenergic system may play a key role in PD-associated pain and restoring spinal noradrenergic inhibitory tone may serve as a novel strategy to manage PD-associated pain. PMID:27747105

  6. Severe Hyperacusis, Photophobia, and Skin Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Fioretti, Alessandra Barbara; Varakliotis, Theodoros; Poli, Otello; Cantagallo, Manuela; Eibenstein, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with severe hyperacusis, photophobia, and skin hypersensitivity. The patient was initially treated with sound therapy and medical therapy for 4 months and successfully with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and cognitive behavioral therapy which improved her mood and the tolerance for sounds and light. PMID:26981300

  7. Metal Hypersensitivity and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lachiewicz, Paul F; Watters, Tyler Steven; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2016-02-01

    Metal hypersensitivity in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a controversial topic. The diagnosis is difficult, given the lack of robust clinical validation of the utility of cutaneous and in vitro testing. Metal hypersensitivity after TKA is quite rare and should be considered after eliminating other causes of pain and swelling, such as low-grade infection, instability, component loosening or malrotation, referred pain, and chronic regional pain syndrome. Anecdotal observations suggest that two clinical presentations of metal hypersensitivity may occur after TKA: dermatitis or a persistent painful synovitis of the knee. Patients may or may not have a history of intolerance to metal jewelry. Laboratory studies, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, and knee joint aspiration, are usually negative. Cutaneous and in vitro testing have been reported to be positive, but the sensitivity and specificity of such testing has not been defined. Some reports suggest that, if metal hypersensitivity is suspected and nonsurgical measures have failed, then revision to components fabricated of titanium alloy or zirconium coating can be successful in relieving symptoms. Revision should be considered as a last resort, however, and patients should be informed that no evidence-based medicine is available to guide the management of these conditions, particularly for decisions regarding revision. Given the limitations of current testing methods, the widespread screening of patients for metal allergies before TKA is not warranted.

  8. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome secondary to carbamazepine

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Shannon C.

    2017-01-01

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is a potentially fatal multiorgan drug reaction that presents with various cutaneous eruptions. There is a genetic predisposition to such reactions. We present a young woman with AHS due to carbamazepine that presented as an atypical erythema multiforme with elevated liver enzymes. PMID:28127149

  9. Metal Hypersensitivity and Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lachiewicz, Paul F.; Watters, Tyler Steven; Jacobs, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Metal hypersensitivity in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a controversial topic. The diagnosis is difficult, given the lack of robust clinical validation of the utility of cutaneous and in vitro testing. Metal hypersensitivity after TKA is quite rare and should be considered after eliminating other causes of pain and swelling, such as low-grade infection, instability, component loosening or malrotation, referred pain, and chronic regional pain syndrome. Anecdotal observations suggest that two clinical presentations of metal hypersensitivity may occur after TKA: dermatitis or a persistent painful synovitis of the knee. Patients may or may not have a history of intolerance to metal jewelry. Laboratory studies, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, and knee joint aspiration, are usually negative. Cutaneous and in vitro testing have been reported to be positive, but the sensitivity and specificity of such testing has not been defined. Anecdotal reports suggest that, if metal hypersensitivity is suspected and nonsurgical measures have failed, then revision to components fabricated of titanium alloy or zirconium coating can be successful in relieving symptoms. Revision should be considered as a last resort, however, and patients should be informed that no evidence-based medicine is available to guide the management of these conditions, particularly for decisions regarding revision. Given the limitations of current testing methods, the widespread screening of patients for metal allergies before TKA is not warranted. PMID:26752739

  10. Hydrocodone snorting leading to hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Vimala

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by intranasal abuse of the prescription narcotic hydrocodone. The patient's clinical course was complicated by acute respiratory failure. A chest radiograph showed diffuse bilateral opacities. The patient was treated with noninvasive ventilation, a high dose of intravenous steroids, and bronchodilators, resulting in improvement of symptoms and radiographic appearance. PMID:27365873

  11. Distinct subclonal tumour responses to therapy revealed by circulating cell-free DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gremel, G.; Lee, R. J.; Girotti, M. R.; Mandal, A. K.; Valpione, S.; Garner, G.; Ayub, M.; Wood, S.; Rothwell, D. G.; Fusi, A.; Wallace, A.; Brady, G.; Dive, C.; Dhomen, N.; Lorigan, P.; Marais, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The application of precision medicine in oncology requires in-depth characterisation of a patient's tumours and the dynamics of their responses to treatment. Patients and methods We used next-generation sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to monitor the response of a KIT p.L576P-mutant metastatic vaginal mucosal melanoma to sequential targeted, immuno- and chemotherapy. Results Despite a KIT mutation, the response to imatinib was mixed. Unfortunately, tumours were not accessible for molecular analysis. To study the mechanism underlying the mixed clinical response, we carried out whole-exome sequencing and targeted longitudinal analysis of cfDNA. This revealed two tumour subclones; one with a KIT mutation that responded to imatinib and a second KIT-wild-type subclone that did not respond to imatinib. Notably, the subclones also responded differently to immunotherapy. However, both subclones responded to carboplatin/paclitaxel, and although the KIT-wild-type subclone progressed after chemotherapy, it responded to subsequent re-administration of paclitaxel. Conclusion We show that cfDNA can reveal tumour evolution and subclonal responses to therapy even when biopsies are not available. PMID:27502704

  12. Suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and lymphokine production by cyclosporin A in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A W; Moon, D K; Nelson, D S

    1983-01-01

    Two consecutive daily i.m. injections of cyclosporin A (Cs A) (greater than 50 mg/kg) inhibited delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in mice immunized with SRBC. Maximal suppression was observed when Cs A was administered 24 and 48 h after sensitization. Culture of spleen cells from these animals with antigen, insoluble concanavalin A (iCon A) or PHA revealed inhibition of the production of two lymphokines: that inducing macrophage procoagulant activity (MPCA) and macrophage chemotactic factor (LDCF). The inhibitory effect on lymphokine production was not due to depletion of T cells. In vitro, 25 ng/ml Cs A suppressed T cell proliferative responses to antigen and mitogen but much higher doses were required to impair the response to LPS. Similar doses of Cs A also suppressed lymphokine production, but the responses of macrophages to these lymphokines was unaffected, even at doses which totally inhibited lymphokine production. Production of interleukin 1 by LPS stimulated macrophages was inhibited by Cs A only at concentrations much greater than those required to suppress lymphokine production. PMID:6872317

  13. Pb exposure attenuates hypersensitivity in vivo by increasing regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Zhao, Fang; Shen, Xuefeng; Ouyang, Weiming; Liu, Xinqin; Xu, Yan; Yu, Tao; Jin, Boquan; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2012-12-01

    Pb is a common environmental pollutant affecting various organs. Exposure of the immune system to Pb leads to immunosuppression or immunodysregulation. Although previous studies showed that Pb exposure can modulate the function of helper T cells, Pb immunotoxicity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pb exposure on T cell development, and the underlying mechanism of Pb-induced suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 300 ppm Pb-acetate solution via the drinking water for six weeks, and we found that Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in the blood by 4.2-fold (p<0.05) as compared to those in the control rats. In Pb-exposed rats, the amount of thymic CD4(+)CD8(-) and peripheral CD4(+) T cells was significantly reduced, whereas, CD8(+) population was not affected. In contrast to conventional CD4(+) T cells, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in both the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs of Pb-exposed rats. In line with the increase of Tregs, the DTH response of Pb-exposed rats was markedly suppressed. Depletion of Tregs reversed the suppression of DTH response by Pb-exposed CD4(+) T cells in an adoptive transfer model, suggesting a critical role of the increased Tregs in suppressing the DTH response. Collectively, this study revealed that Pb-exposure may upregulate Tregs, thereby leading to immunosuppression.

  14. Treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Barna, Julie Ann; Strober, Brad; Matthews, Abigail G.; Collie, Damon; Vena, Donald; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network conducted a three-armed randomized clinical study to determine the comparative effectiveness of three treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs): use of a potassium nitrate dentifrice for treatment of hypersensitivity, placement of a resin-based composite restoration and placement of a sealant. Methods Seventeen trained practitioner-investigators (P-Is) in the PEARL Network enrolled participants (N = 304) with hypersensitive posterior NCCLs who met enrollment criteria. Participants were assigned to treatments randomly. Evaluations were conducted at baseline and at one, three and six months thereafter. Primary outcomes were the reduction or elimination of hypersensitivity as measured clinically and by means of patient-reported outcomes. Results Lesion depth and pretreatment sensitivity (mean, 5.3 on a 0- to 10-point scale) were balanced across treatments, as was sleep bruxism (present in 42.2 percent of participants). The six-month participant recall rate was 99 percent. Treatments significantly reduced mean sensitivity (P < .01), with the sealant and restoration groups displaying a significantly higher reduction (P < .01) than did the dentifrice group. The dentifrice group’s mean (standard deviation) sensitivity at six months was 2.1 (2.1); those of the sealant and restoration groups were 1.0 (1.6) and 0.8 (1.4), respectively. Patient-reported sensitivity (to cold being most pronounced) paralleled clinical measurements at each evaluation. Conclusions Sealing and restoration treatments were effective overall in reducing NCCL hypersensitivity. The potassium nitrate dentifrice reduced sensitivity with increasing effectiveness through six months but not to the degree offered by the other treatments. Practical Implications Sealant or restoration placement is an effective method of immediately reducing NCCL sensitivity. Although a potassium nitrate dentifrice

  15. Analysis of morphine responses in mice reveals a QTL on Chromosome 7

    PubMed Central

    Crusio, Wim E.; Dhawan, Esha; Chesler, Elissa J.; Delprato, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this study we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on mouse Chromosome 7 associated with locomotor activity and rearing post morphine treatment. This QTL was revealed after correcting for the effects of another QTL peak on Chromosome 10 using composite interval mapping. The positional candidate genes are Syt9 and Ppfibp2. Several other genes within the interval are linked to neural processes, locomotor activity, and the defensive response to harmful stimuli. PMID:27746909

  16. A case of chlorpheniramine maleate-induced hypersensitivity with aspirin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Sang-Min; Lee, So-Hee; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Antihistamines are commonly used to treat allergic disease, such as allergic rhinitis, urticaria, and angioedema. Although several previous reports describe hypersensitivity to antihistamines such as cetirizine and hydroxyzine, documented cases of chlorpheniramine hypersensitivity are extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old Korean woman who presented with urticaria after ingesting a cold medication. Over the previous 5 years, she had also experienced a food allergy to crab and shrimp, allergic rhinitis, and repeated urticaria after ingesting cold medication. Provocation with aspirin elicited generalized urticaria. Intravenous chlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone was injected for symptom control, but in fact appeared to aggravate urticaria. A second round of skin and provocation tests for chlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone showed positive results only for chlorpheniramine. She was diagnosed with aspirin intolerance and chlorpheniramine hypersensitivity, and was instructed to avoid these drugs. To date, this is the second of only two cases of chlorpheniramine-induced type I hypersensitivity with aspirin intolerance. Although the relationship between aspirin intolerance and chlorpheniramine-induced type I hypersensitivity is unclear, physicians should be aware of the possibility of urticaria or other allergic reactions in response to antihistamines.

  17. Blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 activation inhibits mechanical hypersensitivity following abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Sharron; Nolan, Andrea Mary

    2007-08-01

    This study used the metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor subtype-selective antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) to characterise the contribution of mGlu5 receptor activity to pain and hypersensitivity in an animal model of post-surgical pain. Adult female Wistar rats (200-250g) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (2%) and underwent a midline laparotomy with gentle manipulation of the viscera, and the effects of pre- (30min) or post- (5h) operative treatment with MPEP (1, 3 or 10mgkg(-1); i.p.) or drug-vehicle on hindpaw withdrawal latency (in seconds) to thermal stimulation (Hargreave's Test) and response threshold (in grams) to mechanical stimulation (using a dynamic plantar aesthesiometer) were measured. Animals that underwent surgery displayed significant hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the hindpaws. Hypersensitivity was maximum at 6h post-surgery (44.5+/-2.4% decrease; p<0.01 vs. anaesthesia only controls) and persisted for 48h. Surgery had no effect on thermal withdrawal latency. Both pre-operative and post-operative administration of 10mgkg(-1)MPEP blocked mechanical hypersensitivity induced by surgery (p<0.01 vs. vehicle treatment). MPEP had no effect on acute nociceptive thresholds in naïve animals. These data suggest that activity at mGlu5 receptors contributes to development of pain and hypersensitivity following surgery.

  18. Colonic mast cell infiltration in rats with TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Katsuyo; Sato, Yasushi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Kurebayashi, Yoichi

    2007-12-01

    Colonic mucosal mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndromes. This study was designed to investigate the roles of mucosal mast cells in development of an experimental visceral hypersensitivity induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. TNBS, when injected into the proximal colon through laparotomy, produced a significant decrease in pain threshold of the distal colon to mechanical distention, indicating a visceral hypersensitivity. In the proximal colon that was directly insulted by TNBS, mucosal necrosis and extensive inflammatory cell infiltration were observed with concomitant increase in tissue myeloperoxide (MPO) activity. In the distal colon where distention stimuli were applied, the number of mucosal mast cells significantly increased following TNBS treatment, although neither mucosal injury nor increase in tissue MPO activity was observed. In an organ culture, spontaneous release of a mucosal mast cell-specific protease (RMCP-2) from the distal colon tissue of TNBS-treated rats was significantly larger than that of sham animals. Furthermore, TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was significantly suppressed by subcutaneous pretreatment with a mast cell stabilizer doxantrazole in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that prominent colonic mast cell infiltration associated with an enhanced spontaneous mediator release is responsible, at least partly, for development of visceral hypersensitivity induced by TNBS in rats.

  19. Association between pollen hypersensitivity and edible vegetable allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Caballero, T; Martín-Esteban, M

    1998-01-01

    Over the last three decades several authors have described the existence of an association between sensitivity to different pollens and sensitivity to diverse edible vegetables. An association between ragweed pollinosis and hypersensitivity to Cucurbitaceae vegetables (e.g., watermelon, melon, cucumber) and banana has been reported. Other authors have found a relationship between birch pollinosis and sensitization to hazelnut, apple, carrot, potato, kiwi and other vegetables. Additionally, several papers have shown the association between mugwort pollinosis and sensitization to celery, carrot, spices, nuts, mustard and Leguminoseae vegetables. Later, some studies showed association between grass pollinosis and sensitization to tomato, potato, green- pea, peanut, watermelon, melon, apple, orange and kiwi. Finally, an association between sensitization to plantain pollen and melon hypersensitivity was also described. The association between pollinosis and edible vegetable sensitization has been explained by the combination of different hypotheses, such as the following: 1) presence of lectins in edible vegetables; 2) existence of IgE to carbohydrates of the glycoproteins (cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants); and, 3) existence of common allergens between pollens and edible vegetables. Up to now three allergens have been identified as responsible for cross-reactivity in these associations: profilin, a 14 kd protein that regulates actin; Bet v 1, the 18 kd birch pollen allergen; and a 60-69 kd allergen. It is important to study in depth these associated sensitizations and the common allergens responsible for them in order to improve diagnostic methods and treatment of these syndromes.

  20. Evaluation of Dentifrice Containing Nano-hydroxyapatite for Dentinal Hypersensitivity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Nithin Manchery; John, Joseph; Nagappan, N; Prabhu, S; Kumar, E Senthil

    2015-01-01

    Background: This randomized, double-blind, parallel arm study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effectiveness between nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and a benchmark dentifrice in reducing dentin hypersensitivity. Materials and Methods: About 36 patients were selected, randomly divided into two groups and was evaluated clinically using three different stimuli, i.e., tactile, air blast, and cold water test. The patient’s responses to various stimuli were recorded using a visual analog scale at baseline and after 4 weeks. Results: Statistical analysis was done using unpaired and paired t-tests. It was seen that patients treated in both groups showed significant reductions scores across all sensitivity measures at the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion: The HAP containing toothpaste was effective in reducing dentin hypersensitivity with pre-existing benchmark toothpaste tested and hence can be advocated in the management of hypersensitivity. PMID:26464553

  1. Hypersensitivity myocarditis confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and endomyocardial biopsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Yumi; Ahn, Sung Gyun; Ko, Anna; Ra, Sang Ho; Cha, Jaehwang; Jee, Yong Gwan; Lee, Ji Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Myocarditis often occurs due to viral infections and postviral immune-mediated responses. Hypersensitivity myocarditis is a rare form of myocarditis. Numerous drugs can induce myocarditis, which is typically reversible after withdrawal of the causative agent. Here, we report a case of hypersensitivity myocarditis that was probably triggered by amoxicillin and that resolved completely with heart failure management as well as discontinuation of the drug. A 68-year-old woman presented with acute chest pain mimicking acute coronary syndromes, but the coronary angiography was normal. A recent history of taking medications, skin rash, and peripheral eosinophilia suggested a diagnosis of hypersensitivity myocarditis, which was confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and endomyocardial biopsy.

  2. Aberrant neural signatures of decision-making: Pathological gamblers display cortico-striatal hypersensitivity to extreme gambles.

    PubMed

    Gelskov, Sofie V; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to gamble despite severe consequences. One of the hallmarks of pathological gambling is maladaptive and highly risky decision-making, which has been linked to dysregulation of reward-related brain regions such as the ventral striatum. However, previous studies have produced contradictory results regarding the implication of this network, revealing either hypo- or hypersensitivity to monetary gains and losses. One possible explanation is that the gambling brain might be misrepresenting the benefits and costs when weighting the potential outcomes, and not the gains and losses per se. To address this issue, we investigated whether pathological gambling is associated with abnormal brain activity during decisions that weight the utility of possible gains against possible losses. Pathological gamblers and healthy human subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they accepted or rejected mixed gain/loss gambles with fifty-fifty chances of winning or losing. Contrary to healthy individuals, gamblers showed a U-shaped response profile reflecting hypersensitivity to the most appetitive and most aversive bets in an executive cortico-striatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. This network is concerned with the evaluation of action-outcome contingencies, monitoring recent actions and anticipating their consequences. The dysregulation of this specific network, especially for extreme bets with large potentials consequences, offers a novel understanding of the neural basis of pathological gambling in terms of deficient associations between gambling actions and their financial impact.

  3. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Penicillium expansum in a home environment.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Jung, K S; Kim, S O; Kim, S J

    1994-04-01

    An episode of fever, cough, shortness of breath and leucocytosis developed in a 31-year-old atopic housewife from mould exposure in her home environment is evaluated. A chest radiograph revealed diffuse tiny nodular infiltrations in both whole lung fields. Spirometry revealed a severe restrictive type of ventilation impairment. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) showed an increased lymphocyte count with reversed CD4+/CD8+ ratio and transbronchial lung biopsy showed markedly increased lymphocytic infiltration in alveolar septa. Fungal cultures in the air of her home were positive for Penicillium expansum and other fungi. Double immunodiffusion test with the patient's serum showed two precipitin bands to P. expansum antigens. Her symptoms, abnormal findings of radiograph, and spirometric abnormalities disappeared after 2 months' avoidance. The serum precipitin disappeared after 1 month's avoidance. This study indicates that the patient had hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) on exposure to P. expansum in her home environment.

  4. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles

    PubMed Central

    Varn, Frederick S.; Andrews, Erik H.; Mullins, David W.; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage-specific haematopoietic activity present in human breast tumours. Correlating this activity with patient survival and tumour purity reveals that the transcriptional programmes of many cell types influence patient prognosis and are found in environments of high lymphocytic infiltration. Collectively, these results allow for a detailed and personalized assessment of the patient immune response to a tumour. When combined with routinely collected patient biopsy genomic data, this method can enable a richer understanding of the complex interplay between the host immune system and cancer. PMID:26725977

  5. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-06

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline.

  6. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with human herpesvirus-6 reactivation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Najeeba; Sarita, S; Arunkumar, G; Sabeena, S; Manikoth, Neeraj; Sivakumar, C P

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man, on carbamazepine for the past 3 months, was referred as a case of atypical measles. On examination, he had high-grade fever, generalized itchy rash, cough, vomiting and jaundice. A provisional diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity syndrome to carbamazepine was made with a differential diagnosis of viral exanthema with systemic complications. Laboratory investigations revealed leukocytosis with eosnophilia and elevated liver enzymes. Real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on throat swab and blood was suggestive of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Measles was ruled out by PCR and serology. The diagnosis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) was confirmed, which could explain all the features manifested by the patient. HHV-6 infects almost all humans by age 2 years. It infects and replicates in CD4 T lymphocytes and establishes latency in human peripheral blood monocytes or macrophages and early bone marrow progenitors. In DIHS, allergic reaction to the causative drug stimulates T cells, which leads to reactivation of the herpesvirus genome. DIHS is treated by withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids. Our patient responded well to steroids and HHV-6 was negative on repeat real-time multiplex PCR at the end of treatment.

  7. NADPH Oxidase-Derived ROS Induced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Mediates Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Zhuang, Wei-Ling; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the airways, is associated with hyperreactive airway diseases. ROS, particularly when created by NADPH oxidase, are known to sensitize lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs), which may contribute to airway hypersensitivity pathogenesis. We investigated whether CIH augments the reflex and afferent responses of LVCFs to chemical stimulants and the roles of ROS and NADPH oxidase in such airway hypersensitivity. Rats were exposed to room air (RA) or CIH with/without daily treatment with MnTMPyP (a superoxide anion scavenger), apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), or vehicle. At 16 h after their last exposure, intravenous capsaicin, adenosine, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked an augmented apneic response in anesthetized rats with 14-days CIH exposure, compared to anesthetized rats with 14-days RA exposure. The augmented apneic responses to these LVCF stimulants were abolished by bilateral vagotomy or perivagal capsaicin treatment, which block LVCFs neural conduction and were significantly suppressed by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin, but not vehicle. Electrophysiological studies revealed that 14-days CIH exposure potentiated the responses of LVCFs to these stimulants. This effect was inhibited by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin treatment and was not seen in rats who received 7-days of CIH exposure. Biochemical analysis indicated that 14-days CIH exposure increased both lung lipid peroxidation, which is indicative of oxidative stress, and expression of the p47phox subunit in the membrane fraction of lung tissue, which is an index of NADPH oxidase activation. The former was prevented by treatment with either MnTMPyP or apocynin, while the later was prevented by treatment with apocynin only. These results suggest that 14-days CIH exposure sensitizes LVCFs in rats, leading to an exaggerated reflex and afferent responses to

  8. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals the Defense Response of Wheat against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuheng; Yu, Yang; Bi, Chaowei; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is considered one of the most aggressive diseases to wheat production. In this study, we used an iTRAQ-based approach for the quantitative proteomic comparison of the incompatible Pst race CYR23 in infected and non-infected leaves of the wheat cultivar Suwon11. A total of 3,475 unique proteins were identified from three key stages of interaction (12, 24, and 48 h post-inoculation) and control groups. Quantitative analysis showed that 530 proteins were differentially accumulated by Pst infection (fold changes >1.5, p < 0.05). Among these proteins, 10.54% was classified as involved in the immune system process and stimulus response. Intriguingly, bioinformatics analysis revealed that a set of reactive oxygen species metabolism-related proteins, peptidyl–prolyl cis–trans isomerases (PPIases), RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), and chaperonins was involved in the response to Pst infection. Our results were the first to show that PPIases, RBPs, and chaperonins participated in the regulation of the immune response in wheat and even in plants. This study aimed to provide novel routes to reveal wheat gene functionality and better understand the early events in wheat–Pst incompatible interactions. PMID:27678307

  9. [Prevalence of latex hypersensitivity among medical personnel].

    PubMed

    Camacho Ibarra, V C; López García, A I; Galindo García, J A; Paz Martínez, D; Papaqui Tapia, J S

    1997-01-01

    In order to determine the latex hypersensitivity prevalence in medical residents from Hospital Universitario de Puebla, it was carried out a transversal, observational and descriptive study including the medical staff of all specialties. The epicutancous test was effectuated with 1:20 latex antigen dilution. It was studied a total of 90 medical residents, 68.9% were males and 31.1% females. The mean age was 30.6 years (SD 3.8). The 50% were from clinical specialties and 50% else were from surgical. The global latex hypersensitivity prevalence was 8%. It will be convenient to carry out a follow up of studied cohort to establish if continual exposition, years later, will determine skin reactivity to latex in professional practice.

  10. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Associated with Environmental Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, William; Kallay, Michael; Sood, Akshay; Zuo, Zhengfa; Milton, Donald

    2005-01-01

    A previously healthy man working as a machine operator in an automotive factory developed respiratory symptoms. Medical evaluation showed abnormal pulmonary function tests, a lung biopsy showed hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and his illness was traced to his work environment. His physician asked the employer to remove him from exposure to metalworking fluids. Symptoms reoccurred when he was later reexposed to metalworking fluids, and further permanent decrement in his lung function occurred. Investigation of his workplace showed that five of six large reservoirs of metalworking fluids (cutting oils) grew Mycobacterium chelonae (or Mycobacterium immunogenum), an organism previously associated with outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in automaking factories. His lung function remained stable after complete removal from exposure. The employer, metalworking fluid supplier, union, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health were notified of this sentinel health event. No further cases have been documented in this workplace. PMID:15929902

  11. Airway Inflammation and Hypersensitivity Induced by Chronic Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Yu Ru; Kwong, Kevin; Lee, Lu-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Airway hypersensitivity, characterized by enhanced excitability of airway sensory nerves, is a prominent pathophysiological feature in patients with airway inflammatory diseases. Although the underlying pathogenic mechanism is not fully understood, chronic airway inflammation is believed to be primarily responsible. Cigarette smoking is known to cause chronic airway inflammation, accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness. Experimental evidence indicates that enhanced excitability of vagal bronchopulmonary sensory nerves and increased tachykinin synthesis in these nerves resulting from chronic inflammation are important contributing factors to the airway hyperresponsiveness. Multiple inflammatory mediators released from various types of structural and inflammatory cells are involved in the smoking-induced airway inflammation, which is mainly regulated by redox-sensitive signaling pathways and transcription factors. Furthermore, recent studies have reported potent sensitizing and stimulatory effects of these inflammatory mediators such as prostanoids and reactive oxygen species on these sensory nerves. In summary, these studies using cigarette smoking as an experimental approach have identified certain potentially important cell signaling pathways and underlying mechanisms of the airway hypersensitivity induced by chronic airway inflammation. PMID:21397052

  12. Esophageal sensation and esophageal hypersensitivity - overview from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Hiroto; Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Tomita, Toshihiko; Watari, Jiro

    2010-10-01

    Noxious stimuli in the esophagus activate nociceptive receptors on esophageal mucosa, such as transient receptor potential, acid-sensing ion channel and the P2X family, a family of ligand-gated ion channels responsive to ATP, and this generates signals that are transmitted to the central nervous system via either spinal nerves or vagal nerves, resulting in esophageal sensation. Among the noxious stimuli, gastric acid and other gastric contents are clinically most important, causing typical reflux symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation. A conventional acid penetration theory has been used to explain the mechanism of heartburn, but much recent evidence does not support this theory. Therefore, it may be necessary to approach the causes of heartburn symptoms from a new conceptual framework. Hypersensitivity of the esophagus, like that of other visceral organs, includes peripheral, central and probably psychosocial factor-mediated hypersensitivity, and is known to play crucial roles in the pathoegenesis of nonerosive reflux disease, functional heartburn and non-cardiac chest pain. There also are esophagitis patients who do not perceive typical symptoms. This condition is known as silent gastroesophageal reflux disease. Although the pathogenesis of silent gastroesophageal reflux disease is still not known, hyposensitivity to reflux of acid may possibly explain the condition.

  13. Aspergillus fumigatus spore proteomics and genetics reveal that VeA represses DefA-mediated DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Park, Hee-Soo; Kim, Young; Heo, In-Beom; Kim, Young Hwan; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-10-04

    Aspergillus fumigatus reproduces and infects host by forming a high number of small asexual spores (conidia). The velvet proteins are global transcriptional regulators governing the complex process of conidiogenesis in this fungus. Here, to further understand the velvet-mediated regulation, we carried out comparative proteomic analyses of conidia of wild type (WT) and three velvet mutants (ΔveA, ΔvelB and ΔvosA). Cluster analysis of 184 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold differential accumulation between WT and mutants reveal the clustering of WT- ΔveA and ΔvelB-ΔvosA. Among 43 proteins identified by Nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 23 including several heat shock proteins showed more than two-fold reduction in both the ∆velB and ∆vosA conidia. On the contrary, three proteins exhibited more than five-fold increase in ∆veA only, including the putative RNA polymerase II degradation factor DefA. The deletion of defA resulted in a reduced number of conidia and restricted colony growth. In addition, the defA deletion mutant conidia showed hypersensitivity against the DNA damaging agents NQO and MMS, while the ΔveA mutant conidia were more resistant against to NQO. Taken together, we propose that VeA controls protein level of DefA in conidia, which are dormant and equipped with multiple layers of protection against environmental cues.

  14. Phenytoin-induced acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Periwal, Pallavi; Joshi, Sharad; Gothi, Rajesh; Talwar, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Lungs are target organs for toxic effects of various drugs due to many reasons. Diphenylhydantoin (DPH) is reported to have many extrapulmonary side effects. We are presenting a case of acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) secondary to DPH, presenting with respiratory failure. Acute HP with respiratory failure is an uncommon drug side effect of the DPH therapy and is a diagnosis of exclusion. It requires detailed workup and exclusion of other causes along with evidence of improvement in the patient's condition after withholding DPH.

  15. [Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide].

    PubMed

    Korsholm, Anne Sofie; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-07-07

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acneiform iododerma that responded dramatically to withdrawal of the potassium iodide and administration with corticosteroids. Awareness of these adverse reactions may prevent prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary tests and treatments.

  16. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis secondary to lovebirds: a new cause of bird fancier's disease.

    PubMed

    Funke, M; Fellrath, J-M

    2008-08-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immunologically mediated lung disease due to the repetitive inhalation of antigens. Most new cases arise from residential exposures, notably to birds, and are thus more difficult to recognise. The present authors report a 59-yr-old male who complained of dyspnoea and cough while being treated with amiodarone. Pulmonary function tests revealed restriction and obstruction with low diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide and partial pressure of oxygen. A high-resolution computed tomography chest scan and bronchoalveolar lavage showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass attenuation and lymphocytic alveolitis, respectively. Initial diagnosis was amiodarone pulmonary toxicity, but because of a rapidly favourable evolution, this diagnosis was questioned. A careful environmental history revealed a close contact with lovebirds shortly before the onset of symptoms. Precipitins were strongly positive against lovebird droppings, but were negative against other avian antigens. The patient was diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis to lovebirds. Avoidance of lovebirds and steroid treatment led to rapid improvement. The present observation identifies a new causative agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis and highlights the importance of a thorough environmental history and of searching for precipitins against antigens directly extracted from the patient's environment. These two procedures should allow a more precise classification of some cases of pneumonitis, and thus might avoid progression of active undiagnosed hypersensitivity pneumonitis to irreversible fibrosis or emphysema.

  17. Drug hypersensitivity: pharmacogenetics and clinical syndromes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Elizabeth J; Chung, Wen-Hung; Mockenhaupt, Maja; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Mallal, Simon A

    2011-03-01

    Severe cutaneous adverse reactions include syndromes such as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). An important advance has been the discovery of associations between HLA alleles and many of these syndromes, including abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction, allopurinol-associated DRESS/DIHS and SJS/TEN, and SJS/TEN associated with aromatic amine anticonvulsants. These HLA associations have created the promise for prevention through screening and have additionally shed further light on the immunopathogenesis of severe cutaneous adverse reactions. The rollout of HLA-B∗5701 into routine clinical practice as a genetic screening test to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity provides a translational roadmap for other drugs. Numerous hurdles exist in the widespread translation of several other drugs, such as carbamazepine, in which the positive predictive value of HLA-B∗1502 is low and the negative predictive value of HLA-B∗1502 for SJS/TEN might not be 100% in all ethnic groups. International collaborative consortia have been formed with the goal of developing phenotypic standardization and undertaking HLA and genome-wide analyses in diverse populations with these syndromes.

  18. TRPA1 contributes to cold hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    del Camino, Donato; Murphy, Sarah; Heiry, Melissa; Barrett, Lee B; Earley, Taryn J; Cook, Colby A; Petrus, Matt J; Zhao, Michael; D'Amours, Marc; Deering, Nate; Brenner, Gary J; Costigan, Michael; Hayward, Neil J; Chong, Jayhong A; Fanger, Christopher M; Woolf, Clifford J; Patapoutian, Ardem; Moran, Magdalene M

    2010-11-10

    TRPA1 is a nonselective cation channel expressed by nociceptors. Although it is widely accepted that TRPA1 serves as a broad irritancy receptor for a variety of reactive chemicals, its role in cold sensation remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that mild cooling markedly increases agonist-evoked rat TRPA1 currents. In the absence of an agonist, even noxious cold only increases current amplitude slightly. These results suggest that TRPA1 is a key mediator of cold hypersensitivity in pathological conditions in which reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory activators of the channel are present, but likely plays a comparatively minor role in acute cold sensation. Supporting this, cold hypersensitivity can be induced in wild-type but not Trpa1(-/-) mice by subcutaneous administration of a TRPA1 agonist. Furthermore, the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 [2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide] reduces cold hypersensitivity in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

  19. Drug Hypersensitivity: Pharmacogenetics and Clinical Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Chung, Wen-Hung; Mockenhaupt, Maja; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Mallal, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) include syndromes such as drug reaction, eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). An important advance has been the discovery of associations between HLA alleles and many of these syndromes including abacavir hypersensitivity reaction, allopurinol DRESS/DIHS and SJS/TEN and SJS/TEN associated with aromatic amine anticonvulsants. These HLA associations have created the promise for prevention through screening and have additionally shed further light on the immunopathogenesis of SCARs. The roll-out of HLA-B*5701 into routine clinical practice as a genetic screening test to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity provides a translational roadmap for other drugs. Numerous hurdles exist in the widespread translation of several other drugs such as carbamazepine where the positive predictive value of HLA-B*1502 is low and the negative predictive value of HLA-B*1502 for SJS/TEN may not be 100% in all ethnic groups. International collaborative consortia have been formed with the goal of developing phenotype standardization and undertaking HLA and genome-wide analyses in diverse populations with these syndromes. PMID:21354501

  20. Stent hypersensitivity and infection in sinus cavities

    PubMed Central

    Soufras, George D.; Hahalis, George

    2013-01-01

    Persistent mucosal inflammation, granulation tissue formation, hypersensitivity, and multifactorial infection are newly described complications of retained drug-eluting stents from endoscopic sinus surgery for refractory rhinosinusitis. In an important report published in Allergy and Rhinology, a 45-year-old male patient suffering from recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery and was found, for the first time, to have steroid-eluting catheters that were inadvertently left in the ethmoid and frontal sinuses. The retained catheters had caused persistent mucosal inflammation and formation of granulation tissue denoting hypersensitivity reaction. These consequences had induced perpetuation of symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Meticulous removal of the retained stents with the nitinol wings from inflamed tissues of the frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoethmoidal recesses in which they were completely imbedded was successfully performed without polypoid regrowth. Cultures of specimens taken from both left and right stents showed heavy growth of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and moderate growth of Klebsiella oxytoca, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus anginosus. Fungal infection was not detected. The current knowledge and experience regarding stent hypersensitivity and infection in relation with the use of stents in sinus cavities is reviewed. PMID:24498522

  1. Natural grouping of neural responses reveals spatially segregated clusters in prearcuate cortex.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Roozbeh; Cueva, Christopher J; Reppas, John B; Peixoto, Diogo; Ryu, Stephen I; Newsome, William T

    2015-03-18

    A fundamental challenge in studying the frontal lobe is to parcellate this cortex into "natural" functional modules despite the absence of topographic maps, which are so helpful in primary sensory areas. Here we show that unsupervised clustering algorithms, applied to 96-channel array recordings from prearcuate gyrus, reveal spatially segregated subnetworks that remain stable across behavioral contexts. Looking for natural groupings of neurons based on response similarities, we discovered that the recorded area includes at least two spatially segregated subnetworks that differentially represent behavioral choice and reaction time. Importantly, these subnetworks are detectable during different behavioral states and, surprisingly, are defined better by "common noise" than task-evoked responses. Our parcellation process works well on "spontaneous" neural activity, and thus bears strong resemblance to the identification of "resting-state" networks in fMRI data sets. Our results demonstrate a powerful new tool for identifying cortical subnetworks by objective classification of simultaneously recorded electrophysiological activity.

  2. Eye Tracking Reveals Impaired Attentional Disengagement Associated with Sensory Response Patterns in Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Sabatos-DeVito, Maura; Schipul, Sarah E; Bulluck, John C; Belger, Aysenil; Baranek, Grace T

    2016-04-01

    This study used a gap-overlap paradigm to examine the impact of distractor salience and temporal overlap on the ability to disengage and orient attention in 50 children (4-13 years) with ASD, DD and TD, and associations between attention and sensory response patterns. Results revealed impaired disengagement and orienting accuracy in ASD. Disengagement was impaired across all groups during temporal overlap for dynamic stimuli compared to static, but only ASD showed slower disengagement from multimodal relative to unimodal dynamic stimuli. Attentional disengagement had differential associations with distinct sensory response patterns in ASD and DD. Atypical sensory processing and temporal binding appear to be intertwined with development of disengagement in ASD, but longitudinal studies are needed to unravel causal pathways.

  3. Structure of the 'Escherichia Coli' Leucine-Responsive Regulatory Protein Lrp Reveals a Novel Octameric Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    de los Rios, S.; Perona, J.J.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2007-07-09

    The structure of Escherichia coli leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) cocrystallized with a short duplex oligodeoxynucleotide reveals a novel quaternary assembly in which the protein octamer forms an open, linear array of four dimers. In contrast, structures of the Lrp homologs LrpA, LrpC and AsnC crystallized in the absence of DNA show that these proteins instead form highly symmetrical octamers in which the four dimers form a closed ring. Although the DNA is disordered within the Lrp crystal, comparative analyses suggest that the observed differences in quaternary state may arise from DNA interactions during crystallization. Interconversion of these conformations, possibly in response to DNA or leucine binding, provides an underlying mechanism to alter the relative spatial orientation of the DNA-binding domains. Breaking of the closed octamer symmetry may be a common essential step in the formation of active DNA complexes by all members of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  4. Eye Tracking Reveals Impaired Attentional Disengagement Associated with Sensory Response Patterns in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Schipul, Sarah E.; Bulluck, John C.; Belger, Aysenil; Baranek, Grace T.

    2017-01-01

    This study used a gap-overlap paradigm to examine the impact of distractor salience and temporal overlap on the ability to disengage and orient attention in 50 children (4–13 years) with ASD, DD and TD, and associations between attention and sensory response patterns. Results revealed impaired disengagement and orienting accuracy in ASD. Disengagement was impaired across all groups during temporal overlap for dynamic stimuli compared to static, but only ASD showed slower disengagement from multimodal relative to unimodal dynamic stimuli. Attentional disengagement had differential associations with distinct sensory response patterns in ASD and DD. Atypical sensory processing and temporal binding appear to be intertwined with development of disengagement in ASD, but longitudinal studies are needed to unravel causal pathways. PMID:26816345

  5. Adrenergic β2-receptors mediates visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypic intermittent stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Rui, Yun-Yun; Zhou, Yuan-Yuan; Ju, Zhong; Zhang, Hong-Hong; Hu, Chuang-Ying; Xiao, Ying; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Chronic visceral pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been difficult to treat effectively partially because its pathophysiology is not fully understood. Recent studies show that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in the development of visceral hypersensitivity. In this study, we designed to investigate the role of adrenergic signaling in visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypical intermittent stress (HIS). Abdominal withdrawal reflex scores (AWRs) used as visceral sensitivity were determined by measuring the visceromoter responses to colorectal distension. Colon-specific dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGs) were labeled by injection of DiI into the colon wall and were acutely dissociated for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Blood plasma level of NE was measured using radioimmunoassay kits. The expression of β2-adrenoceptors was measured by western blotting. We showed that HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was attenuated by systemic administration of a β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, in a dose-dependent manner, but not by a α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. Using specific β-adrenoceptor antagonists, HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was alleviated by β2 adrenoceptor antagonist but not by β1- or β3-adrenoceptor antagonist. Administration of a selective β2-adrenoceptor antagonist also normalized hyperexcitability of colon-innervating DRG neurons of HIS rats. Furthermore, administration of β-adrenoceptor antagonist suppressed sustained potassium current density (IK) without any alteration of fast-inactivating potassium current density (IA). Conversely, administration of NE enhanced the neuronal excitability and produced visceral hypersensitivity in healthy control rats, and blocked by β2-adrenoceptor antagonists. In addition, HIS significantly enhanced the NE concentration in the blood plasma but did not change the expression of β2-adrenoceptor in DRGs and the muscularis externa of the colon. The

  6. Analysis of gene expression during parabolic flights reveals distinct early gravity responses in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Aubry-Hivet, D; Nziengui, H; Rapp, K; Oliveira, O; Paponov, I A; Li, Y; Hauslage, J; Vagt, N; Braun, M; Ditengou, F A; Dovzhenko, A; Palme, K

    2014-01-01

    Plant roots are among most intensively studied biological systems in gravity research. Altered gravity induces asymmetric cell growth leading to root bending. Differential distribution of the phytohormone auxin underlies root responses to gravity, being coordinated by auxin efflux transporters from the PIN family. The objective of this study was to compare early transcriptomic changes in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, and pin2 and pin3 mutants under parabolic flight conditions and to correlate these changes to auxin distribution. Parabolic flights allow comparison of transient 1-g, hypergravity and microgravity effects in living organisms in parallel. We found common and mutation-related genes differentially expressed in response to transient microgravity phases. Gene ontology analysis of common genes revealed lipid metabolism, response to stress factors and light categories as primarily involved in response to transient microgravity phases, suggesting that fundamental reorganisation of metabolic pathways functions upstream of a further signal mediating hormonal network. Gene expression changes in roots lacking the columella-located PIN3 were stronger than in those deprived of the epidermis and cortex cell-specific PIN2. Moreover, repetitive exposure to microgravity/hypergravity and gravity/hypergravity flight phases induced an up-regulation of auxin responsive genes in wild type and pin2 roots, but not in pin3 roots, suggesting a critical function of PIN3 in mediating auxin fluxes in response to transient microgravity phases. Our study provides important insights towards understanding signal transduction processes in transient microgravity conditions by combining for the first time the parabolic flight platform with the transcriptome analysis of different genetic mutants in the model plant, Arabidopsis.

  7. Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Rachel A; Dick, Jaimie T A; Pritchard, Daniel W; Ennis, Marilyn; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-03-01

    Predatory functional responses play integral roles in predator-prey dynamics, and their assessment promises greater understanding and prediction of the predatory impacts of invasive species. Other interspecific interactions, however, such as parasitism and higher-order predation, have the potential to modify predator-prey interactions and thus the predictive capability of the comparative functional response approach. We used a four-species community module (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to compare the predatory functional responses of native Gammarus duebeni celticus and invasive Gammarus pulex amphipods towards three invertebrate prey species (Asellus aquaticus, Simulium spp., Baetis rhodani), thus, quantifying the context dependencies of parasitism and a higher-order fish predator on these functional responses. Our functional response experiments demonstrated that the invasive amphipod had a higher predatory impact (lower handling time) on two of three prey species, which reflects patterns of impact observed in the field. The community module also revealed that parasitism had context-dependent influences, for one prey species, with the potential to further reduce the predatory impact of the invasive amphipod or increase the predatory impact of the native amphipod in the presence of a higher-order fish predator. Partial consumption of prey was similar for both predators and occurred increasingly in the order A. aquaticus, Simulium spp. and B. rhodani. This was associated with increasing prey densities, but showed no context dependencies with parasitism or higher-order fish predator. This study supports the applicability of comparative functional responses as a tool to predict and assess invasive species impacts incorporating multiple context dependencies.

  8. Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Rachel A; Dick, Jaimie T A; Pritchard, Daniel W; Ennis, Marilyn; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Predatory functional responses play integral roles in predator–prey dynamics, and their assessment promises greater understanding and prediction of the predatory impacts of invasive species. Other interspecific interactions, however, such as parasitism and higher-order predation, have the potential to modify predator–prey interactions and thus the predictive capability of the comparative functional response approach. We used a four-species community module (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to compare the predatory functional responses of native Gammarus duebeni celticus and invasive Gammarus pulex amphipods towards three invertebrate prey species (Asellus aquaticus, Simulium spp., Baetis rhodani), thus, quantifying the context dependencies of parasitism and a higher-order fish predator on these functional responses. Our functional response experiments demonstrated that the invasive amphipod had a higher predatory impact (lower handling time) on two of three prey species, which reflects patterns of impact observed in the field. The community module also revealed that parasitism had context-dependent influences, for one prey species, with the potential to further reduce the predatory impact of the invasive amphipod or increase the predatory impact of the native amphipod in the presence of a higher-order fish predator. Partial consumption of prey was similar for both predators and occurred increasingly in the order A. aquaticus, Simulium spp. and B. rhodani. This was associated with increasing prey densities, but showed no context dependencies with parasitism or higher-order fish predator. This study supports the applicability of comparative functional responses as a tool to predict and assess invasive species impacts incorporating multiple context dependencies. PMID:25265905

  9. Rangeland monitoring reveals long-term plant responses to precipitation and grazing at the landscape scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johanson, Jamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Managers of rangeland ecosystems require methods to track the condition of natural resources over large areas and long periods of time as they confront climate change and land use intensification. We demonstrate how rangeland monitoring results can be synthesized using ecological site concepts to understand how climate, site factors, and management actions affect long-term vegetation dynamics at the landscape-scale. Forty-six years of rangeland monitoring conducted by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on the Colorado Plateau reveals variable responses of plant species cover to cool-season precipitation, land type (ecological site groups), and grazing intensity. Dominant C3 perennial grasses (Achnatherum hymenoides, Hesperostipa comata), which are essential to support wildlife and livestock on the Colorado Plateau, had responses to cool-season precipitation that were at least twice as large as the dominant C4 perennial grass (Pleuraphis jamesii) and woody vegetation. However, these C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation were reduced by nearly one-third on grassland ecological sites with fine- rather than coarse-textured soils, and there were no detectable C3 perennial grass responses to precipitation on ecological sites dominated by a dense-growing shrub, Coleogyne ramosissima. Heavy grazing intensity further reduced the responses of C3 perennial grasses to cool-season precipitation on ecological sites with coarse-textured soils and surprisingly reduced the responses of shrubs as well. By using ecological site groups to assess rangeland condition, we were able to improve our understanding of the long-term relationships between vegetation change and climate, land use, and site characteristics, which has important implications for developing landscape-scale monitoring strategies.

  10. Hypersensitivity of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Deficient Mice to Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Septic Shock▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Hiroki; Mimura, Junsei; Oshima, Motohiko; Okawa, Hiromi; Kanno, Jun; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Ikuta, Togo; Kawajiri, Kaname; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, is known to mediate a wide variety of pharmacological and toxicological effects caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Recent studies have revealed that AhR is involved in the normal development and homeostasis of many organs. Here, we demonstrate that AhR knockout (AhR KO) mice are hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock, mainly due to the dysfunction of their macrophages. In response to LPS, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) of AhR KO mice secreted an enhanced amount of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Since the enhanced IL-1β secretion was suppressed by supplementing Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (Pai-2) expression through transduction with Pai-2-expressing adenoviruses, reduced Pai-2 expression could be a cause of the increased IL-1β secretion by AhR KO mouse BMDM. Analysis of gene expression revealed that AhR directly regulates the expression of Pai-2 through a mechanism involving NF-κB but not AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt), in an LPS-dependent manner. Together with the result that administration of the AhR ligand 3-methylcholanthrene partially protected mice with wild-type AhR from endotoxin-induced death, these results raise the possibility that an appropriate AhR ligand may be useful for treating patients with inflammatory disorders. PMID:19822660

  11. Monetary favors and their influence on neural responses and revealed preference.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ann H; Kirk, Ulrich; Denfield, George H; Montague, P Read

    2010-07-14

    Favors from a sender to a receiver are known to bias decisions made by the recipient, especially when the decision relates to the sender, a feature of social exchange known as reciprocity. Using an art-viewing paradigm possessing no objectively correct answer for preferring one piece of art over another, we show that sponsorship of the experiment by a company endows the logo of the company with the capacity to bias revealed preference for art displayed next to the logo. Merely offering to sponsor the experiment similarly endowed the gesturing logo of the company with the capacity to bias revealed preferences. These effects do not depend upon the size of the displayed art or the proximity of the sponsoring logo to the piece of art. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to show that such monetary favors do not modulate a special collection of brain responses but instead modulate responses in neural networks normally activated by a wide range of preference judgments. The results raise the important possibility that monetary favors bias judgments in domains seemingly unrelated to the favor but nevertheless act in an implicit way through neural networks that underlie normal, ongoing preference judgments.

  12. Symptom hypersensitivity to acid infusion is associated with hypersensitivity of esophageal contractility.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Vikas; Liu, Jianmin; Puckett, James L; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2004-07-01

    Several investigators have observed that repeated acid infusions induce stronger symptoms (symptom hypersensitivity). The goal of our study was to determine whether symptom hypersensitivity is associated with esophageal contractile hypersensitivity. Subjects with chronic heartburn symptoms underwent simultaneous pressure and ultrasound imaging of esophagus. Normal saline and 0.1 N HCl were sequentially infused into the esophagus, and subjects scored heartburn symptoms on a 1-10 scale. Saline and HCl infusions were repeated in 10 subjects with a positive Bernstein test. Esophageal contraction amplitude and duration and muscularis propria thickness were measured using a computerized method during recording. Acid infusion induced heartburn. Esophageal contractions had higher amplitudes (pressure 114.2 +/- 7.0%) and longer duration (116.8 +/- 4.4%) during acid infusion compared with saline infusion. Average muscle thickness was greater during acid infusion than saline infusion (107.0 +/- 2.0%). Sustained esophageal contractions (SECs) were identified during acid infusion. A second acid infusion (acid-2) induced heartburn with shorter latency (93.0 +/- 15.0 vs. 317.0 +/- 43.0 s) and stronger severity (8.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.8) than the first acid infusion (acid-1). Contraction amplitudes (140.2 +/- 13.0%), average muscle thickness (118.0 +/- 3.3%), and contraction duration (148.5 +/- 5.6 vs. 116.8 +/- 4.4%) were higher during acid-2 than acid-1. Also, numbers of SECs were greater during acid-2 than acid-1 (31 in 8 subjects vs. 11 in 6 subjects). Our data show that acid infusion into esophagus induces esophageal hypersensitivity and that a close temporal correlation exists between symptom hypersensitivity and contractility hypersensitivity.

  13. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, Steffen; Rietschel, Ernst; Exner, Martin; Lange, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is often associated with exposure to antigens in the home environment. We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl. Water samples from hydroponics revealed Aureobasidium pullulans as the dominant fungal micro-organism (10(4)CFU/ml). The diagnosis is supported by the existence of serum precipitating antibodies against A. pullulans, lymphocytic alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, a corresponding reaction on a lung biopsy, and the sustained absence of clinical symptoms following the removal of hydroponics from the home. We conclude that hydroponics should be considered as potential sources of fungal contaminants when checking for indoor health complaints.

  14. Comparative tissue transcriptomics reveal prompt inter-organ communication in response to local bacterial kidney infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mucosal infections elicit inflammatory responses via regulated signaling pathways. Infection outcome depends strongly on early events occurring immediately when bacteria start interacting with cells in the mucosal membrane. Hitherto reported transcription profiles on host-pathogen interactions are strongly biased towards in vitro studies. To detail the local in vivo genetic response to infection, we here profiled host gene expression in a recent experimental model that assures high spatial and temporal control of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection within the kidney of a live rat. Results Transcriptional profiling of tissue biopsies from UPEC-infected kidney tissue revealed 59 differentially expressed genes 8 h post-infection. Their relevance for the infection process was supported by a Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Early differential expression at 3 h and 5 h post-infection was of low statistical significance, which correlated to the low degree of infection. Comparative transcriptomics analysis of the 8 h data set and online available studies of early local infection and inflammation defined a core of 80 genes constituting a "General tissue response to early local bacterial infections". Among these, 25% were annotated as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) regulated. Subsequent experimental analyses confirmed a systemic increase of IFN-γ in rats with an ongoing local kidney infection, correlating to splenic, rather than renal Ifng induction and suggested this inter-organ communication to be mediated by interleukin (IL)-23. The use of comparative transcriptomics allowed expansion of the statistical data handling, whereby relevant data could also be extracted from the 5 h data set. Out of the 31 differentially expressed core genes, some represented specific 5 h responses, illustrating the value of comparative transcriptomics when studying the dynamic nature of gene regulation in response to infections. Conclusion Our hypothesis-free approach identified

  15. Metabolomics reveals comprehensive reprogramming involving two independent metabolic responses of Arabidopsis to UV-B light.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Miyako; Tohge, Takayuki; Fukushima, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hayashi, Naomi; Otsuki, Hitomi; Kondou, Youichi; Goto, Hiroto; Kawashima, Mika; Matsuda, Fumio; Niida, Rie; Matsui, Minami; Saito, Kazuki; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2011-07-01

    Because of ever-increasing environmental deterioration it is likely that the influx of UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) will increase as a result of the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Given this fact it is essential that we better understand both the rapid and the adaptive responses of plants to UV-B stress. Here, we compare the metabolic responses of wild-type Arabidopsis with that of mutants impaired in flavonoid (transparent testa 4, tt4; transparent testa 5, tt5) or sinapoyl-malate (sinapoylglucose accumulator 1, sng1) biosynthesis, exposed to a short 24-h or a longer 96-h exposure to this photo-oxidative stress. In control experiments we subjected the genotypes to long-day conditions as well as to 24- and 96-h treatments of continuous light. Following these treatments we evaluated the dynamic response of metabolites including flavonoids, sinapoyl-malate precursors and ascorbate, which are well known to play a role in cellular protection from UV-B stress, as well as a broader range of primary metabolites, in an attempt to more fully comprehend the metabolic shift following the cellular perception of this stress. Our data reveals that short-term responses occur only at the level of primary metabolites, suggesting that these effectively prime the cell to facilitate the later production of UV-B-absorbing secondary metabolites. The combined results of these studies together with transcript profiles using samples irradiated by 24-h UV-B light are discussed in the context of current models concerning the metabolic response of plants to the stress imposed by excessive UV-B irradiation.

  16. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Behringer, David; Zimmermann, Heike; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings.

  17. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings. PMID:25924061

  18. Transgenic Zebrafish Reveal Tissue-Specific Differences in Estrogen Signaling in Response to Environmental Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves. Citation: Gorelick DA, Iwanowicz LR, Hung AL, Blazer VS, Halpern ME. 2014. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to

  19. A physiologic differentiation between delayed and immediate hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Apicella, Michael A.; Allen, James C.

    1969-01-01

    Studies have been made of movement of various macromolecules into and out of the pleural space of guinea pigs during the course of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to purified protein derivative (PPD), and a passively transferred immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ovalbumin. While the immediate hypersensitivity reaction transiently alters vascular permeability as shown by increased movement of macromolecules into the chest, the delayed hypersensitivity reaction is marked by a decreased capacity to resorb macromolecules from the pleural space. The data suggest that the two hypersensitivity reactions may be distinguished by these physiologic differences. Additional data from studies of a chemically induced pleural effusion in these animals suggest that some type of outflow obstruction is necessary for the development of effusion, but that the outflow defect caused by the irritating chemical is based on a different mechanism than that seen during the delayed hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:4179171

  20. Immediate and Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions to Corticosteroids: Evaluation and Management.

    PubMed

    Otani, Iris M; Banerji, Aleena

    2016-03-01

    Corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory medications used widely to treat allergic inflammation. Although the endocrine and gastrointestinal side effects of corticosteroids have been described, the occurrence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions and delayed contact dermatitis due to corticosteroids remains under-recognized. Hypersensitivity reactions can occur to a corticosteroid itself, or to the additives and vehicles in corticosteroid preparations. Skin testing and oral graded challenge can help confirm the suspected culprit agent in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and help identify an alternative tolerated corticosteroid. Patch testing can help identify the culprit agents in delayed hypersensitivity contact dermatitis. Cross-reactivity patterns have not been observed for immediate hypersensitivity reactions as they have been for delayed contact dermatitis. Sensitization in contact dermatitis exhibits cross-reactivity patterns based on corticosteroid structure. We review the current understanding regarding the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids.

  1. The Transcriptome and Proteome of the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana Reveal a Diverse Phosphorus Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Mercier, Melissa L.; Alexander, Harriet; Whitney, LeAnn P.; Drzewianowski, Andrea; Bulygin, Vladimir V.; Bertrand, Erin M.; Wu, Zhijin; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Heithoff, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical driver of phytoplankton growth and ecosystem function in the ocean. Diatoms are an abundant class of marine phytoplankton that are responsible for significant amounts of primary production. With the control they exert on the oceanic carbon cycle, there have been a number of studies focused on how diatoms respond to limiting macro and micronutrients such as iron and nitrogen. However, diatom physiological responses to P deficiency are poorly understood. Here, we couple deep sequencing of transcript tags and quantitative proteomics to analyze the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana grown under P-replete and P-deficient conditions. A total of 318 transcripts were differentially regulated with a false discovery rate of <0.05, and a total of 136 proteins were differentially abundant (p<0.05). Significant changes in the abundance of transcripts and proteins were observed and coordinated for multiple biochemical pathways, including glycolysis and translation. Patterns in transcript and protein abundance were also linked to physiological changes in cellular P distributions, and enzyme activities. These data demonstrate that diatom P deficiency results in changes in cellular P allocation through polyphosphate production, increased P transport, a switch to utilization of dissolved organic P through increased production of metalloenzymes, and a remodeling of the cell surface through production of sulfolipids. Together, these findings reveal that T. pseudonana has evolved a sophisticated response to P deficiency involving multiple biochemical strategies that are likely critical to its ability to respond to variations in environmental P availability. PMID:22479440

  2. Bayesian Mapping Reveals That Attention Boosts Neural Responses to Predicted and Unpredicted Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Marta I; Rowe, Elise G; Halász, Veronika; Mattingley, Jason B

    2017-04-10

    Predictive coding posits that the human brain continually monitors the environment for regularities and detects inconsistencies. It is unclear, however, what effect attention has on expectation processes, as there have been relatively few studies and the results of these have yielded contradictory findings. Here, we employed Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between 2 alternative computational models. The "Opposition" model states that attention boosts neural responses equally to predicted and unpredicted stimuli, whereas the "Interaction" model assumes that attentional boosting of neural signals depends on the level of predictability. We designed a novel, audiospatial attention task that orthogonally manipulated attention and prediction by playing oddball sequences in either the attended or unattended ear. We observed sensory prediction error responses, with electroencephalography, across all attentional manipulations. Crucially, posterior probability maps revealed that, overall, the Opposition model better explained scalp and source data, suggesting that attention boosts responses to predicted and unpredicted stimuli equally. Furthermore, Dynamic Causal Modeling showed that these Opposition effects were expressed in plastic changes within the mismatch negativity network. Our findings provide empirical evidence for a computational model of the opposing interplay of attention and expectation in the brain.

  3. Expression of secreted Wnt pathway components reveals unexpected complexity of the planarian amputation response.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Kyle A; Elliott, Sarah A; Simakov, Oleg; Schmidt, Heiko A; Holstein, Thomas W; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    Regeneration is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, but our molecular understanding of this process in adult animals remains poorly understood. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays crucial roles throughout animal life from early development to adulthood. In intact and regenerating planarians, the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling functions to maintain and specify anterior/posterior (A/P) identity. Here, we explore the expression kinetics and RNAi phenotypes for secreted members of the Wnt signaling pathway in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Smed-wnt and sFRP expression during regeneration is surprisingly dynamic and reveals fundamental aspects of planarian biology that have been previously unappreciated. We show that after amputation, a wounding response precedes rapid re-organization of the A/P axis. Furthermore, cells throughout the body plan can mount this response and reassess their new A/P location in the complete absence of stem cells. While initial stages of the amputation response are stem cell independent, tissue remodeling and the integration of a new A/P address with anatomy are stem cell dependent. We also show that WNT5 functions in a reciprocal manner with SLIT to pattern the planarian mediolateral axis, while WNT11-2 patterns the posterior midline. Moreover, we perform an extensive phylogenetic analysis on the Smed-wnt genes using a method that combines and integrates both sequence and structural alignments, enabling us to place all nine genes into Wnt subfamilies for the first time.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of Petunia seedlings reveals candidate regulators of the cold stress response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bei; Ning, Luyun; Zhang, Junwei; Bao, Manzhu; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Petunias are important ornamentals with the capacity for cold acclimation. So far, there is limited information concerning gene regulation and signaling pathways associated with the cold stress response in petunias. A custom-designed petunia microarray representing 24816 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in petunia seedlings subjected to cold at 2°C for 0.5 h, 2 h, 24 h, and 5 d. A total of 2071 transcripts displayed differential expression patterns under cold stress, of which 1149 were up-regulated and 922 were down-regulated. Gene ontology enrichment analysis demarcated related biological processes, suggesting a possible link between flavonoid metabolism and plant adaptation to low temperatures. Many novel stress-responsive regulators were revealed, suggesting that diverse regulatory pathways may exist in petunias in addition to the well-characterized CBF pathway. The expression changes of selected genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, weighted gene co-expression network analysis divided the petunia genes on the array into 65 modules that showed high co-expression and identified stress-specific hub genes with high connectivity. Our identification of these transcriptional responses and groups of differentially expressed regulators will facilitate the functional dissection of the molecular mechanism in petunias responding to environment stresses and extend our ability to improve cold tolerance in plants. PMID:25784921

  5. Transcriptome analysis of a wild bird reveals physiological responses to the urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah; Videvall, Elin; Andersson, Martin N.; Isaksson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the molecular basis of environmentally induced phenotypic variation presents exciting opportunities for furthering our understanding of how ecological processes and the environment can shape the phenotype. Urban and rural environments present free-living organisms with different challenges and opportunities, which have marked consequences for the phenotype, yet little is known about responses at the molecular level. We characterised transcriptomes from an urban and a rural population of great tits Parus major, demonstrating striking differences in gene expression profiles in both blood and liver tissues. Differentially expressed genes had functions related to immune and inflammatory responses, detoxification, protection against oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Many genes linked to stress responses were expressed at higher levels in the urban birds, in accordance with our prediction that urban animals are exposed to greater environmental stress. This is one of the first studies to reveal transcriptional differences between urban- and rural-dwelling animals and suggests an important role for epigenetics in mediating environmentally induced physiological variation. The study provides valuable resources for developing further in-depth studies of the mechanisms driving phenotypic variation in the urban context at larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:28290496

  6. Proteomic Research Reveals the Stress Response and Detoxification of Yeast to Combined Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The tolerant mechanism of yeast to the combination of three inhibitors (furfural, phenol and acetic acid) was investigated using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The stress response and detoxification related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Hsp26p) were expressed higher in the tolerant yeast than in the parental yeast. The expressions of most nitrogen metabolism related proteins (e.g. Gdh1p, Met1p) were higher in the parental yeast, indicating that the tolerant yeast decreases its nitrogen metabolism rate to reserve energy, and possesses high resistance to the stress of combined inhibitors. Furthermore, upon exposure to the inhibitors, the proteins related to protein folding, degradation and translation (e.g., Ssc1p, Ubp14p, Efb1p) were all significantly affected, and the oxidative stress related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Grx1p) were increased. Knockdown of genes related to the oxidative stress and unfolded protein response (Grx1, Gre2, Asc1) significantly decreased the tolerance of yeast to inhibitors, which further suggested that yeast responded to the inhibitors mainly by inducing unfolded protein response. This study reveals that increasing the detoxification and tolerating oxidative stress, and/or decreasing the nitrogen metabolism would be promising strategies in developing more tolerant strains to the multiple inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:22952687

  7. Proteomic research reveals the stress response and detoxification of yeast to combined inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The tolerant mechanism of yeast to the combination of three inhibitors (furfural, phenol and acetic acid) was investigated using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The stress response and detoxification related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Hsp26p) were expressed higher in the tolerant yeast than in the parental yeast. The expressions of most nitrogen metabolism related proteins (e.g. Gdh1p, Met1p) were higher in the parental yeast, indicating that the tolerant yeast decreases its nitrogen metabolism rate to reserve energy, and possesses high resistance to the stress of combined inhibitors. Furthermore, upon exposure to the inhibitors, the proteins related to protein folding, degradation and translation (e.g., Ssc1p, Ubp14p, Efb1p) were all significantly affected, and the oxidative stress related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Grx1p) were increased. Knockdown of genes related to the oxidative stress and unfolded protein response (Grx1, Gre2, Asc1) significantly decreased the tolerance of yeast to inhibitors, which further suggested that yeast responded to the inhibitors mainly by inducing unfolded protein response. This study reveals that increasing the detoxification and tolerating oxidative stress, and/or decreasing the nitrogen metabolism would be promising strategies in developing more tolerant strains to the multiple inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of a wild bird reveals physiological responses to the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hannah; Videvall, Elin; Andersson, Martin N; Isaksson, Caroline

    2017-03-14

    Identifying the molecular basis of environmentally induced phenotypic variation presents exciting opportunities for furthering our understanding of how ecological processes and the environment can shape the phenotype. Urban and rural environments present free-living organisms with different challenges and opportunities, which have marked consequences for the phenotype, yet little is known about responses at the molecular level. We characterised transcriptomes from an urban and a rural population of great tits Parus major, demonstrating striking differences in gene expression profiles in both blood and liver tissues. Differentially expressed genes had functions related to immune and inflammatory responses, detoxification, protection against oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Many genes linked to stress responses were expressed at higher levels in the urban birds, in accordance with our prediction that urban animals are exposed to greater environmental stress. This is one of the first studies to reveal transcriptional differences between urban- and rural-dwelling animals and suggests an important role for epigenetics in mediating environmentally induced physiological variation. The study provides valuable resources for developing further in-depth studies of the mechanisms driving phenotypic variation in the urban context at larger spatial and temporal scales.

  9. Low Dose Radiation Hypersensitivity is Caused by p53-dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Enns, L; Bogen, K; Wizniak, J; Murtha, A; Weinfeld, M

    2004-04-08

    Exposure to environmental radiation and the application of new clinical modalities, such as radioimmunotherapy, have heightened the need to understand cellular responses to low dose and low-dose rate ionizing radiation. Many tumor cell lines have been observed to exhibit a hypersensitivity to radiation doses below 50 cGy, which manifests as a significant deviation from the clonogenic survival response predicted by a linear-quadratic fit to higher doses. However, the underlying processes for this phenomenon remain unclear. Using a gel microdrop/flow cytometry assay to monitor single cell proliferation at early times post irradiation, we examined the response of human A549 lung carcinoma, T98G glioma and MCF7 breast carcinoma cell lines exposed to gamma radiation doses from 0 to 200 cGy delivered at 0.18 and 22 cGy/min. The A549 and T98G cells, but not MCF7 cells, showed the marked hypersensitivity at doses <50 cGy. To further characterize the low-dose hypersensitivity, we examined the influence of low-dose radiation on cell cycle status and apoptosis by assays for active caspase-3 and phosphatidylserine translocation (annexin-V binding). We observed that caspase-3 activation and annexin-V binding mirrored the proliferation curves for the cell lines. Furthermore, the low-dose hypersensitivity and annexin-V binding to irradiated A549 and T98G cells were eliminated by treating the cells with pifithrin, an inhibitor of p53. When p53-inactive cell lines (2800T skin fibroblasts and HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells) were examined for similar patterns, we found that there was no HRS and apoptosis was not detectable by annexin-V or caspase-3 assays. Our data therefore suggest that low-dose hypersensitivity is associated with p53-dependent apoptosis.

  10. T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity: immune mechanisms and their clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Fenfen; Lee, Frederick J; Pichler, Werner J

    2016-01-01

    T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity represents a significant proportion of immune mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions. In the recent years, there has been an increase in understanding the immune mechanisms behind T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity. According to hapten mechanism, drug specific T-cell response is stimulated by drug-protein conjugate presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as it is presented as a new antigenic determinant. On the other hand, p-i concept suggests that a drug can stimulate T cells via noncovalent direct interaction with T-cell receptor and/or peptide-MHC. The drug binding site is quite variable and this leads to several different mechanisms within p-i concept. Altered peptide repertoire can be regarded as an 'atypical' subset of p-i concept since the mode of the drug binding and the binding site are essentially identical to p-i concept. However, the intracellular binding of abacavir to HLA-B*57:01 additionally results in alteration in peptide repertoire. Furthermore the T-cell response to altered peptide repertoire model is only shown for abacavir and HLA-B*57:01 and therefore it may not be generalised to other drug hypersensitivity. Danger hypothesis has been postulated to play an important role in drug hypersensitivity by providing signal 2 but its experimental data is lacking at this point in time. Furthermore, the recently described allo-immune response suggests that danger signal may be unnecessary. Finally, in view of these new understanding, the classification and the definition of type B adverse drug reaction should be revised. PMID:27141480

  11. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction among workers exposed to diphenylmethane [correction to piphenylmethane] diisocyanate (MDI).

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, O; Malo, J L; Dugas, M; Cartier, A; Desjardins, A; Lévesque, J; Shaughnessy, M A; Grammer, L C

    1993-02-01

    Isocyanates are well documented as a cause of occupational asthma. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis type of reaction has also been reported but only in a few isolated cases. We investigated nine subjects who complained of respiratory and general symptoms related to workplace exposure. All the subjects had worked in a plant where a resin based on diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) is used in the manufacture of woodchip boards. They underwent inhalation challenges using the MDI resin for progressively increasing periods of time on separate days. In eight subjects, exposure to subirritant amounts of MDI induced a pattern of reaction consistent with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, i.e., significant falls in both FEV1 and FVC associated with a rise in body temperature (> 38 degrees C) and an increase in blood neutrophils (> +2,500/mm3). Bronchoalveolar lavage, performed in two subjects 24 h after the end of challenge exposure, revealed an increase in lymphocytes and neutrophils. Specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgE antibodies to MDI human serum albumin (HSA) conjugates were present in all subjects. We conclude that the MDI resin caused an hypersensitivity pneumonitis type of reaction in at least eight (4.7%) of the 167 potentially exposed workers employed in the plant. These findings indicate that in some workplaces, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis type of reaction may be a more frequent consequence of isocyanate exposure than is usually thought.

  12. X-ray induction of persistent hypersensitivity to mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.P.; Williams, J.R.

    1982-04-16

    The progeny of x-irradiated V79 cells are hypersensitive to PUVA-(8-methoxypsoralen plus longwave ultraviolet light) induced mutation at the locus for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. This hypersensitivity is most evident at low doses of pUVA that do not induce mutation in non-x-irradiated cells. The hypersensitivity is evoked by x-irradiation delivered as a single dose or as multiple fractions over a long period and persists for at least 108 days of exponential growth. This radiation-induced hypersensitivity to subsequent mutation is a new phenomenon that may be relevant to multistage carcinogenesis.

  13. New insights into visceral hypersensitivity--clinical implications in IBS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, QiQi; Verne, G Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    A subset of patients with IBS have visceral hypersensitivity and/or somatic hypersensitivity. Visceral hypersensitivity might have use as a clinical marker of IBS and could account for symptoms of urgency for bowel movements, bloating and abdominal pain. The mechanisms that lead to chronic visceral hypersensitivity in patients who have IBS are unclear. However, several working models may be considered, including: nociceptive input from the colon that leads to hypersensitivity; increased intestinal permeability that induces a visceral nociceptive drive; and alterations in the expression of microRNAs in gastrointestinal tissue that might be delivered via blood microvesicles to other target organs, such as the peripheral and/or central nervous system. As such, the chronic visceral hypersensitivity that is present in a subset of patients with IBS might be maintained by both peripheral and central phenomena. The theories underlying the development of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in patients with IBS are supported by findings from new animal models in which hypersensitivity follows transient inflammation of the colon. The presence of somatic hypersensitivity and an alteration in the neuroendocrine system in some patients who have IBS suggests that multisystemic factors are involved in the overall disorder. Thus, IBS is similar to other chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, chronic regional pain disorder and temporomandibular joint disorder, as chronic nociceptive mechanisms are activated in all of these disorders.

  14. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals similarities and dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains response to nitrogen availability.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Catarina; García-Martínez, José; Pérez-Ortín, José E; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23), under low (67 mg/L) and high nitrogen (670 mg/L) regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12 h, 24 h and 96 h). Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12 h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this nutrient in the

  15. Intracranial recordings reveal transient response dynamics during information maintenance in human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Noy, Niv; Bickel, Stephan; Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Harel, Michal; Golan, Tal; Davidesco, Ido; Schevon, Catherine A; McKhann, Guy M; Goodman, Robert R; Schroeder, Charles E; Mehta, Ashesh D; Malach, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Despite an extensive body of work, it is still not clear how short term maintenance of information is implemented in the human brain. Most prior research has focused on "working memory"-typically involving the storage of a number of items, requiring the use of a phonological loop and focused attention during the delay period between encoding and retrieval. These studies largely support a model of enhanced activity in the delay interval as the central mechanism underlying working memory. However, multi-item working memory constitutes only a subset of storage phenomena that may occur during daily life. A common task in naturalistic situations is short term memory of a single item-for example, blindly reaching to a previously placed cup of coffee. Little is known about such single-item, effortless, storage in the human brain. Here, we examined the dynamics of brain responses during a single-item maintenance task, using intracranial recordings implanted for clinical purpose in patients (ECoG). Our results reveal that active electrodes were dominated by transient short latency visual and motor responses, reflected in broadband high frequency power increases in occipito-temporal, frontal, and parietal cortex. Only a very small set of electrodes showed activity during the early part of the delay period. Interestingly, no cortical site displayed a significant activation lasting to the response time. These results suggest that single item encoding is characterized by transient high frequency ECoG responses, while the maintenance of information during the delay period may be mediated by mechanisms necessitating only low-levels of neuronal activations.

  16. Transcriptome analysis reveals strong and complex antiviral response in a mollusc.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Jouaux, Aude; Ford, Susan E; Lelong, Christophe; Sourdaine, Pascal; Mathieu, Michel; Guo, Ximing

    2015-09-01

    Viruses are highly abundant in the oceans, and how filter-feeding molluscs without adaptive immunity defend themselves against viruses is not well understood. We studied the response of a mollusc Crassostrea gigas to Ostreid herpesvirus 1 µVar (OsHV-1μVar) infections using transcriptome sequencing. OsHV-1μVar can replicate extremely rapidly after challenge of C. gigas as evidenced by explosive viral transcription and DNA synthesis, which peaked at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation, respectively, accompanied by heavy oyster mortalities. At 120 h post-injection, however, viral gene transcription and DNA load, and oyster mortality, were greatly reduced indicating an end of active infections and effective control of viral replication in surviving oysters. Transcriptome analysis of the host revealed strong and complex responses involving the activation of all major innate immune pathways that are equipped with expanded and often novel receptors and adaptors. Novel Toll-like receptor (TLR) and MyD88-like genes lacking essential domains were highly up-regulated in the oyster, possibly interfering with TLR signal transduction. RIG-1/MDA5 receptors for viral RNA, interferon-regulatory factors, tissue necrosis factors and interleukin-17 were highly activated and likely central to the oyster's antiviral response. Genes related to anti-apoptosis, oxidation, RNA and protein destruction were also highly up-regulated, while genes related to anti-oxidation were down-regulated. The oxidative burst induced by the up-regulation of oxidases and severe down-regulation of anti-oxidant genes may be important for the destruction of viral components, but may also exacerbate oyster mortality. This study provides unprecedented insights into antiviral response in a mollusc. The mobilization and complex regulation of expanded innate immune-gene families highlights the oyster genome's adaptation to a virus-rich marine environment.

  17. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Similarities and Dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strains Response to Nitrogen Availability

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Catarina; García-Martínez, José; Pérez-Ortín, José E.; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23), under low (67 mg/L) and high nitrogen (670 mg/L) regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12h, 24h and 96h). Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this nutrient in the grape

  18. Mast Cells in Lung Homeostasis: Beyond Type I Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Campillo-Navarro, Marcia; Chávez-Blanco, Alma D; Wong-Baeza, Isabel; Serafín-López, Jeanet; Flores-Mejía, Raúl; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Estrada-García, Iris; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel

    2014-06-01

    Lungs are indispensable organs for the respiratory process, and maintaining their homeostasis is essential for human health and survival. However, during the lifetime of an individual, the lungs suffer countless insults that put at risk their delicate organization and function. Many cells of the immune system participate to maintain this equilibrium and to keep functional lungs. Among these cells, mast cells have recently attracted attention because of their ability to rapidly secrete many chemical and biological mediators that modulate different processes like inflammation, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, etc. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of the role that mast cells play in lung protection during infections, and of the relation of mast cell responses to type I hypersensitivity-associated pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of mast cells during wound healing in the lung and its association with lung cancer, and how mast cells could be exploited as therapeutic targets in some diseases.

  19. LLLT in treating dentinary hypersensitivity: new concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima; Ladalardo, Thereza C.; Pinheiro, Antonio; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2006-02-01

    Dental hypersensitivity has been studied for several years and it is reported as a strikingly painful condition originating from the exposition of dentinal tubuli . The exposed area is subjected to several kinds of stimuli, resulting in a rapid sharp acute pain. LLLT has been shown to have antiinflammatory, analgesic and cellular effects in both hyperemia and inflammation of the dental pulp. Our previous histological study showed that irradiated animals presented an increased production of dentine and shutting of dentinal tubuli. On the other hand, non-irradiated subjects still showed signals of intense inflammatory reaction and even necrosis at the same experimental times. Irradiated teeth did not show cell degeneration. The LLLT was shown to be efficient in the stimulation of odontoblast cells, producing reparative dentin and closing dentin tubuli. Our clinical studies with 660nm, 790nm and 830nm diode laser, and the total dose per tooth of 4J/cm was shown effective in treating dentinal hypersensitivity as it quickly reduces pain and maintains a prolonged painless status in 91.27 % to 97% of the cases. In a recent study our team observed that significant levels of dentinal desensitization were only found in patients belonging to the 25-35 age group. In conclusion, the results demonstrated indeed that LLLT, when based on the use of correct irradiations parameters is effective in treating hypersensitivity, but the age of patients is one of the factors that may alter the success of treatment due to dentinal sclerosis, which makes the penetration of light more difficult.

  20. Multitaxon activity profiling reveals differential microbial response to reduced seawater pH and oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Cleary, Daniel F R; Costa, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Marina; Polónia, Ana R M; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M

    2016-09-01

    There is growing concern that predicted changes to global ocean chemistry will interact with anthropogenic pollution to significantly alter marine microbial composition and function. However, knowledge of the compounding effects of climate change stressors and anthropogenic pollution is limited. Here, we used 16S and 18S rRNA (cDNA)-based activity profiling to investigate the differential responses of selected microbial taxa to ocean acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results revealed that a lower relative abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus clade) due to an adverse effect of seawater acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination (reduced pH-oil treatment) may be coupled to changes in sediment archaeal communities. In particular, we observed a pronounced compositional shift and marked reduction in the prevalence of otherwise abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal Marine Benthic Group B and Marine Hydrothermal Vent Group (MHVG) in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Conversely, the abundance of several putative hydrocarbonoclastic fungal OTUs was higher in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Sediment hydrocarbon profiling, furthermore, revealed higher concentrations of several alkanes in the reduced pH-oil treatment, corroborating the functional implications of the structural changes to microbial community composition. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of the response of a complex microbial community to the interaction between reduced pH and anthropogenic pollution. In future acidified marine environments, oil hydrocarbon contamination may alter the typical mixotrophic and k-/r-strategist composition of surface sediment microbiomes towards a more heterotrophic state with lower doubling rates, thereby impairing the ability of the ecosystem to recover from acute oil contamination events.

  1. Management of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to drugs.

    PubMed

    Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Haddad, Cynthia; Paulmann, Maren; Mockenhaupt, Maja

    2014-08-01

    Nonimmediate hypersensitivity to drugs has a huge diversity of clinical presentations affecting exclusively or predominantly a single organ (most often the skin) or multiple organs. The latter is the rule with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and with drug-induced vasculitis. The management includes a dozen successive steps. Finally, the patient should be provided clear information on the suspected cause of the reaction, recommendations for follow-up after severe reactions associated with a risk of sequelae, and clear recommendations for future use of medications. Pharmacovigilance networks should be informed.

  2. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a hypersensitivity phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Badesch, D B; King, T E; Schwarz, M I

    1989-01-01

    A previously healthy young man presented with acute respiratory distress and diffuse bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph. Eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage and confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy. There was no evidence of an infectious etiology, and the patient rapidly improved with corticosteroid therapy. Most cases of eosinophilic pneumonia reported previously have followed a chronic course. The case presented here was acute in onset, suggesting a hypersensitivity reaction. High levels of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils indicate the diagnosis but not the etiology of eosinophilic pneumonia.

  3. Hypersensitivity and nanoparticles: update and research trends

    PubMed Central

    MOCAN, TEODORA; MATEA, CRISTIAN T.; IANCU, CORNEL; AGOSTON-COLDEA, LUCIA; MOCAN, LUCIAN; ORASAN, REMUS

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds a great promise for a wide range of medical-intent applications (diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis of various diseases). Their advantages are due to their size, versatility and potential for multiple simultaneous applications. However, concerns have been formulated by scientific world due to insufficient data on toxicity of nanomaterials. One area of interest is represented by the interactions between nanoparticles and the components of the immune system. We review herein reported data on hypersensitivity reactions. The role exerted by nanoparticles in both immunostimulation and immunosuppression in allergen-driven mechanisms was studied, as well as future trends in worldwide research. PMID:27152071

  4. Excess fertilizer responsive miRNAs revealed in Linum usitatissimum L.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Nataliya V; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Rachinskaia, Olga A; Lakunina, Valentina A; Krasnov, George S; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Uroshlev, Leonid A; Koroban, Nadezda V; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Amosova, Alexandra V; Zelenin, Alexander V; Muravenko, Olga V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Kudryavtseva, Anna V

    2015-02-01

    Effective fertilizer application is necessary to increase crop yields and reduce risk of plant overdosing. It is known that expression level of microRNAs (miRNAs) alters in plants under different nutrient concentrations in soil. The aim of our study was to identify and characterize miRNAs with expression alterations under excessive fertilizer in agriculturally important crop - flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). We have sequenced small RNAs in flax grown under normal and excessive fertilizer using Illumina GAIIx. Over 14 million raw reads was obtained for two small RNA libraries. 84 conserved miRNAs from 20 families were identified. Differential expression was revealed for several flax miRNAs under excessive fertilizer according to high-throughput sequencing data. For 6 miRNA families (miR395, miR169, miR408, miR399, miR398 and miR168) expression level alterations were evaluated on the extended sampling using qPCR. Statistically significant up-regulation was revealed for miR395 under excessive fertilizer. It is known that target genes of miR395 are involved in sulfate uptake and assimilation. However, according to our data alterations of the expression level of miR395 could be associated not only with excess sulfur application, but also with redundancy of other macro- and micronutrients. Furthermore expression level was evaluated for miRNAs and their predicted targets. The negative correlation between miR399 expression and expression of its predicted target ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 gene was shown in flax for the first time. So we suggested miR399 involvement in phosphate regulation in L. usitatissimum. Revealed in our study expression alterations contribute to miRNA role in flax response to excessive fertilizer.

  5. Ablation of type I hypersensitivity in experimental allergic conjunctivitis by eotaxin-1/CCR3 blockade

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takao; Ohbayashi, Masaharu; Kuo, Chuan Hui; Komatsu, Naoki; Yakura, Keiko; Tominaga, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Higashi, Hidemitsu; Murata, Meguru; Takeda, Shuzo; Fukushima, Atsuki; Liu, Fu-Tong; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Ono, Santa Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    The immune response is regulated, in part, by effector cells whose activation requires multiple signals. For example, T cells require signals emanating from the T cell antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecules for full activation. Here, we present evidence indicating that IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in vivo also require cognate signals to activate mast cells. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the conjunctiva are ablated in mice deficient in eotaxin-1, despite normal numbers of tissue mast cells and levels of IgE. To further define the co-stimulatory signals mediated by chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), an eotaxin-1 receptor, effects of CCR3 blockade were tested with an allergic conjunctivitis model and in ex vivo isolated connective tissue-type mast cells. Our results show that CCR3 blockade significantly suppresses allergen-mediated hypersensitivity reactions as well as IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. We propose that a co-stimulatory axis by CCR3, mainly stimulated by eotaxin-1, is pivotal in mast cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:19147836

  6. Drug-eluting stent thrombosis: the Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jack P; Hou, Dongming; Pendyala, Lakshmana; Goudevenos, John A; Kounis, Nicholas G

    2009-07-01

    The advent of drug-eluting stents (DES) has revolutionized the field of interventional cardiology. Their dramatic and persistent restenotic and target lesion revascularization advantages are unquestioned. However, concerns over the rare but potentially catastrophic risk of stent thrombosis (ST) have tempered universal acceptance of these devices. Although the precise mechanism of DES ST is undoubtedly multifactorial and as yet not fully elucidated, delayed or incomplete endothelial healing clearly plays a pivotal role. Detailed histopathological data have implicated a contributory allergic or hypersensitivity component, as verified by the Food and Drug Administration's Manufacturer and User Device Experience Center and the Research on Adverse Drug/device events And Reports (RADAR) project. These findings thus suggest a potential connection with the Kounis syndrome, the concurrence of acute coronary events with allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic, or anaphylactoid reactions. Potential culprits responsible for this phenomenon include: arachidonic acid metabolites such as leukotrienes and thromboxane, proteolytic enzymes such as chymase and tryptase, histamine, cytokines, and chemokines. Additionally, inflammatory cells such as macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and mast cells are probably also contributory. Autopsy-confirmed infiltrates of various inflammatory cells including lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and eosinophils have been reported in all 3 vascular wall layers and are reminiscent of those associated with the Kounis syndrome. Although the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with hypersensitivity reactions has been long established, the specific association with DES ST remains unproven. Potential incorporation of hypersensitivity suppressive agents might represent a promising paradigm shift from efficacy to safety in future DES designs.

  7. The potential utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) skin testing in patients with ICM hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young-Hwan; Koh, Young-Il; Kim, Joo-Hee; Ban, Ga-Young; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Hong, Ga-Na; Jin, U-Ram; Choi, Byung-Joo; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2015-03-01

    Both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) are relatively common. However, there are few data to determine the clinical utility of immunologic evaluation of ICM. To evaluate the utility of ICM skin testing in patients with ICM hypersensitivity, 23 patients (17 immediate and 6 delayed reactions) were enrolled from 3 university hospitals in Korea. With 6 commonly used ICM including iopromide, iohexol, ioversol, iomeprol, iopamidol and iodixanol, skin prick (SPT), intradermal (IDT) and patch tests were performed. Of 10 patients with anaphylaxis, 3 (30.0%) and 6 (60.0%) were positive respectively on SPTs and IDTs with the culprit ICM. Three of 6 patients with urticaria showed positive IDTs. In total, 11 (64.7%) had positive on either SPT or IDT. Three of 6 patients with delayed rashes had positive response to patch test and/or delayed IDT. Among 5 patients (3 anaphylaxis, 1 urticaria and 1 delayed rash) taken subsequent radiological examinations, 3 patients administered safe alternatives according to the results of skin testing had no adverse reaction. However, anaphylaxis developed in the other 2 patients administered the culprit ICM again. With 64.7% (11/17) and 50% (3/6) of the sensitivities of corresponding allergic skin tests with culprit ICM for immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, the present study suggests that skin tests is useful for the diagnosis of ICM hypersensitivity and for selecting safe ICM and preventing a recurrence of anaphylaxis caused by the same ICM.

  8. Ablation of type I hypersensitivity in experimental allergic conjunctivitis by eotaxin-1/CCR3 blockade.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Dai; Nakamura, Takao; Ohbayashi, Masaharu; Kuo, Chuan Hui; Komatsu, Naoki; Yakura, Keiko; Tominaga, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Higashi, Hidemitsu; Murata, Meguru; Takeda, Shuzo; Fukushima, Atsuki; Liu, Fu-Tong; Rothenberg, Marc E; Ono, Santa Jeremy

    2009-02-01

    The immune response is regulated, in part, by effector cells whose activation requires multiple signals. For example, T cells require signals emanating from the T cell antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecules for full activation. Here, we present evidence indicating that IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in vivo also require cognate signals to activate mast cells. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the conjunctiva are ablated in mice deficient in eotaxin-1, despite normal numbers of tissue mast cells and levels of IgE. To further define the co-stimulatory signals mediated by chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), an eotaxin-1 receptor, effects of CCR3 blockade were tested with an allergic conjunctivitis model and in ex vivo isolated connective tissue-type mast cells. Our results show that CCR3 blockade significantly suppresses allergen-mediated hypersensitivity reactions as well as IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. We propose that a co-stimulatory axis by CCR3, mainly stimulated by eotaxin-1, is pivotal in mast cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions.

  9. Quantitative proteomics reveals dynamic responses of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to next-generation biofuel butanol.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoxu; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Qiao, Jianjun; Zhang, Weiwen

    2013-01-14

    Butanol is a promising biofuel, and recent metabolic engineering efforts have demonstrated the use of photosynthetic cyanobacterial hosts for its production. However, cyanobacteria have very low tolerance to butanol, limiting the economic viability of butanol production from these renewable producing systems. The existing knowledge of molecular mechanism involved in butanol tolerance in cyanobacteria is very limited. To build a foundation necessary to engineer robust butanol-producing cyanobacterial hosts, in this study, the responses of Synechocystis PCC 6803 to butanol were investigated using a quantitative proteomics approach with iTRAQ - LC-MS/MS technologies. The resulting high-quality dataset consisted of 25,347 peptides corresponding to 1452 unique proteins, a coverage of approximately 40% of the predicted proteins in Synechocystis. Comparative quantification of protein abundances led to the identification of 303 differentially regulated proteins by butanol. Annotation and GO term enrichment analysis showed that multiple biological processes were regulated, suggesting that Synechocystis probably employed multiple and synergistic resistance mechanisms in dealing with butanol stress. Notably, the analysis revealed the induction of heat-shock protein and transporters, along with modification of cell membrane and envelope were the major protection mechanisms against butanol. A conceptual cellular model of Synechocystis PCC 6803 responses to butanol stress was constructed to illustrate the putative molecular mechanisms employed to defend against butanol stress.

  10. DNA barcodes reveal microevolutionary signals in fire response trait in two legume genera

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Abubakar; Daru, Barnabas H.; Stirton, Charles H.; Chimphango, Samson B. M.; van der Bank, Michelle; Maurin, Olivier; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale DNA barcoding provides a new technique for species identification and evaluation of relationships across various levels (populations and species) and may reveal fundamental processes in recently diverged species. Here, we analysed DNA sequence variation in the recently diverged legumes from the Psoraleeae (Fabaceae) occurring in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of southern Africa to test the utility of DNA barcodes in species identification and discrimination. We further explored the phylogenetic signal on fire response trait (reseeding and resprouting) at species and generic levels. We showed that Psoraleoid legumes of the CFR exhibit a barcoding gap yielding the combination of matK and rbcLa (matK + rbcLa) data set as a better barcode than single regions. We found a high score (100 %) of correct identification of individuals to their respective genera but a very low score (<50 %) in identifying them to species. We found a considerable match (54 %) between genetic species and morphologically delimited species. We also found that different lineages showed a weak but significant phylogenetic conservatism in their response to fire as reseeders or resprouters, with more clustering of resprouters than would be expected by chance. These novel microevolutionary patterns might be acting continuously over time to produce multi-scale regularities of biodiversity. This study provides the first insight into the DNA barcoding campaign of land plants in species identification and detection of the phylogenetic signal in recently diverged lineages of the CFR. PMID:26507570

  11. Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näätänen, Risto; Lehtokoski, Anne; Lennes, Mietta; Cheour, Marie; Huotilainen, Minna; Iivonen, Antti; Vainio, Martti; Alku, Paavo; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Luuk, Aavo; Allik, Jüri; Sinkkonen, Janne; Alho, Kimmo

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable debate about whether the early processing of sounds depends on whether they form part of speech. Proponents of such speech specificity postulate the existence of language-dependent memory traces, which are activated in the processing of speech1-3 but not when equally complex, acoustic non-speech stimuli are processed. Here we report the existence of these traces in the human brain. We presented to Finnish subjects the Finnish phoneme prototype /e/ as the frequent stimulus, and other Finnish phoneme prototypes or a non-prototype (the Estonian prototype /õ/) as the infrequent stimulus. We found that the brain's automatic change-detection response, reflected electrically as the mismatch negativity (MMN)4-10, was enhanced when the infrequent, deviant stimulus was a prototype (the Finnish /ö/) relative to when it was a non-prototype (the Estonian /õ/). These phonemic traces, revealed by MMN, are language-specific, as /õ/ caused enhancement of MMN in Estonians. Whole-head magnetic recordings11,12 located the source of this native-language, phoneme-related response enhancement, and thus the language-specific memory traces, in the auditory cortex of the left hemisphere.

  12. Ribosome•RelA structures reveal the mechanism of stringent response activation

    PubMed Central

    Loveland, Anna B; Bah, Eugene; Madireddy, Rohini; Zhang, Ying; Brilot, Axel F; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Korostelev, Andrei A

    2016-01-01

    Stringent response is a conserved bacterial stress response underlying virulence and antibiotic resistance. RelA/SpoT-homolog proteins synthesize transcriptional modulators (p)ppGpp, allowing bacteria to adapt to stress. RelA is activated during amino-acid starvation, when cognate deacyl-tRNA binds to the ribosomal A (aminoacyl-tRNA) site. We report four cryo-EM structures of E. coli RelA bound to the 70S ribosome, in the absence and presence of deacyl-tRNA accommodating in the 30S A site. The boomerang-shaped RelA with a wingspan of more than 100 Å wraps around the A/R (30S A-site/RelA-bound) tRNA. The CCA end of the A/R tRNA pins the central TGS domain against the 30S subunit, presenting the (p)ppGpp-synthetase domain near the 30S spur. The ribosome and A/R tRNA are captured in three conformations, revealing hitherto elusive states of tRNA engagement with the ribosomal decoding center. Decoding-center rearrangements are coupled with the step-wise 30S-subunit 'closure', providing insights into the dynamics of high-fidelity tRNA decoding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17029.001 PMID:27434674

  13. Phosphoproteomic dynamics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) reveals shared and distinct components of dehydration response.

    PubMed

    Subba, Pratigya; Barua, Pragya; Kumar, Rajiv; Datta, Asis; Soni, Kamlesh Kumar; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2013-11-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism that plays critical roles in transducing stress signals to bring about coordinated intracellular responses. To gain better understanding of dehydration response in plants, we have developed a differential phosphoproteome in a food legume, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Three-week-old chickpea seedlings were subjected to progressive dehydration by withdrawing water, and the changes in the phosphorylation status of a large repertoire of proteins were monitored. The proteins were resolved by 2-DE and stained with phosphospecific fluorescent Pro-Q Diamond dye. Mass spectrometric analysis led to the identification of 91 putative phosphoproteins, presumably involved in a variety of functions including cell defense and rescue, photosynthesis and photorespiration, molecular chaperones, and ion transport, among others. Multiple sites of phosphorylation were predicted on several key elements, which include both the regulatory as well as the functional proteins. A critical survey of the phosphorylome revealed a DREPP (developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein) plasma membrane polypeptide family protein, henceforth designated CaDREPP1. The transcripts of CaDREPP1 were found to be differentially regulated under dehydration stress, further corroborating the proteomic results. This work provides new insights into the possible phosphorylation events triggered by the conditions of progressive water-deficit in plants.

  14. Heterogeneity of macrophage infiltration and therapeutic response in lung carcinoma revealed by 3D organ imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cuccarese, Michael F.; Dubach, J. Matthew; Pfirschke, Christina; Engblom, Camilla; Garris, Christopher; Miller, Miles A.; Pittet, Mikael J.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Involvement of the immune system in tumour progression is at the forefront of cancer research. Analysis of the tumour immune microenvironment has yielded a wealth of information on tumour biology, and alterations in some immune subtypes, such as tumour-associated macrophages (TAM), can be strong prognostic indicators. Here, we use optical tissue clearing and a TAM-targeting injectable fluorescent nanoparticle (NP) to examine three-dimensional TAM composition, tumour-to-tumour heterogeneity, response to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) blockade and nanoparticle-based drug delivery in murine pulmonary carcinoma. The method allows for rapid tumour volume assessment and spatial information on TAM infiltration at the cellular level in entire lungs. This method reveals that TAM density was heterogeneous across tumours in the same animal, overall TAM density is different among separate pulmonary tumour models, nanotherapeutic drug delivery correlated with TAM heterogeneity, and successful response to CSF-1R blockade is characterized by enhanced TAM penetration throughout and within tumours. PMID:28176769

  15. Capturing Arabidopsis root architecture dynamics with ROOT-FIT reveals diversity in responses to salinity.

    PubMed

    Julkowska, Magdalena M; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Mol, Selena; Feron, Richard; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa

    2014-11-01

    The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles in water extraction efficiency and ion exclusion. To establish which RSA parameters are responsive to salt stress, we performed a detailed time course experiment in which Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings were grown on agar plates under different salt stress conditions. We captured RSA dynamics with quadratic growth functions (root-fit) and summarized the salt-induced differences in RSA dynamics in three growth parameters: MR elongation, average LR elongation, and increase in number of LRs. In the ecotype Columbia-0 accession of Arabidopsis, salt stress affected MR elongation more severely than LR elongation and an increase in LRs, leading to a significantly altered RSA. By quantifying RSA dynamics of 31 different Arabidopsis accessions in control and mild salt stress conditions, different strategies for regulation of MR and LR meristems and root branching were revealed. Different RSA strategies partially correlated with natural variation in abscisic acid sensitivity and different Na(+)/K(+) ratios in shoots of seedlings grown under mild salt stress. Applying root-fit to describe the dynamics of RSA allowed us to uncover the natural diversity in root morphology and cluster it into four response types that otherwise would have been overlooked.

  16. Natural grouping of neural responses reveals spatially segregated clusters in prearcuate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Roozbeh; Cueva, Christopher J.; Reppas, John B.; Peixoto, Diogo; Ryu, Stephen I.; Newsome, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A fundamental challenge in studying the frontal lobe is to parcellate this cortex into ‘natural’ functional modules despite the absence of topographic maps, which are so helpful in primary sensory areas. Here we show that unsupervised clustering algorithms, applied to 96-channel array recordings from prearcuate gyrus, reveal spatially segregated sub-networks that remain stable across behavioral contexts. Looking for natural groupings of neurons based on response similarities, we discovered that the recorded area includes at least two spatially segregated sub-networks that differentially represent behavioral choice and reaction time. Importantly, these sub-networks are detectable during different behavioral states, and surprisingly, are defined better by ‘common noise’ than task-evoked responses. Our parcellation process works well on ‘spontaneous’ neural activity, and thus bears strong resemblance to the identification of ‘resting state’ networks in fMRI datasets. Our results demonstrate a powerful new tool for identifying cortical sub-networks by objective classification of simultaneously recorded electrophysiological activity. PMID:25728571

  17. Children processing music: electric brain responses reveal musical competence and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Grossmann, Tobias; Gunter, Thomas C; Hahne, Anja; Schröger, Erich; Friederici, Angela D

    2003-07-01

    Numerous studies investigated physiological correlates of the processing of musical information in adults. How these correlates develop during childhood is poorly understood. In the present study, we measured event-related electric brain potentials elicited in 5- and 9-year-old children while they listened to (major-minor tonal) music. Stimuli were chord sequences, infrequently containing harmonically inappropriate chords. Our results demonstrate that the degree of (in)appropriateness of the chords modified the brain responses in both groups according to music-theoretical principles. This suggests that already 5-year-old children process music according to a well-established cognitive representation of the major-minor tonal system and according to music-syntactic regularities. Moreover, we show that, in contrast to adults, an early negative brain response was left predominant in boys, whereas it was bilateral in girls, indicating a gender difference in children processing music, and revealing that children process music with a hemispheric weighting different from that of adults. Because children process, in contrast to adults, music in the same hemispheres as they process language, results indicate that children process music and language more similarly than adults. This finding might support the notion of a common origin of music and language in the human brain, and concurs with findings that demonstrate the importance of musical features of speech for the acquisition of language.

  18. Revealing Shared and Distinct Gene Network Organization in Arabidopsis Immune Responses by Integrative Analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaobao; Jiang, Zhenhong; Peng, You-Liang; Zhang, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) are two main plant immune responses to counter pathogen invasion. Genome-wide gene network organizing principles leading to quantitative differences between PTI and ETI have remained elusive. We combined an advanced machine learning method and modular network analysis to systematically characterize the organizing principles of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PTI and ETI at three network resolutions. At the single network node/edge level, we ranked genes and gene interactions based on their ability to distinguish immune response from normal growth and successfully identified many immune-related genes associated with PTI and ETI. Topological analysis revealed that the top-ranked gene interactions tend to link network modules. At the subnetwork level, we identified a subnetwork shared by PTI and ETI encompassing 1,159 genes and 1,289 interactions. This subnetwork is enriched in interactions linking network modules and is also a hotspot of attack by pathogen effectors. The subnetwork likely represents a core component in the coordination of multiple biological processes to favor defense over development. Finally, we constructed modular network models for PTI and ETI to explain the quantitative differences in the global network architecture. Our results indicate that the defense modules in ETI are organized into relatively independent structures, explaining the robustness of ETI to genetic mutations and effector attacks. Taken together, the multiscale comparisons of PTI and ETI provide a systems biology perspective on plant immunity and emphasize coordination among network modules to establish a robust immune response. PMID:25614062

  19. Dynamic Regulation of Auxin Response during Rice Development Revealed by Newly Established Hormone Biosensor Markers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Yuan, Zheng; Meng, Qingcai; Huang, Guoqiang; Périn, Christophe; Bureau, Charlotte; Meunier, Anne-Cécile; Ingouff, Mathieu; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-01-01

    The hormone auxin is critical for many plant developmental processes. Unlike the model eudicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), auxin distribution and signaling in rice tissues has not been systematically investigated due to the absence of suitable auxin response reporters. In this study we observed the conservation of auxin signaling components between Arabidopsis and model monocot crop rice (Oryza sativa), and generated complementary types of auxin biosensor constructs, one derived from the Aux/IAA-based biosensor DII-VENUS but constitutively driven by maize ubiquitin-1 promoter, and the other termed DR5-VENUS in which a synthetic auxin-responsive promoter (DR5rev) was used to drive expression of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Using the obtained transgenic lines, we observed that during the vegetative development, accumulation of DR5-VENUS signal was at young and mature leaves, tiller buds and stem base. Notably, abundant DR5-VENUS signals were observed in the cytoplasm of cortex cells surrounding lateral root primordia (LRP) in rice. In addition, auxin maxima and dynamic re-localization were seen at the initiation sites of inflorescence and spikelet primordia including branch meristems (BMs), female and male organs. The comparison of these observations among Arabidopsis, rice and maize suggests the unique role of auxin in regulating rice lateral root emergence and reproduction. Moreover, protein localization of auxin transporters PIN1 homologs and GFP tagged OsAUX1 overlapped with DR5-VENUS during spikelet development, helping validate these auxin response reporters are reliable markers in rice. This work firstly reveals the direct correspondence between auxin distribution and rice reproductive and root development at tissue and cellular level, and provides high-resolution auxin tools to probe fundamental developmental processes in rice and to establish links between auxin, development and agronomical traits like yield or root architecture. PMID

  20. Gastroenterology case report of mesalazine-induced cardiopulmonary hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ferrusquía, José; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Gómez de la Torre, Ricardo; Fernández-Almira, María Luisa; de Francisco, Ruth; Rodrigo, Luis; Riestra, Sabino

    2015-04-07

    Mesalazine is a 5-aminosalicylic acid derivative that has been widely used to treat patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that mesalazine has a very low rate of adverse drug reactions and is well tolerated by patients. However, a few cases of pulmonary and cardiac disease related to mesalazine have been reported in the past, though infrequently, preventing clinicians from diagnosing the conditions early. We describe the case of a 32-year-old man with ulcerative colitis who was admitted with a two-month history of persistent fever following mesalazine treatment initiated 14 mo earlier. At the time of admission, mesalazine dose was increased from 1.5 to 3.0 g/d, and antibiotic therapy was started with no improvement. Three weeks after admission, the patient developed dyspnea, non-productive cough, and chest pain. Severe eosinophilia was detected in laboratory tests, and a computed tomography scan revealed interstitial infiltrates in both lungs, as well as a large pericardial effusion. The bronchoalveolar lavage reported a CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.5, and an increased eosinophil count. Transbronchial biopsy examination showed a severe eosinophilic infiltrate of the lung tissue. Mesalazine-induced cardiopulmonary hypersensitivity was suspected after excluding other possible etiologies. Consequently, mesalazine treatment was suspended, and corticosteroid therapy was initiated, resulting in resolution of symptoms and radiologic abnormalities. We conclude that mesalazine-induced pulmonary and cardiac hypersensitivity should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained cardiopulmonary symptoms and radiographic abnormalities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Gastroenterology case report of mesalazine-induced cardiopulmonary hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrusquía, José; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Gómez de la Torre, Ricardo; Fernández-Almira, María Luisa; de Francisco, Ruth; Rodrigo, Luis; Riestra, Sabino

    2015-01-01

    Mesalazine is a 5-aminosalicylic acid derivative that has been widely used to treat patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that mesalazine has a very low rate of adverse drug reactions and is well tolerated by patients. However, a few cases of pulmonary and cardiac disease related to mesalazine have been reported in the past, though infrequently, preventing clinicians from diagnosing the conditions early. We describe the case of a 32-year-old man with ulcerative colitis who was admitted with a two-month history of persistent fever following mesalazine treatment initiated 14 mo earlier. At the time of admission, mesalazine dose was increased from 1.5 to 3.0 g/d, and antibiotic therapy was started with no improvement. Three weeks after admission, the patient developed dyspnea, non-productive cough, and chest pain. Severe eosinophilia was detected in laboratory tests, and a computed tomography scan revealed interstitial infiltrates in both lungs, as well as a large pericardial effusion. The bronchoalveolar lavage reported a CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.5, and an increased eosinophil count. Transbronchial biopsy examination showed a severe eosinophilic infiltrate of the lung tissue. Mesalazine-induced cardiopulmonary hypersensitivity was suspected after excluding other possible etiologies. Consequently, mesalazine treatment was suspended, and corticosteroid therapy was initiated, resulting in resolution of symptoms and radiologic abnormalities. We conclude that mesalazine-induced pulmonary and cardiac hypersensitivity should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained cardiopulmonary symptoms and radiographic abnormalities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25852295

  2. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis: an EAACI position paper.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Vandenplas, O; Campo, P; Cruz, M J; de Blay, F; Koschel, D; Moscato, G; Pala, G; Raulf, M; Sastre, J; Siracusa, A; Tarlo, S M; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Cormier, Y

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this document was to provide a critical review of the current knowledge on hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by the occupational environment and to propose practical guidance for the diagnosis and management of this condition. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis (OHP) is an immunologic lung disease resulting from lymphocytic and frequently granulomatous inflammation of the peripheral airways, alveoli, and surrounding interstitial tissue which develops as the result of a non-IgE-mediated allergic reaction to a variety of organic materials or low molecular weight agents that are present in the workplace. The offending agents can be classified into six broad categories that include bacteria, fungi, animal proteins, plant proteins, low molecular weight chemicals, and metals. The diagnosis of OHP requires a multidisciplinary approach and relies on a combination of diagnostic tests to ascertain the work relatedness of the disease. Both the clinical and the occupational history are keys to the diagnosis and often will lead to the initial suspicion. Diagnostic criteria adapted to OHP are proposed. The cornerstone of treatment is early removal from exposure to the eliciting antigen, although the disease may show an adverse outcome even after avoidance of exposure to the causal agent.

  3. Upregulation of Ih expressed in IB4-negative Aδ nociceptive DRG neurons contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-Lu; Lu, Na; Han, Wen-Juan; Chen, Rong-Gui; Cong, Rui; Xie, Rou-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Kong, Wei-Wei; Hu, San-Jue; Luo, Ceng

    2015-11-18

    Cervical radiculopathy represents aberrant mechanical hypersensitivity. Primary sensory neuron's ability to sense mechanical force forms mechanotransduction. However, whether this property undergoes activity-dependent plastic changes and underlies mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain (CRP) is not clear. Here we show a new CRP model producing stable mechanical compression of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which induces dramatic behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity. Amongst nociceptive DRG neurons, a mechanically sensitive neuron, isolectin B4 negative Aδ-type (IB4(-) Aδ) DRG neuron displays spontaneous activity with hyperexcitability after chronic compression of cervical DRGs. Focal mechanical stimulation on somata of IB4(-) Aδ neuron induces abnormal hypersensitivity. Upregulated HCN1 and HCN3 channels and increased Ih current on this subset of primary nociceptors underlies the spontaneous activity together with neuronal mechanical hypersensitivity, which further contributes to the behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity associated with CRP. This study sheds new light on the functional plasticity of a specific subset of nociceptive DRG neurons to mechanical stimulation and reveals a novel mechanism that could underlie the mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathy.

  4. Upregulation of Ih expressed in IB4-negative Aδ nociceptive DRG neurons contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da-Lu; Lu, Na; Han, Wen-Juan; Chen, Rong-Gui; Cong, Rui; Xie, Rou-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Kong, Wei-Wei; Hu, San-Jue; Luo, Ceng

    2015-01-01

    Cervical radiculopathy represents aberrant mechanical hypersensitivity. Primary sensory neuron’s ability to sense mechanical force forms mechanotransduction. However, whether this property undergoes activity-dependent plastic changes and underlies mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain (CRP) is not clear. Here we show a new CRP model producing stable mechanical compression of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which induces dramatic behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity. Amongst nociceptive DRG neurons, a mechanically sensitive neuron, isolectin B4 negative Aδ-type (IB4− Aδ) DRG neuron displays spontaneous activity with hyperexcitability after chronic compression of cervical DRGs. Focal mechanical stimulation on somata of IB4- Aδ neuron induces abnormal hypersensitivity. Upregulated HCN1 and HCN3 channels and increased Ih current on this subset of primary nociceptors underlies the spontaneous activity together with neuronal mechanical hypersensitivity, which further contributes to the behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity associated with CRP. This study sheds new light on the functional plasticity of a specific subset of nociceptive DRG neurons to mechanical stimulation and reveals a novel mechanism that could underlie the mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathy. PMID:26577374

  5. Extended DNFB-induced contact hypersensitivity models display characteristics of chronic inflammatory dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Röse, Lars; Schneider, Claudia; Stock, Christine; Zollner, Thomas M; Döcke, Wolf-Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent developments, there is a high medical need for new treatment options for chronic inflammatory dermatoses like allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis. Particularly, more predictive skin inflammation models are required to facilitate the process of drug discovery. Murine contact hypersensitivity (CHS) models adequately reflect ACD and are also used to characterize therapeutic approaches for psoriasis. Using the hapten 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), we established new subacute and subchronic DNFB-induced CHS models in C57BL/6 mice, which more closely reflect the characteristics of chronic T-cell-dependent inflammatory dermatoses as pronounced keratinocyte proliferation, strong hypervascularization, immune cell infiltration and overexpression of T cell and inflammatory cytokines. For the subacute DNFB model, we demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of the glucocorticoid, prednisolone, as well as of neutralization of TNFα, IL-12/IL-23 or IL-18. In the subchronic DNFB-induced CHS model, deficiency for MyD88 and IL-12/IL-35 p35 chain but not IL-12/IL-23 p40 chain led to decreased skin inflammation. Furthermore, as exemplified by the dose-dependently effective therapeutic prednisolone treatment, the subchronic model allows the continuous therapy of a pre-established stable contact dermatitis. Altogether, prolonged DNFB-induced mouse CHS models closely reflect ACD sensitive to glucocorticoids as standard therapy, reveal a more chronic skin inflammation and are responsive to cytokine antagonization.

  6. Virus antibody levels and delayed hypersensitivity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, P E; Waxman, J; Hirshaut, Y; Kaplan, M H

    1976-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus antibody levels were not higher in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to matched controls. Delayed hypersensitivity, measured by skin test reactivity, was depressed in rheumatoid arthritis. There was no correlation between virus antibody titres and delayed hypersensitivity. PMID:182092

  7. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... system. 866.5500 Section 866.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5500 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system. (a) Identification. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system. 866.5500 Section 866.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5500 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system. (a) Identification. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... system. 866.5500 Section 866.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5500 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system. (a) Identification. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... system. 866.5500 Section 866.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5500 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system. (a) Identification. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... system. 866.5500 Section 866.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5500 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system. (a) Identification. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  12. Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and single cell genomics reveal functional response of active Oceanospirillales to Gulf oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Fortney, Julian L.; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2012-06-12

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

  13. Microbiome of prebiotic-treated mice reveals novel targets involved in host response during obesity

    PubMed Central

    Everard, Amandine; Lazarevic, Vladimir; Gaïa, Nadia; Johansson, Maria; Ståhlman, Marcus; Backhed, Fredrik; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Schrenzel, Jacques; François, Patrice; Cani, Patrice D

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune disorders associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We previously demonstrated that prebiotic treatment may significantly improve host health by modulating bacterial species related to the improvement of gut endocrine, barrier and immune functions. An analysis of the gut metagenome is needed to determine which bacterial functions and taxa are responsible for beneficial microbiota–host interactions upon nutritional intervention. We subjected mice to prebiotic (Pre) treatment under physiological (control diet: CT) and pathological conditions (high-fat diet: HFD) for 8 weeks and investigated the production of intestinal antimicrobial peptides and the gut microbiome. HFD feeding significantly decreased the expression of regenerating islet-derived 3-gamma (Reg3g) and phospholipase A2 group-II (PLA2g2) in the jejunum. Prebiotic treatment increased Reg3g expression (by ∼50-fold) and improved intestinal homeostasis as suggested by the increase in the expression of intectin, a key protein involved in intestinal epithelial cell turnover. Deep metagenomic sequencing analysis revealed that HFD and prebiotic treatment significantly affected the gut microbiome at different taxonomic levels. Functional analyses based on the occurrence of clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) of proteins also revealed distinct profiles for the HFD, Pre, HFD-Pre and CT groups. Finally, the gut microbiota modulations induced by prebiotics counteracted HFD-induced inflammation and related metabolic disorders. Thus, we identified novel putative taxa and metabolic functions that may contribute to the development of or protection against the metabolic alterations observed during HFD feeding and HFD-Pre feeding. PMID:24694712

  14. Metagenome, metatranscriptome and single-cell sequencing reveal microbial response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Mason, Olivia U; Hazen, Terry C; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S G; Dubinsky, Eric A; Fortney, Julian L; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M; Jansson, Janet K

    2012-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

  15. Metagenome, metatranscriptome and single-cell sequencing reveal microbial response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Olivia U; Hazen, Terry C; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S G; Dubinsky, Eric A; Fortney, Julian L; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M; Jansson, Janet K

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea. PMID:22717885

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome in childhood: visceral hypersensitivity and psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed

    Iovino, P; Tremolaterra, F; Boccia, G; Miele, E; Ruju, F M; Staiano, A

    2009-09-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is often considered to play a major etiologic role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome in adults, and some authors argue that this increased sensitivity is mainly due to psychological factors. In contrast, there are no data in children with irritable bowel syndrome which confirm this relationship. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between psychosocial aspects and sensorymotor function in children affected by irritable bowel syndrome. Ten children fulfilling the Rome II criteria for irritable bowel syndrome and seven healthy controls were enrolled. We studied the thresholds and the perception of visceral stimuli in the rectum by means of an electronic barostat (isobaric phasic distentions, 3 mmHg/1 min, interval 1 min) and a validated questionnaire. Personality features were evaluated by means of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Sleep, mood disturbance, anxiety and individual performance (missed school days, school results and social activities) were also evaluated. Children with irritable bowel syndrome showed significantly lower thresholds for discomfort (14.8 +/- 3.5 vs 22.3 +/- 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.010) and a higher cumulative perception score (28.2 +/- 11.1 vs 12.3 +/- 8.0, P = 0.005) compared with healthy controls. A higher emotional instability (57.8 +/- 7.0 vs 48.7 +/- 10.1, P = 0.047), sleep disturbance (7.2 +/- 1.0 vs 9.3 +/- 0.5, P = 0.004) and anxiety (6.3 +/- 2.0 vs 2.3 +/- 1.7, P = 0.009) were observed in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Moreover, in a multivariate analysis, the cumulative perception score was significantly related to emotional instability (P = 0.042). In conclusion children with irritable bowel syndrome exhibit visceral hypersensitivity and psychosocial impairment. Emotional instability, as a personality feature in these children, seems to modulate the perception response to visceral stimulations.

  17. Pb exposure attenuates hypersensitivity in vivo by increasing regulatory T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Liang; Zhao, Fang; Shen, Xuefeng; Ouyang, Weiming; Liu, Xinqin; Xu, Yan; Yu, Tao; Jin, Boquan; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2012-12-01

    Pb is a common environmental pollutant affecting various organs. Exposure of the immune system to Pb leads to immunosuppression or immunodysregulation. Although previous studies showed that Pb exposure can modulate the function of helper T cells, Pb immunotoxicity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pb exposure on T cell development, and the underlying mechanism of Pb-induced suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to 300 ppm Pb-acetate solution via the drinking water for six weeks, and we found that Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in the blood by 4.2-fold (p < 0.05) as compared to those in the control rats. In Pb-exposed rats, the amount of thymic CD4{sup +}CD8{sup −} and peripheral CD4{sup +} T cells was significantly reduced, whereas, CD8{sup +} population was not affected. In contrast to conventional CD4{sup +} T cells, Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in both the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs of Pb-exposed rats. In line with the increase of Tregs, the DTH response of Pb-exposed rats was markedly suppressed. Depletion of Tregs reversed the suppression of DTH response by Pb-exposed CD4{sup +} T cells in an adoptive transfer model, suggesting a critical role of the increased Tregs in suppressing the DTH response. Collectively, this study revealed that Pb-exposure may upregulate Tregs, thereby leading to immunosuppression. -- Highlights: ► Pb exposure impaired CD4{sup +} thymic T cell development. ► Peripheral T lymphocytes were reduced following Pb exposure. ► Pb exposure increases thymic and peripheral Treg cells in rats. ► Tregs played a critical role in Pb-exposure-induced immune suppression.

  18. The role of TRPA1 in muscle pain and mechanical hypersensitivity under inflammatory conditions in rats.

    PubMed

    Asgar, J; Zhang, Y; Saloman, J L; Wang, S; Chung, M-K; Ro, J Y

    2015-12-03

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) is expressed in muscle afferents and direct activation of these receptors induces acute mechanical hypersensitivity. However, the functional role of TRPA1 under pathological muscle pain conditions and mechanisms by which TRPA1 mediate muscle pain and hyperalgesia are not clearly understood. Two rodent behavioral models validated to assess craniofacial muscle pain conditions were used to study ATP- and N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced acute mechanical hypersensitivity and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced persistent mechanical hypersensitivity. The rat grimace scale (RGS) was utilized to assess inflammation-induced spontaneous muscle pain. Behavioral pharmacology experiments were performed to assess the effects of AP18, a selective TRPA1 antagonist under these conditions. TRPA1 expression levels in trigeminal ganglia (TG) were examined before and after CFA treatment in the rat masseter muscle. Pre-treatment of the muscle with AP18 dose-dependently blocked the development of acute mechanical hypersensitivity induced by NMDA and α,β-methylene adenosine triphosphate (αβmeATP), a specific agonist for NMDA and P2X3 receptor, respectively. CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and spontaneous muscle pain responses were significantly reversed by post-treatment of the muscle with AP18 when CFA effects were most prominent. CFA-induced myositis was accompanied by significant up-regulation of TRPA1 expression in TG. Our findings showed that TRPA1 in muscle afferents plays an important role in the development of acute mechanical hypersensitivity and in the maintenance of persistent muscle pain and hypersensitivity. Our data suggested that TRPA1 may serve as a downstream target of pro-nociceptive ion channels, such as P2X3 and NMDA receptors in masseter afferents, and that increased TRPA1 expression under inflammatory conditions may contribute to the maintenance of persistent muscle pain

  19. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, Daniel A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EED) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones, such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ER) in the larval heart compared to the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit similar tissue-specific effects as BPA and genistein or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of estrogen receptor genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: Selective patterns of ER activation were observed in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue-specificity in ER activation is due to differences in the expression of estrogen receptor subtypes. ERα is expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 has the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activate the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish has revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero is associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  20. Genetic Interaction Landscape Reveals Critical Requirements for Schizosaccharomyces pombe Brc1 in DNA Damage Response Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Arancha; Roguev, Assen; Krogan, Nevan J.; Russell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Brc1, which was first identified as a high-copy, allele-specific suppressor of a mutation impairing the Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, protects genome integrity during normal DNA replication and when cells are exposed to toxic compounds that stall or collapse replication forks. The C-terminal tandem BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminus) domain of fission yeast Brc1 docks with phosphorylated histone H2A (γH2A)-marked chromatin formed by ATR/Rad3 checkpoint kinase at arrested and damaged replication forks; however, how Brc1 functions in relation to other genome protection modules remains unclear. Here, an epistatic mini-array profile reveals critical requirements for Brc1 in mutants that are defective in multiple DNA damage response pathways, including checkpoint signaling by Rad3-Rad26/ATR-ATRIP kinase, DNA repair by Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex, replication fork stabilization by Mrc1/claspin and Swi1-Swi3/Timeless-Tipin, and control of ubiquitin-regulated proteolysis by the COP9 signalosome (CSN). Exogenous genotoxins enhance these negative genetic interactions. Rad52 and RPA foci are increased in CSN-defective cells, and loss of γH2A increases genotoxin sensitivity, indicating a critical role for the γH2A-Brc1 module in stabilizing replication forks in CSN-defective cells. A negative genetic interaction with the Nse6 subunit of Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex indicates that the DNA repair functions of Brc1 and Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex are at least partially independent. Rtt107, the Brc1 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has a very different pattern of genetic interactions, indicating evolutionary divergence of functions and DNA damage responses. PMID:25795664

  1. Integrating Omics and Alternative Splicing Reveals Insights into Grape Response to High Temperature.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianfu; Liu, Xinna; Liu, Chonghuai; Liu, Guotian; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2017-02-01

    Heat stress is one of the primary abiotic stresses that limit crop production. Grape (Vitis vinifera) is a cultivated fruit with high economic value throughout the world, with its growth and development often influenced by high temperature. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread phenomenon increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity. We conducted high-temperature treatments (35°C, 40°C, and 45°C) on grapevines and assessed transcriptomic (especially AS) and proteomic changes in leaves. We found that nearly 70% of the genes were alternatively spliced under high temperature. Intron retention (IR), exon skipping, and alternative donor/acceptor sites were markedly induced under different high temperatures. Among all differential AS events, IR was the most abundant up- and down-regulated event. Moreover, the occurrence frequency of IR events at 40°C and 45°C was far higher than at 35°C. These results indicated that AS, especially IR, is an important posttranscriptional regulatory event during grape leaf responses to high temperature. Proteomic analysis showed that protein levels of the RNA-binding proteins SR45, SR30, and SR34 and the nuclear ribonucleic protein U1A gradually rose as ambient temperature increased, which revealed a reason why AS events occurred more frequently under high temperature. After integrating transcriptomic and proteomic data, we found that heat shock proteins and some important transcription factors such as MULTIPROTEIN BRIDGING FACTOR1c and HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR A2 were involved mainly in heat tolerance in grape through up-regulating transcriptional (especially modulated by AS) and translational levels. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence for grape leaf responses to high temperature at simultaneous transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational levels.

  2. Integrating Omics and Alternative Splicing Reveals Insights into Grape Response to High Temperature1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianfu; Liu, Xinna; Liu, Guotian; Li, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the primary abiotic stresses that limit crop production. Grape (Vitis vinifera) is a cultivated fruit with high economic value throughout the world, with its growth and development often influenced by high temperature. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread phenomenon increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity. We conducted high-temperature treatments (35°C, 40°C, and 45°C) on grapevines and assessed transcriptomic (especially AS) and proteomic changes in leaves. We found that nearly 70% of the genes were alternatively spliced under high temperature. Intron retention (IR), exon skipping, and alternative donor/acceptor sites were markedly induced under different high temperatures. Among all differential AS events, IR was the most abundant up- and down-regulated event. Moreover, the occurrence frequency of IR events at 40°C and 45°C was far higher than at 35°C. These results indicated that AS, especially IR, is an important posttranscriptional regulatory event during grape leaf responses to high temperature. Proteomic analysis showed that protein levels of the RNA-binding proteins SR45, SR30, and SR34 and the nuclear ribonucleic protein U1A gradually rose as ambient temperature increased, which revealed a reason why AS events occurred more frequently under high temperature. After integrating transcriptomic and proteomic data, we found that heat shock proteins and some important transcription factors such as MULTIPROTEIN BRIDGING FACTOR1c and HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR A2 were involved mainly in heat tolerance in grape through up-regulating transcriptional (especially modulated by AS) and translational levels. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence for grape leaf responses to high temperature at simultaneous transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational levels. PMID:28049741

  3. Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Joseph R; Colbourne, John K; Davey, Jennifer C; Glaholt, Stephen P; Hampton, Thomas H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2007-01-01

    Background Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant. Results Our microarray identified genes reported in the literature to be regulated in response to cadmium exposure, suggested functional attributes for genes that share no sequence similarity to proteins in the public databases, and pointed to genes that are likely members of expanded gene families in the Daphnia genome. Genes identified on the microarray also were associated with cadmium induced phenotypes and population-level outcomes that we experimentally determined. A subset of genes regulated in response to cadmium exposure was independently validated using quantitative-realtime (Q-RT)-PCR. These microarray studies led to the discovery of three genes coding for the metal detoxication protein metallothionein (MT). The gene structures and predicted translated sequences of D. pulex MTs clearly place them in this gene family. Yet, they share little homology with previously characterized MTs. Conclusion The genomic information obtained from this study represents an important first step in characterizing microarray patterns that may be diagnostic to specific environmental contaminants and give insights into their toxicological mechanisms, while also providing a practical tool for evolutionary, ecological, and toxicological functional gene discovery studies. Advances in Daphnia genomics will enable the further development of this species as a model organism for the environmental sciences

  4. Fasting mitigates immediate hypersensitivity: a pivotal role of endogenous D-beta-hydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fasting is a rigorous type of dietary restriction that is associate with a number of health benefits. During fasting, ketone bodies significantly increase in blood and become major body fuels, thereby sparing glucose. In the present study, we investigated effects of fasting on hypersensitivity. In addition, we also investigated the possible role of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate provoked by fasting in the attenuation of immediate hypersensitivity by fasting. Methods Effects of fasting on systemic anaphylaxis were examined using rat model of toluene 2, 4-diisocyanate induced nasal allergy. In addition to food restriction, a ketogenic high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet that accelerates fatty acid oxidation and systemic instillation of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate were employed to elevate internal D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration. We assessed relationship between degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells and internal D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration in each treatment. Changes in [Ca2+]i responses to compound 48/80 were analyzed in fura 2-loaded rat peritoneal mast cells derived from the ketogenic diet and fasting. Results Immediate hypersensitivity reaction was significantly suppressed by fasting. A significant reduction in mast cells degranulation, induced by mast cell activator compound 48/80, was observed in rat peritoneal mast cells delivered from the 24 hours fasting treatment. In addition, mast cells delivered from a ketogenic diet and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate infusion treatment also had reduced mast cell degranulation and systemic D-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were elevated to similar extent as the fasting state. The peak increase in [Ca2+]i was significantly lower in the ketogenic diet and fasting group than that in the control diet group. Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrates that fasting suppress hypersensitivity reaction, and indicate that increased level of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate by fasting plays an important role, via the

  5. Influence of PUVA and UVB radiation on delayed hypersensitivity in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Morison, W.L.; Parrish, J.A.; Woehler, M.E.; Krugler, J.I.; Bloch, K.J.

    1981-06-01

    Exposure of guinea pigs to UVA (320--400 nm) radiation following administration of 8-methoxypsoralen by gavage (referred to by the acronym, PUVA) or exposure to UVB (290--320 nm) radiation, produced suppression of the cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reaction at the site of exposure to radiation and at distant nonexposed sites. In these experiments, the animals were immunized by injection of dinitrophenyl-bovine gamma-globulin (DNP-BGG) in complete Freund's adjuvant and delayed hypersensitivity responses were provoked by intradermal injections of DNP-BGG, DNP and BGG on the flanks. Exposure to erythemogenic doses of either PUVA or UVB radiation for 7 days prior to immunization and for the 7 days between immunization and challenge (total period of radiation: 14 days) produced inhibiton of responses to each of the test substances. In addition, treatment with erythemogenic doses of PUVA either for 7 days prior to immunization or during the interval between immunization and challenge with DNP-BGG, inhibited the delayed hypersensitivity responses at the site of irradiation and at a nonexposed site. These findings suggest that in vivo exposure to nonionizing radiation leads to both local and systemic alteration of certain immune responses.

  6. Jasmonic acid signaling modulates ozone-induced hypersensitive cell death.

    PubMed

    Rao, M V; Lee, H; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and ethylene-dependent signaling pathways regulates plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stress factors. Earlier studies demonstrated that ozone (O(3)) exposure activates a hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death pathway in the Arabidopsis ecotype Cvi-0. We now have confirmed the role of SA and JA signaling in influencing O(3)-induced cell death. Expression of salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) in Cvi-0 reduced O(3)-induced cell death. Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) pretreatment of Cvi-0 decreased O(3)-induced H(2)O(2) content and SA concentrations and completely abolished O(3)-induced cell death. Cvi-0 synthesized as much JA as did Col-0 in response to O(3) exposure but exhibited much less sensitivity to exogenous Me-JA. Analyses of the responses to O(3) of the JA-signaling mutants jar1 and fad3/7/8 also demonstrated an antagonistic relationship between JA- and SA-signaling pathways in controlling the magnitude of O(3)-induced HR-like cell death.

  7. Brain responses in humans reveal ideal observer-like sensitivity to complex acoustic patterns

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Marcus T.; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Chait, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We use behavioral methods, magnetoencephalography, and functional MRI to investigate how human listeners discover temporal patterns and statistical regularities in complex sound sequences. Sensitivity to patterns is fundamental to sensory processing, in particular in the auditory system, because most auditory signals only have meaning as successions over time. Previous evidence suggests that the brain is tuned to the statistics of sensory stimulation. However, the process through which this arises has been elusive. We demonstrate that listeners are remarkably sensitive to the emergence of complex patterns within rapidly evolving sound sequences, performing on par with an ideal observer model. Brain responses reveal online processes of evidence accumulation—dynamic changes in tonic activity precisely correlate with the expected precision or predictability of ongoing auditory input—both in terms of deterministic (first-order) structure and the entropy of random sequences. Source analysis demonstrates an interaction between primary auditory cortex, hippocampus, and inferior frontal gyrus in the process of discovering the regularity within the ongoing sound sequence. The results are consistent with precision based predictive coding accounts of perceptual inference and provide compelling neurophysiological evidence of the brain's capacity to encode high-order temporal structure in sensory signals. PMID:26787854

  8. Genetic structure along an elevational gradient in Hawaiian honeycreepers reveals contrasting evolutionary responses to avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, L.S.; Terwilliger, L.A.; Woodworth, B.L.; Hart, P.J.; Palmer, D.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) are one of the best-known examples of an adaptive radiation, but their persistence today is threatened by the introduction of exotic pathogens and their vector, the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Historically, species such as the amakihi (Hemignathus virens), the apapane (Himatione sanguinea), and the iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were found from the coastal lowlands to the high elevation forests, but by the late 1800's they had become extremely rare in habitats below 900 m. Recently, however, populations of amakihi and apapane have been observed in low elevation habitats. We used twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate patterns of genetic structure, and to infer responses of these species to introduced avian malaria along an elevational gradient on the eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Results. Our results indicate that amakihi have genetically distinct, spatially structured populations that correspond with altitude. We detected very few apapane and no iiwi in low-elevation habitats, and genetic results reveal only minimal differentiation between populations at different altitudes in either of these species. Conclusion. Our results suggest that amakihi populations in low elevation habitats have not been recolonized by individuals from mid or high elevation refuges. After generations of strong selection for pathogen resistance, these populations have rebounded and amakihi have become common in regions in which they were previously rare or absent. ?? 2008 Eggert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance. PMID:26880838

  10. Mitochondrial Sirtuin Network Reveals Dynamic SIRT3-Dependent Deacetylation in Response to Membrane Depolarization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Nagasawa, Koji; Münch, Christian; Xu, Yingjie; Satterstrom, Kyle; Jeong, Seungmin; Hayes, Sebastian D; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Vyas, F Sejal; Zaganjor, Elma; Guarani, Virginia; Ringel, Alison E; Gygi, Steven P; Harper, J Wade; Haigis, Marcia C

    2016-11-03

    Mitochondrial sirtuins, SIRT3-5, are NAD(+)-dependent deacylases and ADP-ribosyltransferases that are critical for stress responses. However, a comprehensive understanding of sirtuin targets, regulation of sirtuin activity, and the relationships between sirtuins remains a key challenge in mitochondrial physiology. Here, we employ systematic interaction proteomics to elucidate the mitochondrial sirtuin protein interaction landscape. This work reveals sirtuin interactions with numerous functional modules within mitochondria, identifies candidate sirtuin substrates, and uncovers a fundamental role for sequestration of SIRT3 by ATP synthase in mitochondrial homeostasis. In healthy mitochondria, a pool of SIRT3 binds ATP synthase, but upon matrix pH reduction with concomitant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, SIRT3 dissociates. This release correlates with rapid deacetylation of matrix proteins, and SIRT3 is required for recovery of membrane potential. In vitro reconstitution experiments, as well as analysis of CRISPR/Cas9-engineered cells, indicate that pH-dependent SIRT3 release requires H135 in the ATP5O subunit of ATP synthase. Our SIRT3-5 interaction network provides a framework for discovering novel biological functions regulated by mitochondrial sirtuins.

  11. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ximing; Ford, Susan E

    2016-03-05

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance.

  12. Time-series analysis reveals genetic responses to intensive management of razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus)

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Thomas E; Turner, Thomas F; Carson, Evan W; Saltzgiver, Melody J; Adams, Deborah; Kesner, Brian; Marsh, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Time-series analysis is used widely in ecology to study complex phenomena and may have considerable potential to clarify relationships of genetic and demographic processes in natural and exploited populations. We explored the utility of this approach to evaluate population responses to management in razorback sucker, a long-lived and fecund, but declining freshwater fish species. A core population in Lake Mohave (Arizona-Nevada, USA) has experienced no natural recruitment for decades and is maintained by harvesting naturally produced larvae from the lake, rearing them in protective custody, and repatriating them at sizes less vulnerable to predation. Analyses of mtDNA and 15 microsatellites characterized for sequential larval cohorts collected over a 15-year time series revealed no changes in geographic structuring but indicated significant increase in mtDNA diversity for the entire population over time. Likewise, ratios of annual effective breeders to annual census size (Nb/Na) increased significantly despite sevenfold reduction of Na. These results indicated that conservation actions diminished near-term extinction risk due to genetic factors and should now focus on increasing numbers of fish in Lake Mohave to ameliorate longer-term risks. More generally, time-series analysis permitted robust testing of trends in genetic diversity, despite low precision of some metrics. PMID:24665337

  13. Genetic structure along an elevational gradient in Hawaiian honeycreepers reveals contrasting evolutionary responses to avian malaria

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) are one of the best-known examples of an adaptive radiation, but their persistence today is threatened by the introduction of exotic pathogens and their vector, the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Historically, species such as the amakihi (Hemignathus virens), the apapane (Himatione sanguinea), and the iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were found from the coastal lowlands to the high elevation forests, but by the late 1800's they had become extremely rare in habitats below 900 m. Recently, however, populations of amakihi and apapane have been observed in low elevation habitats. We used twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate patterns of genetic structure, and to infer responses of these species to introduced avian malaria along an elevational gradient on the eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Results Our results indicate that amakihi have genetically distinct, spatially structured populations that correspond with altitude. We detected very few apapane and no iiwi in low-elevation habitats, and genetic results reveal only minimal differentiation between populations at different altitudes in either of these species. Conclusion Our results suggest that amakihi populations in low elevation habitats have not been recolonized by individuals from mid or high elevation refuges. After generations of strong selection for pathogen resistance, these populations have rebounded and amakihi have become common in regions in which they were previously rare or absent. PMID:19014596

  14. Functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals brain regions mediating the response to resistive expiratory loads in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Gozal, D; Omidvar, O; Kirlew, K A; Hathout, G M; Lufkin, R B; Harper, R M

    1996-01-01

    Obstructive lung disease is the most common form of respiratory disturbance. However, the location of brain structures underlying the ventilatory response to resistive expiratory loads is unknown in humans. To study this issue, midsagittal magnetic resonance images were acquired in eight healthy volunteers before and after application of a moderate resistive expiratory load (30 cmH2O/liter/s), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) strategies (1.5-T magnetic resonance; repetition time: 72 ms; echo time: 45 ms; flip angle: 30 degrees; field of view: 26 cm; slice thickness: 5 mm; 128 x 256 x 1 number of excitations). Digital image subtractions and region of interest analyses revealed significant increases in fMRI signal intensity in discrete areas of the ventral medulla, ventral and dorsal pontomedullary structures, basal forebrain, and cerebellum. Upon load withdrawal, a rapid fMRI signal off-transient occurred in all activated sites. Application of an identical load immediately after recovery from the initial stimulus resulted in smaller signal increases (P < 0.02). Prolongation of load duration was associated with progressive fMRI signal decrease across activated regions. In three additional subjects, the threshold for significant MRI signal increases was established at expiratory loads > or = 15 cmH2O/liter/s and was dose dependent with increasing loads. We conclude that resistive expiratory loads > or = 15 cmH2O/liter/s elicit regional activation of discrete brain locations in humans. PMID:8550849

  15. Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw.

    PubMed

    Mackelprang, Rachel; Waldrop, Mark P; DeAngelis, Kristen M; David, Maude M; Chavarria, Krystle L; Blazewicz, Steven J; Rubin, Edward M; Jansson, Janet K

    2011-11-06

    Permafrost contains an estimated 1672 Pg carbon (C), an amount roughly equivalent to the total currently contained within land plants and the atmosphere. This reservoir of C is vulnerable to decomposition as rising global temperatures cause the permafrost to thaw. During thaw, trapped organic matter may become more accessible for microbial degradation and result in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite recent advances in the use of molecular tools to study permafrost microbial communities, their response to thaw remains unclear. Here we use deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes, and relate these data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses reveal that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there are rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5 °C, permafrost metagenomes converge to be more similar to each other than while they are frozen. We find that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shift rapidly during thaw. We also construct the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponds to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost is released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost.

  16. Retrospective stable isotope analysis reveals ecosystem responses to river regulation over the last century.

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas F; Krabbenhoft, Trevor I; Collyer, Michael L; Krabbenhoft, Corey A; Edwards, Melanie S; Sharp, Zachary D

    2015-12-01

    Disruption of natural flow regimes, nutrient pollution, and other consequences of human population growth and development have impacted most major rivers of the world. Alarming losses of aquatic biodiversity coincide with human-caused river alteration, but effects of biotic homogenization on aquatic ecosystem processes are not as well documented. This is because unaltered systems for comparison are scarce, and some ecosystem-wide effects may take decades to manifest. We evaluated aquatic ecosystem responses to extensive river- floodplain engineering and nutrient addition in the Rio Grande of southwestern North America as revealed by changes in trophic structure of, and resource availability to, the fish community. Stable Isotope Analysis (SIA) was conducted on museum-preserved fishes collected over a 70-year period of intensive river management and exponential human population growth. Trophic complexity and resource heterogeneity for fish consumers (measured as "isotopic niche breadth") decreased following sediment deprivation and channelization, and these effects persist into the present. Increased nutrient inputs led to δ15N enrichment in the entire fish community at all affected sites, and a shift to autochthonous sources of carbon at the most proximal site downstream of wastewater release, probably via bottom-up transfer. Overall, retrospective SIA of apex consumers suggests radical change and functional impairment of a floodplain river ecosystem already marked by significant biodiversity loss.

  17. Soil metaproteomics reveals an inter-kingdom stress response to the presence of black truffles

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Elisa; Chiapello, Marco; Daghino, Stefania; Bonfante, Paola; Mello, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    For some truffle species of the Tuber genus, the symbiotic phase is often associated with the presence of an area of scant vegetation, commonly known as the brûlé, around the host tree. Previous metagenomics studies have identified the microorganisms present inside and outside the brûlé of a Tuber melanosporum truffle-ground, but the molecular mechanisms that operate in this ecological niche remain to be clarified. To elucidate the metabolic pathways present in the brûlé, we conducted a metaproteomics analysis on the soil of a characterized truffle-ground and cross-referenced the resulting proteins with a database we constructed, incorporating the metagenomics data for the organisms previously identified in this soil. The soil inside the brûlé contained a larger number of proteins and, surprisingly, more proteins from plants, compared with the soil outside the brûlé. In addition, Fisher’s Exact Tests detected more biological processes inside the brûlé; these processes were related to responses to multiple types of stress. Thus, although the brûlé has a reduced diversity of plant and microbial species, the organisms in the brûlé show strong metabolic activity. Also, the combination of metagenomics and metaproteomics provides a powerful tool to reveal soil functioning. PMID:27161395

  18. Optical tweezers reveal a dynamic mechanical response of cationic peptide-DNA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Amy; Zheng, Tai; Sucayan, Sarah; Chou, Szu-Ting; Tricoli, Lucas; Hustedt, Jason; Kahn, Jason; Mixson, A. James; Seog, Joonil

    2013-03-01

    Nonviral carriers have been developed to deliver nucleic acids by forming nanoscale complexes; however, there has been limited success in achieving high transfection efficiency. Our hypothesis is that a factor affecting gene delivery efficiency is the mechanical response of the condensed complex. To begin to test this hypothesis, we directly measured the mechanical properties of DNA-carrier complexes using optical tweezers. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymer, Asparagine-lysine (NK) polymer and poly-L-lysine were used to form complexes with a single DNA molecule. As carriers were introduced, a sudden decrease in DNA extension occurrs at a force level which is defined as critical force (Fc). Fc is carrier and concentration dependent. Pulling revealed reduction in DNA extension length for HK-DNA complexes. The characteristics of force profiles vary by agent and can be dynamically manipulated by changes in environmental conditions such as ionic strength of the buffer as well as pH. Heparin can remove cationic reagents which are otherwise irreversibly bound to DNA. The implications for optimizing molecular interactions to enhance transfection efficiency will be discussed.

  19. Responses of a bursting pacemaker to excitation reveal spatial segregation between bursting and spiking mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Maran, Selva K; Sieling, Fred H; Demla, Kavita; Prinz, Astrid A; Canavier, Carmen C

    2011-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) frequently include bursting neurons that serve as pacemakers for rhythm generation. Phase resetting curves (PRCs) can provide insight into mechanisms underlying phase locking in such circuits. PRCs were constructed for a pacemaker bursting complex in the pyloric circuit in the stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster and crab. This complex is comprised of the Anterior Burster (AB) neuron and two Pyloric Dilator (PD) neurons that are all electrically coupled. Artificial excitatory synaptic conductance pulses of different strengths and durations were injected into one of the AB or PD somata using the Dynamic Clamp. Previously, we characterized the inhibitory PRCs by assuming a single slow process that enabled synaptic inputs to trigger switches between an up state in which spiking occurs and a down state in which it does not. Excitation produced five different PRC shapes, which could not be explained with such a simple model. A separate dendritic compartment was required to separate the mechanism that generates the up and down phases of the bursting envelope (1) from synaptic inputs applied at the soma, (2) from axonal spike generation and (3) from a slow process with a slower time scale than burst generation. This study reveals that due to the nonlinear properties and compartmentalization of ionic channels, the response to excitation is more complex than inhibition. PMID:21360137

  20. A Hyperresponsive HPA Axis May Confer Resilience Against Persistent Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kozachik, Sharon L.; Page, Gayle G.

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC) treatment is associated with persistent, debilitating neuropathic pain that affects the hands and feet. Female sex and biological stress responsivity are risk factors for persistent pain, but it is unclear whether these important biologically based factors confer risk for PAC-induced neuropathic pain. To determine the relative contributions of sex and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis stress responsivity to PAC-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, we employed a PAC protocol consisting of three, 2-week cycles of every-other-day doses of PAC 1 mg/kg versus saline (Week 1) and recovery (Week 2), totaling 42 days, in mature male and female Fischer 344, Lewis, and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, known to differ in HPA axis stress responsivity. Mechanical sensitivity was operationalized using von Frey filaments, per the up–down method. Among PAC-injected rats, SD rats exhibited significantly greater mechanical hypersensitivity relative to accumulative PAC doses compared to Fischer 344 rats. Lewis rats were not significantly different in mechanical hypersensitivity from SD or Fischer 344 rats. At the end of the protocol, PAC-injected SD rats exhibited profound mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas the PAC-injected Fischer 344 rats appeared relatively resilient to the long-term effects of PAC and exhibited mechanical sensitivity that was not statistically different from their saline-injected counterparts. Sex differences were mixed and noted only early in the PAC protocol. Moderate HPA axis stress responsivity may confer additional risk for the painful effects of PAC. If these findings hold in humans, clinicians may be better able to identify persons who may be at increased risks for developing neuropathic pain during PAC therapy. PMID:26512050

  1. Non-surgical management of tooth hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Clark, Danielle; Levin, Liran

    2016-10-01

    Tooth sensitivity is a common complaint of patients in dental practices. Studies have demonstrated dentinal hypersensitivity to affect 10-30% of the population. There are various potential causes of tooth sensitivity and a variety of available treatment options. This narrative review will discuss the possible aetiology of this condition, as well as the treatment modalities available. A tailor-made treatment plan that starts with the most non-invasive treatment options and escalates only when those options have proven insufficient in alleviating symptoms should be provided for each patient. Only after all non- and less-invasive methods have failed to reduce the symptoms should more invasive treatment options, such as root-coverage, be considered.

  2. Hypersensitivity to ticks and Lyme disease risk.

    PubMed

    Burke, Georgine; Wikel, Stephen K; Spielman, Andrew; Telford, Sam R; McKay, Kathleen; Krause, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Although residents of Lyme disease-endemic regions describe frequent exposure to ticks, Lyme disease develops in relatively few. To determine whether people who experience cutaneous hypersensitivity against tick bite have fewer episodes of Lyme disease than those who do not, we examined several factors that might restrict the incidence of Lyme disease among residents of Block Island, Rhode Island. Of 1,498 study participants, 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 23%-31%) reported > or = 1 tick bites, and 17% (95% CI 13%-21%) reported itch associated with tick bite in the previous year. Borrelia burgdorferi infected 23% (95% CI 20%-26%) of 135 nymphal Ixodes scapularis (I. dammini) ticks. The likelihood of Lyme disease infection decreased with >3 reports of tick-associated itch (odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI 0.94-0.03, p = 0.01). Prior exposure to uninfected vector ticks protects residents of disease-endemic sites from Lyme disease.

  3. A critical role of spinal Shank2 proteins in NMDA-induced pain hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Gu; Kim, Yong Ho; Yeo, Ji-Hee; Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) are devastating traits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although deficits in pain sensation might be one of the contributing factors underlying the development of SIBs, the mechanisms have yet to be addressed. Recently, the Shank2 synaptic protein has been considered to be a key component in ASD, and mutations of SHANK2 gene induce the dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, suggesting a link between Shank2 and NMDA receptors in ASD. Given that spinal NMDA receptors play a pivotal role in pain hypersensitivity, we investigated the possible role of Shank2 in nociceptive hypersensitivity by examining changes in spontaneous pain following intrathecal NMDA injection in Shank2−/− (Shank2 knock-out, KO) mice. Results Intrathecal NMDA injection evoked spontaneous nociceptive behaviors. These NMDA-induced nociceptive responses were significantly reduced in Shank2 KO mice. We also observed a significant decrease of NMDA currents in the spinal dorsal horn of Shank2 KO mice. Subsequently, we examined whether mitogen-activated protein kinase or AKT signaling is involved in this reduced pain behavior in Shank2 KO mice because the NMDA receptor is closely related to these signaling molecules. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that spinally administered NMDA increased the expression of a phosphorylated form of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) which was significantly reduced in Shank2 KO mice. However, p38, JNK, or AKT were not changed by NMDA administration. The ERK inhibitor, PD98059, decreased NMDA-induced spontaneous pain behaviors in a dose-dependent manner in wild-type mice. Moreover, it was found that the NMDA-induced increase in p-ERK was primarily colocalized with Shank2 proteins in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Conclusion Shank2 protein is involved in spinal NMDA receptor-mediated pain, and mutations of Shank2 may suppress NMDA-ERK signaling in spinal pain transmission. This study

  4. In vitro methods for diagnosing nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to drugs.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, C; Sanz, M L; Gamboa, P; Garcia-Aviles, M C; Fernandez, J; Torres, M J

    2013-01-01

    Nonimmediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are difficult to manage in daily clinical practice, mainly owing to their heterogeneous clinical manifestations and the lack of selective biological markers. In vitro methods are necessaryto establish a diagnosis, especially given the low sensitivity of skin tests and the inherent risks of drug provocation testing. In vitro evaluation of nonimmediate DHRs must include approaches that can be applied during the different phases of the reaction. During the acute phase, monitoring markers in both skin and peripheral blood helps to discriminate between immediate and nonimmediate DHRs with cutaneous responses and to distinguish between reactions that, although they present similar clinical symptoms, are produced by different immunological mechanisms and therefore have a different treatment and prognosis. During the resolution phase, in vitro testing is used to detect the response of T cells to drug stimulation; however, this approach has certain limitations, such as the lack of validated studies assessing sensitivity. Moreover, in vitro tests indicate an immune response that is not always related to a DHR. In this review, members of the Immunology and Drug Allergy Committee of the Spanish Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEAIC) provide an overview of the most widely used in vitro tests for evaluating nonimmediate DHRs.

  5. Metal hypersensitivity in total knee arthroplasty: revision surgery using a ceramic femoral component - a case report.

    PubMed

    Bergschmidt, Philipp; Bader, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2012-03-01

    We present a case involving the revision of a total knee arthroplasty with a metal femoral component using a ceramic implant due to metal hypersensitivity. A 58-year-old female patient underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a standard metal bicondylar knee system. She suffered from persistent pain and strong limitations in her range of motion (ROM) associated with flexion during the early postoperative period. Arthroscopic arthrolysis of the knee joint and intensive active and passive physical treatment, in combination with a cortisone regime, temporarily increased the ROM and reduced pain. No signs of low grade infection or other causes of implant failure were evident. Histology of synovial tissue revealed lymphoplasmacellular fibrinous tissue, consistent with a type IV allergic reaction. Allergometry (skin reaction) revealed type IV hypersensitivity against nickel-II-sulfate and palladium chloride. Revision surgery of the metal components was performed with a cemented ceramic femoral component (same bicondylar design) and a cemented titanium alloy tibial component. Postoperative evaluations were performed 10days, and 3 and 12months after the revision surgery. There was an increased ROM in flexion to 90° at the 12month follow-up. No swelling or effusion was observed at all clinical examinations after the revision surgery. No pain at rest and moderate walking pain were evident. The presented case demonstrates that ceramic implants are a promising solution for patients suffering from hypersensitivity to metal ions in total knee arthroplasty.

  6. Plant physiology and proteomics reveals the leaf response to drought in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Erice, Gorka; Avice, Jean Christophe; Nogués, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Despite its relevance, protein regulation, metabolic adjustment, and the physiological status of plants under drought is not well understood in relation to the role of nitrogen fixation in nodules. In this study, nodulated alfalfa plants were exposed to drought conditions. The study determined the physiological, metabolic, and proteomic processes involved in photosynthetic inhibition in relation to the decrease in nitrogenase (Nase) activity. The deleterious effect of drought on alfalfa performance was targeted towards photosynthesis and Nase activity. At the leaf level, photosynthetic inhibition was mainly caused by the inhibition of Rubisco. The proteomic profile and physiological measurements revealed that the reduced carboxylation capacity of droughted plants was related to limitations in Rubisco protein content, activation state, and RuBP regeneration. Drought also decreased amino acid content such as asparagine, and glutamic acid, and Rubisco protein content indicating that N availability limitations were caused by Nase activity inhibition. In this context, drought induced the decrease in Rubisco binding protein content at the leaf level and proteases were up-regulated so as to degrade Rubisco protein. This degradation enabled the reallocation of the Rubisco-derived N to the synthesis of amino acids with osmoregulant capacity. Rubisco degradation under drought conditions was induced so as to remobilize Rubisco-derived N to compensate for the decrease in N associated with Nase inhibition. Metabolic analyses showed that droughted plants increased amino acid (proline, a major compound involved in osmotic regulation) and soluble sugar (D-pinitol) levels to contribute towards the decrease in osmotic potential (Ψs). At the nodule level, drought had an inhibitory effect on Nase activity. This decrease in Nase activity was not induced by substrate shortage, as reflected by an increase in total soluble sugars (TSS) in the nodules. Proline accumulation in the nodule

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Genotypes That Are Susceptible, Resistant, and Hypersensitive to Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis).

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijuan; Rashotte, Aaron M; Singh, Narendra K; Lawrence, Kathy S; Weaver, David B; Locy, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Reniform nematode is a semi-endoparasitic nematode species causing significant yield loss in numerous crops, including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). An RNA-sequencing analysis was conducted to measure transcript abundance in reniform nematode susceptible (DP90 & SG747), resistant (BARBREN-713), and hypersensitive (LONREN-1) genotypes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with and without reniform nematode infestation. Over 90 million trimmed high quality reads were assembled into 84,711 and 80, 353 transcripts using the G. arboreum and the G. raimondii genomes as references. Many transcripts were significantly differentially expressed between the three different genotypes both prior to and during nematode pathogenesis, including transcripts corresponding to the gene ontology categories of cell wall, hormone metabolism and signaling, redox reactions, secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, stress responses, and signaling. Further analysis revealed that a number of these differentially expressed transcripts mapped to the G. raimondii and/or the G. arboreum genomes within 1 megabase of quantitative trait loci that had previously been linked to reniform nematode resistance. Several resistance genes encoding proteins known to be strongly linked to pathogen perception and resistance, including LRR-like and NBS-LRR domain-containing proteins, were among the differentially expressed transcripts mapping near these quantitative trait loci. Further investigation is required to confirm a role for these transcripts in reniform nematode susceptibility, hypersensitivity, and/or resistance. This study presents the first systemic investigation of reniform nematode resistance-associated genes using different genotypes of cotton. The candidate reniform nematode resistance-associated genes identified in this study can serve as the basis for further functional analysis and aid in further development of reniform a nematode resistant cotton germplasm.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Genotypes That Are Susceptible, Resistant, and Hypersensitive to Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruijuan; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Singh, Narendra K.; Lawrence, Kathy S.; Weaver, David B.; Locy, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Reniform nematode is a semi-endoparasitic nematode species causing significant yield loss in numerous crops, including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). An RNA-sequencing analysis was conducted to measure transcript abundance in reniform nematode susceptible (DP90 & SG747), resistant (BARBREN-713), and hypersensitive (LONREN-1) genotypes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with and without reniform nematode infestation. Over 90 million trimmed high quality reads were assembled into 84,711 and 80, 353 transcripts using the G. arboreum and the G. raimondii genomes as references. Many transcripts were significantly differentially expressed between the three different genotypes both prior to and during nematode pathogenesis, including transcripts corresponding to the gene ontology categories of cell wall, hormone metabolism and signaling, redox reactions, secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, stress responses, and signaling. Further analysis revealed that a number of these differentially expressed transcripts mapped to the G. raimondii and/or the G. arboreum genomes within 1 megabase of quantitative trait loci that had previously been linked to reniform nematode resistance. Several resistance genes encoding proteins known to be strongly linked to pathogen perception and resistance, including LRR-like and NBS-LRR domain-containing proteins, were among the differentially expressed transcripts mapping near these quantitative trait loci. Further investigation is required to confirm a role for these transcripts in reniform nematode susceptibility, hypersensitivity, and/or resistance. This study presents the first systemic investigation of reniform nematode resistance-associated genes using different genotypes of cotton. The candidate reniform nematode resistance-associated genes identified in this study can serve as the basis for further functional analysis and aid in further development of reniform a nematode resistant cotton germplasm. PMID:26571375

  9. Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKelprang, R.; Waldrop, M.P.; Deangelis, K.M.; David, M.M.; Chavarria, K.L.; Blazewicz, S.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Jansson, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost contains an estimated 1672????????Pg carbon (C), an amount roughly equivalent to the total currently contained within land plants and the atmosphere. This reservoir of C is vulnerable to decomposition as rising global temperatures cause the permafrost to thaw. During thaw, trapped organic matter may become more accessible for microbial degradation and result in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite recent advances in the use of molecular tools to study permafrost microbial communities, their response to thaw remains unclear. Here we use deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes, and relate these data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses reveal that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there are rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5 ??C, permafrost metagenomes converge to be more similar to each other than while they are frozen. We find that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shift rapidly during thaw. We also construct the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponds to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost is released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential Molecular Responses of Rapeseed Cotyledons to Light and Dark Reveal Metabolic Adaptations toward Autotrophy Establishment

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongli; Damaris, Rebecca N.; Fu, Jinlei; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Xi, Chen; Yi, Bin; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis competent autotrophy is established during the postgerminative stage of plant growth. Among the multiple factors, light plays a decisive role in the switch from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. Under dark conditions, the rapeseed hypocotyl extends quickly with an apical hook, and the cotyledon is yellow and folded, and maintains high levels of the isocitrate lyase (ICL). By contrast, in the light, the hypocotyl extends slowly, the cotyledon unfolds and turns green, the ICL content changes in parallel with cotyledon greening. To reveal metabolic adaptations during the establishment of postgerminative autotrophy in rapeseed, we conducted comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses of the cotyledons of seedlings grown under light versus dark conditions. Under both conditions, the increase in proteases, fatty acid β-oxidation and glyoxylate-cycle related proteins was accompanied by rapid degradation of the stored proteins and lipids with an accumulation of the amino acids. While light condition partially retarded these conversions. Light significantly induced the expression of chlorophyll-binding and photorespiration related proteins, resulting in an increase in reducing-sugars. However, the levels of some chlorophyllide conversion, Calvin-cycle and photorespiration related proteins also accumulated in dark grown cotyledons, implying that the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy is programmed in the seed rather than induced by light. Various anti-stress systems, e.g., redox related proteins, salicylic acid, proline and chaperones, were employed to decrease oxidative stress, which was mainly derived from lipid oxidation or photorespiration, under both conditions. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the differential molecular responses of rapeseed cotyledons to light and dark conditions, which will facilitate further study on the complex mechanism underlying the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy. PMID:27471506

  11. Ascaris lumbricoides aggregation in relation to child growth status, delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, and plant anthelmintic use in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Kightlinger, L K; Seed, J R; Kightlinger, M B

    1996-02-01

    The relationships between Ascaris lumbricoides worm burden, growth status, general delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity (DCH) response, and plant anthelmintic use were investigated in a 12-mo prospective survey of 663 children, 4-10 yr old, living in the Ranomafana rainforest, Madagascar. Initial fecal examinations revealed prevalences of 93% for A. lumbricoides, 55% for Trichuris trichuria, and 27% for hookworm. After anthelmintic treatment and a 12-mo reinfection period, 428 of the children participated in worm expulsion studies using pyrantel pamoate, revealing an overdispersed A. lumbricoides worm population, mean = 19.2 (SD = 20.4). Malnutrition was common with 72% of the children growth stunted, 61% underweight, and 6% wasted. The children were also skin tested to recall antigens for DCH, with 94% reacting. The DCH immune response was significantly decreased in the malnourished children; however, DCH was not reduced in relation to increasing worm intensity. Growth status, growth velocity, and triceps skinfold did not vary significantly in relation to A. lumbricoides worm burden. Traditional plant anthelmintic treatment was effective in significantly reducing worm intensity. This study indicates that, in human communities where the children are predominately stunted, A. lumbricoides does not aggregate in the most malnourished or immunodepressed children.

  12. Availability of Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants for Metal Hypersensitivity Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ajwani, Sanil Harji; Charalambous, Charalambos P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To provide information on the type of “hypersensitivity-friendly” components available for primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the current market. Materials and Methods Implant manufactures were identified using the 2013 National Joint Registries of the United Kingdom and Sweden and contacted to obtain information about the products they offer for patients with metal hypersensitivity. Results Information on 23 TKA systems was provided by 13 implant manufacturers. Of these, 15 systems had options suitable for metal hypersensitivity patients. Two types of “hypersensitivity-friendly” components were identified: 10 implants were cobalt chrome prostheses with a “hypersensitivity-friendly” outer coating and 5 implants were made entirely from non-cobalt chrome alloys. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that several hypersensitivity TKA options exist, some of which provide the same designs and surgical techniques as the conventional implants. The information in this study can guide TKA surgeons in making informed choices about implants and identifying implants that could be examined in future controlled studies comparing outcomes between “hypersensitivity-friendly” and conventional implants. PMID:27894179

  13. [Hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media: diagnosis, prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Mahlab-Guri, Keren; Herskovitz, Pearl; Sthoeger, Zev

    2012-07-01

    More than 70 million radiographic examinations with radio contrast media are performed worldwide each year. The incidence of adverse reactions to radio contrast media is 5-13%. Adverse reactions include hypersensitivity reactions, chemotoxic reactions and renal toxicity. Hypersensitivity reactions to radio contrast media range from mild pruritus to life-threatening emergency. The differential diagnosis between hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media and chemotoxic reaction is challenging. The incidence of chemotoxic reactions is mainly affected by the chemical structure of the radio contrast media and the rate of infusion. The incidence of hypersensitivity radio contrast media reaction is affected by age and by the presence of asthma and other atopic diseases. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media is based on clinical manifestations. The additional value of laboratory tests is limited and questionable. In case of hypersensitivity radio contrast reaction, the infusion should be stopped immediately, airways should be protected and fluids, oxygen and drugs should be given. Prophylactic treatment before its administration may prevent hypersensitivity reactions to radio contrast media.

  14. Allotype specific interactions of drugs and HLA molecules in hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Illing, Patricia T; Mifsud, Nicole A; Purcell, Anthony W

    2016-10-01

    It is hypothesised that associations between adverse drug reactions and specific alleles of the human leukocyte antigens arise due to specific interactions between the human leukocyte antigen molecules and the causative drug that stimulate immune responses targeting drug exposed tissues. To date this has only been definitively demonstrated for abacavir, an antiretroviral that causes a systemic adverse drug reaction, abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome, solely in HLA-B*57:01(+) individuals. Whilst this has informed the modification of abacavir to remove immunogenicity, there remains an imperative to define other interactions between drugs and specific HLA in order to understand the scope of interactions that can drive T cell mediated drug hypersensitivity. Here we review the current state of understanding of these interactions.

  15. Allergen-Specific Cytokine Polarization Protects Shetland Ponies against Culicoides obsoletus-Induced Insect Bite Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van der Lugt, Jaco J; van der Meide, Nathalie M A; Willemse, Ton; Rutten, Victor P M G; Zaiss, Dietmar M W

    2015-01-01

    The immunological mechanisms explaining development of an allergy in some individuals and not in others remain incompletely understood. Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common, seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder that affects considerable proportions of horses of different breeds, which is caused by bites of the insect Culicoides obsoletus (C. obsoletus). We investigated the allergen-specific immune status of individual horses that had either been diagnosed to be healthy or to suffer of IBH. Following intradermal allergen injection, skin biopsies were taken of IBH-affected and healthy ponies and cytokine expression was determined by RT-PCR. In addition, allergen-specific antibody titers were measured and cytokine expression of in vitro stimulated, allergen-specific CD4 T-cells was determined. 24 hrs after allergen injection, a significant increase in mRNA expression of the type-2 cytokine IL-4 was observed in the skin of IBH-affected Shetland ponies. In the skin of healthy ponies, however, an increase in IFNγ mRNA expression was found. Analysis of allergen-specific antibody titers revealed that all animals produced allergen-specific antibodies, and allergen-specific stimulation of CD4 T-cells revealed a significant higher percentage of IFNγ-expressing CD4 T-cells in healthy ponies compared to IBH-affected ponies. These data indicate that horses not affected by IBH, in contrast to the so far established dogma, are not immunologically ignorant but have a Th1-skewed allergen-specific immune response that appears to protect against IBH-associated symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a natural situation, in which an allergen-specific immune skewing is protective in an allergic disorder.

  16. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Akitoshi; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence.

  17. Cells deficient in the FANC/BRCA pathway are hypersensitive to plasma levels of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, John R; Nakamura, Ayumi; Tano, Keizo; Luke, April M; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Gillespie, David A F; Sale, Julian E; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Bishop, Douglas K; Takata, Minoru; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Formaldehyde is an aliphatic monoaldehyde and is a highly reactive environmental human carcinogen. Whereas humans are continuously exposed to exogenous formaldehyde, this reactive aldehyde is a naturally occurring biological compound that is present in human plasma at concentrations ranging from 13 to 97 micromol/L. It has been well documented that DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) likely play an important role with regard to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde. However, little is known about which DNA damage response pathways are essential for cells to counteract formaldehyde. In the present study, we first assessed the DNA damage response to plasma levels of formaldehyde using chicken DT40 cells with targeted mutations in various DNA repair genes. Here, we show that the hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is detected in DT40 mutants deficient in the BRCA/FANC pathway, homologous recombination, or translesion DNA synthesis. In addition, FANCD2-deficient DT40 cells are hypersensitive to acetaldehyde, but not to acrolein, crotonaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal. Human cells deficient in FANCC and FANCG are also hypersensitive to plasma levels of formaldehyde. These results indicate that the BRCA/FANC pathway is essential to counteract DPCs caused by aliphatic monoaldehydes. Based on the results obtained in the present study, we are currently proposing that endogenous formaldehyde might have an effect on highly proliferating cells, such as bone marrow cells, as well as an etiology of cancer in Fanconi anemia patients.

  18. Studies of migration inhibition tests in penicillin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, R J; Sauder, P J; Rutherford, W J

    1979-01-01

    The release of the migration inhibition factors, leucocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) and macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF) from stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes has been compared in patients with immediate (IgE-mediated) penicillin allergy and in patients with delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin PPD. It has been shown that in these two groups of subjects, a comparable specific proliferative response can occur following stimulation with the appropriate drug (benzylpenicillin) or antigen (PPD). By cell fractionation studies, the proliferation was found to occur in the isolated T cell population in both subject groups. However, the lymphocyte response to benzylpenicillin was rarely associated with the release of LIF or MIF, in contrast to the situation in tuberculin sensitivity where a concomitant release of LIF and MIF was found. In about one third of penicillin allergic subjects, culture supernatants from specifically stimulated lymphocyte cultures induced migration inhibition in the indirect leucocyte migration test, but the inhibitory activity apparently resulted from the presence of penicillin-specific antibody and not from LIF. PMID:393437

  19. Expression profiling soybean response to Pseudomonas syringae reveals new defense-related genes and rapid HR-specific downregulation of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jijun; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Aldea, Mihai; Li, Min; Zhu, Jin; Gonzalez, Delkin O; Vodkin, Lila O; DeLucia, Evan; Clough, Steven J

    2005-11-01

    Transcript profiling during susceptible (S) and hypersensitive response-associated resistance (R) interactions was determined in soybean (Glycine max). Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea carrying or lacking the avirulence gene avrB, was infiltrated into cultivar Williams 82. Leaf RNA was sampled at 2, 8, and 24 h postinoculation (hpi). Significant changes in transcript abundance were observed for 3,897 genes during the experiment at P < or = 0.000005. Many of the genes showed a similar direction of increase or decrease in abundance in both the S and R responses, but the R response generally showed a significantly greater degree of differential expression. More than 25% of these responsive genes had not been previously reported as being associated with pathogen interactions, as 704 had no functional annotation and 378 had no homolog in National Center for Biotechnology Information databases. The highest number of transcriptional changes was noted at 8 hpi, including the downregulation of 94 chloroplast-associated genes specific to the R response. Photosynthetic measurements were consistent with an R-specific reduction in photosystem II operating efficiency (phiPSII) that was apparent at 8 hpi for the R response with little effect in the S or control treatments. Imaging analyses suggest that the decreased phiPSII was a result of physical damage to PSII reaction centers.

  20. Autonomic nervous system responses can reveal visual fatigue induced by 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi Jung; Park, Sangin; Won, Myeung Ju; Whang, Mincheol; Lee, Eui Chul

    2013-09-26

    Previous research has indicated that viewing 3D displays may induce greater visual fatigue than viewing 2D displays. Whether viewing 3D displays can evoke measureable emotional responses, however, is uncertain. In the present study, we examined autonomic nervous system responses in subjects viewing 2D or 3D displays. Autonomic responses were quantified in each subject by heart rate, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature. Viewers of both 2D and 3D displays showed strong positive correlations with heart rate, which indicated little differences between groups. In contrast, galvanic skin response and skin temperature showed weak positive correlations with average difference between viewing 2D and 3D. We suggest that galvanic skin response and skin temperature can be used to measure and compare autonomic nervous responses in subjects viewing 2D and 3D displays.

  1. Identification of S-phase DNA damage-response targets in fission yeast reveals conservation of damage-response networks

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Nicholas A.; Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E. H.; Murray, Johanne M.; Carr, Antony M.; Elledge, Stephen J.; Rhind, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The cellular response to DNA damage during S-phase regulates a complicated network of processes, including cell-cycle progression, gene expression, DNA replication kinetics, and DNA repair. In fission yeast, this S-phase DNA damage response (DDR) is coordinated by two protein kinases: Rad3, the ortholog of mammalian ATR, and Cds1, the ortholog of mammalian Chk2. Although several critical downstream targets of Rad3 and Cds1 have been identified, most of their presumed targets are unknown, including the targets responsible for regulating replication kinetics and coordinating replication and repair. To characterize targets of the S-phase DDR, we identified proteins phosphorylated in response to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced S-phase DNA damage in wild-type, rad3∆, and cds1∆ cells by proteome-wide mass spectrometry. We found a broad range of S-phase–specific DDR targets involved in gene expression, stress response, regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis, and DNA replication and repair. These targets are highly enriched for proteins required for viability in response to MMS, indicating their biological significance. Furthermore, the regulation of these proteins is similar in fission and budding yeast, across 300 My of evolution, demonstrating a deep conservation of S-phase DDR targets and suggesting that these targets may be critical for maintaining genome stability in response to S-phase DNA damage across eukaryotes. PMID:27298342

  2. Low Ubiquinone Content in Escherichia coli Causes Thiol Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, H.; Snavely, I.; Zamorano, P.; Javor, G. T.

    1998-01-01

    Thiol hypersensitivity in a mutant of Escherichia coli (IS16) was reversed by complementation with a plasmid that carried the ubiX gene. The mutant had low ubiquinone content. Complementation elevated the ubiquinone level and eliminated thiol hypersensitivity. Analysis of chromosomal ubiX genes indicated that both parent and mutant strains were ubiX mutants. The low ubiquinone content of IS16 was possibly caused by a ubiD ubiX genotype. A ubiA mutant also exhibited thiol hypersensitivity. Neither IS16 nor the ubiA mutant strain could produce alkaline phosphatase (in contrast to their parent strains) after 2 h of induction, thus showing Dsb− phenotypes. The phenomena of thiol hypersensitivity and low ubiquinone content may be linked by their connections to the periplasmic disulfide bond redox machinery. PMID:9658014

  3. Effectiveness of Lasers in the Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Moeini, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a relatively common painful condition among dental problems. Although many studies have been performed regarding the diagnosis and treatment of DH, dental practitioners are still confused about the definite diagnosis and treatment.The use of lasers as a treatment for dentin hypersensitivity was first introduced in 1985.Laser treatment in dentin hypersensitivity is an interesting and controversial issue and many investigations have been done on its mechanism of action, advantages, and unclear points.The present literature review tries to go over the definition, diagnosis, etiology , predisposing factors, various laser types in the treatment of DH alone or in combination with topical desensitizing agents. Since a certain treatment has not yet introduced for dentin hypersensitivity, a combination of laser therapy and topical desensitizing factors ,can increase the success of the treatment compared with either treatments alone. PMID:25606300

  4. Diagnosis and management of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Scott D; Salazar, Kimberly C

    2013-08-01

    Cephalosporins are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibiotics. Immediate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with use of a specific cephalosporin, as a cross-reaction between different cephalosporins or as a cross-reaction to other β-lactam antibiotics, namely, penicillin. Historically, frequent reports of anaphylaxis following administration of first- and second-generation cephalosporins to patients with a history of penicillin allergy led to the belief of a high degree of allergic cross-reactivity. More recent evidence reveals a significantly lower risk of cross-reactivity between penicillins and the newer-generation cephalosporins. The current thought is that a shared side chain, rather than the β-lactam ring structure, is the determining factor in immunologic cross-reactivity. Understanding the chemical structure of these agents has allowed us to identify the allergenic determinants for penicillin; however, the exact allergenic determinants of cephalosporins are less well understood. For this reason, standardized diagnostic skin testing is not available for cephalosporins as it is for penicillin. Nevertheless, skin testing to the cephalosporin in question, using a nonirritating concentration, provides additional information, which can further guide the work-up of a patient suspected of having an allergy to that drug. Together, the history and the skin test results can assist the allergist in the decision to recommend continued drug avoidance or to perform a graded challenge versus an induction of tolerance procedure.

  5. Hypersensitivity due to ceftriaxone mimicking measles in a child.

    PubMed

    Arulraj, Russelian; Venkatesh, Chandrasekaran; Chhavi, Nanda; Soundararajan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    Ceftriaxone is a commonly used antibiotic in children for various infections like respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection and enteric fever. Hypersensitive reactions following ceftriaxone therapy are uncommon but are potentially life-threatening. The rash can resemble viral exanthems and may lead to a delay in the recognition and prompt treatment. Here we report a 7-year-old boy who presented with fever and rash with emphasis on recognizing ceftriaxone hypersensitivity and its management.

  6. [Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome: an entity to be remembered].

    PubMed

    Crespo Pérez, Laura; Moreira Vicente, Víctor; Cano Ruiz, Ana; Gobernado Serrano, José María; Cobo Ibañez, Natalia; Milicua Salamero, José María

    2009-12-01

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is an unpredictable, potentially fatal drug reaction to aromatic anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbital. The hallmark features include fever, eosinophilia, rash and involvement of one or more internal organs. Clearly established diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines are lacking. A high index of suspicion is required to identify this syndrome, allowing early withdrawal of the drug and avoiding re-exposure. We report an illustrative case of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome and review the published literature.

  7. Dentin hypersensitivity: Recent trends in management

    PubMed Central

    Miglani, Sanjay; Aggarwal, Vivek; Ahuja, Bhoomika

    2010-01-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is a common clinical condition usually associated with exposed dentinal surfaces. It can affect patients of any age group and most commonly affects the canines and premolars of both the arches. This article concisely reviews the patho-physiology, mechanism and clinical management of the DH. Treatment of DH should start with an accurate diagnosis. Differential diagnosis should be made and all other probable causes should be excluded. An often neglected phase of clinical management of DH is the identification and treatment of the causative factors of DH. By removing the etiological factors, the condition can be even prevented from occurring or recurring. There are various treatment modalities available which can be used at home or may be professionally applied. The “at home” desensitizing agents include toothpastes, mouthwashes or chewing gums and they act by either occluding the dentinal tubules or blocking the neural transmission. This article also discusses the recent treatment options like bioglass, Portland cement, lasers and casein phosphopeptide. PMID:21217949

  8. Immediate and delayed type hypersensitivity to malathion.

    PubMed

    Schanker, H M; Rachelefsky, G; Siegel, S; Katz, R; Spector, S; Rohr, A; Rodriquiz, C; Woloshin, K; Papanek, P J

    1992-12-01

    Between December 1989 and June 1990, 1,874 reports of alleged malathion application related illness from repeated spraying of a mixture of malathion corn syrup bait to eradicate a Mediterranean fruit fly infestation in Southern California were received by the Toxics Epidemiology Program of Los Angeles County. Among these complaints were 47 reports of urticaria, 38 reports of angioedema and 213 reports of a nonspecific skin rash. In order to determine whether these alleged skin reactions were the result of an immediate or delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction to malathion or to the corn syrup bait we studied ten subjects referred for testing by the local health department. All ten subjects had no reaction on patch testing. One child exhibited a positive reaction to the bait and one child had irritant reactions to malathion and to the bait. This study documented one case of a possible immediate IgE reaction to malathion bait. Due to the low participation rates in this study, no specific conclusions concerning the rate of sensitivity in the population can be drawn, although it appears that such reactions are uncommon.

  9. IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders.

    PubMed

    Gotua, M; Lomidze, N; Dolidze, N; Gotua, T

    2008-04-01

    Food allergy has become a serious health concern especially in developed countries in the past two decades. In general population approximately 4-6% of children and 1-3% of adults experience food allergy. The article reviews IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders. Epidemiology, Mechanism, Clinical manifestations, Genetically modified crops (GMOs), Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies are discussed. The investigations show that over 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies in childhood are caused by: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish and shellfish. Also the causes of food allergy are food additives, genetically modified crops. Risk factors for food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis include asthma and previous allergic reactions to the causative food. Food allergy is one of the most common causes of systematic anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, with an annual incidence of four cases per million populations and estimated 500 deaths annually. In addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, individuals may experience urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis, oral syndrome, asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, hypotension, shock and cardiac arrhythmias, caused by the massive release of mediators from mast cells and basophiles. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on history, detailed dietary analysis, skin testing, measuring specific IgE in blood serum and challenge tests. Treatment and prevention includes: avoidance diet, application of auto-injectable epinephrine, H1 and H2 antihistamines, corticosteroids, antileukotrienes, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, cromolyn sodium, etc.

  10. RNA-seq analysis reveals genetic response and tolerance mechanisms to ozone exposure in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress caused by ground level ozone is a major contributor to yield loss in a number of important crop plants. Soybean (Glycine max) is especially ozone sensitive, and research into its response to oxidative stress is limited. To better understand the genetic response in soybean to oxida...

  11. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  12. Old, New and Hidden Causes of Perioperative Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Lene Heise

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative hypersensitivity reactions are rare, often life-threatening events, and subsequent investigations to identify the culprit are important to avoid re-exposure. All exposures in the perioperative setting may potentially be the cause of a hypersensitivity reaction, but drugs administered intravenously such as neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), induction agents and antibiotics have traditionally been reported to be implicated most commonly. It has recently become apparent that there are geographical differences in sensitization patterns related to variation in exposures, referral patterns and performance and interpretation of investigations. Differences in sensitization to NMBAs are partly explained by cross sensitization to pholcodine, an ingredient in cough-medicines available in some countries. While NMBAs are the most common causes of perioperative hypersensitivity in some countries, this may not necessarily be the case in all countries. New and hidden allergens have emerged as causes of perioperative hypersensitivity such as blue dyes, chlorhexidine and excipients. Detailed knowledge of the events at the time of reaction is necessary to identify potential culprits including rare and hidden allergens. Cooperation between allergists and anaesthetists, or other staff present perioperatively, is often needed to identify hidden or even undocumented exposures. The objectives of this review are to provide an overview of the history of investigation of perioperative hypersensitivity, to describe the differences in causes of perioperative hypersensitivity emerging over time and to increase awareness about the "hidden allergens" in the perioperative setting. Some practical advice on how to approach the patient testing negative on all initial investigations is also included.

  13. Mining large-scale response networks reveals ‘topmost activities’ in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Sambarey, Awanti; Prashanthi, Karyala; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis owes its high pathogenic potential to its ability to evade host immune responses and thrive inside the macrophage. The outcome of infection is largely determined by the cellular response comprising a multitude of molecular events. The complexity and inter-relatedness in the processes makes it essential to adopt systems approaches to study them. In this work, we construct a comprehensive network of infection-related processes in a human macrophage comprising 1888 proteins and 14,016 interactions. We then compute response networks based on available gene expression profiles corresponding to states of health, disease and drug treatment. We use a novel formulation for mining response networks that has led to identifying highest activities in the cell. Highest activity paths provide mechanistic insights into pathogenesis and response to treatment. The approach used here serves as a generic framework for mining dynamic changes in genome-scale protein interaction networks. PMID:23892477

  14. Transcriptional dynamics reveal critical roles for non-coding RNAs in the immediate-early response.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Stuart; Magi, Shigeyuki; Alhendi, Ahmad M N; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Daub, Carsten O; Arner, Erik; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Khachigian, Levon M; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Semple, Colin A

    2015-04-01

    The immediate-early response mediates cell fate in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and is dysregulated in many cancers. However, the specificity of the response across stimuli and cell types, and the roles of non-coding RNAs are not well understood. Using a large collection of densely-sampled time series expression data we have examined the induction of the immediate-early response in unparalleled detail, across cell types and stimuli. We exploit cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) time series datasets to directly measure promoter activities over time. Using a novel analysis method for time series data we identify transcripts with expression patterns that closely resemble the dynamics of known immediate-early genes (IEGs) and this enables a comprehensive comparative study of these genes and their chromatin state. Surprisingly, these data suggest that the earliest transcriptional responses often involve promoters generating non-coding RNAs, many of which are produced in advance of canonical protein-coding IEGs. IEGs are known to be capable of induction without de novo protein synthesis. Consistent with this, we find that the response of both protein-coding and non-coding RNA IEGs can be explained by their transcriptionally poised, permissive chromatin state prior to stimulation. We also explore the function of non-coding RNAs in the attenuation of the immediate early response in a small RNA sequencing dataset matched to the CAGE data: We identify a novel set of microRNAs responsible for the attenuation of the IEG response in an estrogen receptor positive cancer cell line. Our computational statistical method is well suited to meta-analyses as there is no requirement for transcripts to pass thresholds for significant differential expression between time points, and it is agnostic to the number of time points per dataset.

  15. Multi-omics analysis reveals regulators of the response to nitrogen limitation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    DOE PAGES

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Kim, Young -Mo; Nicora, Carrie D.; ...

    2016-02-25

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that stores lipids in response to limitation of nitrogen. Furthermore, while the enzymatic pathways responsible for neutral lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica are well characterized, regulation of these pathways has received little attention. We therefore sought to characterize the response to nitrogen limitation at system-wide levels, including the proteome, phosphoproteome and metabolome, to better understand how this organism regulates and controls lipid metabolism and to identify targets that may be manipulated to improve lipid yield.

  16. A novel regulatory mechanism of naringenin through inhibition of T lymphocyte function in contact hypersensitivity suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Feng; Tang, Yijun; Gao, Zhe; Xu, Qiang

    2010-06-25

    Naringenin, a flavonoid in grapefruits and citrus fruits, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a T cell-mediated immune reaction, and the factors released from macrophages also contribute to this response. Previous studies showed that naringenin suppressed CHS by inhibiting activation and migration of macrophages. However, little is known about naringenin's effects on T lymphocytes. Our study indicated that naringenin potently suppressed picryl chloride (PCl)-induced contact hypersensitivity by inhibiting the proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes. In vitro, both of the activated hapten-specific T cells and the T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 showed growth arrest after naringenin treatment. Furthermore, naringenin reduced CD69 (the protein level) and cytokines such as IL-2, TNF-{alpha}, and IFN-{gamma} (the mRNA level) expressions which highly expressed by activated T cells. Meanwhile, naringenin also induced T cell apoptosis by upregulation of Bax, Bad, PARP, cleaved-caspase 3 and downregulation of phosphorylated Akt, Bcl-2. These findings suggest that, besides its anti-inflammatory activities in macrophages, naringenin also showed inhibitory effects on the activation and proliferation of T cells to alleviate symptoms of contact hypersensitivity.

  17. New genetic findings lead the way to a better understanding of fundamental mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pirmohamed, Munir; Ostrov, David A; Park, B Kevin

    2015-08-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions are an important clinical problem for both health care and industry. Recent advances in genetics have identified a number of HLA alleles associated with a range of these adverse reactions predominantly affecting the skin but also other organs, such as the liver. The associations between abacavir hypersensitivity and HLA-B*57:01 and carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and HLA-B*15:02 have been implemented in clinical practice. There are many different mechanisms proposed in the pathogenesis of drug hypersensitivity reactions, including the hapten hypothesis, direct binding to T-cell receptors (the pharmacologic interaction hypothesis), and peptide-binding displacement. A problem with all the hypotheses is that they are largely based on in vitro findings, with little direct in vivo evidence. Although most studies have focused on individual mechanisms, it is perhaps more important to consider them all as being complementary, potentially occurring at the same time with the same drug in the same patient. This might at least partly account for the heterogeneity of the immune response seen in different patients. There is a need to develop novel methodologies to evaluate how the in vitro mechanisms relate to the in vivo situation and how the highly consistent genetic findings with different HLA alleles can be more consistently used for both prediction and prevention of these serious adverse reactions.

  18. Hypersensitivities for acetaldehyde and other agents among cancer cells null for clinically relevant Fanconi anemia genes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soma; Sur, Surojit; Yerram, Sashidhar R; Rago, Carlo; Bhunia, Anil K; Hossain, M Zulfiquer; Paun, Bogdan C; Ren, Yunzhao R; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Azad, Nilofer A; Kern, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    Large-magnitude numerical distinctions (>10-fold) among drug responses of genetically contrasting cancers were crucial for guiding the development of some targeted therapies. Similar strategies brought epidemiological clues and prevention goals for genetic diseases. Such numerical guides, however, were incomplete or low magnitude for Fanconi anemia pathway (FANC) gene mutations relevant to cancer in FANC-mutation carriers (heterozygotes). We generated a four-gene FANC-null cancer panel, including the engineering of new PALB2/FANCN-null cancer cells by homologous recombination. A characteristic matching of FANCC-null, FANCG-null, BRCA2/FANCD1-null, and PALB2/FANCN-null phenotypes was confirmed by uniform tumor regression on single-dose cross-linker therapy in mice and by shared chemical hypersensitivities to various inter-strand cross-linking agents and γ-radiation in vitro. Some compounds, however, had contrasting magnitudes of sensitivity; a strikingly high (19- to 22-fold) hypersensitivity was seen among PALB2-null and BRCA2-null cells for the ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, associated with widespread chromosomal breakage at a concentration not producing breaks in parental cells. Because FANC-defective cancer cells can share or differ in their chemical sensitivities, patterns of selective hypersensitivity hold implications for the evolutionary understanding of this pathway. Clinical decisions for cancer-relevant prevention and management of FANC-mutation carriers could be modified by expanded studies of high-magnitude sensitivities.

  19. A World Allergy Organization International Survey on Diagnostic Procedures and Therapies in Drug Allergy/Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mirakian, Rita; Castells, Mariana; Pichler, Werner; Romano, Antonino; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Diana, Deleanu; Kowalski, Marek; Yanez, Anahi; Lleonart, Ramon; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Demoly, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic and treatment modalities used in drug allergy/hypersensitivity among members of the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Methods A questionnaire comprising 39 questions was circulated electronically to member societies, associate member societies, and regional and affiliate organizations of WAO between June 29, 2009, and August 9, 2009. Results Eighty-two responses were received. Skin testing was used by 74.7%, with only 71.4% having access to penicillin skin test reagents. In vitro–specific IgE tests were used by 67.4%, and basophil activation test was used by 54.4%. Lymphocyte transformation tests were used by 36.8% and patch tests by 54.7%. Drug provocation tests were used by 68.4%, the most common indication being to exclude hypersensitivity where history/symptoms were not suggestive of drug hypersensitivity/allergy (76.9%). Rapid desensitization for chemotherapy, antibiotics, or biologic agents was used by 69.6%. Systemic corticosteroid was used in the treatment of Stevens–Johnson syndrome by 72.3%, and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins in toxic epidermal necrolysis by 50.8%. Human leukocyte antigen screening before prescription of abacavir was used by 92.9% and before prescription of carbamazepine by 21.4%. Conclusions Results of this survey form a useful framework for developing educational and training needs and for improving access to drug allergy diagnostic and treatment modalities across WAO member societies. PMID:23268453

  20. Ocular delayed hypersensitivity: a pathogenetic mechanism of chlamydial-conjunctivitis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, N G; Hadlow, W J; Moos, A B; Caldwell, H D

    1986-01-01

    We used a naturally occurring, Chlamydia psittaci-caused eye disease in guinea pigs, guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, as an animal model to understand both the immune response and the pathogenesis of chlamydial eye infections. When instilled into the conjunctival sac of guinea pigs that had been previously infected and were immune, viable chlamydiae or a Triton X-100-soluble extract of them produced a short-lived (12-48 hr) eye disease indistinguishable clinically and histologically from that observed during primary chlamydial eye infection. The clinical and histologic findings were consistent with those of ocular delayed hypersensitivity. Ocular delayed hypersensitivity was induced by primary chlamydial infection at mucosal sites other than conjunctival, such as vaginal and intestinal. Preliminary characterization of the hypersensitivity allergen shows that it is heat sensitive and common to the genus Chlamydia. The allergen is apparently not surface-exposed on chlamydiae and requires viable but not replicating organisms for activity. Our observation should be useful in understanding pathogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis-caused infections in humans, in particular those that produce chronic inflammatory diseases, such as blinding trachoma and urogenital diseases. Images PMID:3463978

  1. Anisakis simplex: from obscure infectious worm to inducer of immune hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Audicana, M Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2008-04-01

    Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites ("gastroallergic anisakiasis"), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive.

  2. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers.

  3. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J.R.; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3 = 17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25–50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. PMID:24007741

  4. Immunologic mechanisms in hypersensitivity reactions to metal ions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Büdinger, L; Hertl, M

    2000-02-01

    Metal ions such as Ni2+, Co2+, Cu2+, or Cr3+ are haptens with a high immunogenic potential, as contact dermatitis caused by ionic metals occurs in about 10-15% of the human population. Since alloys containing Ni2+, Co2+, and Cr3+ are components of implants in replacement surgery, dentures, orthodontic wires, and various other devices, adverse reactions to metal ions create serious problems in practical medicine as incompatibility reactions to metal-containing biomaterials. On the other hand, contact dermatitis to metal ions such as Ni2+ is a well-established model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in the recognition of haptens by the immune system. Although many investigations have been performed to elucidate the molecular interactions causing contact hypersensitivity in man, many aspects remain to be clarified. This review will focus on the experimental data accumulated so far on the immunologic mechanisms responsible for the recognition of metal ions by T cells and eliciting adverse immune reactions causing contact dermatitis.

  5. Hypersensitivity to Aeroallergens in Patients with Nasobronchial Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Jagoda; Bijelic, Radojka; Milicevic, Snjezana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Aeroallergens are the most common causes of allergy. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine hypersensitivity to aeroallergens in patients with nasobronchial allergy. Methods: This retrospective population study included 2254 patients with nasobronchial allergy, from late adolescents to adults. Their response to aeroallergens was assessed by skin prick tests. Results: More patients had rhinitis (72.7%), than asthma (27.6%). Although majority of patients were female, allergy is more common in men than in women (p<0.05). Both groups of patients had the greatest number of positive skin prick tests for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (27.5%) and weed pollens (21.9%), followed by grass (18.3%) and tree pollens (10.1%). Ragweed is the most common positive weed pollen in both groups, more in patients with rhinitis (p=0.022). The cocksfoot is the most common grass pollen in rhinitis group (15.3%), but meadow grass (12.6%) in asthma patients. Birch is the most common tree allergen in the both groups. Conclusions: More patients with nasobronchial allergy have rhinitis than asthma. Skin prick tests are usually positive for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and weed pollens, followed by grass and tree pollens, and they are more common positive in patients with rhinitis than asthma. PMID:24937928

  6. Drug hypersensitivity reactions during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Andreas J; Scherer Hofmeier, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Drugs may elicit a considerable variety of clinical signs, often affecting the skin and the mucous membranes. The most common are maculopapular exanthema, urticaria and angioedema. More rarely pustular, vesiculobullous, vasculitic and lichenoid lesions may be observed. Apart from the morphology, also the chronology of the occurrence and the evolution of the single skin lesions and the exanthema are paramount in the clinical diagnosis. Often, the skin is the only affected organ; however, it may herald a systemic involvement of internal organs, such as in severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndromes or anaphylaxis. Cutaneous manifestations, particularly maculopapular exanthemas have a high incidence among patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In many cases, a virus- or drug-induced origin or a combination of both is responsible. However, the transplantation itself may also induce similar skin changes. These exanthemas include most often graft-versus-host disease, and rarely engraftment syndrome or eruption of lymphocyte recovery. The elucidation of the underlying cause of the exanthemas occurring in immune compromised patients and the determination of the correct diagnosis remain challenging. An extensive differential diagnosis has to be put forward. This includes several groups of disorders with sometimes very similar cutaneous manifestations. Manifestations form the underlying disease, complications from therapy, infections and drug reactions are the most common differential diagnoses.

  7. Re-visiting Hypersensitivity Reactions to Taxanes: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Picard, Matthieu; Castells, Mariana C

    2015-10-01

    Taxanes (a class of chemotherapeutic agents) are an important cause of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in cancer patients. During the last decade, the development of rapid drug desensitization has been key to allow patients with HSRs to taxanes to be safely re-treated although the mechanisms of these HSRs are not fully understood. Earlier studies suggested that solvents, such as Cremophor EL used to solubilize paclitaxel, were responsible for HSRs through complement activation, but recent findings have raised the possibility that some of these HSRs are IgE-mediated. Taxane skin testing, which identifies patients with an IgE-mediated sensitivity, appears as a promising diagnostic and risk stratification tool in the management of patients with HSRs to taxanes. The management of patients following a HSR involves risk stratification and re-exposure could be performed either through rapid drug desensitization or graded challenge based on the severity of the initial HSR and the skin test result. Rapid drug desensitization has been shown to be an effective and safe method to re-introduce taxanes in hundreds of patients, including those with life-threatening HSRs. Patients with non-severe delayed skin HSRs may benefit from rapid drug desensitization since they may be at increased risk for an immediate HSR upon re-exposure. This review focuses on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and novel mechanisms of immediate HSRs to taxanes. A new management strategy for HSRs to taxanes based on skin testing and rapid drug desensitization is proposed.

  8. Neuron-glia crosstalk gets serious: Role in pain hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent studies show that peripheral injury activates both neuronal and non-neuronal or glial components of the peripheral and central cellular circuitry. The subsequent neuron-glial interactions contribute to pain hypersensitivity. This review will briefly discuss novel findings that have shed light on the cellular mechanisms of neuron-glial interactions in persistent pain. Recent findings Two fundamental questions related to neuron-glial interactions in pain mechanisms have been addressed: 1) what are the signals that lead to central glial activation after injury and 2) how glial cells affect CNS neuronal activity and promote hyperalgesia. Summary Evidence indicates that central glial activation depends on nerve inputs from the site of injury and release of chemical mediators. Hematogenous immune cells may migrate/infiltrate to the brain and circulating inflammatory mediators may penetrate the blood brain barrier to participate in central glial responses to injury. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β released from glia may facilitate pain transmission through its coupling to neuronal glutamate receptors. This bidirectional neuron-glial signaling plays a key role in glial activation, cytokine production and the initiation and maintenance of hyperalgesia. Recognition of the contribution of the mutual neuron-glial interactions to central sensitization and hyperalgesia prompts new treatment for chronic pain. PMID:18784481

  9. DNA Microarray Analysis of Anaerobic Methanosarcina Barkeri Reveals Responses to Heat Shock and Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Nie, Lei; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-04-08

    Summary Methanosarcina barkeri can grow only under strictly anoxic conditions because enzymes in methane formation pathways of are very oxygen sensitive. However, it has been determined that M. barkeri can survive oxidative stress. To obtain further knowledge of cellular changes in M. barkeri in responsive to oxidative and other environmental stress, a first whole-genome M. barkeri oligonucleotide microarray was constructed according to the draft genome sequence that contains 5072 open reading frames (ORFs) and was used to investigate the global transcriptomic response of M. barkeri to oxidative stress and heat shock. The result showed that 552 genes in the M. barkeri genome were responsive to oxidative stress, while 177 genes responsive to heat-shock, respectively using a cut off of 2.5 fold change. Among them, 101 genes were commonly responsive to both environmental stimuli. In addition to various house-keeping genes, large number of functionally unknown genes (38-57% of total responsive genes) was regulated by both stress conditions. The result showed that the Hsp60 (GroEL) system, which was previously thought not present in archaea, was up-regulated and may play important roles in protein biogenesis in responsive to heat shock in M. barkeri. No gene encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, nonspecific peroxidases or thioredoxin reductase was differentially expressed when subjected to oxidative stress. Instead, significant downregulation of house-keeping genes and up-regulation of genes encoding transposase was found in responsive to oxidative stress, suggesting that M. barkeri may be adopting a passive protective mechanism by slowing down cellular activities to survive the stress rather than activating a means against oxidative stress.

  10. Visceral hypersensitive rats share common dysbiosis features with irritable bowel syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ming; Li, Xia; Long, Xin; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Cong, Ying-Zi; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate gut microbial dysbiosis in two visceral hypersensitive models in comparison with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and to explore the extent to which these models capture the dysbiosis of IBS patients. METHODS: Visceral hypersensitivity was developed using the maternal separation (MS) rat model and post-inflammatory rat model. The visceral sensitivity of the model groups and control group was evaluated using the abdominal withdraw reflex score and electromyography in response to graded colorectal distention. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene from fecal samples was pyrosequenced and analyzed. The correlation between dysbiosis in the microbiota and visceral hypersensitivity was calculated. Positive findings were compared to sequencing data from a published human IBS cohort. RESULTS: Dysbiosis triggered by neonatal maternal separation was lasting but not static. Both MS and post-inflammatory rat fecal microbiota deviated from that of the control rats to an extent that was larger than the co-housing effect. Two short chain fatty acid producing genera, Fusobacterium and Clostridium XI, were shared by the human IBS cohort and by the maternal separation rats and post-inflammatory rats, respectively, to different extents. Fusobacterium was significantly increased in the MS group, and its abundance positively correlated with the degree of visceral hypersensitivity. Porphyromonadaceae was a protective biomarker for both the rat control group and healthy human controls. CONCLUSION: The dysbiosis MS rat model and the post-inflammatory rat model captured some of the dysbiosis features of IBS patients. Fusobacterium, Clostridium XI and Porphyromonadaceae were identified as targets for future mechanistic research. PMID:27298564

  11. Stromal transcriptional profiles reveal hierarchies of anatomical site, serum response and disease and identify disease specific pathways.

    PubMed

    Filer, Andrew; Antczak, Philipp; Parsonage, Greg N; Legault, Holly M; O'Toole, Margot; Pearson, Mark J; Thomas, Andrew M; Scheel-Toellner, Dagmar; Raza, Karim; Buckley, Christopher D; Falciani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fibroblasts in persistent inflammatory arthritis have been suggested to have parallels with cancer growth and wound healing, both of which involve a stereotypical serum response programme. We tested the hypothesis that a serum response programme can be used to classify diseased tissues, and investigated the serum response programme in fibroblasts from multiple anatomical sites and two diseases. To test our hypothesis we utilized a bioinformatics approach to explore a publicly available microarray dataset including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and normal synovial tissue, then extended those findings in a new microarray dataset representing matched synovial, bone marrow and skin fibroblasts cultured from RA and OA patients undergoing arthroplasty. The classical fibroblast serum response programme discretely classified RA, OA and normal synovial tissues. Analysis of low and high serum treated fibroblast microarray data revealed a hierarchy of control, with anatomical site the most powerful classifier followed by response to serum and then disease. In contrast to skin and bone marrow fibroblasts, exposure of synovial fibroblasts to serum led to convergence of RA and OA expression profiles. Pathway analysis revealed three inter-linked gene networks characterising OA synovial fibroblasts: Cell remodelling through insulin-like growth factors, differentiation and angiogenesis through _3 integrin, and regulation of apoptosis through CD44. We have demonstrated that Fibroblast serum response signatures define disease at the tissue level, and that an OA specific, serum dependent repression of genes involved in cell adhesion, extracellular matrix remodelling and apoptosis is a critical discriminator between cultured OA and RA synovial fibroblasts.

  12. Human cortical responses to slow and fast binaural beats reveal multiple mechanisms of binaural hearing.

    PubMed

    Ross, Bernhard; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Thompson, Jessica; Jamali, Shahab; Fujioka, Takako

    2014-10-15

    When two tones with slightly different frequencies are presented to both ears, they interact in the central auditory system and induce the sensation of a beating sound. At low difference frequencies, we perceive a single sound, which is moving across the head between the left and right ears. The percept changes to loudness fluctuation, roughness, and pitch with increasing beat rate. To examine the neural representations underlying these different perceptions, we recorded neuromagnetic cortical responses while participants listened to binaural beats at a continuously varying rate between 3 Hz and 60 Hz. Binaural beat responses were analyzed as neuromagnetic oscillations following the trajectory of the stimulus rate. Responses were largest in the 40-Hz gamma range and at low frequencies. Binaural beat responses at 3 Hz showed opposite polarity in the left and right auditory cortices. We suggest that this difference in polarity reflects the opponent neural population code for representing sound location. Binaural beats at any rate induced gamma oscillations. However, the responses were largest at 40-Hz stimulation. We propose that the neuromagnetic gamma oscillations reflect postsynaptic modulation that allows for precise timing of cortical neural firing. Systematic phase differences between bilateral responses suggest that separate sound representations of a sound object exist in the left and right auditory cortices. We conclude that binaural processing at the cortical level occurs with the same temporal acuity as monaural processing whereas the identification of sound location requires further interpretation and is limited by the rate of object representations.

  13. Transgenic AEQUORIN reveals organ-specific cytosolic Ca2+ responses to anoxia and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedbrook, J. C.; Kronebusch, P. J.; Borisy, G. G.; Trewavas, A. J.; Masson, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    Using the transgenic AEQUORIN system, we showed that the cotyledons and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings developed a biphasic luminescence response to anoxia, indicating changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels. A fast and transient luminescence peak occurred within minutes of anoxia, followed by a second, prolonged luminescence response that lasted 1.5 to 4 h. The Ca2+ channel blockers Gd3+, La3+, and ruthenium red (RR) partially inhibited the first response and promoted a larger and earlier second response, suggesting different origins for these responses. Both Gd3+ and RR also partially inhibited anaerobic induction of alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression. However, although anaerobic alcohol dehydrogenase gene induction occurred in seedlings exposed to water-agar medium and in roots, related luminescence responses were absent. Upon return to normoxia, the luminescence of cotyledons, leaves, and roots dropped quickly, before increasing again in a Gd3+, La3+, ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid-, and RR-sensitive fashion.

  14. Colony-specific investigations reveal highly variable responses among individual corals to ocean acidification and warming.

    PubMed

    Kavousi, Javid; Reimer, James Davis; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    As anthropogenic climate change is an ongoing concern, scientific investigations on its impacts on coral reefs are increasing. Although impacts of combined ocean acidification (OA) and temperature stress (T) on reef-building scleractinian corals have been studied at the genus, species and population levels, there are little data available on how individual corals respond to combined OA and anomalous temperatures. In this study, we exposed individual colonies of Acropora digitifera, Montipora digitata and Porites cylindrica to four pCO2-temperature treatments including 400 μatm-28 °C, 400 μatm-31 °C, 1000 μatm-28 °C and 1000 μatm-31 °C for 26 days. Physiological parameters including calcification, protein content, maximum photosynthetic efficiency, Symbiodinium density, and chlorophyll content along with Symbiodinium type of each colony were examined. Along with intercolonial responses, responses of individual colonies versus pooled data to the treatments were investigated. The main results were: 1) responses to either OA or T or their combination were different between individual colonies when considering physiological functions; 2) tolerance to either OA or T was not synonymous with tolerance to the other parameter; 3) tolerance to both OA and T did not necessarily lead to tolerance of OA and T combined (OAT) at the same time; 4) OAT had negative, positive or no impacts on physiological functions of coral colonies; and 5) pooled data were not representative of responses of all individual colonies. Indeed, the pooled data obscured actual responses of individual colonies or presented a response that was not observed in any individual. From the results of this study we recommend improving experimental designs of studies investigating physiological responses of corals to climate change by complementing them with colony-specific examinations.

  15. The role for decorin in delayed-type hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Daniela G.; Mohamed, Negia A.; Bocian, Carla; Stadtmann, Anika; Hermann, Sven; Schäfers, Klaus; Schäfers, Michael; Iozzo, Renato V.; Zarbock, Alexander; Götte, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, regulates extracellular matrix organization, growth factor-mediated signaling and cell growth. As decorin may directly modulate immune responses, we investigated its role in a mouse model of contact allergy (oxazolone-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity, DTH) in decorin-deficient (Dcn−/−) and wild-type mice. Dcn−/− mice showed a reduced ear swelling 24 hours after oxazolone treatment with a concurrent attenuation of leukocyte infiltration. These findings were corroborated by reduced glucose metabolism as determined by 18FDG uptake in positron emission tomography scans. Unexpectedly, polymorphonuclear leukocyte numbers in Dcn−/− blood vessels were significantly increased, accompanied by large numbers of flattened leukocytes adherent to the endothelium. Intravital microscopy, flow chamber and static adhesion assays confirmed increased adhesion and reduced transmigration of Dcn−/− leukocytes. Circulating blood neutrophil numbers were significantly increased in Dcn−/− mice 24 hours after DTH elicitation, but only moderately increased in wild-type mice. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was reduced, while syndecan-1 and ICAM-1 were overexpressed in inflamed ears of Dcn−/− mice, indicating that these adhesion molecules could be responsible for increased leukocyte adhesion. Decorin treatment of endothelial cells increased tyrosine phosphorylation and reduced syndecan-1 expression. Notably, absence of syndecan-1 in a genetic background lacking decorin rescued the attenuated DTH phenotype of Dcn−/− mice. Collectively, these results implicate a role for decorin in mediating DTH responses by influencing polymorphonuclear leukocyte attachment to the endothelium. This occurs via two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms that involve a direct anti-adhesive effect on polymorphonuclear leukocytes and a negative regulation of ICAM-1 and syndecan-1 expression. PMID:22043007

  16. Repeated diffusion MRI reveals earliest time point for stratification of radiotherapy response in brain metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Faisal; Johannesen, Helle H.; Geertsen, Poul; Hansen, Rasmus H.

    2017-04-01

    An imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment response potentially provides a non-invasive tool for better prognostics and individualized management of the disease. Radiotherapy (RT) response is generally related to changes in gross tumor volume manifesting months later. In this prospective study we investigated the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), perfusion fraction and pseudo diffusion coefficient derived from diffusion weighted MRI as potential early biomarkers for radiotherapy response of brain metastases. It was a particular aim to assess the optimal time point for acquiring the DW-MRI scan during the course of treatment, since to our knowledge this important question has not been addressed directly in previous studies. Twenty-nine metastases (N  =  29) from twenty-one patients, treated with whole-brain fractionated external beam RT were analyzed. Patients were scanned with a 1 T MRI system to acquire DW-, T2*W-, T2W- and T1W scans, before start of RT, at each fraction and at follow up two to three months after RT. The DW-MRI parameters were derived using regions of interest based on high b-value images (b  =  800 s mm‑2). Both volumetric and RECIST criteria were applied for response evaluation. It was found that in non-responding metastases the mean ADC decreased and in responding metastases it increased. The volume based response proved to be far more consistently predictable by the ADC change found at fraction number 7 and later, compared to the linear response (RECIST). The perfusion fraction and pseudo diffusion coefficient did not show sufficient prognostic value with either response assessment criteria. In conclusion this study shows that the ADC derived using high b-values may be a reliable biomarker for early assessment of radiotherapy response for brain metastases patients. The earliest response stratification can be achieved using two DW-MRI scans, one pre-treatment and one at treatment day 7–9 (equivalent to 21

  17. Schisandra chinensis reverses visceral hypersensitivity in a neonatal-maternal separated rat model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Ming; Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Paul S P; Wu, Justin C Y; Lao, Lixing; Fong, Harry H S; Sung, Joseph J Y; Berman, Brian; Yeung, John H K; Che, Chun-Tao

    2012-03-15

    Visceral hypersensitivity is an important characteristic feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study evaluated the effect of Schisandra chinensis on visceral hyperalgesia induced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS) in an IBS rat model. The visceromotor responses to colorectal balloon distension (CRD) were measured by abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) and electromyographic (EMG) activities. NMS control rats (receiving vehicle) underwent aggravated visceral pain in response to CRD as compared to normal rats, evidenced by the reduced pain threshold, enhanced AWR scores and EMG responses. Treatment with a 70% ethanol extract of S. chinensis (0.3g/kg and 1.5g/kg/day) for 7 days resulted in an increase in the pain threshold (NMS control: 19.1±1.0mmHg vs low-dose: 24.8±1.3mmHg and high-dose: 25.2±1.8mmHg, p<0.01), and abolished the elevated AWR and EMG responses to CRD in NMS rats (AUC values of EMG response curve were: 1952±202 in NMS control group vs 1074±90 in low-dose group and 1145±92 in high-dose group, p<0.001), indicating that S. chinensis could reverse the visceral hypersensitivity induced by early-life stress event. The result of ELSA measurement shows that the elevated serotonin (5-HT) level in the distal colon of NMS rats returned to normal level after treatment with S. chinensis. Moreover, the increase in pain threshold in rats treated with S. chinensis was associated with a decline of the mRNA level of 5-HT(3) receptor in the distal colon. All available results demonstrate that S. chinensis can reverse visceral hypersensitivity induced by neonatal-maternal separation, and the effect may be mediated through colonic 5-HT pathway in the rat.

  18. Schisandra chinensis reverses visceral hypersensitivity in a neonatal-maternal separated rat model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jia-Ming; Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Paul SP; Wu, Justin CY; Lao, Lixing; Fong, Harry HS; Sung, Joseph JY; Berman, Brian; Yeung, John HK; Che, Chun-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is an important characteristic feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study evaluated the effect of Schisandra chinensis on visceral hyperalgesia induced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS) in an IBS rat model. The visceromotor responses to colorectal balloon distension (CRD) were measured by abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) and electromyographic activities (EMG). NMS control rats (receiving vehicle) underwent aggravated visceral pain in response to CRD as compared to normal rats, evidenced by the reduced pain threshold, enhanced AWR scores and EMG responses. Treatment with a 70% ethanol extract of S. chinensis (0.3 g/kg and 1.5 g/kg per day) for seven days resulted in an increase in the pain threshold (NMS control: 19.1 ± 1.0 mmHg vs low-dose: 24.8 ± 1.3 mmHg and high-dose: 25.2 ± 1.8 mmHg, p<0.01), and abolished the elevated AWR and EMG responses to CRD in NMS rats (AUC values of EMG response curve were: 1952 ± 202 in NMS control group vs 1074 ± 90 in low-dose group and 1145 ± 92 in high-dose group, p<0.001), indicating that S. chinensis could reverse the visceral hypersensitivity induced by early-life stress event. The result of ELSA measurement shows that the elevated serotonin (5-HT) level in the distal colon of NMS rats returned to normal level after treatment with S. chinensis. Moreover, the increase in pain threshold in rats treated with S. chinensis was associated with a decline of the mRNA level of 5-HT3 receptor in the distal colon. All available results demonstrate that S. chinensis can reverse visceral hypersensitivity induced by neonatal-maternal separation, and the effect may be mediated through colonic 5-HT pathway in the rat. PMID:22230486

  19. Differential Coexpression Analysis Reveals Extensive Rewiring of Arabidopsis Gene Coexpression in Response to Pseudomonas syringae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhenhong; Dong, Xiaobao; Li, Zhi-Gang; He, Fei; Zhang, Ziding

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense responses to pathogens involve massive transcriptional reprogramming. Recently, differential coexpression analysis has been developed to study the rewiring of gene networks through microarray data, which is becoming an important complement to traditional differential expression analysis. Using time-series microarray data of Arabidopsis thaliana infected with Pseudomonas syringae, we analyzed Arabidopsis defense responses to P. syringae through differential coexpression analysis. Overall, we found that differential coexpression was a common phenomenon of plant immunity. Genes that were frequently involved in differential coexpression tend to be related to plant immune responses. Importantly, many of those genes have similar average expression levels between normal plant growth and pathogen infection but have different coexpression partners. By integrating the Arabidopsis regulatory network into our analysis, we identified several transcription factors that may be regulators of differential coexpression during plant immune responses. We also observed extensive differential coexpression between genes within the same metabolic pathways. Several metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis light reactions, exhibited significant changes in expression correlation between normal growth and pathogen infection. Taken together, differential coexpression analysis provides a new strategy for analyzing transcriptional data related to plant defense responses and new insights into the understanding of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:27721457

  20. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-07-14

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly "domain general" conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects.

  1. Stem transcriptome reveals mechanisms to reduce the energetic cost of shade-avoidance responses in tomato.

    PubMed

    Cagnola, Juan Ignacio; Ploschuk, Edmundo; Benech-Arnold, Tomás; Finlayson, Scott A; Casal, Jorge José

    2012-10-01

    While the most conspicuous response to low red/far-red ratios (R:FR) of shade light perceived by phytochrome is the promotion of stem growth, additional, less obvious effects may be discovered by studying changes in the stem transcriptome. Here, we report rapid and reversible stem transcriptome responses to R:FR in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). As expected, low R:FR promoted the expression of growth-related genes, including those involved in the metabolism of cell wall carbohydrates and in auxin responses. In addition, genes involved in flavonoid synthesis, isoprenoid metabolism, and photosynthesis (dark reactions) were overrepresented in clusters showing reduced expression in the stem of low R:FR-treated plants. Consistent with these responses, low R:FR decreased the levels of flavonoids (anthocyanin, quercetin, kaempferol) and selected isoprenoid derivatives (chlorophyll, carotenoids) in the stem and severely reduced the photosynthetic capacity of this organ. However, lignin contents were unaffected. Low R:FR reduced the stem levels of jasmonate, which is a known inducer of flavonoid synthesis. The rate of stem respiration was also reduced in low R:FR-treated plants, indicating that by downsizing the stem photosynthetic apparatus and the levels of photoprotective pigments under low R:FR, tomato plants reduce the energetic cost of shade-avoidance responses.

  2. Environmentally induced changes in correlated responses to selection reveal variable pleiotropy across a complex genetic network.

    PubMed

    Sikkink, Kristin L; Reynolds, Rose M; Cresko, William A; Phillips, Patrick C

    2015-05-01

    Selection in novel environments can lead to a coordinated evolutionary response across a suite of characters. Environmental conditions can also potentially induce changes in the genetic architecture of complex traits, which in turn could alter the pattern of the multivariate response to selection. We describe a factorial selection experiment using the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei in which two different stress-related phenotypes (heat and oxidative stress resistance) were selected under three different environmental conditions. The pattern of covariation in the evolutionary response between phenotypes or across environments differed depending on the environment in which selection occurred, including asymmetrical responses to selection in some cases. These results indicate that variation in pleiotropy across the stress response network is highly sensitive to the external environment. Our findings highlight the complexity of the interaction between genes and environment that influences the ability of organisms to acclimate to novel environments. They also make clear the need to identify the underlying genetic basis of genetic correlations in order understand how patterns of pleiotropy are distributed across complex genetic networks.

  3. [Heat-responsive mechanisms in plants revealed by proteomic analysis: A review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-ming; Zhao, Qi; Yin, Ze-peng; Xu, Chen-xi; Wang, Quan-hua; Dai, Shao-jun

    2015-08-01

    Heat stress is a major abiotic stress that limits plant growth and productivity. In recent years, proteomic investigations provide more information for understanding the sophisticated heat-responsive molecular mechanism in plants at systematic biological level. The heat-responsive proteomic patterns in several plants, i. e., model plants (Arabidopsis thaliana), staple food crops (soybean, rice and wheat), heat-tolerant plants (Agrostis stolonifera, Portulaca oleracea, and Carissa spinarum), grapevine, Populus euphratica, Medicago sativa, and Pinellia ternate, were reported. A total of 838 heat-responsive proteins have been identified in these studies. Among them, 534 proteins were induced and the expression of 304 proteins was reduced in plants under heat stress. In this paper, the diverse protein patterns in plants under various heat stress conditions (30-45 °C for 0-10 d) were analyzed integratively. This provided new evidences and clues for further interpreting the signaling and metabolic pathways, e.g., signaling, stress and defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, photosynthesis, transcription, protein synthesis and fate, membrane and transport, in heat-responsive networks, and laid a foundation for a holistic understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanism in plants in response to heat stress.

  4. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses reveal a response mechanism to cold stress in Santalum album L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Niu, Meiyun; Li, Mingzhi; He, Chunmei; Zhao, Jinhui; Zeng, Songjun; Duan, Jun; Ma, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    Santalum album L. (Indian sandalwood) is an economically important plant species because of its ability to produce highly valued perfume oils. Little is known about the mechanisms by which S. album adapts to low temperatures. In this study, we obtained 100,445,724 raw reads by paired-end sequencing from S. album leaves. Physiological and transcriptomic changes in sandalwood seedlings exposed to 4 °C for 0–48 h were characterized. Cold stress induced the accumulation of malondialdehyde, proline and soluble carbohydrates, and increased the levels of antioxidants. A total of 4,424 differentially expressed genes were responsive to cold, including 3,075 cold-induced and 1,349 cold-repressed genes. When cold stress was prolonged, there was an increase in the expression of cold-responsive genes coding for transporters, responses to stimuli and stress, regulation of defense response, as well as genes related to signal transduction of all phytohormones. Candidate genes in the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway were identified, eight of which were significantly involved in the cold stress response. Gene expression analyses using qRT-PCR showed a peak in the accumulation of SaCBF2 to 4, 50-fold more than control leaves and roots following 12 h and 24 h of cold stress, respectively. The CBF-dependent pathway may play a crucial role in increasing cold tolerance. PMID:28169358

  5. [Salmonella typhi vaccination response study reveals defective antibody production selective IgA deficiency patient].

    PubMed

    Pleguezuelo, Daniel E; Gianelli, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD) is the most prevalent immunodeficiency worldwide, progressing to common variable immunodeficiency only in few reported cases. We report the case of a Spanish female aged 22 and diagnosed of selective IgA deficiency, a long history of bronchitis, several episodes of pneumonia, bilateral bronchiectasis, normal IgG, IgM, IgG subclasses, and detectable pre-vaccination IgG antibodies against tetanus toxoid and Streptococcus pneumoniae. She was evaluated in our clinic in order to rule out common variable immunodeficiency. We observed good antibody response to tetanus toxoid, absence of circulating switched memory B cells, decreased response to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens and a lack of response to Salmonella typhi vaccine. Most SIgAD patients presents with upper respiratory tract infections or mild diarrhea. Those with lower tract infections, pneumonia or untreatable diarrhea should follow B-cell subpopulations' study and antibody response to vaccines. Absence of response to Salmonella typhi vaccine allowed us to expose the defective antibody production.

  6. Response of swine spleen to Streptococcus suis infection revealed by transcription analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Astract Background Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2), a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent, has greatly challenged global public health. Systematical information about host immune response to the infection is important for understanding the molecular mechanism of diseases. Results 104 and 129 unique genes were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated in the spleens of pigs infected with SS2 (WT). The up-regulated genes were principally related to immune response, such as genes involved in inflammatory response; acute-phase/immune response; cell adhesion and response to stress. The down-regulated genes were mainly involved in transcription, transport, material and energy metabolism which were representative of the reduced vital activity of SS2-influenced cells. Only a few genes showed significantly differential expression when comparing avirulent isogenic strain (ΔHP0197) with mock-infected samples. Conclusions Our findings indicated that highly pathogenic SS2 could persistently induce cytokines mainly by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) pathway, and the phagocytosis-resistant bacteria could induce high level of cytokines and secrete toxins to destroy deep tissues, and cause meningitis, septicaemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, and arthritis. PMID:20937098

  7. Remifentanil administration reveals biphasic phMRI temporal responses in rat consistent with dynamic receptor regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Christina H.; Greve, Doug N.; Dai, Guangping; Marota, John J.A.; Mandeville, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    Many pharmacological stimuli influence multiple neurotransmitter systems in the brain, and the dynamics of the functional brain response can vary regionally. In this study, the temporal response of cerebral blood volume (CBV) was employed to spatially segment cerebral effects due to infusion of a potent mu-opioid receptor agonist. Repeated intravenous injection of 10 ug/kg remifentanil in rats caused reproducible regional positive, negative, and biphasic changes in CBV. Three temporal processes were identified in the cerebral response and analyzed within the framework of the general linear model. Firstly, a slow component identified CBV changes that were almost exclusively negative, and the spatial distribution was similar to the inhibition produced by morphine (200 ug/kg). The largest CBV reductions occurred in caudate, accumbens, ventral hippocampus, cingulate, and piriform cortex. Secondly, a more rapid temporal component corresponded primarily with a regional distribution of positive changes in CBV consistent with GABAergic inhibition of hippocampal interneurons and associated projections. Thirdly, a response with the dynamics of mean arterial blood pressure correlated positively with CBV changes in hypothalamus, consistent with a central mechanism for control of blood pressure. We propose that the dominant source of the temporal variance in signal is dynamic modulation of drug targets by receptor endocytosis, an established effect in vitro. These results suggest that the temporal response of fMRI signal reflects underlying neurobiological processes, so that temporal decomposition strategies may aid interpretation of pharmacological mechanisms by identifying interconnected regions or those associated with common neural targets and processes. PMID:17169578

  8. Arabidopsis thaliana model system reveals a continuum of responses to root endophyte colonization.

    PubMed

    Mandyam, Keerthi G; Roe, Judith; Jumpponen, Ari

    2013-04-01

    We surveyed the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana microscopically for its ability to form dark septate endophyte (DSE) symbioses in field, greenhouse, and laboratory studies. The laboratory studies were also used to estimate host growth responses to 34 Periconia macrospinosa and four Microdochium sp. isolates. Consistent with broad host range observed in previous experiments, field-, greenhouse-, and laboratory-grown A. thaliana were colonized by melanized inter- and intracellular hyphae and microsclerotia or chlamydospores indicative of DSE symbiosis. Host responses to colonization were variable and depended on the host ecotype. On average, two A. thaliana accessions (Col-0 and Cvi-0) responded negatively, whereas one (Kin-1) was unresponsive, a conclusion consistent with our previous analyses with forbs native to the field site where the fungi originate. Despite the average negative responses, examples of positive responses were also observed, a conclusion also congruent with earlier studies. Our results suggest that A. thaliana has potential as a model for more detailed dissection of the DSE symbiosis. Furthermore, our data suggest that host responses are controlled by variability in the host and endophyte genotypes.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of bagging-treated red Chinese sand pear peels reveals light-responsive pathway functions in anthocyanin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Songling; Sun, Yongwang; Qian, Minjie; Yang, Fengxia; Ni, Junbei; Tao, Ruiyan; Li, Lin; Shu, Qun; Zhang, Dong; Teng, Yuanwen

    2017-12-01

    Bagging is an efficient method to improve fruit colour development. This work reported a transcriptome analysis using bagging-treated red Chinese sand pear peels. In total, 8,870 differentially expressed genes were further analysed by a weighted gene co-expression network analysis and early-, middle- and late light-responsive genes were identified. An annotation analysis revealed several pathways involved in the different responsive stages. The presence of LONG HYPOCOTLY 5, CRY-DASH and a CONSTANS-like transcription factors among the early light-responsive genes indicated the pivotal role of light, especially blue light, in the biological changes that occurred after bag removal. Other light-responsive transcription factors were also identified from the three light-responsive stages. In addition, the light-responsive pattern of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes differed among the biosynthetic steps. Although yeast-one hybrid assay showed that most of the structural genes were regulated by PpMYB10, their different temporal expressive pattern suggested that besides PpMYB10, other light-responsive transcriptional factors were also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. In summary, our transcriptome analysis provides knowledge of the transcriptional regulatory network operating during light responses, which results in anthocyanin accumulation and other significant physiological changes in red Chinese sand pear peels after bag removal.

  10. Stochastic kinetic model of two component system signalling reveals all-or-none, graded and mixed mode stochastic switching responses.

    PubMed

    Kierzek, Andrzej M; Zhou, Lu; Wanner, Barry L

    2010-03-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are prevalent signal transduction systems in bacteria that control innumerable adaptive responses to environmental cues and host-pathogen interactions. We constructed a detailed stochastic kinetic model of two component signalling based on published data. Our model has been validated with flow cytometry data and used to examine reporter gene expression in response to extracellular signal strength. The model shows that, depending on the actual kinetic parameters, TCSs exhibit all-or-none, graded or mixed mode responses. In accordance with other studies, positively autoregulated TCSs exhibit all-or-none responses. Unexpectedly, our model revealed that TCSs lacking a positive feedback loop exhibit not only graded but also mixed mode responses, in which variation of the signal strength alters the level of gene expression in induced cells while the regulated gene continues to be expressed at the basal level in a substantial fraction of cells. The graded response of the TCS changes to mixed mode response by an increase of the translation initiation rate of the histidine kinase. Thus, a TCS is an evolvable design pattern capable of implementing deterministic regulation and stochastic switches associated with both graded and threshold responses. This has implications for understanding the emergence of population diversity in pathogenic bacteria and the design of genetic circuits in synthetic biology applications. The model is available in systems biology markup language (SBML) and systems biology graphical notation (SBGN) formats and can be used as a component of large-scale biochemical reaction network models.

  11. Small bowel transplantation induces adrenergic hypersensitivity in ileal longitudinal smooth muscle in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, N; Balsiger, B M; Anding, W J; Duenes, J A; Sarr, M G

    2000-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the effects of small bowel transplantation on contractility of longitudinal muscle in the rat ileum. Full-thickness longitudinal muscle strips from four groups of rats (naive controls, sham-operated controls, and 1 week and 8 weeks after syngeneic orthotopic small bowel transplantation) were studied in vitro. Neither baseline contractility nor response to neural blockade (tetrodotoxin) or adrenergic/cholinergic blockade differed among the groups. Although the dose response to the cholinergic agonist bethanechol and to nitric oxide did not differ among groups, the ED50 (negative log of concentration giving half-maximal effect) for the adrenergic agonist norepinephrine was increased l week and 8 weeks after transplantation, indicating a hypersensitivity response not blocked by tetrodotoxin. Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory responses to electrical field stimulation were of greater amplitude and occurred at lesser frequencies (>/=5 Hz) 1 week after small bowel transplantation, but returned to control values 8 weeks postoperatively. These inhibitory responses were blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NMMA but not by methylene blue, a nonspecific inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Small bowel transplantation induces a persistent adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity at the muscle and appears to upregulate, at least transiently, other inhibitory mechanisms mediated by neural release of nitric oxide. Small bowel transplantation does not alter muscle response to cholinergic pathways. These alterations in smooth muscle contractility may affect gut function early after clinical small bowel transplantation.

  12. Pupillary responses reveal infants' discrimination of facial emotions independent of conscious perception.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Sarah; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Sensitive responding to others' emotions is essential during social interactions among humans. There is evidence for the existence of subcortically mediated emotion discrimination processes that occur independent of conscious perception in adults. However, only recently work has begun to examine the development of automatic emotion processing systems during infancy. In particular, it is unclear whether emotional expressions impact infants' autonomic nervous system regardless of conscious perception. We examined this question by measuring pupillary responses while subliminally and supraliminally presenting 7-month-old infants with happy and fearful faces. Our results show greater pupil dilation, indexing enhanced autonomic arousal, in response to happy compared to fearful faces regardless of conscious perception. Our findings suggest that, early in ontogeny, emotion discrimination occurs independent of conscious perception and is associated with differential autonomic responses. This provides evidence for the view that automatic emotion processing systems are an early-developing building block of human social functioning.

  13. Replication of Human Norovirus RNA in Mammalian Cells Reveals Lack of Interferon Response

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Lin; Murakami, Kosuke; Broughman, James R.; Lay, Margarita K.; Guix, Susana; Tenge, Victoria R.; Atmar, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNoVs), named after the prototype strain Norwalk virus (NV), are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Studies on the related murine norovirus (MNV) have demonstrated the importance of an interferon (IFN) response in host control of virus replication, but this remains unclear for HuNoVs. Despite the lack of an efficient cell culture infection system, transfection of stool-isolated NV RNA into mammalian cells leads to viral RNA replication and virus production. Using this system, we show here that NV RNA replication is sensitive to type I (α/β) and III (interleukin-29 [IL-29]) IFN treatment. However, in cells capable of a strong IFN response to Sendai virus (SeV) and poly(I·C), NV RNA replicates efficiently and generates double-stranded RNA without inducing a detectable IFN response. Replication of HuNoV genogroup GII.3 strain U201 RNA, generated from a reverse genetics system, also does not induce an IFN response. Consistent with a lack of IFN induction, NV RNA replication is enhanced neither by neutralization of type I/III IFNs through neutralizing antibodies or the soluble IFN decoy receptor B18R nor by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) or interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) in the IFN induction pathways. In contrast to other positive-strand RNA viruses that block IFN induction by targeting MAVS for degradation, MAVS is not degraded in NV RNA-replicating cells, and an SeV-induced IFN response is not blocked. Together, these results indicate that HuNoV RNA replication in mammalian cells does not induce an IFN response, suggesting that the epithelial IFN response may play a limited role in host restriction of HuNoV replication. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to lack of an efficient cell culture system and robust small-animal model, little is known about the innate host defense to these

  14. Common garden experiments reveal uncommon responses across temperatures, locations, and species of ants.

    PubMed

    Pelini, Shannon L; Diamond, Sarah E; Maclean, Heidi; Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R

    2012-12-01

    Population changes and shifts in geographic range boundaries induced by climate change have been documented for many insect species. On the basis of such studies, ecological forecasting models predict that, in the absence of dispersal and resource barriers, many species will exhibit large shifts in abundance and geographic range in response to warming. However, species are composed of individual populations, which may be subject to different selection pressures and therefore may be differentially responsive to environmental change. Asystematic responses across populations and species to warming will alter ecological communities differently across space. Common garden experiments can provide a more mechanistic understanding of the causes of compositional and spatial variation in responses to warming. Such experiments are useful for determining if geographically separated populations and co-occurring species respond differently to warming, and they provide the opportunity to compare effects of warming on fitness (survivorship and reproduction). We exposed colonies of two common ant species in the eastern United States, Aphaenogaster rudis and Temnothorax curvispinosus, collected along a latitudinal gradient from Massachusetts to North Carolina, to growth chamber treatments that simulated current and projected temperatures in central Massachusetts and central North Carolina within the next century. Regardless of source location, colonies of A. rudis, a keystone seed disperser, experienced high mortality and low brood production in the warmest temperature treatment. Colonies of T. curvispinosus from cooler locations experienced increased mortality in the warmest rearing temperatures, but colonies from the warmest locales did not. Our results suggest that populations of some common species may exhibit uniform declines in response to warming across their geographic ranges, whereas other species will respond differently to warming in different parts of their geographic

  15. Distractibility and hypersensitivity. Two behavior factors in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Victor, J B; Halverson, C F

    1975-01-01

    The present paper reports on the development of a modified problem checklist for use in normal samples of elementary school children. The two factors, Hypersensitivity and Distractibility, replicated over male and female samples. Hypersensitivity showed a significant grade effect, with a decrease between the first and second grade for both boys and girls. In contrast, boys scored higher than girls on Distractibility and there were no grade differences. Convergent validitiy data from peer judgments, in-class activity level, physical fitness measures, standardized achievement scores, and a comparison with another teacher judgment are presented. In addition, three Behavioral Problem Checklist (Quay & Peterson, 1967) dimensions, Conduct Problem, Personality Problem, and Inadequacy--Immaturity, were developed and their relationships to the independent measures, as well as to the new dimensions, are presented. The pattern of correlations of Distractibility was quite similar for boys and girls, with both being rated as Mean-Noisy by their peers. The findings for Hypersensitivity were somewhat weaker. Distractibility and Conduct Problem scores reflected a similar pattern of correlations with other variables; in a like manner, Hypersensitivity and Personality Problem scores reflected a similar pattern of correlations with other variables. Distractibility was related to an increased activity level and Hypersensitivity was related to a decreased activity level in young boys. The total number of behavior problems was related to a decrease in activity level for young girls. Older Distractible and Hypersensitive girls showed different patterns of activity level. It is proposed that problem behavior is more complex for older children and that Distractibility may be less influenced by the usual socialization process of school than is Hypersensitivity and may have some congenital antecedents.

  16. Trancriptomic profiling revealed the signatures of acute immune response in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiajie; Li, Chao; Ao, Qiuwei; Tan, Yun; Luo, Yongju; Guo, Yafen; Lan, Ganqiu; Jiang, Hesheng; Gan, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus iniae is the most significant bacterial disease of tilapia throughout the world, and commonly leads to tremendous economic losses. In contrast to other important fish species, our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of tilapia in response to bacterial infection is still limited. Here, therefore, we utilized RNA-seq to first profiling of host responses in tilapia spleen following S. iniae infection at transcriptome level. A total of 223 million reads were obtained and assembled into 192,884 contigs with average length 844 bp. Gene expression analysis between control and infected samples at 5 h, 50 h, and 7 d revealed 1475 differentially expressed genes. In particular, the differentially expressed gene set was dramatically induced as early as 5 h, and rapidly declined to basal levels at 50 h. Enrichment and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed the centrality of the pathogen attachment and recognition, cytoskeletal rearrangement and immune activation/inflammation in the pathogen entry and host inflammatory responses. Understanding of these responses can highlight mechanisms of tilapia host defense, and expand our knowledge of teleost immunology. Our findings will set a foundation of valuable biomarkers for future individual, strain, and family-level studies to evaluate immune effect of vaccine and individual response in host defense mechanisms to S. iniae infection, to select disease resistant families and strains.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lpsi reveals impairment in the root responses to local phosphate availability.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Athikkattuvalasu S; Jain, Ajay; Nagarajan, Vinay K; Sinilal, Bhaskaran; Sahi, Shivendra V; Raghothama, Kashchandra G

    2014-04-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency triggers local Pi sensing-mediated inhibition of primary root growth and development of root hairs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Generation of activation-tagged T-DNA insertion pools of Arabidopsis expressing the luciferase gene (LUC) under high-affinity Pi transporter (Pht1;4) promoter, is an efficient approach for inducing genetic variations that are amenable for visual screening of aberrations in Pi deficiency responses. Putative mutants showing altered LUC expression during Pi deficiency were identified and screened for impairment in local Pi deficiency-mediated inhibition of primary root growth. An isolated mutant was analyzed for growth response, effects of Pi deprivation on Pi content, primary root growth, root hair development, and relative expression levels of Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes, and those implicated in starch metabolism and Fe and Zn homeostasis. Pi deprived local phosphate sensing impaired (lpsi) mutant showed impaired primary root growth and attenuated root hair development. Although relative expression levels of PSR genes were comparable, there were significant increases in relative expression levels of IRT1, BAM3 and BAM5 in Pi deprived roots of lpsi compared to those of the wild-type. Better understanding of molecular responses of plants to Pi deficiency or excess will help to develop suitable remediation strategies for soils with excess Pi, which has become an environmental concern. Hence, lpsi mutant will serve as a valuable tool in identifying molecular mechanisms governing adaptation of plants to Pi deficiency.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis reveals distinct resistant response by physcion and chrysophanol against cucumber powdery mildew

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanping; Tian, Shilin; Yang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    Physcion and chrysophanol induce defense responses against powdery mildew in cucumbers. The combination of these two compounds has synergistic interaction against the disease. We performed RNA-seq on cucumber leaf samples treated with physcion and chrysophanol alone and with their combination. We generated 17.6 Gb of high-quality sequencing data (∼2 Gb per sample) and catalogued the expressions profiles of 12,293 annotated cucumber genes in each sample. We identified numerous differentially expressed genes that exhibited distinct expression patterns among the three treatments. The gene expression patterns of the Chr and Phy treatments were more similar to each other than to the Phy × Chr treatment. The Phy × Chr treatment induced the highest number of differentially expressed genes. This dramatic transcriptional change after Phy × Chr treatment leaves reflects that physcion combined with chrysophanol treatment was most closely associated with induction of disease resistance. The analysis showed that the combination treatment caused expression changes of numerous defense-related genes. These genes have known or potential roles in structural, chemical and signaling defense responses and were enriched in functional gene categories potentially responsible for cucumber resistance. These results clearly demonstrated that disease resistance in cucumber leaves was significantly influenced by the combined physcion and chrysophanol treatment. Thus, physcion and chrysophanol are appealing candidates for further investigation of the gene expression and associated regulatory mechanisms related to the defense response. PMID:27231648

  19. Thymus transcriptome reveals novel pathways in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, H.; Liu, P.; Nolan, L. K.; Lamont, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause significant morbidity in chickens. The thymus provides the essential environment for T cell development; however, the thymus transcriptome has not been examined for gene expression in response to APEC infection. An improved understanding of the host genomic response to APEC infection could inform future breeding programs for disease resistance and APEC control. We therefore analyzed the transcriptome of the thymus of birds challenged with APEC, contrasting susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Thousands of genes were differentially expressed in birds of the 5-day post infection (dpi) challenged-susceptible group vs. 5 dpi non-challenged, in 5 dpi challenged-susceptible vs. 5 dpi challenged-resistant birds, as well as in 5 dpi vs. one dpi challenged-susceptible birds. The Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was the major innate immune response for birds to respond to APEC infection. Moreover, lysosome and cell adhesion molecules pathways were common mechanisms for chicken response to APEC infection. The T-cell receptor signaling pathway, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathways were significantly activated in resistant birds to resist APEC infection. These results provide a comprehensive assessment of global gene networks and biological functionalities of differentially expressed genes in the thymus under APEC infection. These findings provide novel insights into key molecular genetic mechanisms that differentiate host resistance from susceptibility in this primary lymphoid tissue, the thymus. PMID:27466434

  20. Metrics other than potency reveal systematic variation in responses to cancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Honarnejad, Saman; Heiser, Laura M.; Gray, Joe W.; Sorger, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale analysis of cellular response to anti-cancer drugs typically focuses on variation in potency (IC50) assuming that it is the most important difference between effective/ineffective drugs or sensitive/resistant cells. We took a multi-parametric approach involving analysis of the slope of the dose-response curve (HS), the area under the curve (AUC) and the maximum effect (Emax). We found that some of these parameters vary systematically with cell line and others with drug class. For cell-cycle inhibitors, Emax often but not always correlated with cell proliferation rate. For drugs targeting the Akt/PI3K/mTOR pathway dose-response curves were unusually shallow. Classical pharmacology has no ready explanation for this phenomenon but single-cell analysis showed that it correlated with significant and heritable cell-to-cell variability in the extent of target inhibition. We conclude that parameters other than potency should be considered in the comparative analysis of drug response, particularly at clinically relevant concentrations near and above IC50. PMID:24013279

  1. Metabolic Responses of Poplar to Apripona germari (Hope) as Revealed by Metabolite Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qu, Liangjian; Zhang, Liwei; Hu, Jianjun; Tang, Fang; Lu, Mengzhu

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed biochemical responses to adapt to biotic stress. To characterize the resistance mechanisms in poplar tree against Apripona germari, comprehensive metabolomic changes of poplar bark and xylem in response to A. germari infection were examined by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC–TOF/MS). It was found that, four days after feeding (stage I), A. germari infection brought about changes in various metabolites, such as phenolics, amino acids and sugars in both bark and xylem. Quinic acid, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and salicin might play a role in resistance response in bark, while coniferyl alcohol, ferulic acid and salicin contribute resistance in xylem. At feeding stages II when the larvae fed for more than one month, fewer defensive metabolites were induced, but levels of many intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were reduced, especially in xylem. These results suggested that the defense strategies against A. germari might depend mainly on the early defense responses in poplar. In addition, it was found that bark and xylem in infected trees accumulated higher levels of salicylic acid and 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively, these tissues displaying a direct and systemic reaction against A. germari. However, the actual role of the two metabolites in A. germari-induced defense in poplar requires further investigation. PMID:27331808

  2. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Al Stress Response in Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenxian; Xiong, Conghui; Yan, Longfeng; Zhang, Zhengshe; Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Yajie; Liu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa is the most extensively cultivated forage legume, yet most alfalfa cultivars are not aluminum tolerant, and the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to understand how alfalfa responds to Al stress by identifying and analyzing Al-stress-responsive genes in alfalfa roots at the whole-genome scale. The transcriptome changes in alfalfa roots under Al stress for 4, 8, or 24 h were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing platforms. A total of 2464 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and most were up-regulated at early (4 h) and/or late (24 h) Al exposure time points rather than at the middle exposure time point (8 h). Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the DEGs involved in ribosome, protein biosynthesis, and process, the citrate cycle, membrane transport, and hormonal regulation were preferentially enriched and regulated. Biosynthesis inhibition and signal transduction downstream of auxin- and ethylene-mediated signals occur during alfalfa responses to root growth inhibition. The internal Al detoxification mechanisms play important roles in alfalfa roots under Al stress. These findings provide valuable information for identifying and characterizing important components in the Al signaling network in alfalfa and enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress. PMID:28217130

  3. The pupil response reveals increased listening effort when it is difficult to focus attention

    PubMed Central

    Koelewijn, Thomas; de Kluiver, Hilde; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that prior knowledge about where, when, and who is going to talk improves speech intelligibility. How related attentional processes affect cognitive processing load has not been investigated yet. In the current study, three experiments investigated how the pupil dilation response is affected by prior knowledge of target speech location, target speech onset, and who is going to talk. A total of 56 young adults with normal hearing participated. They had to reproduce a target sentence presented to one ear while ignoring a distracting sentence simultaneously presented to the other ear. The two sentences were independently masked by fluctuating noise. Target location (left or right ear), speech onset, and talker variability were manipulated in separate experiments by keeping these features either fixed during an entire block or randomized over trials. Pupil responses were recorded during listening and performance was scored after recall. The results showed an improvement in performance when the location of the target speech was fixed instead of randomized. Additionally, location uncertainty increased the pupil dilation response, which suggests that prior knowledge of location reduces cognitive load. Interestingly, the observed pupil responses for each condition were consistent with subjective reports of listening effort. We conclude that communicating in a dynamic environment like a cocktail party (where participants in competing conversations move unpredictably) requires substantial listening effort because of the demands placed on attentional processes. PMID:25732724

  4. The pupil response reveals increased listening effort when it is difficult to focus attention.

    PubMed

    Koelewijn, Thomas; de Kluiver, Hilde; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Zekveld, Adriana A; Kramer, Sophia E

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that prior knowledge about where, when, and who is going to talk improves speech intelligibility. How related attentional processes affect cognitive processing load has not been investigated yet. In the current study, three experiments investigated how the pupil dilation response is affected by prior knowledge of target speech location, target speech onset, and who is going to talk. A total of 56 young adults with normal hearing participated. They had to reproduce a target sentence presented to one ear while ignoring a distracting sentence simultaneously presented to the other ear. The two sentences were independently masked by fluctuating noise. Target location (left or right ear), speech onset, and talker variability were manipulated in separate experiments by keeping these features either fixed during an entire block or randomized over trials. Pupil responses were recorded during listening and performance was scored after recall. The results showed an improvement in performance when the location of the target speech was fixed instead of randomized. Additionally, location uncertainty increased the pupil dilation response, which suggests that prior knowledge of location reduces cognitive load. Interestingly, the observed pupil responses for each condition were consistent with subjective reports of listening effort. We conclude that communicating in a dynamic environment like a cocktail party (where participants in competing conversations move unpredictably) requires substantial listening effort because of the demands placed on attentional processes.

  5. Starvation stress during larval development reveals predictive adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of organisms exhibit developmental plasticity that results in differences in adult morphology, physiology or behavior. This variation in the phenotype, called “Predictive Adaptive Response (PAR),” gives a selective advantage in an adult's environment if the adult experiences environments s...

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties “GHA” and “XK,” respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  8. Dynamics of the yeast transcriptome during wine fermentation reveals a novel fermentation stress response

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Virginia D.; Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Erasmus, Daniel; van der Merwe, George K.; Brumm, Jochen; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Bryan, Jennifer; van Vuuren, Hennie J. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, genome-wide expression analyses were used to study the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to stress throughout a 15-day wine fermentation. Forty per cent of the yeast genome significantly changed expression levels to mediate long-term adaptation to fermenting grape must. Among the genes that changed expression levels, a group of 223 genes was identified, which was designated as fermentation stress response (FSR) genes that were dramatically induced at various points during fermentation. FSR genes sustain high levels of induction up to the final time point and exhibited changes in expression levels ranging from four- to 80-fold. The FSR is novel; 62% of the genes involved have not been implicated in global stress responses and 28% of the FSR genes have no functional annotation. Genes involved in respiratory metabolism and gluconeogenesis were expressed during fermentation despite the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Ethanol, rather than nutrient depletion, seems to be responsible for entry of yeast cells into the stationary phase. PMID:18215224

  9. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals the Role of Protein Arginine Phosphorylation in the Bacterial Stress Response*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Andreas; Trentini, Débora Broch; Spiess, Silvia; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Ammerer, Gustav; Mechtler, Karl; Clausen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging protein modification implicated in the general stress response of Gram-positive bacteria. The modification is mediated by the arginine kinase McsB, which phosphorylates and inactivates the heat shock repressor CtsR. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometric approach accounting for the peculiar chemical properties of phosphoarginine. The improved methodology was used to analyze the dynamic changes in the Bacillus subtilis arginine phosphoproteome in response to different stress situations. Quantitative analysis showed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the YwlE arginine phosphatase accumulated a strikingly large number of arginine phosphorylations (217 sites in 134 proteins), however only a minor fraction of these sites was increasingly modified during heat shock or oxidative stress. The main targets of McsB-mediated arginine phosphorylation comprise central factors of the stress response system including the CtsR and HrcA heat shock repressors, as well as major components of the protein quality control system such as the ClpCP protease and the GroEL chaperonine. These findings highlight the impact of arginine phosphorylation in orchestrating the bacterial stress response. PMID:24263382

  10. TRPV1, but not TRPA1, in primary sensory neurons contributes to cutaneous incision-mediated hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanisms underlying postoperative pain remain poorly understood. In rodents, skin-only incisions induce mechanical and heat hypersensitivity similar to levels observed with skin plus deep incisions. Therefore, cutaneous injury might drive the majority of postoperative pain. TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels are known to mediate inflammatory and nerve injury pain, making them key targets for pain therapeutics. These channels are also expressed extensively in cutaneous nerve fibers. Therefore, we investigated whether TRPA1 and TRPV1 contribute to mechanical and heat hypersensitivity following skin-only surgical incision. Results Behavioral responses to mechanical and heat stimulation were compared between skin-incised and uninjured, sham control groups. Elevated mechanical responsiveness occurred 1 day post skin-incision regardless of genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1. To determine whether functional changes in TRPA1 occur at the level of sensory neuron somata, we evaluated cytoplasmic calcium changes in sensory neurons isolated from ipsilateral lumbar 3–5 DRGs of skin-only incised and sham wild type (WT) mice during stimulation with the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde. There were no changes in the percentage of neurons responding to cinnamaldehyde or in their response amplitudes. Likewise, the subpopulation of DRG somata retrogradely labeled specifically from the incised region of the plantar hind paw showed no functional up-regulation of TRPA1 after skin-only incision. Next, we conducted behavior tests for heat sensitivity and found that heat hypersensitivity peaked at day 1 post skin-only incision. Skin incision-induced heat hypersensitivity was significantly decreased in TRPV1-deficient mice. In addition, we conducted calcium imaging with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. DRG neurons from WT mice exhibited sensitization to TRPV1 activation, as more neurons (66%) from skin-incised mice responded to capsaicin compared to controls (46%), and the

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Host Response to Giardia duodenalis Infection Reveals Redundant Mechanisms for Parasite Control

    PubMed Central

    Tako, Ernest A.; Hassimi, Maryam F.; Li, Erqiu; Singer, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The immune system has numerous mechanisms that it can use to combat pathogens and eliminate infections. Nevertheless, studies of immune responses often focus on single pathways required for protective responses. We applied microarray analysis of RNA in order to investigate the types of immune responses produced against infection with the intestinal pathogen Giardia duodenalis. Infection with G. duodenalis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease in the world. While several potential antiparasitic effector mechanisms, including complement lysis, nitric oxide (NO), and α-defensin peptides, have been shown to inhibit parasite growth or kill Giardia in vitro, studies in vivo have thus far shown clear roles only for antibody and mast cell responses in parasite control. A total of 96 transcripts were identified as being upregulated or repressed more than 2-fold in the small intestine 10 days following infection. Microarray data were validated using quantitative PCR. The most abundant category of transcripts was antibody genes, while the most highly induced transcripts were all mast cell proteases. Among the other induced transcripts was matrix metalloprotease 7 (Mmp7), the protease responsible for production of mature α-defensins in mice. While infections in Mmp7-deficient mice showed only a small increase in parasite numbers, combined