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Sample records for hypertrophic contaminated shallow

  1. Phytoplankton biodiversity changes in a shallow tropical reservoir during the hypertrophication process.

    PubMed

    Crossetti, L O; Bicudo, D C; Bicudo, C E M; Bini, L M

    2008-11-01

    Study aimed at evaluating phytoplankton biodiversity changes in a shallow tropical reservoir during its hypertrophication process. Samplings were carried out monthly during 8 consecutive years (1997-2004) in 5 depths. Conspicuous limnological changes in the reservoir derived from the presence and/or removal of the water hyacinth, characterized 3 different phases. Over the time series, reservoir changed from a typical polymictic eutrophic system to hypertrophic one, leading to a reduction of approximately 70 species (average 37%). Chlorophyceae accounted for the highest species richness (46%) among all algal classes and strictly followed total species richness variation. Internal feedback mechanisms intensification over phase III clearly promoted the sharp decrease in biodiversity. Highest decreases, mainly during springs, occurred simultaneously to the highest Cyanobacteria blooms. Increased turbidity due to heavy phytoplankton blooms suppressed all other algal groups, so that at the end of the present study even Cyanobacteria species richness decreased. Total dissolved phosphorous was included in most of the best selected models used to analyze the temporal patterns in species richness loss. Present data show that biodiversity loss following trophic change was not a single dimension of a single factor but, rather, a template of factors (e.g. light, stability) co-varying in consequence of the larger levels of biomass supported in the reservoir.

  2. The relationships between certain physical and chemical variables and the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages of two inlets of a shallow hypertrophic lake with different nutrient inputs.

    PubMed

    Celik, Kemal; Ongun, Tugba

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between water discharge, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS) conductivity, turbidity, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages of two inlets of a shallow hypertrophic lake (Lake Manyas, Turkey) were studied between January 2003 and December 2004. The results showed that different levels of water discharge, turbidity, conductivity, TDS and nutrients could lead to the development of significantly different phytoplankton assemblages in inlets of shallow hypertrophic lakes. The multiple regression analysis identified water discharge, turbidity and water temperature as the driving factors behind the dynamics of phytoplankton biovolume in the studied inlets. The first two axes of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) explained 78% of the total variance in dominant phytoplankton species at Siğirci Inlet and 88% at Kocaçay Inlet, respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between water discharge, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, pH, TDS, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages of two inlets of the shallow hypertrophic Lake Manyas, Turkey by means of multivariate statistical analysis.

  3. Circumventing shallow air contamination in Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Parai, Rita; Tucker, Jonathan; Middleton, Jennifer; Langmuir, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Noble gases in mantle-derived basalts provide a rich portrait of mantle degassing and surface-interior volatile exchange. However, the ubiquity of shallow-level air contamination frequently obscures the mantle noble gas signal. In a majority of samples, shallow air contamination dominates the noble gas budget. As a result, reconstructing the variability in heavy noble gas mantle source compositions and inferring the history of deep recycling of atmospheric noble gases is difficult. For example, in the gas-rich popping rock 2ΠD43, 129Xe/130Xe ratios reach 7.7±0.23 in individual step-crushes, but the bulk composition of the sample is close to air (129Xe/130Xe of 6.7). Here, we present results from experiments designed to elucidate the source of shallow air contamination in MORBs. Step-crushes were carried out to measure He, Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic compositions on two aliquots of a depleted popping glass that was dredged from between the Kane and Atlantis Fracture Zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in May 2012. One aliquot was sealed in ultrapure N2 after dredge retrieval, while the other aliquot was left exposed to air for 3.5 years. The bulk 20Ne/22Ne and 129Xe/130Xe ratios measured in the aliquot bottled in ultrapure N2 are 12.3 and 7.6, respectively, and are nearly identical to the estimated mantle source values. On the other hand, step crushes in the aliquot left exposed to air for several years show Ne isotopic compositions that are shifted towards air, with a bulk 20Ne/22Ne of 11.5; the bulk 129Xe/130Xe, however, was close to 7.6. These results indicate that lighter noble gases exchange more efficiently between the bubbles trapped in basalt glass and air, suggesting a diffusive or kinetic mechanism for the incorporation of the shallow air contamination. Importantly, in Ne-Ar or Ar-Xe space, step-crushes from the bottled aliquot display a trend that can be easily fit with a simple two-component hyperbolic mixing between mantle and atmosphere noble gases. Step

  4. Modeling contamination of shallow unconfined aquifers through infiltration beds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostendorf, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    We model the transport of a simply reactive contaminant through an infiltration bed and underlying shallow, one-dimensional, unconfined aquifer with a plane, steeply sloping bottom in the assumed absence of dispersion and downgradient dilution. The effluent discharge and ambient groundwater flow under the infiltration beds are presumed to form a vertically mixed plume marked by an appreciable radial velocity component in the near field flow region. The near field analysis routes effluent contamination as a single linear reservoir whose output forms a source plane for the one-dimensional, far field flow region downgradient of the facility; the location and width of the source plane reflect the relative strengths of ambient flow and effluent discharge. We model far field contaminant transport, using an existing method of characteristics solution with frame speeds modified by recharge, bottom slope, and linear adsorption, and concentrations reflecting first-order reaction kinetics. The near and far field models simulate transport of synthetic detergents, chloride, total nitrogen, and boron in a contaminant plume at the Otis Air Force Base sewage treatment plant in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, with reasonable accuracy.

  5. Modeling Contamination of Shallow Unconfined Aquifers Through Infiltration Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, D. W.

    1986-03-01

    We model the transport of a simply reactive contaminant through an infiltration bed and underlying shallow, one-dimensional, unconfined aquifer with a plane, steeply sloping bottom in the assumed absence of dispersion and downgradient dilution. The effluent discharge and ambient groundwater flow under the infiltration beds are presumed to form a vertically mixed plume marked by an appreciable radial velocity component in the near field flow region. The near field analysis routes effluent contamination as a single linear reservoir whose output forms a source plane for the one-dimensional, far field flow region downgradient of the facility; the location and width of the source plane reflect the relative strengths of ambient flow and effluent discharge. We model far field contaminant transport, using an existing method of characteristics solution with frame speeds modified by recharge, bottom slope, and linear adsorption, and concentrations reflecting first-order reaction kinetics. The near and far field models simulate transport of synthetic detergents, chloride, total nitrogen, and boron in a contaminant plume at the Otis Air Force Base sewage treatment plant in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, with reasonable accuracy.

  6. Arsenic contamination of Ronphibun residents associated with uses of arsenic-contaminated shallow-well water other than drinking.

    PubMed

    Oshikawa, Shoko; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2007-10-01

    High levels of urinary arsenic have been reported among residents of an area of southern Thailand where many households have shallow wells heavily contaminated with arsenic. However, the finding that very few of the residents in this area have used contaminated shallow-well water for drinking or cooking in the last 10 years prompted this investigation. The aim was to identify the uses of shallow-well water by adult residents that were related to a positive association between shallow-well water and urinary arsenic levels. Information on shallow-well water use for all personal and domestic purposes was obtained and arsenic levels of household shallow-well water and urine (after refraining from seafood for 2 days) were measured. Urinary and shallow-well water arsenic levels were strongly positively associated among residents who regularly used shallow-well water for bathing (including washing face, hair, hands and feet) but not among residents regularly using arsenic-safe water for bathing or regularly using shallow-well water for other purposes, such as brushing teeth, domestic cleaning or washing food and utensils. The findings suggest that appreciable transdermal absorption of arsenic is possible and that successful abatement of human contamination with arsenic may require the provision of arsenic-safe water, not only for consumption but also for personal hygiene purposes.

  7. Using H2O2 treatments for the degradation of cyanobacteria and microcystins in a shallow hypertrophic reservoir.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Theodoti; Kormas, Konstantinos; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Laspidou, Chrysi

    2016-11-01

    Toxins produced by cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems constitute a serious health risk worldwide for humans that may use the affected water bodies for recreation, drinking water, and/or irrigation. Cyanotoxins have also been deemed responsible for loss of animal life in many places around the world. This paper explores the effect of H2O2 treatments on cyanobacteria and microcystins in natural samples from a hypertrophic reservoir in microcosm experiments. According to the results, cyanobacteria were more easily affected by H2O2 than by other phytoplanktonic groups. This was shown by the increase in the fractions of chlorophyll-a (a proxy for phytoplankton) and chlorophyll-b (a proxy for green algae) over total phytoplankton pigments and the decrease in the fraction of phycocyanin (a proxy for cyanobacteria) over total phytoplankton pigments. Thus, while an overall increase in phytoplankton occurred, a preferential decrease in cyanobacteria was observed with H2O2 treatments over a few hours. Moreover, significant degradation of total microcystins was observed under H2O2 treatments, while more microcystins were degraded when UV radiation was used in combination with H2O2. The combination of H2O2 and ultraviolet (UV) treatment in natural samples resulted in total microcystin concentrations that were below the World Health Organization limit for safe consumption of drinking water of 1 μg/L. Although further investigation into the effects of H2O2 addition on ecosystem function must be performed, our results show that the application of H2O2 could be a promising method for the degradation of microcystins in reservoirs and the reduction of public health risks related to the occurrence of harmful algal blooms.

  8. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  9. Predicting geogenic arsenic contamination in shallow groundwater of south Louisiana, United States.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ningfang; Winkel, Lenny H E; Johannesson, Karen H

    2014-05-20

    Groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As) threatens the health of more than 140 million people worldwide. Previous studies indicate that geology and sedimentary depositional environments are important factors controlling groundwater As contamination. The Mississippi River delta has broadly similar geology and sedimentary depositional environments to the large deltas in South and Southeast Asia, which are severely affected by geogenic As contamination and therefore may also be vulnerable to groundwater As contamination. In this study, logistic regression is used to develop a probability model based on surface hydrology, soil properties, geology, and sedimentary depositional environments. The model is calibrated using 3286 aggregated and binary-coded groundwater As concentration measurements from Bangladesh and verified using 78 As measurements from south Louisiana. The model's predictions are in good agreement with the known spatial distribution of groundwater As contamination of Bangladesh, and the predictions also indicate high risk of As contamination in shallow groundwater from Holocene sediments of south Louisiana. Furthermore, the model correctly predicted 79% of the existing shallow groundwater As measurements in the study region, indicating good performance of the model in predicting groundwater As contamination in shallow aquifers of south Louisiana.

  10. Fecal Contamination of Shallow Tubewells in Bangladesh Inversely Related to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The health risks of As exposure due to the installation of millions of shallow tubewells in the Bengal Basin are known, but fecal contamination of shallow aquifers has not systematically been examined. This could be a source of concern in densely populated areas with poor sanitation because the hydraulic travel time from surface water bodies to shallow wells that are low in As was previously shown to be considerably shorter than for shallow wells that are high in As. In this study, 125 tubewells 6−36 m deep were sampled in duplicate for 18 months to quantify the presence of the fecal indicator Escherichia coli. On any given month, E. coli was detected at levels exceeding 1 most probable number per 100 mL in 19−64% of all shallow tubewells, with a higher proportion typically following periods of heavy rainfall. The frequency of E. coli detection averaged over a year was found to increase with population surrounding a well and decrease with the As content of a well, most likely because of downward transport of E. coli associated with local recharge. The health implications of higher fecal contamination of shallow tubewells, to which millions of households in Bangladesh have switched in order to reduce their exposure to As, need to be evaluated. PMID:21226536

  11. Fecal contamination of shallow tubewells in Bangladesh inversely related to arsenic.

    PubMed

    van Geen, Alexander; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Akita, Yasuyuki; Alam, Md Jahangir; Culligan, Patricia J; Emch, Michael; Escamilla, Veronica; Feighery, John; Ferguson, Andrew S; Knappett, Peter; Layton, Alice C; Mailloux, Brian J; McKay, Larry D; Mey, Jacob L; Serre, Marc L; Streatfield, P Kim; Wu, Jianyong; Yunus, Mohammad

    2011-02-15

    The health risks of As exposure due to the installation of millions of shallow tubewells in the Bengal Basin are known, but fecal contamination of shallow aquifers has not systematically been examined. This could be a source of concern in densely populated areas with poor sanitation because the hydraulic travel time from surface water bodies to shallow wells that are low in As was previously shown to be considerably shorter than for shallow wells that are high in As. In this study, 125 tubewells 6-36 m deep were sampled in duplicate for 18 months to quantify the presence of the fecal indicator Escherichia coli. On any given month, E. coli was detected at levels exceeding 1 most probable number per 100 mL in 19-64% of all shallow tubewells, with a higher proportion typically following periods of heavy rainfall. The frequency of E. coli detection averaged over a year was found to increase with population surrounding a well and decrease with the As content of a well, most likely because of downward transport of E. coli associated with local recharge. The health implications of higher fecal contamination of shallow tubewells, to which millions of households in Bangladesh have switched in order to reduce their exposure to As, need to be evaluated.

  12. Brine contamination of shallow ground water and streams in the Brookhaven Oil Field, Lincoln County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrologic investigation to define areas of brine contamination in shallow freshwater aquifers commonly used for streams that drain the Brookhaven Oil Field, was conducted from October 1983 to September 1984. The Brookhaven Oil Field covers approximately 15 sq mi in northwestern Lincoln County, Mississippi. Since 1943, disposal of approximately 544.2 million barrels of brine pumped from the oil producing zone (lower part of the Tuscaloosa Formation) has contaminated the Citronelle aquifer, the Hattiesburg aquifers, and streams that drain the oil field. Approximately 5 sq mi of the shallow Citronelle aquifer contain water with chloride concentrations higher than normal for this area ( > 20 mg/L). Brine contamination has moved from the source laterally through the Citronelle aquifer to discharge into nearby streams and vertically into the underlying Hattiesburg aquifers. Contamination is most noticeable in Shaws Creek when streamflow originates primarily from groundwater inflow (approximately 87% of the time during the study). Additional study is required to define contaminant plumes, rates of groundwater movement and geohydrochemical reactions between the contaminant and aquifer materials. These data would allow accurate predictions of location, extent and degree of contamination in the study area. (Author 's abstract)

  13. In situ disinfection of sewage contaminated shallow groundwater: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Morgan M; Cooper, William J; Grant, Stanley B

    2011-11-01

    Sewage-contaminated shallow groundwater is a potential cause of beach closures and water quality impairment in marine coastal communities. In this study we set out to evaluate the feasibility of several strategies for disinfecting sewage-contaminated shallow groundwater before it reaches the coastline. The disinfection rates of Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci bacteria (ENT) were measured in mixtures of raw sewage and brackish shallow groundwater collected from a coastal community in southern California. Different disinfection strategies were explored, ranging from benign (aeration alone, and aeration with addition of brine) to aggressive (chemical disinfectants peracetic acid (PAA) or peroxymonosulfate (Oxone)). Aeration alone and aeration with brine did not significantly reduce the concentration of EC and ENT after 6 h of exposure, while 4-5 mg L(-1) of PAA or Oxone achieved >3 log reduction after 15 min of exposure. Oxone disinfection was more rapid at higher salinities, most likely due to the formation of secondary oxidants (e.g., bromine and chlorine) that make this disinfectant inappropriate for marine applications. Using a Lagrangian modeling framework, we identify several factors that could influence the performance of in-situ disinfection with PAA, including the potential for bacterial regrowth, and the non-linear dependence of disinfection rate upon the residence time of water in the shallow groundwater. The data and analysis presented in this paper provide a framework for evaluating the feasibility of in-situ disinfection of shallow groundwater, and elucidate several topics that warrant further investigation.

  14. Susceptibility of ground water to surface and shallow sources of contamination, Orange County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, the relative susceptibility of ground water in Orange County, North Carolina,to contamination from surface and shallow sources was evaluated. A geographic information system was used to build three county-wide layers--soil permeability, land use/land cover, and land-surface slope. The harmonic mean permeability of soil layers was used to estimate a location's capacity to transmit water through the soil. Values for each of these three factors were categorized and ranked from 1 to 10 according to relative potential for contamination. Each factor was weighted to reflect its relative potential contribution to ground-water contamination, then the factors were combined to create a relative susceptibility index. The relative susceptibility index was categorized to reflect lowest, low, moderate, high, and highest potential for ground-water contamination. The relative susceptibility index for about 12 percent of the area in Orange County was categorized as high or highest. The high and highest range areas have highly permeable soils, land cover or land-use activities that have a high contamination potential, and low to moderate slopes. Most of the county is within the moderate category of relative susceptibility to ground-water contamination. About 21 percent of the county is ranked as low or lowest relative susceptibility to ground-water contamination.

  15. Toxicological assessment of aquatic ecosystems: application to watercraft contaminants in shallow water environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Kemmish, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Recreational boating and personal watercraft use have the potential to adversely impact shallow water systems through contaminant release and physical disturbance of bottom sediments. These nearshore areas are often already degraded by surface runoff, municipal and industrial effluents, and other anthropogenic activities. For proper management, information is needed on the level of contamination and environmental quality of these systems. A number of field and laboratory procedures can be used to provide this much needed information. Contaminants, such as metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, entering aquatic environments generally attach to particulate matter that eventually settles and becomes incorporated into the bottom sediments. Because bottom sediments serve as a sink and as a source for contaminants, environmental assessments generally focus on this matrix. While contaminant residues in sediments and sediment pore waters can reflect environmental quality, characteristics of sediment (redox potential, sediment/pore-water chemistry, acid volatile sulfides, percent organic matter, and sediment particle size) influence their bioavailability and make interpretation of environmental significance difficult. Comparisons of contaminant concentrations in pore water (interstitial water) and sediment with water quality criteria and sediment quality guidelines, respectively, can provide insight into potential biological effects. Laboratory bioaccumulation studies and residue concentrations in resident or caged biota also yield information on potential biological impacts. The usefulness of these measurements may increase as data are developed relating in-situ concentrations, tissue residue levels, and biological responses. Exposure of test organisms in situ or to field-collected sediment and pore water are additional procedures that can be used to assess the biological effects of contaminants. A battery of tests using multi

  16. Natural attenuation model and biodegradation for 1,1,1-trichloroethane contaminant in shallow groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Zhu, Rui-Li; Yang, Jie; Li, Hui; Liu, Yong-Di; Lu, Shu-Guang; Luo, Qi-Shi; Lin, Kuang-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Natural attenuation is an effective and feasible technology for controlling groundwater contamination. This study investigated the potential effectiveness and mechanisms of natural attenuation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) contaminants in shallow groundwater in Shanghai by using a column simulation experiment, reactive transport model, and 16S rRNA gene clone library. The results indicated that the majority of the contaminant mass was present at 2–6 m in depth, the contaminated area was approximately 1000 m × 1000 m, and natural attenuation processes were occurring at the site. The effluent breakthrough curves from the column experiments demonstrated that the effectiveness of TCA natural attenuation in the groundwater accorded with the advection-dispersion-reaction equation. The kinetic parameter of adsorption and biotic dehydrochlorination of TCA was 0.068 m3/kg and 0.0045 d–1. The contamination plume was predicted to diminish and the maximum concentration of TCA decreased to 280 μg/L. The bacterial community during TCA degradation in groundwater belonged to Trichococcus, Geobacteraceae, Geobacter, Mucilaginibacter, and Arthrobacter. PMID:26379629

  17. Time-lapse 3-D seismic imaging of shallow subsurface contaminant flow.

    PubMed

    McKenna, J; Sherlock, D; Evans, B

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a physical modelling study outlining a technique whereby buoyant contaminant flow within water-saturated unconsolidated sand was remotely monitored utilizing the time-lapse 3-D (TL3-D) seismic response. The controlled temperature and pressure conditions, along with the high level of acquisition repeatability attainable using sandbox physical models, allow the TL3-D seismic response to pore fluid movement to be distinguished from all other effects. TL3-D seismic techniques are currently being developed to monitor hydrocarbon reserves within producing reservoirs in an endeavour to improve overall recovery. However, in many ways, sandbox models under atmospheric conditions more accurately simulate the shallow subsurface than petroleum reservoirs. For this reason, perhaps the greatest application for analogue sandbox modelling is to improve our understanding of shallow groundwater and environmental flow mechanisms. Two fluid flow simulations were conducted whereby air and kerosene were injected into separate water-saturated unconsolidated sand models. In both experiments, a base 3-D seismic volume was recorded and compared with six later monitor surveys recorded while the injection program was conducted. Normal incidence amplitude and P-wave velocity information were extracted from the TL3-D seismic data to provide visualization of contaminant migration. Reflection amplitudes displayed qualitative areal distribution of fluids when a suitable impedance contrast existed between pore fluids. TL3-D seismic reflection tomography can potentially monitor the change in areal distribution of fluid contaminants over time, indicating flow patterns. However, other research and this current work have not established a quantifiable relationship between either normal reflection amplitudes and attenuation and fluid saturation. Generally, different pore fluids will have unique seismic velocities due to differences in compressibility and density. The predictable

  18. Phreatophyte influence on reductive dechlorination in a shallow aquifer contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.W.; Jones, S.A.; Kuniansky, E.L.; Harvey, G.; Lollar, B.S.; Slater, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    Phytoremediation uses the natural ability of plants to degrade contaminants in groundwater. A field demonstration designed to remediate aerobic shallow groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene began in April 1996 with the planting of cottonwood trees, a short-rotation woody crop, over an approximately 0.2-ha area at the Naval Air Station, Fort Worth, Texas. The project was developed to demonstrate capture of contaminated groundwater and degradation of contaminants by phreatophytes. Analyses from samples of groundwater collected from July 1997 to June 1998 indicate that tree roots have the potential to create anaerobic conditions in the groundwater that will facilitate degradation of trichloroethene by microbially mediated reductive dechlorination. Organic matter from root exudates and decay of tree roots probably stimulate microbial activity, consuming dissolved oxygen. Dissolved oxygen concentrations, which varied across the site, were smallest near a mature cottonwood tree (about 20 years of age and 60 meters southwest of the cottonwood plantings) where degradation products of trichloroethene were measured. Oxidation of organic matter is the primary microbially mediated reaction occurring in the groundwater beneath the planted trees whereas near the mature cottonwood tree, data indicate that methanogenesis is the most probable reaction occurring. Reductive dechlorination in groundwater either is not occurring or is not a primary process away from the mature tree. Carbon-13 isotope values for trichloroethene are nearly identical at locations away from the mature tree, further confirming that dechlorination is not occurring at the site.

  19. Influence of Climate Extremes and Land Use on Fecal Contamination of Shallow Tubewells in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Yunus, Mohammad; Islam, Md Sirajul; Emch, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Climate extremes in conjunction with some land use practices are expected to have large impacts on water quality. However, the impacts of land use and climate change on fecal contamination of groundwater has not been well characterized. This work quantifies the influences of extreme weather events and land use practices on Escherichia coli presence and concentration in groundwater from 125 shallow wells, a dominant drinking water resource in rural Bangladesh, monitored over a 17 month period. The results showed that E. coli presence was significantly associated with the number of heavy rain days, developed land and areas with more surface water. These variables also had significant impacts on E. coli concentration, with risk ratios of 1.38 (95% CI = 1.16, 1.65), 1.07 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.09), and 1.02 (95% CI = 1.01, 1.03), respectively. Significant synergistic effects on E. coli presence and concentration were observed when land use and weather variables were combined. The findings suggest that climate extremes and land use practices, particularly urbanization, might promote fecal contamination of shallow well water, thus increasing the risk of diarrheal diseases.

  20. Shallow Groundwater Conveyance of Geologically Derived Contaminants to Urban Creeks in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Audra I; Hammond, Douglas E; von Bitner, Theodore; Buenning, Nikolaus H; Townsend-Small, Amy

    2015-08-18

    In California alone, there are currently over 200 instances on the EPA's list of impaired water bodies with unknown sources of excessive salinity or trace contaminants. This investigation focuses on Orange County, CA, a region that has undergone extensive hydrological modification, relies heavily on imported water for municipal supply, and has come under regulatory scrutiny for elevated TDS, sulfate, Cd, Ni, and Se. A survey of shallow groundwater weeps and springs, discharging directly to urban creeks, reveals high concentrations of TDS, sulfate, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, and Se that are often far in excess of water quality standards. Isotopic (δ(34)S and δ(18)O) and geochemical evidence indicate that the source of sulfate and TDS is weathering of sulfide minerals in the Capistrano Formation marine mudstone and dissolution of secondary minerals formed during past periods of sulfide oxidation, rather than anthropogenic inputs. The relative availability of carbonate minerals along the flow path appears to control pH, which then influences trace metal mobility to surface waters. Stable isotopes of H2O indicate that despite widespread use of imported water, meteoric recharge dominates shallow groundwater inputs with municipal sources contributing only 13-29% of discharge. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the hydrogeological setting to properly apportion contaminant sources and conveyances.

  1. Biophysical mechanisms of trichloroethene uptake and loss in baldcypress growing in shallow contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nietch, C.T.; Morris, J.T.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Wetland vegetation may be useful in the remediation of shallow contaminated aquifers. Mesocosm experiments were conducted to describe the regulatory mechanisms affecting trichloroethene (TCE) removal rates from groundwater by flood-adapted wetland trees at a contaminated site. TCE flux through baldcypress [Taxodium distichum (L) Rich] seedlings grown in glass- carboys decreased from day to night and from August to December. The diel fluctuation coincided with changes in leaf-level physiology, as the daytime flux was significantly correlated with net photosynthesis but not with respiration at night. A decrease in seedling water use from summer to winter explained the large seasonal difference in TCE flux. A simple model that simulates gas-phase diffusion through aerenchyma tested the importance of diffusion of TCE vapor from roots to the stem. The modeled diffusive flux was within 64% of the observed value during the winter but could only explain 8% of the summer flux. Seedling water use was a good estimator of flux during the summer. Hence, evapotranspiration (ET) in the summer may serve as a good predictor for the potential of TCE removal by baldcypress trees, while diffusive flux may better approximate potential contaminant loss in the winter.Wetland vegetation may be useful in the remediation of shallow contaminated aquifers. Mesocosm experiments were conducted to describe the regulatory mechanisms affecting trichloroethene (TCE) removal rates from groundwater by flood-adapted wetland trees at a contaminated site. TCE flux through baldcypress [Taxodium distichum (L) Rich] seedlings grown in glass-carboys decreased from day to night and from August to December. The diel fluctuation coincided with changes in leaf-level physiology, as the daytime flux was significantly correlated with net photosynthesis but not with respiration at night. A decrease in seedling water use from summer to winter explained the large seasonal difference in TCE flux. A simple model that

  2. Estimating Cleanup Times for Organic Contaminants in Shallow Coastal Plain Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, F. H.; Widdowson, M. A.; Casey, C.

    2001-05-01

    process and MNA with source remediation was the primary remediation strategy. Site models were developed to simulate sequential redox zones and the chlorinated ethene plumes in shallow aquifers from 1996-98, prior to source remediation, and data since source remediation (1998-2000). The results indicate that, if the contaminant source area is removed by in-situ oxidation technology, natural attenuation of the residual contaminant plume is capable of reaching remediation goals within ten years. Furthermore, this analysis indicates that the time of remediation associated with residual plumes is a dual function of ambient biodegradation rates, and rates of ground-water flow.

  3. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Management’s Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively. Field measurements at the T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, CAU 370, suggest that radioactive material may have migrated along a shallow ephemeral drainage that traverses the site (NNSA/NSO, 2009). (It is not entirely clear how contaminated soils got into their present location at the T-4 Site, but flow to the channel has been redirected and the contamination does not appear to be migrating at present.) Although DRI initially looked at the CAU 370 site, given that it could not be confirmed that migration of contamination into the channel was natural, an alternate study site was selected at CAU 550. Aerial surveys in selected portions of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) also suggest that radioactivity may be migrating along ephemeral channels in Areas 3, 8, 11, 18, and 25 (Colton, 1999). Figure 1 shows the results of a low-elevation aerial survey (Colton, 1999) in Area 8. The numbered markers in Figure 1 identify ground zero for three safety experiments conducted in 1958 [Oberon (number 1), Ceres (number 2), and Titania (number 4)] and a weapons effects test conducted in 1964, Mudpack (number 3). This survey suggests contaminants may be migrating down the ephemeral channels that traverse CAU 550. Note particularly the lobe of higher concentration extending southeastward at the south end of the high concentration area marked as number 3 in Figure 1. CAU 550 in Area 8 of the NNSS was selected for

  4. Application of artificial neural networks to assess pesticide contamination in shallow groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sahoo, G.B.; Ray, C.; Mehnert, E.; Keefer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network (BPNN) was developed and applied to predict pesticide concentrations in groundwater monitoring wells. Pesticide concentration data are challenging to analyze because they tend to be highly censored. Input data to the neural network included the categorical indices of depth to aquifer material, pesticide leaching class, aquifer sensitivity to pesticide contamination, time (month) of sample collection, well depth, depth to water from land surface, and additional travel distance in the saturated zone (i.e., distance from land surface to midpoint of well screen). The output of the neural network was the total pesticide concentration detected in the well. The model prediction results produced good agreements with observed data in terms of correlation coefficient (R = 0.87) and pesticide detection efficiency (E = 89%), as well as good match between the observed and predicted "class" groups. The relative importance of input parameters to pesticide occurrence in groundwater was examined in terms of R, E, mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), and pesticide occurrence "class" groups by eliminating some key input parameters to the model. Well depth and time of sample collection were the most sensitive input parameters for predicting the pesticide contamination potential of a well. This infers that wells tapping shallow aquifers are more vulnerable to pesticide contamination than those wells tapping deeper aquifers. Pesticide occurrences during post-application months (June through October) were found to be 2.5 to 3 times higher than pesticide occurrences during other months (November through April). The BPNN was used to rank the input parameters with highest potential to contaminate groundwater, including two original and five ancillary parameters. The two original parameters are depth to aquifer material and pesticide leaching class. When these two parameters were the only input parameters for the BPNN

  5. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of jet fuel contamination in a shallow aquifer, Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Frank; Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies show that microorganisms indigenous to the ground-water system underlying Tank Farm C, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, S.C., degrade petroleum hydrocarbons under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, sediments from the shallow aquifer underlying the site mineralized radiolabeled (14C) toluene to 14CO2 with first-order rate constants of about -0.29 per day. Sediments incubated under anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled toluene more slowly, with first-order rate constants of -0.001 per day. Although anaerobic rates of biodegradation are low, they are significant in the hydrologic and geochemical context of the site. Because of low hydraulic conductivities (1.9-9.1 feet per day) and low hydraulic gradients (about 0.004 feet per feet), ground water flows slowly (approximately 20 feet per year) at this site. Furthermore, aquifer sediments contain organic-rich peat that has a high sorptive capacity. Under these conditions, hydrocarbon contaminants have moved no further than 10 feet downgradient of the jet fuel free product. Digital solute-transport simulations, using the range of model parameters measured at the site, show that dissolved contaminants will be completely degraded before they are discharged from the aquifer into adjacent surface-water bodies. These results show that natural attenuation processes are containing the migration of soluble hydrocarbons, and that intrinsic bioremediation is a potentially effective remedial strategy at this site.

  6. Use of tree rings to investigate the onset of contamination of a shallow aquifer by chlorinated hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanosky, T.M.; Hansen, B.P.; Schening, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus velutina Lam.) growing over a shallow aquifer contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons were studied to determine if it was possible to estimate the approximate year that contamination began. The annual rings of some trees downgradient from the contaminant release site contained elevated concentrations of chloride possibly derived from dechlorination of contaminants. Additionally, a radial-growth decline began in these trees at approximately the same time that chloride became elevated. Growth did not decline in trees that contained smaller concentrations of chloride. The source of elevated chloride and the corresponding reductions in tree growth could not be explained by factors other than contamination. On the basis of tree-ring evidence alone, the release occurred in the late 1960s or early 1970s. Contaminant release at a second location apparently occurred in the mid- to late 1970s, suggesting that the area was used for disposal for at least 5 years and possibly longer. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Nitrate contamination of shallow aquifer groundwater in the central districts of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Garg, Sunil; Sondhi, S K; Taneja, D S

    2012-01-01

    The increasing trend in nitrogenous fertilizer use and extensive irrigation in the agricultural production system in Punjab, India are the reasons of contamination of groundwater, which is the main source of drinking water. A study was conducted to determine the extent of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) contamination of groundwater in the shallow aquifers of Ludhiana district. Pre and post-monsoon groundwater samples from hand pumps of 36 villages, located at or near the nodes of 6-12 km grid, were collected during the years 1998 and 1999 and were analyzed for NO3-N concentration. During the period of study, the NO3-N concentration in 34.7%, 37.5%, 15.3%, 11.1% and 1.4% of the groundwater samples was between 0-5 mg/L, 6-10 mg/L, 11-15 mg/L, 16-20 mg/L and 21-25 mg/L, respectively. Around 72% of the groundwater samples were safe and did not exceed the critical limit of NO3-N concentration (10 mg/L) prescribed for drinking water. Although, statistically no change in the mean NO3-N concentration level has been observed during the study period and is within the safe limit in most of the samples (72%), yet there is every possibility of further contamination of groundwater due to continuous high N-fertilizer use and over irrigation which necessitates judicious and efficient N-fertilizer and irrigation water use in Punjab (India).

  8. Arsenic concentrations and bacterial contamination in a pilot shallow dugwell program in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hira-Smith, Meera M; Yuan, Yan; Savarimuthu, Xavier; Liaw, Jane; Hira, Alpana; Green, Cynthia; Hore, Timir; Chakraborty, Protap; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Smith, Allan H

    2007-01-01

    Project Well has developed a pilot self-supporting community-based mitigation program to provide arsenic-safe water to the villagers of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Shallow concrete dugwells, less than 25 feet deep, that tap into an unconfined aquifer are constructed following stipulated guidelines. The design differs from the traditional dugwell in two major ways: (i) there is a layer of coarse sand in the annular space enveloping the outer wall of the concrete cylinder; and (ii) handpumps are used for water extraction to reduce the potential for bacterial contamination. Monitoring programs for arsenic and coliform bacteria in selected dugwells have been completed. In summer, when the water levels were low, the arsenic concentrations were measured. In 11 wells, measured over three years, the average water arsenic concentration was 29 micro gL-1. Two dugwells had high concentrations of arsenic (average 152 micro gL-1 and 61 micro gL-1), but the remaining nine dugwells had an overall average of 11 micro gL-1. Seasonal variation was assessed in five wells with monthly measurements and there was a direct relationship between increases in arsenic concentrations and decreases in the volume of water in the dugwells in the dry summer season. To control bacterial contamination, sodium hypochlorite solution containing 5% chlorine was applied once a month. In 2005, fecal coliform was undetected in 65% (n = 13) of the dugwells but detected at high levels in 35% (n = 7) of the dugwells. The program clearly reduced exposure to arsenic, but we conclude that further study of increases in arsenic concentrations in the dry season are warranted, as well as assessment of ways to more effectively control bacterial contamination such as more frequent chlorination, perhaps with lower doses on each occasion.

  9. Susceptibility of ground water to surface and shallow sources of contamination in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Hara, Charles G.

    1996-01-01

    Ground water, because of its extensive use in agriculture, industry, and public-water supply, is one of Mississippi's most important natural resources.  Ground water is the source for about 80 percent of the total freshwater used by the State's population (Solley and others, 1993).  About 2,600 Mgal/d of freshwater is withdrawn from aquifers in Mississippi (D.E. Burt, Jr., U.S. Geological Survey, oral commun., 1995).  Wells capable of yielding 200 gal/min of water with quality suitable for most uses can be developed nearly anywhere in the State (Bednar, 1988).  The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, and the Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Bureau of Plant Industry, conducted an investigation to evaluate the susceptibility of ground water to contamination from surgace and shallow sources in Mississippi.  A geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop and analyze statewide spatial data layers that contain geologic, hydrologic, physiographic, and cultural information.

  10. Occurrence of atrazine and degradates as contaminants of subsurface drainage and shallow groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Jayachandran, K.; Steinheimer, T.R.; Moorman, T.B.

    1994-03-01

    Atrazine is a commonly used herbicide in corn (Zea mays L.) growing areas of the USA. Because of its heavy usage, moderate persistence, and mobility in soil, monitoring of atrazine movement under field conditions is essential to assess its potential to contaminate groundwater. Concentrations of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and deethlatraaine (DEA) were measured in subsurface drainage and shallow groundwater beneath continuous, no-till corn. Water samples were collected from the subsurface drain (tile) outlets and suction lysimeters in the growing seasons of 1990 and 1991, and analyzed for atrazine and two principle degradates won solid-phase extraction and HPLC. In 1990, atrazine concentration ranged from 1.3 to 5.1{mu}g L{sup -1} in tile-drain water and from 0.5 to 20.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} in lysimeter water. In general, concentrations of parent and degradates in solution were atrazine > DEA > DIA. Lesser levels of atrazine were measured in 1991 from Plots 2 and 4; however, greater concentrations of atrazine (6.0-8.4 {mu}g L{sup -1}) were measured from plot 5. Throughout the two growing seasons, atrazine concentration in Plot 5 tile-drain water was greater than that of Plots 2 and 4, suggesting a preferential movement of atrazine. Concentrations of DIA and DEA ranged from 0.1 to 2.2 and 0.9 to 3.2 {mu}g L{sup -1} respectively, indicating that the degradation products by themselves or in combination with parent atrazine can exceed the maximum contaminant level (mcl) of 3 {mu}g L{sup -1} even though atrazine by itself may be <3 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) is an indicator of residence time in soil during transport of atrazine to groundwater. In Plots 2 and 4, DAR values for tile-drain water ranged from 0.43 to 2.70 and 0.50 to 2.66 respectively. By comparison, a DAR of 0.38 to 0.60 was observed in Plot 5, suggesting less residence time in the soil. 38 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Nitrate Contamination of Shallow Groundwater in The San Joaquin Valley - A Domestic Well Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, K.; King, A.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater quality has been, and continues to be, a major concern in agricultural areas where concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) exist or where fertilizers are applied. In the San Joaquin Valley, California, the majority of land-use is agricultural and groundwater contamination by nitrate is common in areas where many people rely on shallow domestic wells. Elevated levels of nitrate in drinking water have been linked to adverse health effects. This project sampled 200 domestic wells in Stanislaus, Merced, Tulare, and Kings Counties for nitrate as NO3-N. Wells were given a "dairy" or "non-dairy" designation depending on the distance to the nearest dairy corral or lagoon. This study found 46% of wells sampled in Tulare and Kings Counties and 42% of wells sampled in Stanislaus and Merced Counties exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/l). In Tulare and Kings Counties, non-dairy wells had a significantly greater mean nitrate value than dairy wells, and Tulare and Kings County non-dairy wells had a significantly greater mean nitrate value than Stanislaus and Merced non-dairy wells. Stanislaus and Merced County dairy wells had a significantly greater mean nitrate value than Tulare and Kings dairy wells. Tulare and Kings non-dairy wells may have greater nitrate values due to overlying row-crop and orchard land-use (commonly citrus) and the large quantities of fertilizers typically applied to these crops. Stanislaus and Merced Counties contain some of the densest CAFO areas of the state, possibly leading to Stanislaus and Merced dairy wells having higher nitrate concentrations than Tulare and Kings dairy wells.

  12. Microbial biomass in a shallow, urban aquifer contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons: analysis by phospholipid fatty acid content and composition.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, P D; Patterson, B M; Power, T R; Nichols, P D; Davis, G B

    1996-06-01

    The city of Perth contains a number of sites that have been contaminated with hydrocarbons due to leakage from petroleum underground storage tanks. Microbial biomass in groundwater and sediment cores from above and below the water table, and from within and outside a plume of hydrocarbon contamination, was examined using phospholipid fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Microbial numbers, calculated from the phospholipid content, ranged from 0.9 x 10(6) to 7.8 x 10(6) 'Escherichia coli equivalent cells' g-1 dry wt of sediment. Over 96% of the microbial biomass was attached to the sediment and the proportion of attached cells did not decrease within the plume of contaminants. The amount of biomass within aquifer samples seemed to be related more to the proximity of the rhizosphere to the shallow aquifer, and other unknown urban inputs, rather than to the effects of the plume of contaminants. Fatty acids common to many bacterial groups dominated within the plume, and as such the analyses gave limited insight into microbial community structure. For site assessment of intrinsic remediation of shallow aquifers in urban areas, estimates of microbial biomass may not provide information that is readily applicable to plume management.

  13. MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow FloridaKeys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retrievals of water quality parameters from satellite measurements over optically shallow waters have been problematic due to bottom contamination of the signals. As a result, large errors are associated with derived water column properties. These deficiencies greatly reduce the ...

  14. Statistical characterization of arsenic contamination in shallow tube wells of western Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faisal; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Nahar, Nurun; Delawer Hossain, M.

    2006-04-01

    A regional assessment of the arsenic (As) contamination scenario in shallow tube wells (depth < 150 m) of western Bangladesh is presented. Comparisons are made in light of bulk geological differences (Pleistocene versus Holocene deposits/northwest versus southwest) and As measurement protocols (field kit (FK) versus atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)). Our As database comprised the following: (1) the nationwide As survey completed in 1999 by the British Geological Survey in collaboration with the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE); and (2) a regional As survey conducted in southwest Bangladesh by the Japan International Cooperation Agency in collaboration with DPHE in 2002. First, we characterize the error structure of the semi-quantitative FK As measurements using collocated AAS As measurements as reference from a set of 307 wells located in southwest Bangladesh. The depth distribution of As is identified using a very dense cluster of 2963 wells over a 560 km2 domain. The probability of the FK method for successful detection of a well sample as unsafe (safe) was found to be 96.9% (34.1%) and 95.2% (80.3%) for the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bangladesh safe limits, respectively. Similarly, the probability of false alarms and false hopes for WHO (Bangladesh) safe limits were found to be 3.1% (4.8%) and 87.5% (19.7%), respectively. The depth at which the highest fraction of wells exceeding a given safe limit occurred could still be inferred correctly by FK measurements. A simple bias adjustment procedure on FK As data did not result in a more accurate characterization of depth distribution of As. This indicated that simple error statistics are inadequate for advancing the utility of FKs; rather, an understanding of the complex and multidimensional error structure is required. Regional anisotropy in the spatial dependence of As for the northwest was found to be stronger than the southwest. The correlation length for As concentration in the east

  15. Sediment storage and severity of contamination in a shallow reservoir affected by historical lead and zinc mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of sediment-thickness measurement and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sediment storage and severity of contamination in Empire Lake (Kansas), a shallow reservoir affected by historical Pb and Zn mining. Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the contaminated bottom sediment typically exceeded baseline concentrations by at least an order of magnitude. Moreover, the concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn typically far exceeded probable-effects guidelines, which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects usually or frequently occur. Despite a pre-1954 decrease in sediment concentrations likely related to the end of major mining activity upstream by about 1920, concentrations have remained relatively stable and persistently greater than the probable-effects guidelines for at least the last 50 years. Cesium-137 evidence from sediment cores indicated that most of the bottom sediment in the reservoir was deposited prior to 1954. Thus, the ability of the reservoir to store the contaminated sediment has declined over time. Because of the limited storage capacity, Empire Lake likely is a net source of contaminated sediment during high-inflow periods. The contaminated sediment that passes through, or originates from, Empire Lake will be deposited in downstream environments likely as far as Grand Lake O' the Cherokees (Oklahoma). ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  17. [Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Arrhythmia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Colín Lizalde, Luis de Jesús

    2003-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a relatively common genetic disorder with heterogeneity in mutations, forms of presentation, prognosis and treatment strategies. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is recognized as the most common cause of sudden cardiac death that occurs in young people, including athletes. The clinical diagnosis is complemented with the ecocardiographic study, in which an abnormal myocardial hypertrophy of the septum can be observed in the absence of a cardiac or systemic disease (arterial systemic hypertension, aortic stenosis). The annual sudden mortality rate is 1% and, in selected populations, it ranges between 3 and 6%. The therapeutic strategies depend on the different subsets of patients according to the morbidity and mortality, sudden cardiac death, obstructive symptoms, heart failure or atrial fibrillation and stroke. High risk patients for sudden death may effectively be treated with the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

  18. STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF A SHALLOW SAND AQUIFER CONTAMINATED WITH FUEL HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water chemistry and the stable C isotope composition ( 13CDIC) of dissolved C (DIC) were measured in a sand aquifer contaminated with JP-4 fuel hydrocarbons. Results show that ground water in the upgradient zone was characterized by DIC content of 14-20 mg C/L and 13CDIC...

  19. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics associated with high soil conductivities in a shallow hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legall, Franklyn David

    Data collected from a network of in-situ vertical resistivity probes (VRPs) deployed at a hydrocarbon-contaminated site in SW Michigan showed high conductivities associated with the zone of contamination. Within the contaminated portion of the aquifer, different phases of hydrocarbon impact are recognized, namely, zones with residual and dissolved phase hydrocarbons (RDH) and zones where these phases coexist with free product (RDFH). Bulk soil conductivities were highest (12 to 30 mS/m) in the RDFH zone compared to the RDH zone (10 to 25 mS/m). Geochemical and isotopic data from closely spaced vertical samples within the high conductive zones were used to provide geochemical evidence for biodegradation and to investigate redox processes occurring within the conductive zones. Depth distribution of TEAs and educts showed evidence of reduction of nitrate, iron, manganese, and sulfate across steep vertical gradients. Within the portion of the plume characterized by RDH, SO4 reduction has supplanted denitrification via dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and the reduction of Fe (III) and Mn(IV) as the major observed redox process. This zone was also characterized by the highest DIC. The delta 13CDIC values of -16.9 to -9.5‰ suggest that DIC evolution within this zone is controlled by carbonate dissolution through enhanced CO2 production related to microbial hydrocarbon degradation. Within the portion of the aquifer with RDFH, DIC was lower compared to the RDH location with an associated delta13CDIC in the range of +6.5 to -4.4‰. Both the DIC and delta 13CDIC suggest that methanogenesis is the dominant redox process. With respect to mineral weathering as a possible source of ions contributing to high conductivities, the results show higher concentrations of Na, Ca, and Mg in the contaminated portion of the aquifer compared to uncontaminated parts. This is consistent with the weathering of carbonate and Na and Ca feldspars, the dominant minerals in the aquifer. Higher

  20. Saturated zone denitrification: potential for natural attenuation of nitrate contamination in shallow groundwater under dairy operations.

    PubMed

    Singleton, M J; Esser, B K; Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; McNab, W W; Harter, T

    2007-02-01

    We present results from field studies at two central California dairies that demonstrate the prevalence of saturated-zone denitrification in shallow groundwater with 3H/ 3He apparent ages of < 35 years. Concentrated animal feeding operations are suspected to be major contributors of nitrate to groundwater, but saturated zone denitrification could mitigate their impact to groundwater quality. Denitrification is identified and quantified using N and O stable isotope compositions of nitrate coupled with measurements of excess N2 and residual NO3(-) concentrations. Nitrate in dairy groundwater from this study has delta15N values (4.3-61 per thousand), and delta18O values (-4.5-24.5 per thousand) that plot with delta18O/delta15N slopes of 0.47-0.66, consistent with denitrification. Noble gas mass spectrometry is used to quantify recharge temperature and excess air content. Dissolved N2 is found at concentrations well above those expected for equilibrium with air or incorporation of excess air, consistent with reduction of nitrate to N2. Fractionation factors for nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate appear to be highly variable at a dairy site where denitrification is found in a laterally extensive anoxic zone 5 m below the water table, and at a second dairy site where denitrification occurs near the water table and is strongly influenced by localized lagoon seepage.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of microbiological contamination and enteric viruses in shallow ground water in Baltimore and Harford counties, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; Battigelli, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland Department of the Environment and the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, conducted a study to characterize the occurrence and distribution of viral contamination in small (withdrawing less than 10,000 gallons per day) public water-supply wells screened in the shallow aquifer in the Piedmont Physiographic Province in Baltimore and Harford Counties, Maryland. Two hundred sixty-three small public water-supply wells were in operation in these counties during the spring of 2000. Ninety-one of these sites were selected for sampling using a methodology that distributed the samples evenly over the population and the spatial extent of the study area. Each site, and its potential susceptibility to microbiological contamination, was evaluated with regard to hole depth, casing interval, and open interval. Each site was evaluated using characteristics such as on-site geology and on-site land use.Samples were collected by pumping between 200 and 400 gallons of untreated well water through an electropositive cartridge filter. Water concentrates were subjected to cell-culture assay for the detection of culturable viruses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction/gene probe assays to detect viral ribonucleic acid; grab samples were analyzed for somatic and male-specific coliphages, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, total oxidized nitrogen, nitrite, organic nitrogen, total phosphate, ortho-phosphate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potas-sium, chloride, sulfate, iron, acid-neutralizing capacity, pH, specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen.One sample tested positive for the presence of the ribonucleic acid of rotavirus through poly-merase chain-reaction analysis. Twenty-nine per-cent of the samples (26 of 90) had bacterial con-tamination. About 7 percent of the samples (6 of 90) were contaminated with either male-specific coliphage

  2. Diversity, abundance, and consistency of microbial oxygenase expression and biodegradation in a shallow contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, J.M.; Madsen, E.L.

    2009-10-15

    The diversity of Rieske dioxygenase genes and short-term temporal variability in the abundance of two selected dioxygenase gene sequences were examined in a naphthalene-rich, coal tar waste-contaminated subsurface study site. Using a previously published PCR-based approach (S. M. Ni Chadhain, R. S. Norman, K. V. Pesce, J. J. Kukor, and G. J. Zylstra, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 4078-4087, 2006) a broad suite of genes was detected, ranging from dioxygenase sequences associated with Rhodococcus and Sphingomonas to 32 previously uncharacterized Rieske gene sequence clone groups. The nag genes appeared frequently (20% of the total) in two groundwater monitoring wells characterized by low (similar to 10{sup 2} ppb; similar to 1 {mu} M) ambient concentrations of naphthalene. A quantitative competitive PCR assay was used to show that abundances of nag genes (and archetypal nah genes) fluctuated substantially over a 9-month period. To contrast short-term variation with long-term community stability, in situ community gene expression (dioxygenase mRNA) and biodegradation potential (community metabolism of naphthalene in microcosms) were compared to measurements from 6 years earlier. cDNA sequences amplified from total RNA extracts revealed that nah- and nag-type genes were expressed in situ, corresponding well with structural gene abundances. Despite evidence for short-term (9-month) shifts in dioxygenase gene copy number, agreement in field gene expression (dioxygenase mRNA) and biodegradation potential was observed in comparisons to equivalent assays performed 6 years earlier. Thus, stability in community biodegradation characteristics at the hemidecadal time frame has been documented for these subsurface microbial communities.

  3. Spore-forming, Desulfosporosinus-like sulphate-reducing bacteria from a shallow aquifer contaminated with gasoline.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W J; Franzmann, P D; Mee, B J

    2000-02-01

    Previous studies on the geochemistry of a shallow unconfined aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons suggested that the degradation of some hydrocarbons was linked to bacterial sulphate reduction. There was attenuation of naphthalene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), toluene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene in the groundwater with concomitant loss of sulphate. Here, the recovery of eight strains of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the contaminated site is reported. All were straight or curved rod-shaped cells which formed endospores. Amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA indicated that the strains were all sulphate reducers of the Gram-positive line of descent, and were most closely related to Desulfosporosinus (previously Desulfotomaculum) orientis DSM 8344 (97-98.9% sequence similarity). The strains clustered in three phylogenetic groups based on 16S rRNA sequences. Whole cell fatty acid compositions were similar to those of D. orientis DSM 8344, and were consistent with previous studies of fatty acids in soil and groundwater from the site. Microcosms containing groundwater from this aquifer indicated a role for sulphate reduction in the degradation of [ring-UL-14C]toluene, but not for the degradation of [UL-14C]benzene which could also be degraded by the microcosms. Adding one of the strains that was isolated from the groundwater (strain T2) to sulphate-enriched microcosms increased the rate of toluene degradation four- to 10-fold but had no effect on the rate of benzene degradation. The addition of molybdate, an inhibitor of sulphate reduction, to the groundwater samples decreased the rate of toluene mineralization. There was no evidence to support the mineralization of [UL-14C]benzene, [ring-UL-14C]toluene or unlabelled m-xylene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene, TMB or naphthalene by any of the strains in pure culture. Growth of all the strains was completely inhibited by 100 micromol l-1 TMB.

  4. Application of environmental tracers to delineate recharge patterns and nitrate contamination in shallow groundwater around a river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaown, Dugin; Koh, Eunhee; Park, Byeong-Hak; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogeochemical data, stable isotopes, chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) and 3H-3He in groundwater were applied to characterize residence time, recharge patterns and nitrate contamination of groundwater in a small agricultural area, Yangpyung, Korea. The study area is located around a river and the measured groundwater table ranges from 1.5 to 2.65 m during the year. Most residents in the study area practice agriculture and potato, strawberry, and cabbage are the typical vegetables grown. Vegetable fields are mostly located in the upgradient area of the study area while forest and residence areas are located in the downgradient area. A lot of chemical and organic fertilizers are applied in the upgradient area. The concentration of NO3-N in groundwater showed 9.8-83.7 mg/L in the upgradient area and 0.1-22.6 mg/L in the downgradient area in 2014. It is necessary to monitor groundwater recharge patterns and transport processes of nitrate to protect surface water around the study area. The values of δ18O and δD showed that groundwater is recharged mainly from summer precipitation. The apparent groundwater ages using 3H-3He and CFCs ranged from 13 to 27 years in the upgradient area and from 25 to 35 years in the downgradient area. The NO3-N in more recently recharged groundwater showed higher concentrations while the NO3-N in older groundwater showed low concentrations. Some shallow wells in the downgradient area showed similar apparent groundwater age with that of the river water indicating groundwater-surface water interactions. A conceptual model of groundwater-surface water interactions using stable isotopes, apparent 3H-3He and CFCs age in groundwater will be useful to understand the hydrological processes and nitrate contamination of the study area.

  5. Field Investigations of Natural Attenuation and Trench Application in a Heterogeneous Shallow Contaminated Aquifer with Free-Phase LNAPLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.

    2009-05-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of natural attenuation of groundwater and the applicability of trench method for intercepting the contaminant plume in a highly contaminated aquifer with dissolved hydrocarbons and free phase LNAPLs. Several times of groundwater sampling and subsequential geochemical analyses were carried out over a period of 6 years. The selected aquifer is composed of a high permeability gravel layer that acts as a preferential pathway of LNAPLs when the groundwater fluctuates by 1-2 m. The results of field investigations show that the NA of hydrocarbon contaminants had sufficient ability to mineralize the contaminants but the remediation rate was lower than that observed at the other sites because the LNAPL source has not completely removed yet. After the installation of the trench, long term monitoring of contaminant concentration indicates that the expanding of the contaminant plume is greatly controlled by the trench. The Mann-Kendall trend analyses show that BTEX contaminant plume in the source area has reached "STABLE" with high contaminant concentration for the whole period but the contaminant plume in down-gradient area was "DECREASING" with low contaminant concentrations due to the role of the trench. Approximately 98% of the contaminants were intercepted by the trench and the intercepted rates of the contaminant were approximately 1,469 ~ 2,393 g/year.

  6. Update on hypertrophic scar treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Júnior, Jayme Adriano Farina

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin. PMID:25141117

  7. Assessment of multi-trophic changes in a shallow boreal lake simultaneously exposed to climate change and aerial deposition of contaminants from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jamie C; Kurek, Joshua; Rühland, Kathleen M; Neville, Erin E; Smol, John P

    2017-03-18

    The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) has been intensely developed for industrial bitumen extraction and upgrading since the 1980s. A paucity of environmental monitoring prior to development raises questions about baseline conditions in freshwater systems in the region and ecological responses to industrial activities. Further, climatic changes prompt questions about the relative roles of climate and industry in shaping aquatic ecosystems through time. We use aquatic bioindicators from multiple trophic levels, concentrations of petrogenic contaminants (dibenzothiophenes), and spectrally-inferred chlorophyll-a preserved in well-dated sediments of a closed-basin, shallow lake ~50km away from the main area of industry, in conjunction with climate observations, to assess how the biotic assemblages of a typical AOSR lake have changed during the past ~75years. We examine the contributions of the area's stressors in structuring aquatic communities. Increases in sedimentary measures of petrogenic contaminants provide clear evidence of aerial contaminant deposition from local industry since its establishment, while climate records demonstrate consistent warming and a recent period of reduced precipitation. Quantitative comparisons of biological assemblages from before and after the establishment of regional industry find significant (p<0.05) differences; however, the magnitude and overall timing of the changes are not consistent with a threshold-type shift in response to the onset of regional industry. Rather, biotic assemblages from multiple trophic levels suggest transitions to an increasingly complex benthic environment and relatively warmer waters, which, like the increasing trends in inferred primary production, are consistent with a changing climate. These findings highlight the important role of climate conditions in regulating primary production and structuring aquatic communities in these shallow systems.

  8. Occurrence and distribution of enteric viruses in shallow ground water and factors affecting well vulnerability to microbiological contamination in Worcester and Wicomico counties, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; Klohe, Cheryl A.; Battigelli, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland Department of the Environment and the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, conducted a study to characterize the occurrence and distribution of viral contamination in small (withdrawing less than 10,000 gallons per day) public water-supply wells screened in the water-table aquifer in the Coastal Plain in Worcester and Wicomico Counties, Maryland.Two hundred seventy-eight well sites were evaluated with regard to simulated ground-water flow paths, land use, natural soils groups, and well characteristics, such as well depth and well age. Flow and transport simulations of the water-table aquifer indicated that wells screened less than about 50 feet below land surface (shallow wells) were most vulnerable to surface contamination, which in some cases could originate from as far as 2,000 feet upgradient of the well. Animal-feeding and agricultural-storage operations were considered among the most likely sources for viral contamination; therefore, sites close to these activities were considered most vulnerable. Soil groups were evaluated with regard to depth to water and moisture-holding capacity. Wells with shallow depths to water or in very sandy soils were considered more vulnerable to contamination than deep wells (greater than 50 feet) and those completed in finer-grained soils. Older wells and wells where coliform bacteria had been detected in the past were classified as highly vulnerable. On the basis of this evaluation, 27 sites considered to be susceptible were sampled.Samples were collected by pumping up to 400 gallons of untreated well water through an electropositive filter. Water concentrates were subjected to cell-culture assay for the detection of culturable viruses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction/gene probe assays to detect nonculturable viruses; grab samples were analyzed for somatic and male-specific coliphages, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci

  9. GIS-based colour composites and overlays to delineate heavy metal contamination zones in the shallow alluvial aquifers, Ankaleshwar industrial estate, south Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Suyash; Shirke, K. D.; Pawar, N. J.

    2008-03-01

    In an attempt to delineate heavy metal contamination precincts and to evaluate the extent and degree of toxic levels, besides their possible sources, 38 water samples from Ankaleshwar Industrial Estate, south Gujarat, India were analyzed. By clutching geochemical analyses and GIS-based colour composites areas depicting anomalously high concentration of heavy metals (Mo, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, etc.) in the groundwater were revealed. The multicomponent overlays in grey-scale facilitated in identifying situates of heavy metal ‘hot spots’, and lateral protuberances of the contamination plume around defile stretch of the main stream Amla Khadi flowing through the area. The multiple pollution plumes emerging from other parts of the area further coincide with effluent laden streams and small channels indicating industrial establishments as major sources of groundwater contamination. Influent nature of the streams, accelerated infiltration process, high mass influx and shallow groundwater table are the factors conducive for easy access of heavy metals to the phreatic aquifers affecting over 20 km2 area. On the basis of P/ U ratios (concentration of metals in polluted water to unpolluted water), geogenic and anthropogenic sources have been identified. Very high levels of technogenic elements present in the ground water raise concerns about possible migration into food crops, as the area is an important horticultural locale and is highly cultivated.

  10. Bacterial contamination of tile drainage water and shallow groundwater under different application methods of liquid swine manure.

    PubMed

    Samarajeewa, A D; Glasauer, S M; Lauzon, J D; O'Halloran, I P; Parkin, Gary W; Dunfield, K E

    2012-05-01

    A 2 year field experiment evaluated liquid manure application methods on the movement of manure-borne pathogens (Salmonella sp.) and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens) to subsurface water. A combination of application methods including surface application, pre-application tillage, and post-application incorporation were applied in a randomized complete block design on an instrumented field site in spring 2007 and 2008. Tile and shallow groundwater were sampled immediately after manure application and after rainfall events. Bacterial enumeration from water samples showed that the surface-applied manure resulted in the highest concentration of E. coli in tile drainage water. Pre-tillage significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the movement of manure-based E. coli and C. perfringens to tile water and to shallow groundwater within 3 days after manure application (DAM) in 2008 and within 10 DAM in 2007. Pre-tillage also decreased the occurrence of Salmonella sp. in tile water samples. Indicator bacteria and pathogens reached nondetectable levels within 50 DAM. The results suggest that tillage before application of liquid swine manure can minimize the movement of bacteria to tile and groundwater, but is effective only for the drainage events immediately after manure application or initial rainfall-associated drainage flows. Furthermore, the study highlights the strong association between bacterial concentrations in subsurface waters and rainfall timing and volume after manure application.

  11. Contamination of shallow ground water in the area of building 95, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1985-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, B.P.; Storck, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    A zone of contaminated ground water at Picatinny Arsenal has resulted from the operation of a metal- plating facility in building 95 during 1960-81, and the wastewater-treatment system that is in and adjacent to the building. Thirty-two monitoring wells were installed in 1989 to supplement 12 previously installed wells. All wells were sampled in 1989 and 1990 for analysis of ground water for inorganic constituents, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, and nutrients. Four wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds and pesticides, and soil gas from the unsaturated zone at eight sites was analyzed for volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate in the study area were consistently above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary drinking-water regulations. The areal distribution of sulfate differed from that of the volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of trace elements were not elevated downgradient from the source. The estimated average velocity of contaminant movement is 0.1 to 1.1 feet per day. The major organic contaminants identified in the study area are trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Trichloroethylene was detected in wells upgradient from the wastewater- treatment site. Tetrachloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane might originate at tanks in the basement of building 95 rather than at the adjacent wastewater-treatment system. The pre- dominant gas-phase contaminant, 1,1,1- trichloroethane, was detected at a maximum con- centration of 15.7 micrograms per liter. Both trichoroethylene and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations greater than 0.10 micrograms per liter in five of the eight soil- gas samples, indicating that volatilization and diffusion through the unsaturated zone could be a significant mechanism of contaminant loss from the aquifer.

  12. Spatial variability of shallow groundwater level, electrical conductivity and nitrate concentration, and risk assessment of nitrate contamination in North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kelin; Huang, Yuangfang; Li, Hong; Li, Baoguo; Chen, Deli; White, Robert Edlin

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, nitrate (NO3) contamination of groundwater has become a growing concern for people in rural areas in North China Plain (NCP) where groundwater is used as drinking water. The objective of this study was to evaluate groundwater resource level, to determine groundwater quality and to assess the risk of NO3 pollution in groundwater in Quzhou County in the NCP. Ordinary Kriging (OK) method was used to analyze the spatial variability of shallow groundwater level, groundwater electrical conductivity (EC) and NO3-N concentrations, and Indictor Kriging (IK) method was used to analyze the data with NO3-N concentrations equal or greater than the groundwater NO3 pollution threshold (20 mg L(-1)). The results indicated that groundwater level averaged 9.81 m, a level 6 m lower than in 1990. The spatial correlation distances for groundwater level, EC and NO3-N concentration were 21.93, 2.19 and 3.55 km, respectively. The contour map showed that shallow groundwater level areas extended from north to south across the County. Groundwater EC was above 3 dS m(-1) in the most part of the northern county. Groundwater NO3 pollution (NO3-N> or =20 mg L(-1)) mainly occurred in the County Seat areas due to wastewater irrigation and excessive fertilizer leaching from agricultural fields. At Henantuang town, besides suburban of the County Seat, groundwater was also contaminated by NO3 shown by the map generated using the IK method, which was not reflected in the map generated using the OK method. The map generated using the OK method could not reflect correctly the groundwater NO3 pollution status. The IK method is useful to assess the risk of NO3 pollution by giving the conditional probability of NO3 concentration exceeding the threshold value. It is suggested that risk assessment of NO3 pollution is useful for better managing groundwater resource, preventing soil salinization and minimizing NO3 pollution in groundwater.

  13. High-resolution geophysical imaging of shallow-water, contaminated wetlands: A novel application to Kearny freshwater marsh, New Jersey Meadowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, Nasser M.

    The study investigated the transfer of state-of-the-art, geophysical technologies to permit effective characterization and monitoring of shallow-water wetlands. The innovative application was implemented in Kearney Marsh, NJ Meadowlands through three phases. Phase I (chapter 2) included laboratory-scale, induced polarization (IP) measurements conducted on marsh soils that were subsequently analyzed for heavy metal and physical properties. Phase II (chapter 3) included reconnaissance geophysical survey using terrain conductivity, magnetic gradiometry and surface water chemistry data from a shallow-draft paddleboat. Phase III (chapter 4) included continuous marine, electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) supported with rainfall and surface water data. Phase I revealed a linear relationship between the normalized chargeability and the estimated surface area to pore volume when the iron content is accounted for as a polarizable element of the soil. As the Fe concentration of soils is a critical biogeochemical parameter, IP measurements may provide a hitherto unrecognized approach to probing soil geochemistry, iron cycling and anaerobic microbial activity. The inverted sediment conductivity obtained from phase II resolved a contamination pattern probably attributable to leachate from adjacent landfills and/or salt water ingress from a partial tidal connection that is not obvious in the surface water data. Magnetic gradiometry and the in-phase component of the EM31 response both primarily reflect the distribution of junk metal associated with a legacy of illegal dumping. Historic aerial photographs suggest that this distribution reflects land-use history, defining the maximum previous extent of an adjacent landfill and a pattern of dumping correlated with historic roadways. The continuous ERI conducted during phase III is found to be an effective method for determining the resistivity structure of wetland sediments due to the shallow surface water layer. Temperature

  14. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Fayssoil, A; Nardi, O; Orlikowski, D; Annane, D

    2008-07-21

    Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by spinocerebellar degeneration. It is caused by a mutation that consists of an unstable expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the gene encoding frataxin on chromosome 9 (9q13). We reported a case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with Friedreich's ataxia in a twenty year old patient.

  15. Delineation of recharge patterns and contaminant transport using 3H-3He in a shallow aquifer contaminated by chlorinated solvents in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaown, Dugin; Koh, Dong-Chan; Solomon, D. Kip; Yoon, Yoon-Yeol; Yang, Jaeha; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2014-08-01

    Stable isotopes of water and 3H-3He were used to delineate recharge patterns and contaminant transport for a granitic regolith aquifer in an industrial complex in Wonju, South Korea, that has historically been contaminated with chlorinated solvents including trichloroethene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT). Groundwater recharge mainly occurred in upgradient forested areas while little recharge occurred in the downgradient industrial areas covered with extensive sections of impermeable pavement and paddy fields. δ18O and δD data indicated that groundwater was mainly derived from summer precipitation. The apparent groundwater ages using 3H-3He ranged from 1 to 4 yrs in the upgradient area and from 9 to 10 yrs in the downgradient area. Comparison of groundwater flow velocities based on Darcy's law and those calculated with simple mass balance models and groundwater age supported the presence of preferential pathways for TCE movement in the study area. Measureable TCE was observed in groundwater irrespective of groundwater age. Considering the 3-yr duration of the TCE spill, 14 yrs before sampling, this indicates that TCE plumes were continuously fed from sources in the unsaturated zone after the spill ended and moved downgradient without significant degradation in the aquifer.

  16. Carbon isotopic evidence for biodegradation of organic contaminants in the shallow vadose zone of the radioactive waste management complex

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2003-09-04

    Waste material buried in drums in the shallow subsurface at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contained significant amounts of organic compounds including lubricating oils and chlorinated solvents. CO{sub 2} concentrations in pore gas samples from monitoring wells in the vicinity of the disposal pits are 3 to 5 times higher than the concentrations in nearby background wells. The stable carbon isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C values) of CO{sub 2} from the disposal pits averaged 2.4. less than CO{sub 2} from the background wells, indicating that the elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations around the pits were derived from source materials with {delta}{sup 13}C values in the range of -24{per_thousand} to -29{per_thousand}. These {delta}{sup 13}C values are typical of lubricating oils, but higher than most solvents. The radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) contents of CO{sub 2} across most of the site were significantly elevated above modern concentrations due to reactor blocks buried in a subsurface vault at the site. However, several samples collected from the high-CO{sub 2} zone on the far side of the RWMC from the reactor blocks had very low {sup 14}C contents (less than 0.13 times modern), confirming production from lubricating oils manufactured from fossil hydrocarbons. The magnitude of the CO{sub 2} anomaly observed at the site is consistent with intrinsic biodegradation rates on the order of 0.5 to 3.0 metric tons of carbon per year.

  17. Experiments to determine the migration potential for water and contaminants in shallow land-burial facilities: design, emplacement, and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    DePoorter, G.L.; Abeele, W.V.; Burton, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Although there have been many laboratory studies on water movement and contaminant transport, there is a need for more large scale field experiments. Large scale field experiments are necessary to (1) measure hydraulic conductivities on a scale typical of actual shallow land burial facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities, (2) allow comparisons to be made between full scale and laboratory measurements, (3) verify the applicability of calculational methods for determining unsaturated hydraulic conductivities from water retention curves, and (4) for model validation. Experiments that will provide the information to do this are described in this paper. The results of these experiments will have applications for both the shallow land burial of low level radioactive wastes and the disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. These experiments will provide results that can be used in model verification for system performance. This type of data on experiments done at this scale has not been available, and are necessary for validating unsaturated transport models and other models used to predict long term system performance. Even though these experiments are done on crushed Bandelier Tuff, most models use physical properties of the backfill material such as density, porosity, and water retention curves. For this reason, once the models are validated in these experiments, they can be applied with confidence to other materials as long as the material properties are well characterized. In addition, from known water movement rates, calculable from the results of these experiments, requirements for other parts of the system such as liners, water diversion systems, and system cap requirements can be determined. Lastly, the results of these experiments and their use in model verification will provide a sound scientific basis on which to base decisions on system requirements and system design.

  18. [The origin of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Moiseev, V S

    1985-01-01

    The author describes the clinical cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CMP). The development of obstructive CMP in a patient with hyperparathyroidism indicates a possible pathogenetic role of endocrine factors and calcium metabolism abnormalities. The familial character of the disease and its combination with hereditary diseases (familial microspherocytosis) point to the significance of genetic factors. In addition, marked hypertrophy of the myocardium (without dilatation) including hypertrophy with obstruction of the outflow tract of the left ventricle was observed in nonspecific protracted myocarditis, alcoholic injury to the heart, in athletes, in coronary heart disease (after survival of myocardial infarction). It is suggested that hypertrophic CMP (similarly to restrictive and congestive CMP) is most likely a syndrome of varying origin.

  19. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongsasuluk, Pokkate; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Most local people in the agricultural areas of Hua-ruea sub-district, Ubon Ratchathani province (Thailand), generally consume shallow groundwater from farm wells. This study aimed to assess the health risk related to heavy metal contamination in that groundwater. Samples were randomly collected from 12 wells twice in each of the rainy and the dry seasons and were analyzed by inductive coupled plasma spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of detected metals in each well and the overall mean were below the acceptable groundwater standard limits for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn, but Pb levels were higher in four wells with an overall average Pb concentration of 16.66 ± 18.52 μg/l. Exposure questionnaires, completed by face-to-face interviews with 100 local people who drink groundwater from farm wells, were used to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard indices (HIs). The HQs for non-carcinogenic risk for As, Cu, Zn and Pb, with a range of 0.004-2.901, 0.053-54.818, 0.003-6.399 and 0.007-26.80, respectively, and the HI values (range from 0.10 to 88.21) exceeded acceptable limits in 58 % of the wells. The HI results were higher than one for groundwater wells located in intensively cultivated chili fields. The highest cancer risk found was 2.6 × 10(-6) for As in well no. 11. This study suggested that people living in warmer climates are more susceptible to and at greater risk of groundwater contamination because of their increased daily drinking water intake. This may lead to an increased number of cases of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health defects among local people exposed to heavy metals by drinking the groundwater.

  20. Investigating the Sources of Nitrogen Contamination in the Shallow Aquifer of Jakarta using a Newly Developed Distributed River-Aquifer Flow and Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D.; Burlando, P.; Liong, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations in the shallow aquifer of Jakarta show a rise in nitrate (NO3-) levels. Groundwater is extensively used in the city to compensate for the limited public water supply network and therefore the risk to public health from a rise in NO3- concentration is high. NO3- has been identified as a cofactor for methemoglobinemia in infants, a disease which can lead to death in extreme cases. The NO3- levels detected are still below regulatory limits for drinking purposes but strategies are necessary to contain the growing problem. To this end, the main sources and pathways of inorganic compounds containing nitrogen (N) - i.e. nitrate, nitrite (NO2-) and ammonium (NH4+) - were investigated. We combined 3 years of field measurements in the Ciliwung River, the major river flowing through Jakarta, with a distributed river-aquifer interaction model to characterize the N-cycle in both systems and quantify the contribution of river infiltration in the overall groundwater N budget. The computed infiltration fluxes were compared to estimates of leaks from poorly maintained septic tanks, which are extensively used in the city, to identify the main source of groundwater contamination. Observations show a strong and interdependent spatial and seasonal variability in the levels of NO3-, NO2- and NH4+ in the river, which is caused by changes in nitrification/denitrification rates due to variations in dissolved oxygen concentrations. Simulation results suggest that such dynamics in the river cause river to aquifer contamination patterns to likewise change over space and time, which leads to heterogeneous vulnerability distributions. The estimated contribution of river-N infiltration to the observed NO3- groundwater levels is small if compared to that originating from all leaking septic tanks inside Jakarta. However, in the vicinity of the Ciliwung, river to groundwater N-loading can play an important role in the local NO3- groundwater levels because it is highly

  1. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of gasoline contamination in the shallow aquifer, Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, Francis; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory, field, and digital solute-transport- modeling studies demonstrate that microorganisms indigenous to the shallow ground-water system at Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in gasoline released at the site. Microorganisms in aquifer sediments incubated in the laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled carbon 14-toluene to 14C-carbon dioxide with first-order rate constants of Kbio = -0.640 per day and Kbio = -0.003 per day, respectively. Digital solute- transport modeling using the numerical code SUTRA revealed that anaerobic biodegradation of benzene occurs with a first-order rate constant near Kbio = -0.00025 per day. Sandy aquifer material beneath Laurel Bay Exchange is characterized by relatively high hydraulic conductivities (Kaq = 8.9 to 17.3 feet per day), average ground-water flow rate of about 60 feet per year, and a relatively uniform hydraulic gradient of 0.004 feet per foot. The sandy aquifer material also has low adsorptive potentials for toluene and benzene (both about Kad = 2.0 x 10-9 cubic feet per milligram), because of the lack of natural organic matter in the aquifer. The combination of this ground-water-flow rate and absence of significant adsorptive capacity in the aquifer permits toluene and benzene concentrations to be detected downgradient from the source area in monitoring wells, even though biodegradation of these compounds has been demonstrated. Solute-transport simulations, however, indicate that toluene and benzene will not reach the Broad River, the nearest point of contact with wildlife or human populations, about 3,600 feet west of the site boundary. These simulations also show that contamination will not be transported to the nearest Marine Corps property line about 2,400 feet south of the site. This is primarily because the source of contaminants has essentially been removed, and the low adsorptive capacity of the aquifer

  2. Hydrogeochemical and mineralogical effects of sustained CO2 contamination in a shallow sandy aquifer: A field-scale controlled release experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Aaron G.; Marker, Pernille; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2014-02-01

    A shallow aquifer CO2 contamination experiment was performed to investigate evolution of water chemistry and sediment alteration following leakage from geological storage by physically simulating a leak from a hypothetical storage site. In a carbonate-free aquifer, in western Denmark, a total of 1600 kg of gas phase CO2 was injected at 5 and 10 m depth over 72 days through four inclined injection wells into aeolian and glacial sands. Water chemistry was monitored for pH, EC, and dissolved element evolution through an extensive network of multilevel sampling points over 305 days. Sediment cores were taken pre and postinjection and analyzed to search for effects on mineralogy and sediment properties. Results showed the simulated leak to evolve in two distinct phases; an advective elevated ion pulse followed by increasing persistent acidification. Spatial and temporal differences in evolution of phases suggest separate chemical mechanisms and geochemical signatures. Dissolved element concentrations developed exhibiting four behaviors: (1) advective pulse (Ca, Mg, Na, Si, Ba, and Sr), (2) pH sensitive abundance dependent (Al and Zn), (3) decreasing (Mn and Fe), and (4) unaffected (K). Concentration behaviors were characterized by: (1) a maximal front moving with advective flow, (2) continual increase in close proximity to the injection plane, (3) removal from solution, and (4) no significant change. Only Al was observed to exceed WHO guidelines, however significantly so (10-fold excess). The data indicate that pH is controlled by equilibrium with gibbsite which is again coupled to cation exchange processes. Pre and postinjection sediment analysis indicated alteration of sediment composition and properties including depletion of reactive mineral species.

  3. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vijay K; Aggarwal, Kamal; Jain, Sarika; Singh, Sunita

    2009-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis occurring in previously sensitized individuals with a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a very large hypertrophic lupus vulgaris lesion over left side of chest since 22 years. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous infiltration without caseation necrosis. The Mantoux reaction was strongly positive. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris of such a giant size and that too at an unusual site is extremely rare and hence is being reported.

  4. Laser application for hypertrophic rhinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inouye, Tetsuzo; Tanabe, Tetsuya; Nakanoboh, Manabu; Ogura, Masami

    1995-05-01

    The CO2 and KTP/532 lasers have been used in the treatment of an allergic and hypertrophic rhinitis for the past several years. As we know, the laser enables a surgeon to perform the operation with minimum hemorrhage and minimized pain, during and after the procedure. Additionally many of these operations can be performed under local anesthesia instead of general anesthesia, on an outpatient basis. The laser is used to irradiate the mucous membranes of the inferior turbinates. Vaporization and cutting is easily done. Post operative management of the local operated area is easy. The advantages of laser surgery over regular surgical techniques are supreme for intranasal operations when performed under local anesthesia.

  5. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the early years.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2009-12-01

    Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) has four major features: (1) severe left ventricular hypertrophy, often most prominent in the basal interventricular septum; (2) frequent familial occurrence with autosomal dominant transmission; (3) occurrence of sudden cardiac death that is usually considered to be due to ventricular fibrillation; and (4) presence of hemodynamic evidence of labile intraventricular obstruction. The key papers describing the recognition of each of these features, as well as of various combinations of them, are reviewed in this paper. Particular attention is focused on the very frequent finding of marked lability of intraventricular obstruction. The recognition of this fourth and last major feature in 1959 makes 2009 the golden anniversary year marking completion of the description of the major features of HOCM.

  6. Identification of groundwater contamination sources of nitrate and sulfate in shallow alluvial aquifers using a dual-isotope approach in an agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaown, D.; Koh, D.; Mayer, B.; Hyun, Y.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.

    2007-12-01

    The elevated level of nitrate in groundwater is a serious problem in Korean agricultural areas. Yupori, a small agricultural area in Chuncheon (Korea), shows a rising level of NO3-N and displays multiple NO3-N sources from non-point and point sources in shallow aquifer groundwater. Numerous vegetable fields are located in the western part of the study area and fruit orchards dominate the landscape with only few vegetable fields in the eastern part of the study area. The source identification of groundwater contamination from overburden agricultural area was undertaken by analyzing hydrochemical data and stable isotopic compositions of dissolved nitrate and sulfate (¥ä15N-NO3-, ¥ä18O-NO3-, ¥ä34S-SO42-, and ¥ä18O-SO42-). The measurements of ¥ä15N- NO3- are in the range of 7.1 to 14.4¢¶ and the values of ¥ä18O-NO3- are in the range of -1.8 to 6.5¢¶. High ¥ä15N-NO3- values shown at low concentrations of nitrate in the eastern Yupori are characteristics of manure- derived nitrate and organic soil. The values of ¥ä34S-SO4-2 ranged from 2.9 to 9.9¢¶ and ¥ä18O-SO42- ranged from 2.5 to 4.7¢¶. At high concentrations of SO42- in the western Yupori, the value of ¥ä34S-SO42- are low around 3-4¢¶. The value of ¥ä34S-SO42- increased with decreasing SO42- concentration in the eastern Yupori. Groundwater quality and stable isotopic compositions of dissolved nitrate and sulfate seem to be significantly affected by agricultural land use pattern of the study site.

  7. Genetics of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Felix W; Carrier, Lucie

    2012-10-01

    Cardiomyopathies are categorized as extrinsic, being caused by external factors, such as hypertension, ischemia, inflammation, valvular dysfunction, or as intrinsic, which correspond to myocardial diseases without identifiable external causes. These so called primary cardiomyopathies can be categorized in four main forms: hypertrophic, dilated, restrictive, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathies are diagnosed by clinical expression, echocardiography, electrocardiography, non-invasive imaging, and sometimes by cardiac catheterization to rule out external causes as ischemia. The two main forms of primary cardiomyopathies are the hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Most of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 20-50% of dilated cardiomyopathy are familial showing a wide genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. This review presents the current knowledge on the causative genes, molecular mechanisms and the genotype � phenotype relations of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies.

  8. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could

  9. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kon, Tomoya; Nishijima, Haruo; Haga, Rie; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Ueno, Tatsuya; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2015-10-15

    We report a case of idiopathic cerebral hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. No other identifiable cause of pachymeningitis was detected. Corticosteroid therapy was effective for both diseases. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is closely related to autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This case supports the hypothesis that hypertrophic pachymeningitis can be a rare comorbidity of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

  10. Infective endocarditis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Fernando; Ramos, Antonio; Bouza, Emilio; Muñoz, Patricia; Valerio, Maricela C.; Fariñas, M. Carmen; de Berrazueta, José Ramón; Zarauza, Jesús; Pericás Pulido, Juan Manuel; Paré, Juan Carlos; de Alarcón, Arístides; Sousa, Dolores; Rodriguez Bailón, Isabel; Montejo-Baranda, Miguel; Noureddine, Mariam; García Vázquez, Elisa; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Infective endocarditis (IE) complicating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a poorly known entity. Although current guidelines do not recommend IE antibiotic prophylaxis (IEAP) in HCM, controversy remains. This study sought to describe the clinical course of a large series of IE HCM and to compare IE in HCM patients with IE patients with and without an indication for IEAP. Data from the GAMES IE registry involving 27 Spanish hospitals were analyzed. From January 2008 to December 2013, 2000 consecutive IE patients were prospectively included in the registry. Eleven IE HCM additional cases from before 2008 were also studied. Clinical, microbiological, and echocardiographic characteristics were analyzed in IE HCM patients (n = 34) and in IE HCM reported in literature (n = 84). Patients with nondevice IE (n = 1807) were classified into 3 groups: group 1, HCM with native-valve IE (n = 26); group 2, patients with IEAP indication (n = 696); group 3, patients with no IEAP indication (n = 1085). IE episode and 1-year follow-up data were gathered. One-year mortality in IE HCM was 42% in our study and 22% in the literature. IE was more frequent, although not exclusive, in obstructive HCM (59% and 74%, respectively). Group 1 exhibited more IE predisposing factors than groups 2 and 3 (62% vs 40% vs 50%, P < 0.01), and more previous dental procedures (23% vs 6% vs 8%, P < 0.01). Furthermore, Group 1 experienced a higher incidence of Streptococcus infections than Group 2 (39% vs 22%, P < 0.01) and similar to Group 3 (39% vs 30%, P = 0.34). Overall mortality was similar among groups (42% vs 36% vs 35%, P = 0.64). IE occurs in HCM patients with and without obstruction. Mortality of IE HCM is high but similar to patients with and without IEAP indication. Predisposing factors, previous dental procedures, and streptococcal infection are higher in IE HCM, suggesting that HCM patients could benefit from IEAP. PMID:27368014

  11. Aortic biomechanics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Hala Mahfouz; Soltan, Ghada; Faheem, Nagla; Elnoamany, Mohamed Fahmy; Tawfik, Mohamed; Yacoub, Magdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ventricular-vascular coupling is an important phenomenon in many cardiovascular diseases. The association between aortic mechanical dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is well characterized in many disease entities, but no data are available on how these changes are related in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Aim of the work: This study examined whether HCM alone is associated with an impaired aortic mechanical function in patients without cardiovascular risk factors and the relation of these changes, if any, to LV deformation and cardiac phenotype. Methods: 141 patients with HCM were recruited and compared to 66 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as control group. Pulse pressure, aortic strain, stiffness and distensibility were calculated from the aortic diameters measured by M-mode echocardiography and blood pressure obtained by sphygmomanometer. Aortic wall systolic and diastolic velocities were measured using pulsed wave Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). Cardiac assessment included geometric parameters and myocardial deformation (strain and strain rate) and mechanical dyssynchrony. Results: The pulsatile change in the aortic diameter, distensibility and aortic wall systolic velocity (AWS') were significantly decreased and aortic stiffness index was increased in HCM compared to control (P < .001) In HCM AWS' was inversely correlated to age(r = − .32, P < .0001), MWT (r = − .22, P < .008), LVMI (r = − .20, P < .02), E/Ea (r = − .16, P < .03) LVOT gradient (r = − 19, P < .02) and severity of mitral regurg (r = − .18, P < .03) but not to the concealed LV deformation abnormalities or mechanical dyssynchrony. On multivariate analysis, the key determinant of aortic stiffness was LV mass index and LVOT obstruction while the role LV dysfunction in aortic stiffness is not evident in this population. Conclusion: HCM is associated with abnormal aortic mechanical properties. The severity of cardiac

  12. [Gastric adenomyoma clinically simulating hypertrophic pyloric stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sánchez García, S; Rubio Solís, D; Anes González, G; González Sánchez, S

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenomyomas are extremely uncommon benign tumors in children. On histologic examination, these tumors have an epithelial component similar to pancreatic ducts. We present a case of a pyloric adenomyoma that clinically simulated hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a newborn girl. Imaging tests, fundamentally magnetic resonance imaging, were very important in the characterization and diagnosis of this entity.

  13. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Athletes: Catching a Killer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, Barry J.

    1993-01-01

    A leading cause of sudden death among young athletes, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) does not always present cardiac signs and symptoms. Echocardiography offers the most effective means for diagnosis. Some patients require pharmaceutical or surgical intervention. Patients with HCM should not engage in organized competitive sports or…

  14. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Responses in Shallow Ground Water Receiving Stormwater Runoff and Potential Transport of Contaminants to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Jena M.; Thodal, Carl E.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2008-01-01

    Clarity of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada has been decreasing due to inflows of sediment and nutrients associated with stormwater runoff. Detention basins are considered effective best management practices for mitigation of suspended sediment and nutrients associated with runoff, but effects of infiltrated stormwater on shallow ground water are not known. This report documents 2005-07 hydrogeologic conditions in a shallow aquifer and associated interactions between a stormwater-control system with nearby Lake Tahoe. Selected chemical qualities of stormwater, bottom sediment from a stormwater detention basin, ground water, and nearshore lake and interstitial water are characterized and coupled with results of a three-dimensional, finite-difference, mathematical model to evaluate responses of ground-water flow to stormwater-runoff accumulation in the stormwater-control system. The results of the ground-water flow model indicate mean ground-water discharge of 256 acre feet per year, contributing 27 pounds of phosphorus and 765 pounds of nitrogen to Lake Tahoe within the modeled area. Only 0.24 percent of this volume and nutrient load is attributed to stormwater infiltration from the detention basin. Settling of suspended nutrients and sediment, biological assimilation of dissolved nutrients, and sorption and detention of chemicals of potential concern in bottom sediment are the primary stormwater treatments achieved by the detention basins. Mean concentrations of unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus in inflow stormwater samples compared to outflow samples show that 55 percent of nitrogen and 47 percent of phosphorus are trapped by the detention basin. Organic carbon, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc in the uppermost 0.2 foot of bottom sediment from the detention basin were all at least twice as concentrated compared to sediment collected from 1.5 feet deeper. Similarly, concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were

  15. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Long-Term Change in Contamination Hazards and Shallow Well Quality in Two Neighbourhoods of Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Okotto-Okotto, Joseph; Okotto, Lorna; Price, Heather; Pedley, Steve; Wright, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing rapid urbanisation and many urban residents use groundwater where piped supplies are intermittent or unavailable. This study aimed to investigate long-term changes in groundwater contamination hazards and hand-dug well water quality in two informal settlements in Kisumu city, Kenya. Buildings, pit latrines, and wells were mapped in 1999 and 2013–2014. Sanitary risk inspection and water quality testing were conducted at 51 hand-dug wells in 2002 to 2004 and 2014. Pit latrine density increased between 1999 and 2014, whilst sanitary risk scores for wells increased between 2002 to 2004 and 2014 (n = 37, Z = −1.98, p = 0.048). Nitrate levels dropped from 2004 to 2014 (n = 14, Z = −3.296, p = 0.001), but multivariate analysis suggested high rainfall in 2004 could account for this. Thermotolerant coliform counts dropped between 2004 and 2014, with this reduction significant in one settlement. Hand-dug wells had thus remained an important source of domestic water between 1999 and 2014, but contamination risks increased over this period. Water quality trends were complex, but nitrate levels were related to both sanitary risks and rainfall. Given widespread groundwater use by the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa, the study protocol could be further refined to monitor contamination in hand-dug wells in similar settings. PMID:25898406

  17. Scar contractures, hypertrophic scars, and keloids.

    PubMed

    Brissett, A E; Sherris, D A

    2001-11-01

    A scar contracture is the result of a contractile wound-healing process occurring in a scar that has already been reepithelialized and adequately healed. Keloids and hypertrophic scars (HTSs) are fibrous tissue outgrowths that result from a derailment in the normal wound-healing process. The exact incidence of keloids and HTSs remains unknown. Beyond the common belief that trauma is the initiating event of keloid and hypertrophic scar formation, the remainder of the process remains uncertain. A combination of biochemical factors, skin tension, endocrinologic factors, and genetic factors are the likely culprits. Treatment begins by educating the patient about the etiology of the scarring process. All treatment protocols are individualized, but the standard approach to keloids and HTSs begins with corticosteroid injection followed by surgical excision, pressure dressings, and long-term follow-up.

  18. Calcification of in vitro developed hypertrophic cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Tacchetti, C.; Quarto, R.; Campanile, G.; Cancedda, R.

    1989-04-01

    We have recently reported that dedifferentiated cells derived from stage 28-30 chick embryo tibiae, when transferred in suspension culture in the presence of ascorbic acid, develop in a tissue closely resembling hypertrophic cartilage. Ultrastructural examination of this in vitro formed cartilage showed numerous matrix vesicles associated with the extracellular matrix. In the present article we report that the in vitro developed hypertrophic cartilage undergoes calcification. We indicate a correlation between the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition at different times of development. Following the transfer of cells into suspension culture and an initial lag phase, the level of alkaline phosphatase activity rapidly increased. In most experiments the maximum of activity was reached after 5 days of culture. When alkaline phosphatase activity and /sup 45/Ca deposition were measured in the same experiment, we observed that the increase in alkaline phosphatase preceded the deposition of nonwashable calcium deposits in the cartilage.

  19. An unusual ST-segment elevation: apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy shows the ace up its sleeve.

    PubMed

    de Santis, Francesco; Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Pero, Gaetano; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Minardi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is part of the broad clinical and morphologic spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report a patient with electrocardiographic abnormalities in whom acute coronary syndrome was excluded and apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was demonstrated by careful differential diagnosis.

  20. Inflammation and cutaneous nervous system involvement in hypertrophic scarring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shao-hua; Yang, Heng-lian; Xiao, Hu; Wang, Yi-bing; Wang, De-chang; Huo, Ran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to use a mouse model of hypertrophic scarring by mechanical loading on the dorsum of mice to determine whether the nervous system of the skin and inflammation participates in hypertrophic scarring. Results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that inflammation contributed to the formation of a hypertrophic scar and increased the nerve density in scar tissue.Western blot assay verified that interleukin-13 expression was increased in scar tissue. These findings suggest that inflammation and the cutaneous nervous system play a role in hypertrophic scar formation. PMID:26692869

  1. Microbial characterization of nitrification in a shallow, nitrogen-contaminated aquifer, Cape Cod, Massachusetts and detection of a novel cluster associated with nitrifying Betaproteobacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.N.; Smith, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater nitrification is a poorly characterized process affecting the speciation and transport of nitrogen. Cores from two sites in a plume of contamination were examined using culture-based and molecular techniques targeting nitrification processes. The first site, located beneath a sewage effluent infiltration bed, received treated effluent containing O2 (> 300????M) and NH4+ (51-800????M). The second site was 2.5??km down-gradient near the leading edge of the ammonium zone within the contaminant plume and featured vertical gradients of O2, NH4+, and NO3- (0-300, 0-500, and 100-200????M with depth, respectively). Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers enumerated by the culture-based MPN method were low in abundance at both sites (1.8 to 350??g- 1 and 33 to 35,000??g- 1, respectively). Potential nitrifying activity measured in core material in the laboratory was also very low, requiring several weeks for products to accumulate. Molecular analysis of aquifer DNA (nested PCR followed by cloning and 16S rDNA sequencing) detected primarily sequences associated with the Nitrosospira genus throughout the cores at the down-gradient site and a smaller proportion from the Nitrosomonas genus in the deeper anoxic, NH4+ zone at the down-gradient site. Only a single Nitrosospira sequence was detected beneath the infiltration bed. Furthermore, the majority of Nitrosospira-associated sequences represent an unrecognized cluster. We conclude that an uncharacterized group associated with Nitrosospira dominate at the geochemically stable, down-gradient site, but found little evidence for Betaproteobacteria nitrifiers beneath the infiltration beds where geochemical conditions were more variable.

  2. Geobacter daltonii sp. nov., an Fe(III)- and uranium(VI)-reducing bacterium isolated from a shallow subsurface exposed to mixed heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Gihring, Thomas M; Dalton, Dava D; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Green, Stefan J; Akob, Denise M; Wanger, Greg; Kostka, Joel E

    2010-03-01

    An Fe(III)- and uranium(VI)-reducing bacterium, designated strain FRC-32(T), was isolated from a contaminated subsurface of the USA Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where the sediments are exposed to mixed waste contamination of radionuclides and hydrocarbons. Analyses of both 16S rRNA gene and the Geobacteraceae-specific citrate synthase (gltA) mRNA gene sequences retrieved from ORFRC sediments indicated that this strain was abundant and active in ORFRC subsurface sediments undergoing uranium(VI) bioremediation. The organism belonged to the subsurface clade of the genus Geobacter and shared 92-98 % 16S rRNA gene and 75-81 % rpoB gene sequence similarities with other recognized species of the genus. In comparison to its closest relative, Geobacter uraniireducens Rf4(T), according to 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain FRC-32(T) showed a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 21 %. Cells of strain FRC-32(T) were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, curved rods, 1.0-1.5 microm long and 0.3-0.5 microm in diameter; the cells formed pink colonies in a semisolid cultivation medium, a characteristic feature of the genus Geobacter. The isolate was an obligate anaerobe, had temperature and pH optima for growth at 30 degrees C and pH 6.7-7.3, respectively, and could tolerate up to 0.7 % NaCl although growth was better in the absence of NaCl. Similar to other members of the Geobacter group, strain FRC-32(T) conserved energy for growth from the respiration of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide coupled with the oxidation of acetate. Strain FRC-32(T) was metabolically versatile and, unlike its closest relative, G. uraniireducens, was capable of utilizing formate, butyrate and butanol as electron donors and soluble ferric iron (as ferric citrate) and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors. Growth on aromatic compounds including benzoate and toluene was predicted from preliminary genomic analyses and was confirmed through successive transfer with

  3. Myocardial Fibrosis as an Early Manifestation of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Carolyn Y.; López, Begoña; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Lakdawala, Neal K.; Cirino, Allison L.; Jarolim, Petr; Kwong, Raymond; González, Arantxa; Colan, Steven D.; Seidman, J.G.; Díez, Javier; Seidman, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Myocardial fibrosis is a hallmark of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a proposed substrate for arrhythmias and heart failure. In animal models, profibrotic genetic pathways are activated early, before hypertrophic remodeling. Data showing early profibrotic responses to sarcomere-gene mutations in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are lacking. METHODS We used echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and serum biomarkers of collagen metabolism, hemodynamic stress, and myocardial injury to evaluate subjects with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a confirmed genotype. RESULTS The study involved 38 subjects with pathogenic sarcomere mutations and overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 39 subjects with mutations but no left ventricular hypertrophy, and 30 controls who did not have mutations. Levels of serum C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) were significantly higher in mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy and in subjects with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy than in controls (31% and 69% higher, respectively; P<0.001). The ratio of PICP to C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen was increased only in subjects with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, suggesting that collagen synthesis exceeds degradation. Cardiac MRI studies showed late gadolinium enhancement, indicating myocardial fibrosis, in 71% of subjects with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but in none of the mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS Elevated levels of serum PICP indicated increased myocardial collagen synthesis in sarcomere-mutation carriers without overt disease. This profibrotic state preceded the development of left ventricular hypertrophy or fibrosis visible on MRI. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:20818890

  4. Periostin induces fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast persistence in hypertrophic scarring.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Justin; Nygard, Karen; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David Brian

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is characterized by the excessive development and persistence of myofibroblasts. These cells contract the surrounding extracellular matrix resulting in the increased tissue density characteristic of scar tissue. Periostin is a matricellular protein that is abnormally abundant in fibrotic dermis, however, its roles in hypertrophic scarring are largely unknown. In this report, we assessed the ability of matrix-associated periostin to promote the proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of hypertrophic scars or healthy skin. Supplementation of a thin type-I collagen cell culture substrate with recombinant periostin induced a significant increase in the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts but not normal dermal fibroblasts. Periostin induced significant increases in supermature focal adhesion formation, α smooth muscle actin levels and collagen contraction in fibroblasts cultured from hypertrophic scars under conditions of increased matrix tension in three-dimensional type-I collagen lattices. Inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase activity significantly attenuated the effects of matrix-associated periostin on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Depletion of endogenous periostin expression in hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts resulted in a sustained decrease in α smooth muscle actin levels under conditions of reducing matrix tension, while matrix-associated periostin levels caused the cells to retain high levels of a smooth muscle actin under these conditions. These findings indicate that periostin promotes Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent proliferation and myofibroblast persistence of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and implicate periostin as a potential therapeutic target to enhance the resolution of scars.

  5. Diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vischer, Annina S; Perez-Tome, Maria Carrillo; Castelletti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is complex and includes a variety of phenotypes, which leads to different types of manifestations. Although most of the patients are asymptomatic, a significant proportion of them will develop symptoms or risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Therefore, the objectives of HCM diagnosis and management are to relieve the patients' symptoms (chest pain, heart failure, syncope, palpitations, etc.), prevent disease progression and major cardiovascular complications and SCD. The heterogeneity of HCM patterns, their symptoms and assessment is a challenge for the cardiologist. PMID:26693331

  6. Blepharoptosis and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Aysun Şanal; Acaroğlu, Gölge; Dikmetas, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old male patient presented to our hospital with a history of secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) associated with an abdominal neoplasia and blepharoptosis. He had finger clubbing, hyperhidrosis, and hypertrichosis. He also had a recent history of extensive abdominal surgery with a pathology report of myelolipoma. Routine blood work was unremarkable. Upper eyelid reconstruction with blepharoplasty, upper eyelid wedge resection, and brow suspension was performed to address his eyelid concerns. By this case report, we would like to attract notice that the eyelid involvement may be a part of HOA and to emphasize the importance of systemic and pathologic evaluation in failed blepharoptosis surgery. PMID:27221686

  7. Factors associated with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Jedd, M B; Melton, L J; Griffin, M R; Kaufman, B; Hoffman, A D; Broughton, D; O'Brien, P C

    1988-03-01

    We examined perinatal factors in relation to the rise in incidence of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis among children in Olmsted County, Minnesota, during the period from 1950 through 1984. Primogeniture was associated with male infants but not female infants; some factor related to primogeniture, such as breast-feeding, may be etiologically important. Our data did not support a role for maternal disease, use of doxylamine succinate-pyridoxide hydrochloride (Bendectin), or an infectious process. Further study should be directed toward environmental factors associated with primogeniture.

  8. Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Jens; Luis Fuentes, Virginia; Wess, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats, and it can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Cats are often screened for HCM because of the presence of a heart murmur, but screening for breeding purposes has also become common. These cats are usually purebred cats of breeding age, and generally do not present with severe disease or with any clinical signs. This type of screening is particularly challenging because mild disease may be difficult to differentiate from a normal phenotype, and the margin for error is small, with potentially major consequences for the breeder. This article reviews HCM screening methods, with particular emphasis on echocardiography.

  9. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy simulating an infiltrative myocardial disease.

    PubMed Central

    Frustaci, A; Loperfido, F; Pennestrì, F

    1985-01-01

    Congestive heart failure developed in a patient with low electrocardiographic QRS voltages, diffuse thickening of the septum and free cardiac wall, and a reduction in left ventricular internal diameter, which suggested an infiltrative heart muscle disease. Histological examination at necropsy showed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with symmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy. Myocardial disarray of type 1A disorganisation was extensive and equally distributed in the ventricular septum and the left anterior and left posterior ventricular free walls. Severe fibrosis (40%) was also present and may have been a possible cause of the electrocardiographic abnormalities as well as of the lack of ventricular dilatation. Images PMID:4041302

  10. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Owl Monkeys (Aotus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly. PMID:23759531

  11. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    PubMed

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  12. Posterolateral hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a rare, but clinically significant variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Seki, Atsuko; Perens, Gregory; Fishbein, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Posterolateral hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a rare variant of HCM. Segmental HCM is seen in 12% of cases of HCM. Among the patterns of segmental HCM, posterolateral HCM is the least common type. Our case of an 18-year old male documents this unusual type of cardiomyopathy. In this form of HCM, left ventricular thickness and the extent of hypertrophy might be underestimated by 2-dimensional echocardiography. This case illustrates the echocardiographic and pathologic features of posterolateral HCM.

  13. The impact of early sulfur saturation and calc-crustal contamination on ore-forming process in the Posan mafic-ultramafic complex: Derived from the shallow depleted mantle, Beishan region, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Lü, Xinbiao; Liu, Yanrong; Cao, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yuegao; Ruan, Banxiao; Adam, Munir Mohammed Abdalla

    2016-03-01

    The Posan ultramafic intrusion is one of the ~280 Ma Pobei mafic-ultramafic complexes located in the Beishan rift, on the northeastern margin of the Tarim Craton. Given that three finished drill holes reveal less economic mineralization, it is necessary to understand the ore potential of this little ultramafic intrusion. Detailed fieldwork shows that it is comprised of five stages of magma events. Among them, stages I, II and III are the mafic bodies dominated by gabbro, gabbronorite and olivine gabbro, and stages IV and V are the ultramafic bodies characterized by layered intrusions. Theoretically, the Posan ultramafic intrusion meets the first requirement of ore mineralization because of its high MgO contents (14.76%) of the parental magma. Moreover, the low Ni content (less than 1900 ppm) in olivine and the paragenesis of sulfides and spinel demonstrate that the Posan intrusion experienced early sulfur saturation before or during the fractional crystallization of spinel and olivine. This part of the sulfide, which may contain Ni-Cu or PGE mineralization, deserves to be the focus of future work. In stage IV, the continuous decrease of Ni contents in olivine with the fractional crystallization, the calc-crustal contamination (irregular distributed plagioclase, high Th/Yb ratios, Nb and Zr depletion and K, Rb, Ba, U, Th and Pb enrichment) instead of sulfur-rich crustal contamination, and the high level of oxygen fugacity (+2.1 < fO2QFM < +3.0) result in no obvious disseminated sulfides created in this stage. A clinopyroxene TiO2-Alz diagram confirms that the Beishan mafic-ultramafic complexes were formed in a rift-related circumstance rather than the arc-related cumulus. Low TiO2/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios reflect that the Beishan complexes were derived from the shallow depleted mantle without garnet. Considering the temporal and spatial relationship of the Tarim large igneous province and the large numbers of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Beishan region, it is

  14. Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Park, S. H.; Whang, C. J.; Sohn, M.; Oh, Y. C.; Lee, C. H.; Whang, Y. J.

    2001-01-01

    Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (IHP) is a rare, chronic nonspecific and granulomatous inflammatory disorder of the dura with unknown etiology. The diagnosis can be established by open biopsy and exclusion of all other specific granulomatous and infectious diseases. We report a typical case of spinal IHP occurring in a long segment of cervical and thoracic dura from C6 to T8. The patient was 56-yr-old female, who had been suffered from pain on her upper back and both arms for 3 months and recent onset motor weakness of both legs. During the 9 months of follow-up period, she experienced the improvement of her neurologic symptoms with combined therapy of partial excision and corticosteroid medication. Since early surgical intervention and subsequent pulse steroid therapy are mandatory for this disease to avoid irreversible damage of nervous system, the identification of this unique disease entity is essential on frozen diagnosis. A few cases have been reported in Korean literature. PMID:11641545

  15. [Hypertrophic miocardiopathy. An historical and anatomopathological review].

    PubMed

    Márquez, Manlio F; Ruíz-Siller, Teresita de Jesús; Méndez-Ramos, Rosario; Karabut, Erick; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Jiménez-Becerra, Silvia

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by the presence of an abnormal hypertrophy of the left ventricle (LV), without dilation, and in the absence of any condition or another cardiac or systemic disease capable of inducing such hypertrophy. This primary or idiopathic hypertrophy can occur with or without dynamic obstruction (induced by exercise) of the LV outflow tract, so in its natural history two fundamental aspects are highlighted: the production of symptoms by blocking the LV outflow tract and the occurrence of sudden cardiac death secondary to ventricular arrhythmias. This revision includes the work of different Iberoamerican investigators, who contributed in an important way to lay the groundwork of what we know nowadays as HCM. It also includes the main anatomopathological characteristics, from its initial description to the new perspective we have concerning the myofiber disarray as the main histopathologic feature.

  16. Hypertrophic gastropathy with transient sessile polyps.

    PubMed

    Pesce, F; Barabino, A; Dufour, C; Caffarena, P E; Callea, F; Gatti, R

    1992-04-01

    We report an 8-year-old boy with hypertrophic gastropathy (HG) associated with duodenal Giardia lamblia infestation. The follow-up was complicated by the development of gastric polyps at the site of previous biopsies that spontaneously disappeared within 15 months. Despite the histological similarity, the different course between Ménétrier's disease (MD) in adults (chronic, with frequent development of sessile or pedunculate polyps) and HG (uncomplicated and usually spontaneously resolving) suggests a different pathogenesis. Viral (cytomegalovirus) and bacterial (Helicobacter pylori) infections have been described in association with HG and they could play an important pathogenetic role. The term HG better defines the childhood disease in which a conservative management is recommended.

  17. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Magri, Damiano; Santolamazza, Caterina

    2017-04-04

    Understanding the functional limitation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the most common inherited heart disease, is challenging. Beside the occurrence of disease-related complications, several factors are potential determinants of exercise limitation, including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fiber disarray, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, microvascular ischemia, and interstitial fibrosis. Furthermore, drugs commonly used in the daily management of these patients may interfere with exercise capacity, especially those with a negative chronotropic effect. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing can safely and objectively evaluate the functional capacity of these patients and help the physician in understanding the mechanisms that underlie this limitation. Features that reduce exercise capacity may predict progression to heart failure in these patients and even the risk of sudden cardiac death.

  18. Epidermolysis Bullosa with Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis in a Newborn.

    PubMed

    Ben Dhaou, Mahdi; Ammar, Saloua; Louati, Hamdi; Zitouni, Hayet; Jallouli, Mohamed; Mhiri, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited blistering disorder characterized by the fragility of the skin and mucous membranes. Extracutaneous manifestations can be associated. We report a unique concomitant occurrence of EB and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a newborn.

  19. Epidermolysis Bullosa with Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis in a Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Ben Dhaou, Mahdi; Ammar, Saloua; Louati, Hamdi; Zitouni, Hayet; Jallouli, Mohamed; Mhiri, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited blistering disorder characterized by the fragility of the skin and mucous membranes. Extracutaneous manifestations can be associated. We report a unique concomitant occurrence of EB and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a newborn. PMID:26500857

  20. Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

    MedlinePlus

    Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hyperthyroidism: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Symons, C.; Richardson, P. J.; Feizi, O.

    1974-01-01

    Symons, C., Richardson, P. J., and Feizi, O. (1974).Thorax, 29, 713-719. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hyperthyroidism. The combination of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hyperthyroidism gives rise to a complex clinical picture as some of the symptoms and signs may be common to both conditions. The presentation and investigation of three patients are reported. In one patient there was evidence of progression from the hypertrophic obstructive phase to that associated with loss of outflow tract obstruction. The echocardiogram was especially useful in assessing the presence or absence of hypertrophic disease in the thyrotoxic subject. It is suggested that the long continued high-output circulatory state in clinically undetected hyperthyroidism may prove to be a stimulus for unrestrained cardiac muscle hypertrophy. Images PMID:4281112

  2. Management of scar contractures, hypertrophic scars, and keloids.

    PubMed

    Sherris, D A; Larrabee, W F; Murakami, C S

    1995-10-01

    Aberrant fibrous tissue formation after surgery or trauma still presents a challenge to surgeons. Current research hopes to identify the characteristics of the population of fibroblasts that lead to hypertrophic or keloid scar formation. Surgical procedures and laser therapy followed by intralesional steroid treatments still are the foundation of treatment; but new modalities are being applied. The pathogenesis and management of hypertrophic scars, keloids, and scar contractures are discussed in this article.

  3. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy associated with Fallot's tetralogy—a case report

    PubMed Central

    George, B. Olu.; Mabayoje, J. Olu.

    1975-01-01

    A case of Fallot's tetralogy associated with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a young Nigerian female is described. The clinical spectrum of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is reviewed. The rarity of this syndrome is stressed. Some other aspects of the clinical manifestation of cyanotic congenital heart disease which may mimic the skeletal syndrome are mentioned. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:1197165

  4. Shallow-Water Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Shallow- Water Propagation William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, New York 12180-3590 phone: (518) 276...ocean_acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS Develop methods for propagation and coherence calculations in complex shallow- water environments, determine...intensity and coherence. APPROACH (A) Develop high accuracy PE techniques for applications to shallow- water sediments, accounting for

  5. Cardiac norepinephrine kinetics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, J.E. Jr.; Eisenhofer, G.; Garty, M.; Stull, R.; Maron, B.J.; Cannon, R.O. III; Panza, J.A.; Epstein, S.E.; Goldstein, D.S.

    1989-04-01

    We examined the uptake and release of norepinephrine in the cardiac circulation and other regional vascular beds in 11 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 10 control subjects during simultaneous infusion of tracer-labeled norepinephrine and isoproterenol. Cardiac neuronal uptake of norepinephrine was assessed by comparing regional removal of tracer-labeled norepinephrine with that of tracer-labeled isoproterenol (which is not a substrate for neuronal uptake) and by the relation between production of dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), an exclusively intraneuronal metabolite of norepinephrine, and regional spillover of norepinephrine. Cardiac extraction of norepinephrine averaged 59 +/- 17% in the patients with HCM, significantly less than in the control subjects (79 +/- 13%, p less than 0.05), whereas cardiac extraction of isoproterenol was similar in the two groups (13 +/- 23% versus 13 +/- 14%), indicating that neuronal uptake of norepinephrine was decreased in the patients with HCM. The cardiac arteriovenous difference in norepinephrine was significantly larger in the patients with HCM than in the control subjects (73 +/- 77 versus 13 +/- 50 pg/ml, p less than 0.05), as was the product of the arteriovenous difference in norepinephrine and coronary blood flow (7.3 +/- 7.3 versus 0.8 +/- 3.0 ng/min, p less than 0.05).

  6. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in the third world.

    PubMed

    Saula, P W; Hadley, G P

    2011-10-01

    The relative rarity of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) in the developing world makes its diagnosis a challenge to many physicians. This study audits the management of HPS at a tertiary hospital in South Africa, with a view to defining its regional pattern. This is a retrospective review of records of all patients (n = 63) managed for HPS over an eight-year period (2002-2010). The mean age at presentation was 6.2 weeks and the male/female ratio was 6:1. The majority of patients presented with non-bilious vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound had a sensitivity of 65% and 81.3% when the criteria of pyloric muscle thickness >4 mm and pyloric channel length >16 mm were used, respectively. The overall complication rate was 14.3% and the mortality rate was 0%. Despite the rarity of HPS in the Third World, the outcome of its management is favourable. However, the sensitivity of abdominal ultrasound for diagnosing HPS is low.

  7. Paraneoplastic hypertrophic osteopathy in 30 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Withers, S. S.; Johnson, E. G.; Culp, W. T. N.; Rodriguez, C. O.; Skorupski, K. A.; Rebhun, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Paraneoplastic hypertrophic osteopathy (pHO) is known to occur in both canine and human cancer patients. While the pathology of pHO is well-described in the dog, very little information exists regarding the true clinical presentation of dogs affected with pHO. The primary objective of this study was to provide a more comprehensive clinical picture of pHO. To this end, we retrospectively identified 30 dogs and recorded data regarding presenting complaints and physical examination (PE) findings on the date of pHO diagnosis. As a secondary objective, any blood test results were also collected from the computerized records. The most common clinical signs included leg swelling, ocular discharge and/or episcleral injection, lameness, and lethargy. The most common haematological and serum biochemical abnormalities included anaemia, neutrophilia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. In addition to presenting a more detailed clinical description of pHO in the dog, these data support the previously described haematological, serum biochemical and PE abnormalities published in individual case reports. PMID:23489591

  8. Hypertrophic olivary degeneration secondary to pontine haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wein, Sara; Yan, Bernard; Gaillard, Frank

    2015-07-01

    We report a 58-year-old man who developed hyptertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) after haemorrhage of a cavernous malformation in the pons. Lesions of the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret (the dentatorubro-olivary pathway) may lead to HOD, a secondary transsynaptic degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus. HOD is considered unique because the degenerating olive initially becomes hypertrophic rather than atrophic. The primary lesion causing pathway interruption is often haemorrhage, either due to hypertension, trauma, surgery or, as in our patient, a vascular malformation such as a cavernoma. Ischaemia and demyelination can also occasionally be the inciting events. The classic clinical presentation of HOD is palatal myoclonus, although not all patients with HOD develop this symptom. The imaging features of HOD evolve through characteristic phases. The clue to the diagnosis of HOD is recognition of the distinct imaging stages and identification of a remote primary lesion in the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret. Familiarity with the classic imaging findings of this rare phenomenon is necessary in order to avoid misdiagnosis and prevent unnecessary intervention.

  9. Paraneoplastic hypertrophic osteopathy in 30 dogs.

    PubMed

    Withers, S S; Johnson, E G; Culp, W T N; Rodriguez, C O; Skorupski, K A; Rebhun, R B

    2015-09-01

    Paraneoplastic hypertrophic osteopathy (pHO) is known to occur in both canine and human cancer patients. While the pathology of pHO is well-described in the dog, very little information exists regarding the true clinical presentation of dogs affected with pHO. The primary objective of this study was to provide a more comprehensive clinical picture of pHO. To this end, we retrospectively identified 30 dogs and recorded data regarding presenting complaints and physical examination (PE) findings on the date of pHO diagnosis. As a secondary objective, any blood test results were also collected from the computerized records. The most common clinical signs included leg swelling, ocular discharge and/or episcleral injection, lameness, and lethargy. The most common haematological and serum biochemical abnormalities included anaemia, neutrophilia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. In addition to presenting a more detailed clinical description of pHO in the dog, these data support the previously described haematological, serum biochemical and PE abnormalities published in individual case reports.

  10. Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with mycotic pneumonia in two juvenile elk (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Nicole M; Lévy, Michel; Ramos-Vara, José A; Baird, Debra K; Wu, Ching Ching

    2008-11-01

    Two yearling bull elk (cervus claphus) from the same farm developed anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. On physical examination, both elk were thin and showed diffuse swelling of all lower limbs. Radiographs of the lower limbs showed periosteal thickening of the distal extremities, consistent with hypertrophic osteopathy. Thoracic radiographs indicated the presence of pulmonary nodules. Cytologic evaluations of tracheal washes on both elk were consistent with inflammation. Acid-fast stains on both samples were negative. Because of the poor prognosis, both elk were euthanized. At necropsy, the carpal, metacarpal, tarsal, and metatarsal bones, as well as the radius, ulna, and tibia had thickening of cortical bone. There were multiple encapsulated nodules throughout the lungs, lymph nodes, and kidney, and smaller nodules in the myocardium. On microscopic examination, these nodules contained myriads of hyphae, and immunohistochemistry for Aspergillus sp. was strongly positive. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from affected tissue in 1 elk. Necropsy findings in both elk were consistent with disseminated fungal granulomas and periosteal hyperostosis. This case presents the first description of hypertrophic osteopathy in elk. The source of infection was undetermined, but inhalation of spores from contaminated feed or bedding was suspected.

  11. Penile agenesis and congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: an association or a random coexistence?

    PubMed

    Yagmurlu, Aydin; Vargun, Rahsan; Gollu, Gulnur; Gokcora, I Haluk

    2004-01-01

    A neonate with penile agenesis and congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is presented. The patterns of associated anomalies with penile agenesis, and those of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis are discussed.

  12. Potential applications for transesophageal echocardiography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Widimsky, P; Ten Cate, F J; Vletter, W; van Herwerden, L

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential advantages of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in comparison with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in selected patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Ten patients with previously established or suspected diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were examined by TEE to solve specific clinical questions. TEE was well tolerated by all patients; no arrhythmias were seen during the procedure. The comparison of TTE and TEE showed the following: Advantages of TTE--better assessment of the left ventricle, myocardial thickness measurements available in all regions and sufficient for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in nine out of 10 patients; advantages of TEE--precise assessment of mitral valve morphology and regurgitant jets, detailed evaluation of systolic anterior motion, and subaortic membrane (not seen by TTE) recognized in one patient. Clinically, in three patients TEE influenced the management (mitral leaflet perforation, subaortic membrane, and residual mitral regurgitation after valvuloplasty). Thus TEE enables more precise diagnosis in some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and has the potential to influence their surgical management. However, for medical treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, TTE is sufficient.

  13. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars. PMID:25861351

  14. Advances in medical treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mareomi; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Shigematsu, Yuji

    2014-07-01

    We reviewed the natural history of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The effect of medical treatments on natural history, left ventricular (LV) functions and LV remodeling was also evaluated. Sudden cardiac death and end-stage heart failure are the most serious complications of HCM. Age <30 years and a family history of sudden premature death are risk factors for sudden cardiac death in HCM patients. End-stage heart failure is not a specific additional phenomenon observed in patients with HCM, but is the natural course of the disease in most of those patients. After the occurrence of heart failure, the progression to cardiac death is very rapid. Young age at diagnosis, a family history of HCM, and greater wall thickness are associated with a greater likelihood of developing end-stage heart failure. Neither beta-blockers nor calcium antagonists can prevent this transition. The class Ia antiarrhythmic drugs, disopyramide and cibenzoline are useful for the reduction of LV pressure gradient. Unlike disopyramide, cibenzoline has little anticholinergic activity; therefore, this drug can be easily adapted to long-term use. In addition to the reduction in LV pressure gradient, cibenzoline can improve LV diastolic dysfunction, and induce regression of LV hypertrophy in patients with HCM. A decrease in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration through the activation of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger associated with cibenzoline therapy is likely to be closely related with the improvement in HCM-related disorders. It is possible that cibenzoline can prevent the progression from typical HCM to end-stage heart failure.

  15. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies James F. Lynch MS #12...N00014-14-1-0040 http://acoustics.whoi.edu/sw06/ LONG TERM GOALS The long term goals of our shallow water acoustics work are to: 1) understand the...nature of low frequency (10-1500 Hz) acoustic propagation, scattering and noise in shallow water when strong oceanic variability is present in the

  16. Familial idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranial suture defects in children

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, A.J.; Schiapachasse, V.; Guerrero, R.

    1982-05-01

    Three children with idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranial suture defects are reported. The syndrome was recognized after birth and in the two oldest siblings, the cranial defects and subperiosteal bone formation resolved almost completely by age 4 and 6 years. The joint swelling and clubbing persisted and mild bone reabsorption of the distal phalanges became apparent at an older age. Two siblings and both parents had normal bone X-rays and no clubbing. This study confirms the association of cranial sutural defects and familial idopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

  17. Adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis — a description in 1834?

    PubMed Central

    Stout, G.

    1983-01-01

    John Peacock MD was in practice in Darlington when he published his Practical Hints on the Treatment of Several Diseases in 1834. It is suggested that his cases described therein of `scirrhous pylorus' are adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. If authenticated, his work would predate the earliest description of this condition by the French pathologist, Professor Jean Cruveilhier in 1835. PMID:6350566

  18. A case of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a Belgian blue cow

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Hugues; Sandersen, Charlotte; Rollin, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old cow was presented with chronic respiratory disease and lameness. Chronic pleuritis, pneumonia, and bronchial carcinoma were found as well as periosteal proliferation on limb bones. Ancillary tests and necropsy confirmed a combined pathology of pulmonary inflammation and neoplasm, and hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy. PMID:22654134

  19. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Practical Steps for Preventing Sudden Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, Barry J.

    2002-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a rare cause of death among athletes, with deaths occurring in young, apparently healthy people. Differentiating HCM from conditioning hypertrophy is challenging. Routine detection involves family history, physical examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Keys to differential diagnosis include…

  20. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in infants: clinical features and natural history

    SciTech Connect

    Maron, B.J.; Tajik, A.J.; Ruttenberg, H.D.; Graham, T.P.; Atwood, G.F.; Victorica, B.E.; Lie, J.T.; Roberts, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical and morphologic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 20 patients recognized as having cardiac disease in the first year of life are described. Fourteen of these 20 infants were initially suspected of having heart disease solely because a heart murmur was identified. However, the infants showed a variety of clinical findings, including signs of marked congestive heart failure (in the presence of nondilated ventricular cavities and normal or increased left ventricular contractility) and substantial cardiac enlargement on chest radiograph. Other findings were markedly different from those usually present in older children and adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (e.g., right ventricular hypertrophy on the ECG and cyanosis). Consequently, in 14 infants, the initial clinical diagnosis was congenital cardiac malformation other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The clinical course was variable in these patients, but the onset of marked congestive heart failure in the first year of life appeared to be an unfavorable prognostic sign; nine of the 11 infants with congestive heart failure died within the first year of life. In infants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, unlike older children and adults with this condition, sudden death was less common (two patients) than death due to progressive congestive heart failure.

  1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry (HCMR): The rationale and design of an international, observational study of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christopher M.; Appelbaum, Evan; Desai, Milind Y.; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; DiMarco, John P.; Friedrich, Matthias G.; Geller, Nancy; Heckler, Sarahfaye; Ho, Carolyn Y.; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Ivey, Elizabeth A.; Keleti, Julianna; Kim, Dong-Yun; Kolm, Paul; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Maron, Martin S.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Piechnik, Stefan; Watkins, Hugh; Weintraub, William S.; Wu, Pan; Neubauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common monogenic heart disease with a frequency as high as 1 in 200. In many cases, HCM is caused by mutations in genes encoding the different components of the sarcomere apparatus. HCM is characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), myofibrillar disarray, and myocardial fibrosis. The phenotypic expression is quite variable. While the majority of patients with HCM are asymptomatic, serious consequences are experienced in a subset of affected individuals who present initially with sudden cardiac death (SCD) or progress to refractory heart failure (HF). The HCMR study is a National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored 2750 patient, 41 site, international registry and natural history study designed to address limitations in extant evidence to improve prognostication in HCM (NCT01915615). In addition to collection of standard demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic variables, patients will undergo state-of-the-art cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for assessment of left ventricular (LV) mass and volumes as well as replacement scarring and interstitial fibrosis. In addition, genetic and biomarker analysis will be performed. HCMR has the potential to change the paradigm of risk stratification in HCM, using novel markers to identify those at higher risk. PMID:26299218

  2. Invasive alien species water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes as abode for macroinvertebrates in hypertrophic Ramsar Site, Lake Xochimilco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Ramirez, A; Robles-Valderrama, E; Ramirez-Flores, E

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents information on the density, diversity and functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate assemblages associated with water hyacinth in Antiguo Canal Cuemanco, part of Lake Xochimilco in Mexico City. Rare (low frequency and density) and dominant (high frequency and density) taxa prevailed in the assemblages, with the most predominant being Hyalella azteca, Chironomus plumosus and Ischnura denticollis. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling confirmed two climatic seasons: warm-rainy and cold-dry; the former with the highest diversity and density of taxa. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that conductivity, nitrates and turbidity explained the density variations of taxa. Antiguo Canal Cuemanco waters are spatially homogeneous with the characteristics of hypertrophic shallow lakes, inhabited by scrapers and gathering-collectors. The species found were tolerant to organic pollution.

  3. [Risk stratification of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 2016].

    PubMed

    Dubourg, Olivier; Charron, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Siam-Tsieu, Valérie; Mansencal, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are at an increased risk of death from many causes and sudden cardiac death is one of them. The study of the sudden cardiac death of patients with HCM has allowed the identification of risk factors and among them major risk factor are: family history of sudden cardiac death, the occurrence of syncope/dizziness, the existence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia an abnormal blood pressure response during stress test, presence of severe left ventricular hypertrophy≥30mm. Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death is essential, for symptomatic or asymptomatic HCM patients. Two approaches are possible: the classical approach or risk stratification methods with major risk factors and the new approach using the risk-calculator recommended by the ESC. Both methods are not in opposition but complementary. The risk stratification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy should be still improved to be sure that only the most high-risk patients receive an implantable cardiac defibrillator.

  4. Atrial Myxoma in a Patient with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Mahmoud; Hayek, Salim; Williams, Byron R.

    2013-01-01

    Atrial myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor. Patients with atrial myxoma typically present with obstructive, embolic, or systemic symptoms; asymptomatic presentation is very rare. To our knowledge, isolated association of atrial myxoma with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been reported only once in the English-language medical literature. We report the case of an asymptomatic 71-year-old woman with known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in whom a left atrial mass was incidentally identified on cardiac magnetic resonance images. After surgical excision of the mass and partial excision of the left atrial septum, histopathologic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of atrial myxoma. The patient was placed on preventive implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy and remained asymptomatic. The management of asymptomatic cardiac myxoma is a topic of debate, because no reports definitively favor either conservative or surgical measures. PMID:24082380

  5. A Tension-Based Model Distinguishes Hypertrophic versus Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer; Davis, L Craig; Correll, Robert N; Makarewich, Catherine A; Schwanekamp, Jennifer A; Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Wang, Dan; York, Allen J; Wu, Haodi; Houser, Steven R; Seidman, Christine E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Regnier, Michael; Metzger, Joseph M; Wu, Joseph C; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2016-05-19

    The heart either hypertrophies or dilates in response to familial mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, which are responsible for contraction and pumping. These mutations typically alter calcium-dependent tension generation within the sarcomeres, but how this translates into the spectrum of hypertrophic versus dilated cardiomyopathy is unknown. By generating a series of cardiac-specific mouse models that permit the systematic tuning of sarcomeric tension generation and calcium fluxing, we identify a significant relationship between the magnitude of tension developed over time and heart growth. When formulated into a computational model, the integral of myofilament tension development predicts hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies in mice associated with essentially any sarcomeric gene mutations, but also accurately predicts human cardiac phenotypes from data generated in induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived myocytes from familial cardiomyopathy patients. This tension-based model also has the potential to inform pharmacologic treatment options in cardiomyopathy patients.

  6. Innovative Therapies in the Treatment of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Viera, Martha H.; Amini, Sadegh; Valins, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are benign fibrous overgrowths of scar tissue, which results from an abnormal response to trauma. Several therapeutic modalities have been described for the treatment and prevention of these conditions, but the optimal management approach has not yet been defined. This article reviews the most recent, innovative, therapeutic strategies for the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids, including mitomycin-C, tamoxifen citrate, methotrexate, imidazolaquinolines, retinoids, calcineurin inhibitors, phenylakylamine calcium channel blockers, botulinum toxin, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, hepatocyte growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-10, manosa-6-phosphate, transforming growth factor beta, antihistamines, and prostaglandin E2. No consensus in treatment regimens has been reached due to the limited evidence-based information found in the literature. Most therapeutic options have potential effectiveness as both monotherapy and as combination therapy. However, recent reports offer novel modalities that may approach scarring from different angles. PMID:20725565

  7. Atrial fibrillation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: mechanisms, embolic risk and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ajith G; Fischer, Avi G

    2006-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with an increased incidence of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in HCM with a prevalence of 20% and an annual incidence of two percent per year. Increased left atrial size and volume along with impaired left atrial function confer an increased likelihood of AF. The onset of AF is often accompanied by a decrease in functional status in conjunction with an increased risk of stroke and overall mortality.

  8. Two Cases of Apical Ballooning Syndrome Masking Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ranjini Raina; Hakim, Fayaz A.; Hurst, R. Todd; Simper, David; Appleton, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Apical akinesis and dilation in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is a typical feature of stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy, whereas apical hypertrophy is seen in apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report the cases of 2 patients who presented with takotsubo cardiomyopathy and were subsequently found to have apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, after the apical ballooning from the takotsubo cardiomyopathy had resolved. The first patient, a 43-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse, presented with shortness of breath, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and no significant coronary artery disease. An echocardiogram 2 weeks later revealed a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and newly apparent apical hypertrophy. The 2nd patient, a 70-year-old woman with pancreatitis, presented with chest pain, apical akinesis, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.39, consistent with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. One month later, her left ventricular ejection fraction was normal; however, hypertrophy of the left ventricular apex was newly noted. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases in which apical-variant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was masked by apical ballooning from stress-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:24808780

  9. Shallow, non-pumped wells: a low-energy alternative for cleaning polluted groundwater.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2013-07-01

    This modeling study evaluated the capability of non-pumped wells with filter media for preventing contaminant plumes from migrating offsite. Linear configurations of non-pumped wells were compared to permeable reactive barriers in simulated shallow homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers. While permeable reactive barriers enabled faster contaminant removal and shorter distances of contaminant travel, non-pumped wells also prevented offsite contaminant migration. Overall, results of this study suggest that discontinuous, linear configurations of non-pumped wells may be a viable alternative to much more costly permeable reactive barriers for preventing offsite contaminant travel in some shallow aquifers.

  10. Evaluating the vulnerability of bored and driven wells in a shallow unconfined aquifer.

    PubMed

    Schmalzried, Hans; Keil, Charles

    2008-11-01

    Shallow unconfined aquifers are the only source of water for private wells in some rural areas. The Oak Openings region of Ohio is one such location. Wells are usually bored or driven in shallow aquifers and are more susceptible to contamination caused by human activities on the surface. To provide better protection for consumers developing shallow wells, local health departments have doubled the required minimum 50 feet distance for isolation from sources of contamination. The potential for contamination still exists, however. Over a two year period, 42 wells were tested in the region for a large suite of pesticides and inorganic chemicals. Results showed little evidence of persistent contamination. Data provided evidence, however, indicating that these wells are vulnerable. Sodium and chloride concentrations were higher in wells at households with water softeners, illustrating the potential for contaminant transport even with increased isolation distances. To ensure public health, regular monitoring of shallow wells is recommended.

  11. Histochemical evidences on the chronological alterations of the hypertrophic zone of mandibular condylar cartilage.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Kazi Sazzad; Amizuka, Norio; Ikeda, Nobuyki; Nozawa-Inoue, Kayoko; Suzuki, Akiko; Li, Minqi; Takeuchi, Kiichi; Aita, Megumi; Kawano, Yoshiro; Hoshino, Masaaki; Oda, Kimimitsu; Takagi, Ritsuo; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2005-08-15

    The hypertrophic chondrocytes lack the ability to proliferate, thus permitting matrix mineralization as well as vascular invasion from the bone in both the mandibular condyle and the epiphyseal cartilage. This study attempted to verify whether the histological appearance of the hypertrophic chondrocytes is in a steady state during postnatal development of the mouse mandibular condyle. Type X collagen immunohistochemistry apparently distinguished the fibrous layer described previously as the "articular zone," "articular layer," and "resting zone" from the hypertrophic zone. Interestingly, the ratio of the type X collagen-positive hypertrophic zone in the entire condyle seemed higher in the early stages but decreased in the later stages. Some apparently compacted cells in the hypertrophic zone showed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreaction, indicating the potential for cell proliferation at the early stages. As the mice matured, in contrast, they further enlarged and assumed typical features of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Apoptotic cells were also discernible in the hypertrophic zone at the early but not later stages. Consistent with morphological configurations of hypertrophic chondrocytes, immunoreactions for alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and type I collagen were prominent at the later stage, but not the early stage. Cartilaginous matrices demonstrated scattered patches of mineralization at the early stage, but increased in their volume and connectivity at the later stage. Thus, the spatial and temporal occurrence of these immunoreactions as well as apoptosis likely reflect the prematurity of hypertrophying cells at the early stage, and imply a physiological relevance during the early development of the mandibular condyles.

  12. Structural differences in epiphyseal and physeal hypertrophic chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Frederic; Flynn, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    We have observed that epiphyseal and physeal hypertrophic chondrocytes in BALB/c mice show considerable differences of light microscopic and ultrastructural appearance, even when the cells are at the same stage of differentiation. In addition, cell structure maintenance improved with tissue preparation controlled for osmolarity and for membrane stabilization using 0.5% ruthenium hexammine trichloride (RHT) for both light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) or 0.5% lanthanum nitrate for LM. Physeal hypertrophic chondrocytes showed a gradual increase in size closer to the metaphysis and a change in shape as cells elongated along the long axis. The nucleus remained central, with uniformly dispersed chromatin, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was randomly dispersed throughout cytoplasm with little to no presence against the cell membrane. Even the lowermost cells showed thin elongated or dilated cisternae of RER and intact cell membranes. Epiphyseal chondrocytes remained circular to oval with no elongation. Nucleus and RER were positioned as a complete transcellular central nucleocytoplasmic column or as an incomplete bud with RER of the column/bud always continuous with RER peripherally against the intact cell membrane. RER was densely packed with parallel cisternae with adjacent cytoplasm empty of organelles but often filled with circular deposits of moderately electron-dense material consistent with fat. Optimal technique for LM involved fixation using glutaraldehyde (GA) 1.3%, paraformaldehyde (PFA) 1% and RHT 0.5% (mOsm 606) embedded in JB-4 plastic and stained with 0.5% toluidine blue. Optimal technique for EM used fixation with GA 1.3%, PFA 1%, RHT 0.5% and cacodylate buffer 0.03 M (mOsm 511) and post-fixation including 1% osmium tetroxide. These observations lead to the possibility that the same basic cell, the hypertrophic chondrocyte, has differing functional mechanisms at different regions of the developing bone. PMID:25987982

  13. Echocardiographic sign of right-sided hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Cardiel, E A; Alonso, M; Delcan, J L; Menarguez, L

    1978-01-01

    The echocardiographic and haemodynamic findings with a patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and dynamic subpulmonary stenosis, without left ventricular gradient, are described. The echocardiogram shows not only asymmetric septal hypertrophy, systolic anterior movement of the anterior mitral leaflet, and midsystolic collapse of the aortic valve, but also increase in the right ventricular wall echoes and systolic collapse of the pulmonary valve. We believe that in the absence of pulmonary hypertension these signs, particularly the systolic closing movement of the pulmonary valve cusp, may suggest right ventricular obstruction in HOCM. Images PMID:568930

  14. Effective Response of Methotrexate for Recurrent Idiopathic Hypertrophic Spinal Pachymeningitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Joon; Seo, Won Deok; Kim, Sang Young; Cho, Jae Hoon; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (IHSP) is a chronic progressive and diffuse inflammatory fibrosis of the spinal dura mater. Though treatment of IHSP is surgical decompression with steroid therapy, treatment for recurrent IHSP is controversial. Our patient was diagnosed with IHSP based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and underwent laminectomy for decompression following steroid pulse therapy. Despite maintenance of steroid therapy, the patient experienced 3 recurrences. As an alternative immunosuppressant medication, methotrexate was introduced with low-dose steroid. Fortunately, the symptom was resolved, and a decrease of dura thickening was revealed on MRI. We present the case and suggest that methotrexate might be an effective treatment modality for recurrent IHSP. PMID:28127378

  15. Atrial fibrillation and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: who to anticoagulate?

    PubMed

    Frontera, Antonio; Wilson, D G; Sekhon, H; Duncan, E R; Thomas, G

    2015-10-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common genetic cardiac conditions. Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been demonstrated to be the most frequent arrhythmia encountered in HCM patients. Research focusing on AF and embolic stroke in HCM patients has been sparse and the sample size of most studies is small. The prognostic significance of AF in HCM patients is still not well known. The aim of this article is to provide further understanding of the anti-coagulation requirement of HCM patients with AF.

  16. Ultrasonic "double track" sign in hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H L; Schechter, S; Mestel, A L; Eaton, D H; Haller, J O

    1987-03-01

    Ultrasound has been used in the diagnosis of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis since the first reports of its use with contact B mode scanners. Real-time imaging has allowed measurements of pyloric diameter, length, and muscle wall thickness. Wall thickness measurements taken with the pylorus in longitudinal (elongated) view improve diagnostic accuracy. Fluid aided real-time examination of 10 cases showed the ultrasound equivalent of the "double track" sign. This finding is the result of pyloric fluid compressed into smaller tracks as it is impinged upon circumferentially by the thickened circular muscle. This sign, previously seen in barium studies, although nonspecific, may prove to be a sensitive diagnostic criterion.

  17. Surgical Myectomy after Failed Ablation for Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bougioukas, Ioannis; Hoppe, Uta; Danner, Bernhard; Schoendube, Friedrich A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a genetic disease of the myocardial sarcolemma characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy. When obstruction to the left ventricular outflow tract is present and symptoms are refractory to medication, surgical myectomy or alcohol septal ablation is indicated. Case Description We report a case of a patient presented for myectomy due to recurrence only 1 year after alcohol ablation. Interesting findings were a firm subaortic membrane and a direct insertion of the papillary muscle into the mitral valve. Conclusion After myectomy and extensive papillary muscle mobilization, a significant relief of obstruction was achieved. PMID:28018818

  18. Radiotherapy for extreme hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy associated with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Yeo, W; Leung, S F; Chan, A T; Chiu, K W

    1996-01-01

    A patient with florid hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) associated with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma is presented. Despite the presence of metastatic disease in the thorax and in bone, the patient's main symptom was severe pain from the HPOA, which was temporarily relieved by chemotherapy. Her disease subsequently progressed during chemotherapy and the pain became resistant to conventional treatment, including high dose morphine, non-steriodal anti-inflammatory agents and steriods. It was only with local radiation to the involved joints that the pain could be controlled. Our patient demonstrates that local radiotherapy is an option for the palliation of extreme HPOA.

  19. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a mixed breed cat family.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Takemura, Naoyuki; Machida, Noboru; Kawamura, Masamichi; Amasaki, Hajime; Hirose, Hisashi

    2002-07-01

    A spayed female mixed cat (case 1) and its female offspring, the result of a pairing between case 1 and its male sibling, were diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). A pedigree survey revealed that the prevalence of HCM was at least 12.5% in the family, which was considered to be significantly higher than that in a hospital-based population (approximately 1.6%). Thus, this finding seems to support the suspected occurrence of familial HCM in this group of related cats.

  20. Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    van der Lee, C.; Foley, D.P.; Vletter, W.B.; ten Cate, F.J.; Kofflard, M.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) is a new interventional technique to treat patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods Small doses of ethanol 96% were injected into a targeted septal artery causing a chemical myocardial infarction. Three patients were evaluated, including a follow-up of three months. Results There were no complications during the procedure LVOT gradient was reduced from 120±140 mmHg. At follow-up, all three patients showed improvement in validity. Conclusion The method requires an echocardiographic contrast determination of the myocardium at risk for ethanol treatment, in addition to haemodynamic monitoring. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3A PMID:25696698

  1. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome associated with cardiomyopathy hypertrophic obstructive.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Raimundo José Almeida de Oliveira; Santos, Adaílton Araújo dos; Azevedo, Mablo de Castro; Meira, Saulo Sacramento

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare clinical condition caused by a genetic change that results in the formation of structurally or functionally altered collagen. The clinical manifestations are varied, being the most obvious skin hypermotility and increased joint flexibility, although other systems - such as cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological - may also be affected. This paper presents the report of a patient who sought medical attention with complaints of atypical chest pain. Clinical evaluation enabled hypothetical diagnosis of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Initial electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and 24 hours holter allowed the confirmation of the first hypothesis. A skin biopsy performed later associated clinical data and confirmed the second hypothesis.

  2. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow- Water Mud Acoustics William L. Siegmann...shallow water over mud sediments and of acoustic detection, localization, and classification of objects buried in mud. OBJECTIVES • Develop...including long-range conveyance of information; detection, localization, and classification of objects buried in mud; and improvement of shallow water

  3. Shallow subsurface applications of high-resolution seismic reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeples, Don

    2002-11-01

    Shallow seismic reflection surveys have been applied to a wide variety of problems. For example, in many geologic settings, variations and discontinuities on the surface of bedrock can influence the transport and eventual fate of contaminants introduced at or near the ground surface. Using seismic methods to determine the nature and location of anomalous bedrock can be an essential component of hydrologic characterization. Shallow seismic surveys can also be used to detect earthquake faults and to image underground voids. During the early 1980s, the advent of digital engineering seismographs designed for shallow, high-resolution surveying spurred significant improvements in engineering and environmental reflection seismology. Commonly, shallow seismic reflection methods are used in conjunction with other geophysical and geological methods, supported by a well-planned drilling-verification effort. To the extent that seismic reflection, refraction, and surface-wave methods can constrain shallow stratigraphy, geologic structure, engineering properties, and relative permeability, these methods are useful in civil-engineering applications and in characterizing environmental sites. Case histories from Kansas, California, and Texas illustrate how seismic reflection can be used to map bedrock beneath alluvium at hazardous waste sites, detect abandoned coal mines, follow the top of the saturated zone during an alluvial aquifer pumping test, and map shallow faults that serve as contaminant flowpaths.

  4. GROUND-WATER SAMPLING BIAS OBSERVED IN SHALLOW, CONVENTIONAL WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A previous field demonstration project on nitrate-based bioremediation of a fuel-contaminated aquifer used short-screened clustered well points in addition to shallow (10 foot), conventional monitoring wells to monitor the progress of remediation during surface application of rec...

  5. The genetic basis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats and humans.

    PubMed

    Kittleson, Mark D; Meurs, Kathryn M; Harris, Samantha P

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in genes that encode for muscle sarcomeric proteins have been identified in humans and two breeds of domestic cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This article reviews the history, genetics, and pathogenesis of HCM in the two species in order to give veterinarians a perspective on the genetics of HCM. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in people is a genetic disease that has been called a disease of the sarcomere because the preponderance of mutations identified that cause HCM are in genes that encode for sarcomeric proteins (Maron and Maron, 2013). Sarcomeres are the basic contractile units of muscle and thus sarcomeric proteins are responsible for the strength, speed, and extent of muscle contraction. In people with HCM, the two most common genes affected by HCM mutations are the myosin heavy chain gene (MYH7), the gene that encodes for the motor protein β-myosin heavy chain (the sarcomeric protein that splits ATP to generate force), and the cardiac myosin binding protein-C gene (MYBPC3), a gene that encodes for the closely related structural and regulatory protein, cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C). To date, the two mutations linked to HCM in domestic cats (one each in Maine Coon and Ragdoll breeds) also occur in MYBPC3 (Meurs et al., 2005, 2007). This is a review of the genetics of HCM in both humans and domestic cats that focuses on the aspects of human genetics that are germane to veterinarians and on all aspects of feline HCM genetics.

  6. Subaortic and midventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with extreme segmental hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Efthimiadis, Georgios K; Giannakoulas, Georgios; Parcharidou, Despina G; Ziakas, Antonios G; Papadopoulos, Christodoulos E; Karoulas, Takis; Pliakos, Christodoulos; Parcharidis, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    Background Subaortic and midventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a patient with extreme segmental hypertrophy exceeding the usual maximum wall thickness reported in the literature is a rare phenomenon. Case Presentation A 19-year-old man with recently diagnosed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was referred for sudden death risk assessment. The patient had mild exertional dyspnea (New York Heart Association functional class II), but without syncope or chest pain. There was no family history of HCM or sudden death. A two dimensional echocardiogram revealed an asymmetric type of LV hypertrophy; anterior ventricular septum = 49 mm; posterior ventricular septum = 20 mm; anterolateral free wall = 12 mm; and posterior free wall = 6 mm. The patient had 2 types of obstruction; a LV outflow obstruction due to systolic anterior motion of both mitral leaflets (Doppler-estimated 38 mm Hg gradient at rest); and a midventricular obstruction (Doppler-estimated 43 mm Hg gradient), but without apical aneurysm or dyskinesia. The patient had a normal blood pressure response on exercise test and no episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 24-h ECG recording. Cardiac MRI showed a gross late enhancement at the hypertrophied septum. Based on the extreme degree of LV hypertrophy and the myocardial hyperenhancement, an implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator was recommended prophylactically for primary prevention of sudden death. Conclusion Midventricular HCM is an infrequent phenotype, but may be associated with an apical aneurysm and progression to systolic dysfunction (end-stage HCM). PMID:17349063

  7. ANCA-Associated Systemic Vasculitis Presenting With Hypertrophic Spinal Pachymeningitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Zhao, Jiuliang; Wang, Qian; Fei, Yunyun; Zhao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reports of hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) localized exclusively in the spine were quite rare. Two cases of ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis (AASV) presenting with hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (HSP) causing low back pain and numbness are described. Two patients showed prominent systemic and local inflammatory reactions manifested as fever, elevated levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, and markedly increased levels of total protein of cerebrospinal fluid. The gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scan of spinal cord demonstrated diffuse spinal dura matter thickening. Additionally, simple microscopic hematuria was found in 1 case suggestive of renal involvement and the other 1 complicated with interstitial lung disease. Then, a diagnosis of HSP secondary to AASV was made. Combination therapy of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide produced a rapid improvement in the clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters. Followed up for 6 months, 1 case relapsed when the dosage of prednisone was tapered to 10 mg daily. Since the patient refused rituximab-based regimen, an immunosuppressive triple-therapy (corticosteroid, cyclophosphamide, and azathioprine) was initiated and brought control of the disease during the subsequent 6 months of follow-up. HSP is a relatively rare form of central nervous system involvement of AASV. Early recognition and intervention are of great significance since the pathogenesis of HSP starts with an inflammatory and fibrosing process. PMID:26579814

  8. Cranial and lumbosacral hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fei; Zhong, Ding-Rong; Hao, Hong-Lin; Kong, Wei-Ze; Zhu, Yi-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Zhi; Cui, Li-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is a chronic disease characterized by inflammatory hypertrophy and fibrosis of dura mater. It can be divided into cranial and spinal forms depending on the location of the lesion. HP involving 2 separate sites simultaneously is quite uncommon. Case summary: This study presents a case of a 49-year-old woman with pathologically confirmed cranial and lumbosacral hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is a rare etiology of HP. She experienced persistent numbness and pain of the left lower limb, followed by headache and seizures. In laboratory tests, levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were elevated, and antinuclear antibodies and anti–double-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) antibodies were detected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed dural thickening with homogenous gadolinium enhancement both at lumbosacral level and over cerebral convexities. Histology suggested chronic inflammation in spinal dura mater with extensive fibrosis, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and focal vasculitis. Treatment with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide was started with significant clinical and radiological improvement. Conclusion: HP is etiologically heterogeneous. Despite its rarity, SLE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of HP. Early recognition and therapy may provide an optimal outcome. PMID:27684799

  9. Reversible transition from a hypertrophic to a dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Spillmann, Frank; Kühl, Uwe; Van Linthout, Sophie; Dominguez, Fernando; Escher, Felicitas; Schultheiss, Heinz‐Peter; Pieske, Burkert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report the case of a 17‐year‐old female patient with known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a Wolff‐Parkinson‐White syndrome. She came to our department for further evaluation of a new diagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by an enlargement of the left ventricle and a fall in ejection fraction. Clinically, she complained about atypical chest pain, arrhythmic episodes with presyncopal events, and dyspnea (NYHA III) during the last 6 months. Non‐invasive and invasive examinations including magnetic resonance imaging, electrophysiological examinations, and angiography did not lead to a conclusive diagnosis. Therefore, endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) were taken to investigate whether a specific myocardial disease caused the impairment of the left ventricular function. EMB analysis resulted in the diagnosis of a virus‐negative, active myocarditis. Based on this diagnosis, an immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine was started, which led to an improvement of cardiac function and symptoms within 3 months after initiating therapy. In conclusion, we show that external stress triggered by myocarditis can induce a reversible transition from a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype. This case strongly underlines the need for a thorough and invasive examination of heart failure of unknown causes, including EMB investigations as recommend by the actual ESC position statement. PMID:27774273

  10. Anesthetic Practices for Laser Rehabilitation of Pediatric Hypertrophic Burn Scars.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brendan M; Keilman, Jeffrey; Zuccaro, Jennifer; Kelly, Charis; Maynes, Jason T; Fish, Joel S

    The use of ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser therapy and pulsed dye laser therapy has led to significant improvements in the rehabilitation of hypertrophic burn scars. However, laser procedures are associated with appreciable pain among pediatric patients. Clinical consensus suggests using general anesthesia for pediatric laser procedures; however, guidelines for perioperative care are lacking. The objective of this quality improvement study is to determine whether a difference exists in postoperative pain outcomes in pediatric patients who receive intraoperative opioid regimens compared with patients who receive opioid-sparing regimens for laser therapy of hypertrophic burn scars. A retrospective review of patients who received laser therapy at a pediatric burn center from April 2014 to May 2015 was performed. Overall, 88 of the 92 procedures reviewed were included. A statistically significant difference was not found between the likelihood of postoperative pain when intraoperative opioid regimens (n = 63) were given compared with opioid-sparing regimens (n = 25) X (1, n = 88) = 2.870, P = .0902. There was also no difference between short-acting (n = 48), long-acting (n = 9), or combination (n = 6) intraoperative opioids compared with opioid-sparing regimens (n = 25) in the likelihood of postoperative pain. Despite the small sample size, the low number of postoperative pain cases is encouraging. Ultimately, these data provide a foundation for developing anesthetic guidelines for pediatric laser procedures. Specifically, clinicians should consider the potential to deliver adequate perioperative care via an opioid-sparing regimen ± adjuvant.

  11. Review of a long-term air sparging pilot test in a shallow aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Weymann, D.F.; Hoffman, G.D.; Kuhn, E.M.

    1995-12-31

    A 5-month-long air sparging pilot study was conducted on a shallow surficial aquifer contaminated with gasoline. The pilot study was conducted on a shallow surficial aquifer contaminated with gasoline. The pilot study documented the physical and biological response of the aquifer and evaluated sampling techniques. Results indicated that sparging increased biological activity, but the zone of influence was limited. A transition from methanogenic to aerobic conditions was indicated. Monitoring results were significantly affected by sampling techniques.

  12. Cardiac sarcoid: a chameleon masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anushree; Sulemanjee, Nasir Z; Cheema, Omar; Downey, Francis X; Tajik, A Jamil

    2014-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology often seen in young adults, with cardiac involvement in more than one-quarter of sarcoid patients. The clinical presentation of cardiac sarcoid depends upon the location and extent of myocardium involved. Although cardiac sarcoid may produce asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, it is most commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. The hypertrophic stage of cardiac sarcoid is rarely seen. We describe a case of cardiac sarcoid in a young patient wherein a distinctive appearance of the cardiac sarcoid spectrum from "hypertrophic" stage to thinned/scarred stage, masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by dilated cardiomyopathy, is demonstrated.

  13. Down Syndrome with Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, and Pulmonary Vein Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Mahadevaiah, Guruprasad; Gupta, Manoj; Ashwath, Ravi

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of congenital heart disease in infants with Down syndrome is 40%, compared with 0.3% in children who have normal chromosomes. Atrioventricular and ventricular septal defects are often associated with chromosomal aberrations, such as in trisomy 21, whereas hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is chiefly thought to be secondary to specific gene mutations. We found only one reported case of congenital hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrioventricular septal defect in an infant with Down syndrome. Here, we report atrioventricular septal defect, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and pulmonary vein stenosis in a neonate with Down syndrome-an apparently unique combination. In addition, we discuss the relevant medical literature.

  14. An Unusual Type of Localized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy With Wolf Parkinson White Syndrome Presenting With Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Vatan, Mehmet Bulent; Gunduz, Huseyin; Gurel, Safiye; Kocayigit, Ibrahim; Vural, Ahmet; Demirtas, Saadet; Cakar, Mehmet Akif; Gunduz, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant heart disease that is the most common genetic cardiac disorder. The disease is characterized by excessive thickening of the left ventricular myocardium. The anterior portion of the interventricular ventricular septum is often involved. Asymmetric hypertrophy of apical site, left ventricular free wall, and right ventricle are less common in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that occur in 1% cases. We report a case of a patient with an unusual type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and Wolf Parkinson White (WPW) presenting with pulmonary edema.

  15. Hearing Profile in Patients with Dilated and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    El-Zarea, Gehan Abd El-Rahman; Hassan, Yasser Elsayed Mohamed; Mahmoud, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiomyopathy may cause disruptions in the micro-vascular system of the stria vascularis in the cochlea, and, subsequently, may result in cochlear degeneration. Degeneration in the stria vascularis affects the physical and chemical processes in the organ of Corti, thereby causing a possible hearing impairment. The objective of this study was to assess the hearing profiles of patients with dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies to determine the relationship between the degree of hearing loss and the degree and duration of the disease and to compare the dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies as regards hearing profile. Methods In this case control study, we studied 21 patients (cases/study group/group 1) and 15 healthy individuals (controls/group 2). Six patients (group 1a) had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and 15 patients (group 1b) had dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The data were analyzed using the t-test, chi-squared test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and the Multiple Mann-Whitney test. Results The results of this study showed that 80% of those patients with DCM (group 1b) had bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and 100% of the patients with HCM (group 1a) had mild to severe bilateral sloping SNHL. Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) were present in 14% of the study group and in 100 % of the control group. The results of the measurements of auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed that 50% of the study group had abnormal latencies compared to the control group, and there was no correlation between the duration of the disease and the degree of hearing loss or DPOAE. Fifty percent of the patients with HCM and 35% of the patients with DCM had positive family histories of similar conditions, and 35% of those with HCM had a positive family history of sudden death. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that the link between heart disease and hearing loss and early identification of hearing loss in patients with

  16. Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy in Patient with Crohn's Disease: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sung-Min; Park, Ki Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Numerous causes of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) have been reported. Commonly, secondary osteoarthropathy accompanies pulmonary diseases such as carcinoma of the lung, pleural tumors, lung abscesses, and bronchiectasis. However, HOA in inflammatory bowel disease is a rare complication. There are only a few reports of secondary HOA with Crohn's disease. Our purpose was to report another case of HOA in Crohn's disease. We describe a case of a 27-year-old man with underlying Crohn's disease presenting with 2 years of pain in multiple joints. Radiographic findings suggested HOA in extremities. We performed a conservative treatment including medication and rehabilitations. The patient's symptoms were much improved at the latest follow-up. Although numerous studies on HOA have been published, the pathogenesis of HOA is still unclear. Various treatment modalities were recommended but further studies to uncover the pathogenesis of HOA with Crohn's disease and to establish a treatment modality are needed. PMID:25025001

  17. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome associated with cardiomyopathy hypertrophic obstructive*

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Raimundo José Almeida de Oliveira; dos Santos, Adaílton Araújo; Azevedo, Mablo de Castro; Meira, Saulo Sacramento

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare clinical condition caused by a genetic change that results in the formation of structurally or functionally altered collagen. The clinical manifestations are varied, being the most obvious skin hypermotility and increased joint flexibility, although other systems - such as cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological - may also be affected. This paper presents the report of a patient who sought medical attention with complaints of atypical chest pain. Clinical evaluation enabled hypothetical diagnosis of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Initial electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and 24 hours holter allowed the confirmation of the first hypothesis. A skin biopsy performed later associated clinical data and confirmed the second hypothesis. PMID:26312722

  18. Fabry Disease Presenting with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Tricuspid Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sang-Cheol; Yoo, Han-Wook; Lee, Jae Won; Jang, Jeong Yoon; Heo, Ran

    2016-01-01

    A 71-year-old female who was diagnosed with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy since 1999 presented with dyspnea and severe edema on both legs. For the management of her symptom, cardiac surgery including tricuspid annuloplasty, Maze operation and right atrial reduction plasty was performed. During follow-up after cardiac surgery, a plasma α-galactosidase activity was checked for the screening of Fabry disease and the result was around lower normal limit. DNA analysis was implemented for confirmation and it revealed a heterozygote α-galactosidase mutation at exon 6 [c.901C>T (p.Arg301Ter)]. This case suggests that Fabry disease might be easily undetected, and clinical suspicion is critical. PMID:28090261

  19. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and ultra-endurance running - two incompatible entities?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Regular and prolonged exercise is associated with increased left ventricular wall thickness that can overlap with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Differentiating physiological from pathological hypertrophy has important implications, since HCM is the commonest cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Most deaths have been reported in intermittent 'start-stop' sports such as football (soccer) and basketball. The theory is that individuals with HCM are unable to augment stroke volume sufficiently to meet the demands of endurance sports and are accordingly 'selected-out' of participation in such events. We report the case of an ultra-endurance athlete with 25 years of > 50 km competitive running experience, with genetically confirmed HCM; thereby demonstrating that these can be two compatible entities. PMID:22122802

  20. [A case of localized hypertrophic neuropathy in the sciatic nerve].

    PubMed

    Izumi, T; Kusaka, H; Imai, T

    1995-01-01

    A 26-year-old male patient gradually developed muscular atrophy of the right lower leg over a two-year period. Neurological examination revealed absent Achilles tendon reflex and muscular atrophy of the right lower leg and right hamstring muscles. Conduction velocity of the F waves was delayed in the right posterior tibial nerve. A computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion along the proximal segment of the right sciatic nerve. Exploration revealed a fusiformly swollen sciatic nerve. Histological examination showed that a swollen segment of the sciatic nerve was filled with onion-bulb formations of perineurial cells, consistent with the diagnosis of localized hypertrophic neuropathy. This condition should be added to several etiologies of monomelic amyotrophy. Electrophysiological studies and neuroimaging techniques were useful in obtaining differential diagnosis.

  1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a heart in need of an energy bar?

    PubMed Central

    Vakrou, Styliani; Abraham, M. Roselle

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been recently recognized as the most common inherited cardiovascular disorder, affecting 1 in 500 adults worldwide. HCM is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy resulting in thickening of the ventricular wall, myocyte disarray, interstitial and/or replacement fibrosis, decreased ventricular cavity volume and diastolic dysfunction. HCM is also the most common cause of sudden death in the young. A large proportion of patients diagnosed with HCM have mutations in sarcomeric proteins. However, it is unclear how these mutations lead to the cardiac phenotype, which is variable even in patients carrying the same causal mutation. Abnormalities in calcium cycling, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and energetic deficiency have been described constituting the basis of therapies in experimental models of HCM and HCM patients. This review focuses on evidence supporting the role of cellular metabolism and mitochondria in HCM. PMID:25191275

  2. [Cause and prevention of surgical site infection and hypertrophic scars].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Rei

    2012-03-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) occurs at the site of surgery within 1 month of an operation or within 1 year of an operation if a foreign body is implanted as part of the surgery. Most SSIs (about 70%) are superficial infections involving the skin and subcutaneous tissues only. The remaining infections are more serious and can involve tissues under the skin, organs, or implanted material. Hypertrophic scars( HSs) occur frequently on particular sites, including the anterior chest wall. The anterior chest wall is frequently subjected to skin stretching caused by the natural daily movements of the body. Most cases of SSIs and HSs can be prevented by (1) suture technique modification to prevent high stretching tension and ischemia, and (2) appropriate wound care after surgery. It would be useful to avoid subjecting wounded skin to sustained mechanical force, thereby permitting the wound to rest and heal normally.

  3. Surgery Management of Rare Hypertrophic Frenum in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Stroppa, Sheila de Carvalho; da Silva, Juliana Yassue Barbosa; Tavares, Maria Cristina Reis; Duda, João Gilberto; Losso, Estela Maris

    2014-01-01

    To report a rare case of a lateral frenum hypertrophy in an infant, this paper describes the case of a girl who came to a first dental appointment when she was 4 months old. A hypertrophic lateral frenum in the upper left canine region was detected. A great depression in the gingival rodet separated the anterior maxillary segment from the posterior one and also decreased the lip mobility in this region. A frenectomy was performed when the patient was 11 months old and the clinical follow-up was done up to the age of 30 months. There was normalization in the vestibular insertion of the lateral frenum, lip mobility, physiological development of the maxilla, and eruption of the upper incisors, canines, and first primary molars. Infants should go to a dental examination precociously in order to detect possible congenital and development alterations. PMID:25180104

  4. Surgery management of rare hypertrophic frenum in an infant.

    PubMed

    Stroppa, Sheila de Carvalho; da Silva, Juliana Yassue Barbosa; Tavares, Maria Cristina Reis; Duda, João Gilberto; Losso, Estela Maris

    2014-01-01

    To report a rare case of a lateral frenum hypertrophy in an infant, this paper describes the case of a girl who came to a first dental appointment when she was 4 months old. A hypertrophic lateral frenum in the upper left canine region was detected. A great depression in the gingival rodet separated the anterior maxillary segment from the posterior one and also decreased the lip mobility in this region. A frenectomy was performed when the patient was 11 months old and the clinical follow-up was done up to the age of 30 months. There was normalization in the vestibular insertion of the lateral frenum, lip mobility, physiological development of the maxilla, and eruption of the upper incisors, canines, and first primary molars. Infants should go to a dental examination precociously in order to detect possible congenital and development alterations.

  5. ICD Therapy for Primary Prevention in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common and heterogeneous disorder that increases an individual’s risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). This review article discusses the relevant factors that are involved in the challenge of preventing SCD in patients with HCM. The epidemiology of SCD in patients is reviewed as well as the structural and genetic basis behind ventricular arrhythmias in HCM. The primary prevention of SCD with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy is the cornerstone of modern treatment for individuals at high risk of SCD. The focus here is on the current and emerging predictors of SCD as well as risk stratification recommendations from both North American and European guidelines. Issues related to ICD implantation, such as programming, complications and inappropriate therapies, are discussed. The emerging role of the fully subcutaneous ICD and the data regarding its implantation are reviewed. PMID:28116084

  6. A new era in clinical genetic testing for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Matthew; Pavlovic, Aleksandra; DeGoma, Emil; Salisbury, Heidi; Brown, Colleen; Ashley, Euan A

    2009-12-01

    Building on seminal studies of the last 20 years, genetic testing for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has become a clinical reality in the form of targeted exonic sequencing of known disease-causing genes. This has been driven primarily by the decreasing cost of sequencing, but the high profile of genome-wide association studies, the launch of direct-to-consumer genetic testing, and new legislative protection have also played important roles. In the clinical management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, genetic testing is primarily used for family screening. An increasing role is recognized, however, in diagnostic settings: in the differential diagnosis of HCM; in the differentiation of HCM from hypertensive or athlete's heart; and more rarely in preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Aside from diagnostic clarification and family screening, use of the genetic test for guiding therapy remains controversial, with data currently too limited to derive a reliable mutation risk prediction from within the phenotypic noise of different modifying genomes. Meanwhile, the power of genetic testing derives from the confidence with which a mutation can be called present or absent in a given individual. This confidence contrasts with our more limited ability to judge the significance of mutations for which co-segregation has not been demonstrated. These variants of "unknown" significance represent the greatest challenge to the wider adoption of genetic testing in HCM. Looking forward, next-generation sequencing technologies promise to revolutionize the current approach as whole genome sequencing will soon be available for the cost of today's targeted panel. In summary, our future will be characterized not by lack of genetic information but by our ability to effectively parse it.

  7. Determination of multidirectional myocardial deformations in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Yohei; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a primary disorder of the myocardium, is the most common cardiac disease in cats. However, determination of myocardial deformation with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in cats with various stages of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not yet been reported. This study was designed to measure quantitatively multidirectional myocardial deformations of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods Thirty-two client-owned cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 14 healthy cats serving as controls were enrolled and underwent assessment of myocardial deformation (peak systolic strain and strain rate) in the longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions. Results Longitudinal and radial deformations were reduced in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, despite normal systolic function determined by conventional echocardiography. Cats with severely symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also had lower peak systolic circumferential strain, in addition to longitudinal and radial strain. Conclusions and relevance Longitudinal and radial deformation may be helpful in the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Additionally, the lower circumferential deformation in cats with severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may contribute to clinical findings of decompensation, and seems to be related to severe cardiac clinical signs. Indices of multidirectional myocardial deformations by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography may be useful markers and help to distinguish between cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and healthy cats. Additionally, they may provide more detailed assessment of contractile function in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  8. Subarachnoid block and enlargement of the spinal canal in hypertrophic neuritis.

    PubMed

    De León, G A; Hodges, F J

    1976-06-01

    A case of Dejerine-Sottas hypertrophic neuritis is reported. The patient, a 45-year-old male, suffered from chronic hypertrophic polyneuropathy, abnormal pupils, fasciculations, tremor, back pain, impotence, sphincter disorders, cramps, and lightning pains in the lower extremities. Besides extensive subarachnoid block, there was X-ray evidence of enlargement of the bony spinal canal with scalloping of the lumbar vertebrae. Surgical exploration showed these abnormalities to be due to extreme hypertrophy of the cauda equina. Histologic findings in peripheral nerve and lumbar root biopsies were typical of hypertrophic neuropathy of the onion bulb type. Vertebral changes secondary to hypertrophied nerve roots appear not to have been described before in hypertrophic neuritis; however, knowledge of their possible occurrence may be of practical importance in the management of similar future cases. A simple way of visualizing enlarged peripheral nerves is briefly described.

  9. Activating types 1 and 2 angiotensin II receptors modulate the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes☆

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Ichiro; Inoue, Shinji; Teramura, Takeshi; Takehara, Toshiyuki; Ohtani, Kazuhiro; Akagi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    A local tissue-specific renin–angiotensin system (local RAS) has been identified in many organs. However, no report has described the role of a local RAS in the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. To examine the role of a local RAS in the hypertrophic differentiation, we activated angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) separately in the cell line ATDC5, which involves differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells to hypertrophic chondrocytes. Activation of AT1R suppressed and activation of AT2R enhanced the expression of markers of hypertrophic differentiation, including type X collagen, matrix metalloproteinase 13 and runt-related transcription factor 2. PMID:23905010

  10. Pressure therapy in treatment of hypertrophic scar, burn contracture and keloid: the Kenyan experience.

    PubMed

    Haq, M A; Haq, A

    1990-11-01

    A preliminary report of the results of pressure therapy for hypertrophic scar, burn contracture and keloid is presented. Thirty four patients over a four year period were treated with four types of pressure therapy. Results showed over 50% improvement in 21 (61.8%) cases. This method obviated the need for repetitive surgery and no recurrence was noted. Pressure therapy is advocated as an adjunct measure for all cases of hypertrophic scarring, burn contracture and keloid.

  11. Successful treatment of hypertrophic herpes simplex genitalis in HIV-infected patient with topical imiquimod.

    PubMed

    Deza, Gustavo; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Curto-Barredo, Laia; Villar García, Judit; Pujol, Ramon M

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic herpes simplex genitalis is an atypical presentation of genital herpes described in the context of immunosuppression, particularly HIV-positive patients. This situation can become a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. For this reason, alternative therapies are currently being discussed in the literature. We report a case of hypertrophic genital herpes in a HIV-positive patient who was successfully treated with topical 5% imiquimod after treatment failures with oral and i.v. antivirals.

  12. Accelerated shallow water modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandham, Rajesh; Medina, David; Warburton, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    ln this talk we will describe our ongoing developments in accelerated numerical methods for modeling tsunamis, and oceanic fluid flows using two dimensional shallow water model and/or three dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes model discretized with high order discontinuous Galerkin methods. High order discontinuous Galerkin methods can be computationally demanding, requiring extensive computational time to simulate real time events on traditional CPU architectures. However, recent advances in computing architectures and hardware aware algorithms make it possible to reduce simulation time and provide accurate predictions in a timely manner. Hence we tailor these algorithms to take advantage of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture that is seen in modern many core compute devices such as GPUs. We will discuss our unified and extensive many-core programming library OCCA that alleviates the need to completely re-design the solvers to keep up with constantly evolving parallel programming models and hardware architectures. We will present performance results for the flow simulations demonstrating performance leveraging multiple different multi-threading APIs on GPU and CPU targets.

  13. Pesticides in shallow groundwater in the Delmarva Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, M.T.; Banks, W.S.L.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A regional study of the areal and depth distribution of pesticides in shallow groundwater in the Delmarva Peninsula of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia was done to (i) relate the pesticides detected to landscape and shallow subsurface features, and (ii) evaluate aquifer vulnerability and the potential contamination of drinking-water supplies. Water samples collected at 100 wells from 1988 to 1990 were analyzed for concentrations of 36 pesticides, four metabolites, and other constituents. The most commonly detected residues were atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and dicamba. Concentrations were low; few exceeded 3 ??g L-1. Most detections correlate with the intensive use of these herbicides in three widely distributed and commonly rotated crops-corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and small grain-particularly if grown in well- drained soils. Most detections occurred in samples collected from shallow wells screened within 10 m of the overlying water table. The shallow depth distribution of most residues is consistent with their suspected history of use (ca. 20 yr), and patterns in shallow groundwater flow in the surficial aquifer in the study area. The areal and depth distributions of detectable residues in groundwater did not correlate with a vulnerability index, nor any of the component scores developed to estimate that index using the DRASTIC method. The shallow depth of most detections also indicates why few samples from water-supply wells in this study had measurable concentrations of pesticides; most supply wells are deeper than 10 m below the water table. The low number of contaminated samples from supply wells implies that deep groundwater currently (1992) used for drinking generally does not contain detectable pesticide residues.

  14. Involvement of impaired desmosome-related proteins in hypertrophic scar intraepidermal blister formation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianglin; He, Weifeng; Luo, Gaoxing; Wu, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Hypertrophic scar is one of the unique fibrotic diseases in human. Intraepidermal blister is a common clinical symptom following the hypertrophic scar formation. However, little is known about the reason of blister creation. In this study, we selected three patients with hypertrophic scar as manifested by raised, erythematous, pruritic, blister and thickened appearance undergoing scar resection. The first scar sample was 6 months after burn from the neck of a 3 years old male patient with 10 score by Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). The second scar sample was 12 months after burn from the dorsal foot of a 16 years old female patient with 13 score by VSS. The third one was 9 months after burn from the elbow of a 34 years old male patients with 13 score by VSS. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of blister formation, we screened the different protein expression between hypertrophic scar and normal skin tissue by means of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technology and high throughput 2D LC-MS/MS. There were 48 proteins found to be downregulated in hypertrophic scar. Among the downregulated ones, plakophilin1 (PKP1), plakophilin3 (PKP3) and desmoplakin (DSP) were the desmosome-related proteins which were validated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting assay. Transmission electron microscopy further showed the considerably reduced size and intensity of hemidesmosome and desmosome in hypertrophic scar tissue, compared to control normal skin. Our data indicted for the first time that downregulation of DSP, PKP1 and PKP3 in hypertrophic scar might be responsible for intraepidermal blister formation.

  15. [Perioperative management for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing noncardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Okuyama, A; Goda, Y; Kawahigashi, H; Takita, K; Okuyama, M; Kubota, M

    1992-01-01

    We had two patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for noncardiac surgeries. Case 1: A 74-year-old man for right nephrectomy received epidural lidocaine and nitrous oxide combined with 0.2-0.6% isoflurane. During the operation, heart rate and blood pressure were relatively unstable, but he woke up promptly after the operation. Early on the morning of the 2nd post-operative day, he was found dead on his bed. Case 2: A 52-year-old man for gastrectomy was anesthetized with nitrous oxide and halothane with continuous propranolol infusion. Through the operative period, heart rate and blood pressure were stable and postoperative course was uneventful. In these two patients, preoperative Holter ECG showed ventricular tachycardia, which may increase the risk of a sudden death. These cases demonstrate that general anesthesia with nitrous oxide combined with halothane, can be administered with a low risk in patients with HCM for noncardiac surgery and that postoperative intensive care unit monitoring is necessary for these patients for several days to prevent a sudden death.

  16. Vps34 regulates myofibril proteostasis to prevent hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Hirotaka; Eguchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Junko; Kuba, Keiji; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Masakazu; Goto, Akiteru; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Imai, Yumiko; Suzuki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common heart disease with a prevalence of 1 in 500 in the general population. Several mutations in genes encoding cardiac proteins have been found in HCM patients, but these changes do not predict occurrence or prognosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying HCM remain largely elusive. Here we show that cardiac expression of vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) is reduced in a subset of HCM patients. In a mouse model, muscle-specific loss of Vps34 led to HCM-like manifestations and sudden death. Vps34-deficient hearts exhibited abnormal histopathologies, including myofibrillar disarray and aggregates containing αB-crystallin (CryAB). These features result from a block in the ESCRT-mediated proteolysis that normally degrades K63-polyubiquitinated CryAB. CryAB deposition was also found in myocardial specimens from a subset of HCM patients whose hearts showed decreased Vps34. Our results identify disruption of the previously unknown Vps34-CryAB axis as a potentially novel etiology of HCM. PMID:28097232

  17. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis mimicking prolactinoma with recurrent vision loss.

    PubMed

    Lok, Julie Y C; Yip, Nelson K F; Chong, Kelvin K L; Li, C L; Young, Alvin L

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare inflammatory condition with diffuse thickening of the dura mater, which may cause a compressive effect or vascular compromise. We report on a 28-year-old Chinese woman with a history of granulomatous mastitis 7 years previously and oligomenorrhoea, headache, blurred vision, and raised prolactin level 2 years previously, that was diagnosed as prolactinoma and treated conservatively with bromocriptine. However, she had recurrent bilateral vision loss when the bromocriptine was stopped. Her symptoms were resolved by high-dose steroid injection but remained steroid-dependent. Serial magnetic resonance imaging scan showed progressive diffuse thickening of the pachymeningitis with disappearance of pituitary apoplexy. Lumbar puncture showed lymphocytosis with no organisms. Open biopsy of the meninges was performed and histology showed features of inflammatory infiltrates and vasculitis. This is an unusual presentation of a rare condition in this age-group, with co-existing granulomatous mastitis and chronic otitis media, and is a diagnostic challenge mimicking pituitary macroadenoma and meningioma in initial magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  18. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy--state of the art in 2007.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Silvia; Costa, Susana; Monteiro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Lino; Providência, Luís A

    2008-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary disease of the sarcomere, with considerable genetic heterogeneity and variability in phenotypic expression, whose main complication is sudden cardiac death (SCD). Genetic aspects of HCM, its molecular pathophysiology and genotype-phenotype relationships are the subject of this review, which is aimed at better understanding of practical management in this patient population. As HCM is a genetic disease whose initial manifestation can be sudden death, it is essential to establish the diagnosis at an early stage, to proceed with risk stratification and implementation of SCD prevention strategies, and to promote genetic counseling of patients and screening of their families. Detection of pathological mutations through progressive sequencing of the genes most commonly involved is the most efficient way to diagnose HCM, even in the absence of clinical evidence of the disease. Identification of individuals at high risk of SCD is a major challenge in the management of this population, since SCD can be prevented by use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. The selection of patients for prophylactic implantation of these devices, particularly those who have only one major risk factor, is currently the subject of controversy.

  19. Diastolic filling in a physical model of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schovanec, Joseph; Samaee, Milad; Lai, Hong Kuan; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2015-11-01

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited heart disease that affects as much as one in 500 individuals, and is the most common cause of sudden death in young athletes. The myocardium becomes abnormally thick in HCM and deforms the internal geometry of the left ventricle (LV). Previous studies have shown that a vortex is formed during diastolic filling, and further that the dilated LV morphology seen in systolic heart failure results in altering the filling vortex from elliptical to spherical shape. We have also previously shown that increasing LV wall stiffness decreases the filling vortex circulation. However, alterations to intraventricular filling fluid dynamics due to an obstructive LV morphology and locally elevated wall stiffness (in the hypertrophied region) have not been previously examined from a mechanistic standpoint. We conducted an experimental study using an idealized HCM physical model and compared the intraventricular flow fields obtained from 2D PIV to a baseline LV physical model with lower wall stiffness and anatomical geometry. The obstruction in the HCM model leads to earlier breakdown of the filling vortex as compared to the anatomical LV. Intraventricular filling in both models under increased heart rates will be discussed.

  20. Hemolytic anemia in a patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Toru; Kitaoka, Hiroaki; Terauchi, Yasunobu; Tamura, Shinjiro; Okawa, Makoto; Yamasaki, Naohito; Yabe, Toshikazu; Doi, Yoshinori L

    2010-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman was referred for further evaluation and treatment of normocytic and normochromic anemia with hemoglobin level of 8.6 g/dL. A peripheral blood smear showed fragmented erythrocytes. The patient was then referred to the department of cardiology because of systolic murmur, ECG abnormality, and red cell fragmentation. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with particularly increased interventricular septal thickness of 24 mm and a hyperkinetic wall motion, resulting in marked obstruction to left ventricular outflow tract (pressure gradient of 200 mmHg). Mitral regurgitation due to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leaflets was also seen. The cause of anemia was thought to be mechanical intravascular hemolysis due to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and mitral regurgitation. She was treated with atenolol and the class Ia antiarrhythmic drug cibenzoline to relieve the outflow tract obstruction, and the pressure gradient was reduced to 70 mmHg. After 3 months of treatment, her hemoglobin level had increased to 11.4 g/dL without additional treatment for anemia.

  1. The Ups and Downs of Genetic Diagnosis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan; Reguero, Julián R; Coto, Eliecer

    2016-01-01

    Massive DNA sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing, has revolutionized genetic diagnosis. This technology has reduced the effort and cost needed to analyze several genes simultaneously and has made genetic evaluation available to a larger number of patients. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, genetic analysis has increased from the 3 main genes implicated in the disease (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2) to sequencing of more than 20 related genes. Despite the advantages of acquiring this additional information, many patients show variants of uncertain significance (mainly amino acid changes), which may also be present in at least 1 healthy control undergoing genome sequencing. This will be a dead-end situation unless the variant can be demonstrated to be associated with the disease in the patient's family. In the absence of clear evidence that these variants are truly pathogenic, they cannot be used for reliable genetic counselling in family members. Massive sequencing also enables identification of new candidate genes, but again, the problem of variants of uncertain significance limits the success of these assessments.

  2. Intravenous atropine treatment in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, H; Imura, K; Nishikawa, M; Yagi, M; Kubota, A

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess the efficacy of a new regimen of intravenous atropine treatment for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) with special reference to regression of pyloric hypertrophy. Methods: Atropine was given intravenously at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg six times a day before feeding in 19 patients with IHPS diagnosed from radiographic and ultrasonographic findings. When vomiting ceased and the infants were able to ingest 150 ml/kg/day formula after stepwise increases in feeding volume, they were given 0.02 mg/kg atropine six times a day orally and the dose was decreased stepwise. Results: Of the 19 infants, 17 (89%) ceased projectile vomiting after treatment with intravenous (median seven days) and subsequent oral (median 44 days) atropine administration. The remaining two infants required surgery. No significant complications were encountered. Ultrasonography showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in pyloric muscle thickness, but no significant shortening of the pyloric canal after completion of the atropine treatment. The patients exhibited failure to thrive at presentation, but were thriving at 6 months of age (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This atropine therapy resulted in satisfactory clinical recovery. Pyloric muscle thickness was significantly reduced. PMID:12089130

  3. Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration: A Neurosurgical Point of View.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Carlos Henrique; Kimmig, Hubert; Lopez, William Omar Contreras; Lange, Manfred; Oeckler, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare form of transsynaptic degeneration characterized by hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus situated in the olivary body, part of the medulla oblongata, representing a major source of input to the cerebellum. HOD typically results from focal lesions interrupting connections from the inferior olive within the dentato-rubro-olivary pathway, a region also known as the triangle of Guillain-Mollaret (TGM) (red nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus, and contralateral dentate nucleus). Clinically, HOD presents classically as palatal tremor and can include dentatorubral tremor and/or ocular myoclonus. The pathologic changes associated with HOD feature radiologic changes with the inferior olivary nucleus appearing larger and increasing its T2-weighted signal intensity on magnetic resonance images. HOD is commonly managed with pharmacotherapy but may require surgical intervention in extreme cases. HOD has been found to develop as a consequence of any injury that disrupts the TGM pathways (e.g., pontine cavernoma).These findings highlight the critical importance of a thorough knowledge of TGM anatomy to avoid secondary HOD. We present a patient who developed HOD secondary to resection of a tectal plate cavernous malformation and review the literature with an emphasis on the current knowledge of this disorder.

  4. The Signaling Pathways Involved in Chondrocyte Differentiation and Hypertrophic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianmei

    2016-01-01

    Chondrocytes communicate with each other mainly via diffusible signals rather than direct cell-to-cell contact. The chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is well regulated by the interactions of varieties of growth factors, cytokines, and signaling molecules. A number of critical signaling molecules have been identified to regulate the differentiation of chondrocyte from mesenchymal progenitor cells to their terminal maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), SRY-related high-mobility group-box gene 9 (Sox9), parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), Indian hedgehog (Ihh), fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), and β-catenin. Except for these molecules, other factors such as adenosine, O2 tension, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) also have a vital role in cartilage formation and chondrocyte maturation. Here, we outlined the complex transcriptional network and the function of key factors in this network that determine and regulate the genetic program of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:28074096

  5. Contaminated Sediment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors pose risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans.

  6. Shallow End Response from ATEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Different geological, hydrological, environmental and engineering targets are located shallow underground. The information collected with ATEM systems might be very useful for their study; although there are many deeper targets that the ATEM systems are traditionally used for. The idea to raise magnetic moment output and get deeper penetration response was one of the goals of ATEM systems development during the last decade. The shallow geology response was a trade for such systems, which sometimes were almost blind in the first hundred meter under surface. The possibility to achieve shallow end response from ATEM systems has become significant subject in last years. Several airborne TDEM systems got second higher frequency and lower magnetic moment signal to pick up shallow response together with deep one. Having a potential advantage such implementation raises complication and cost of the system. There's no need to receive 500 meter deep response when exploring shallow geology. P-THEM system having a compact size transmitter and relatively light weight is working on one base frequency at a time, but this frequency can be preset before a flight considering survey goals. A study of shallow geology response of the P-THEM system working on different base frequency has been conducted in 2014 in Ontario. The Alliston test area located in Southern Ontario has been flown with the P-THEM system working on base frequencies 30Hz and 90Hz. Results of the observations will be discussed in the presentation. The shallow end data can be used for mineral exploration applications and also for hydrological and environmental studies.

  7. An investigation of shallow ground-water quality near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radio-nuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the U.S. Department of Energy 's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. (USGS)

  8. Bimodal spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of hypertrophic skin tissue: pre-clinical experimentation, spectral data selection and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Honghui; Gisquet, Héloïse; Guillemin, F.; Blondel, Walter C. P. M.

    2011-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was two folds: firstly, we would like to investigate the efficiency of bimodal spectroscopic technique in characterization of hypertrophic scarring tissue deliberately created on a preclinical model (rabbit's ear); on the other hand, we evaluate the inhibition effect of an anti-inflammatory medication (tacrolimus) on hypertrophic formation in scar by using our bimodal spectroscopic system. Study design: This study was conducted on 20 New Zealand Rabbits receiving hypertrophic scarring treatment on their ears. Fluorescence and Diffuse Reflectance spectra were collected from each scar, amongst which some had received tacrolimus treatment. Features were extracted from corrected spectral data and analyzed to classify the scarring tissues into hypertrophic or non-hypertrophic. Diagnostic algorithms were developed with the use of k-NN classifier and validated by comparing to histological classification result with Leave-one- out cross validation. Results and discussion: The accuracy of our bimodal spectroscopy method for detecting hypertrophic scarring scar tissue was good (sensibility: 90.84%, specificity: 94.44%). The features used for classification were mainly extracted from the spectra exited at 360, 410 and 420 nm. This indicates that the difference between the spectra acquired from hypertrophic and non-hypertrophic tissue may be due to the different intensity distribution of several fluorophores (collagen,elastin and NADH) excited in this range, or to the change in proportion of tissue layers (epidermis and dermis) explored by the CEFS in use.

  9. Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy and Follicular Thyroid Cancer: A Rare Paraneoplastic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tavarelli, Martina; Sarfati, Julie; De Gennes, Christian; Haroche, Julien; Buffet, Camille; Ghander, Cécile; Simon, Jean Marc; Ménégaux, Fabrice; Leenhardt, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a rare condition characterized by bone and joint pain and digital clubbing usually associated with bronchopulmonary diseases. Primary HOA is rare and the pathogenesis remains unclear. Objectives Cases of HOA as a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with thyroid carcinoma are very rare – only 2 cases have been described in the literature. Results We present the first case of a 40-year-old patient affected by HOA associated with invasive differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma operated in 2 stages. Both operations were followed by radioiodine ablation, and then a rapid unresectable local recurrence developed requiring cervical radiotherapy (70 Gy). A second treatment with 100 mCi of 131I confirmed it was a refractory thyroid cancer. Further surgery confirmed a poorly differentiated follicular cancer and 12 cycles of chemotherapy by gemcitabine and oxaliplatin followed. During the 8 years of follow-up, cervical recurrence was stable, but severe episodes of hemoptysis occurred requiring iterative embolization of the bronchial and tracheal arteries. Other lung diseases were excluded. Digital clubbing appeared, which was associated with arthritis, bone pain and inflammatory syndrome. X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging found periosteal apposition in the long bones; bone scintigraphy confirmed the HOA diagnosis. Other causes of arthritis were eliminated. She was treated with colchicine, corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but only the combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine reduced the morphine requirements. Conclusion HOA is exceptionally associated with thyroid cancer and we raised the hypothesis of the secretion of a circulating factor in a patient with invasive and recurrent follicular thyroid cancer, refractory to radioiodine. PMID:26835431

  10. Genetics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after 20 years: clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Maron, Barry J; Maron, Martin S; Semsarian, Christopher

    2012-08-21

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common familial heart disease with vast genetic heterogeneity, demonstrated over the past 20 years. Mutations in 11 or more genes encoding proteins of the cardiac sarcomere (>1,400 variants) are responsible for (or associated with) HCM. Explosive progress achieved in understanding the rapidly evolving science underlying HCM genomics has resulted in fee-for-service testing, making genetic information widely available. The power of HCM mutational analysis, albeit a more limited role than initially envisioned, lies most prominently in screening family members at risk for developing disease and excluding unaffected relatives, which is information not achievable otherwise. Genetic testing also allows expansion of the broad HCM disease spectrum and diagnosis of HCM phenocopies with different natural history and treatment options, but is not a reliable strategy for predicting prognosis. Interfacing a heterogeneous disease such as HCM with the vast genetic variability of the human genome, and high frequency of novel mutations, has created unforeseen difficulties in translating complex science (and language) into the clinical arena. Indeed, proband diagnostic testing is often expressed on a probabilistic scale, which is frequently incompatible with clinical decision making. Major challenges rest with making reliable distinctions between pathogenic mutations and benign variants, and those judged to be of uncertain significance. Genotyping in HCM can be a powerful tool for family screening and diagnosis. However, wider adoption and future success of genetic testing in the practicing cardiovascular community depends on a standardized approach to mutation interpretation, and bridging the communication gap between basic scientists and clinicians.

  11. Altered patterns of cardiac intercellular junction distribution in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, R.; Severs, N. J.; Gourdie, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the distribution pattern of intercellular junctions (the mechanically coupling desmosomes and the electrically coupling gap junctions) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) hearts showing myofibre disarray. DESIGN: Samples from six necropsied hearts were studied, representing the interventricular septum and the free walls of the left and right ventricles. Immunohistochemical labelling of desmoplakin was used as a marker for desmosomes, and of connexin43 as a marker for gap junctions, in single and double stainings. The slides were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Marked disorganisation of intercalated discs was observed in areas featuring myofibre disarray. Besides overall derangement, localised abnormalities in desmosome organisation were evident, which included: (1) the formation of abnormally enlarged megadiscs; (2) the presence of intersecting disc structures; and (3) aberrant side to side desmosomal connections. Gap junctional abnormalities included: (1) random distribution of gap junctions over the surface of myocytes, rather than localisation to intercalated discs; (2) abundant side to side gap junction connections between adjacent myocytes; and (3) formation of abnormally shaped gap junctions. Circles of myocytes continuously interconnected by gap junctions were also observed. Regions of the diseased hearts lacking myofibre disarray, and control hearts of normal patients and patients with other cardiac diseases, did not show these alterations. CONCLUSIONS: The disorganisation of the intercellular junctions associated with myofibre disarray in HCM may play an important role in the pathophysiological manifestations of the disease. The remodelling of gap junction distribution may underlie the formation of an arrhythmogenic substrate, thereby contributing to the generation and maintenance of cardiac arrhythmias associated with HCM. Images PMID:8944586

  12. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar, and HSc. Three independent investigators evaluated 128 sites (severe HSc, moderate or mild HSc, donor site, and normal skin) on 32 burn survivors using all of the above measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which was used to measure interrater reliability, reflects the inherent amount of error in the measure and is considered acceptable when it is >0.75. Interrater reliability of the totals of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS fell below the acceptable limit ( congruent with0.50). The individual subscales of the mVSS fell well below the acceptable level (< or =0.3). The Cutometer reading of elasticity provided acceptable reliability (>0.89) for each study site with the exception of severe scar. Mexameter and DermaScan C reliability measurements were acceptable for all sites (>0.82). Concurrent validity correlations with the mVSS were significant except for the comparison of the mVSS pliability subscale and the Cutometer maximum deformation measure comparison in severe scar. In conclusion, the Mexameter and DermaScan C measurements of scar color and thickness of all sites, as well as the Cutometer measurement of elasticity in all but the most severe scars shows high interrater reliability. Their significant concurrent validity with the mVSS confirms that these tools are measuring the same traits as the mVSS, and in a more objective way.

  13. Hypertrophic lichen planus versus prurigo nodularis: a dermoscopic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ankad, Balachandra S.; Beergouder, Savitha L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic lichen planus (HLP) classically involves shin and ankles and is characterized by hyperkeratotic plaques and nodules. Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic neurodermatitis that presents with intensely pruritic nodules. Histopathology of HLP and PN demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia, hypergranulosis, and compact hyperkeratosis. The dermis shows vertically arranged collagen fibers and an increased number of fibroblasts and capillaries in both conditions. Moreover, basal cell degeneration is confined to the tips of rete ridges, and band-like infiltration is conspicuously absent in HLP. Therefore, both conditions mimic each other clinically, which makes diagnosis difficult. Hence, there is a need for a diagnostic technique to differentiate both conditions. Objective: To evaluate dermoscopic patterns in HLP and PN and to study these patterns histopathologically. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College in Bagalkot. It was an observational case series study. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. A Dermlite 3 dermoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA) attached to a Sony Cyber Shot camera DSC-W800 (Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, California, USA) was employed. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. Results: There were 10 patients each with HLP and PN. HLP was seen in 8 males and 2 females. PN was observed in 7 females and 3 males. Dermoscopy of HLP demonstrated pearly white areas and peripheral striations (100%), gray-blue globules (60%), comedo-like openings (30%), red dots (40%), red globules (10%), brownish-black globules (30%), and yellowish structures (90%). In PN, red dots (70%), red globules (60%), and pearly white areas with peripheral striations (100%) were observed under dermoscopy. Conclusion: Both HLP and PN demonstrated specific dermoscopic patterns which can be demonstrated on histopathologic findings. The authors propose that these patterns are hallmarks of each

  14. Clinical significance of giant negative T waves in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso, F.; Nihoyannopoulos, P.; Stewart, J.; Dickie, S.; Lemery, R.; McKenna, W.J. )

    1990-04-01

    To assess the clinical significance of giant negative T waves in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from Western nations, clinical, echocardiographic, radionuclide and 48 h electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring findings were compared in 27 patients with and 56 patients without giant negative T waves. Patients with giant negative T waves were older at diagnosis (43 +/- 15 versus 32 +/- 14 years, p less than 0.005), had greater ECG voltage (SV1 + RV5 = 57 +/- 20 versus 37 +/- 18 mm, p less than 0.001) and had a more vertical frontal plane axis (38.4 +/- 34 versus 13.4 +/- 45 degrees, p less than 0.05). Left ventricular wall thickness on two-dimensional echocardiography was similar at the mitral valve level (mean 16.5 +/- 4 versus 16.6 +/- 3 cm), but was greater at the papillary muscle level (mean 20.7 +/- 5 versus 17.6 +/- 3 mm, p less than 0.01) and apex (mean 23.3 +/- 5 versus 17.3 +/- 3 mm, p less than 0.001) in patients with giant negative T waves. Fewer patients with giant negative T waves had asymmetric septal hypertrophy (12 (44%) of 27 versus 36 (64%) of 56, p = 0.08) or systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (4 (14%) of 27 versus 25 (45%) of 56, p less than 0.01), whereas left ventricular end-diastolic (44.1 +/- 6 versus 39.6 +/- 5 mm, p = 0.01) and end-systolic dimensions (27.8 +/- 4 versus 24 +/- 6 mm, p less than 0.05) were greater in this group. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was seen on ECG monitoring in 21% of patients in both groups.

  15. Abnormal Mitral Valve Dimensions in Pediatric Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Daryl; Benson, Lee; Windram, Jonathan; Wong, Derek; Dragulescu, Andreea; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Mertens, Luc; Friedberg, Mark; Al Nafisi, Bahiyah; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The hearts of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) show structural abnormalities other than isolated wall thickening. Recently, adult HCM patients have been found to have longer mitral valve leaflets than control subjects. The aim of the current study was to assess whether children and adolescents with HCM have similar measureable differences in mitral valve leaflet dimensions when compared to a healthy control group. Clinical and echocardiographic data from 46 children with myocardial hypertrophy and a phenotype and/or genotype consistent with sarcomeric HCM were reviewed. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies were evaluated. The anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflet lengths and myocardial structure were compared to 20 healthy controls. The anterior mitral valve was longer in the HCM group than in the control group (28.4 ± 4.9 vs. 25.2 ± 3.6 mm in control patients, p = 0.013) as was the posterior mitral valve leaflet (16.3 ± 3.0 vs. 13.1 ± 2.3 mm for controls <0.0001). There was no correlation between the resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient and anterior mitral valve leaflet length, nor was the anterior mitral valve leaflet longer in those with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve compared to those without (28.9 ± 6.1 vs. 28.1 ± 4.5 mm, p = 0.61). Children and adolescents with HCM have abnormally long mitral valve leaflets when compared with healthy control subjects. These abnormalities do not appear to result in, or be due to, obstruction to left ventricular outflow. The mechanism of this mitral valve elongation is not clear but appears to be independent of hemodynamic disturbances.

  16. Characteristics of hypertrophic pachymeningitis in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Mi Ji; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2017-02-20

    Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is an important neurologic complication of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener's granulomatosis). The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical features, radiological findings, and diagnostic pitfalls of GPA-related HP. A retrospective chart review was performed to screen patients diagnosed with GPA at Samsung Medical Center between 1997 and 2016. Neurologic manifestation, laboratory findings, neuroimaging data, and clinical course were evaluated in all patients. Characteristics of patients with HP were compared to those of patients without HP. Sixty-five patients with GPA were identified. Twenty-five of these patients had central nervous system involvement. HP (N = 9, 36%) was the second most common radiologic finding. Other neurologic findings included stroke (N = 7, 28%) and granulomatous disease (N = 10, 40%). Patients with HP had lower incidences of systemic manifestations (N = 2, 22.2% vs. N = 38, 67.9%, p = 0.013 in the lung and N = 1, 11.1% vs. N = 28, 50.0%, p = 0.030 in the kidney) than those without HP. Six patients with GPA-related HP were MPO-ANCA positive (66.7%) and two had PR3-ANCA (22.2%). Most of the patients with HP presented with headache (N = 8, 88.9%) at a rate that is similar to those of primary headache disorders (migraine, tension-type, and stabbing) and other secondary headache disorders (postural type and meningitis). Patients with HP rarely had neurologic deficits (N = 3, 37.5%). Different clinical or radiologic features may be observed in GPA-related HP. Early recognition and accurate diagnosis of GPA-related HP are needed in addition to neuroimaging findings.

  17. Successful management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei).

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Daniel V; Jones, Ashley E; Hall, Natalie H; Russell, Kathleen; Heard, Darryl J

    2015-03-01

    A 3-yr-old, intact male Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) was examined for a 1-wk history of intermittent lethargy and tachypnea. An echocardiogram revealed concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricular free wall and interventricular septum. These findings were compared to measurements from healthy Matschie's tree kangaroos, supporting a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. At the time of publication, the patient has been managed for over 11.5 yr, using a combination of enalapril, furosemide, diltiazem, and diet modifications. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in tree kangaroos exhibiting signs of cardiovascular or respiratory distress. This case represents the first report of antemortem diagnosis and successful management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Matschie's tree kangaroo.

  18. The presence of lysylpyridinoline in the hypertrophic cartilage of newly hatched chicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, M. W.; Martinez, D. A.; Cook, M. E.; Vailas, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of lysylpyridinoline (LP) as a nonreducible cross-link in appreciable quantities has primarily been limited to the mineralized tissues, bone and dentin. However, the results reported here show that LP is not only present in the hypertrophic cartilage of the tibiotarsus isolated from newly hatched broiler chicks, but it is approx. 4-fold as concentrated as hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP). Bone and articular cartilage surrounding the hypertrophic cartilage do not contain measurable quantities of LP. Purified LP has a fluorescent scan similar to purified HP and literature values, confirming that we indeed were measuring LP. Also, the cartilage lesion produced by immature chondrocytes from birds with tibial dyschondroplasia had LP but the HP:LP ratio was > 1. Thus, the low HP:LP ratio could be a marker for hypertrophic cartilage in avians.

  19. The spectrum of soft tissue and skeletal abnormalities of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Pineda, C; Fonseca, C; Martinez-Lavin, M

    1990-05-01

    We review our radiographic experience with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Soft tissue abnormalities such as finger clubbing, "elephant feet" and cutis verticis gyrata are well appreciated by plain radiography. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is characterized by a bone remodeling process at the tip of the digits. In older patients it is manifested as tuftal hypertrophy whereas in younger individuals acroosteolysis takes place. Radiographic signs of inflammatory arthropathy are conspicuously absent. Periosteal proliferation is an orderly evolving process in 3 dimensions: in the number of affected bones, in the area of involvement of a given bone and in the shape of periostitis.

  20. In vitro mechanical compression induces apoptosis and regulates cytokines release in hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Renò, Filippo; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Lombardi, Francesca; Stella, Maurizio; Pezzuto, Carla; Magliacani, Gilberto; Cannas, Mario

    2003-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars resulting from severe burns are usually treated by continuous elastic compression. Although pressure therapy reaches success rates of 60-85% its mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. In this study, apoptosis induction and release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were evaluated in normal (n = 3) and hypertrophic (=7) scars from burns after in vitro mechanical compression. In the absence of compression (basal condition) apoptotic cells, scored using terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase assay, were present after 24 hours in the derma of both normal scar (23 +/- 0.4% of total cell) and hypertrophic scar (11.3 +/- 1.4%). Mechanical compression (constant pressure of 35 mmHg for 24 hours) increased apoptotic cell percentage both in normal scar (29.5 +/- 0.4%) and hypertrophic scar (29 +/- 1.7%). IL-1beta released in the medium was undetectable in normal scar under basal conditions while in hypertrophic scar the IL-1beta concentration was 3.48 +/- 0.2 ng/g. Compression in hypertrophic scar-induced secretion of IL-1beta twofold higher compared to basal condition. (7.72 +/- 0.2 ng/g). TNF-alpha basal concentration measured in normal scar medium was 8.52 +/- 4.01 ng/g and compression did not altered TNF-alpha release (12.86 +/- 7.84 ng/g). TNF-alpha basal release was significantly higher in hypertrophic scar (14.74 +/- 1.42 ng/g) compared to normal scar samples and TNF-alpha secretion was diminished (3.52 +/- 0.97 ng/g) after compression. In conclusion, in our in vitro model, mechanical compression resembling the clinical use of elastocompression was able to strongly increase apoptosis in the hypertrophic scar derma as observed during granulation tissue regression in normal wound healing. Moreover, the observed modulation of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha release by mechanical loading could play a key role in hypertrophy regression induced by elastocompression.

  1. Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis in Postoperative Esophageal Atresia with Tracheoesophageal Fistula.

    PubMed

    R A A, Hassan; Y U, Choo; R, Noraida; I, Rosida

    2015-01-01

    Development of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis during postoperative period in EA with TEF is rare. Postoperative vomiting or feeding intolerance in EA is more common which is due to esophageal stricture, gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal dysmotility. A typical case of IHPS also presents with non-bilious projectile vomiting at around 3-4 weeks of life. The diagnosis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in this subset is usually delayed because of its rarity. We report a case of IHPS in postoperative EA and emphasize on high index of suspicion to avoid any delay in diagnosis with its metabolic consequences.

  2. [The thickness/radius ratio (t/r) in patients with dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Guadalajara, J F; Valenzuela, F; Martínez Sánchez, C; Huerta, D

    1990-01-01

    We studied 17 patients with cardiomyopathy (10 hypertrophic and 7 dilated). With two-dimensional echocardiography, we obtained a short axis view at the level of papillary muscle. We calculated the ratio between thickness (h), of ventricular wall and cavity's radius (r) in diastole and systole (h/r ratio). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has a high h/r ratio in diastole (inappropriate hypertrophy), hypercontractility and low and systolic wall stress. Dilated cardiomyopathy has a low diastolic h/r ratio (inadequate hypertrophy) with low contractility and elevated end-systolic, wall stress. We discuss the mechanisms and consequences of different patterns of hypertrophy on the ventricular performance.

  3. Controlling cyanobacterial blooms in hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China: will nitrogen reductions cause replacement of non-N2 fixing by N2 fixing taxa?

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Xu, Hai; Hall, Nathan S; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Wu, Yali; Rossignol, Karen L; Dong, Linghan; McCarthy, Mark J; Joyner, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Excessive anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs have caused an alarming increase in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, threatening sustainability of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China's third largest freshwater lake, typifies this predicament, with toxic blooms of the non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. dominating from spring through fall. Previous studies indicate N and P reductions are needed to reduce bloom magnitude and duration. However, N reductions may encourage replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria. This potentially counterproductive scenario was evaluated using replicate, large (1000 L), in-lake mesocosms during summer bloom periods. N+P additions led to maximum phytoplankton production. Phosphorus enrichment, which promoted N limitation, resulted in increases in N2 fixing taxa (Anabaena spp.), but it did not lead to significant replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria, and N2 fixation rates remained ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, P enrichment failed to increase phytoplankton production relative to controls, indicating that N was the most limiting nutrient throughout this period. We propose that Microcystis spp. and other non-N2 fixing genera can maintain dominance in this shallow, highly turbid, nutrient-enriched lake by outcompeting N2 fixing taxa for existing sources of N and P stored and cycled in the lake. To bring Taihu and other hypertrophic systems below the bloom threshold, both N and P reductions will be needed until the legacy of high N and P loading and sediment nutrient storage in these systems is depleted. At that point, a more exclusive focus on P reductions may be feasible.

  4. Controlling Cyanobacterial Blooms in Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China: Will Nitrogen Reductions Cause Replacement of Non-N2 Fixing by N2 Fixing Taxa?

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Hans W.; Xu, Hai; Hall, Nathan S.; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Wu, Yali; Rossignol, Karen L.; Dong, Linghan; McCarthy, Mark J.; Joyner, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs have caused an alarming increase in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, threatening sustainability of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China’s third largest freshwater lake, typifies this predicament, with toxic blooms of the non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. dominating from spring through fall. Previous studies indicate N and P reductions are needed to reduce bloom magnitude and duration. However, N reductions may encourage replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria. This potentially counterproductive scenario was evaluated using replicate, large (1000 L), in-lake mesocosms during summer bloom periods. N+P additions led to maximum phytoplankton production. Phosphorus enrichment, which promoted N limitation, resulted in increases in N2 fixing taxa (Anabaena spp.), but it did not lead to significant replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria, and N2 fixation rates remained ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, P enrichment failed to increase phytoplankton production relative to controls, indicating that N was the most limiting nutrient throughout this period. We propose that Microcystis spp. and other non-N2 fixing genera can maintain dominance in this shallow, highly turbid, nutrient-enriched lake by outcompeting N2 fixing taxa for existing sources of N and P stored and cycled in the lake. To bring Taihu and other hypertrophic systems below the bloom threshold, both N and P reductions will be needed until the legacy of high N and P loading and sediment nutrient storage in these systems is depleted. At that point, a more exclusive focus on P reductions may be feasible. PMID:25405474

  5. Left Atrial Mechanical Function and Global Strain in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Yong-Jin; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Zo, Joo-Hee; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia and is associated with adverse outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Although left atrial (LA) remodeling and dysfunction are known to associate with the development of atrial fibrillation in HCM, the changes of the LA in HCM patients remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in LA size and mechanical function in HCM patients compared to control subjects and to determine the characteristics of HCM associated with LA remodeling and dysfunction. Methods Seventy-nine HCM patients (mean age, 54 ± 11 years; 76% were men) were compared to 79 age- and sex-matched controls (mean age, 54 ± 11 years; 76% were men) and 20 young healthy controls (mean age, 33 ± 5 years; 45% were men). The LA diameter, volume, and mechanical function, including global strain (ε), were evaluated by 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography. The phenotype of HCM, maximal left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, LV mass, and presence and extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) were evaluated with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results HCM patients showed increased LA volume index, impaired reservoir function, and decreased LA ε compared to the control subjects. When we divided the HCM group according to a maximal LA volume index (LAVImax) of 38.7 ml/m2 or LA ε of 21%, no significant differences in the HCM phenotype and maximal LV wall thickness were observed for patients with LAVImax >38.7 ml/m2 or LA ε ≤21%. Conversely, the LV mass index was significantly higher both in patients with maximal LA volume index >38.7 ml/m2 and with LA ε ≤21% and was independently associated with LAVImax and LA ε. Although the LGE extent was increased in patients with LA ε ≤21%, it was not independently associated with either LAVImax or LA ε. Conclusions HCM patients showed progressed LA remodeling and dysfunction; the determinant of LA remodeling and dysfunction was LV mass index rather than LV myocardial fibrosis

  6. DDDR pacing for symptomatic patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, H.J.; Scheffer, M.G.; van Mechelen, R.; Kofflard, M.J.M.; ten Cate, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is a primary cardiac disorder with a heterogeneous expression. When medical therapy fails in patients with symptomatic HOCM, three additional therapeutic strategies exist: ventricular septal myectomy, alcohol-induced percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) of the first septal branch of the anterior descending artery and pacemaker implantation. In this paper we present the results of seven patients in whom a dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted to reduce the gradient in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and to relieve their symptoms. Methods In patients with drug refractory symptomatic HOCM, not eligible for surgery, pacemaker therapy was recommended. Symptomatic HOCM was defined as symptoms of angina and dyspnoea, functional class NYHA 3-4 and a resting LVOT gradient during Doppler echocardiography of more than 2.75 m/s (30 mmHg). In these patients, a dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted with a right ventricular lead positioned in the right ventricular apex and an atrial lead positioned in the right atrial appendage. In all patients the AV setting was programmed between 50 and 100 ms, using Doppler echocardiography to determine the optimal filling and to ensure ventricular capture. Results A statistically significant reduction of the LVOT gradient was observed in all patients. The pre-implantation gradient in the LVOT measured by Doppler echocardiography varied from 3-5.8 m/s with a mean of 4.7±1.1 m/s. The post-implantation gradient varied from 1.4-2.6 m/s with a mean of 1.9±0.4 m/s (p<0.001). Symptomatic improvement was present in all patients. NYHA functional class went from 3-4 (mean 3.1±0.5) pre-implantation to 1-2 mean (1.3±0.4) after implantation (p<0.001). During a mean follow-up of 2.3±1.1 years, the improvement in functional class was maintained. Conclusion Our preliminary results demonstrate that dual-chamber pacing is an effective and safe treatment for

  7. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: intrarater reliability, sensitivity, and specificity.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    The comparison of scar evaluation over time requires measurement tools with acceptable intrarater reliability and the ability to discriminate skin characteristics of interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intrarater reliability and sensitivity and specificity of the Cutometer, the Mexameter, and the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar (donor sites), and hypertrophic scar (HSc). A single investigator evaluated four tissue types (severe HSc, less severe HSc, donor site, and normal skin) in 30 burn survivors with all four measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the Cutometer was acceptable (> or =0.75) for the maximum deformation measure for the donor site and normal skin (>0.78) but was below the acceptable range for the HSc sites and all other parameters. The ICC for the Mexameter erythema (>0.75) and melanin index (>0.89) and the DermaScan C total thickness measurement (>0.82) were acceptable for all sites. The ICC for the total of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS was acceptable (0.81) for normal scar but below the acceptable range for the scar sites. The DermaScan C was clearly able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin based on the total thickness measure. The Cutometer was less discriminating but was still able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin. The Mexameter erythema index was not a good discriminator of HSc and normal scar. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to establish the best cutoff point for the DermaScan C total thickness and the Cutometer maximum deformation, which were 2.034 and 0.387 mm, respectively. This study showed that although the Cutometer, the DermaScan C, and the Mexameter have measurement properties that make them attractive substitutes for the mVSS, caution must be used when interpreting results since the Cutometer has a ceiling effect when

  8. Environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Kushlna, J.A.; Hafner, H.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the world, individuals and populations of herons are affected by environmental contaminants, leading to direct mortality, decreased reproductive success, or degradation of feeding habitat. Contaminants suspected or known to affect herons include organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus insecticides, trace elements, and petroleum (Parnell et al. 1988).General reviews on the effects of pesticides on birds (Risebrough 1986, 1991) and colonial water birds (Nisbet 1980) are presented elsewhere. The objective of this chapter is to review toxic effects of contaminants on herons. Unless otherwise noted, contaminant concentrations are presented as parts per million (ppm) on a wet weight (ww) basis.

  9. Shallow Geothermal Admissibility Maps: a Methodology to Achieve a Sustainable Development of Shallow Geothermal Energy with Regards to Groundwater Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréthaut, D.; Parriaux, A.; Tacher, L.

    2009-04-01

    Implantation and use of shallow geothermal systems may have environmental impacts. Traditionally, risks are divided into 2 categories: direct and indirect. Direct risks are linked with the leakage of the circulating fluid (usually water with anti-freeze) of ground source heat pumps into the underground which may be a source of contamination. Indirect risks are linked with the borehole itself and the operation of the systems which can modify the groundwater flow, change groundwater temperature and chemistry, create bypasses from the surfaces to the aquifers or between two aquifers. Groundwater source heat pumps (GWSHP) may provoke indirect risks, while ground source heat pumps (GSHP) may provoke both direct and indirect risks. To minimize those environmental risks, the implantation of shallow geothermal systems must be regulated. In 2007, more than 7000 GSHP have been installed in Switzerland, which represents 1.5 Mio drilled meters. In the canton of Vaud, each shallow geothermal project has to be approved by the Department of the Environment. Approximately 1500 demands have been treated during 2007, about 15 times more than in 1990. Mapping shallow geothermal systems implantation restrictions due to environmental constrains permits: 1) to optimize the management and planning of the systems, 2) to minimize their impact on groundwater resources and 3) to facilitate administrative procedures for treating implantation demands. Such maps are called admissibility maps. Here, a methodology to elaborate them is presented and tested. Interactions between shallow geothermal energy and groundwater resources have been investigated. Admissibility criteria are proposed and structured into a flow chart which provides a decision making tool for shallow geothermal systems implantation. This approach has been applied to three areas of West Switzerland ranging from 2 to 6 km2. For each area, a geological investigation has been realized and complementary territorial information (e

  10. MicroRNA 181b regulates decorin production by dermal fibroblasts and may be a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Peter; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is a frequent fibroproliferative complication following deep dermal burns leading to impaired function and lifelong disfigurement. Decorin reduces fibrosis and induces regeneration in many tissues, and is significantly downregulated in hypertrophic scar and normal deep dermal fibroblasts. It was hypothesized that microRNAs in these fibroblasts downregulate decorin and blocking them would increase decorin and may prevent hypertrophic scarring. Lower decorin levels were found in hypertrophic scar as compared to normal skin, and in deep as compared to superficial dermis. A decorin 3' un-translated region reporter assay demonstrated microRNA decreased decorin in deep dermal fibroblasts, and microRNA screening predicted miR- 24, 181b, 421, 526b, or 543 as candidates. After finding increased levels of mir-181b in deep dermal fibroblasts, it was demonstrated that TGF-β1 stimulation decreased miR-24 but increased miR-181b and that hypertrophic scar and deep dermis contained increased levels of miR-181b. By blocking miR-181b with an antagomiR, it was possible to increase decorin protein expression in dermal fibroblasts. This suggests miR-181b is involved in the differential expression of decorin in skin and wound healing. Furthermore, blocking miR-181b reversed TGF-β1 induced decorin downregulation and myofibroblast differentiation in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, suggesting a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

  11. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy with myelofibrosis and anemia: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheyu; Li, Qianrui; Wang, Qin; Chen, Decai; Li, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) is a rare and usually benign disorder of bone and connective tissue growth. Here we present a 28-year-old male patient presenting to our hospital with PHO and symptomatic anemia. Bone marrow biopsy suggested myelofibrosis, a serious complication of PHO, which is often neglected upon admission, but may lead to life-threatening anemia. PMID:25785156

  12. Marked left ventricular hypertrophy mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with steroid therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Scirè, Giuseppe; D'Anella, Giorgio; Cristofori, Laura; Mazzuca, Valentina; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    We describe a child treated with high-dose steroid therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia who showed marked left ventricular hypertrophy mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with steroid therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Cardiomyopathy reversed completely when an appropriate steroid therapeutic regimen was established.

  13. Dietary copper supplementation reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy induced by chronic pressure overload in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. We show here that dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper (Cu) reverses pre-established hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the presence of pressure overload induced by ascending aor...

  14. [Molecular targets and novel pharmacological options to prevent myocardial hypertrophic remodeling].

    PubMed

    Coppini, Raffaele; Ferrantini, Cecilia; Poggesi, Corrado; Mugelli, Alessandro; Olivotto, Iacopo

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial hypertrophic remodeling is a pathophysiological feature of several cardiac conditions and is the hallmark of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common monogenic inherited disease of the heart. In recent years, preclinical and clinical studies investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways involved in pathologic cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and highlighted a number of possible molecular targets of therapy aimed at preventing its development. Early prevention of myocardial hypertrophic remodeling is particularly sought after in HCM, as current therapeutic strategies are unable to remove the primary cause of disease, i.e. the disease-causing gene mutation. Studies on transgenic animal models or human myocardial samples from patients with HCM identified intracellular calcium overload as a central mechanism driving pathological hypertrophy. In this review, we analyze recent preclinical and clinical studies on animal models and patients with HCM aimed at preventing or modifying hypertrophic myocardial remodeling. Mounting evidence shows that prevention of pathological hypertrophy is a feasible strategy in HCM and will enter the clinical practice in the near future. Considering the close mechanistic similarities between HCM and secondary hypertrophy, these studies are also relevant for the common forms of cardiac hypertrophy, such as hypertensive or valvular heart disease.

  15. Galangin inhibits hypertrophic scar formation via ALK5/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifan; Shan, Shengzhou; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Xinyu; Yi, Bo; Zhou, Jia; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-02-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is characterized by excessive fibrosis associated with aberrant function of fibroblasts. Currently, no satisfactory drug has been developed to treat the disease. Here we found that a flavonoid natural product, galangin, could significantly attenuate hypertrophic scar formation in a mechanical load-induced mouse model. Both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that galangin remarkably inhibited collagen production, proliferation, and activation of fibroblasts. Besides, galangin suppressed the contractile ability of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Further Western blot analysis revealed that galangin dose-dependently down-regulated Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. Such bioactivity of galangin resulted from its selective targeting to the activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) was demonstrated by ALK5 knockdown and over-expression experiments. Taken together, this compound could simultaneously inhibit both the accumulation of collagen and abnormal activation/proliferation of fibroblasts, which were the two pivotal factors for hypertrophic scar formation, thus suggesting that galangin serves as a potential agent for treatment of HS or other fibroproliferative disorders.

  16. [Apical hypertrophic myocardiopathy. Report of the first case identified on the American continent].

    PubMed

    Zanoniani, C; Guadalajara, J F; Gil, M; Medrano, G A; Vargas, J; Salazar, E

    1981-01-01

    What appears to be the first case of hypertrophic apical myocardiography described in the western hemisphere is presented in this report. The diagnosis was confirmed by angiocardiography and echocardiography. The electrocardiogram showed the characteristic giant T waves. It is of interest that the coronary radioangiography suggested alterations in the microcirculation which could explain the striking electrocardiographic pattern of subepicardial ischemia seen in these patients.

  17. [Right ventricular involvement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A case report and brief review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Comella, Alessandro; Magnacca, Massimo; Gistri, Roberto; Lombardi, Massimo; Neglia, Danilo; Poddighe, Rosa; Pesola, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    A clinical case of non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with involvement of the right ventricle is reported. The patient was a 42-year-old male with symptoms suggesting an effort angina of recent onset. The diagnosis was established by echocardiography, which showed asymmetric hypertrophy of the interventricular septum (20 mm), hypertrophy of the right ventricular free wall, and severe hypertrophy of the septal papillary muscle of the tricuspid valve. The patient underwent a complete diagnostic evaluation, including exercise stress test, Holter monitoring, magnetic resonance, myocardial tomoscintigraphy and complete hemodynamic assessment. Medical treatment with atenolol 50 mg day was started; at 1-year follow-up the patient's clinical conditions are good, with decrease of anginal episodes. The literature review elicits the paucity of information about this condition, despite a frequent involvement of both ventricles in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. The case reported shows two atypical aspects: a) the involvement of the right ventricle in non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is anecdotal; b) this pattern of hypertrophy (right ventricular free wall/septal papillary muscle) has never been previously reported. Right ventricular involvement in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy must be carefully investigated, because it may be more frequent than conventionally deemed.

  18. Enhanced in Vivo Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil by Ethosomal Gels in Rabbit Ear Hypertrophic Scar Model

    PubMed Central

    Wo, Yan; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Kan; Mao, Xiaohui; Su, Weijie; Li, Ke; Cui, Daxiang; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Applying Ethosomal Gels (EGs) in transdermal drug delivery systems has evoked considerable interest because of their good water-solubility and biocompatibility. However, there has not been an explicit description of applying EGs as a vehicle for hypertrophic scars treatment. Here, a novel transdermal EGs loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU EGs) was successfully prepared and characterized. The stability assay in vitro revealed that 5-FU EGs stored for a period of 30 days at 4 ± 1 °C had a better size stability than that at 25 ± 1 °C. Furthermore, using confocal laser scanning microscopy, EGs labeled with Rhodamine 6 G penetrated into the deep dermis of the hypertrophic scar within 24 h in the rabbit ear hypertrophic model suggested that the EGs were an optional delivery carrier through scar tissues. In addition, the value of the Scar Elevation Index (SEI) of 5-FU EGs group in the rabbit ear scar model was lower than that of 5-FU Phosphate Buffered Saline gel and Control groups. To conclude, these results suggest that EGs delivery system loaded 5-fluorouracil is a perfect candidate drug for hypertrophic scars therapy in future. PMID:25501333

  19. Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars Are the Result of Chronic Inflammation in the Reticular Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei

    2017-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are caused by cutaneous injury and irritation, including trauma, insect bite, burn, surgery, vaccination, skin piercing, acne, folliculitis, chicken pox, and herpes zoster infection. Notably, superficial injuries that do not reach the reticular dermis never cause keloidal and hypertrophic scarring. This suggests that these pathological scars are due to injury to this skin layer and the subsequent aberrant wound healing therein. The latter is characterized by continuous and histologically localized inflammation. As a result, the reticular layer of keloids and hypertrophic scars contains inflammatory cells, increased numbers of fibroblasts, newly formed blood vessels, and collagen deposits. Moreover, proinflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are upregulated in keloid tissues, which suggests that, in patients with keloids, proinflammatory genes in the skin are sensitive to trauma. This may promote chronic inflammation, which in turn may cause the invasive growth of keloids. In addition, the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in pathological scars suggests that, rather than being skin tumors, keloids and hypertrophic scars are inflammatory disorders of skin, specifically inflammatory disorders of the reticular dermis. Various external and internal post-wounding stimuli may promote reticular inflammation. The nature of these stimuli most likely shapes the characteristics, quantity, and course of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Specifically, it is likely that the intensity, frequency, and duration of these stimuli determine how quickly the scars appear, the direction and speed of growth, and the intensity of symptoms. These proinflammatory stimuli include a variety of local, systemic, and genetic factors. These observations together suggest that the clinical differences between keloids and hypertrophic scars merely reflect differences in the intensity, frequency, and duration of

  20. OBSERVATIONS FROM CONTAMINANT PLUMES ON LONG ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aquifers of Long Island serve as a sole source drinking water supply for the entire
    local population of about three million people. Where the shallow Upper Glacial Aquifer has been contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), intensive site ...

  1. A new 4D trajectory-based approach unveils abnormal LV revolution dynamics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Andrea; Piras, Paolo; Re, Federica; Gabriele, Stefano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Torromeo, Concetta; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Giura, Geltrude; Evangelista, Antonietta; Dominici, Tania; Varano, Valerio; Zachara, Elisabetta; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of left ventricular shape changes during cardiac revolution may be a new step in clinical cardiology to ease early diagnosis and treatment. To quantify these changes, only point registration was adopted and neither Generalized Procrustes Analysis nor Principal Component Analysis were applied as we did previously to study a group of healthy subjects. Here, we extend to patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the original approach and preliminarily include genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals to explore the potential that incumbent pathology might also be detected. Using 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, we recorded left ventricular shape of 48 healthy subjects, 24 patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 3 genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals. We then applied Generalized Procrustes Analysis and Principal Component Analysis and inter-individual differences were cleaned by Parallel Transport performed on the tangent space, along the horizontal geodesic, between the per-subject consensuses and the grand mean. Endocardial and epicardial layers were evaluated separately, different from many ecocardiographic applications. Under a common Principal Component Analysis, we then evaluated left ventricle morphological changes (at both layers) explained by first Principal Component scores. Trajectories' shape and orientation were investigated and contrasted. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to compare these morphometric indicators with traditional 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters. Geometric morphometrics indicators performed better than 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters in recognizing pathology both in systole and diastole. Genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals clustered with patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy during diastole, suggesting that incumbent pathology may indeed be foreseen by these methods. Left

  2. Anti-inflammatory cytokine TSG-6 inhibits hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Zhao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Li; Tang, Yue-Ling

    2015-03-15

    Hypertrophic scars are characterized by excessive fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and can be functionally and cosmetically problematic; however, there are few satisfactory treatments for controlling hypertrophic scars. The inflammatory cells and cytokines involved in excessive inflammation during wound healing facilitate fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, leading to pathologic scar formation. TSG-6 exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. This study examined the effect of recombinant TSG-6 on inflammation in hypertrophic scars using a rabbit ear model. Six 7-mm, full-thickness, circular wounds were made on the ears of 12 rabbits. TSG-6 and PBS were intradermally injected into the right and left ear wounds, respectively. The methods of TEM and TUNEL were used to detect fibroblast apoptosis. The expressions of inflammatory factors: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, were detected by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase chain reaction. Collagen I and III expression detected by immunohistochemistry and Masson׳s trichrome staining and SEI (scar elevation index) was used to evaluate the extent of scarring. TSG-6 injection mitigated the formation of a hypertrophic scar in the rabbit ear. TSG-6-treated wounds exhibited decreased inflammation compared with the control group, as evidenced by the lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MPO. The SEI and the synthesis of collagens I and III were significantly decreased in the TSG-6-treated scars compared with control scars. The apoptosis rate was higher in the TSG-6-treated scars. TSG-6 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects during the wound healing process and cicatrization and significantly diminished hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear model.

  3. Comparative effect and safety of verapamil in keloid and hypertrophic scar treatment: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhouna; Jin, Zhehu

    2016-01-01

    Background Keloids and hypertrophic scars are the most common types of pathological scarring. Traditionally, keloids have been considered as a result of aberrant wound healing, involving excessive fibroblast participation that is characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles. However, the usefulness of this characterization has been questioned. In recent years, studies have reported the appropriate use of verapamil for keloids and hypertrophic scars. Methods Searches were conducted on the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from 2006 to July 2016. State12.0 was used for literature review, data extraction, and meta-analysis. Treatment groups were divided into verapamil and nonverapamil group. Nonverapamil group includes steroids and intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy. Total effective rates include cure rate and effective rate. Cure: skin lesions were completely flattened, became soft and symptoms disappeared. Efficacy: skin lesions subsided, patient significantly reduced symptoms. Inefficient definition of skin was progression free or became worse. Random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. Results Six studies that included 331 patients with keloids and hypertrophic scars were analyzed. Analysis of the total effective rate of skin healing was performed. The total effective rates in the two groups were 54.07% (verapamil) and 53.18% (nonverapamil), respectively. The meta-analysis showed that there was no difference between the two groups. We also compared the adverse reactions between the verapamil treatment group and the steroids treatment group in two studies, and the result indicated that the verapamil group showed less adverse reactions. Conclusion There were no differences between the application of verapamil and nonverapamil group in keloids and hypertrophic scars treatment. Verapamil could act as an effective alternative modality in the prevention and treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars. A

  4. Shallow waters require platform innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Conventional platform designs generally apply to production facilities for relatively shallow-water oil and gas fields and consequently do not attract much attention in the offshore industry. But although new designs relate largely to deeper waters, specific requirements of a particular field in shallow water may well force designers to search for unconventional designs to meet a need for lower costs and rapid development. A central production facility is planned offshore at the drilling location AWG-1, approximately 3 km offshore and in a water depth of about six meters. The choice is governed by the optimum interfield pipeline configuration available at the AWG-1 location, taking into account the other locations required for adequate subsea well coverage. The platform is described.

  5. Shallow cells in directional solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, G. J.; Davis, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    The existing theory on two-dimensional transitions (appropriate to thin parallel-plate geometries) is presented in such a way that it is possible to identify easily conditions for the onset of shallow cells. Conditions are given under which succinonitrile-acetone mixtures should undergo supercritical bifurcation in experimentally accessible ranges. These results suggest a means for the quantitative test of the Mullins and Sekerka (1964) model and its weakly nonlinear extensions.

  6. Shallow Water Fluctuations and Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    propagation, while spatial focusing achieves a high SNR at the intended receiver with a low probability of interception (LPI) elsewhere. The spatial... SNR versus the number of receiver elements M: (1) time reversal alone (TR) and (2) time reversal combined with channel equalization (TR+EQ). Earlier...shallow region of the Mediterranean Sea [6] for two specific reasons. First, the data exhibit a high input SNR across the array (e.g., 12-19 dB

  7. Vortex Formation in Shallow Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, Donald

    2006-11-01

    Vortical structures having a scale much larger than the depth of the flow, which arise in bluff body wakes, jets, and mixing layers generated in shallow layers, show distinctive features due to the influence of bed friction. Cinema techniques of high-image-density particle image velocimetry are employed to characterize quasi-two-dimensional and three-dimensional aspects of the vortex development in terms of: patterns of vorticity; flow topology involving definition of critical points; and global spectral and cross-spectral analyses, based on simultaneous time records at thousands of grid points of the cinema imaging. Taken together, these representations lead to an understanding of the relationship between coherent vortex development and unsteadiness along the bed and, furthermore, provide a basis for exploration of concepts generic to separated shear layers in shallow flows. These concepts include: suppression of a primary mode of vortex formation due to bed friction and emergence of another mode; resonant coupling between a gravity wave of the shallow layer and vortex formation, leading to large-scale vortices; and passive and active (open loop) control, which can either retard or enhance the onset of vortex formation. These studies suggest opportunities for further investigation on both experimental and numerical fronts. Collaboration with Haojun Fu, Alis Ekmekci, Jung-Chang Lin, and Muammer Ozgoren is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Refining the shallow slip deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Tong, Xiaopeng; Sandwell, David T.; Milliner, Christopher W. D.; Dolan, James F.; Hollingsworth, James; Leprince, Sebastien; Ayoub, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Geodetic slip inversions for three major (Mw > 7) strike-slip earthquakes (1992 Landers, 1999 Hector Mine and 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah) show a 15-60 per cent reduction in slip near the surface (depth < 2 km) relative to the slip at deeper depths (4-6 km). This significant difference between surface coseismic slip and slip at depth has been termed the shallow slip deficit (SSD). The large magnitude of this deficit has been an enigma since it cannot be explained by shallow creep during the interseismic period or by triggered slip from nearby earthquakes. One potential explanation for the SSD is that the previous geodetic inversions lack data coverage close to surface rupture such that the shallow portions of the slip models are poorly resolved and generally underestimated. In this study, we improve the static coseismic slip inversion for these three earthquakes, especially at shallow depths, by: (1) including data capturing the near-fault deformation from optical imagery and SAR azimuth offsets; (2) refining the interferometric synthetic aperture radar processing with non-boxcar phase filtering, model-dependent range corrections, more complete phase unwrapping by SNAPHU (Statistical Non-linear Approach for Phase Unwrapping) assuming a maximum discontinuity and an on-fault correlation mask; (3) using more detailed, geologically constrained fault geometries and (4) incorporating additional campaign global positioning system (GPS) data. The refined slip models result in much smaller SSDs of 3-19 per cent. We suspect that the remaining minor SSD for these earthquakes likely reflects a combination of our elastic model's inability to fully account for near-surface deformation, which will render our estimates of shallow slip minima, and potentially small amounts of interseismic fault creep or triggered slip, which could `make up' a small percentages of the coseismic SSD during the interseismic period. Our results indicate that it is imperative that slip inversions include

  9. Characterisation of the water quality from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H B; Shantz, A; Shin, G; Sampson, M L; Meschke, J S

    2010-01-01

    An 8 month investigation into the quality of water from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia was conducted. Wells were analysed for indicators of the health (arsenic, fluoride, manganese, nitrate, total coliforms, E. coli, male-specific coliphage) and aesthetic (iron, chloride, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardnesss, turbidity, pH) quality of the water, and referenced to the Cambodian Drinking Water Standard when available. The shallow aquifer was chemically less of a health risk than the deep aquifer; however, microbial contamination was considerable for both shallow well types with mean E. coli loads of 10(3) CFU/100 mL and male-specific coliphage contamination of 10(2) PFU/eluate. Temporal variation in microbial contamination was significant (p<0.05), with overall loads decreasing during the dry season. The aesthetic quality of the water was poor for all samples, but worsened during the dry season. No significant difference was observed in the quality of water from open and rope-pump wells, despite their classification as unimproved and improved respectively by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Contaminants present in both well types may readily be removed by simple water treatment, suggesting that household treatment may be more beneficial to rural Cambodian households than shallow aquifer source improvements.

  10. The combined use of cryosurgery and intralesional injections of suspensions of fluorinated adrenocorticosteroids for reducing keloids and hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Ceilley, R I; Babin, R W

    1979-01-01

    Freezing with liquid nitrogen in the conventional manner of cryosurgery followed immediately by injection of a suspension of a fluorinated adrenocorticosteroid is an effective way of treating keloids and hypertrophic scars. Details of the method are given.

  11. Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

  12. Response of phytoplankton to protective-restoration treatments enhancing water quality in a shallow urban lake.

    PubMed

    Zębek, Elżbieta; Napiórkowska-Krzebietke, Agnieszka

    2016-11-01

    Lake Jeziorak Mały is a shallow urban lake where storm water pretreatment separators and a fountain-based water aeration system were installed as protective-restoration measures to enhance water quality. We investigated the effect of these procedures on phytoplankton dynamics and physicochemical properties in the littoral and pelagial zones in 1996-2003, 2005, and 2013. A decrease in cyanobacteria proportion, abundance, and biomass has been noticed, and other phytoplankton groups increased after these procedures. Significantly elevated species diversity was recorded in the littoral zone with the exchange of cyanobacteria and diatom dominant species typically induced by alteration from hypertrophic to eutrophic status. For example, the polytrophic Limnothrix redekei was replaced by eutrophic Planktolyngbya brevicellularis. This stemmed from greater oxygenation, water visibility and diminished pH, conductivity, and orthophosphates. Our results showed that introducing these restoration measures influence on the long-term succession of phytoplankton and induced the change from a polytrophic to eutrophic state, and that such measures are vitally important in future considerations of shallow urban lake management.

  13. Organic contaminant amplification during snowmelt.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Wania, Frank

    2008-04-01

    The release of organic contaminants from melting snow poses risks to aquatic and terrestrial organisms and to humans who rely on drinking water and food production from regions that are seasonally snow-covered. Measured and model-predicted spring peak concentrations in waters receiving snowmelt motivate a thorough investigation of organic contaminant behaviour during melting. On the basis of the current understanding of snow metamorphosis, snowmelt hydrology and chemical partitioning in snow, this critical review aims to provide a qualitative picture of the processes involved in the release of organic contaminants from a melting snowpack. The elution sequence of organic substances during snowmelt is strongly dependent on their environmental partitioning properties and the physical properties of the snowpack. Water-soluble organic contaminants can be discharged in greatly elevated concentrations at an early stage of melting, while the bulk of the hydrophobic chemicals attached to particles is often released at the end of the melt period. Melting of a highly metamorphosed and deep snowpack promotes such shock load releases, whereas a shallow snow cover over a relatively warm ground experiencing irregular melting over the winter season is unlikely to generate notable peak releases of organic substances. Meltwater runoff over frozen ground directly transfers contaminant shock loads into receiving water bodies, while permeable soils buffer and dilute the contaminants. A more quantitative understanding of the behaviour of organic contaminants in varying snowmelt scenarios will depend on controlled laboratory studies combined with field investigations. Reliable numerical process descriptions will need to be developed to integrate water quality and contaminant fate models.

  14. Microvascular permeability changes might explain cardiac tamponade after alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jen-Te; Hsiao, Ju-Feng; Chang, Jung-Jung; Chung, Chang-Min; Chang, Shih-Tai; Pan, Kuo-Li

    2014-04-01

    Various sequelae of alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy have been reported. Of note, some cases of cardiac tamponade after alcohol septal ablation cannot be well explained. We describe the case of a 78-year-old woman with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in whom cardiac tamponade developed one hour after alcohol septal ablation, probably unrelated to mechanical trauma. At that time, we noted a substantial difference in the red blood cell-to-white blood cell ratio between the pericardial effusion (1,957.4) and the peripheral blood (728.3). In addition to presenting the patient's case, we speculate that a possible mechanism for acute tamponade--alcohol-induced changes in microvascular permeability--is a reasonable explanation for cases of alcohol septal ablation that are complicated by otherwise-unexplainable massive pericardial effusions.

  15. Left Atrial trajectory impairment in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy disclosed by Geometric Morphometrics and Parallel Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, Paolo; Torromeo, Concetta; Re, Federica; Evangelista, Antonietta; Gabriele, Stefano; Esposito, Giuseppe; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Madeo, Andrea; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Varano, Valerio; Uguccioni, Massimo; Puddu, Paolo E.

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of full Left Atrium (LA) deformation and whole LA deformational trajectory in time has been poorly investigated and, to the best of our knowledge, seldom discussed in patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Therefore, we considered 22 patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 46 healthy subjects, investigated them by three–dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, and studied the derived landmark clouds via Geometric Morphometrics with Parallel Transport. Trajectory shape and trajectory size were different in Controls versus HCM and their classification powers had high AUC (Area Under the Receiving Operator Characteristic Curve) and accuracy. The two trajectories were much different at the transition between LA conduit and booster pump functions. Full shape and deformation analyses with trajectory analysis enabled a straightforward perception of pathophysiological consequences of HCM condition on LA functioning. It might be worthwhile to apply these techniques to look for novel pathophysiological approaches that may better define atrio–ventricular interaction.

  16. A case of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome presenting with hypertrophic pachymeningitis.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Wataru; Hayashi, Shintaro; Iwanaga, Yasutaka; Murai, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Akifumi; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-15

    A 43-year-old woman with a 3-year history of headache, fever, and swelling of the forehead, presented to our hospital. A general examination revealed palmar and plantar pustules. Blood analyses showed an elevated white blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Brain MRI revealed a partially thickened cranial bone with gadolinium enhancement, and also abnormally enhanced dura mater. Bone scintigraphy showed involvement of the cranial bone and bilateral sternoclavicular joints. Palmar skin biopsy indicated palmoplantar pustulosis. From these results, SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) syndrome with associated hypertrophic pachymeningitis was diagnosed. After corticosteroid therapy and tonsillectomy, the clinical symptoms and radiological abnormalities were improved. Clinicians should be aware of SAPHO as a potential unusual cause of hypertrophic pachymeningitis.

  17. The diagnosis of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Piva e Mattos, Beatriz; Torres, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Rebelatto, Taiane Francieli; Loreto, Melina Silva de; Scolari, Fernando Luís

    2012-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a prevalent genetic disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, presenting dynamic obstruction of outflow tract with subaortic gradient happening at rest in 30% of the cases. It is attributed to the intricate interaction between the anterior mitral leaflet, the interventricular septum and altered flow vectors generated in left ventricle along with changes in outflow tract geometry. Mitral regurgitation in varying degrees is found with or without association with structural deformities of the valve apparatus. The exercise echocardiogram evidences latent obstruction easily induced by exercise in 60 to 75% of non-obstructive forms. The determination of the gradient under this condition must be considered in routine investigation of patients with mild or no obstruction at rest. The evaluation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy incorporates methods based on the ultrasound image, which, along with MRI, allow recognizing ventricular obstruction generating mechanisms, thus facilitating the diagnosis and management of obstructive and latent obstructive forms.

  18. All That Glitters is not Gold: Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mimicking Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanadoss, Umashankar; Kulkarni, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Shobana; Shree, Nidhi; Harjai, Kishore; Jagasia, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterized by the idiopathic hypertrophy of the left ventricle (and occasionally right ventricle). HCM is an autosomal dominant disease, with variable penetration. In Asian population, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is relatively common (25%). However, this is relatively rare in Caucasian population (0.2%). Patients with HCM, often presents with typical exertional chest pain and shortness of breath. Apical HCM patients tend to have milder symptoms. However, the clinical presentation and electrocardiographic features of Apical HCM often mimic acute coronary syndrome and high index of suspicion is warranted in differentiating this condition. Patients with apical HCM have relatively better prognosis when compare to the other varieties. Here, we are presenting a patient who presented with typical exertional chest pain whose electrocardiographic changes are concerning for acute ischemic changes.

  19. Effects of prolonged hypertrophic resistance training on acute endocrine responses in young and older men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Santolamazza, Fabrizio; Kraemer, William; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated changes in acute serum hormone responses to a resistance exercise bout following a prolonged period of hypertrophic resistance training in young (YM) and older men (OM). Subjects performed a 5 × 10RM leg press exercise protocol before and after 20 weeks of hypertrophic resistance training. In YM, the acute responses in growth hormone were greater compared with before training (p < .05), and cortisol concentration did not increase after training. Endocrine responses in OM were similar before and after training. Greater acute growth hormone responses after training were associated with larger gains in lean mass in the entire subject group (r = .596, p = .019). These findings suggest that, in general, YM demonstrate greater adaptability within the endocrine system compared with OM. However, adaptability in growth hormone response was associated with larger training-induced gains independent of age.

  20. Effects of Prolonged Hypertrophic Resistance Training on Acute Endocrine Responses in Young and Older Men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Santolamazza, Fabrizio; Kraemer, William; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-05-02

    The present study investigated changes in acute serum hormone responses to a resistance exercise bout following a prolonged period of hypertrophic resistance training in young (YM) and older men (OM). Subjects performed a 5 × 10RM leg press exercise protocol before and after 20 weeks of hypertrophic resistance training. In YM, the acute responses in growth hormone were greater compared to before training (P < 0.05), and cortisol concentration did not increase after training. Endocrine responses in OM were similar before and after training. Greater acute growth hormone responses after training were associated with larger gains in lean mass in the entire subject group (r = 0.596, P = 0.019). These findings suggest that, in general, YM demonstrate greater adaptability within the endocrine system compared to OM. However, adaptability in growth hormone response was associated with larger training-induced gains independent of age.

  1. Pachydermoperiostosis (primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy): report of a case with evidence of endothelial and connective tissue involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Matucci-Cerinic, M; Cinti, S; Morroni, M; Lotti, T; Nuzzaci, G; Lucente, E; di Lollo, S; Ceruso, M; Cagnoni, M

    1989-01-01

    A case of pachydermoperiostosis characterised by the presence of finger clubbing, periostosis, sweating of hands and feet is described. Modifications of capillaroscopic pattern and of arteriovenous anastomoses are reported. The periungual border and finger tip tissue showed diffuse endothelial hyperplasia, hyalinosis, and sclerosis with packing of collagen fibres. Electron microscopy showed hypertrophic and activated endothelia (numerous and hypertrophic Golgi complexes, several Weibel-Palade bodies, vesicles of micropinocytosis, and glycogen particles), the basal membrane thickened and reduplicated, perivasal infiltrate in superficial derma, reticulation and segmentary reduplication of basal membrane in arteriovenous shunt. In the perineural connective tissue numerous Luse bodies (long spacing collagen) were evident. The data indicate that in the early phase of pachydermoperiostosis morphological endothelial and collagen fibre abnormalities are present, though there is a normal peripheral blood flow. Images PMID:2930280

  2. [Functional regulation of genome with peptide bioregulators by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (by patients and relatives)].

    PubMed

    Dzhokhadze, T A; Buadze, T Zh; Gaĭozishvili, M N; Rogava, M A; Lazhava, T A

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a comparative study of the functional genome indicators using lymphocyte cultures of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and their first relatives. Studies conducted both in intact cultures and cultures exposed to the influence of peptide - bioregulators Epithalon, Vilon and Livagen. Last (Livagen) tested at separate and joint application with cobalt chloride salt. As indicated according to the results of the analysis, the cells of the individuals with HCM and their first relatives were characterized by higher frequency of spontaneous quantitative - structural disorders in comparison with the cells of healthy individuals. The findings suggest a different effect of bioregulators. The most effective protective action in relation normalization of functional parameters of the genome shows Epithalon for lowering the level of chromosomal instability in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and relatives of patients with HCM. On the basis of identified protective action Epithalon concludes prospects of its application in the development of preventive measures for individuals at increased risk of morbidity HCM.

  3. An autopsy report of acute myocardial infarction with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy-like heart.

    PubMed

    Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Okada, Hideshi; Morishita, Kentaro; Imai, Hajime; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Nawa, Takahide; Suzuki, Kodai; Ikeshoji, Haruka; Kato, Hisaaki; Yoshida, Takahiro; Yoshida, Shozo; Shirai, Kunihiro; Toyoda, Izumi; Hara, Akira; Ogura, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman, who was followed up as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) in a local hospital, was transferred to our center because of anterior chest pain and diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Coronary angiography showed total occlusion of the mid-left anterior descending, and flow was restored after endovascular thrombectomy. An autopsy was performed after she died on hospital day 6. At autopsy, there was no significant stenosis in this vessel and the absence of plaque rupture was confirmed. Likewise, it was unclear asymmetric hypertrophy at autopsy, it could not deny that a sigmoid deformity of the basal septum occurs in elderly patients and can mimic the asymmetric septal hypertrophy of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. MI was thought to be caused by coronary spasm or squeezing in HOCM-like heart. Therefore, it may be necessary antithrombosis therapy in HOCM-like patients with no history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

  4. A small-molecule inhibitor of sarcomere contractility suppresses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Green, Eric M; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Anderson, Robert L; Evanchik, Marc J; Gorham, Joshua M; Harrison, Brooke C; Henze, Marcus; Kawas, Raja; Oslob, Johan D; Rodriguez, Hector M; Song, Yonghong; Wan, William; Leinwand, Leslie A; Spudich, James A; McDowell, Robert S; Seidman, J G; Seidman, Christine E

    2016-02-05

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of heart muscle that can be caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins. Clinical diagnosis depends on an abnormal thickening of the heart, but the earliest signs of disease are hyperdynamic contraction and impaired relaxation. Whereas some in vitro studies of power generation by mutant and wild-type sarcomere proteins are consistent with mutant sarcomeres exhibiting enhanced contractile power, others are not. We identified a small molecule, MYK-461, that reduces contractility by decreasing the adenosine triphosphatase activity of the cardiac myosin heavy chain. Here we demonstrate that early, chronic administration of MYK-461 suppresses the development of ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte disarray, and myocardial fibrosis and attenuates hypertrophic and profibrotic gene expression in mice harboring heterozygous human mutations in the myosin heavy chain. These data indicate that hyperdynamic contraction is essential for HCM pathobiology and that inhibitors of sarcomere contraction may be a valuable therapeutic approach for HCM.

  5. Up-to-date approach to manage keloids and hypertrophic scars: A useful guide

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Anna I.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Barret, Juan P.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars occur anywhere from 30 to 90% of patients, and are characterized by pathologically excessive dermal fibrosis and aberrant wound healing. Both entities have different clinical and histochemical characteristics, and unfortunately still represent a great challenge for clinicians due to lack of efficacious treatments. Current advances in molecular biology and genetics reveal new preventive and therapeutical options which represent a hope to manage this highly prevalent, chronic and disabling problem, with long-term beneficial outcomes and improvement of quality of life. While we wait for these translational clinical products to be marketed, however, it is imperative to know the basics of the currently existing wide array of strategies to deal with excessive scars: from the classical corticotherapy, to the most recent botulinum toxin and lasers. The main aim of this review paper is to offer a useful up-to-date guideline to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:24767715

  6. Myocardial stunning in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: recovery predicted by single photon emission computed tomographic thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, D.G.; Clements, I.P.; Callahan, M.J.

    1989-05-01

    A young woman with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy confirmed by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization presented with chest pain and features of a large left ventricular aneurysm. The initial diagnosis was myocardial ischemia with either an evolving or an ancient myocardial infarction. Subsequently, verapamil therapy was associated with complete resolution of the extensive left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, normalization of left ventricular ejection fraction and a minimal myocardial infarction. Normal thallium uptake on single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy early in the hospital course predicted myocardial viability in the region of the aneurysm. Thus, orally administered verapamil may reverse spontaneous extensive myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and possibly limit the extent of myocardial infarction in such circumstances.

  7. [Chronic subdural hematoma with a markedly fibrous hypertrophic membrane. Case report].

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Kuwana, N; Kojima, Y; Tanaka, N; Kitamura, H

    1990-01-01

    A 40-year-old female, who had taken low-dose oral contraceptives for 2 months before onset, developed transient dysarthria, left hemiparesis, and left hemihypesthesia. One month later, a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a uniformly enhanced, convex-shaped, hypertrophic membrane with a lobulated lumen in the subdural space of the right parietal region. A right parietal craniotomy was performed. The membrane, consisting of elastic-hard, hypertrophic granulation tissue and yellowish, sticky fluid in the lumen, was readily freed and totally extirpated. Subsequently, the patient recovered without persistent symptoms. Light microscopic examination detected the sinusoidal channel layer and the fibrous layer in an alternating configuration, along with intramembranous hemorrhagic foci. Such hypertrophy must have been caused by repeated intramembranous hemorrhages and reactive granulation. Such findings of hematoma membrane have never previously been reported. Thus, this is an interesting case, clearly distinguished from typical chronic subdural hematoma.

  8. Hypertrophic Scarring and Keloids: Pathomechanisms and Current and Emerging Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gauglitz, Gerd G; Korting, Hans C; Pavicic, Tatiana; Ruzicka, Thomas; Jeschke, Marc G

    2011-01-01

    Excessive scars form as a result of aberrations of physiologic wound healing and may arise following any insult to the deep dermis. By causing pain, pruritus and contractures, excessive scarring significantly affects the patient’s quality of life, both physically and psychologically. Multiple studies on hypertrophic scar and keloid formation have been conducted for decades and have led to a plethora of therapeutic strategies to prevent or attenuate excessive scar formation. However, most therapeutic approaches remain clinically unsatisfactory, most likely owing to poor understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying the processes of scarring and wound contraction. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the pathophysiology underlying keloid and hypertrophic scar formation and discuss established treatments and novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20927486

  9. Up-to-date approach to manage keloids and hypertrophic scars: a useful guide.

    PubMed

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-11-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars occur anywhere from 30 to 90% of patients, and are characterized by pathologically excessive dermal fibrosis and aberrant wound healing. Both entities have different clinical and histochemical characteristics, and unfortunately still represent a great challenge for clinicians due to lack of efficacious treatments. Current advances in molecular biology and genetics reveal new preventive and therapeutical options which represent a hope to manage this highly prevalent, chronic and disabling problem, with long-term beneficial outcomes and improvement of quality of life. While we wait for these translational clinical products to be marketed, however, it is imperative to know the basics of the currently existing wide array of strategies to deal with excessive scars: from the classical corticotherapy, to the most recent botulinum toxin and lasers. The main aim of this review paper is to offer a useful up-to-date guideline to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  10. The myosin mesa and a possible unifying hypothesis for the molecular basis of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.

    2015-01-01

    No matter how many times one explores the structure of the myosin molecule, there is always something new to discover. Here, I describe the myosin mesa, a structural feature of the motor domain that has the characteristics of a binding domain for another protein, possibly myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C). Interestingly, many well-known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutations lie along this surface and may affect the putative interactions proposed here. A potential unifying hypothesis for the molecular basis of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is discussed here. It involves increased power output of the cardiac muscle as a result of HCM mutations causing the release of inhibition by myosin binding protein C. PMID:25619247

  11. A small-molecule inhibitor of sarcomere contractility suppresses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Green, Eric M.; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Anderson, Robert L.; Evanchik, Marc J.; Gorham, Joshua M.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Henze, Marcus; Kawas, Raja; Oslob, Johan D.; Rodriguez, Hector M.; Song, Yonghong; Wan, William; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Spudich, James A.; McDowell, Robert S.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of heart muscle that can be caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins. Clinical diagnosis depends on an abnormal thickening of the heart, but the earliest signs of disease are hyperdynamic contraction and impaired relaxation. Whereas some in vitro studies of power generation by mutant and wild-type sarcomere proteins are consistent with mutant sarcomeres exhibiting enhanced contractile power, others are not. We identified a small molecule, MYK-461, that reduces contractility by decreasing the adenosine triphosphatase activity of the cardiac myosin heavy chain. Here we demonstrate that early, chronic administration of MYK-461 suppresses the development of ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte disarray, and myocardial fibrosis and attenuates hypertrophic and profibrotic gene expression in mice harboring heterozygous human mutations in the myosin heavy chain. These data indicate that hyperdynamic contraction is essential for HCM pathobiology and that inhibitors of sarcomere contraction may be a valuable therapeutic approach for HCM. PMID:26912705

  12. Left Atrial trajectory impairment in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy disclosed by Geometric Morphometrics and Parallel Transport.

    PubMed

    Piras, Paolo; Torromeo, Concetta; Re, Federica; Evangelista, Antonietta; Gabriele, Stefano; Esposito, Giuseppe; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Madeo, Andrea; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Varano, Valerio; Uguccioni, Massimo; Puddu, Paolo E

    2016-10-07

    The analysis of full Left Atrium (LA) deformation and whole LA deformational trajectory in time has been poorly investigated and, to the best of our knowledge, seldom discussed in patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Therefore, we considered 22 patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 46 healthy subjects, investigated them by three-dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, and studied the derived landmark clouds via Geometric Morphometrics with Parallel Transport. Trajectory shape and trajectory size were different in Controls versus HCM and their classification powers had high AUC (Area Under the Receiving Operator Characteristic Curve) and accuracy. The two trajectories were much different at the transition between LA conduit and booster pump functions. Full shape and deformation analyses with trajectory analysis enabled a straightforward perception of pathophysiological consequences of HCM condition on LA functioning. It might be worthwhile to apply these techniques to look for novel pathophysiological approaches that may better define atrio-ventricular interaction.

  13. Left Atrial trajectory impairment in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy disclosed by Geometric Morphometrics and Parallel Transport

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Paolo; Torromeo, Concetta; Re, Federica; Evangelista, Antonietta; Gabriele, Stefano; Esposito, Giuseppe; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Madeo, Andrea; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Varano, Valerio; Uguccioni, Massimo; Puddu, Paolo E.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of full Left Atrium (LA) deformation and whole LA deformational trajectory in time has been poorly investigated and, to the best of our knowledge, seldom discussed in patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Therefore, we considered 22 patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 46 healthy subjects, investigated them by three–dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, and studied the derived landmark clouds via Geometric Morphometrics with Parallel Transport. Trajectory shape and trajectory size were different in Controls versus HCM and their classification powers had high AUC (Area Under the Receiving Operator Characteristic Curve) and accuracy. The two trajectories were much different at the transition between LA conduit and booster pump functions. Full shape and deformation analyses with trajectory analysis enabled a straightforward perception of pathophysiological consequences of HCM condition on LA functioning. It might be worthwhile to apply these techniques to look for novel pathophysiological approaches that may better define atrio–ventricular interaction. PMID:27713503

  14. The Mitral Valve in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Test in Context.

    PubMed

    Sherrid, Mark V; Balaram, Sandhya; Kim, Bette; Axel, Leon; Swistel, Daniel G

    2016-04-19

    Mitral valve abnormalities were not part of modern pathological and clinical descriptions of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the 1950s, which focused on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and myocyte fiber disarray. Although systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve was discovered as the cause of LV outflow tract obstruction in the M-mode echocardiography era, in the 1990s structural abnormalities of the mitral valve became appreciated as contributing to SAM pathophysiology. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mitral malformations have been identified at all levels. They occur in the leaflets, usually elongating them, and also in the submitral apparatus, with a wide array of malformations of the papillary muscles and chordae, that can be detected by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography and by cardiac magnetic resonance. Because they participate fundamentally in the predisposition to SAM, they have increasingly been repaired surgically. This review critically assesses imaging and measurement of mitral abnormalities and discusses their surgical relief.

  15. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM): How Flow Analysis May Drive Medical Management and Surgical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Theodore P.

    2011-11-01

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited heart disease and occurs in 1 in 500 persons worldwide regardless of race, age and gender. It is the most common cause of sudden death in the young and also causes heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. The primary anatomic abnormality is thickening of certain walls, or sometimes global thickening of the left or right ventricle. The patterns of thickening along with increased ventricular stiffness lead to suboptimal ventricular filling and inefficient ejection of blood from the ventricle. Treatment for HCM can be medical or surgical. The choice of therapy is driven by the presence and severity of outflow obstruction. Flow analysis could provide sophisticated information about outflow and inflow ventricular dynamics. These flow dynamics features may enable better medical choices and provide information that would allow superior surgical planning. Associate Professor of Medicine & Director, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Clinic

  16. Stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and myocardial bridging

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Miguel; Vinardell, Juan M; Arenas, Ivan; Santana, Orlando

    2017-01-01

    Stress cardiomyopathy is an acquired cardiomyopathy of unknown aetiology. It usually occurs in women over the age of 70 who have experienced physical or emotional stress. It is most commonly characterised by a transient, left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the apical portion and hyperkinesia in the basal segments, without obstructive coronary artery disease. Its association with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and myocardial bridging is rare. Herein, we present such a case. PMID:28228389

  17. Exposure to Varying Strain Magnitudes Influences the Conversion of Normal Skin Fibroblasts Into Hypertrophic Scar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ruixia; Wang, Zhiguo; Xu, Quanchen; Cai, Xia; Liu, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical strain is a key contributor in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scarring, whose optimal stretch magnitudes to initiate the differentiation of normal skin fibroblasts into aberrant fibroblasts phenotype remains largely unresolved. Influence of varying cyclic strain magnitudes on cultured human normal skin fibroblasts and its transformation into hypertrophic scar fibroblast-like phenotype is investigated in this study. Cultured fibroblasts isolated from hypertrophic scar and normal skin tissue were subjected to cyclic mechanical stretching under individual 10%, 15%, and 20% strain magnitudes at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 24 hours. Stretched normal skin fibroblasts demonstrated significantly increased rates of cell proliferation, and also apparently oriented away nearly perpendicular to the applied stretching direction. Interestingly, the applied 10% strains magnitude resulted in a markedly enhanced cell proliferative ability compared with that of 20% strain magnitude. Parameters involving the mechanotransduction signaling, such as integrin β1 and P130Cas, were significantly improved at both mRNA and protein levels in the stretched normal skin fibroblasts, which was demonstrated in a negative magnitude-dependent manner. In addition, 10% strains magnitude triggered the highest expression levels of growth factor TGF-β1 and collagen matrix in stretched normal skin fibroblasts. Collectively, these results indicate that the 10% stretching magnitude, of the 3 strain magnitudes studied, is most effective for triggering the optimal mechanotransduction effects and biological responses inside cultured skin fibroblasts. The demonstrable conversion of normal skin fibroblasts into hypertrophic scar fibroblasts was also observed when 10% stretching magnitude was applied to cultured fibroblasts in vitro.

  18. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation in a Patient with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianyi; Liu, Xiaosun; Zhang, Qing; Hong, Yanyun; Song, Bin; Teng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Standard therapy has not been established for thyroid cancer when a thyroidectomy is contraindicated due to systemic disease. Herein, we reported a patient who had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and papillary thyroid carcinoma treated by radiofrequency ablation because of inability to tolerate a thyroidectomy. Radiofrequency ablation can be used to treat thyroid cancer when surgery is not feasible, although the long-term outcome needs further observation. PMID:27390548

  19. Fatal infantile mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and optic atrophy associated with a homozygous OPA1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Ronen; Saada, Ann; Flannery, Padraig J; Burté, Florence; Soiferman, Devorah; Khayat, Morad; Eisner, Verónica; Vladovski, Eugene; Taylor, Robert W; Bindoff, Laurence A; Shaag, Avraham; Mandel, Hanna; Schuler-Furman, Ora; Shalev, Stavit A; Elpeleg, Orly; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background Infantile-onset encephalopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defects are genetically heterogeneous with defects involving both the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Objective To identify the causative genetic defect in two sisters presenting with lethal infantile encephalopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and optic atrophy. Methods We describe a comprehensive clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic investigation of two affected siblings from a consanguineous family. Molecular genetic analysis was done by a combined approach involving genome-wide autozygosity mapping and next-generation exome sequencing. Biochemical analysis was done by enzymatic analysis and Western blot. Evidence for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) instability was investigated using long-range and real-time PCR assays. Mitochondrial cristae morphology was assessed with transmission electron microscopy. Results Both affected sisters presented with a similar cluster of neurodevelopmental deficits marked by failure to thrive, generalised neuromuscular weakness and optic atrophy. The disease progression was ultimately fatal with severe encephalopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities were globally decreased in skeletal muscle biopsies. They were found to be homozygous for a novel c.1601T>G (p.Leu534Arg) mutation in the OPA1 gene, which resulted in a marked loss of steady-state levels of the native OPA1 protein. We observed severe mtDNA depletion in DNA extracted from the patients’ muscle biopsies. Mitochondrial morphology was consistent with abnormal mitochondrial membrane fusion. Conclusions We have established, for the first time, a causal link between a pathogenic homozygous OPA1 mutation and human disease. The fatal multisystemic manifestations observed further extend the complex phenotype associated with pathogenic OPA1 mutations, in particular the previously unreported association

  20. Treatment of hypertrophic scars using a long-pulsed dye laser with cryogen-spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Kono, Taro; Erçöçen, Ali Rza; Nakazawa, Hiroaki; Nozaki, Motohiro

    2005-05-01

    Hypertrophic scars are common and cause functional and psychologic morbidity. The conventional pulsed dye laser (585 nm) has been shown previously to be effective in the treatment of a variety of traumatic and surgical scars, with improvement in scar texture, color, and pliability, with minimal side effects. This prospective study was performed to determine the effectiveness of the long-pulsed dye laser (595 nm) with cryogen-spray cooling device in the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Fifteen Asian patients with 22 hypertrophic scars were treated by the long-pulsed dye laser (595 nm) with cryogen-spray cooling device. In 5 patients, the scar area was divided into halves, one half of which was treated with the laser, whereas the other half was not treated and was used as a negative control. All patients received 2 treatments at 4-week intervals, and evaluations were done by photographic and clinical assessment and histologic evaluation before the treatment and 1 month after the last laser treatment. Treatment outcome was graded by a blind observer using the Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) Burn Scar Assessment Scale. Symptoms such as pain, pruritus, and burning of the scar improved significantly. VGH scores improved in all treated sites, and there was a significant difference between the baseline and posttreatment scores, corresponding to an improvement of 51.4 +/- 14.7% (P < 0.01). Compared with the baseline, the mean percentage of scar flattening and erythema elimination was 40.7 +/- 20.7 and 65.3 +/- 25.5%, respectively (P < 0.01). The long-pulsed dye laser (595-nm) equipped with cryogen spray cooling device is an effective treatment of hypertrophic scars and can improve scar pliability and texture and decrease scar erythema and associated symptoms.

  1. Hypertrophic osteodystrophy preceding canine juvenile cellulitis in an Australian shepherd puppy

    PubMed Central

    Wentzell, Meaghan L.

    2011-01-01

    A 10-week-old intact female Australian shepherd dog was presented sternally recumbent, mildly pyrexic, and painful on long bone palpation of both forelimbs. Based on radiographs she was diagnosed with hypertrophic osteodystrophy. Analgesia was provided with intravenous, oral, and topical medications. Approximately 2 wk later she was presented for facial swelling, regional dermatitis, and lymphadenopathy. Canine juvenile cellulitis was diagnosed and successfully treated. PMID:21731101

  2. Evidence of invasive and noninvasive treatment modalities for hypertrophic scars: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Mona; Collins, Vanessa; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Rappl, Thomas; Branski, Ludwik K; Wurzer, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there are various therapeutic approaches to reduce hypertrophic scarring; however, there is no standard evidence-based treatment protocol. Hence, a systematic review was performed to obtain a summary of the latest clinical trials to evaluate evidence for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. The review protocol was registered and approved by PROSPERO (CRD42015027040). PubMed and Web of Science were searched using predefined MeSH-Terms to identify studies published within the last 10 years regarding treatment for hypertrophic scars. Exclusion criteria included a level of evidence (LoE) lower than I, nonhuman in vivo studies, in vitro studies, studies on keloids, literature reviews, and non-English articles. The literature search identified 1,029 unique articles, whereas 6 articles were prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trials with a LoE I, and were thus included in the systematic analysis. Three clinical trials evaluated silicone products and pressure garments, and the other three studies investigated the efficacy of intralesional injections of triamcinolone (TAC), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with TAC as well as the additional irradiation with a 585 nm pulsed-dye laser (PDL). Intralesional injections revealed significant improvements of the scar quality in terms of height, thickness, erythema, and pigmentation. Pressure garments showed favorable results but there was no evidence that silicone products were able to improve the scar quality. The systematic review demonstrated that there are just a few clinical trials with a LoE of I. Consequently, evidence is still lacking especially for noninvasive treatment regimens for hypertrophic scars. Intralesional injections of 5-FU mixed with a low dose of TAC can be seen as most appropriate treatment modality. Prospective clinical trials to determine the efficiency of silicone products are warranted.

  3. Vagal enhancement linking abnormal blood pressure response and subendocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Sugihara, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    An abnormal blood pressure response to exercise has been reported to be associated with left ventricular subendocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We report a case of HCM with an abnormal blood pressure response and subendocardial ischemia, in which the analysis of heart rate variability revealed exercise-induced vagal enhancement. The present case highlights the possible mechanism linking abnormal blood pressure response and left ventricular subendocardial ischemia in patients with HCM.

  4. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Short term reduction of left ventricular mass in primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by octreotide injections.

    PubMed Central

    Günal, A. I.; Işik, A.; Celiker, H.; Eren, O.; Celebi, H.; Günal, S. Y.; Lüleci, C.

    1996-01-01

    Growth factors have been shown to be associated with primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Octreotide, a long acting somatostatin analogue, can prevent the stimulating effect of growth factors and decrease the left ventricular mass in patients with acromegaly. In the light of these results, three patients with primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were treated with subcutaneous octreotide (50 micrograms three times a day during the first week and 100 micrograms twice a day for the following three weeks). Initially, two patients were in New York Heart Association class II in and one was in class III. At the end of a four week treatment session all were in class I. There were significant decreases in left ventricular posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness, and left ventricular mass in all three patients. Both left ventricular end diastolic and end systolic diameters had increased in all of the patients at the end of the fourth week. Two of three patients showed improved diastolic filling: their hyperdynamic systolic performance returned to normal. No side effects were observed during octreotide treatment. The considerable improvement obtained with the short term octreotide treatment in patients with primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy seems promising. PMID:8944587

  6. Altered hypertrophic chondrocyte kinetics in GDF-5 deficient murine tibial growth plates.

    PubMed

    Mikic, B; Clark, R T; Battaglia, T C; Gaschen, V; Hunziker, E B

    2004-05-01

    The growth/differentiation factors (GDFs) are a subgroup of the bone morphogenetic proteins best known for their role in joint formation and chondrogenesis. Mice deficient in one of these signaling proteins, GDF-5, exhibit numerous skeletal abnormalities, including shortened limb bones. The primary aim of this study was determine whether GDF-5 deficiency would alter the growth rate in growth plates from the long bones in mice and, if so, how this is achieved. Stereologic and cell kinetic parameters in proximal tibial growth plates from 5-week-old female GDF-5 -/- mice and control littermates were examined. GDF-5 deficiency resulted in a statistically significant reduction in growth rate (-14%, p=0.03). The effect of genotype on growth rate was associated with an altered hypertrophic phase duration, with hypertrophic cells from GDF-5 deficient mice exhibiting a significantly longer phase duration compared to control littermates (+25%, p=0.006). These data suggest that one way in which GDF-5 might modulate the rate of endochondral bone growth could be by affecting the duration of the hypertrophic phase in growth plate chondrocytes.

  7. HOXA9 regulates angiogenesis in human hypertrophic scars: induction of VEGF secretion by epidermal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Peng-Fei; Xu, Ying-Bin; Tang, Jin-Ming; Yang, Rong-Hua; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars are fibroproliferative disorders of excessive wound healing after skin injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis plays a major role in fibrogenesis and hypertrophic scar formation. Over recent years, there has been a major interest in homeobox gene regulation of VEGF-VEGFR mediated angiogenesis in dermal tissue. In the current study, we investigated the role of homeobox genes in the epidermis, for their role in angiogenesis, with a focus on epidermal-mesenchymal interactions. As epidermal stem cells (ESCs) have a central role in epidermal homeostasis, we tested the hypothesis that these cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scars through the HOXA9-VEGF/VEGFR signaling pathways. We found significant differences in the expression of homeobox A9 in hyperplastic scar tissue during different phases of development. These differences coincided with similar regulations in VEGF expression and with the distribution of ESCs. HOXA9 is expressed in cultured human ESCs in vitro. Antisense suppression of HOXA9 expression was found to suppress VEGF levels in ESCs. Together these findings indicate that homeobox A9 regulates the expression of VEGF in ESCs. PMID:25031718

  8. Acute effects of sildenafil and dobutamine in the hypertrophic and failing right heart in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acute intravenous administration of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil in a single clinically relevant dose improves the in vivo function of the hypertrophic and failing right ventricle (RV). Wistar rats () were subjected to pulmonary trunk banding (PTB) causing RV hypertrophy and failure. Four weeks after surgery, they were randomized to receive an intravenous bolus dose of sildenafil (1 mg/kg; ), vehicle (), or dobutamine (10 μg/kg; ). Invasive RV pressures were recorded continuously, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 50, 70, and 90 minutes after injecting the bolus. Cardiac function was compared to baseline measurements to evaluate the in vivo effects of each specific treatment. The PTB procedure caused significant hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and reduction in RV function evaluated by echocardiography (TAPSE) and invasive pressure measurements. Sildenafil did not improve the function of the hypertrophic failing right heart in vivo, measured by TAPSE, RV systolic pressure (RVsP), and dp/dtmax. Dobutamine improved RV function 1 minute after injection measured by TAPSE ( vs. cm; ), RVsP ( vs. mmHg; ), and dp/dtmax ( vs. mmHg/s; ). Acute administration of the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil in a single clinically relevant dose did not modulate the in vivo function of the hypertrophic failing right heart of the rat measured by echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics. In the same model, dobutamine acutely improved RV function. PMID:24618544

  9. Benazepril and subclinical feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A prospective, blinded, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Di Fruscia, Rocky

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Twenty-one cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were enrolled in this study to determine if the administration of benazepril (0.5 mg/kg body weight [BW], PO, q24h) to cats with subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy improves cardiac diastolic function and reverses left ventricular hypertrophy when compared with diltiazem controlled delivery (CD) (10 mg/kg BW, PO, q24h). Cats were evaluated at day 0 and after 3 and 6 months of therapy. In the benazepril group (n = 11), the diastolic transmitral flow of the E and A waves ratio (E/A ratio) increased significantly between 0 and 6 months (P = 0.009) and the thickness of the left ventricular free wall in systole (LVFWs) decreased significantly between 0 and 3 months (P = 0.04). In the diltiazem CD group (n = 5), none of the parameters varied significantly throughout the study. There was no difference between the benazepril and the diltiazem CD group throughout the study. Therefore, the variations observed for the E/A ratio and the LVFWs may have been incidental. Further studies will be needed to establish the role of benazepril in subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cat. PMID:16734369

  10. Aberrant α-Adrenergic Hypertrophic Response in Cardiomyocytes from Human Induced Pluripotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Földes, Gabor; Matsa, Elena; Kriston-Vizi, János; Leja, Thomas; Amisten, Stefan; Kolker, Ljudmila; Kodagoda, Thusharika; Dolatshad, Nazanin F.; Mioulane, Maxime; Vauchez, Karine; Arányi, Tamás; Ketteler, Robin; Schneider, Michael D.; Denning, Chris; Harding, Sian E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-CMs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs) represent new models for drug discovery. Although hypertrophy is a high-priority target, we found that hiPSC-CMs were systematically unresponsive to hypertrophic signals such as the α-adrenoceptor (αAR) agonist phenylephrine (PE) compared to hESC-CMs. We investigated signaling at multiple levels to understand the underlying mechanism of this differential responsiveness. The expression of the normal α1AR gene, ADRA1A, was reversibly silenced during differentiation, accompanied by ADRA1B upregulation in either cell type. ADRA1B signaling was intact in hESC-CMs, but not in hiPSC-CMs. We observed an increased tonic activity of inhibitory kinase pathways in hiPSC-CMs, and inhibition of antihypertrophic kinases revealed hypertrophic increases. There is tonic suppression of cell growth in hiPSC-CMs, but not hESC-CMs, limiting their use in investigation of hypertrophic signaling. These data raise questions regarding the hiPSC-CM as a valid model for certain aspects of cardiac disease. PMID:25418732

  11. Co-localization of LTBP-2 with FGF-2 in fibrotic human keloid and hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Sideek, Mohamed A; Teia, Abdulrahman; Kopecki, Zlatko; Cowin, Allison J; Gibson, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    We have recently shown that Latent transforming growth factor-beta-1 binding protein-2 (LTBP-2) has a single high-affinity binding site for fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and that LTBP-2 blocks FGF-2 induced cell proliferation. Both proteins showed strong co-localisation within keloid skin from a single patient. In the current study, using confocal microscopy, we have investigated the distribution of the two proteins in normal and fibrotic skin samples including normal scar tissue, hypertrophic scars and keloids from multiple patients. Consistently, little staining for either protein was detected in normal adult skin and normal scar samples but extensive co-localisation of the two proteins was observed in multiple examples of hypertrophic scars and keloids. LTBP-2 and FGF-2 were co-localised to fine fibrous elements within the extracellular matrix identified as elastic fibres by immunostaining with anti-fibrillin-1 and anti-elastin antibodies. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of RNA samples from multiple patients confirmed dramatically increased expression of LTBP-2 and FGF-2, similar TGF-beta 1, in hypertrophic scar compared to normal skin and scar tissue. Overall the results suggest that elevated LTBP-2 may bind and sequester FGF-2 on elastic fibres in fibrotic tissues and modulate FGF-2's influence on the repair and healing processes.

  12. Idiopathic non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an infant successfully treated via endoscopic approach

    PubMed Central

    Karnsakul, Wikrom; Cannon, Mary L; Gillespie, Stacey; Vaughan, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Non-peptic, non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis has rarely been reported in pediatric literature. Endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation has been shown to be a safe procedure in treating gastric outlet obstruction in older children and adults. Partial gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) was diagnosed in an infant by history and confirmed by an upper gastrointestinal series (UGI). Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan excluded idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, abdominal tumors, gastrointestinal and hepato-biliary-pancreatic anomalies. Endoscopic findings showed a pinhole-sized pylorus and did not indicate peptic ulcer disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, antral web, or evidence of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Three sessions of a step-wise endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation were conducted under general anesthesia and a fluoroscopy at two week intervals using catheter balloons (Boston Scientific Microvasive®, MA, USA) of increasing diameters. Repeat UGI after the first session revealed normal gastrointestinal transit and no intestinal obstruction. The patient tolerated solid food without any gastrointestinal symptoms since the first session. The endoscope was able to be passed through the pylorus after the last session. Although the etiology of GOO in this infant is unclear (proposed mechanisms are herein discussed), endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation was a safe procedure for treating this young infant with non-peptic, non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and should be considered as an initial approach before pyloroplasty in such presentations. PMID:21191516

  13. Porous decellularized tissue engineered hypertrophic cartilage as a scaffold for large bone defect healing.

    PubMed

    Cunniffe, Gráinne M; Vinardell, Tatiana; Murphy, J Mary; Thompson, Emmet M; Matsiko, Amos; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Clinical translation of tissue engineered therapeutics is hampered by the significant logistical and regulatory challenges associated with such products, prompting increased interest in the use of decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) to enhance endogenous regeneration. Most bones develop and heal by endochondral ossification, the replacement of a hypertrophic cartilaginous intermediary with bone. The hypothesis of this study is that a porous scaffold derived from decellularized tissue engineered hypertrophic cartilage will retain the necessary signals to instruct host cells to accelerate endogenous bone regeneration. Cartilage tissue (CT) and hypertrophic cartilage tissue (HT) were engineered using human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, decellularized and the remaining ECM was freeze-dried to generate porous scaffolds. When implanted subcutaneously in nude mice, only the decellularized HT-derived scaffolds were found to induce vascularization and de novo mineral accumulation. Furthermore, when implanted into critically-sized femoral defects, full bridging was observed in half of the defects treated with HT scaffolds, while no evidence of such bridging was found in empty controls. Host cells which had migrated throughout the scaffold were capable of producing new bone tissue, in contrast to fibrous tissue formation within empty controls. These results demonstrate the capacity of decellularized engineered tissues as 'off-the-shelf' implants to promote tissue regeneration.

  14. Environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ecotoxicology of major classes of environmental contaminants, with respect to sources, environmental chemistry, most likely routes of exposure, potential bioaccumulation and biomagification, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects on potentially vulnerable species of mammalian wildlife. Major contaminants reviewed were selected on the basis of their use patterns, availability and potential toxicity to wild mammals. These included pesticides used in agroecosystems (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, anticoagulants, herbicides and fungicides), various organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), agricultural drainwater mixtures, leachates and radionuclides. Many of the above aspects of ecotoxicology and contaminants will be expanded upon in subsequent chapters of this book as they relate to distinct mammalian species and potential risk.

  15. Contamination study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Herren, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    The time dependence of the angular reflectance from molecularly contaminated optical surfaces in the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) is measured. The light scattering measurements are accomplished in situ on optical surfaces in real time during deposition of molecular contaminants. The measurements are taken using non-coherent VUV sources with the predominant wavelengths being the Krypton resonance lines at 1236 and 1600 A. Detection of the scattered light is accomplished using a set of three solar blind VUV photomultipliers. An in-plane VUV BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions) experiment is described and details of the ongoing program to characterize optical materials exposed to the space environment is reported.

  16. (Contaminated soil)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  17. Down to 2 nm Ultra Shallow Junctions : Fabrication by IBS Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation Prototype PULSION registered

    SciTech Connect

    Torregrosa, Frank; Etienne, Hasnaa; Mathieu, Gilles; Roux, Laurent

    2006-11-13

    Classical beam line implantation is limited in low energies and cannot achieve P+/N junctions requirements for <45nm node. Compared to conventional beam line ion implantation, limited to a minimum of about 200 eV, the efficiency of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is no more to prove for the realization of Ultra Shallow Junctions (USJ) in semiconductor applications: this technique allows to get ultimate shallow profiles (as implanted) thanks to no lower limitation of energy and offers high dose rate. In the field of the European consortium NANOCMOS, Ultra Shallow Junctions implanted on a semi-industrial PIII prototype (PULSION registered ) designed by the French company IBS, have been studied. Ultra shallow junctions implanted with BF3 at acceleration voltages down to 20V were realized. Contamination level, homogeneity and depth profile are studied. The SIMS profiles obtained show the capability to make ultra shallow profiles (as implanted) down to 2nm.

  18. Nitrogen related shallow thermal donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, N.; Jones, R.; Öberg, S.; Briddon, P. R.

    2007-07-01

    In this letter, the authors investigate the electrical properties of nitrogen related shallow thermal donor (STD) candidates and their concentrations under different doping conditions by means of density functional theory. Experimentally, the existence of STDs containing one nitrogen atom and both even and odd numbers of oxygen atoms has been proposed. However, so far first principles studies have not presented a candidate for the latter. Here, they show that the NO defect possesses a shallow donor level. Adding one or two more oxygen atoms results in the donor level to become shallower. The fraction of shallow nitrogen related donors to N dimers increases in material with low concentration of nitrogen.

  19. Groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, Y. . Dept. of Systems Engineering)

    1986-01-01

    The subject of these conference proceedings is the groundwater contamination. It is by nature multifarious - dealing with detection and monitoring, prevention, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of contaminated groundwater - it intrinsically encompasses myriad disciplines, and it involves all levels of government. Also, the subject of groundwater contamination is complex because decisions concerning groundwater pollution control that are scientifically sound, technologically within the state of the art, economically feasible, politically tractable, legally sustainable, socially acceptable, morally accountable, and organizationally implementable must be grounded on appropriate information and intelligence bases in their respective areas - science, technology, economics, politics, the law, society, ethics, and management. Indeed, the human health effects (e.g., cancer, damage to the central nervous system, liver and kidney damage) and non-health effects (economic hardship to industry, agriculture, households, and municipalities; environmental impacts; social impacts) necessitate that we, as a society, address in a somber way the following variations of the same question: How safe is safe enough How clean is safe enough The enormous cost - in billions of dollars over the next decade - that various studies project for the prevention, detection and monitoring, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of groundwater contamination make an answer to these questions even more urgent. There are sixteen papers in these proceedings.

  20. [Mode of splitting of the second heart sound in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, N; Oki, T; Sakai, H; Asai, M; Ohshima, C; Kusaka, Y; Tominaga, T; Murao, A; Niki, T; Mori, H

    1983-06-01

    Mode of the splitting of the second heart sound ( IIs ) and left ventricular systolic time intervals (STIs) in patients (pts) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were compared with those in hypertension (HT) with the global hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall. Forty-seven pts with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [non-obstructive type (HCM, 30 pts), obstructive type (HOCM, 17 pts)] and 21 pts with HT were studied. The pts with HCM were classified as septal hypertrophic type (19 pts) and apical hypertrophic type (11 pts) on the basis of the echocardiographic findings. The pts with HOCM were classified as resting type (13 pts) and latent type (provoked by amyl nitrite: 4 pts) on the basis of the obstructive sign at rest. Mode of the splitting of the IIs : a) The pts with HCM showed a wide splitting of the IIs . The mean split interval during held expiration (IIA-IIP) was 41.0 +/- 9.9 msec. Twenty pts (67%) showed abnormal respiratory splitting. The mean IIA-IIP interval in septal hypertrophic type (45.3 +/- 9.0 msec) was significantly wider than that in apical hypertrophic type (33.6 +/- 6.7 msec) (p less than 0.05). There was a positive correlation between IIA-IIP interval and the thickness of the upper portion of the interventricular septum (r = 0.63). b) Nine out of 13 pts with resting type of HOCM showed a paradoxical (reversed) splitting with a mean IIA-IIP interval of -23.8 +/- 24.4 msec. On the other hand, pts with latent type showed a wide splitting similar to HCM with a mean IIA-IIP interval of 35.0 +/- 7.1 msec. c) The pts with HT showed a single IIs or physiological splitting. The mean IIA-IIP interval was 14.5 +/- 9.3 msec, which was significantly decreased than that of normals or the pts with HCM (p less than 0.01). Left ventricular systolic time intervals: a) The pts with an either type of HCM showed a short corrected left ventricular electromechanical systole [(Q-IIA)c] due to the shortening of the corrected left ventricular ejection time (LVETc). b) The

  1. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  2. Repair of bone defects in vivo using tissue engineered hypertrophic cartilage grafts produced from nasal chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Katie; Kwarciak, Agnieska; Freeman, Christine; Brook, Ian; Hatton, Paul; Crawford, Aileen

    2017-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation. The temporal changes in the genes measured reflected the temporal changes observed in the growth plate. Collagen II gene expression increased 6 fold by day 7 and was then significantly downregulated from day 14 onwards. Conversely, collagen X gene expression was detectable by day 14 and increased 100-fold by day 35. The temporal increase in collagen X expression was mirrored by increases in alkaline phosphatase gene expression which also was detectable by day 14 with a 30-fold increase in gene expression by day 35. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the engineered constructs showed increased chondrocyte cell volume (31-45 μm), deposition of collagen X in the extracellular matrix and expression of alkaline phosphatase activity. However, no cartilage mineralisation was observed in in vitro culture of up to 10 weeks. On subcutaneous implantation of the hypertrophic engineered constructs, the grafts became vascularised, cartilage mineralisation occurred and loss of the proteoglycan in the matrix was observed. Implantation of the hypertrophic engineered constructs into a rat cranial defect resulted in angiogenesis, mineralisation and remodelling of the cartilage tissue into bone. Micro-CT analysis indicated that defects which received the engineered hypertrophic constructs showed 38.48% in bone volume

  3. Water quality in shallow alluvial aquifers, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.; Bails, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Shallow ground water in areas of increasing urban development within the Upper Colorado River Basin was sampled for inorganic and organic constituents to characterize water-quality conditions and to identify potential anthropogenic effects resulting from development. In 1997, 25 shallow monitoring wells were installed and sampled in five areas of urban development in Eagle, Grand, Gunnison, and Summit Counties, Colorado. The results of this study indicate that the shallow ground water in the study area is suitable for most uses. Nonparametric statistical methods showed that constituents and parameters measured in the shallow wells were often significantly different between the five developing urban areas. Radon concentrations exceeded the proposed USEPA maximum contaminant level at all sites. The presence of nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds indicate anthropogenic activities are affecting the shallow ground-water quality in the study area. Nitrate as N concentrations greater than 2.0 mg/L were observed in ground water recharged between the 1980s and 1990s. Low concentrations of methylene blue active substances were detected at a few sites. Total coliform bacteria were detected at ten sites; however, E. coli was not detected. Continued monitoring is needed to assess the effects of increasing urban development on the shallow ground-water quality in the study area.

  4. Mitochondrial ND5 12338T>C variant is associated with maternally inherited hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Chinese pedigree.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong; Song, Yanrui; Gu, Shulian; He, Xiangyu; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Shen, Yaoyao; Wu, Bifeng; Wang, Wei; Li, Shishi; Jiang, Pingping; Lu, Jianhua; Huang, Wendong; Yan, Qingfeng

    2012-09-15

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a primary disorder characterized by asymmetric thickening of the septum and left ventricular wall, which affects 1 in 500 individuals in the general population. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA have been found to be one of the most important causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Here we report the clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of a Han Chinese family with a likely maternally transmitted hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Four (2 men/2 women) of 5 matrilineal relatives in this 3-generation family exhibited the variable severity and age at onset of 44 to 79 years old. Sequence analysis of the entire mitochondrial DNA in this pedigree identified the known homoplasmic ND5 12338T>C variant. This mitochondrial DNA haplogroup belongs to the Eastern Asian F2a. The 12338T>C variant, highly evolutionarily conserved, resulted in the replacement of the translation initiating methionine with a threonine, shortening the ND5 polypeptide by 2 amino acids. The occurrence of ND5 12338T>C variant exclusively in maternal members of this Chinese family suggested that the 12338T>C variant is associated with maternally inherited hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Our findings will provide theoretical basis for genetic counseling of maternally inherited hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  5. Nonobstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Out of the Shadows: Known from the Beginning but Largely Ignored … Until Now.

    PubMed

    Maron, Barry J; Rowin, Ethan J; Maron, Martin S; Braunwald, Eugene

    2017-02-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was first recognized as a disease of obstruction to left ventricular outflow, hence, its early names and acronyms such as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic obstruction. The nonobstructive subset of patients, incapable of developing mechanical impedance to left ventricular outflow at rest or with physiologic exercise, was initially recognized by the Braunwald group at the National Institutes of Health >50 years ago in the preimaging era, and is now recognized as comprising about one-third of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. Nevertheless, until recently, and for 25 years, this substantial patient subset has been largely ignored and incompletely understood in terms of its clinical significance and consequences. However, the newfound interest in nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with recent cohort data permits more robust clarity of this subset, as well as the overall disease spectrum. As a group, patients with nonobstructive disease experience a largely stable clinical course at relatively low risk for progressive heart failure symptoms to New York Heart Association class III/IV in (90%). On the other hand, there is a small but important subgroup of 10% at risk for developing drug-refractory advanced heart failure sufficient to justify consideration for heart transplant as the only definitive treatment option. This recognition closes a significant gap in understanding the natural history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, also underscoring that the disease is not uniformly grim but instead consistent with extended longevity, thereby providing many patients with a measure of reassurance.

  6. Community composition of nirS-type denitrifier in a shallow eutrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiang-Ke; Cheng, Zhan-Bing; Li, Jia; Miao, Li-Hong

    2013-11-01

    Denitrification is a major biological process to reduce nitrate to molecular nitrogen (N2). In shallow eutrophic lakes, this process can remove the largest portion of fixed nitrogen and plays an important role in self-purification of this ecosystem. To understand the structure of denitrifying communities in a shallow eutrophic lake, denitrifier communities in four sub-lakes of East Lake in Wuhan, China, were explored by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of nirS gene clone libraries. nirS is a functional marker gene for denitrification encoding cytochrome cd 1-containing nitrite reductase, which catalyzes the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide. Both RFLP fingerprints clustering analysis and phylogeny analysis based on the amino acid sequences of NirS revealed that NirS-type communities in East Lake sediment could be roughly divided into three clusters. Cluster I accounted for 74-82 % of clones from the moderately eutrophic sub-lakes Tuan, Tang Ling, and Guo Zheng. Cluster II accounted for 76 % of the communities in hypertrophic sub-lake Miao Lake and cluster III as a minor group (7 % of the total), mainly presented in Miao Lake. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cluster I was related to the reference clones from a broad range of ecological environments, and clusters II and III were more phylogenetically related to the reference clones from entrophic environments. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that total nitrogen, total phosphate, total organic carbon, and NH4-N and NO2-N were important environmental factors affecting the dispersion of NirS-type denitrifier in the sediments. Cluster I showed a weak relationship with the nutrient content, while cluster II and III were positively related with the nutrient content. Principal coordinates analysis indicated that NirS-type communities from Tuan Lake, Tang Ling Lake, and Guo Zheng Lake sediments were divergent from those found in river, estuary sediment, and forest

  7. Geohydrology of the shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1996-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area is underlain by shallow layers of water-bearing sediments (aquifers) consisting of unconsolidated gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The depth to water in these aquifers is less than 20 feet in much of the area, and the aquifers provide a ready source of water to numerous shallow, small-capacity wells. The shallow depth to water also makes the aquifers susceptible to contamination from the land surface. Water percolating downward from residential, commercial, and industrial property, spills of hazardous materials, and leaks from underground storage tanks and pipelines can cause contaminants to enter the shallow aquifers. Wet basements, unstable foundation materials, and waterlogged soils also are common in areas of very shallow ground water.Knowledge of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow aquifers is incomplete. This, coupled with the complexity of development in this large metropolitan area, makes effective use, management, and protection of these aquifers extremely difficult. Mapping of the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of these aquifers would provide the general public and technical users with information needed to better use, manage, and protect this water resource. A study to map the geohydrology of shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area was begun in 1994. The work was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army-Rocky Mountain Arsenal, U.S. Department of Energy-Rocky Flats Field Office, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Colorado Department of Natural Resources-State Engineers Office, Denver Water Department, Littleton-Englewood Wastewater Treatment Plant, East Cherry Creek Valley Water and Sanitation District, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Willows Water District, and the cities of Aurora, Lakewood, and Thornton.This report presents the results of a systematic mapping of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow

  8. Fate and transport potential for dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a shallow to a deep aquifer at the Madisonville Creosote works

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.W.; Tzhone, S.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The Remedy selected for a deep aquifer at the Madisonville Creosote Works, which have a potential threat of contamination from a nearby contaminated shallow aquifer is presented. The remedy includes monitoring, in consideration of the low permeability of the clay unit separating the two aquifers and the limited transport potential of the dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A computer model was used for predication of the potential fate and transport of contaminants to the deep drinking water supply aquifer. The model results show conservative breakthrough of naphthalene from the source creosote in the shallow water bearing zone at about 150 years.

  9. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  10. Deep and shallow inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Heather

    2015-05-15

    In this session we focused on the higher energy deep and shallow inelastic particle interactions, DIS and SIS. DIS interactions occur when the energy of the incident particle beam is so large that the beam is able to penetrate the nucleons inside of the target nuclei. These interactions occur at the smallest level possible, that of the quark-gluon, or parton, level. SIS interactions occur in an intermediate energy range, just below the energy required for DIS interactions. The DIS cross section formula contains structure functions that describe our understanding of the underlying parton structure of nature. The full description of DIS interactions requires three structure functions: two may be measured in charged lepton or neutrino scattering, but one can only be extracted from neutrino DIS data. There are reasons to expect that the impact of nuclear effects could be different for neutrinos engaging in the DIS interaction, vs those felt by leptons. In fact, fits by the nCTEQ collaboration have found that the neutrino-Fe structure functions appear to differ from those extracted from lepton scattering data [1]. To better understand the global picture of DIS and SIS, we chose a three-pronged attack that examined recent experimental results, data fits, and latest theory predictions. Experimental results from neutrino and lepton scattering, as well as collider experiments, were presented.

  11. The Argentinean network for the assessment and monitoring of Pampean shallow-lakes (PAMPA2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagarese, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Pampa region of Argentina is an extensive wetland containing nearly 200,000 shallow-lakes. The region is under increasing agricultural pressure resulting from climate change (increased temperature and precipitation) and the substitution of cattle breeding and traditional cultures by transgenic soy. Among the many services that they provide, shallow-lakes are highly responsive to changes in climate and land use. Therefore, long-term studies of shallow-lakes provide useful clues to understand and track changes occurring in their complex watersheds. PAMPA2 is a recently funded, long-term network project, with wide geographic coverage, aimed at studying Pampean shallow-lakes. Thirteen network sites (i.e., shallow lakes) occurring along the precipitation gradient (from < 300 mm y-1 to > 1000 mm y-1) form the core of the project. The network integrates various research teams from eight universities and research centers, with a strong multidisciplinary component. The approaches combine traditional sampling; high-rate monitoring using automated sensors; and remote sensing. The network develops and manufactures most the instruments, including automated buoys and unmanned aircrafts. In this presentation, we will provide details on the structure and state of development of the PAMPA2 network, and present a long-term case study of a large Pampean shallow-lake, exemplifying the strong dependence of lake processes on weather variables. Laguna Chascomús is a large, hypertrophic shallow-lake. Chascomús is one of the PAMPA2 study sites that have been more extensively studied. In this shallow-lake, high nutrient availability permits the development of a dense microbial plankton community, which in turn translates into exceptionally high water turbidity. Phytoplankton primary production is strongly limited by light availability. As a consequence, turbidity is strongly and positively correlated to the incoming solar radiation, resulting in a remarkable seasonal pattern of water

  12. Myocardial edema in Takotsubo syndrome mimicking apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: An insight into diagnosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Izgi, Cemil; Ray, Sanjoy; Nyktari, Evangelia; Alpendurada, Francisco; Lyon, Alexander R; Rathore, Sudhir; Baksi, Arun John

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial edema is one of the characteristic features in the pathogenesis of Takotsubo syndrome. We report a middle aged man who presented with typical clinical and echocardiographic features of apical variant of Takotsubo syndrome. However, a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study performed 10 days after presentation did not show any apical 'ballooning' but revealed features of an apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy on cine images. Tissue characterization with T2 weighted images proved severe edema as the cause of significantly increased apical wall thickness. A follow-up cardiovascular magnetic resonance study was performed 5 months later which showed that edema, wall thickening and the appearance of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy all resolved, confirming Takotsubo syndrome as the cause of the initial appearance. As the affected myocardium most commonly involves the apical segments, an edema induced increase in apical wall thickness may lead to appearances of an apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy rather than apical ballooning in the acute to subacute phase of Takotsubo syndrome.

  13. Myocardial metabolic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic significance of reversible thallium-201 abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Dilsizian, V.; O'Gara, P.T.; Udelson, J.E.; Schenke, W.H.; Quyyumi, A.; Fananapazir, L.; Bonow, R.O. )

    1991-05-01

    Exercise-induced abnormalities during thallium-201 scintigraphy that normalize at rest frequently occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are indicative of myocardial ischemia. Fifty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent exercise {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy and, during the same week, measurement of myocardial lactate metabolism and hemodynamics during pacing stress. Thirty-seven patients (74%) had one or more {sup 201}Tl abnormalities that completely normalized after 3 hours of rest; 26 had regional myocardial {sup 201}Tl defects, and 26 had apparent left ventricular cavity dilatation with exercise, with 15 having coexistence of these abnormal findings. Of the 37 patients with reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, 27 (73%) had metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia during rapid atrial pacing compared with four of 13 patients (31%) with normal {sup 201}Tl scans (p less than 0.01). Eleven patients had apparent cavity dilatation as their only {sup 201}Tl abnormality; their mean postpacing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly higher than that of the 13 patients with normal {sup 201}Tl studies (33 +/- 5 versus 21 +/- 10 mm Hg, p less than 0.001). There was no correlation between the angiographic presence of systolic septal or epicardial coronary arterial compression and the presence or distribution of {sup 201}Tl abnormalities. Patients with ischemic ST segment responses to exercise had an 80% prevalence rate of reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities and a 70% prevalence rate of pacing-induced ischemia. However, 69% of patients with nonischemic ST segment responses had reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, and 55% had pacing-induced ischemia. Reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities during exercise stress are markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and most likely identify relatively underperfused myocardium.

  14. The Dynamic Nature of Hypertrophic and Fibrotic Remodeling of the Fish Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Adam N.; Fenna, Andrew J.; McConnell, James C.; Sherratt, Michael J.; Gardner, Peter; Shiels, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pressure or volume overload can cause the vertebrate heart to remodel. The hearts of fish remodel in response to seasonal temperature change. Here we focus on the passive properties of the fish heart. Building upon our previous work on thermal-remodeling of the rainbow trout ventricle, we hypothesized that chronic cooling would initiate fibrotic cardiac remodeling, with increased myocardial stiffness, similar to that seen with pathological hypertrophy in mammals. We hypothesized that, in contrast to pathological hypertrophy in mammals, the remodeling response in fish would be plastic and the opposite response would occur following chronic warming. Rainbow trout held at 10°C (control group) were chronically (>8 weeks) exposed to cooling (5°C) or warming (18°C). Chronic cold induced hypertrophy in the highly trabeculated inner layer of the fish heart, with a 41% increase in myocyte bundle cross-sectional area, and an up-regulation of hypertrophic marker genes. Cold acclimation also increased collagen deposition by 1.7-fold and caused an up-regulation of collagen promoting genes. In contrast, chronic warming reduced myocyte bundle cross-sectional area, expression of hypertrophic markers and collagen deposition. Functionally, the cold-induced fibrosis and hypertrophy were associated with increased passive stiffness of the whole ventricle and with increased micromechanical stiffness of tissue sections. The opposite occurred with chronic warming. These findings suggest chronic cooling in the trout heart invokes a hypertrophic phenotype with increased cardiac stiffness and fibrosis that are associated with pathological hypertrophy in the mammalian heart. The loss of collagen and increased compliance following warming is particularly interesting as it suggests fibrosis may oscillate seasonally in the fish heart, revealing a more dynamic nature than the fibrosis associated with dysfunction in mammals. PMID:26834645

  15. Fate of the hypertrophic chondrocyte: microenvironmental perspectives on apoptosis and survival in the epiphyseal growth plate.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Irving M; Adams, Christopher S; Freeman, Theresa; Srinivas, Vickram

    2005-12-01

    The goal of this review is to examine the fate of the hypertrophic chondrocyte in the epiphyseal growth plate and consider the impact of the cartilage microenvironment on cell survival and apoptosis. Early investigations pointed to a direct role of the hypertrophic chondrocyte in osteogenesis. The terminally differentiated cells were considered to undergo a dramatic change in shape, size, and phenotype, and assume the characteristics of an osteoblast. While some studies have supported the notion of transdifferentiation, much of the evidence in favor of reprogramming epiphyseal chondrocytes is circumstantial and based on microscopic evaluation of cells that are present at the chondro-osseous junction. Although these investigations provided a novel perspective on endochondral bone formation, they were flawed by the failure to consider the importance of stem cells in osseous tissue formation. Subsequent studies indicated that many, if not all, of the cells of the cartilage plate die through the induction of apoptosis. With respect to agents that mediate apoptosis, at the chondro-osseous junction, solubilization of mineral and hydrolysis of organic matrix constituents by septoclasts generates high local concentrations of ions, peptides, and glycans, and secreted matrix metalloproteins. Individually, and in combination, a number of these agents serve as potent chondrocyte apoptogens. We present a new concept: hypertrophic cells die through the induction of autophagy. In the cartilage microenvironment, combinations of local factors cause chondrocytes to express an initial survival phenotype and oxidize their own structural macromolecules to generate ATP. While delaying death, autophagy leads to a state in which cells are further sensitized to changes in the local microenvironment. One such change is similar to ischemia reperfusion injury, a condition that leads to tissue damage and cell death. In the growth cartilage, an immediate effect of this type of injury is

  16. Generation of Immortalized Equine Chondrocytes With Inducible Sox9 Expression Allows Control of Hypertrophic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gurusinghe, Saliya; Hilbert, Bryan; Trope, Gareth; Wang, Lexin; Bandara, Nadeeka; Strappe, Padraig

    2016-10-27

    Immortalization of chondrocytes enables long term in vitro culture; however, the chondrogenic capacity of transformed cells varies, thus highlighting the need to develop a proliferative and tuneable chondrocyte cell line where hypertrophic differentiation can be controlled. In this study the SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase reverse transcriptase were employed to immortalize pooled equine chondrocytes through lentiviral vector mediated transduction either singly or on combination. Transformed chondrocytes proliferated stably over multiple passages, but resulted in significantly lower expression of chondrocyte specific collagen II mRNA (P < 0.0001) and up regulation of the hypertrophic marker collagen X (P < 0.0001) in three dimensional cultures. A Col2a1 promoter driven GFP reporter was constructed for real time monitoring of chondrogenic differentiation and a significant increase in promoter activation was observed in cultures treated with the growth factor TGFβ-3 (P < 0.05). To recapitulate the native articular chondrocyte phenotype we further transduced large T antigen immortalized chondrocytes with lentiviral vectors allowing either constitutive or doxycycline inducible expression of Sox9. In 3D cultures, the Sox9 over-expressing chondrocytes secreted significantly higher levels of extracellular matrix polysaccharide glycosaminoglycan (P < 0.05), while up-regulating collagen II and Aggrecan mRNA (P < 0.05) in both expression systems with a similar patterns observed with imunohistochemical staining. High levels of collagen X mRNA and protein were maintained with constitutive sox9 reflecting hypetrophic differentiation but significantly lower expression could be achieved with inducible Sox9. In conclusion, immortalization of equine chondrocytes results in stable proliferation but a reduction of chondrogenic potential whilst modulation of sox9 expression enabled control of hypertrophic characteristics. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1

  17. Thermal Injury Model in the Rabbit Ear with Quantifiable Burn Progression and Hypertrophic Scar.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Emily E; Niknam-Bienia, Solmaz; Xie, Ping; Jia, Sheng-Xian; Hong, Seok Jong; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a major clinical outcome of deep-partial thickness to full thickness thermal burn injury. Appropriate animal models are a limitation to burn research due to the lack of, or access to, animal models which address the endpoint of hypertrophic scar. Lower species, such as rodents, heal mainly by contracture, which limits the duration of study. Higher species, such as pigs, heal more similarly to humans, but are associated with high cost, long duration for scar development, challenges in quantifying scar hypertrophy, and poor manageability. Here we present a quantifiable deep-partial thickness burn model in the rabbit ear. Burns were created using a dry-heated brass rod for 10 s and 20 s at 90°C. At the time of eschar excision on day 3, excisional wounds were made on the contralateral ear for comparison. Burn wound progression, in which the wound size expands over time is a major distinction between excisional and thermal injuries, was quantified at 1 h and 3 d after the injuries using calibrated photographs and histology and the size of the wounds was found to be unchanged from the initial wound size at 1 h, but 10% in the 20 s burn wounds at 3 d. A quantifiable hypertrophic scar, measured by histology as the scar elevation index, was present in both 20 s burn wounds and excisional wounds at day 35. ImageJ measurements revealed that the 20 s burn wound scars were 22% larger than the excisional wound scars and the 20 s burn scar area measurements from histology were 26% greater than in the excisional wound scar. The ability to measure both burn progression and scar hypertrophy over a 35-day time frame suits this model to screening early intervention burn wound therapeutics or scar treatments in a burn-specific scar model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppressed inflammatory gene expression during human hypertrophic scar compared to normotrophic scar formation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; van der Veer, Willem M; de Jong, Etty H; Gibbs, Susan; Niessen, Frank B

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrophic scar formation is a result of adverse cutaneous wound healing. The pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar formation is still poorly understood. A problem next to the lack of suitable animal models is that often normal skin is compared to hypertrophic scar (HTscar) and not to normotrophic scar (NTscar) tissue. Another drawback is that often only one time period after wounding is studied, while scar formation is a dynamic process over a period of several months. In this study, we compared the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and also macrophage infiltration in biopsies obtained before and up to 52 weeks after standard surgery in five patients who developed HTscar and six patients who developed NTscar. It was found that HTscar formation coincided with a prolonged decreased expression of inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL-1α, IL-1RN, CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, CXCR2, C3 and IL-10) and an extended increased expression of ECM-related genes (PLAU, Col3A1, TGFβ3). This coincided with a delayed but prolonged infiltration of macrophages (type 2) in HTscar tissue compared to NTscar tissue. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical localization of proteins coding for select genes named above. Our study emphasizes that human cutaneous wound healing is a dynamic process that is needed to be studied over a period of time rather than a single point of time. Taken together, our results suggest innate immune stimulatory therapies may be a better option for improving scar quality than the currently used anti-inflammatory scar therapies.

  19. Two different cardiomyopathies in a single patient : hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Sunbul, M; Ozben, B; Mutlu, B

    2013-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a complex and relatively common genetic disorder characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, usually associated with a nondilated and hyperdynamic chamber with heterogeneous phenotypic expression and clinical course. On the other hand, LV noncompaction is an uncommon cardiomyopathy characterized by the persistence of fetal myocardium with a pattern of prominent trabecular meshwork and deep intertrabecular recesses, systolic dysfunction, and LV dilatation. We report a 29-year-old man with these two different inherent conditions. Our case raises the possibility of a genetic mutation common to these two clinical entities or different gene mutations existing in the same individual.

  20. Indomethacin Therapy for Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy in Patients With Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Felix W.; Williams, Adrian J.; Fan, Peng

    1985-01-01

    Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPO) is a disabling complication of lung cancer often requiring thoracotomy with vagotomy for control of pain. This condition was confirmed by scintigraphy in six consecutive patients with biopsy-proved lung cancer. All had characteristic bone and joint pain unresponsive to a variety of analgesics. Treatment with indomethacin gave dramatic relief of pain within 72 hours in all six. Consideration should be given to instituting a controlled trial to establish the efficacy of indomethacin for the treatment of HPO. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:3993010

  1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy After a Single Dose of Dexamethasone in a Preterm Infant.

    PubMed

    Kale, Yusuf; Aydemir, Ozge; Ceylan, Ozben; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Demirel, Nihal

    2015-08-01

    Dexamethasone is widely used in preterm infants with severe pulmonary disease. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a transient side effect observed after multiple doses of dexamethasone. We report a preterm infant with myocardial hypertrophy after a single dose of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) used to treat laryngeal edema secondary to prolonged intubation. A benign course was observed without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and with recovery within 4 weeks. Myocardial effects of dexamethasone may be independent of dose and duration of treatment. The risk/benefit ratio must be carefully considered before using even a single dose of dexamethasone in preterm infants.

  2. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy due to Mitochondrial Disease: Prenatal Diagnosis, Management, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    García-Díaz, Lutgardo; Coserria, Félix; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    A case of prenatally diagnosed fetal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported. The mother was referred to our department at 37 weeks' gestation because of suspected congenital heart disease. Prenatal echocardiography showed biventricular hypertrophy and pericardial effusion, without additional abnormalities. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed prenatal diagnosis. Neonatal EKG showed biventricular hypertrophy and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Skeletal muscle biopsy was consistent with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect involving a combined defect of respiratory complexes I and IV. Echocardiographic followup during the first year of life showed progressive regression of hypertrophy and evolution to left ventricular myocardial noncompaction. PMID:23346437

  3. Evolutionary change mimicking apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a patient with takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hui-Jeong; Lee, Hyae-Min; Yang, In-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hee; Byun, Jong-Kyu; Sohn, Il Suk

    2014-11-01

    In this report, we introduce a case of thickening of the involved left ventricular apical segment on echocardiography and deep T-wave inversions in precordial leads on electrocardiography transiently seen in the course of recovery from biventricular takotsubo cardiomyopathy, mimicking apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This result suggests that the echocardiographic finding of transient myocardial edema can be identified by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Additionally, it persisted a few weeks after full functional recovery. We believe that this case will contribute in part toward clarifying the pathophysiology of takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  4. Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis as an Early Manifestation of Relapsing Polychondritis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ushiyama, Satoru; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Shimojima, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Nobuhiko; Kishida, Dai; Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Katsuya; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Neurological involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP) is relatively rare. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man who presented with hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) together with arthritis as the first manifestation of RP. Auricular chondritis, which subsequently determined the diagnosis of RP, occurred a few weeks after the detection of HP. The neurological symptoms, as well as arthritis, were promptly improved by treatment with corticosteroids. It is generally difficult to diagnose RP in the absence of typical cartilaginous involvement; however, the present case suggests that HP may occur as an early clinical manifestation of RP. PMID:27920712

  5. Long-Term Survival Following Cardiac Arrest Without Implantable Defibrillator Protection in a Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Patient

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Mustafa; Ucar, Ozgul; Canbay, Alper; Cetin, Zehra Guven; Cicekcioglu, Hulya; Diker, Erdem

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the optimal therapy in patients with HCM, both for primary or secondary prevention of sudden death. Left ventricular systolic function in HCM is usually normal. However, in few patients, HCM has been reported to progress to a state that is characterized by left ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction, resembling dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Although arrhythmias are common in HCM, advanced or complete atrioventricular block (AV) is very rare. This case report describes a HCM patient who progressed to DCM with advanced AV block and survived 31 years following cardiac arrest without ICD protection.

  6. Successful surgical optic nerve decompression in a patient with hypertrophic pachymeningitis due to granulomatous polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, Joeri; Volovici, Victor; Dammers, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with subacute vision loss of first the left, and later the right eye. She was diagnosed with granulomatous polyangiitis with hypertrophic pachymeningitis and optic nerve compression. Her visual acuity could not be permanently restored with immune suppressants alone, so a surgical decompression of the right optic nerve, via a modified cranio-orbitozygomatic pretemporal approach, was performed. Her right eye regained 20/20 vision and has remained stable during 8 months of follow-up. PMID:25612758

  7. Visualization of myocardial perfusion after percutaneous myocardial septal ablation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using superharmonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Folkert J; Bouakaz, Ayache; Krenning, Boudewijn; Vletter, Wim; de Jong, Nico

    2003-04-01

    Harmonic imaging is used for detection of ultrasound contrast agents in myocardial perfusion studies. However, harmonic imaging has limitations because of the presence of tissue harmonics, which results in less specificity and sensitivity, thus, lower contrast-to-tissue ratio. We describe a clinical example using superharmonic imaging. This technique detects the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics. These harmonics are not created in tissue, resulting, hence, in a high contrast-to-tissue ratio. After myocardial alcohol ablation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy areas of nontreated and treated myocardium, normal and low flow could be visualized with superharmonic imaging.

  8. Laboratory assessment of bioleaching of shallow eutrophic sediment by immobilized photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiyong; Fan, Shenglan; Shen, Kexuan; Lin, Shen; Nie, Xiaoqin; Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Li, Jian

    2016-12-07

    Eutrophic sediment is a serious problem in ecosystem restoration, especially in shallow lake ecosystems. We present a novel bioleaching approach to treat shallow eutrophic sediment with the objective of preventing the release of nitrate, phosphate, and organic compounds from the sediment to the water column, using porous mineral-immobilized photosynthetic bacteria (PSB). Bioactivity of bacteria was maintained during the immobilization process. Immobilized PSB beads were directly deposited on the sediment surface. The deposited PSB utilized pollutants diffused from the sediment as a nutritive matrix for growth. We evaluated the effects of light condition, temperature, initial pH, amount of PSB beads, and frequency of addition of PSB beads for contaminant removal efficiency during bioleaching operations. The presented study indicated that immobilized PSB beads using porous minerals as substrates have considerable application potential in bioremediation of shallow eutrophic lakes.

  9. Contaminant hydrogeology

    SciTech Connect

    Fetter, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogeology is a rapidly evolving field in which new approaches and tools are being applied to solve problems. This new book fills an important niche. Fetter focuses primarily on chemical processes in the subsurface, avoiding duplication of materials that are covered in other, more classical texts. This book is an excellent follow-up to his earlier text, Applied Hydrogeology, and reviews only briefly the foundational concepts covered in the earlier textbook. Contaminant Hydrogeology is written at the graduate student level and assumes prerequisite courses in physics, chemistry, and hydrogeology. For the most part, each of the nine chapters covers a major area of concern common to applied contaminant studies. A thorough, theoretical treatment of solute transport through the vadose zone is presented, and a sample problem and a case study add unusually high value to this discussion of a topic that generally is not well understood in the practice. Topics covered include the Buckingham Flux Law, the Richards Equation, vapor-phase transport, equilibrium and nonequilibrium models of mass transport, and preferential flow paths. Nonaqueous-phase liquid migrations under both saturated and unsaturated conditions is covered for horizontal as well as vertical migration. Both light and dense nonaqueous phase liquids are presented, and Darcy's Law for two-phase flow is introduced. The strength of Contaminant Hydrogeology lies in the author's ability to translate concepts through practical experience. This book links the theoretical to the practical through example problems and case histories. It should be considered for use in graduate classes and would be a valuable reference in the library of any practicing hydrogeologist.

  10. Unconventional shallow biogenic gas systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shurr, G.W.; Ridgley, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Unconventional shallow biogenic gas falls into two distinct systems that have different attributes. Early-generation systems have blanketlike geometries, and gas generation begins soon after deposition of reservoir and source rocks. Late-generation systems have ringlike geometries, and long time intervals separate deposition of reservoir and source rocks from gas generation. For both types of systems, the gas is dominantly methane and is associated with source rocks that are not thermally mature. Early-generation biogenic gas systems are typified by production from low-permeability Cretaceous rocks in the northern Great Plains of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Montana. The main area of production is on the southeastern margin of the Alberta basin and the northwestern margin of the Williston basin. The huge volume of Cretaceous rocks has a generalized regional pattern of thick, non-marine, coarse clastics to the west and thinner, finer grained marine lithologies to the east. Reservoir rocks in the lower part tend to be finer grained and have lower porosity and permeability than those in the upper part. Similarly, source beds in the units have higher values of total organic carbon. Patterns of erosion, deposition, deformation, and production in both the upper and lower units are related to the geometry of lineament-bounded basement blocks. Geochemical studies show that gas and coproduced water are in equilibrium and that the fluids are relatively old, namely, as much as 66 Ma. Other examples of early-generation systems include Cretaceous clastic reservoirs on the southwestern margin of Williston basin and chalks on the eastern margin of the Denver basin. Late-generation biogenic gas systems have as an archetype the Devonian Antrim Shale on the northern margin of the Michigan basin. Reservoir rocks are fractured, organic-rich black shales that also serve as source rocks. Although fractures are important for production, the relationships to specific geologic structures are

  11. Contamination Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  12. Shallow cumulus rooted in photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Guerau Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H.; Horn, G.; Sikma, M.; Jacobs, C. M.; Baldocchi, D.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the interaction between plant evapotranspiration, controlled by photosynthesis (for a low vegetation cover by C3 and C4 grasses), and the moist thermals that are responsible for the formation and development of shallow cumulus clouds (SCu). We perform systematic numerical experiments at fine spatial scales using large-eddy simulations explicitly coupled to a plant-physiology model. To break down the complexity of the vegetation-atmospheric system at the diurnal scales, we design the following experiments with increasing complexity: (a) clouds that are transparent to radiation, (b) clouds that shade the surface from the incoming shortwave radiation and (c) plant stomata whose apertures react with an adjustment in time to cloud perturbations. The shading by SCu leads to a strong spatial variability in photosynthesis and the surface energy balance. As a result, experiment (b) simulates SCu that are characterized by less extreme and less skewed values of the liquid water path and cloud-base height. These findings are corroborated by the calculation of characteristics lengths scales of the thermals and clouds using autocorrelation and spectral analysis methods. We find that experiments (a) and (b) are characterized by similar cloud cover evolution, but different cloud population characteristics. Experiment (b), including cloud shading, is characterized by smaller clouds, but closer to each other. By performing a sensitivity analysis on the exchange of water vapor and carbon dioxide at the canopy level, we show that the larger water-use efficiency of C4 grass leads to two opposing effects that directly influence boundary-layer clouds: the thermals below the clouds are more vigorous and deeper driven by a larger buoyancy surface flux (positive effect), but are characterized by less moisture content (negative effect). We conclude that under the investigated mid-latitude atmospheric and well-watered soil conditions, SCu over C4 grass fields is characterized

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality in shallow wells within the southern districts of Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; O'Neill, J. G.

    Lack of safe drinking water is a major problem in developing countries. Within Africa most people rely mainly on local groundwater sources for their water needs. These can be deep boreholes or shallow wells, the latter are normally found in poorer communities as they are the least expensive to construct. Over time water from these sources can be contaminated leading to fatal consequences. Previous monitoring of the quality of water from boreholes and shallow wells have been irregular, with the focus being mainly on boreholes. Information on seasonal water quality changes in shallow wells used by rural communities in Malawi has generally been lacking. A study was conducted from 2006 to 2007 to determine the quality of water from shallow wells in three districts in southern Malawi namely, Balaka, Chikwawa and Zomba districts. Water samples from 21 covered and five open shallow wells were analysed for chemical, microbiological and physical parameters using a portable water testing kit. Sampling was carried out at four different times of the year i.e. in August and October 2006 (dry season) and February and April 2007 (wet season). Microbiological data indicated that around 80% of the samples, obtained from the covered wells, failed to meet safe drinking water limits, set by World Health Organisation guidelines and Malawi Bureau of Standards, of zero total and faecal colony forming units (cfu)/100 ml. Values in excess of 1000 cfu/100 ml were noted in 10% of the samples, indicating gross contamination and the probability of pathogens being present. Contamination levels were higher during the wet season than the dry season in all three districts. Arsenic, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and sulphate were all within the acceptable limits. Elevated levels of hardness, turbidity were noted in certain wells.

  14. Applications of isotopes to tracing sources of solutes and water in shallow systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Carol; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    1995-01-01

    New awareness of the potential danger to water supplies posed by the use of agricultural chemicals has focused attention on the nature of groundwater recharge and the mobility of various solutes, especially nitrate and pesticides, in shallow systems. A better understanding of hydrologic flowpaths and solute sources is required to determine the potential impact of sources of contamination on water supplies, to develop management practices for preserving water quality, and to develop remediation plans for sites that are already contaminated. In many cases, environmental isotopes can be employed as 'surgical tools' for answering very specific questions about water and solute sources. Isotopic data can often provide more accurate information about the system than hydrologic measurements or complicated hydrologic models. This note focuses on practical and cost-effective examples of how naturally-occurring isotopes can be used to track water and solutes as they move through shallow systems.

  15. Contaminant treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Andrew Philip; Thornton, Roy Fred; Salvo, Joseph James

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

  16. Comparison of borehole geophysics, CPT, resistivity, GPR, and high-resolution seismic data across a shallow structure in unconsolidated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Temples, T.J.; Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.; Waddell, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The geological characterization of the shallow subsurface in the unconsolidated sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and other unconsolidated sediment regimes, may involve faulting and channeling not readily detectable by conventional drilling and mapping. A knowledge of these features is required in environment and geotechnical studies in areas that may have critical impact to groundwater flow and contaminant transport. In many cases, shallow structural influences are missed during site characterization. A case study is presented using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and high resolution seismic data, compared with a geologic interpretation from borehole logs and core data, with Wenner and dipole-dipole resistivity data and with cone penetrometer (CPT) data in an area where shallow structure is probable and contamination exists.

  17. Shallow moonquakes - How they compare with earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Of three types of moonquakes strong enough to be detectable at large distances - deep moonquakes, meteoroid impacts and shallow moonquakes - only shallow moonquakes are similar in nature to earthquakes. A comparison of various characteristics of moonquakes with those of earthquakes indeed shows a remarkable similarity between shallow moonquakes and intraplate earthquakes: (1) their occurrences are not controlled by tides; (2) they appear to occur in locations where there is evidence of structural weaknesses; (3) the relative abundances of small and large quakes (b-values) are similar, suggesting similar mechanisms; and (4) even the levels of activity may be close. The shallow moonquakes may be quite comparable in nature to intraplate earthquakes, and they may be of similar origin.

  18. On the Calculation of Shallow Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambartsumyan, S. A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper considers a sufficiently thin shallow shell of nonzero Gaussian curvature. It also presents a system of symmetrically constructed differential equations, constructed by the mixed method through the stress function and the displpacement function.

  19. β-catenin activity in late hypertrophic chondrocytes locally orchestrates osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Astrid; Weissenböck, Martina; Graf, Julian; Teufel, Stefan; von der Mark, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Trabecular bone formation is the last step in endochondral ossification. This remodeling process of cartilage into bone involves blood vessel invasion and removal of hypertrophic chondrocytes (HTCs) by chondroclasts and osteoclasts. Periosteal- and chondrocyte-derived osteoprogenitors utilize the leftover mineralized HTC matrix as a scaffold for primary spongiosa formation. Here, we show genetically that β-catenin (encoded by Ctnnb1), a key component of the canonical Wnt pathway, orchestrates this remodeling process at multiple levels. Conditional inactivation or stabilization of β-catenin in HTCs by a Col10a1-Cre line locally modulated osteoclastogenesis by altering the Rankl:Opg ratio in HTCs. Lack of β-catenin resulted in a severe decrease of trabecular bone in the embryonic long bones. Gain of β-catenin activity interfered with removal of late HTCs and bone marrow formation, leading to a continuous mineralized hypertrophic core in the embryo and resulting in an osteopetrotic-like phenotype in adult mice. Furthermore, β-catenin activity in late HTCs is required for chondrocyte-derived osteoblastogenesis at the chondro-osseous junction. The latter contributes to the severe trabecular bone phenotype in mutants lacking β-catenin activity in HTCs. PMID:27621061

  20. Potential mechanisms for a role of metabolic stress in hypertrophic adaptations to resistance training.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2013-03-01

    It is well established that regimented resistance training can promote increases in muscle hypertrophy. The prevailing body of research indicates that mechanical stress is the primary impetus for this adaptive response and studies show that mechanical stress alone can initiate anabolic signalling. Given the dominant role of mechanical stress in muscle growth, the question arises as to whether other factors may enhance the post-exercise hypertrophic response. Several researchers have proposed that exercise-induced metabolic stress may in fact confer such an anabolic effect and some have even suggested that metabolite accumulation may be more important than high force development in optimizing muscle growth. Metabolic stress pursuant to traditional resistance training manifests as a result of exercise that relies on anaerobic glycolysis for adenosine triphosphate production. This, in turn, causes the subsequent accumulation of metabolites, particularly lactate and H(+). Acute muscle hypoxia associated with such training methods may further heighten metabolic buildup. Therefore, the purpose of this paper will be to review the emerging body of research suggesting a role for exercise-induced metabolic stress in maximizing muscle development and present insights as to the potential mechanisms by which these hypertrophic adaptations may occur. These mechanisms include increased fibre recruitment, elevated systemic hormonal production, alterations in local myokines, heightened production of reactive oxygen species and cell swelling. Recommendations are provided for potential areas of future research on the subject.

  1. "Sawfish" systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery: an angiographic sign of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Brugada, P; Bär, F W; de Zwaan, C; Roy, D; Green, M; Wellens, H J

    1982-10-01

    The morphologic characteristics at coronary arteriography of systolic narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) were evaluated in 14 patients. Six patients had systolic narrowing of the LAD not associated with other cardiac abnormalities (group A) and eight patients had systolic narrowing of the LAD associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (group B). Patients in group A showed a smooth and progressive constriction of the vessel up to the point of maximal stenosis, giving it a "rat-tail" appearance. There was no systolic narrowing of septal branches or of other epicardial vessels in this group. In patients of group B, systolic narrowing of the LAD had a "saw-fish" appearance. Seven patients had systolic narrowing of the septal branches, and five had systolic narrowing of other epicardial vessels. These data indicate that systolic narrowing of the LAD in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy differs angiographically from systolic narrowing due to an intramural course of a part of the vessel (as in group A patients). We postulate that in patients with hypertropic cardiomyopathy, fiber hypertrophy and disarray in the vicinity of the coronary vessels is responsible for the morphology and the widespread distribution of systolic narrowing.

  2. Establishing a Reproducible Hypertrophic Scar following Thermal Injury: A Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Scott J.; Rumberg, Aaron; Visscher, Marty; Billmire, David A.; Schwentker, Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our complete understanding of hypertrophic scarring is still deficient, as portrayed by the poor clinical outcomes when treating them. To address the need for alternative treatment strategies, we assess the swine animal burn model as an initial approach for immature scar evaluation and therapeutic application. Methods: Thermal contact burns were created on the dorsum of 3 domestic swine with the use of a branding iron at 170°F for 20 seconds. Deep partial-thickness burns were cared for with absorptive dressings over 10 weeks and wounds evaluated with laser and negative pressure transduction, histology, photographic analysis, and RNA isolation. Results: Overall average stiffness (mm Hg/mm) increased and elasticity (mm) decreased in the scars from the initial burn injury to 8 weeks when compared with normal skin (P < 0.01). Scars were thicker, more erythematous, and uniform in the caudal dorsum. The percent change of erythema in wounds increased from weeks 6 to 10. Histology demonstrated loss of dermal papillae, increased myofibroblast presence, vertically oriented vessels, epidermal and dermal hypercellularity, and parallel-layered collagen deposition. Immature scars remained elevated at 10 weeks, and minimal RNA was able to be isolated from the tissue. Conclusions: Deep partial-thickness thermal injury to the back of domestic swine produces an immature hypertrophic scar by 10 weeks following burn with thickness appearing to coincide with the location along the dorsal axis. With minimal pig to pig variation, we describe our technique to provide a testable immature scar model. PMID:25750848

  3. Three-dimensional alignment of the aggregated myocytes in the normal and hypertrophic murine heart.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Boris; Fedarava, Katsiaryna; Falkenberg, Jan; Rothaus, Kai; Bodhey, Narendra K; Reischauer, Carolin; Kozerke, Sebastian; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Westermann, Dirk; Lunkenheimer, Paul P; Anderson, Robert H; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus

    2009-09-01

    Several observations suggest that the transmission of myocardial forces is influenced in part by the spatial arrangement of the myocytes aggregated together within ventricular mass. Our aim was to assess, using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), any differences in the three-dimensional arrangement of these myocytes in the normal heart compared with the hypertrophic murine myocardium. We induced ventricular hypertrophy in seven mice by infusion of angiotensin II through a subcutaneous pump, with seven other mice serving as controls. DT-MRI of explanted hearts was performed at 3.0 Tesla. We used the primary eigenvector in each voxel to determine the three-dimensional orientation of aggregated myocytes in respect to their helical angles and their transmural courses (intruding angles). Compared with controls, the hypertrophic hearts showed significant increases in myocardial mass and the outer radius of the left ventricular chamber (P < 0.05). In both groups, a significant change was noted from positive intruding angles at the base to negative angles at the ventricular apex (P < 0.01). Compared with controls, the hypertrophied hearts had significantly larger intruding angles of the aggregated myocytes, notably in the apical and basal slices (P < 0.001). In both groups, the helical angles were greatest in midventricular sections, albeit with significantly smaller angles in the mice with hypertrophied myocardium (P < 0.01). The use of DT-MRI revealed significant differences in helix and intruding angles of the myocytes in the mice with hypertrophied myocardium.

  4. Evidence of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in human skeletal remains from pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lavín, M; Mansilla, J; Pineda, C; Pijoán, C; Ochoa, P

    1994-02-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is one of the earliest recognized disease entities in the history of medicine. It has a peculiar periosteal proliferation distinctive from other bone diseases. In its advanced stage, it leaves an indelible mark on the skeleton. It has been recently shown that digital clubbing is accompanied by a bone remodeling process of the underlying phalanges. Thus, theoretically, this entity can be recognized in ancient human skeletal remains. We studied part of the collection of skeletal remains from pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica preserved at the National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico City. We examined 1000 specimens and found 2 skeletons with widespread, bilateral, symmetric periosteal proliferation of the tubular bones in addition to the bone remodeling changes of the distal phalanges. One of the specimens was from the Formative period (2000 B.C. to 100 A.D.). We conclude that hypertrophic osteoarthropathy can be recognized in ancient human skeletal remains and that this disease was present in Mesoamerica near the time of the original description of clubbing by Hippocrates about 2500 years ago.

  5. Comparison between Stromal Vascular Fraction and Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Remodeling Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Maumus, Marie; Toupet, Karine; Frouin, Eric; Rigau, Valérie; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Magalon, Guy; Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are characterized by excessive amount of collagen deposition and principally occur following burn injuries or surgeries. In absence of effective treatments, the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, which have been shown to attenuate fibrosis in various applications, seems of interest. The objectives of the present study were therefore to evaluate the effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) on a pre-existing HTS in a humanized skin graft model in Nude mice and to compare the efficacy of hASCs versus stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We found that injection of SVF or hASCs resulted in an attenuation of HTS as noticed after clinical evaluation of skin thickness, which was associated with lower total collagen contents in the skins of treated mice and a reduced dermis thickness after histological analysis. Although both SVF and hASCs were able to significantly reduce the clinical and histological parameters of HTS, hASCs appeared to be more efficient than SVF. The therapeutic effect of hASCs was attributed to higher expression of TGFβ3 and HGF, which are important anti-fibrotic mediators, and to higher levels of MMP-2 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio, which reflect the remodelling activity responsible for fibrosis resorption. These results demonstrated the therapeutic potential of hASCs for clinical applications of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:27227960

  6. Color-coded Doppler imaging of systolic flow patterns in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tencate, F J; Mayala, A P; Vletter, W B; Roelandt, J

    1985-01-01

    We studied 11 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by color Doppler echocardiography (Group I: 6 patients with outflow obstruction, and Group II: 5 patients without outflow obstruction) to assess systolic structure and function as observed by cross-sectional echocardiography in relation to the flow dynamics. The structure and function included systolic anterior motion of mitral valve (SAM), midsystolic aortic valve closure (AoC), systolic cavity obliteration and the presence and timing of mitral incompetence. Their occurrence and timing was related to presence of aortic systolic flow and presence of turbulence. While all patients in Group I had SAM and turbulence, none of the patients in Group II had SAM nor turbulence. Early mitral incompetence appearing before SAM and turbulence, occurred in all patients of Group I and in none of Group II. Midsystolic aortic valve closure was only present in Group I and blood flow was unilaterally directed so that only 60% of aortic cross-sectional area showed blood flow. We conclude that mitral incompetence in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in early systole is common when outflow gradient is present and is independent of mitral incompetence of mid- and late systole. During SAM, turbulence in the subaortic area and mid and late mitral incompetence occurred simultaneously. The midsystolic aortic valve closure was related to the unilaterally directed blood flow through the aortic cross-sectional area.

  7. Supraventricular tachycardia in a patient with Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hayano, M; Imamura, Y; Tsuruta, M; Inoue, J; Nakashima, H; Fukuyama, K; Eguchi, Y; Tsuji, S; Matsuo, S; Yano, K

    1988-03-01

    Electrophysiologic study of a 55-year-old patient with Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported. The patient had a history of recurrent attacks of tachyarrhythmia and his electrocardiogram showed a short P-R interval (0.10 sec) with narrow QRS complex and left ventricular hypertrophy with giant negative T waves. His cineangiogram showed severe apical hypertrophy. An electrophysiologic study was performed. The results of programmed atrial pacing show the existence of the dual A-V nodal pathways. The A-H interval at rapid atrial pacing increased maximally by 103 msec. Atrial stimulation could depolarize parts of the atrium without altering the supraventricular tachycardia. These findings suggested that preferential rapidly conducting A-V nodal and intranodal reentry are the responsible mechanisms in this reciprocating tachycardia. We conclude that the short P-R interval was due to intranodal reentry through the dual A-V nodal pathways. To our knowledge, a case of Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not been previously described in the literature.

  8. Virtual Cardiac Surgery Using CFD: Application to Septal Myectomy in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Vijay; Mittal, Rajat; Abraham, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    Obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is characterized by ventricular wall thickening, diastolic dysfunction, and dynamic outflow tract obstruction, all of which strongly influence the vortex dynamics and pressure distribution in the left ventricle (LV). Severe cases of HCM are usually managed through septal myectomy where the surgeon resects the hypertrophic mass. Surgeons currently try to remove as much tissue as possible in order to optimize the post surgical result. However, excessive debulking increases the chance of ventricular septal defects, bundle branch block or complete heart block, and aneurysmal septal thinning. On the other hand, insufficient tissue removal also leads to unsatisfactory outcomes in terms of reduction of outflow tract pressure gradient. Knowing how much muscle to remove and where to remove it from could reduce the likelihood of complications and suboptimal outcomes. In the present study, we employ an immersed boundary solver to model the effect of septal myectomy for ventricles with HOCM and demonstrate the potential of such an approach for surgical planning. Computational resources were provided by the National Institute of Computational Science under Tergrid grant number TG-CTS100002.

  9. Hybrid designed for shallow Arctic operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    A hybrid concrete and steel gravity structure has been developed for drilling and production operations in shallow Arctic waters. Steel is used for interior framing and deck members of the conical structure to reduce weight and draft. An important feature of the design is a minimum draft under 30 ft, permitting near-shore transit of Pt. Barrow and installation in shallow waters. The unique features of the structure are described.

  10. Review of factors affecting the distribution and abundance of waterfowl in shallow-water habitats of Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Deller, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term trends of waterfowl populations in Chesapeake Bay demonstrate the importance of shallow-water habitats for waterfowl species. Although recent increases in field feeding by geese and swans lessened the importance of shallow-water areas for these species, most duck species depend almost exclusively on shallow-water habitats. Many factors influenced the distribution and abundance of waterfowl in shallow-water habitats. Habitat degradation resulted in the decline in numbers of most duck species and a change in distribution of some species. Increased numbers of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in recent decades probably resulted from release programs conducted by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources and private individuals. Studies of food habits since 1885 showed a decline in submerged-aquatic vegetation in the diet of some species, such as the canvasback (Aythya valisineria ), and an increase in the proportions of invertebrates in the diet. Diversity of food organisms for many waterfowl species has declined. Surveys of vegetation and invertebrates in the Chesapeake Bay generally reflect a degradation of shallow-water habitat. Human population increases in the Chesapeake Bay watershed directly and indirectly affected waterfowl distribution and abundance. The increase of exotic plant and invertebrate species in the bay, in most cases, benefited waterfowl populations. Increased contaminants have reduced the quality and quantity of habitat, although serious attempts to reverse this trend are underway. The use of shallow-water habitats by humans for fishing, hunting, boating, and other recreational and commercial uses reduced the use of shallow-water habitats by waterfowl. Humans can lessen the adverse influences on the valuable shallow-water habitats by restricting human population growth near these habitats and improving the water quality of the bay tributaries. Other affirmative actions that will improve these areas for waterfowl include greater

  11. Concentrations and potential health hazards of organochlorine pesticides in (shallow) groundwater of Taihu Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Gui, Tong; Huang, Yujuan

    2014-02-01

    A total of 27 shallow groundwater samples were collected from the Taihu Lake region (TLR), to determine the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) species, identify their possible sources, and estimate health risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. All OCP species occurred in the shallow groundwater of TLR with high detection frequency except p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichlorothane (p, p'-DDD) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT). DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the dominant OCP contaminants in the shallow groundwater of TLR, and they account for 44.2% total OCPs. The low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio, high β-HCH/(α+γ)-HCH ratio and β-HCH being the dominant HCH isomers for the majority of samples suggest that the HCHs were mainly from the historical use of lindane after a period of degradation. p, p'-DDE being the dominant DDT metabolite for all the samples indicated that the DDTs were mainly from the historical residues. Compositional analysis also suggested that there were fresh input sources of heptachlors, aldrins and endrins in addition to the historical residues. Correlation analysis indicated the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) impurity in the shallow groundwater of TLR was likely from the historical application of lindane and technical HCH (a mixture of HCH isomers that is produced by photochlorination of benzene). Carcinogenic risk values for α-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrins and dieldrin in the shallow groundwater in majority area of TLR were found to be >10(-6), posing a potentially serious cancer risk to those dependant on shallow groundwater for drinking water.

  12. Visualization of living terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes of growth plate cartilage in situ by differential interference contrast microscopy and time-lapse cinematography.

    PubMed

    Farnum, C E; Turgai, J; Wilsman, N J

    1990-09-01

    The functional unit within the growth plate consists of a column of chondrocytes that passes through a sequence of phases including proliferation, hypertrophy, and death. It is important to our understanding of the biology of the growth plate to determine if distal hypertrophic cells are viable, highly differentiated cells with the potential of actively controlling terminal events of endochondral ossification prior to their death at the chondro-osseous junction. This study for the first time reports on the visualization of living hypertrophic chondrocytes in situ, including the terminal hypertrophic chondrocyte. Chondrocytes in growth plate explants are visualized using rectified differential interference contrast microscopy. We record and measure, using time-lapse cinematography, the rate of movement of subcellular organelles at the limit of resolution of this light microscopy system. Control experiments to assess viability of hypertrophic chondrocytes include coincubating organ cultures with the intravital dye fluorescein diacetate to assess the integrity of the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic esterases. In this system, all hypertrophic chondrocytes, including the very terminal chondrocyte, exist as rounded, fully hydrated cells. By the criteria of intravital dye staining and organelle movement, distal hypertrophic chondrocytes are identical to chondrocytes in the proliferative and early hypertrophic cell zones.

  13. Hypertrophic chondrocytes in the rabbit growth plate can proliferate and differentiate into osteogenic cells when capillary invasion is interposed by a membrane filter.

    PubMed

    Enishi, Tetsuya; Yukata, Kiminori; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Sato, Ryosuke; Sairyo, Koichi; Yasui, Natsuo

    2014-01-01

    The fate of hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification remains controversial. It has long been thought that the calcified cartilage is invaded by blood vessels and that new bone is deposited on the surface of the eroded cartilage by newly arrived cells. The present study was designed to determine whether hypertrophic chondrocytes were destined to die or could survive to participate in new bone formation. In a rabbit experiment, a membrane filter with a pore size of 1 µm was inserted in the middle of the hypertrophic zone of the distal growth plate of ulna. In 33 of 37 animals, vascular invasion was successfully interposed by the membrane filter. During 8 days, the cartilage growth plate was enlarged, making the thickness 3-fold greater than that of the nonoperated control side. Histological examination demonstrated that the hypertrophic zone was exclusively elongated. At the terminal end of the growth plate, hypertrophic chondrocytes extruded from their territorial matrix into the open cavity on the surface of the membrane filter. The progenies of hypertrophic chondrocytes (PHCs) were PCNA positive and caspase-3 negative. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that PHCs did not express cartilage matrix proteins anymore but expressed bone matrix proteins. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that the new matrix produced by PHCs contained type I collagen, osteonectin, and osteocalcin. Based on these results, we concluded that hypertrophic chondrocytes switched into bone-forming cells after vascular invasion was interposed in the normal growth plate.

  14. Raf Kinases Are Essential for Phosphate Induction of ERK1/2 Phosphorylation in Hypertrophic Chondrocytes and Normal Endochondral Bone Development.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Garyfallia; Petit, Elizabeth T; Liu, Eva S; Baccarini, Manuela; Pritchard, Catrin; Demay, Marie B

    2017-02-24

    Hypophosphatemia causes rickets by impairing hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis. Phosphate induction of MEK1/2-ERK1/2 phosphorylation in hypertrophic chondrocytes is required for phosphate-mediated apoptosis and growth plate maturation. MEK1/2 can be activated by numerous molecules including Raf isoforms. A- and B-Raf ablation in chondrocytes does not alter skeletal development, whereas ablation of C-Raf decreases hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis and impairs vascularization of the growth plate. However, ablation of C-Raf does not impair phosphate-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in vitro, but leads to rickets by decreasing VEGF protein stability. To determine whether Raf isoforms are required for phosphate-induced hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis, mice lacking all three Raf isoforms in chondrocytes were generated. Raf deletion caused neonatal death and a significant expansion of the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer of the growth plate, accompanied by decreased cleaved caspase-9. This was associated with decreased phospho-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer and impaired vascular invasion. These data further demonstrated that Raf kinases are required for phosphate-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cultured hypertrophic chondrocytes and perform essential, but partially redundant roles in growth plate maturation.

  15. Hypertrophic Chondrocytes in the Rabbit Growth Plate Can Proliferate and Differentiate into Osteogenic Cells when Capillary Invasion Is Interposed by a Membrane Filter

    PubMed Central

    Enishi, Tetsuya; Yukata, Kiminori; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Sato, Ryosuke; Sairyo, Koichi; Yasui, Natsuo

    2014-01-01

    The fate of hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification remains controversial. It has long been thought that the calcified cartilage is invaded by blood vessels and that new bone is deposited on the surface of the eroded cartilage by newly arrived cells. The present study was designed to determine whether hypertrophic chondrocytes were destined to die or could survive to participate in new bone formation. In a rabbit experiment, a membrane filter with a pore size of 1 µm was inserted in the middle of the hypertrophic zone of the distal growth plate of ulna. In 33 of 37 animals, vascular invasion was successfully interposed by the membrane filter. During 8 days, the cartilage growth plate was enlarged, making the thickness 3-fold greater than that of the nonoperated control side. Histological examination demonstrated that the hypertrophic zone was exclusively elongated. At the terminal end of the growth plate, hypertrophic chondrocytes extruded from their territorial matrix into the open cavity on the surface of the membrane filter. The progenies of hypertrophic chondrocytes (PHCs) were PCNA positive and caspase-3 negative. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that PHCs did not express cartilage matrix proteins anymore but expressed bone matrix proteins. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that the new matrix produced by PHCs contained type I collagen, osteonectin, and osteocalcin. Based on these results, we concluded that hypertrophic chondrocytes switched into bone-forming cells after vascular invasion was interposed in the normal growth plate. PMID:25121501

  16. Relationship of alignment and tibial cortical coverage to hypertrophic bone formation in Salto Talaris® total ankle arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    King, Christy M; Schuberth, John M; Christensen, Jeffrey C; Swanstrom, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 107 Salto Talaris(®) total ankle replacements was performed to determine the effect of alignment and tibial cortical coverage on the formation of heterotopic bone. The radiographic parameters were studied for at least 18 months to detect any changes over time. The angle of insertion of the implant was most often in varus and with a positive anterior slope. A slight increase was seen in the slope over time (p < .0001) but was not clinically relevant. The mean percentage of cortical coverage of the tibial component was 89%, and only 7 patients had complete coverage of both the anterior and the posterior cortices. The percentage of patients who had hypertrophic bone growth increased over time (p < .0001). As the slope of the implant increased, there was a negative correlation with the degree of tibial coverage (p = .007). There was also an increase in the extent of hypertrophic bone as the tibial coverage decreased. None of the patients had symptoms that required an additional surgical procedure. The results of the present study indicate a high incidence of hypertrophic bone proliferation when the dimensions of the tibial component do not match the anteroposterior depth of the tibia at the plane of resection. Despite the high occurrence rate, the clinical relevance of hypertrophic bone is obscure.

  17. Snapping elbow caused by hypertrophic synovial plica in the radiohumeral joint: a report of three cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Andre F; Goebel, Sascha; Rucker, Alexander; Barthel, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    The snapping elbow caused by hypertrophic synovial radiohumeral plica is a rare form of lateral elbow impingement. In this article we report on hypertrophic radiohumeral synovial folds in three male patients, aged 54, 65 and 27 years. All three patients suffered isolated lateral elbow pain, painful snapping and unsuccessful conservative treatment over at least 5 months (range 5-9 months, mean 7.7 months) prior to surgical treatment. None of the patients had lateral epicondylitis, instability, osteochondrosis dissecans, loose bodies, arthritis or neurological disorders. Upon clinical examination the range of motion in the respective painful elbows was found to be normal in all three cases, but a painful snapping occurred between 80 degrees and 100 degrees of flexion with the forearm in pronation. While there were no pathologic findings in standard radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hypertrophic synovial plicae in the radiohumeral joints associated with effusion in each of the diseased elbows. Arthroscopic examinations confirmed the presence of a hypertrophic synovial plica in all three radiocapitellar joints, and revealed a transient interposition and compression of the folds in the articulation from extension until 90 degrees -100 degrees elbow flexion, with replacement beyond 90 degrees elbow flexion with a visible jump. Surgical management in all three cases comprised arthroscopic diagnosis confirmation and removal of the synovial plicae, leading to excellent outcomes at 6-12 months follow-up.

  18. Differences in collagen architecture between keloid, hypertrophic scar, normotrophic scar, and normal skin: An objective histopathological analysis.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Pauline D H M; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Pennings, Noor M; van Marle, Jan; Niessen, Frank B; van der Horst, Chantal M A M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Normotrophic, hypertrophic, and keloidal scars are different types of scar formation, which all need a different approach in treatment. Therefore, it is important to differentiate between these types of scar, not only clinically but also histopathologically. Differences were explored for collagen orientation and bundle thickness in 25 normal skin, 57 normotrophic scar, 56 hypertrophic scar, and 56 keloid biopsies, which were selected on clinical diagnosis. Image analysis was performed by fast fourier transformation. The calculated collagen orientation index ranged from 0 (random orientation) to 1 (parallel orientation). The bundle distance was calculated by the average distance between the centers of the collagen bundles. The results showed that compared with all three types of scars, the collagen orientation index was significantly lower in normal skin, which indicates that scars are organized in a more parallel manner. No differences were found between the different scars. Secondly, compared with normal skin, normotrophic scar, and hypertrophic scar, the bundle distance was significantly larger in keloidal scar, which suggests that thicker collagen bundles are present in keloidal scar. This first extensive histological study showed objective differences between normal skin, normotrophic, hypertrophic, and keloidal scar.

  19. Functionally impaired, hypertrophic ECL cells accumulate vacuoles and lipofuscin bodies. An ultrastructural study of ECL cells isolated from hypergastrinemic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C M; Bakke, I; Tostrup-Skogaker, N; Waldum, H L; Håkanson, R; Chen, D

    2001-03-01

    ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa of stomach control gastric acid secretion by mobilizing histamine in response to gastrin. They respond to gastrin also with hypertrophy and hyperplasia. ECL cells exhibit functional impairment upon long-term gastrin stimulation. The impairment is manifested in a gradual decline of the activity of the histamine-forming enzyme per individual ECL cell and in a failure of gastrin to mobilize histamine. The mechanism behind this impairment is unknown. In the present study, rats were treated with the proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole for 45 days to induce sustained hypergastrinemia. The ECL cells were isolated from normogastrinemic and hypergastrinemic rats and size-separated from other mucosal cells by the elutriation technique. The total ECL cell number was twofold higher in hypergastrinemic rats than in normogastrinemic rats, and most of the cells appeared in elutriation fractions where large cells predominate. The ECL cells of the different fractions were analyzed by quantitative electron microscopy. Normal-sized ECL cells from hypergastrinemic rats displayed a reduced number of secretory vesicles (probably because of degranulation) compared with normal-sized ECL cells from normogastrinemic rats. Hypertrophic ECL cells from hypergastrinemic rats had an unchanged number of secretory vesicles, supporting the view that such cells fail to respond to gastrin with degranulation. Although both normal-sized and hypertrophic ECL cells from hypergastrinemic rats contained vacuoles, those in the hypertrophic ECL cells were larger and more numerous. In addition, hypertrophic ECL cells were found to contain numerous, prominent lipofuscin bodies which are the presumed end product of crinophagia. Conceivably therefore, large vacuoles and lipofuscin bodies cause functional impairment of the hypertrophic ECL cells.

  20. Cyclic GMP protein kinase activity is reduced in thyroxine-induced hypertrophic cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Zhang, Qihang; Scholz, Peter M; Weiss, Harvey R

    2003-12-01

    1. We tested the hypothesis that the cGMP-dependent protein kinase has major negative functional effects in cardiac myocytes and that the importance of this pathway is reduced in thyroxine (T4; 0.5 mg/kg per day for 16 days) hypertrophic myocytes. 2. Using isolated ventricular myocytes from control (n = 7) and T4-treated (n = 9) rabbit hypertrophic hearts, myocyte shortening was studied with a video edge detector. Oxygen consumption was measured using O2 electrodes. Protein phosphorylation was measured autoradiographically. 3. Data were collected following treatment with: (i) 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (PCPT; 10-7 or 10-5 mol/L); (ii) 8-bromo-cAMP (10-5 mol/L) followed by PCPT; (iii) beta-phenyl-1,N2-etheno-8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-monophosphorothioate, SP-isomer (SP; 10-7 or 10-5 mol/L); or (iv) 8-bromo-cAMP (10-5 mol/L) followed by SP. 4. There were no significant differences between groups in baseline percentage shortening (Pcs; 4.9 +/- 0.2 vs 5.6 +/- 0.4% for control and T4 groups, respectively) and maximal rate of shortening (Rs; 64.8 +/- 5.9 vs 79.9 +/- 7.1 micro m/ s for control and T4 groups, respectively). Both SP and PCPT decreased Pcs (-43 vs-21% for control and T4 groups, respectively) and Rs (-36 vs-22% for control and T4 groups, respectively), but the effect was significantly reduced in T4 myocytes. 8-Bromo-cAMP similarly increased Pcs (28 vs 23% for control and T4 groups, respectively) and Rs (20 vs 19% for control and T4 groups, respectively). After 8-bromo-cAMP, SP and PCPT decreased Pcs (-34%) and Rs (-29%) less in the control group. However, the effects of these drugs were not altered in T4 myocytes (Pcs -24%; Rs -22%). Both PCPT and cAMP phosphorylated the same five protein bands. In T4 myocytes, these five bands were enhanced less. 5. We conclude that, in control ventricular myocytes, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase exerted major negative functional effects but, in T4-induced hypertrophic myocytes, the importance of

  1. A new CO2 laser technique for the treatment of pediatric hypertrophic burn scars

    PubMed Central

    Żądkowski, Tomasz; Nachulewicz, Paweł; Mazgaj, Maciej; Woźniak, Magdalena; Cielecki, Czesław; Wieczorek, Andrzej Paweł; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of hypertrophic scars arising as a result of thermal burns in children is still a big problem. The results of the treatment are not satisfactory for patients and parents, and new methods of treatment are still investigated. We present the use of one of the most modern carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers (Lumenis Encore laser equipped with a Synergistic Coagulation and Ablation for Advanced Resurfacing module) in the treatment of hypertrophic scars in children after burns. From March to April of 2013, a group of 47 patients aged 6 to 16 years underwent 57 laser surgery treatments. The average time from accident was 7.5 years. The results of treatment were investigated in 114 areas. The assessed areas were divided into 2 groups: 9-cm2 area 1, where the thickness of the scar measured by physician was the lowest and 9-cm2 area 2, where the thickness of the scar was the biggest. The results were considered on the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) independently by the surgeon and by parents 1, 4, and 8 months after the procedure. In addition, ultrasound evaluation of the scar thickness before and after laser procedure was made. VSS total score improved in all areas assessed by both the physician and parents. The biggest change in total VSS score in area 1 in the evaluation of the investigator was obtained at follow-up after the 1st month of treatment (average 7.23 points before and 5.18 points after the 1st month after surgery—a difference of 2.05 points). Scar ratings by parents and the physician did not differ statistically (P < 0.05). In the ultrasound assessment, the improvement was statistically significant, more frequently for both minimum and maximum thickness of the scars (B-mode measures) (P < 0.05). The use of a CO2 laser in the treatment of hypertrophic scars in children is an effective and safe method. The use of a CO2 laser improves the appearance and morphology of scarring assessed using the VSS by both the parents and the physician. The

  2. Environmental assessment model for shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes: interim report. [PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations)

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Hiromoto, G.

    1981-09-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial trenches. The model is intended to be generic and to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for a 1000-y period following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios considered by the model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses are calculated as well as doses to the intruder and farmer.

  3. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... thickness, problems with blood flow, or leaky heart valves ( mitral valve regurgitation ) may include: Echocardiography ECG 24-hour Holter ... You may need surgery to repair the heart's mitral valve if it is leaking. Watch this video about: ...

  4. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  5. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-25

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  6. Groundwater penetrating radar and high resolution seismic for locating shallow faults in unconsolidated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E. |; Waddell, M.G.; Sexton, B.G.

    1993-12-31

    Faults in shallow, unconsolidated sediments, particularly in coastal plain settings, are very difficult to discern during subsurface exploration yet have critical impact to groundwater flow, contaminant transport and geotechnical evaluations. This paper presents a case study using cross-over geophysical technologies in an area where shallow faulting is probable and known contamination exists. A comparison is made between Wenner and dipole-dipole resistivity data, ground penetrating radar, and high resolution seismic data. Data from these methods were verified with a cone penetrometer investigation for subsurface lithology and compared to existing monitoring well data. Interpretations from these techniques are compared with actual and theoretical shallow faulting found in the literature. The results of this study suggests that (1) the CPT study, combined with the monitoring well data may suggest that discontinuities in correlatable zones may indicate that faulting is present (2) the addition of the Wenner and dipole-dipole data may further suggest that offset zones exist in the shallow subsurface but not allow specific fault planes or fault stranding to be mapped (3) the high resolution seismic data will image faults to within a few feet of the surface but does not have the resolution to identify the faulting on the scale of our models, however it will suggest locations for upward continuation of faulted zones (4) offset 100 MHz and 200 MHz CMP GPR will image zones and features that may be fault planes and strands similar to our models (5) 300 MHz GPR will image higher resolution features that may suggest the presence of deeper faults and strands, and (6) the combination of all of the tools in this study, particularly the GPR and seismic may allow for the mapping of small scale, shallow faulting in unconsolidated sediments.

  7. Cardiac CT angiography in the emergency room: Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting as acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael C; Kerut, Edmund K; Mckinnie, James; Davis, Michael; Hinton, Christine

    2017-03-07

    A 59-year-old male presented to the emergency room with symptoms of chest tightness and palpitations. Following conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm, he had deep symmetrical T-wave changes on his electrocardiogram. Symptoms resolved almost immediately, and his initial troponin was negative. He underwent cardiac CT angiography utilizing an emergency room triage protocol which resulted in a diagnosis of nonobstructive coronary artery disease and apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Following a hospital stay of less than 24 hours, he was discharged to outpatient follow-up on medical management and has remained asymptomatic over 6 months. This case presentation illustrates an example of the diversity of pathology that presents in emergency rooms with symptoms consistent with acute coronary syndrome.

  8. MicroRNAs Based Therapy of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: The Road Traveled So Far

    PubMed Central

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Raposo, Luís R.; Fernandes, Alexandra R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by variable expressivity, age penetrance, and a high heterogeneity. The transcriptional profile (miRNAs, mRNAs), epigenetic modifications, and posttranslational modifications seem to be highly relevant for the onset of the disease. miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs with 22 nucleotides, have been implicated in the regulation of cardiomyocyte function, being differentially expressed in several heart diseases, including HCM. Moreover, a different miRNA expression profile in the various stages of HCM development is also observed. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the profile of miRNAs characteristic of asymptomatic to overt HCM patients, discussing alongside their potential use for diagnosis and therapy. Indeed, the stability and specificity of miRNAs make them suitable targets for use as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis and as therapeutical targets. PMID:26504850

  9. Titin, a Central Mediator for Hypertrophic Signaling, Exercise-Induced Mechanosignaling and Skeletal Muscle Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Martina; Kötter, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Titin is a giant scaffold protein with multiple functions in striated muscle physiology. Due to the elastic I-band domains and the filament-like integration in the half-sarcomere titin is an important factor for sarcomere assembly and serves as an adaptable molecular spring that determines myofilament distensibility. Protein-interactions e.g., with muscle ankyrin repeat proteins or muscle LIM-protein link titin to hypertrophic signaling and via p62 and Muscle Ring Finger proteins to mechanisms that control protein quality control. This review summarizes our current knowledge on titin as a central node for exercise-induced mechanosignaling and remodeling and further highlights the pathophysiological implications. PMID:26973541

  10. Bilateral Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration and Holmes Tremor without Palatal Tremor: An Unusual Association

    PubMed Central

    Cosentino, Carlos; Velez, Miriam; Nuñez, Yesenia; Palomino, Henry; Quispe, Darko; Flores, Martha; Torres, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background Lesions in the Guillain–Mollaret triangle or dentate-rubro-olivary pathway may lead to hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD), a secondary trans-synaptic degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus. HOD is usually associated with palatal tremor and rarely with Holmes tremor. Bilateral HOD is a very unusual condition and very few cases are reported. Case Report We report here two cases of bilateral HOD after two different vascular lesions located at the decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles, thus impairing both central tegmental tracts and interrupting bilaterally the dentate-rubral-olivary pathway. Interestingly, both developed bilateral Holmes tremor but not palatal tremor. Discussion Lesions in some of the components in the Guillain–Mollaret triangle may develop Holmes tremor with HOD and without palatal tremor. Magnetic resonance imaging is an invaluable tool in these cases. Better understanding of the pathways in this loop is needed. PMID:27536461

  11. Clubbed fingers and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Chi; Lin, Shih-Chang; Liu, Ta-Chih; Chen, Chung-Jen; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Ou, Tsan-Teng; Liu, Hong-Wen; Tsai, Wen-Chan

    2003-04-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is characterized by clubbed fingers and periosteal new bone formation. Etiologically, it can be divided into primary and secondary HOA, but its pathogenesis is uncertain. We report a 42-year-old male patient who suffered from painful clubbing fingers and toes. Serial examinations revealed periosteal new bone formation in the four limb long bones and a solid mass lesion in the right upper lung field. Pathologic examination of the resected mass lesion showed squamous cell carcinoma. After surgery and chemotherapy, the severity of clubbed fingers decreased and joint pain improved. Follow-up bone scan also suggested regression of the uptake of radioactivity in the four limb bones. We concluded that the HOA in this case was probably caused by lung cancer.

  12. Narrative review: harnessing molecular genetics for the diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libin; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seidman, Christine E

    2010-04-20

    Unexplained cardiac hypertrophy, the diagnostic criterion for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), occurs in 1 in 500 adults. Insights into the genetic cause and molecular pathophysiology of HCM are reshaping clinical paradigms for diagnosis and treatment of this common myocardial disorder. Human genetic studies have established that dominant mutations in the proteins that make up the contractile apparatus (the sarcomere) cause HCM. With the current availability of clinical gene-based diagnostics, pathogenic mutations in affected patients can be defined, which can suggest a clinical course and allow definitive preclinical identification of family members at risk for HCM. Genetic discoveries have also fostered mechanistic investigations in model organisms that are engineered to carry human HCM mutations. Novel therapeutic targets have emerged from these fundamental studies and are currently under clinical assessment in humans. The combination of contemporary gene-based diagnosis with new strategies to attenuate disease development and progression is changing the natural history of lifelong cardiac symptoms, arrhythmias, and heart failure from HCM.

  13. Isolated papillary muscle hypertrophy: A gap in our knowledge of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Catarina; Delgado, Carlos; Vázquez, María; Trinidad, Carmen; Vilar, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Increased thickness of left ventricular walls is the predominant characteristic and one of the diagnostic criteria of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This case illustrates an uncommon but important finding of isolated hypertrophy of the papillary muscles (PMs), observed in a young woman in whom an abnormal electrocardiogram was initially detected. During the investigation isolated PM hypertrophy was identified. The structural characteristics of the PMs have received scant attention in this setting and there is little information in the literature on this entity, whose real prevalence and clinical significance remain to be determined. The available information relates solitary PM hypertrophy with an early form or a different pattern of HCM. In this case PM hypertrophy was only detected due to the finding of an abnormal electrocardiogram, which prompted further diagnostic tests and a search for possible etiologies.

  14. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: an Update

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Diogo Costa Leandro; Assunção, Fernanda Boldrini; dos Santos, Alair Agusto Sarmet Moreira Damas; Nacif, Marcelo Souto

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease and represents the main cause of sudden death in young patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) are noninvasive imaging methods with high sensitivity and specificity, useful for the establishment of diagnosis and prognosis of HCM, and for the screening of patients with subclinical phenotypes. The improvement of image analysis by CMR and CCT offers the potential to promote interventions aiming at stopping the natural course of the disease. This study aims to describe the role of RCM and CCT in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCM, and how these methods can be used in the management of these patients. PMID:27305111

  15. Alterations in sarcomere function modify the hyperplastic to hypertrophic transition phase of mammalian cardiomyocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Benjamin R.; Williams, Alexandra F.; Glennon, Michael S.; de Feria, Alejandro E.; Sebag, Sara C.; Baldwin, H. Scott; Becker, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    It remains unclear how perturbations in cardiomyocyte sarcomere function alter postnatal heart development. We utilized murine models that allowed manipulation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) expression at critical stages of cardiac ontogeny to study the response of the postnatal heart to disrupted sarcomere function. We discovered that the hyperplastic to hypertrophic transition phase of mammalian heart development was altered in mice lacking MYBPC3 and this was the critical period for subsequent development of cardiomyopathy. Specifically, MYBPC3-null hearts developed evidence of increased cardiomyocyte endoreplication, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of cell cycle stimulatory cyclins and increased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Interestingly, this response was self-limited at later developmental time points by an upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. These results provide valuable insights into how alterations in sarcomere protein function modify postnatal heart development and highlight the potential for targeting cell cycle regulatory pathways to counteract cardiomyopathic stimuli. PMID:28239655

  16. Comparison of different laser systems in the treatment of hypertrophic and atrophic scars and keloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharschmidt, D.; Algermissen, Bernd; Willms-Jones, J.-C.; Philipp, Carsten M.; Berlien, Hans-Peter

    1997-12-01

    Different laser systems and techniques are used for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, keloids and acne scars. Significant criteria in selecting a suitable laser system are the scar's vascularization, age and diameter. Flashlamp- pumped dye-lasers, CO2-lasers with scanner, Argon and Nd:YAG-lasers are used. Telangiectatic scars respond well to argon lasers, erythematous scars and keloids to dye-laser treatment. Using interstitial Nd:YAG-laser vaporization, scars with a cross-section over 1 cm can generally be reduced. For the treatment of atrophic and acne scars good cosmetic results are achieved with a CO2-laser/scanner system, which allows a precise ablation of the upper dermis with low risk of side-effects.

  17. Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Masked by Tako-Tsubo Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Daralammori, Y.; El Garhy, M.; Gayed, M. R.; Farah, A.; Lauer, B.; Secknus, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Left ventricular outflow obstruction might be part of the pathophysiological mechanism of Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy. This obstruction can be masked by Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy and diagnosed only by followup. Case Presentation. A 70-year-old female presented with Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy and masked obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at presentation. Conclusion. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy typically presents like an acute MI and is characterized by severe, but transient, regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Prompt evaluation of the coronary status is, therefore, mandatory. The prognosis under medical treatment of heart failure symptoms and watchful waiting is favourable. Previous studies showed that LVOT obstruction might be part of the pathophysiological mechanism of TCM. This paper supports this theory. However, TCM may also mask any preexisting LVOT obstruction. PMID:24826256

  18. [Anaesthetic management of caesarean section in pregnancy with diabetes and hypertrophic myocardiopathy with restrictive diastolic dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Holgado, C M; Coves, S

    2013-02-01

    Haemodynamic changes that occur during pregnancy are maximal between 28 and 34 weeks. In the pregnant woman with several associated diseases, such as hypertensive myocardiopathy and pre-gestational diabetes, these changes can lead to a difficult control of pulmonary hypertension and acute pulmonary oedema. We report the case of a pregnant woman with long term type 1 diabetes mellitus who suffered pre-eclampsia in a previous pregnancy, and since then developed hypertensive cardiomyopathy. She was admitted at 30 week gestation for metabolic and blood pressure control, and developed congestive cardiac failure after the administration of betamethasone for foetal lung maturity. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed a non-dilated hypertrophic left ventricle with good systolic function, restrictive diastolic dysfunction and moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension. When her general condition improved, we performed a caesarean section under regional anaesthesia to prevent the complications of pulmonary and systemic hypertension. We present the anaesthetic management and resolution of complications after oxytocin administration.

  19. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in daily practice: an introduction on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    van der Lee, C.; Kofflard, M. J.; Geleijnse, M.L.; ten Cate, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex, inherited cardiac disease that has been subject to intense investigation since it was first described in 1957. Over the past 40 years, understanding has evolved regarding the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of HCM. Analyses of HCM populations from nonreferral centres have refined the insights into the natural history and the occurrence of sudden cardiac death, which is the most devastating component of its natural history. Therapeutic strategies are diverse and may vary during the course of the disease. Optimal therapy depends on symptoms, haemodynamic findings and the presence of risk factors for sudden cardiac death. At present, invasive therapy for patients with obstructive HCM and drug-refractory symptoms includes surgery or percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation. This report summarises the diagnostic criteria, clinical course and therapeutic management of HCM. Attention is also paid to certain issues of special interest in this disease. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:25696443

  20. Diazoxide prevents reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage, leading to anti-hypertrophic effects.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Aline M; Caldas, Francisco R; da Silva, Amanda P; Ventura, Maximiano M; Leite, Iago M; Filgueiras, Ana B; Silva, Claúdio G L; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Facundo, Heberty T

    2017-01-05

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by wall thickening or chamber enlargement of the heart in response to pressure or volume overload, respectively. This condition will, initially, improve the organ contractile function, but if sustained will render dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (mitoKATP) modulate the redox status of the cell and protect against several cardiac insults. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mitoKATP opening (using diazoxide) will avoid isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial Ca(2+)-induced swelling. To induce cardiac hypertrophy, Swiss mice were treated intraperitoneally with isoproterenol (30 mg/kg/day) for 8 days. Diazoxide (5 mg/kg/day) was used to open mitoKATP and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg/day) was administrated as a mitoKATP blocker. Isoproterenol-treated mice had elevated heart weight/tibia length ratios and increased myocyte cross-sectional areas. Additionally, hypertrophic hearts produced higher levels of H2O2 and had lower glutathione peroxidase activity. In contrast, mitoKATP opening with diazoxide blocked all isoproterenol effects in a manner reversed by 5-hydroxydecanoate. Isolated mitochondria from Isoproterenol-induced hypertrophic hearts had increased susceptibility to Ca(2+)-induced swelling secondary to mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. MitokATP opening was accompanied by lower Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling, an effect blocked by 5-hydroxydecanoate. Our results suggest that mitoKATP opening negatively regulates cardiac hypertrophy by avoiding oxidative impairment and mitochondrial damage.

  1. Training-specific functional, neural, and hypertrophic adaptations to explosive- vs. sustained-contraction strength training.

    PubMed

    Balshaw, Thomas G; Massey, Garry J; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Training specificity is considered important for strength training, although the functional and underpinning physiological adaptations to different types of training, including brief explosive contractions, are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of 12 wk of explosive-contraction (ECT, n = 13) vs. sustained-contraction (SCT, n = 16) strength training vs. control (n = 14) on the functional, neural, hypertrophic, and intrinsic contractile characteristics of healthy young men. Training involved 40 isometric knee extension repetitions (3 times/wk): contracting as fast and hard as possible for ∼1 s (ECT) or gradually increasing to 75% of maximum voluntary torque (MVT) before holding for 3 s (SCT). Torque and electromyography during maximum and explosive contractions, torque during evoked octet contractions, and total quadriceps muscle volume (QUADSVOL) were quantified pre and post training. MVT increased more after SCT than ECT [23 vs. 17%; effect size (ES) = 0.69], with similar increases in neural drive, but greater QUADSVOL changes after SCT (8.1 vs. 2.6%; ES = 0.74). ECT improved explosive torque at all time points (17-34%; 0.54 ≤ ES ≤ 0.76) because of increased neural drive (17-28%), whereas only late-phase explosive torque (150 ms, 12%; ES = 1.48) and corresponding neural drive (18%) increased after SCT. Changes in evoked torque indicated slowing of the contractile properties of the muscle-tendon unit after both training interventions. These results showed training-specific functional changes that appeared to be due to distinct neural and hypertrophic adaptations. ECT produced a wider range of functional adaptations than SCT, and given the lesser demands of ECT, this type of training provides a highly efficient means of increasing function.

  2. Annexin A7 deficiency potentiates cardiac NFAT activity promoting hypertrophic signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Voelkl, Jakob; Alesutan, Ioana; Pakladok, Tatsiana; Viereck, Robert; Feger, Martina; Mia, Sobuj; Schönberger, Tanja; Noegel, Angelika A.; Gawaz, Meinrad; Lang, Florian

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Cardiac Anxa7 expression was up-regulated following TAC. • The hypertrophic response following TAC was augmented in Anxa7-deficient mice. • Silencing of Anxa7 increased indicators of HL-1 cardiomyocytes hypertrophy. • Silencing of Anxa7 induced Nfatc1 nuclear translocation. • Silencing of Anxa7 enhanced NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity. - Abstract: Annexin A7 (Anxa7) is a cytoskeletal protein interacting with Ca{sup 2+} signaling which in turn is a crucial factor for cardiac remodeling following cardiac injury. The present study explored whether Anxa7 participates in the regulation of cardiac stress signaling. To this end, mice lacking functional Anxa7 (anxa7{sup −/−}) and wild-type mice (anxa7{sup +/+}) were investigated following pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In addition, HL-1 cardiomyocytes were silenced with Anxa7 siRNA and treated with isoproterenol. Transcript levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, transcriptional activity by luciferase reporter assay and protein abundance by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. As a result, TAC treatment increased the mRNA and protein levels of Anxa7 in wild-type mice. Moreover, TAC increased heart weight to body weight ratio and the cardiac mRNA levels of αSka, Nppb, Col1a1, Col3a1 and Rcan1, effects more pronounced in anxa7{sup −/−} mice than in anxa7{sup +/+} mice. Silencing of Anxa7 in HL-1 cardiomyocytes significantly increased nuclear localization of Nfatc1. Furthermore, Anxa7 silencing increased NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity as well as αSka, Nppb, and Rcan1 mRNA levels both, under control conditions and following β-adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol. These observations point to an important role of annexin A7 in the regulation of cardiac NFAT activity and hypertrophic response following cardiac stress conditions.

  3. Relationship between impaired adipogenesis of retroperitoneal adipose tissue and hypertrophic obesity: role of endogenous glucocorticoid excess

    PubMed Central

    Zubiría, María G; Vidal-Bravo, Juana; Spinedi, Eduardo; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Although the pro-adipogenic effect of glucocorticoid (GC) on adipose tissue (AT) precursor cell differentiation is openly accepted, the effect of chronically high peripheral levels of GC on AT mass expansion is not fully understood. In the present study, we aim to assess the in vitro adipogenic capacity of AT precursor cells isolated from retroperitoneal (RP) AT pads of the hypercorticosteronaemic, adult neonatally treated monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) male rat. To ascertain this issue, we explored the in vitro adipogenic process of stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) cells isolated from RPAT pads of 60-day-old MSG rats. The data recorded indicated that RPAT-SVF cells from hypercorticosteronaemic MSG rats, although displaying an enhanced proliferation capacity, differentiated slower than normal cells. This dysfunction was associated with a reduction in key parameters indicative of precursor cell commitment, differentiation capacity and the percentage of fully differentiated adipocytes, with a retarded maturation process. The distorted adipogenic capacity was highly conditioned by RPAT-SVF cells displaying a low committed population and both excessive and reduced expression of anti- (Pref-1 and Wnt-10b) and pro-adipogenic (mineralocorticoid receptor) signals respectively. Notably, the normalization of peripheral corticosterone levels in MSG rats, as a result of bilateral adrenalectomy combined with GC replacement therapy, fully prevented reduced RPAT precursor cell commitment and overall impaired adipogenesis. Our study strongly supports that the impaired adipogenic process observed in the adult hypertrophic obese MSG male rat is a GC-dependent mechanism, thus explaining the unhealthy RPAT expansion observed in human hypertrophic obese phenotypes, such as in the Cushing's syndrome. PMID:24913911

  4. In vitro functional characterization of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 during chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ting; Qiao, Longwei; Zhang, Fei; Mi, Rui; Wang, Bo; Chen, Lin; Gu, Junxia; Lu, Yaojuan; Zheng, Qiping

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) has been implicated an essential role during bone repair, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Bone repair healing is known to include processes similar to endochondral ossification. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effect of Cox-2 on Col10a1 expression and chondrocyte hypertrophy, two critical components of endochondral ossification. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we detected increased mRNA levels of Cox-2 and Col10a1 in hypertrophic MCT cells, while cells treated with Cox-2 inhibitor, NS398, showed decreased mRNA and protein levels of Cox-2 and Col10a1. Increased Cox-2 also correlated with significantly upregulated Col10a1 in hypertrophic ATDC5 cells, whereas inhibition of Cox-2 significantly decreased Col10a1 expression. We further generated a Cox-2-expressing ATDC5 stable cell line. Compared with the controls, Cox-2 over-expression significantly increased Col10a1 as early as day 7 of continuous culturing, but not at days 14 and 21. Enhanced Alp staining was also observed in day 7 stable cell line. Correspondingly, we detected significantly increased levels of Runx2, Alp, Bcl-2, Bax, Col1a1, Osterix, and Bsp in day 7 stable line. Most of these genes have been associated with chondrocyte maturation and apoptosis. Together, our results support that Cox-2 promotes Col10a1 expression and chondrocyte hypertrophy in vitro, possibly through upregulation of Runx2 and other relevant transcription factors. PMID:27121205

  5. The clinical features, outcomes and genetic characteristics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with severe right ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiying; Fan, Chaomei; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhao, Xing; Wang, Fengqi; Zhu, Hongguang; Lin, Aiqing; Wu, Xia; Li, Yishi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Severe right ventricular hypertrophy (SRVH) is a rare phenotype in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) for which limited information is available. This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical, prognostic and genetic characteristics of HCM patients with SRVH. Methods HCM with SRVH was defined as HCM with a maximum right ventricular wall thickness ≥10 mm. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed in HCM patients with SRVH. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify risk factors for cardiac death and events in HCM with SRVH. Patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM) were selected as a comparison group. The clinical features and outcomes of 34 HCM patients with SRVH and 273 ApHCM patients were compared. Results Compared with the ApHCM group, the HCM with SRVH group included younger patients and a higher proportion of female patients and also displayed higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models identified 2 independent predictors of cardiovascular death in HCM patients with SRVH, a New York Heart Association class ≥III (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43-52.87, p = 0.019) and an age at the time of HCM diagnosis ≤18 (HR = 5.5, 95% CI: 1.24-28.36, p = 0.026). Among the 11 HCM patients with SRVH who underwent WGS, 10 (90.9%) were identified as carriers of at least one specific sarcomere gene mutation. MYH7 and TTN mutations were the most common sarcomere mutations noted in this study. Two or more HCM-related gene mutations were observed in 9 (82%) patients, and mutations in either other cardiomyopathy-related genes or ion-channel disease-related genes were found in 8 (73%) patients. Conclusions HCM patients with SRVH were characterized by poor clinical outcomes and the presentation of multiple gene mutations. PMID:28323875

  6. Shortening baroreflex delay in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients – an unknown effect of β-blockers

    PubMed Central

    Katarzynska-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Ochotny, Romuald; Oko-Sarnowska, Zofia; Wachowiak-Baszynska, Hanna; Krauze, Tomasz; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Gwizdala, Adrian; Mitkowski, Przemyslaw; Guzik, Przemyslaw

    2013-01-01

    Aims Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired diastolic and systolic function. Abnormal sympathetic–parasympathetic balance is a potential stimulus for left ventricular hypertrophy in HCM patients. β-Blockers are routinely used in HCM for their strong negative inotropic effect; however, these drugs also influence the sympathetic–parasympathetic balance. This study aimed to determine the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system and the autonomic effects of β-blockers in HCM patients treated or untreated with β-blockers. Methods Among 51 HCM outpatients (18–70 years old; 29 men) there were 19 individuals with no medication and 32 subjects treated with a β-blocker. Fourteen age- and gender-matched (23–70 years old; nine men) healthy volunteers were enrolled in the control group. Continuous, non-invasive finger blood pressure was recorded during supine rest for 30 min. Autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system was measured by heart rate variability and spontaneous baroreflex function (cross-correlation sequence method). Results The mean pulse interval, time domain and spectral measures of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity were comparable between HCM patients, treated or not with β-blockers, and the control group. However, the delay of the baroreflex was significantly longer in HCM patients who were not treated with β-blockers [2.0 (1.6–2.3) s] in comparison with HCM patients receiving β-blockers [1.4 (1.1–1.8) s; P = 0.0072] or control subjects [1.2 (0.8–1.8) s; P = 0.0025]. This delay did not differ between HCM patients treated with β-blockers and the control group. Conclusions Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy not treated with β-blockers is accompanied by prolonged baroreflex delay. The use of β-blockers normalizes this delay. PMID:23126403

  7. Rising CO2 Levels Will Intensify Phytoplankton Blooms in Eutrophic and Hypertrophic Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Verspagen, Jolanda M. H.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Finke, Jan F.; Visser, Petra M.; Van Donk, Ellen; Huisman, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1) dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2) rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3) above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked intensification of

  8. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis: an autoimmune IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    De Virgilio, Armando; de Vincentiis, Marco; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Fabrini, Giovanni; Conte, Michela; Gallo, Andrea; Rizzo, Maria Ida; Greco, Antonio

    2016-09-03

    Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is a rare disorder that causes thickening of the dura mater. Inflammatory lesions may be located in the cerebral or spinal dura mater or, less frequently, in both locations simultaneously. Numerous clinico-pathological entities cause thickening of the pachymeninges. Indeed, HP is a potential manifestation of many different diseases, but the diagnosis often remains uncertain. Cases in which the pachymeningitis has no known aetiology are termed "idiopathic" HP (IHP). Recently, it has been suggested that IgG4-related disease represents a subset of cases previously diagnosed as idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Little is known regarding the pathogenic events of IHP. In a general theory, the inflammatory infiltrate, mainly consisting of B and T lymphocytes, activates fibroblasts and induces collagen deposition, leading to tissue hypertrophy and increased dural thickness. Clinical manifestations of IHP depend upon the location of the inflammatory lesions and compression of the adjacent nervous structures. Three central pathological features are lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, obliterative phlebitis, and storiform fibrosis. MRI is the examination of choice for the preliminary diagnosis of IHP. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen of the dura mater would finally confirm the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis for HP is broad and includes infections, autoimmune disorders, and neoplasia. Currently, there is no consensus about treatment for patients with IHP. There is a preference for glucocorticoid treatment on diagnosis followed by the addition of other immunosuppressive agents in the event of a recurrence. Rituximab is used in patients who did not respond to glucocorticoids or to conventional steroid-sparing agents.

  9. Understanding the hydrologic impacts of wastewater treatment plant discharge to shallow groundwater: Before and after plant shutdown

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Duris, Joseph; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Effluent-impacted surface water has the potential to transport not only water, but wastewater-derived contaminants to shallow groundwater systems. To better understand the effects of effluent discharge on in-stream and near-stream hydrologic conditions in wastewater-impacted systems, water-level changes were monitored in hyporheic-zone and shallow-groundwater piezometers in a reach of Fourmile Creek adjacent to and downstream of the Ankeny (Iowa, USA) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water-level changes were monitored from approximately 1.5 months before to 0.5 months after WWTP closure. Diurnal patterns in WWTP discharge were closely mirrored in stream and shallow-groundwater levels immediately upstream and up to 3 km downstream of the outfall, indicating that such discharge was the primary control on water levels before shutdown. The hydrologic response to WWTP shutdown was immediately observed throughout the study reach, verifying the far-reaching hydraulic connectivity and associated contaminant transport risk. The movement of WWTP effluent into alluvial aquifers has implications for potential WWTP-derived contamination of shallow groundwater far removed from the WWTP outfall.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE THERMAL SHALLOW RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, G.D.

    1985-01-22

    The Geysers was discovered in 1847, and its therapeutic mineral baths were widely recognized by 1880. It was not until 1921, however, that the first steam well at The Geysers was drilled. Between 1922 and 1925, eight additional wells were drilled and tested as reported by Allen and Day. Development activity ceased until 1955 when Magma Power Company drilled the first ''commercial'' well. This success led to additional drilling in the Thermal Shallow Reservoir and the commissioning of a 12 MW power plant in September 1960, followed by a 14 MW power plant in February, 1963. This completed the commercial development of the Thermal shallow Reservoir.

  11. Shallow water sound propagation with surface waves.

    PubMed

    Tindle, Chris T; Deane, Grant B

    2005-05-01

    The theory of wavefront modeling in underwater acoustics is extended to allow rapid range dependence of the boundaries such as occurs in shallow water with surface waves. The theory allows for multiple reflections at surface and bottom as well as focusing and defocusing due to reflection from surface waves. The phase and amplitude of the field are calculated directly and used to model pulse propagation in the time domain. Pulse waveforms are obtained directly for all wavefront arrivals including both insonified and shadow regions near caustics. Calculated waveforms agree well with a reference solution and data obtained in a near-shore shallow water experiment with surface waves over a sloping bottom.

  12. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-30

    13-1-0026 entitled "Three- Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics," Principal Investigator Dr. Ying-Tsong Lin. Sincerely, ;l1,J-Ju1𔃻 ~{hjM1...30/03/2016 01/01/2013-12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBERS Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics 5b, GRANT NUMBER N0001 4-13-1... Water Acoustics Dr. Ying-Tsong Lin Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543

  13. Papillary muscle insertion directly into the anterior mitral leaflet in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, its identification and cause of outflow obstruction by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and its surgical management.

    PubMed

    Rowin, Ethan J; Maron, Barry J; Lesser, John R; Rastegar, Hassan; Maron, Martin S

    2013-06-01

    This case presents an uncommon but important mechanism of muscular left ventricular outflow obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to anomalous and direct papillary muscle insertion into the anterior mitral leaflet, a finding reliably identified clinically by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The identification of this left ventricular outflow tract morphology is important before invasive ventricular septal reduction therapy because it dictates a specific surgical strategy. These findings further support the role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the early evaluation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients.

  14. [Phenols pollutants in soil and shallow groundwater of a retired refinery site].

    PubMed

    Pei, Fang; Luo, Ze-Jiao; Peng, Jin-Jin; Qi, Shi-Hua

    2012-12-01

    To study the distribution of phenol compounds in a retired refinery site, 21 soil sampling sites and 8 shallow groundwater wells were investigated. The results showed, shallow unconfined groundwater of the site was in a serious pollution situation and the phenols concentration was much higher than quality standard for ground water. Confined water sample was slightly contaminated by phenols and the total quality was good. Approximately half of the area was heavily polluted by phenol compounds. According to the retired refinery layout, the phenols pollution distribution in shallow groundwater and soil exhibited the regional similarity. The highly contaminated area was production workshop, oil tank and plant storage. Horizontal diffusion of pollutants was not serious. Vertical diffusion of pollutants was different, and a site with pollutant diffusion was deeper than ten meters. The 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 2,4-xylenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol in typical soils were analyzed by GC/MS. It showed that concentrations of seven phenol compounds were 0.01-232.96 mg x kg(-1), and the concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol were high.

  15. Spatial Models of Sewer Pipe Leakage Predict the Occurrence of Wastewater Indicators in Shallow Urban Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Lee, Do Gyun; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2017-02-07

    Twentieth century municipal wastewater infrastructure greatly improved U.S. urban public health and water quality. However, sewer pipes deteriorate, and their accumulated structural defects may release untreated wastewater to the environment via acute breaks or insidious exfiltration. Exfiltrated wastewater constitutes a loss of potentially reusable water and delivers a complex and variable mix of contaminants to urban shallow groundwater. Yet, predicting where deteriorated sewers impinge on shallow groundwater has been challenging. Here we develop and test a spatially explicit model of exfiltration probability based on pipe attributes and groundwater elevation without prior knowledge of exfiltrating defect locations. We find that models of exfiltration probability can predict the probable occurrence in underlying shallow groundwater of established wastewater indicators including the artificial sweetener acesulfame, tryptophan-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter, nitrate, and a stable isotope of water (δ(18)O). The strength of the association between exfiltration probability and indicators of wastewater increased when multiple pipe attributes, distance weighting, and groundwater flow direction were considered in the model. The results prove that available sanitary sewer databases and groundwater digital elevation data can be analyzed to predict where pipes are likely leaking and contaminating groundwater. Such understanding could direct sewer infrastructure reinvestment toward water resource protection.

  16. On the Theory of Thin Shallow Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazarov, A. A.

    1956-01-01

    This report is concerned with the theory of thin shallow shells. It does not employ the lines of curvature as the coordinate system, but employs "almost cartesian coordinates" or the coordinates obtained by cutting the surface into two mutually orthogonal systems of parallel planes.

  17. Global patterns of shallow groundwater temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Susanne A.; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    Only meters below our feet, shallow aquifers serve as sustainable energy source and provide freshwater storage and ecological habitats. All of these aspects are crucially impacted by the thermal regime of the subsurface. Due to the limited accessibility of aquifers however, temperature measurements are scarce. Most commonly, shallow groundwater temperatures are approximated by adding an offset to annual mean surface air temperatures. Yet, the value of this offset is not well defined, often arbitrarily set, and rarely validated. Here, we propose the usage of satellite-derived land surface temperatures instead of surface air temperatures. 2 548 measurement points in 29 countries are compiled, revealing characteristic trends in the offset between shallow groundwater temperatures and land surface temperatures. Here it is shown that evapotranspiration and snow cover impact on this offset globally, through latent heat flow and insulation. Considering these two processes only, global shallow groundwater temperatures are estimated in a resolution of approximately 1 km × 1 km. When comparing these estimated groundwater temperatures with measured ones a coefficient of determination of 0.95 and a root mean square error of 1.4 K is found.

  18. Grain transport mechanics in shallow overland flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flow. The two phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a disper...

  19. Grain transport mechanics in shallow flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flows. The two-phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a dispe...

  20. Moment tensor analysis of very shallow sources

    DOE PAGES

    Chiang, Andrea; Dreger, Douglas S.; Ford, Sean R.; ...

    2016-10-11

    An issue for moment tensor (MT) inversion of shallow seismic sources is that some components of the Green’s functions have vanishing amplitudes at the free surface, which can result in bias in the MT solution. The effects of the free surface on the stability of the MT method become important as we continue to investigate and improve the capabilities of regional full MT inversion for source–type identification and discrimination. It is important to understand free–surface effects on discriminating shallow explosive sources for nuclear monitoring purposes. It may also be important in natural systems that have very shallow seismicity, such asmore » volcanic and geothermal systems. We examine the effects of the free surface on the MT via synthetic testing and apply the MT–based discrimination method to three quarry blasts from the HUMMING ALBATROSS experiment. These shallow chemical explosions at ~10 m depth and recorded up to several kilometers distance represent rather severe source–station geometry in terms of free–surface effects. We show that the method is capable of recovering a predominantly explosive source mechanism, and the combined waveform and first–motion method enables the unique discrimination of these events. Furthermore, recovering the design yield using seismic moment estimates from MT inversion remains challenging, but we can begin to put error bounds on our moment estimates using the network sensitivity solution technique.« less

  1. California earthquakes: why only shallow focus?

    PubMed

    Brace, W F; Byerlee, J D

    1970-06-26

    Frictional sliding on sawcuts and faults in laboratory samples of granite and gabbro is markedly temperature-dependent. At pressures from 1 to 5 kilobars, stick-slip gave way to stable sliding as temperature was increased from 200 to 500 degrees Celsius. Increased temperature with depth could thus cause the abrupt disappearance of earthquakes noted at shallow depths in California.

  2. Moment tensor analysis of very shallow sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Andrea; Dreger, Douglas S.; Ford, Sean R.; Walter, William R.; Yoo, Seung -Hoon

    2016-10-11

    An issue for moment tensor (MT) inversion of shallow seismic sources is that some components of the Green’s functions have vanishing amplitudes at the free surface, which can result in bias in the MT solution. The effects of the free surface on the stability of the MT method become important as we continue to investigate and improve the capabilities of regional full MT inversion for source–type identification and discrimination. It is important to understand free–surface effects on discriminating shallow explosive sources for nuclear monitoring purposes. It may also be important in natural systems that have very shallow seismicity, such as volcanic and geothermal systems. We examine the effects of the free surface on the MT via synthetic testing and apply the MT–based discrimination method to three quarry blasts from the HUMMING ALBATROSS experiment. These shallow chemical explosions at ~10 m depth and recorded up to several kilometers distance represent rather severe source–station geometry in terms of free–surface effects. We show that the method is capable of recovering a predominantly explosive source mechanism, and the combined waveform and first–motion method enables the unique discrimination of these events. Furthermore, recovering the design yield using seismic moment estimates from MT inversion remains challenging, but we can begin to put error bounds on our moment estimates using the network sensitivity solution technique.

  3. Shallow Snow Model for Predicting Vehicle Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    promotional purposes. Cita - tion of brand names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. Ac eeson...vehicles. 18 ’A I I Table 7. Mechanical properties of shallow snow. Snow A ir p Snow temp temp p ca c W co (critical) type (SC) ( 0C) (g/cm 3) ( APa

  4. An investigation of dispersion characteristics in shallow coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingying; Zhang, Hong; Spencer, David; Dunn, Ryan J. K.; Lemckert, Charles

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodynamic dispersion has a significant impact on the mass transport of sediments and contaminants within coastal waters. In this study apparent horizontal dispersion in a tidally-dominated shallow estuary was investigated using field observations and a numerical model. A cluster of four Lagrangian drifters was released in two shallow regions inside Moreton Bay, Australia: between two small islands and in an open water area. During a 16-h tracking period, the drifters generally showed similar behaviour, initially moving with the dominant current and remaining together before spreading apart at the change of tide. Two dispersion regimes were identified, a slow dispersion during the earlier stage and a rapid dispersion during the latter stage of deployment. Such change in regime typically occurred during the succeeding ebb or flow tides, which may be attributable to residual eddies breaking down during reversal of tidal direction. In addition, a power function of the squared separation distance over the apparent dispersion coefficient produced an R2 exceeding 0.7, indicating a significant relationship between them. By applying a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the trajectories of artificial particles spreading in the bay were simulated, which allowed the calculation of dispersion coefficients throughout the entire bay. The study results demonstrate that the tidal effects on dispersion were dependent on the effect of tidal excursion and residual current. The tide was found to be the most dominant driver of dispersion in the bay when unobstructed by land; however, bathymetric and shoreline characteristics were also significant localised drivers of dispersion between the two islands as a result of island wake.

  5. Shallow halogen vacancies in halide optoelectronic materials

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao -Hua

    2014-11-05

    Halogen vacancies (VH) are usually deep color centers (F centers) in halides and can act as major electron traps or recombination centers. The deep VH contributes to the typically poor carrier transport properties in halides. However, several halides have recently emerged as excellent optoelectronic materials, e.g., CH3NH3PbI3 and TlBr. Both CH3NH3PbI3 and TlBr have been found to have shallow VH, in contrast to commonly seen deep VH in halides. In this paper, several halide optoelectronic materials, i.e., CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3SnI3 (photovoltaic materials), TlBr, and CsPbBr3, (gamma-ray detection materials) are studied to understand the material chemistry and structure that determine whether VHmore » is a shallow or deep defect in a halide material. It is found that crystal structure and chemistry of ns2 ions both play important roles in creating shallow VH in halides such as CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3SnI3, and TlBr. The key to identifying halides with shallow VH is to find the right crystal structures and compounds that suppress cation orbital hybridization at VH, such as those with long cation-cation distances and low anion coordination numbers, and those with crystal symmetry that prevents strong hybridization of cation dangling bond orbitals at VH. Furthermore, the results of this paper provide insight and guidance to identifying halides with shallow VH as good electronic and optoelectronic materials.« less

  6. Shallow halogen vacancies in halide optoelectronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Halogen vacancies (VH ) are usually deep color centers (F centers) in halides and can act as major electron traps or recombination centers. The deep VH contributes to the typically poor carrier transport properties in halides. However, several halides have recently emerged as excellent optoelectronic materials, e.g., C H3N H3Pb I3 and TlBr. Both C H3N H3Pb I3 and TlBr have been found to have shallow VH , in contrast to commonly seen deep VH in halides. In this paper, several halide optoelectronic materials, i.e., C H3N H3Pb I3 , C H3N H3Sn I3 (photovoltaic materials), TlBr, and CsPbB r3 (gamma-ray detection materials) are studied to understand the material chemistry and structure that determine whether VH is a shallow or deep defect in a halide material. It is found that crystal structure and chemistry of n s2 ions both play important roles in creating shallow VH in halides such as C H3N H3Pb I3 , C H3N H3Sn I3 , and TlBr. The key to identifying halides with shallow VH is to find the right crystal structures and compounds that suppress cation orbital hybridization at VH , such as those with large cation-cation distances and low anion coordination numbers and those with crystal symmetry that prevents strong hybridization of cation dangling bond orbitals at VH . The results of this paper provide insight and guidance to identifying halides with shallow VH as good electronic and optoelectronic materials.

  7. Methodology for mapping shallow groundwater quality in urbanized areas: A case study from Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, A. A.

    1996-06-01

    Cities have a negative impact on the quality of shallow groundwater. Many of Lithuania's urban residents drink water from dug wells. Moreover, polluted shallow groundwater contaminates deeper aquifers of fresh drinking water. Therefore, this situation should be controlled and managed, as far as possible. In order to evaluate the quality of shallow groundwater in an urban area and to create an optimal monitoring system, an original methodology for groundwater mapping has been proposed. It resembles the GIS (geographical information system) technologies. The set of maps, laid one over another, consists of the following: (1) urbanization map, (2) geological-hydrogeological map, (3) groundwater chemistry map, (4) resulting groundwater chemistry factorial analysis map, and (5) pollution and pollutant transport map. The data obtained from studies on dug and geotechnical wells have been used for compilation of the maps. The system for shallow groundwater monitoring in the city with an area of 70 sq km and a population of 140,000 is proposed to consist of about 30 monitoring wells and several dug wells.

  8. The origin of high hydrocarbon groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Qi, Shihua; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Fangzhi; Ding, Yang; Huang, Huanfang; Chen, Zhihua; Cheng, Shenggao

    2017-02-23

    Original high hydrocarbon groundwater represents a kind of groundwater in which hydrocarbon concentration exceeds 0.05 mg/L. The original high hydrocarbon will significantly reduce the environment capacity of hydrocarbon and lead environmental problems. For the past 5 years, we have carried out for a long-term monitoring of groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. We found the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was always above 0.05 mg/L. The low-level anthropogenic contamination cannot produce high hydrocarbon groundwater in the area. By using hydrocarbon potential, geochemistry and biomarker characteristic in rocks and shallow groundwater, we carried out a comprehensive study in Dalongjing (DLJ) groundwater system to determine the hydrocarbon source. We found a simplex hydrogeology setting, high-level water-rock-hydrocarbon interaction and obviously original hydrocarbon groundwater in DLJ system. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in shallow aquifer was found to increase with the strong water-rock interaction. Higher hydrocarbon potential was found in the upper of Guanling formation (T2g(3)) and upper of Yongningzhen formation (T1yn(4)). Heavily saturated carbon was observed from shallow groundwater, which presented similar distribution to those from rocks, especially from the deeper groundwater. These results indicated that the high concentrations of original hydrocarbon in groundwater could be due to the hydrocarbon release from corrosion and extraction out of strata over time.

  9. Imaging lateral groundwater flow in the shallow subsurface using stochastic temperature fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairley, Jerry P.; Nicholson, Kirsten N.

    2006-04-01

    Although temperature has often been used as an indication of vertical groundwater movement, its usefulness for identifying horizontal fluid flow has been limited by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient data to draw defensible conclusions. Here we use stochastic simulation to develop a high-resolution image of fluid temperatures in the shallow subsurface at Borax Lake, Oregon. The temperature field inferred from the geostatistical simulations clearly shows geothermal fluids discharging from a group of fault-controlled hydrothermal springs, moving laterally through the subsurface, and mixing with shallow subsurface flow originating from nearby Borax Lake. This interpretation of the data is supported by independent geochemical and isotopic evidence, which show a simple mixing trend between Borax Lake water and discharge from the thermal springs. It is generally agreed that stochastic simulation can be a useful tool for extracting information from complex and/or noisy data and, although not appropriate in all situations, geostatistical analysis may provide good definition of flow paths in the shallow subsurface. Although stochastic imaging techniques are well known in problems involving transport of species, e.g. delineation of contaminant plumes from soil gas survey data, we are unaware of previous applications to the transport of thermal energy for the purpose of inferring shallow groundwater flow.

  10. Wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater wells correspond to exfiltration probabilities of nearby sewers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Gyun; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Ervin, Jared; Anumol, Tarun; Jia, Ai; Park, Minkyu; Tamez, Carlos; Morelius, Erving W; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Izbicki, John; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    Wastewater compounds are frequently detected in urban shallow groundwater. Sources include sewage or reclaimed wastewater, but origins are often unknown. In a prior study, wastewater compounds were quantified in waters sampled from shallow groundwater wells in a small coastal California city. Here, we resampled those wells and expanded sample analyses to include sewage- or reclaimed water-specific indicators, i.e. pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals or disinfection byproducts. Also, we developed a geographic information system (GIS)-based model of sanitary sewer exfiltration probability--combining a published pipe failure model accounting for sewer pipe size, age, materials of construction, with interpolated depths to groundwater--to determine if sewer system attributes relate to wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater. Across the wells, groundwater samples contained varying wastewater compounds, including acesulfame, sucralose, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, estrone and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Fecal indicator bacterial concentrations and toxicological bioactivities were less than known benchmarks. However, the reclaimed water in this study was positive for all bioactivity tested. Excluding one well intruded by seawater, the similarity of groundwater to sewage, based on multiple indicators, increased with increasing sanitary sewer exfiltration probability (modeled from infrastructure within ca. 300 m of each well). In the absence of direct exfiltration or defect measurements, sewer exfiltration probabilities modeled from the collection system's physical data can indicate potential locations where urban shallow groundwater is contaminated by sewage.

  11. Basic radiological studies contamination control experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Duce, S.W.; Winberg, M.R.; Freeman, A.L.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the results of experiments relating to contamination control performed in support of the Environmental Restoration Programs Retrieval Project. During the years 1950 to 1970 waste contaminated with plutonium and other transuranic radionuclides was disposed of in shallow land-filled pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Due to potential for migration of radionuclides to an existing aquifer the feasibility of retrieving and repackaging the waste for placement in a final repository is being examined as part of a retrieval project. Contamination control experiments were conducted to determine expected respirable and nonrespirable plutonium contaminated dust fractions and the effectiveness of various dust suppression techniques. Three soil types were tested to determine respirable fractions: Rocky Flats Plant generic soil, Radioactive Waste Management Complex generic soil, and a 1:1 blend of the two soil types. Overall, the average respirable fraction of airborne dust was 5.4% by weight. Three contamination control techniques were studied: soil fixative sprays, misting agents, and dust suppression agents. All of the tested agents proved to be effective in reducing dust in the air. Details of product performance and recommended usage are discussed.

  12. Spacecraft contamination experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borson, E. N.

    1989-01-01

    Effective contamination control must encompass all aspects of ground and flight from design of the system through the end of mission life. Design systems are needed to minimize sensitivity to contamination, ease of cleaning, and contaminant production. Facilities and procedures are critical to maintaining cleanliness during ground operations. Flight operations should be planned so as to minimize contamination. More data from flights are required to assess the adequacy of designs and operations. Standards and specifications should include contamination control requirements.

  13. Space Shuttle contamination overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to particle and gaseous contamination associated with Shuttle payload orbital delivery. An approach to control contamination is discussed which consists of analytical environment assessment, vehicle design optimization, and flight environment measurement. The analytical assessment of orbital contamination source characteristics and their effects on the Shuttle orbital environment has resulted in vehicle design changes and a detailed understanding of system operational flexibility. Verification of resulting Shuttle contamination performance will be made by the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor.

  14. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  15. Hypertrophic Cranial Pachymeningitis and Skull Base Osteomyelitis by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Caldas, Ana Rita; Brandao, Mariana; Paula, Filipe Seguro; Castro, Elsa; Farinha, Fatima; Marinho, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP) is an uncommon disorder characterized by localized or diffuse thickening of the dura mater, and it usually presents with multiple cranial neurophaties. It has been associated with a variety of inflammatory, infectious, traumatic, toxic and neoplasic diseases, when no specific cause is found the process is called idiopathic. The infectious cases occur in patients under systemic immunosuppression, which have an evident contiguous source or those who have undergone neurosurgical procedures. We describe a case of a 62-year-old immunosuppressed woman with diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, which had HCP and osteomyelitis of the skull base caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa, presenting with headache and diplopia. We believe this is the second documented case of pachymeningitis secondary to this microorganism. As a multifactorial disease, it is essencial to determine the specific causative agent of HCP before making treatment decisions, and great care is needed with immunocompromised patients. Keywords Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Hypertrophic pachymeningitis; Ophtalmoplegia, optical neuropathy; Osteomyelitis; Skull base PMID:22505989

  16. Ile90Met, a novel mutation in the cardiac troponin T gene for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Chinese pedigree.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Meng; Su, Bin; Hua, Xue-Wei; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Xue, Xiao-Pei; Pan, Cun-Ming; Liu, Rong; Sheng, Yan; Lu, Zhi-Gang; Jin, Li-Ren; Song, Huai-Dong

    2008-10-01

    To identify the disease-causing gene for a large multi-generational Chinese family affected by familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM), genome-wide screening was carried out in a Chinese family with FHCM using micro-satellite markers, and linkage analysis was performed using the MLINK program. The disease locus was mapped to 1q32 in this family. Screening for a mutation in the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) gene was performed by a PCR and sequencing was done with an ABI Prism 3700 sequencer. A novel C-->G transition located in the ninth exon of the cTnT gene, leading to a predicted amino acid residue change from Ile to Met at codon 90, was identified in all individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The results presented here strongly suggest that Ile90Met, a novel mutation in the cTnT gene, is causative agent of HCM in this family.

  17. Changes of expression of stretch-activated potassium channel TREK-1 mRNA and protein in hypertrophic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Longxian; Su, Fengcheng; Ripen, Nsenga; Fan, Hong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Min; Peng, Hongyu; Mei, Chunli; Zhao, Fang; Liao, Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    The expression of stretch-activated potassium channel TREK-1 mRNA and protein of hypertrophic myocardium was measured. Using a model of hypertrophy induced by coarctation of abdominal aorta in male Wistar rats, the expression of TREK-1 mRNA and protein was detected by using semi-quantitative RT PCR and Western blot respectively. At 4th and 8th week after constriction of the abdominal aorta, rats developed significant left ventricular hypertrophy. As compared to sham-operated group, stretch-activated potassium channel TREK-1 mRNA was strongly expressed and protein was up-regulated in operation groups (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the expression of TREK-1 was up-regulated in hypertrophic myocardium induced by chronic pressure overload in Wistar rats.

  18. Possible recruitment of osteoblastic precursor cells from hypertrophic chondrocytes during initial osteogenesis in cartilaginous limbs of young rats.

    PubMed

    Franzen, A; Oldberg, A; Solursh, M

    1989-08-01

    The appearance of the bone phenotype during rat embryogenesis was studied by in situ hybridization using a cDNA clone to osteopontin. Radiolabeled sense and antisense RNA probes were prepared from the osteopontin cDNA by in vitro transcription. The probes were used to hybridize paraffin sections of the cartilaginous diaphysis from embryonic rats at day 17 of gestation. The hybridization pattern was analyzed by autoradiography. Hybridization with the antisense probe gave patterns of silver grain labeling, indicating the presence of osteopontin mRNA among the hypertrophic chondrocytes. No silver grains could be detected in the corresponding region following hybridization of consecutive sections with the sense probe, showing the specificity of the technique being used. Whether these results indicate that the osteopontin gene is transiently expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes or that osteopontin is an early marker for osteoblastic precursor cells will have to be explored further.

  19. Obstetric hemorrhage in a case of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy with automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator: Anaesthesia and intensive care management.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Bhat, Ravindra R; Kavitha, Jayaram; Kundra, Pankaj; Parida, Satyen

    2016-01-01

    The physiological changes occurring during pregnancy and labor may reveal or exacerbate the symptoms of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). The addition of obstetric hemorrhage to this presents a unique challenge to the anesthesiologists and intensivists managing these patients in the operation theatres and the Intensive Care Units. Here we present a case of HOCM with automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator in situ and postpartum hemorrhagic shock.

  20. FGFR1 signaling in hypertrophic chondrocytes is attenuated by the Ras-GAP neurofibromin during endochondral bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Karolak, Matthew R.; Yang, Xiangli; Elefteriou, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling disrupts chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate size and architecture, leading to various chondrodysplasias or bone overgrowth. These observations suggest that the duration, intensity and cellular context of FGFR signaling during growth plate chondrocyte maturation require tight, regulated control for proper bone elongation. However, the machinery fine-tuning FGFR signaling in chondrocytes is incompletely defined. We report here that neurofibromin, a Ras-GAP encoded by Nf1, has an overlapping expression pattern with FGFR1 and FGFR3 in prehypertrophic chondrocytes, and with FGFR1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Based on previous evidence that neurofibromin inhibits Ras-ERK signaling in chondrocytes and phenotypic analogies between mice with constitutive FGFR1 activation and Nf1 deficiency in Col2a1-positive chondrocytes, we asked whether neurofibromin is required to control FGFR1-Ras-ERK signaling in maturing chondrocytes in vivo. Genetic Nf1 ablation in Fgfr1-deficient chondrocytes reactivated Ras-ERK1/2 signaling in hypertrophic chondrocytes and reversed the expansion of the hypertrophic zone observed in mice lacking Fgfr1 in Col2a1-positive chondrocytes. Histomorphometric and gene expression analyses suggested that neurofibromin, by inhibiting Rankl expression, attenuates pro-osteoclastogenic FGFR1 signaling in hypertrophic chondrocytes. We also provide evidence suggesting that neurofibromin in prehypertrophic chondrocytes, downstream of FGFRs and via an indirect mechanism, is required for normal extension and organization of proliferative columns. Collectively, this study indicates that FGFR signaling provides an important input into the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signaling axis in chondrocytes, and that this input is differentially regulated during chondrocyte maturation by a complex intracellular machinery, of which neurofibromin is a critical component. PMID:25616962

  1. Collision in the inferior olive: hypertrophic olivary degeneration complicated by radiation necrosis in brainstem primitive neuroendocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Litkowski, Patricia; Young, Robert J; Wolden, Suzanne L; Souweidane, Mark M; Haque, Sofia; Gilheeney, Stephen W

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is caused by disruption of the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret. We describe a child with a primitive neuroendocrine tumor who developed an expansile nonenhancing lesion in the olive after surgery and radiation therapy. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography showed disruption of the central tegmental tract consistent with HOD. Subsequent transient enhancement of the olive was consistent with early radiation injury. Knowledge of coexisting complications such as HOD and radiation injury is essential for proper management.

  2. Biomonitoring for metal contamination near two Superfund sites in Woburn, Massachusetts, using phytochelatins.

    PubMed

    Gawel, James E; Hemond, Harold F

    2004-09-01

    Characterizing the spatial extent of groundwater metal contamination traditionally requires installing sampling wells, an expensive and time-consuming process in urban areas. Moreover, extrapolating biotic effects from metal concentrations alone is problematic, making ecological risk assessment difficult. Our study is the first to examine the use of phytochelatin measurements in tree leaves for delimiting biological metal stress in shallow, metal-contaminated groundwater systems. Three tree species (Rhamnus frangula, Acer platanoides, and Betula populifolia) growing above the shallow groundwater aquifer of the Aberjona River watershed in Woburn, Massachusetts, display a pattern of phytochelatin production consistent with known sources of metal contamination and groundwater flow direction near the Industri-Plex Superfund site. Results also suggest the existence of a second area of contaminated groundwater and elevated metal stress near the Wells G&H Superfund site downstream, in agreement with a recent EPA ecological risk assessment. Possible contamination pathways at this site are discussed.

  3. Cell-Intrinsic Functional Effects of the α-Cardiac Myosin Arg-403-Gln Mutation in Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chuan, Peiying; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Ashley, Euan A.; Spudich, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Human familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common Mendelian cardiovascular disease worldwide. Among the most severe presentations of the disease are those in families heterozygous for the mutation R403Q in β-cardiac myosin. Mice heterozygous for this mutation in the α-cardiac myosin isoform display typical familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathology. Here, we study cardiomyocytes from heterozygous 403/+ mice. The effects of the R403Q mutation on force-generating capabilities and dynamics of cardiomyocytes were investigated using a dual carbon nanofiber technique to measure single-cell parameters. We demonstrate the Frank-Starling effect at the single cardiomyocyte level by showing that cell stretch causes an increase in amplitude of contraction. Mutant 403/+ cardiomyocytes exhibit higher end-diastolic and end-systolic stiffness than +/+ cardiomyocytes, whereas active force generation capabilities remain unchanged. Additionally, 403/+ cardiomyocytes show slowed relaxation dynamics. These phenotypes are consistent with increased end-diastolic and end-systolic chamber elastance, as well as diastolic dysfunction seen at the level of the whole heart. Our results show that these functional effects of the R403Q mutation are cell-intrinsic, a property that may be a general phenomenon in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:22735528

  4. Focal Adhesion Kinase-mediated Phosphorylation of Beclin1 Protein Suppresses Cardiomyocyte Autophagy and Initiates Hypertrophic Growth*♦

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhaokang; Zhu, Qiang; Dee, Rachel; Opheim, Zachary; Mack, Christopher P.; Cyr, Douglas M.; Taylor, Joan M.

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular degradation/recycling system that is essential for cellular homeostasis but is dysregulated in a number of diseases, including myocardial hypertrophy. Although it is clear that limiting or accelerating autophagic flux can result in pathological cardiac remodeling, the physiological signaling pathways that fine-tune cardiac autophagy are poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrated that stimulation of cardiomyocytes with phenylephrine (PE), a well known hypertrophic agonist, suppresses autophagy and that activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is necessary for PE-stimulated autophagy suppression and subsequent initiation of hypertrophic growth. Mechanistically, we showed that FAK phosphorylates Beclin1, a core autophagy protein, on Tyr-233 and that this post-translational modification limits Beclin1 association with Atg14L and reduces Beclin1-dependent autophagosome formation. Remarkably, although ectopic expression of wild-type Beclin1 promoted cardiomyocyte atrophy, expression of a Y233E phosphomimetic variant of Beclin1 failed to affect cardiomyocyte size. Moreover, genetic depletion of Beclin1 attenuated PE-mediated/FAK-dependent initiation of myocyte hypertrophy in vivo. Collectively, these findings identify FAK as a novel negative regulator of Beclin1-mediated autophagy and indicate that this pathway can facilitate the promotion of compensatory hypertrophic growth. This novel mechanism to limit Beclin1 activity has important implications for treating a variety of pathologies associated with altered autophagic flux. PMID:27994061

  5. Behaviour of an artery enclosed within a normal or hypertrophic callus of a long-bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Komnenou, A T; Symeonides, P P; Dessiris, A K

    2000-07-01

    The behaviour of the brachial artery enclosed in a hypertrophic or a normal callus was investigated in experimentally produced fractures of the humerus in 22 dogs. The brachial artery was displaced in a bony groove created at the fractured ends of the bone. The fracture was immobilized with a metal plate and four screws. The progress of the callus formation was studied and the patency of the artery was evaluated. In 15 out of the 22 animals a medium-sized or hypertrophic callus had developed that engulfed the brachial artery without obstructing its lumen and blood flow. In five dogs the fracture site was infected and the resultant osteomyelitis obstructed the artery. In the remaining two dogs the arterial lumen was extremely narrowed, due to breaking of the plate and formation of pseudarthrosis in one and injury of the artery in the other. Unless complicated by infection resulting in vascular occlusion, callus at the fracture site may engulf an artery without interference in its patency and blood flow. The possible involvement of a functioning artery within a callus or a mass of heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) should be kept in mind during surgical treatment of old fractures, hypertrophic callus with pseudarthrosis or extensive heterotopic ossification.

  6. [IgG4-related disease that presented cranial, cervical, lumbar and sacral hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with infundibulo-hypophysitis].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Masahide; Yoshii, Shintaro; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient of 32-year-old female with central IgG4-related disease. She developed headache and visual disturbance. On examination, she revealed diabetes insipidus, retrobulbar neuritis, hyperreflexia and limb weakness. Her laboratory findings showed serum IgG4 elevation, pleocytosis and protein elevation in cerebrospinal fluid. Chest CT showed a nodular lesion in the S8 of the left lung. Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance images with gadolinium contrast material showed cranial, cervical and lumbosacral hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with infundibulo-hypophysitis. Pathological findings of the left frontal dura mater revealed lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory cell infiltrate with dense fibrosis. IgG4 immunohistochemistry showed no IgG4 + plasma cells within the inflammatory infiltrate. During treatment with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisolone, she revealed recovery of visual acuity with improvement of hypertrophic pachymeningitis and normalization of serum IgG4. This is a first report of IgG4-related hypertrophic pachymeningitis which involved cranial, cervical and lumbosacral regions as well as infundibulo-hypophysitis in a young female.

  7. Species-specific differences in adaptive phenotypic plasticity in an ecologically relevant trophic trait: hypertrophic lips in Midas cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2014-07-01

    The spectacular species richness of cichlids and their diversity in morphology, coloration, and behavior have made them an ideal model for the study of speciation and adaptive evolution. Hypertrophic lips evolved repeatedly and independently in African and Neotropical cichlid radiations. Cichlids with hypertrophic lips forage predominantly in rocky crevices and it has been hypothesized that mechanical stress caused by friction could result in larger lips through phenotypic plasticity. To test the influence of the environment on the size and development of lips, we conducted a series of breeding and feeding experiments on Midas cichlids. Full-sibs of Amphilophus labiatus (thick-lipped) and Amphilophus citrinellus (thin-lipped) each were split into a control group which was fed food from the water column and a treatment group whose food was fixed to substrates. We found strong evidence for phenotypic plasticity on lip area in the thick-lipped species, but not in the thin-lipped species. Intermediate phenotypic values were observed in hybrids from thick- and thin-lipped species reared under "control" conditions. Thus, both a genetic, but also a phenotypic plastic component is involved in the development of hypertrophic lips in Neotropical cichlids. Moreover, species-specific adaptive phenotypic plasticity was found, suggesting that plasticity is selected for in recent thick-lipped species.

  8. Comparative efficacy of intralesional verapamil hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide in hypertrophic scars and keloids.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Chatterjee, Pallab

    2014-06-01

    There is not much level 1 evidence based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars and keloids despite an array of therapeutic modalities at disposal. Intralesional (i/l) triamcinolone injections have remained a gold standard in non surgical management. Sporadic reports on use of i/l verapamil suggest its efficacy. Since verapamil has not found sufficient mention as an effective alternative modality, it was decided to undertake a randomized study which could also address some additional clinical parameters. A randomized, parallel group and observer blinded comparison with 40 patients (48 scars) was carried out to compare the effects of i/l triamcinolone (T) (22 scars) and verapamil injections (V) (26 scars). 1.5 ml was the maximum indicative volume decided in the study protocol for both the drugs (triamcinolone @40 mg/ml and verapamil @ 2.5 mg/ml). Patients included were aged between 15-60 years with scars ranging between 0.5-5 cm (but total area roughly <6 cm(2)), and scars under 2 years duration. Patients with keloidal diathesis were excluded. Injections were scheduled every three weeks until complete flattening of the scar or eight sessions, which ever came earlier. No concomitant therapies like massage, silicone gel or pressure garments were used. Scar evaluation at each stage was done by serial photographic records as well as by Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Comparative survival analysis between the two drugs was done using Kaplan Meier curves, and VSS scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon test and log rank test. Mean zero VSS scores were achieved with treatments in respect of scar height (T-12 weeks, V-21 weeks), vascularity (T-15 weeks, V-18 weeks) and pliability (T-15 weeks, V-21 weeks). The improvement in scar vascularity and pliability kept pace with decrease in scar height, in both the groups. There was not much difference in the rate of change of scar pigmentation with either drug but almost 60% patients in both the groups regained normal

  9. Role of bottle feeding in the etiology of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    McAteer, Jarod P; Ledbetter, Daniel J; Goldin, Adam B

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Bottle feeding has been implicated in the etiology of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS). Further data are needed to define the nature of this relationship and the clinical variables that influence it. OBJECTIVE To determine if bottle feeding after birth is associated with the development of HPS in infants. We hypothesized that bottle feeding is associated with an increased risk of HPS and that this risk is modified by other risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Population-based case-control study of births from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2009, using Washington State birth certificates linked to hospital discharge data. Cases included all singleton infants born within the study period and subsequently admitted with both a diagnostic code for HPS and a procedure code for pyloromyotomy (n = 714). Controls were randomly chosen among singleton infants who did not develop HPS and were frequency matched to cases by birth year. EXPOSURE Feeding status (breast vs bottle) was coded on the birth certificate as the type of feeding the infant was receiving at birth discharge. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Diagnosis of HPS. RESULTS Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis incidence decreased over time, from 14 per 10,000 births in 2003 to 9 per 10,000 in 2009. Simultaneously, breastfeeding prevalence increased from 80% in 2003 to 94% in 2009. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to be bottle feeding after birth (19.5% vs 9.1%). After adjustment, bottle feeding was associated with an increased risk of HPS (odds ratio [OR], 2.31; 95% CI, 1.81-2.95). This association did not differ according to sex or maternal smoking status but was significantly modified by maternal age (<20 years OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.51-1.88; ≥35 years OR, 6.07; 95% CI, 2.81-13.10) and parity (nulliparous OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.07-2.38; multiparous OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 2.23-5.24). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Bottle feeding is associated with an increased risk of HPS, and this effect seems to

  10. Hypertrophic response to hemodynamic overload: role of load vs. renin-angiotensin system activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koide, M.; Carabello, B. A.; Conrad, C. C.; Buckley, J. M.; DeFreyte, G.; Barnes, M.; Tomanek, R. J.; Wei, C. C.; Dell'Italia, L. J.; Cooper, G. 4th; Zile, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy is one of the basic mechanisms by which the heart compensates for hemodynamic overload. The mechanisms by which hemodynamic overload is transduced by the cardiac muscle cell and translated into cardiac hypertrophy are not completely understood. Candidates include activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin II receptor (AT1) stimulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that load, independent of the RAS, is sufficient to stimulate cardiac growth. Four groups of cats were studied: 14 normal controls, 20 pulmonary artery-banded (PAB) cats, 7 PAB cats in whom the AT1 was concomitantly and continuously blocked with losartan, and 8 PAB cats in whom the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was concomitantly and continuously blocked with captopril. Losartan cats had at least a one-log order increase in the ED50 of the blood pressure response to angiotensin II infusion. Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy was assessed using the RV mass-to-body weight ratio and ventricular cardiocyte size. RV hemodynamic overload was assessed by measuring RV systolic and diastolic pressures. Neither the extent of RV pressure overload nor RV hypertrophy that resulted from PAB was affected by AT1 blockade with losartan or ACE inhibition with captopril. RV systolic pressure was increased from 21 +/- 3 mmHg in normals to 68 +/- 4 mmHg in PAB, 65 +/- 5 mmHg in PAB plus losartan and 62 +/- 3 mmHg in PAB plus captopril. RV-to-body weight ratio increased from 0.52 +/- 0.04 g/kg in normals to 1.11 +/- 0.06 g/kg in PAB, 1.06 +/- 0.06 g/kg in PAB plus losartan and 1.06 +/- 0.06 g/kg in PAB plus captopril. Thus 1) pharmacological modulation of the RAS with losartan and captopril did not change the extent of the hemodynamic overload or the hypertrophic response induced by PAB; 2) neither RAS activation nor angiotensin II receptor stimulation is an obligatory and necessary component of the signaling pathway that acts as an intermediary coupling load to the

  11. MAPPING BATHYMETRY AND BOTTOM TYPE IN A SHALLOW ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bathymetry and bottom type are important in characterizing estuaries and their ecology but hard to map, especially in shallow estuaries. Acoustic backscattering was used to remotely sense these properties in the shallow Slocums River Estuary of Massachusetts. Acoustic pulses were...

  12. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  13. Shallow magma targets in the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1984-10-01

    Within the next few years a hole will be drilled into a shallow magma body in the western US for the purpose of evaluating the engineering feasibility of magma energy. This paper examines potential drilling sites for these engineering feasibility experiments. Target sites high on the list are ones that currently exhibit good geophysical and geological data for shallow magma and also have reasonable operational requirements. Top ranked sites for the first magma energy well are Long Valley, CA, and Coso/Indian Wells, CA. Kilauea, HI, also in the top group, is an attractive site for some limited field experiments. A number of additional sites offer promise as eventual magma energy sites, but sparsity of geophysical data presently prevents these sites from being considered for the first magma energy well.

  14. Multigrid shallow water equations on an FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffress, Stephen; Duben, Peter; Palmer, Tim

    2015-04-01

    A novel computing technology for multigrid shallow water equations is investigated. As power consumption begins to constrain traditional supercomputing advances, weather and climate simulators are exploring alternative technologies that achieve efficiency gains through massively parallel and low power architectures. In recent years FPGA implementations of reduced complexity atmospheric models have shown accelerated speeds and reduced power consumption compared to multi-core CPU integrations. We continue this line of research by designing an FPGA dataflow engine for a mulitgrid version of the 2D shallow water equations. The multigrid algorithm couples grids of variable resolution to improve accuracy. We show that a significant reduction of precision in the floating point representation of the fine grid variables allows greater parallelism and thus improved overall peformance while maintaining accurate integrations. Preliminary designs have been constructed by software emulation. Results of the hardware implementation will be presented at the conference.

  15. Investigation of Shallow Bulk Acoustic Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-12

    with the theoretical calculation using equivalent circuit model. How- ever, the spurious bulk wave level at high frequencies is much lower than that of...effect of a metallic grating on SBAW devices on quartz. 7 A periodic metallic structure will support horizontal shear surface waves if the finger...We have extensively investigated shallow bulk acoustic waves in. terms of material aspects, transducer equivalent circuits and device dev-.iopment

  16. Stability of Shallow Jovian Atmospheric Zonal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Dowling, T. E.; Showman, A. P.

    2007-10-01

    Jupiter's cloud-level zonal jets are remarkably steady in time despite their sharp curvature (i.e., second latitudinal derivative of the zonal wind profile). The stable jets must be supported by a proper sub-cloud wind and thermal structure; however, the large-scale deep structure of the zonal jets and temperature remain a major unknown in the gas-giant planet atmospheres. Past studies suggest two end-point scenarios of deep wind structures that allow stable cloud-level jets. The first shows that the jets are stable if they penetrate through the molecular hydrogen layer (Ingersoll and Pollard, 1982), although they do not address how the deep flow may be coupled to the cloud-level wind. Many other studies, though they may not directly address the shear instabilities, support this "deep jet” scenario (e.g. Heimpel and Aurnou, 2007); however, they do not rule out the possibility that the jets are shallow. Gierasch (2004) introduced a notable alternative to this "deep” picture. Through linear stability analysis, he showed that an isolated eastward jet that reaches a point of zero motion at 100-bar level, with Jupiter-like speeds and widths at the top, can be stable under certain conditions. However, his analysis contained several untested assumptions, and whether such flows are actually stable in a more realistic setting remains an open question. The possibility of stable shallow zonal jets on Jupiter remains largely unexplored, and this possibility deserves a thorough consideration. We present full-3D nonlinear simulations that test the stability of shallow zonal jets. We use Richardson number as a measure of vertical flow scale, and aim to show whether shallow jets are consistent with the observed jets and place theoretical constraints on the sub-cloud wind structure. Our study uses the EPIC model (Dowling et al., 1998, 2006). The research has been supported by NASA Planetary Atmosphere grants to APS and TED.

  17. Collaborative Investigations of Shallow Water Optics Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    particularly crusta- was partially offset by the higher contrast attenuation at ceans, cephalopods , and fish, use photophores to illuminate shallow...Ron Zaneveld for helpful discus- Herring, P. J. 1977. Luminescence in cephalopods and fish. Symp. Zoo!.Soc. Lond. 38: 127-159.sions. This work was...M., and C. F. E. Roper. 1991. Cephalopods observed from Young, R. E., and F. M. Mencher. 1980. Bioluminescence in mesope- submersibles in the western

  18. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics Dr. Ying...model to predict acoustic fluctuations and derive sound pressure sensitivity kernels due to 3-D sound speed perturbation in the water column. The...numerical method to be utilized is a tangent linear solution to predict acoustic fluctuations due to 3-D sound speed perturbation in the water column. This

  19. Cell proliferation, extracellular matrix mineralization, and ovotransferrin transient expression during in vitro differentiation of chick hypertrophic chondrocytes into osteoblast-like cells

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes toward an osteoblast-like phenotype occurs in vitro when cells are transferred to anchorage- dependent culture conditions in the presence of ascorbic acid (Descalzi Cancedda, F., C. Gentili, P. Manduca, and R. Cancedda. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 117:427-435). This process is enhanced by retinoic acid addition to the culture medium. Here we compare the growth of hypertrophic chondrocytes undergoing this differentiation process to the growth of hypertrophic chondrocytes maintained in suspension culture as such. The proliferation rate is significantly higher in the adherent hypertrophic chondrocytes differentiating to osteoblast-like cells. In cultures supplemented with retinoic acid the proliferation rate is further increased. In both cases cells stop proliferating when mineralization of the extracellular matrix begins. We also report on the ultrastructural organization of the osteoblast-like cell cultures and we show virtual identity with cultures of osteoblasts grown from bone chips. Cells are embedded in a dense meshwork of type I collagen fibers and mineral is observed in the extracellular matrix associated with collagen fibrils. Differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes secrete large amounts of an 82-kD glycoprotein. The protein has been purified from conditioned medium and identified as ovotransferrin. It is transiently expressed during the in vitro differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes into osteoblast-like cells. In cultured hypertrophic chondrocytes treated with 500 nM retinoic acid, ovotransferrin is maximally expressed 3 d after retinoic acid addition, when the cartilage-bone-specific collagen shift occurs, and decays between the 5th and the 10th day, when cells have fully acquired the osteoblast-like phenotype. Similar results were obtained when retinoic acid was added to the culture at the 50 nM "physiological" concentration. Cells expressing ovotransferrin also coexpress ovotransferrin receptors. This

  20. Wave turbulence in shallow water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark di Leoni, P.; Cobelli, P. J.; Mininni, P. D.

    2014-06-01

    We study wave turbulence in shallow water flows in numerical simulations using two different approximations: the shallow water model and the Boussinesq model with weak dispersion. The equations for both models were solved using periodic grids with up to 20482 points. In all simulations, the Froude number varies between 0.015 and 0.05, while the Reynolds number and level of dispersion are varied in a broader range to span different regimes. In all cases, most of the energy in the system remains in the waves, even after integrating the system for very long times. For shallow flows, nonlinear waves are nondispersive and the spectrum of potential energy is compatible with ˜k-2 scaling. For deeper (Boussinesq) flows, the nonlinear dispersion relation as directly measured from the wave and frequency spectrum (calculated independently) shows signatures of dispersion, and the spectrum of potential energy is compatible with predictions of weak turbulence theory, ˜k-4/3. In this latter case, the nonlinear dispersion relation differs from the linear one and has two branches, which we explain with a simple qualitative argument. Finally, we study probability density functions of the surface height and find that in all cases the distributions are asymmetric. The probability density function can be approximated by a skewed normal distribution as well as by a Tayfun distribution.

  1. Non-invasive shallow seismic source comparison for hazardous waste site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, W.E.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.

    1994-12-31

    Many commonly used shallow seismic sources are unacceptable for hazardous waste site investigations because they risk exhumation of contaminants in the soil, they add contaminants (e.g. lead) which are not allowed by regulations, or they add new migration paths for contaminants. Furthermore, recently developed high frequency vibrators for shallow investigations could be more effective at some sites than non-invasive impulsive sources because of their ability to tailor the source spectrum and reduce interference. The authors show preliminary results of a comparison test of eight non-invasive impulsive and swept sources in preparation for seismic reflection profiling on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Well log data are used to determine geologic contacts and to generate synthetic seismograms for the site. Common midpoint (CMP) seismic data for each source were collected at 95 geophone groups from 125 shot points along a 400m test line. Hydrophone data were obtained at 1.5m spacing between 61m and 133m depth in a hole near the center of the CMP line. As of March, 1994, brute stacks have been completed for three of the eight sources. Depth penetration is demonstrated in brute stacks and shot gathers, which show a 200ms reflector for all of the sources tested along portions of the line. Source effectiveness will also be evaluated by comparing images of several shallower reflectors (40--150ms) which are apparent in many of the records. Imaging of these reflectors appears to depend upon the ability of the source to generate sufficient high frequency energy (>100 Hz).

  2. Shallow-level magma-sediment interaction and explosive behaviour at Anak Krakatau (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, V. R.; Jolis, E. M.; Dahren, B.; Deegan, F. M.; Blythe, L. S.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Hilton, D. R.; Freda, C.

    2013-12-01

    Crustal contamination of ascending arc magmas is generally thought to be a significant process which occurs at lower- to mid-crustal magma storage levels where magmas inherit their chemical and isotopic character by blending, assimilation and differentiation [1]. Anak Krakatau, like many other volcanoes, erupts shallow-level crustal xenoliths [2], indicating a potential role for upper crustal modification and hence late-stage changes to magma rheology and thus potential eruptive behaviour. Distinguishing deep vs. shallow crustal contamination processes at Krakatau, and elsewhere, is therefore crucial to understand and assess pre-eruptive magmatic conditions and their associated hazard potential. Here we report on a multi-disciplinary approach to unravel the crustal plumbing system of the persistently-active and dominantly explosive Anak Krakatau volcano [2, 3], employing rock-, mineral- and gas-isotope geochemistry and link these results with seismic tomography [4]. We show that pyroxene crystals formed at mid- and lower-crustal levels (9-11 km) and carry almost mantle-like isotope signatures (O, Sr, Nd, He), while feldspar crystals formed dominantly at shallow levels (< 5km) and display unequivocal isotopic evidence for late stage contamination (O, Sr, Nd). This obeservation places a significant element of magma-crust interaction into the uppermost, sediment-rich crust beneath the volcano. Magma storage in the uppermost crust can thus offer a possible explanation for the compositional modifications of primitive Krakatau magmas, and likely provides extra impetus to increased explosivity at Anak Krakatau. [1] Annen, et al., 2006. J. Petrol. 47, 505-539. [2] Gardner, et al., 2013. J. Petrol. 54, 149-182. [3] Dahren, et al., 2012. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 163, 631-651. [4] Jaxybulatov, et al., 2011. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res. 206, 96-105.

  3. California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project--shallow aquifer assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board’s (SWRCB) GAMA Program is a comprehensive assessment of statewide groundwater quality in California. From 2004 to 2012, the GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project focused on assessing groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supplies. More than 2,000 public-supply wells were sampled by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for this effort. Starting in 2012, the GAMA Priority Basin Project began an assessment of water resources in shallow aquifers in California. These shallow aquifers provide water for domestic and small community-supply wells, which are often drilled to shallower depths in the groundwater system than public-supply wells. Shallow aquifers are of interest because shallow groundwater may respond more quickly and be more susceptible to contamination from human activities at the land surface, than the deeper aquifers. The SWRCB’s GAMA Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 (Water Code sections 10780-10782.3): a public mandate to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supplies, and to increase the availability of information about groundwater quality to the public. The U.S. Geological Survey is the technical lead of the Priority Basin Project. Stewardship of California’s groundwater resources is a responsibility shared between well owners, communities, and the State. Participants and collaborators in the GAMA Program include Regional Water Quality Control Boards, Department of Water Resources, Department of Public Health, local and regional groundwater management entities, county and local water agencies, community groups, and private citizens. Well-owner participation in the GAMA Program is entirely voluntary.

  4. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Jackson, Robert B.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Down, Adrian; Zhao, Kaiguang; White, Alissa; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-01-01

    The debate surrounding the safety of shale gas development in the Appalachian Basin has generated increased awareness of drinking water quality in rural communities. Concerns include the potential for migration of stray gas, metal-rich formation brines, and hydraulic fracturing and/or flowback fluids to drinking water aquifers. A critical question common to these environmental risks is the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the overlying shallow drinking water aquifers. We present geochemical evidence from northeastern Pennsylvania showing that pathways, unrelated to recent drilling activities, exist in some locations between deep underlying formations and shallow drinking water aquifers. Integration of chemical data (Br, Cl, Na, Ba, Sr, and Li) and isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr, 2H/H, 18O/16O, and 228Ra/226Ra) from this and previous studies in 426 shallow groundwater samples and 83 northern Appalachian brine samples suggest that mixing relationships between shallow ground water and a deep formation brine causes groundwater salinization in some locations. The strong geochemical fingerprint in the salinized (Cl > 20 mg/L) groundwater sampled from the Alluvium, Catskill, and Lock Haven aquifers suggests possible migration of Marcellus brine through naturally occurring pathways. The occurrences of saline water do not correlate with the location of shale-gas wells and are consistent with reported data before rapid shale-gas development in the region; however, the presence of these fluids suggests conductive pathways and specific geostructural and/or hydrodynamic regimes in northeastern Pennsylvania that are at increased risk for contamination of shallow drinking water resources, particularly by fugitive gases, because of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations. PMID:22778445

  5. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Warner, Nathaniel R; Jackson, Robert B; Darrah, Thomas H; Osborn, Stephen G; Down, Adrian; Zhao, Kaiguang; White, Alissa; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-07-24

    The debate surrounding the safety of shale gas development in the Appalachian Basin has generated increased awareness of drinking water quality in rural communities. Concerns include the potential for migration of stray gas, metal-rich formation brines, and hydraulic fracturing and/or flowback fluids to drinking water aquifers. A critical question common to these environmental risks is the hydraulic connectivity between the shale gas formations and the overlying shallow drinking water aquifers. We present geochemical evidence from northeastern Pennsylvania showing that pathways, unrelated to recent drilling activities, exist in some locations between deep underlying formations and shallow drinking water aquifers. Integration of chemical data (Br, Cl, Na, Ba, Sr, and Li) and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, (2)H/H, (18)O/(16)O, and (228)Ra/(226)Ra) from this and previous studies in 426 shallow groundwater samples and 83 northern Appalachian brine samples suggest that mixing relationships between shallow ground water and a deep formation brine causes groundwater salinization in some locations. The strong geochemical fingerprint in the salinized (Cl > 20 mg/L) groundwater sampled from the Alluvium, Catskill, and Lock Haven aquifers suggests possible migration of Marcellus brine through naturally occurring pathways. The occurrences of saline water do not correlate with the location of shale-gas wells and are consistent with reported data before rapid shale-gas development in the region; however, the presence of these fluids suggests conductive pathways and specific geostructural and/or hydrodynamic regimes in northeastern Pennsylvania that are at increased risk for contamination of shallow drinking water resources, particularly by fugitive gases, because of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations.

  6. Hypertrophic chondrocytes can become osteoblasts and osteocytes in endochondral bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Tsang, Kwok Yeung; Tang, Hoi Ching; Chan, Danny; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.

    2014-01-01

    According to current dogma, chondrocytes and osteoblasts are considered independent lineages derived from a common osteochondroprogenitor. In endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes undergo a series of differentiation steps to form the growth plate, and it generally is accepted that death is the ultimate fate of terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs). Osteoblasts, accompanying vascular invasion, lay down endochondral bone to replace cartilage. However, whether an HC can become an osteoblast and contribute to the full osteogenic lineage has been the subject of a century-long debate. Here we use a cell-specific tamoxifen-inducible genetic recombination approach to track the fate of murine HCs and show that they can survive the cartilage-to-bone transition and become osteogenic cells in fetal and postnatal endochondral bones and persist into adulthood. This discovery of a chondrocyte-to-osteoblast lineage continuum revises concepts of the ontogeny of osteoblasts, with implications for the control of bone homeostasis and the interpretation of the underlying pathological bases of bone disorders. PMID:25092332

  7. Simultaneous deactivation of FAK and Src improves the pathology of hypertrophic scar

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Xue; Hui, Bo; Han, Shichao; Gao, Jianxin; Li, Yan; Shi, Jihong; Zhu, Huayu; Zhao, Bin; Hu, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious fibrotic skin condition with currently no satisfactory therapy due to undefined molecular mechanism. FAK and Src are two important non-receptor tyrosine kinases that have been indicated in HS pathogenesis. Here we found both FAK and Src were activated in HS vs. normal skin (NS), NS fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1 also exhibited FAK/Src activation. Co-immunoprecipitation and dual-labelled immunofluorescence revealed an enhanced FAK-Src association and co-localization in HS vs. NS. To examine effects of FAK/Src activation and their interplay on HS pathogenesis, site-directed mutagenesis followed by gene overexpression was conducted. Results showed only simultaneous overexpression of non-phosphorylatable mutant FAK Y407F and phosphomimetic mutant Src Y529E remarkably down-regulated the expression of Col I, Col III and α-SMA in cultured HS fibroblasts, alleviated extracellular matrix deposition and made collagen fibers more orderly in HS tissue vs. the effect from single transfection with wild-type or mutational FAK/Src. Glabridin, a chemical found to block FAK-Src complex formation in cancers, exhibited therapeutic effects on HS pathology probably through co-deactivation of FAK/Src which further resulted in FAK-Src de-association. This study suggests FAK-Src complex could serve as a potential molecular target, and FAK/Src double deactivation might be a novel strategy for HS therapy. PMID:27181267

  8. In vitro study of ethosome penetration in human skin and hypertrophic scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Wo, Yan; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Danru; He, Rong; Chen, Huijin; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize a novel transdermal delivery carrier, ethosomes containing 5-fluorouracil. The delivery of drugs from ethosomes in human hypertrophic scar (HS) and the mechanisms of action of ethosomes in human HS were investigated. Percutaneous ethosome permeation was evaluated in vitro in human HS and skin using a Franz's cell. The amount of 5-fluorouracil that permeated HS and skin after 24 hours was most abundant in ethosomes via HS (E-Scar), followed by hydroethanolic solution via HS (H-Scar), ethosomes via skin (E-Skin), and hydroethanolic solution via skin (H-Skin). The penetration of ethosomes in HS and skin was analyzed by ethosomes fluorescently labeled with rhodamine 6GO using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The fluorescence intensity after application for 24 hours was highest in E-Scar, followed by E-Skin, H-Scar, and H-Skin, which indicates the penetration of ethosomes in HS was greatest. In conclusion, we consider that ethosomes are a highly efficient carrier in HS.

  9. Metabolic crosstalk between the heart and liver impacts familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Magida, Jason A; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2014-04-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is largely caused by dominant mutations in genes encoding cardiac sarcomeric proteins, and it is etiologically distinct from secondary cardiomyopathies resulting from pressure/volume overload and neurohormonal or inflammatory stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that decreased left ventricular contractile function in male, but not female, HCM mice is associated with reduced fatty acid translocase (CD36) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. As a result, the levels of myocardial ATP and triglyceride (TG) content are reduced, while the levels of oleic acid and TG in circulating very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) and liver are increased. With time, these metabolic changes culminate in enhanced glucose production in male HCM mice. Remarkably, restoration of ventricular TG and ATP deficits via AMPK agonism as well as inhibition of gluconeogenesis improves ventricular architecture and function. These data underscore the importance of the systemic effects of a primary genetic heart disease to other organs and provide insight into potentially novel therapeutic interventions for HCM.

  10. Comparison of the hypertrophic effect of phorbol ester, norepinephrine, angiotensin II and contraction on cultured cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Allo, S.N.; Carl, L.L.; Morgan, H.E. )

    1991-03-15

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), norepinephrine (NE), angiotensin II (AII) and contraction stimulate cardiomyocyte growth. Differences exist in the time course and extent of protein and RNA accumulation. Cells plated at 4 {times} 10{sup 6} cells/60mm dish and arrested with 50 mM KCl demonstrated no significant growth. Treatment with PMA stimulated growth to a maximum of 17% at 48 h. In contrast, maximal stimulation of growth was 36% at 48 h and 31% at 72 h for contracting and NE treated cells, respectively. Maximal stimulation of the capacity for protein synthesis was 32% for PMA treated cells at 24 h as compared to 59% and 77% for NE treated and contracting cells respectively at 72 h. In support of a primary role for altered capacity in the regulation of protein synthesis, there was a significant correlation between RNA and protein content independent of the stimulus used. AII increased RNA content by 28% at 48h, but had no effect on growth up to 72h. Treatment with staurosporine blocked the stimulation of growth, suggestive of a role for protein kinase C (PKC). However, the inhibition of contraction-induced growth was due in part to a reduction in the rate of contraction. It was concluded that: significant differences existed in the time course of growth stimulation and RNA accumulation, depending on the stimulus; and growth inhibition by staurosporine is suggestive of an important role of PKC in hypertrophic growth induced by these stimuli.

  11. Phenotypes and echocardiographic characteristics of a European population of domestic shorthair cats with idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Brizard, D; Amberger, C; Hartnack, S; Doherr, M; Lombard, C

    2009-11-01

    111 Domestic Shorthair cats with idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were reviewed retrospectively. Two-dimensional echocardiography was used to classify cases in 6 established phenotypes. Hypertrophy was diffuse in 61 % of cats and involved major portions of the ventricular septum and the left ventricular free wall (phenotype D). In the remaining cats, distribution of hypertrophy was more segmental and was identified on the papillary muscles exclusively (phenotype A, 6 %), on the anterior and basal portion of the ventricular septum (phenotype B, 12 %), on the entire septum (phenotype C, 14 %), or on the left ventricular free wall (phenotype E, 7 %). Echocardiographic characteristics and clinical findings were determined for each phenotype to study the correlation between distribution of hypertrophy and clinical implications. 31 cats demonstrated systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve, 75 % of them belonged to phenotype C of hypertrophy. Left ventricular-outflow turbulences were identified more frequently with patterns of hypertrophy involving the ventricular septum (65.5 %), while prevalence of mitral regurgitation was higher when hypertrophy included the papillary muscles (phenotypes A and E, 85 % and 87 %, respectively). Left atrial dilatation occurred more frequently when hypertrophy was diffuse or confined to the left ventricular free wall (61 % of cats with phenotype D or E) rather than to the ventricular septum (31 % of cats with phenotype B or C).

  12. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in the Maritimes: examining the waves of change over time

    PubMed Central

    Ednie, Alexander C.; Amram, Ofer; Creaser, Jenna Colleen; Schuurman, Nadine; Leclerc, Suzanne; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Changing patterns of referral and management of pediatric surgical conditions, including hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS), have recently been described and often relate to comfort with early nonoperative management, anesthesia and corrective surgery. Travelling distance required for treatment at pediatric centres can also be burdensome for families. We assessed referral patterns for HPS in the maritime provinces of Canada over 10 years to quantify the burden on families travelling for surgical care. Methods We reviewed the charts of all patients with HPS in the Maritimes. Length of hospital stay (LOS) and complication rates were analyzed in regards to resuscitation and management at a pediatric centre and/or peripheral centres. We used postal codes for each patient to track distance travelled for management. Results We assessed 751 cases of HPS. During the study period (Jan. 1, 2001–Dec. 31, 2010), referral to pediatric centres increased from 49% to 71%. Postoperative complications were 2.5-fold higher in peripheral centres. Infants referred to pediatric centres were 78% less likely to have an LOS longer than 3 days. Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, which was performed only in pediatric centres, was associated with a shorter postoperative LOS. Conclusion Our study supports the current literature demonstrating improved outcomes, shorter overall LOS and decreased risk of complications when infants with HPS are treated in pediatric centres. This should be considered when planning access to pediatric surgical resources. PMID:27669400

  13. Metastatic anal sac carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and associated hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, A.; Salgüero, R.; Dobson, J.

    2015-01-01

    A seven-year-old male neutered Irish setter was treated for a metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASAC) and hypercalcaemia by complete surgical excision of the primary tumour and partial excision of the sublumbar lymph nodes. Further enlargement of the sublumbar lymph nodes was linked to recurrent hypercalcaemia 3 months after surgical treatment. Medical treatment with Toceranib and Clodronate showed modest results in the treatment of the tumour and the hypercalcaemia. Radiotherapy of the sublumbar lymph nodes and later concurrent carboplatin chemotherapy resulted in partial tumour remission with marked reduction in size of the lymph nodes and normalization of the calcaemia. Unfortunately, concurrently with subsequent relapse of the hypercalaemia, the dog developed hypertrophic osteopathy (HO) and lumbar spinal metastasis and the dog was euthanized. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the second case of metastatic apocrine gland carcinoma of the anal sac associated with HO and the first case that describe the development of HO late in the stage of the disease. PMID:26623365

  14. Genome-wide linkage analysis in families with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis indicates novel susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Svenningsson, Anna; Söderhäll, Cilla; Persson, Sofia; Lundberg, Fredrik; Luthman, Holger; Chung, Eddie; Gardiner, Mark; Kockum, Ingrid; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2012-02-01

    Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a common cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction during infancy. A multifactorial background of the disease is well established. Multiple susceptibility loci including the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) gene have previously been linked to IHPS, but contradictory results of linkage studies in different materials indicate genetic heterogeneity. To identify IHPS susceptibility loci, we conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis in 37 Swedish families. In regions where the Swedish material showed most evidence in favor of linkage, 31 additional British IHPS families were analyzed. Evidence in favor of significant linkage was observed in the Swedish material to two loci on chromosome 2q24 (non-parametric linkage (NPL) =3.77) and 7p21 (NPL=4.55). In addition, evidence of suggestive linkage was found to two loci on chromosome 6p21 (NPL=2.97) and 12q24 (NPL=2.63). Extending the material with British samples did not enhance the level of significance. Regions with linkage harbor interesting candidate genes, such as glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2 encoded by the glucagon gene GCG), NOS1, motilin (MLN) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). The coding exons for GLP-2, and NPY were screened for mutations with negative results. In conclusion, we could confirm suggestive linkage to the region harboring the NOS1 gene and detected additional novel susceptibility loci for IHPS.

  15. Cardiotrophin-1 plasma levels are associated with the severity of hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Monserrat, Lorenzo; López, Begoña; González, Arantxa; Hermida, Manuel; Fernández, Xusto; Ortiz, Martín; Barriales-Villa, Roberto; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Aims Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine that induces hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes and is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether plasma CT-1 is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods and results The study was performed in 124 patients with HCM. All patients underwent a full clinical evaluation and an echocardiogram. Left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated by the measurement of the maximal LV wall thickness and the Spirito's LVH score. Plasma CT-1 was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with controls, patients with HCM exhibited higher (P < 0.001) plasma CT-1 levels. Significant correlations were found between CT-1 and maximal LV wall thickness (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and the Spirito's LVH score (r = 0.287, P = 0.006) in HCM patients. In addition, the levels of CT-1 were higher (P = 0.02) in patients with severe LVH (maximal LV wall thickness ≥30 mm) than in patients with mild or moderate LVH (maximal LV wall thickness <30 mm). Conclusions These findings show that plasma CT-1 is associated with the severity of LVH in patients with HCM. Further studies are required to ascertain whether CT-1 is a diagnostic biomarker of this cardiomyopathy. PMID:21059734

  16. Multiple Sclerosis Presents with Psychotic Symptoms and Coexists with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Muhammed Emin; İnce, Bahri; Karadeli, Hasan Hüseyin; Asil, Talip

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Psychiatric symptoms are not infrequent during MS, yet onset of MS with psychosis is rarely encountered. A 27-year-old Caucasian male was admitted due to numbness in his right arm and difficulty in walking. His clinical and laboratorial exams lead to the MS diagnosis. Nine months earlier, he also developed psychotic disorder, not otherwise specified (PD-NOS). His sudden onset of PD-NOS, his rapid and complete response to antipsychotics, and a relatively short interval between psychiatric and neurological signs indicate a high likelihood that PD-NOS was a manifestation of underlying MS. He also suffers from hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). The patient's neurological complaints were recovered with methylprednisolone (1 g/day, i.v.) given for five days. Glatiramer acetate (1 × 1 tb.s.c.) was prescribed for consolidation and, after nine months of his admission, the patient fully recovered from neurological and psychiatric complaints. Interestingly, very recent studies indicate specific alpha-actinin antibodies in MS and alpha-actinin mutations cause HOCM. Thus, concurrence of MS with HOCM can be even a new syndrome, if further genetic studies prove. PMID:25197588

  17. Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms as potential modifiers of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rani, Bindu; Kumar, Amit; Bahl, Ajay; Sharma, Rajni; Prasad, Rishikesh; Khullar, Madhu

    2017-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin (RAS) pathway has an important role in the etiology of heart failure and given the importance of RAS as a therapeutic target in various cardiomyopathies, genetic polymorphisms in the RAS genes may modulate the risk and severity of disease in cardiomyopathy patients. In the present study, we examined the association of RAS pathway gene polymorphisms, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin receptor type 1 (AGTR1) with risk and disease severity in Asian Indian idiopathic cardiomyopathy patients. The case-control study was conducted in 400 cardiomyopathy patients diagnosed with HCM, DCM, or restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) and 235 healthy controls. Genotyping of patients and controls was done by PCR-RFLP assays. Left ventricular wall thickness and left ventricular ejection fraction were measured by means of M-mode echocardiography. We observed significantly higher prevalence of ACE DD and AGTR1 1166CC genotypes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients. Also, 235TT genotype of AGT (M235T) was significantly associated with enhanced risk of the disease phenotype in HCM, DCM, and RCM.

  18. Decreased Exercise Capacity and Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Konecny, Tomas; Geske, Jeffrey B.; Ludka, Ondrej; Orban, Marek; Brady, Peter A.; Abudiab, Muaz M.; Albuquerque, Felipe N.; Placek, Alexander; Kara, Tomas; Sahakyan, Karine R.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Tajik, A. Jamil; Allison, Thomas G.; Ommen, Steve R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanisms of decreased exercise capacity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are not well understood. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent but treatable disorder in patients with HCM. The role of comorbid SDB in the attenuated exercise capacity in HCM has not been studied previously. METHODS: Overnight oximetry, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and echocardiographic studies were performed in consecutive patients with HCM seen at the Mayo Clinic. SDB was considered present if the oxygen desaturation index (number of ≥ 4% desaturations/h) was ≥ 10. Peak oxygen consumption (V.o2peak) (the most reproducible and prognostic measure of cardiovascular fitness) was then correlated with the presence and severity of SDB. RESULTS: A total of 198 patients with HCM were studied (age, 53 ± 16 years; 122 men), of whom 32% met the criteria for the SDB diagnosis. Patients with SDB had decreased V.o2peak compared with those without SDB (16 mL O2/kg/min vs 21 mL O2/kg/min, P < .001). SDB remained significantly associated with V.o2peak after accounting for confounding clinical variables (P < .001) including age, sex, BMI, atrial fibrillation, and coronary artery disease. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HCM, the presence of SDB is associated with decreased V.o2peak. SDB may represent an important and potentially modifiable contributor to impaired exercise tolerance in this unique population. PMID:25633371

  19. Mutations in COA6 cause cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Baertling, Fabian; A M van den Brand, Mariel; Hertecant, Jozef L; Al-Shamsi, Aisha; P van den Heuvel, Lambert; Distelmaier, Felix; Mayatepek, Ertan; Smeitink, Jan A; Nijtmans, Leo G J; Rodenburg, Richard J T

    2015-01-01

    COA6/C1ORF31 is involved in cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) biogenesis. We present a new pathogenic COA6 variant detected in a patient with neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and isolated complex IV deficiency. For the first time, clinical details about a COA6-deficient patient are given and patient fibroblasts are functionally characterized: COA6 protein is undetectable and steady-state levels of complex IV and several of its subunits are reduced. The monomeric COX1 assembly intermediate accumulates. Using pulse-chase experiments, we demonstrate an increased turnover of mitochondrial encoded complex IV subunits. Although monomeric complex IV is decreased in patient fibroblasts, the CI/CIII2 /CIVn -supercomplexes remain unaffected. Copper supplementation shows a partial rescue of complex IV deficiency in patient fibroblasts. We conclude that COA6 is required for complex IV subunit stability. Furthermore, the proposed role in the copper delivery pathway to complex IV subunits is substantiated and a therapeutic lead for COA6-deficient patients is provided.

  20. Tumour effect on arginine/ornithine metabolic relationship in hypertrophic mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Manteuffel-Cymborowska, M; Chmurzyńska, W; Peska, M; Grzelakowska-Sztabert, B

    1997-03-01

    The presence of a tumour significantly changes nitrogen metabolism, including that of amino acids and polyamines, in host animals. In this study, we examine whether developing tumours affect the metabolic relationship of arginine and ornithine, precursors of polyamines, in the testosterone-induced hypertrophic mouse kidney model. Androgen-induced changes in the activity of enzymes involved with ornithine biosynthesis (arginase), its consumption (ornithine aminotransferase, OAT and ornithine decarboxylase, ODC) and the hypertrophy of host mouse kidney were not affected by the presence of an ascitic tumour (EAC) and only slightly by a mammary carcinoma (MaCa). The HPLC determined renal level of arginine and ornithine showed a striking homeostasis and was disturbed neither by testosterone nor EAC. The effect of MaCa and testosterone on the levels of both amino acids, although significant, was not very pronounced. Developing tumours, especially ascitic, altered the renal activity of OAT and ODC, but not of arginase, in testosterone-untreated mice. All examined tumours, EAC, L 1210 and MaCa actively metabolized arginine and ornithine. the tumour content of arginine which coincided with the activity of arginase, resulted in a marked increase of the ornithine/arginine ratio in tumours, when compared with kidneys. These results indicate that the androgen-induced anabolic response in mouse kidney is preserved, in spite of tumour requirements for essential metabolites.

  1. Alteration of Time Intervals in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy During an Exercise Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Zagatina, Angela; Zhuravskaya, Nadezhda; Tyurina, Tatyana V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often associated with diastolic dysfunction. Theoretically, a more marked alteration of diastolic function is revealed during exercise. Methods and Results We studied 84 persons: 1) 25 patients with HCM, 2) 25 patients with essential arterial hypertension (AH) and 3) 34 healthy controls. Each person performed a treadmill echocardiography. Before and after work, the following parameters were measured: the time interval between the QRS complex and the onset of mitral early diastolic filling velocity (TE), the interval between the QRS complex and the onset of peak early tissue mitral annular velocity (Te’), the isovolumetric relaxation time over the difference of TE and Te’ ratio (IVRT/(TE-Te’)), and changes of the time parameters during the stress test. In comparison with hypertensive and control groups, HCM patients at rest showed a significantly longer TE (448 ± 55 vs. 423 ± 33 vs. 417 ± 24 ms, P < 0.04) and Te’ (446 ± 48 vs. 403 ± 44 vs. 416 ± 38 ms, P < 0.003). After stress the HCM group had a longer Te’ (355 ± 59 vs. 299 ± 40 vs. 292 ± 30 ms, P < 0.000004) and a higher IVRT/(TE-Te’) ratio (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 0.9 ± 2.4 vs. 1.7 ± 1.2, P < 0.002). Conclusions HCM patients show an alteration in the time parameters not only compared to healthy persons but to hypertensive patients as well.

  2. Investigation of Pathogenic Genes in Chinese sporadic Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Patients by Whole Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Li, Zhongshan; Ren, Xianguo; Dong, Ming; Li, Jinxin; Shi, Xingjuan; Zhang, Yu; Xie, Wei; Sun, Zhongsheng; Liu, Xiangdong; Dai, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiovascular disease with high heterogeneity. Limited knowledge concerning the genetic background of nearly 40% HCM cases indicates there is a clear need for further investigation to explore the genetic pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we undertook a whole exome sequencing (WES) approach to identify novel candidate genes and mutations associated with HCM. The cohort consisted of 74 unrelated patients with sporadic HCM (sHCM) previously determined to be negative for mutations in eight sarcomere genes. The results showed that 7 of 74 patients (9.5%) had damaging mutations in 43 known HCM disease genes. Furthermore, after analysis combining the Transmission and De novo Association (TADA) program and the ToppGene program, 10 putative genes gained priority. A thorough review of public databases and related literature revealed that there is strong supporting evidence for most of the genes playing roles in various aspects of heart development. Findings from recent studies suggest that the putative and known disease genes converge on three functional pathways: sarcomere function, calcium signaling and metabolism pathway. This study illustrates the benefit of WES, in combination with rare variant analysis tools, in providing valuable insight into the genetic etiology of a heterogeneous sporadic disease. PMID:26573135

  3. Obtaining insurance after DNA diagnostics: a survey among hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Christiaans, Imke; Kok, Tjitske M; van Langen, Irene M; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J; Wilde, Arthur A M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2010-02-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common hereditary heart disease associated with increased mortality. Disclosure of DNA test results may have social implications such as low access to insurance. In The Netherlands, insurance companies are restricted in the use of genetic information of their clients by the Medical Examination Act. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess the frequency and type of problems encountered by HCM mutation carriers applying for insurance, and associations with carriers' characteristics. The response rate was 86% (228/264). A total of 66 carriers (29%) applied for insurance of whom 39 reported problems (59%) during an average follow-up of 3 years since the DNA test result. More problems were encountered by carriers with manifest disease (P<0.001) and carriers with symptoms of HCM (P=0.049). Carriers identified after predictive DNA testing less frequently experienced problems (P=0.002). Three carriers without manifest HCM reported problems (5% of applicants). Frequently reported problems were higher premium (72%), grant access to medical records (62%), and complete rejection (33%). In conclusion, HCM mutation carriers frequently encounter problems when applying for insurances, often in the case of manifest disease, but the risk assessment of insurance companies is largely justified. Still, 5% of carriers encounter potentially unjustified problems, indicating the necessity to monitor the application of the existing laws and regulations by insurance companies and to educate counselees on the implications of these laws and regulations.

  4. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with cerebral spinal fluid hypovolemia as initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematous.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Garcia, Me; Gomez-Delgado, F; Gomez-Garduño, A; Blanco-Molina, A; Puebla, Ra Fernandez de la

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man with thickening of the dura mater associated with the presence of subdural collections as a consequence of cerebral spinal fluid hypovolemia (CSFH) and hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) as presentation of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). The patient complained about fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, headache and skin lesions. In the laboratory tests minimal normocytic anemia, mild leukopenia, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (dsDNA), antibodies against extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) type SSA-Ro, anti-Smith antigen antibodies (anti-Sm) and anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies (anti-RNP) were detected. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with and without gadolinium enhancement, revealed generalized thickening of the dura mater more severe at the right parieto-occipital lobes with the presence of subdural collections. The patient was diagnosed with SLE associated both with CSFH and HP. A conservative treatment with prednisone 60 mg daily, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 1 g daily and hydroxychloroquine 200 mg twice a day was started with significant clinical and radiological improvement (almost complete resolution of the subdural collections and clear decrease of meningeal thickness). The authors emphasize that HP associated with CSFH in the context of SLE is a rare entity, which makes this case unique.

  5. The Role of Cardiac MRI in the Diagnosis and Risk Stratification of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common genetic cardiomyopathy, is a disease characterised by substantial heterogeneity. Although the majority of patients with HCM remain asymptomatic with near-normal longevity, a small, but important, subset remain at risk for a wide range of clinical outcomes including sudden death. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), with its high spatial resolution and tomographic imaging capability, has emerged as an imaging modality particularly well suited to characterise the phenotypic expression of HCM. CMR helps in the diagnosis of HCM by identifying areas of hypertrophy not well visualised by echocardiography, providing more accurate wall thickness measurements and differentiating HCM from other causes of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. CMR has led to the identification of novel subgroups of patients with HCM, including those with LV apical aneurysms (a subgroup at increased risk for ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic stroke), as well as abnormalities that contribute to LV outflow obstruction. Additionally, contrast-enhanced CMR with late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has recognised patients with extensive LGE (≥15 % LV myocardium) as individuals who may be at increased risk of sudden death, independent of other high-risk features, with implications on management strategies including consideration for primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. These observations justify an expanded role of CMR in the routine clinical assessment of patients with HCM. PMID:28116085

  6. High resolution melting: improvements in the genetic diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Portuguese cohort

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex myocardial disorder with a recognized genetic heterogeneity. The elevated number of genes and mutations involved in HCM limits a gene-based diagnosis that should be considered of most importance for basic research and clinical medicine. Methodology In this report, we evaluated High Resolution Melting (HRM) robustness, regarding HCM genetic testing, by means of analyzing 28 HCM-associated genes, including the most frequent 4 HCM-associated sarcomere genes, as well as 24 genes with lower reported HCM-phenotype association. We analyzed 80 Portuguese individuals with clinical phenotype of HCM allowing simultaneously a better characterization of this disease in the Portuguese population. Results HRM technology allowed us to identify 60 mutated alleles in 72 HCM patients: 49 missense mutations, 3 nonsense mutations, one 1-bp deletion, one 5-bp deletion, one in frame 3-bp deletion, one insertion/deletion, 3 splice mutations, one 5'UTR mutation in MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TNNI3, CSRP3, MYH6 and MYL2 genes. Significantly 22 are novel gene mutations. Conclusions HRM was proven to be a technique with high sensitivity and a low false positive ratio allowing a rapid, innovative and low cost genotyping of HCM. In a short return, HRM as a gene scanning technique could be a cost-effective gene-based diagnosis for an accurate HCM genetic diagnosis and hopefully providing new insights into genotype/phenotype correlations. PMID:22429680

  7. A Delta-Sarcoglycan Gene Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Garduño, Martín H.; Pérez-Martínez, Ramón A.; Ruiz, Victor M.; Herrera-Tepatlán, Esteban; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Jiménez-Vaca, Ana L.; Minauro-Sanmiguel, Fernando; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The C allele of c.−94C>G polymorphism of the delta-sarcoglycan gene was associated as a risk factor for coronary spasm in Japanese patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Aim: We evaluated whether the c.−94C>G polymorphism can be a risk factor for HCM in Mexican patients. Methods: The polymorphism was genotyped and the risk was estimated in 35 HCM patients and 145 healthy unrelated individuals. Data of this polymorphism reported in Mexican Amerindian populations were included. Results: The C allele frequency in HCM patients was higher with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.37, and the risk for the CC genotype increased to 5.0. The analysis with Mexican Amerindian populations showed that the C allele frequency was significantly higher in HCM patients with an OR of 2.96 and for CC genotype the risk increased to 7.60. Conclusions: The C allele of the c.−94C>G polymorphism is a risk factor for HCM, which is increased by the Amerindian component and can play an important role in the etiology and progression of disease in Mexican patients. PMID:22524166

  8. Coronary flow reserve in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: relation with microvascular dysfunction and pathophysiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kofflard, M J; Michels, M; Krams, R; Kliffen, M; Geleijnse, M L; Ten Cate, F J; Serruys, P W

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND.: The decrease in coronary flow reserve (CFR) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) predisposes to myocardial ischaemia, systolic dysfunction and cardiac death. In this study we investigate to which extent haemodynamic, echocardiographic, and histological parameters contribute to the reduction of CFR. METHODS.: In ten HCM patients (mean age 44+/-14 years) and eight heart transplant (HTX) patients (mean age 51+/-6 years) CFR was calculated in the left anterior descending coronary artery. In all subjects haemodynamic, echocardiographic and histological parameters were assessed. The relationship between these variables and CFR was determined using linear regression analysis. RESULTS.: CFR was reduced in HCM compared with HTX patients (1.6+/-0.7 vs. 2.7+/-0.8, p<0.01). An increase in septal thickness (p<0.005), indexed left ventricular (LV) mass (p<0.005), LV end-diastolic pressure (p<0.001), LV outflow tract gradient (p<0.05) and a decrease in arteriolar lumen size (p<0.05) were all related to a reduction in CFR. CONCLUSION.: In HCM patients haemodynamic (LV end-diastolic pressure, LV outflow tract gradient), echocardiographic (indexed LV mass) and histological (% luminal area of the arterioles) changes are responsible for a decrease in CFR. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:209-15.).

  9. Effect of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction on Left Atrial Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lynne K.; Chan, Raymond H.; Carasso, Shemy; Durand, Miranda; Misurka, Jimmy; Crean, Andrew M.; Ralph-Edwards, Anthony; Gruner, Christiane; Woo, Anna; Lesser, John R.; Maron, Barry J.; Maron, Martin S.; Rakowski, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Left atrial (LA) volumes are known to be increased in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and are a predictor of adverse outcome. In addition, LA function is impaired and is presumed to be due to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction as a result of hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. In the current study, we assess the incremental effect of outflow tract obstruction (and concomitant mitral regurgitation) on LA function as assessed by LA strain. Patients with HCM (50 obstructive, 50 nonobstructive) were compared to 50 normal controls. A subset of obstructive patients who had undergone septal myectomy was also studied. Utilising feature-tracking software applied to cardiovascular magnetic resonance images, LA volumes and functional parameters were calculated. LA volumes were significantly elevated and LA ejection fraction and strain were significantly reduced in patients with HCM compared with controls and were significantly more affected in patients with obstruction. LA volumes and function were significantly improved after septal myectomy. LVOT obstruction and mitral regurgitation appear to further impair LA mechanics. Septal myectomy results in a significant reduction in LA volumes, paralleled by an improvement in function. PMID:26788503

  10. Familial screening and genetic counselling in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the Rotterdam experience

    PubMed Central

    Michels, M.; Hoedemaekers, Y.M.; Kofflard, M.J.; Frohn-Mulder, I.; Dooijes, D.; Majoor-Krakauer, D.; Ten Cate, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease characterised by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (i.e. LVH in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease that could produce a similar degree of hypertrophy), electrical instability and sudden death (SD). Germline mutations in genes encoding for sarcomere proteins are found in more than half of the cases of unexplained LVH. The autosomal dominant inherited forms of HCM are characterised by incomplete penetrance and variability in clinical and echocardiographic features, prognosis and therapeutic modalities. The identification of the genetic defect in one of the HCM genes allows accurate presymptomatic detection of mutation carriers in a family. Cardiac evaluation of at-risk relatives enables early diagnosis and identification of those patients at high risk for SD, which can be the first manifestation of the disease in asymptomatic persons. In this article we present our experience with genetic testing and cardiac screening in our HCM population and give an overview of the current literature available on this subject. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:184-9.17612681) PMID:17612681

  11. Coronary flow reserve in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: relation with microvascular dysfunction and pathophysiological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kofflard, M.J.; Michels, M.; Krams, R.; Kliffen, M.; Geleijnse, M.L.; Ten Cate, F.J.; Serruys, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. The decrease in coronary flow reserve (CFR) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) predisposes to myocardial ischaemia, systolic dysfunction and cardiac death. In this study we investigate to which extent haemodynamic, echocardiographic, and histological parameters contribute to the reduction of CFR. Methods. In ten HCM patients (mean age 44±14 years) and eight heart transplant (HTX) patients (mean age 51±6 years) CFR was calculated in the left anterior descending coronary artery. In all subjects haemodynamic, echocardiographic and histological parameters were assessed. The relationship between these variables and CFR was determined using linear regression analysis. Results. CFR was reduced in HCM compared with HTX patients (1.6±0.7 vs. 2.7±0.8, p<0.01). An increase in septal thickness (p<0.005), indexed left ventricular (LV) mass (p<0.005), LV end-diastolic pressure (p<0.001), LV outflow tract gradient (p<0.05) and a decrease in arteriolar lumen size (p<0.05) were all related to a reduction in CFR. Conclusion. In HCM patients haemodynamic (LV end-diastolic pressure, LV outflow tract gradient), echocardiographic (indexed LV mass) and histological (% luminal area of the arterioles) changes are responsible for a decrease in CFR. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:209-15.17612685) PMID:17612685

  12. [Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a rare cause of vascular dementia. A case report].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamouda, Ibtissem; Tougourti, Mohamed Néjib; Hamza, Mohsen

    2002-07-01

    Herein, we report a case of a 51 year old man who experienced three ischemic cerebral infarcts in a time of few months. The patient consulted after the third accident. Neurological presentation included pseudobulbar syndrome with a mild cognitive deficit, aphasia, left hemiparesia, hemiasomatognosia and homonymous lateral hemianopsia. Cerebral tomodensitometry and magnetic resonance imaging evidenced large infarcts images involving right middle cerebral artery territory and bilateral borderline zones in the junction of the territories of the middle and posterior cerebral arteries. Ambulatory 24 hours ECG recording (Holter) revealed two hits of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Transoesophageal echocardiography conveyed to the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and displayed the presence of a left auricular thrombus. Anticoagulant therapy and rehabilitation allowed a substantial recovering of the patient's cognitive functions and wasting of the intracardiac thrombus. The clinical features observed in our patient meet the recommended DSM IV diagnosis criteria of vascular dementia, an exceptional complication of HCM. The clinical findings, neuroimagery investigation results, and the chronological link between cerebral attacks and cognitive function deterioration argue for a demential syndrome of vascular origin resulting from multiple embolic infarcts involving medium sized arteries (multi-infarct dementia). The authors emphasize the rarity of such observation. HCM must be considered as a potential cause of embolic stroke and likewise a multi-infarct dementia.

  13. Effects of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy mutations on power output by human β-cardiac myosin.

    PubMed

    Spudich, James A; Aksel, Tural; Bartholomew, Sadie R; Nag, Suman; Kawana, Masataka; Yu, Elizabeth Choe; Sarkar, Saswata S; Sung, Jongmin; Sommese, Ruth F; Sutton, Shirley; Cho, Carol; Adhikari, Arjun S; Taylor, Rebecca; Liu, Chao; Trivedi, Darshan; Ruppel, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequently occurring inherited cardiovascular disease, with a prevalence of more than one in 500 individuals worldwide. Genetically acquired dilated cardiomyopathy is a related disease that is less prevalent. Both are caused by mutations in the genes encoding the fundamental force-generating protein machinery of the cardiac muscle sarcomere, including human β-cardiac myosin, the motor protein that powers ventricular contraction. Despite numerous studies, most performed with non-human or non-cardiac myosin, there is no clear consensus about the mechanism of action of these mutations on the function of human β-cardiac myosin. We are using a recombinantly expressed human β-cardiac myosin motor domain along with conventional and new methodologies to characterize the forces and velocities of the mutant myosins compared with wild type. Our studies are extending beyond myosin interactions with pure actin filaments to include the interaction of myosin with regulated actin filaments containing tropomyosin and troponin, the roles of regulatory light chain phosphorylation on the functions of the system, and the possible roles of myosin binding protein-C and titin, important regulatory components of both cardiac and skeletal muscles.

  14. Usefulness of Genetic Testing in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: an Analysis Using Real-World Data.

    PubMed

    Alejandra Restrepo-Cordoba, M; Campuzano, Oscar; Ripoll-Vera, Tomás; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Mademont-Soler, Irene; Gámez, José M; Dominguez, Fernando; Gonzalez-Lopez, Esther; Padron-Barthe, Laura; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Brugada, Ramon; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    This study sought to determine the usefulness of genetic testing to predict evolution in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and to assess the role of genetic testing in clinical practice. Genetic results of 100 HCM patients tested for mutations in ≥10 HCM-causing genes were evaluated. Patients were classified as with poor (group A) or favourable (group B) clinical course. Forty-five pathogenic mutations (PM) were identified in 28 patients (56 %) from group A and in 23 (46 %) from group B (p = 0.317). Only 40 patients (40 %) exhibited PM that had been previously reported and only 15 (15 %) had PM reported in ≥10 individuals. PM associated with poor prognosis were identified in just five patients from group A (10 %). Genetic findings are not useful to predict prognosis in most HCM patients. By contrast, real-world data reinforce the usefulness of genetic testing to provide genetic counselling and to enable cascade genetic screening.

  15. Echocardiography as a Screening Test for Myocardial Scarring in Children with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nield, Lynne; Dragulescu, Andreea; Benson, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is burdened with morbidity and mortality including tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. These complications are attributed in part to the formation of proarrhythmic scars in the myocardium. The presence of extensive LGE is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in HCM. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) is the standard for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial scars. However, echocardiography represents an attractive screening tool for myocardial scarring. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of echocardiography to detect myocardial scars to the standard of cMRI-LGE. Methods. The cMRI studies and echocardiograms from 56 consecutive children with HCM were independently evaluated for the presence of cMRI-LGE and echocardiographic evidence of scarring by expert readers. Results. Echocardiography had a high sensitivity (93%) and negative predictive value (94%) in comparison to LGE. The false positive rate was high, leading to a low specificity (37%) and a low positive predictive value (35%). Conclusions. Given the poor specificity and positive predictive value, echocardiography is not a suitable screening test for the presence of myocardial scarring in children with HCM. However, children without echocardiographic evidence of myocardial scarring may not need to undergo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to “rule in” LGE. PMID:27974896

  16. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow and Valve Dynamics in Hearts with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xudong; Mittal, Rajat; Abraham, Theodore; Pinheiro, Aurelio

    2010-11-01

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiovascular disease manifested by the thickening of the ventricular wall and often leads to a partial obstruction to the blood flow out of the left ventricle. HCM is recognized as one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in athletes. In a heart with HCM, the hypertrophy usually narrows the blood flow pathway to the aorta and produces a low pressure zone between the mitral valve and the hypertrophy during systole. This low pressure can suck the mitral valve leaflet back and completely block the blood flow into the aorta. In the current study, a sharp interface immersed boundary method flow solver is employed to study the hemodynamics and valve dynamics inside a heart with HCM. The three-dimensional motion and configuration of the left ventricle including mitral valve leaflets and aortic valves are reconstructed based on echo-cardio data sets. The mechanisms of aortic obstruction associated with HCM are investigated. The long term objective of this study is to develop a computational tool to aid in the assessment and surgical management of HCM.

  17. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: present and future, with translation into contemporary cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Maron, Barry J; Ommen, Steve R; Semsarian, Christopher; Spirito, Paolo; Olivotto, Iacopo; Maron, Martin S

    2014-07-08

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited heart disease with diverse phenotypic and genetic expression, clinical presentation, and natural history. HCM has been recognized for 55 years, but recently substantial advances in diagnosis and treatment options have evolved, as well as increased recognition of the disease in clinical practice. Nevertheless, most genetically and clinically affected individuals probably remain undiagnosed, largely free from disease-related complications, although HCM may progress along 1 or more of its major disease pathways (i.e., arrhythmic sudden death risk; progressive heart failure [HF] due to dynamic left ventricular [LV] outflow obstruction or due to systolic dysfunction in the absence of obstruction; or atrial fibrillation with risk of stroke). Effective treatments are available for each adverse HCM complication, including implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for sudden death prevention, heart transplantation for end-stage failure, surgical myectomy (or selectively, alcohol septal ablation) to alleviate HF symptoms by abolishing outflow obstruction, and catheter-based procedures to control atrial fibrillation. These and other strategies have now resulted in a low disease-related mortality rate of <1%/year. Therefore, HCM has emerged from an era of misunderstanding, stigma, and pessimism, experiencing vast changes in its clinical profile, and acquiring an effective and diverse management armamentarium. These advances have changed its natural history, with prevention of sudden death and reversal of HF, thereby restoring quality of life with extended (if not normal) longevity for most patients, and transforming HCM into a contemporary treatable cardiovascular disease.

  18. Shallow halogen vacancies in halide optoelectronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao -Hua

    2014-11-05

    Halogen vacancies (VH) are usually deep color centers (F centers) in halides and can act as major electron traps or recombination centers. The deep VH contributes to the typically poor carrier transport properties in halides. However, several halides have recently emerged as excellent optoelectronic materials, e.g., CH3NH3PbI3 and TlBr. Both CH3NH3PbI3 and TlBr have been found to have shallow VH, in contrast to commonly seen deep VH in halides. In this paper, several halide optoelectronic materials, i.e., CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3SnI3 (photovoltaic materials), TlBr, and CsPbBr3, (gamma-ray detection materials) are studied to understand the material chemistry and structure that determine whether VH is a shallow or deep defect in a halide material. It is found that crystal structure and chemistry of ns2 ions both play important roles in creating shallow VH in halides such as CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3SnI3, and TlBr. The key to identifying halides with shallow VH is to find the right crystal structures and compounds that suppress cation orbital hybridization at VH, such as those with long cation-cation distances and low anion coordination numbers, and those with crystal symmetry that prevents strong hybridization of cation dangling bond orbitals at VH. Furthermore, the results of this paper provide insight and guidance to identifying halides with shallow VH as good electronic and optoelectronic materials.

  19. Microbial and geochemical quality of shallow well water in high-density areas in Mzuzu City in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msilimba, Golden; Wanda, Elijah M. M.

    In Malawi, shallow wells constitute the most important water sources for domestic purposes. However, increasing human population coupled with poor sanitation and infrastructure is undermining the quality of shallow well water. An assessment of microbial and geochemical quality of shallow well water in high-density areas of Zolozolo, Ching’ambo and Chiputula in Mzuzu City, Northern Malawi, has been carried out. The study aimed at characterising domestic water sources, identifying possible sources of water contamination and determining levels of microbial and chemical contamination. Arc-view GIS was used to map the water sources. A questionnaire survey was carried out to elicit information on characteristics of drinking water sources. Water samples were collected from quasi-randomly selected shallow wells and analysed for microbial and chemical parameters using standard methods. HCA, performed using R-programme, was used to group sampled sites according to their bio-physicochemical characteristics. Compliance of the water with MBS/WHO water quality guidelines was determined. The WQI was computed to turn multifaceted data obtained from laboratory analyses into simple information that is comprehensible and useable by the public to assess overall quality of water at a specific water points. The GW-chart was used to show hydrogeochemical water types from each sampled site. Microbial analysis revealed that water from 96.3% of shallow wells recorded faecal coliforms ranging from 129 to 920 cfu per 100 ml which were significantly higher than the Malawi Standards and WHO thresholds. In general, shallow well water is of low mineralisation (EC range 80-500 μS cm-1), with hydrogeochemical facies dominated by Ca-HCO3, which evolves to Ca-Cl water type. The shallow well water registered a WQI range of 50.16-66.04%, with a medium WQ rating. This suggested that the water obtained from the shallow wells is unsuitable for direct human consumption. It was observed that 100% of the

  20. Experiences with groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses developments in combating groundwater contamination. The papers include: Regulation of Groundwater; Utility Experiences Related to Existing and Proposed Drinking Water Regulations; Point-of-Use Treatment Technology to Control Organic and Inorganic Contamination; Hazardous Waste Disposal Practices and Groundwater Contamination; Reverse Osmosis Treatment to Control Inorganic and Volatile Organic Contamination; The Dilemma of New Wells Versus Treatment; Characteristics and Handling of Wastes From Groundwater Treatment Systems; and Removing Solvents to Restore Drinking Water at Darien, Connecticut.

  1. Assessment of SRS radiological liquid and airborne contaminants and pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    This report compiles and documents the radiological critical-contaminant/critical-pathway analysis performed for SRS. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface water, which are the principal media that carry contaminants off site. During routine operations at SRS, limited amounts of radionuclides are released to the environment through atmospheric and/or liquid pathways. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. Though the groundwater beneath an estimated 5 to 10 percent of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, there is no evidence that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated offsite (Arnett, 1996). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people.

  2. In situ biodegradation of creosote contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.D.; Maier, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    The Reilly Tar and Chemical operated a coal tar and wood processing plant on a 80 acre site from 1917 until plant closure in 1972. Reilly disposed of wastewater from the operation in a network of ditches which discharged into a swampy area south of the Reilly site. The contamination from these sources has migrated downward into the groundwater, contaminating the shallow aquifer underlying the site. Through multi-aquifer wells the contamination has entered deeper aquifers including the Prairie Duchien-Jordan aquifer. Ongoing pump and treat operations are not viewed as ecologically or economically sound long-term solutions. All parties agreed that programs to eliminate polluting materials at the source to speed the cleanup process and minimize the potential leakage of the pollutants into interconnected aquifers is desirable. In this connection, a study was completed to examine whether source materials can be eliminated by on site and/or in situ bioremediation. In order to engineer a bioremediation strategy which optimizes degradation rates it is extremely important to determine the rate limiting steps in the treatment process. The results of this study show that if sufficient oxygen can be provided, in situ bioremediation could be effective at reducing or eliminating offsite pollutant migration and effectively remove the sources of the groundwater contamination.

  3. Contaminant Sources in Stream Water of a Missouri Claypan Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. R.; Liu, F.; Lerch, R. N.; Lee, H.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and herbicides in stream water have degraded water quality and caused serious problems affecting human and aquatic ecosystem health in the Central Claypan Region of the US Midwest. However, the contribution of specific recharge sources to stream water is not well understood in claypan-dominated watersheds. The purpose of this study was to estimate the recharge sources to Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) in north-central Missouri and investigate their importance to contaminant transport. Samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 from streams, piezometers, seep flows, and groundwater in GCEW and analyzed for major ions (including nitrate and nitrite), trace elements, stable H and O isotopes, total nitrogen (TN) and herbicides. Using an endmember mixing analysis based on conservative tracers, recharge contributions to stream flow were an average of 25% surface runoff, 44% shallow subsurface water, and 31% groundwater. TN concentrations were, on average, <0.05 ppm, 0.5 ppm, and 5 ppm in surface runoff, shallow subsurface water, and groundwater, respectively. Atrazine concentrations were, on average, <0.001 ppb, 0.052 ppb and <0.0001 in surface runoff, shallow subsurface water and groundwater, respectively. The data indicated that TN in stream water was primarily from groundwater, while shallow subsurface water was the dominant source of atrazine in stream water. An improved understanding of claypan hydrology and contaminant transport could lead to crop management practices that better protect surface water and groundwater in claypan-dominated watersheds.

  4. Ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer system at the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Barry S.

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Directorate of the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Virginia, is concerned about possible contamination of ground water at the Station. Ground water at the Station flows through a shallow system of layered aquifers and leaky confining units. The units of the shallow aquifer system are the Columbia aquifer, the Cornwallis Cave confining unit, the Cornwallis Cave aquifer, the Yorktown confining unit, and the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer. The Eastover-Calvert confining unit separates the shallow aquifer system from deeper confined aquifers beneath the Station. A three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model was used to simulate steady-state ground-water flow of the shallow aquifer system in and around the Station. The model simulated ground-water flow from the peninsular drainage divide that runs across the Lackey Plain near the southern end of the Station north to King Creek and the York River and south to Skiffes Creek and the James River. The model was calibrated by minimizing the root mean square error between 4 7 measured and corresponding simulated water levels. The calibrated model was used to determine the ground-water budget and general directions of ground-water flow. A particle-tracking routine was used with the calibrated model to estimate groundwater flow paths, flow rates, and traveltimes from selected sites at the Station. Simulated ground-water flow velocities of the Station-area model were small beneath the interstream areas of the Lackey Plain and Croaker Flat, but increased outward toward the streams and rivers where the hydraulic gradients are larger. If contaminants from the land surface entered the water table at or near the interstream areas of the Station, where hydraulic gradients are smaller, they would migrate more slowly than if they entered closer to the streams or the shores of the rivers where gradients commonly are larger. The ground-water flow simulations indicate that some ground water leaks downward from

  5. Shallow Subsurface Structures of Volcanic Fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Nash, J.; Mitchell, K. L.; Parness, A.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic fissure vents are a difficult geologic feature to quantify. They are often too thin to document in detail with seismology or remote geophysical methods. Additionally, lava flows, lava drain back, or collapsed rampart blocks typically conceal a fissure's surface expression. For exposed fissures, quantifying the surface (let along sub0surface) geometric expression can become an overwhelming and time-consuming task given the non-uniform distribution of wall irregularities, drain back textures, and the larger scale sinuosity of the whole fissure system. We developed (and previously presented) VolcanoBot to acquire robust characteristic data of fissure geometries by going inside accessible fissures after an eruption ends and the fissure cools off to <50 C. Data from VolcanoBot documents the fissure conduit geometry with a near-IR structured light sensor, and reproduces the 3d structures to cm-scale accuracy. Here we present a comparison of shallow subsurface structures (<30 m depth) within the Mauna Ulu fissure system and their counterpart features at the vent-to-ground-surface interface. While we have not mapped enough length of the fissure to document sinuosity at depth, we see a self-similar pattern of irregularities on the fissure walls throughout the entire shallow subsurface, implying a fracture mechanical origin similar to faults. These irregularities are, on average, 1 m across and protrude 30 cm into the drained fissure. This is significantly larger than the 10% wall roughness addressed in the engineering literature on fluid dynamics, and implies that magma fluid dynamics during fissure eruptions are probably not as passive nor as simple as previously thought. In some locations, it is possible to match piercing points across the fissure walls, where the dike broke the wall rock in order to propagate upwards, yet in other locations there are erosional cavities, again, implying complex fluid dynamics in the shallow sub-surface during fissure eruptions.

  6. Shallow Aquifer Methane Gas Source Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, R. B.; Murgulet, D.; Rose, P. S.; Hay, R.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas can contribute significantly to the world's energy demand. Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) on horizontal drill lines developed over the last 15 years makes formerly inaccessible hydrocarbons economically available. From 2000 to 2035 shale gas is predicted to rise from 1% to 46% of the total natural gas for the US. A vast energy resource is available in the United States. While there is a strong financial advantage to the application of fracking there is emerging concern about environmental impacts to groundwater and air quality from improper shale fracking operations. Elevated methane (CH4) concentrations have been observed in drinking water throughout the United States where there is active horizontal drilling. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic-fracturing can increase CH4 transport to aquifers, soil and the vadose zone. Seepage can also result from casing failure in older wells. However, there is strong evidence that elevated CH4 concentrations can be associated with topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction processes. Carbon isotope geochemistry can be applied to study CH4source(s) in shallow vadose zone and groundwater systems. A preliminary TAMU-CC isotope data set from samples taken at different locations in southern Texas shows a wide range of CH4 signatures suggesting multiple sources of methane and carbon dioxide. These data are interpreted to distinguish regions with methane contributions from deep-sourced horizontal drilling versus shallow system microbial production. Development of a thorough environmental assessment using light isotope analysis can provide understanding of shallow anthropogenic versus natural CH4sources and assist in identifying regions that require remedial actions.

  7. Evaluating soil contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.

    1990-07-01

    The compilation was designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contaminant specialists evaluate the degree of contamination of a soil, based on chemical analyses. Included are regulatory criteria, opinions, brief descriptions of scientific articles, and miscellaneous information that might be useful in making risk assessments. The intent was to make hard-to-obtain material readily available to contaminant specialists, but not to critique the material or develop new criteria. The compilation is to be used with its index, which includes about 200 contaminants. Entries include soil contaminant criteria from other countries, contaminant guidelines for applying sewage sludge to soil, guidelines for evaluating sediments, background soil concentrations for various elements, citations to scientific articles that may help estimate the potential movement of soil contaminants into wildlife food chains, and a few odds and ends. Articles on earthworms were emphasized because they are a natural bridge between soil and many species of wildlife.

  8. Shallow flow vortex formation and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Haojun

    Vortical structures in shallow flow past a vertical cylinder are addressed in this investigation. A cinema technique of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) provided quantitative representations of the wholefield flow patterns in both instantaneous and averaged forms. Techniques for passive and active control of these vortices, and their influence on the loading of the bed, were explored. In a fully-developed, laminar shallow flow, the unstable structure in the near-wake of the cylinder correlates with the horseshoe (necklace) vortex system about the upstream surface of the cylinder. A coherent varicose mode of vortex formation is observed in the near-wake, even though the classical large-scale vortex shedding is suppressed due to bed friction effects. It is also demonstrated that when the near-wake is stable at a sufficiently low value of Reynolds number, applications of external perturbations lead to destabilization of the wake. Classes of small-scale three-dimensional structures arise in a fully-turbulent shallow flow past a surface-piercing cylinder. A prevalent feature is an upward moving jet-like flow from the bed surface, through the center of the developing quasi-two-dimensional primary vortex, at a location in the very near-wake of the cylinder. Passive control via base-bleed through a narrow streamwise slot leads to substantially delay/attenuation of vortex formation in the near-wake. The large-scale near-wake structure is recoverable through combined positive-active control, in the form of rotational perturbations in the presence of small magnitude base bleed. These alterations of the near-wake structure occur in conjunction with modifications of the streamline topology and Reynolds stress at the bed, as well as the shallow approach flow. Active control via rotational perturbations of the cylinder at the most unstable shear-layer frequency promotes well-defined vortical structures in the separating shearlayer, which contribute to the earlier

  9. Gravitational harmonics from shallow resonant orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.; Klosko, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Gravitational constraint (lumped coefficient) equations are derived from GEOS-2 data and a detailed analysis of the shallow resonance problem. The equations follow from elementary perturbation theory and show that all such lumped coefficients are harmonic in the argument of perigee. The best along-track constraints derived from them account for all but about 2% of the 13th-order resonant information in the tracking data. The equations are also in good agreement with recent comprehensive gravity models which use substantial amounts of GEOS-2 data.

  10. Interplay between the E2F pathway and β-adrenergic signaling in the pathological hypertrophic response of myocardium.

    PubMed

    Major, Jennifer L; Salih, Maysoon; Tuana, Balwant S

    2015-07-01

    The E2F/Pocket protein (Rb) pathway regulates cell growth, differentiation, and death by modulating gene expression. We previously examined this pathway in the myocardium via manipulation of the unique E2F repressor, E2F6, which is believed to repress gene activity independently of Rb. Mice with targeted expression of E2F6 in postnatal myocardium developed dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) without hypertrophic growth. We assessed the mechanisms of the apparent failure of compensatory hypertrophic growth as well as their response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. As early as 2 weeks, E2F6 transgenic (Tg) mice present with dilated thinner left ventricles and significantly reduced ejection fraction and fractional shortening which persists at 6 weeks of age, but with no apparent increase in left ventricle weight: body weight (LVW:BW). E2F6-Tg mice treated with isoproterenol (6.1 mg/kg/day) show double the increase in LVW:BW than their Wt counterparts (32% vs 16%, p-value: 0.007). Western blot analysis revealed the activation of the adrenergic pathway in Tg heart tissue under basal conditions with ~2-fold increase in the level of β2-adrenergic receptors (p-value: 8.9E-05), protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA-C) (p-value: 0.0176), activated c-Src tyrosine-protein kinase (p-value: 0.0002), extracellular receptor kinase 2 (ERK2) (p-value: 0.0005), and induction of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 (p-value 0. 0.00001). In contrast, a ~60% decrease in the cardiac growth regulator: AKT1 (p-value 0.0001) and a ~four fold increase in cyclic AMP dependent phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), the negative regulator of PKA activity, were evident in the myocardium of E2F6-Tg mice. The expression of E2F3 was down-regulated by E2F6, but was restored by isoproterenol. Further, Rb expression was down-regulated in Tg mice in response to isoproterenol implying a net activation of the E2F pathway. Thus the unique regulation of E2F activity by E2F6 renders the myocardium hypersensitive

  11. MicroRNA transcriptome profiling in cardiac tissue of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with MYBPC3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Diederik W D; Mulders, Joyce; Ten Cate, Folkert J; Michels, Michelle; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G; da Costa Martins, Paula A; van der Velden, Jolanda; Oudejans, Cees B M

    2013-12-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is predominantly caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. One of the most frequent affected genes is MYBPC3, which encodes the thick filament protein cardiac myosin binding protein C. Despite the prevalence of HCM, disease pathology and clinical outcome of sarcomeric mutations are largely unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) could play a role in the disease process. To determine which miRNAs were changed in expression, miRNA arrays were performed on heart tissue from HCM patients with a MYBPC3 mutation (n=6) and compared with hearts of non-failing donors (n=6). 532 out of 664 analyzed miRNAs were expressed in at least one heart sample. 13 miRNAs were differentially expressed in HCM compared with donors (at p<0.01, fold change ≥ 2). The genomic context of these differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that miR-204 (fold change 2.4 in HCM vs. donor) was located in an intron of the TRPM3 gene, encoding an aspecific cation channel involved in calcium entry. RT-PCR analysis revealed a trend towards TRPM3 upregulation in HCM compared with donor myocardium (fold change 2.3, p=0.078). In silico identification of mRNA targets of differentially expressed miRNAs showed a large proportion of genes involved in cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor signaling and we showed reduced phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I in the HCM myocardium when compared with donor. HCM patients with MYBPC3 mutations have a specific miRNA expression profile. Downstream mRNA targets reveal possible involvement in cardiac signaling pathways.

  12. Delayed hypertrophic differentiation of epiphyseal chondrocytes contributes to failed secondary ossification in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Sun H.; O'Donnell, Philip J.M.; Kang, Jennifer L.; Malhotra, Neil R.; Dodge, George R.; Pacifici, Maurizio; Shore, Eileen M.; Haskins, Mark E.; Smith, Lachlan J.

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient β-glucuronidase activity, which leads to the accumulation of incompletely degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS VII patients present with severe skeletal abnormalities, which are particularly prevalent in the spine. Incomplete cartilage-to-bone conversion in MPS VII vertebrae during postnatal development is associated with progressive spinal deformity and spinal cord compression. The objectives of this study were to determine the earliest postnatal developmental stage at which vertebral bone disease manifests in MPS VII and to identify the underlying cellular basis of impaired cartilage-to-bone conversion, using the naturally-occurring canine model. Control and MPS VII dogs were euthanized at 9 and 14 days-of-age, and vertebral secondary ossification centers analyzed using micro-computed tomography, histology, qPCR, and protein immunoblotting. Imaging studies and mRNA analysis of bone formation markers established that secondary ossification commences between 9 and 14 days in control animals, but not in MPS VII animals. mRNA analysis of differentiation markers revealed that MPS VII epiphyseal chondrocytes are unable to successfully transition from proliferation to hypertrophy during this critical developmental window. Immunoblotting demonstrated abnormal persistence of Sox9 protein in MPS VII cells between 9 and 14 days-of-age, and biochemical assays revealed abnormally high intra and extracellular GAG content in MPS VII epiphyseal cartilage at as early as 9 days-of-age. In contrast, assessment of vertebral growth plates and primary ossification centers revealed no significant abnormalities at either age. The results of this study establish that failed vertebral bone formation in MPS VII can be traced to the failure of epiphyseal chondrocytes to undergo hypertrophic differentiation at the appropriate developmental stage, and suggest that aberrant processing of Sox9 protein

  13. Ski inhibits TGF-β/phospho-Smad3 signaling and accelerates hypertrophic differentiation in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Ok; Sampson, Erik R; Maynard, Robert D; O'Keefe, Regis J; Chen, Di; Drissi, Hicham; Rosier, Randy N; Hilton, Matthew J; Zuscik, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Since transforming growing factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling inhibits chondrocyte maturation, endogenous negative regulators of TGF-β signaling are likely also important regulators of the chondrocyte differentiation process. One such negative regulator, Ski, is an oncoprotein that is known to inhibit TGF-β/Smad3 signaling via its interaction with phospho-Smad3 and recruitment of histone deacetylases (HDACs) to the DNA binding complex. Based on this, we hypothesized that Ski inhibits TGF-β signaling and accelerates maturation in chondrocytes via recruitment of HDACs to transcriptional complexes containing Smads. We tested this hypothesis in chick upper sternal chondrocytes (USCs), where gain and loss of Ski expression experiments were performed. Over-expression of Ski not only reversed the inhibitory effect of TGF-β on the expression of hypertrophic marker genes such as type X collagen (colX) and osteocalcin, it induced these genes basally as well. Conversely, knockdown of Ski by RNA interference led to a reduction of colX and osteocalcin expression under basal conditions. Furthermore, Ski blocked TGF-β induction of cyclinD1 and caused a basal up-regulation of Runx2, consistent with the observed acceleration of hypertrophy. Regarding mechanism, not only does Ski associate with phospho-Smad2 and 3, but its association with phospho-Smad3 is required for recruitment of HDAC4 and 5. Implicating this recruitment of HDACs in the phenotypic effects of Ski in chondrocytes, the HDAC inhibitor SAHA reversed the up-regulation of colX and osteocalcin in Ski over-expressing cells. These results suggest that inhibition of TGF-β signaling by Ski, which involves its association with phospho-Smad3 and recruitment of HDAC4 and 5, leads to accelerated chondrocyte differentiation.

  14. Insulin Exhibits an Antiproliferative and Hypertrophic Effect in First Trimester Human Extravillous Trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cláudia; Nunes, Catarina; Correia-Branco, Ana; Araújo, João R; Martel, Fátima

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of high levels of glucose, insulin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, biomarkers of diabetes in pregnancy, in the process of placentation, using as a cell model a first trimester extravillous human trophoblast cell line (HTR8/SVneo cells). Exposure of HTR8/SVneo cells for 24 hours to either glucose (20 mmol/L) or leptin (25-100 ng/mL) did not cause significant changes in cell proliferation and viability. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (24 hours; 10-100 ng/L) caused a small decrease (10%) in cell proliferation and an increase (9%) in cell viability; however, both effects disappeared when exposure time was increased. Insulin (24 hours; 1-10 nmol/L) caused a concentration- and time-dependent decrease (10%-20%) in cell proliferation; the effect of insulin (10 nmol/L) was more pronounced after a 48 hours exposure (35%). In contrast, exposure to insulin (10 nmol/L; 48 hours) showed no significant effect on cell viability, apoptosis, and migration capacity. Insulin appears to cause hypertrophy of HTR8/SVneo cells as it reduces the cell mitotic index while increasing the culture protein content. The antiproliferative effect of insulin seems to involve activation of mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Finally, simvastatin and the polyphenol quercetin potentiated the antiproliferative effect of insulin; on the contrary, the polyphenol resveratrol, the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, and folic acid were not able to change it. In conclusion, we show that insulin has an antiproliferative and hypertrophic effect on a first trimester extravillous human trophoblast cell line. So insulin might affect the process of placentation.

  15. Perturbed Length–Dependent Activation in Human Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy With Missense Sarcomeric Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Vasco; Wijnker, Paul J.M.; Nijenkamp, Louise L.A.M.; Kuster, Diederik W.D.; Najafi, Aref; Witjas-Paalberends, E. Rosalie; Regan, Jessica A.; Boontje, Nicky; ten Cate, Folkert J.; Germans, Tjeerd; Carrier, Lucie; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon A.; Zaremba, Ruud; Foster, D. Brian; Murphy, Anne M.; Poggesi, Corrado; dos Remedios, Cris; Stienen, Ger J.M.; Ho, Carolyn Y.; Michels, Michelle; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2013-01-01

    Rationale High-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity has been proposed as trigger of disease pathogenesis in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) based on in vitro and transgenic mice studies. However, myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity depends on protein phosphorylation and muscle length, and at present, data in human are scarce. Objective To investigate whether high-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity and perturbed length-dependent activation are characteristics for human HCM with mutations in thick- and thin-filament proteins. Methods and Results Cardiac samples from patients with HCM harboring mutations in genes encoding thick (MYH7, MYBPC3) and thin (TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1) filament proteins were compared with sarcomere mutation-negative HCM and nonfailing donors. Cardiomyocyte force measurements showed higher myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity in all HCM samples and low phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA)-targets compared with donors. After exogenous PKA treatment, myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity was either similar (MYBPC3mut, TPM1mut, sarcomere mutation-negative HCM), higher (MYH7mut, TNNT2mut), or even significantly lower (TNNI3mut) compared with donors. Length-dependent activation was significantly smaller in all HCM than in donor samples. PKA treatment increased phosphorylation of PKA-targets in HCM myocardium and normalized length-dependent activation to donor values in sarcomere mutation-negative HCM and HCM with truncating MYBPC3 mutations, but not in HCM with missense mutations. Replacement of mutant by wild-type troponin in TNNT2mut and TNNI3mut corrected length-dependent activation to donor values. Conclusions High-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity is a common characteristic of human HCM and partly reflects hypophosphorylation of PKA-targets compared with donors. Length-dependent sarcomere activation is perturbed by missense mutations, possibly via post-translational modifications other than PKA-hypophosphorylation or altered protein–protein interactions, and represents a

  16. Delayed hypertrophic differentiation of epiphyseal chondrocytes contributes to failed secondary ossification in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs.

    PubMed

    Peck, Sun H; O'Donnell, Philip J M; Kang, Jennifer L; Malhotra, Neil R; Dodge, George R; Pacifici, Maurizio; Shore, Eileen M; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

    2015-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient β-glucuronidase activity, which leads to the accumulation of incompletely degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS VII patients present with severe skeletal abnormalities, which are particularly prevalent in the spine. Incomplete cartilage-to-bone conversion in MPS VII vertebrae during postnatal development is associated with progressive spinal deformity and spinal cord compression. The objectives of this study were to determine the earliest postnatal developmental stage at which vertebral bone disease manifests in MPS VII and to identify the underlying cellular basis of impaired cartilage-to-bone conversion, using the naturally-occurring canine model. Control and MPS VII dogs were euthanized at 9 and 14 days-of-age, and vertebral secondary ossification centers analyzed using micro-computed tomography, histology, qPCR, and protein immunoblotting. Imaging studies and mRNA analysis of bone formation markers established that secondary ossification commences between 9 and 14 days in control animals, but not in MPS VII animals. mRNA analysis of differentiation markers revealed that MPS VII epiphyseal chondrocytes are unable to successfully transition from proliferation to hypertrophy during this critical developmental window. Immunoblotting demonstrated abnormal persistence of Sox9 protein in MPS VII cells between 9 and 14 days-of-age, and biochemical assays revealed abnormally high intra and extracellular GAG content in MPS VII epiphyseal cartilage at as early as 9 days-of-age. In contrast, assessment of vertebral growth plates and primary ossification centers revealed no significant abnormalities at either age. The results of this study establish that failed vertebral bone formation in MPS VII can be traced to the failure of epiphyseal chondrocytes to undergo hypertrophic differentiation at the appropriate developmental stage, and suggest that aberrant processing of Sox9 protein

  17. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: assessment with thallium-201 emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    O'Gara, P.T.; Bonow, R.O.; Maron, B.J.; Damske, B.A.; Van Lingen, A.; Bacharach, S.L.; Larson, S.M.; Epstein, S.E.

    1987-12-01

    Myocardial ischemia may play a critical role in the symptomatic presentation and natural history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). To assess the relative prevalence and functional significance of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients comprising the broad clinical spectrum of HCM, we studied 72 patients (ages 12 to 69 years, mean 40) using thallium-201 emission computed tomography. Imaging was performed immediately after maximal exercise and again after a 3 hr delay. Regional perfusion defects were identified in 41 of the 72 patients (57%). Fixed or only partially reversible defects were evident in 17 patients, 14 of whom (82%) had left ventricular ejection fractions of less than 50% at rest. Twenty-four patients demonstrated perfusion defects during exercise that completely reversed at rest; all had normal or hyperdynamic left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction greater than or equal to 50%). Perfusion abnormalities were present in all regions of the left ventricle. However, the fixed defects were observed predominantly in segments of the left ventricular wall that were of normal or only mildly increased (15 to 20 mm) thickness; in contrast, a substantial proportion (41%) of the completely reversible defects occurred in areas of moderate-to-marked wall thickness (greater than or equal to 20 mm, p less than .001). Neither a history of chest pain nor its provocation with treadmill exercise was predictive of an abnormal thallium study, since regional perfusion defects were present in 10 of 18 (56%) completely asymptomatic patients, compared with 31 of 54 (58%) symptomatic patients. These data indicate that myocardial perfusion abnormalities occur commonly among patients with HCM. Fixed or only partially reversible defects suggestive of myocardial scar and/or severe ischemia occur primarily in patients with impaired systolic performance.

  18. Verapamil prevents silent myocardial perfusion abnormalities during exercise in asymptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Udelson, J.E.; Bonow, R.O.; O'Gara, P.T.; Maron, B.J.; Van Lingen, A.; Bacharach, S.L.; Epstein, S.E.

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that reversible 201Tl perfusion defects, compatible with silent myocardial ischemia, commonly develop during exercise in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). To determine whether this represents a dynamic process that may be modified favorably by medical therapy, we studied 29 asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with HCM, aged 12-55 years (mean, 28), with exercise 201Tl emission computed tomography under control conditions and again after 1 week of oral verapamil (mean dosage, 453 mg/day). Treadmill time increased slightly during verapamil (21.0 +/- 3.6 to 21.9 +/- 2.7 minutes, p less than 0.005), but peak heart rate-blood pressure product was unchanged (26.3 +/- 6.0 X 10(3)) compared with 25.0 +/- 6.4 X 10(3). Two midventricular short-axis images per study were divided into five regions each, and each of these 10 regions was then analyzed on a 0-2 scale by three observers blinded with regard to the patients' therapy. Average regional scores of 1.5 or less were considered to represent perfusion defects, and a change in regional score of 0.5 or more was considered to constitute a significant change. During control studies, 15 patients (52%) developed perfusion defects with exercise (average, 3.7 regions per patient). In 14 of these patients, all perfusion defects completely reversed after 3 hours of rest; one patient had fixed defects. After administration of verapamil, exercise perfusion scores improved in 10 of the 14 patients (71%) with reversible defects; there was overall improvement in 34 of 50 (68%) regions with initially reversible perfusion defects.

  19. Characteristic systolic waveform of left ventricular longitudinal strain rate in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazunori; Kaga, Sanae; Mikami, Taisei; Masauzi, Nobuo; Abe, Ayumu; Nakabachi, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shinobu; Nishino, Hisao; Ichikawa, Ayako; Nishida, Mutsumi; Murai, Daisuke; Hayashi, Taichi; Shimizu, Chikara; Iwano, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-18

    We analyzed the waveform of systolic strain and strain-rate curves to find a characteristic left ventricular (LV) myocardial contraction pattern in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and evaluated the utility of these parameters for the differentiation of HCM and LV hypertrophy secondary to hypertension (HT). From global strain and strain-rate curves in the longitudinal and circumferential directions, the time from mitral valve closure to the peak strains (T-LS and T-CS, respectively) and the peak systolic strain rates (T-LSSR and T-CSSR, respectively) were measured in 34 patients with HCM, 30 patients with HT, and 25 control subjects. The systolic strain-rate waveform was classified into 3 patterns ("V", "W", and "√" pattern). In the HCM group, T-LS was prolonged, but T-LSSR was shortened; consequently, T-LSSR/T-LS ratio was distinctly lower than in the HT and control groups. The "√" pattern of longitudinal strain-rate waveform was more frequently seen in the HCM group (74 %) than in the control (4 %) and HT (20 %) groups. Similar but less distinct results were obtained in the circumferential direction. To differentiate HCM from HT, the sensitivity and specificity of the T-LSSR/T-LS ratio <0.34 and the "√"-shaped longitudinal strain-rate waveform were 85 and 63 %, and 74 and 80 %, respectively. In conclusion, in patients with HCM, a reduced T-LSSR/T-LS ratio and a characteristic "√"-shaped waveform of LV systolic strain rate was seen, especially in the longitudinal direction. The timing and waveform analyses of systolic strain rate may be useful to distinguish between HCM and HT.

  20. Intracoronary electrocardiogram during alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy predicts myocardial injury size.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Qu, Xiaolong; Huang, Haiyun; Zhang, Shanwen; Zhao, Weibo; He, Guoxiang; Song, Zhiyuan; Hu, Houyuan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) has been used widely to treat patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). During the routine ASA procedure, it is difficult to detect the septal injury in real-time. The aim of the present study is to assess myocardial injury during ASA by recording intracoronary electrocardiogram (IC-ECG). From 2012 to 2015, 31 HOCM patients were treated with ASA, and IC-ECG was recorded in 21 patients successfully before and after ethanol injection. The elevation of ST-segment on IC-ECG after ethanol injection was expressed as its ratio to the level before injection or the absolute increasing value. Blood samples were collected before and after ASA for measuring changes in cardiac biomarkers. The ratio value of ST-segment elevation was positively correlated with both the amount of ethanol injected (r = 0.645, P = 0.001) and the myocardial injury size (creatine kinase-MB area under the curve (AUC) of CK-MB) (r = 0.466, P = 0.017). The absolute increment of ST-segment was also positively associated with both the amount of ethanol (r = 0.665, P = 0.001) and AUC of CK-MB (0.685, P = 0.001). However, there was no statistical correlation between the reduction of left ventricular outflow tract gradient and ST-segment elevation. Additionally no severe ASA procedure-related complications were observed in our patients. In conclusion, myocardial injury induced by ethanol injection can be assessed immediately by ST-segment elevation on IC-ECG. This study is the first to show that IC-ECG is a useful method for predicting myocardial injury during ASA in real-time.

  1. Immunohistochemical evaluation of COX-1 and COX-2 expression in keloid and hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Asmaa G; Maraee, Alaa H; Saif, Hala F Abd-Elsattar

    2014-04-01

    Both keloids (KLs) and hypertrophic scars (HSs) are considered as dermal fibroproliferative diseases that differ clinically and histopathologically. Although several factors have been postulated in the etiopathogenesis of these conditions, there has been growing evidence to suggest the role of COXs in the pathogenesis of abnormal wound healing because of the reduction of formation of KL and HS in patients using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and a COX-2 inhibitor. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the pattern and localization of COX-1 and COX-2 expression in KL and HS compared with surgical scars. COX-1 and COX-2 were analyzed on skin biopsies of 30 patients who presented with KL (15) and HS (15) and 10 normal surgical scars (controls). Both COX-1 and COX-2 were expressed not only in dermal components (fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, and endothelial cells) but also in keratinocytes of the overlying epidermis in the different studied scar lesions. The percentage of COX-1 expression increased progressively from surgical scar (40%) to HS (53.3%) to KL (100%) with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.002). COX-2 was expressed in 100% of surgical scars, 73.3% of HS and 86.7% of KL with the absence of significant differences (P > 0.05). The significant difference in COX-1 expression between HS and KL may refer to the presence of different pathways for the emergence of these diseases. The expression of COX-2 in all scars (normal or abnormal) indicates its active role as an inflammatory mediator. Keratinocytes play an active role in induction of scarring by up-regulation of inflammatory mediators, such as COX-1 and COX-2.

  2. Body size and metabolic differences in Maine Coon cats with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lisa M; Rush, John E; Meurs, Kathryn M; Bulmer, Barret J; Cunningham, Suzanne M

    2013-02-01

    An interplay between growth, glucose regulation and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may exist, but has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to characterize morphometric features, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose metabolism in Maine Coon cats with HCM. Body weight, body condition score (BCS), head length and width, and abdominal circumference were measured in Maine Coon cats >2 years of age. Echocardiography and thoracic radiography (for measurement of humerus length, and fourth and twelfth vertebrae length) were also performed. Blood was collected for biochemistry profile, DNA testing, insulin and IGF-1. Sixteen of 63 cats had HCM [myosin binding protein C (MYBPC)+, n = 3 and MYBPC-, n = 13] and 47/63 were echocardiographically normal (MYBPC+, n = 17 and MYBPC-, n = 30). There were no significant differences in any measured parameter between MYBPC+ and MYBPC- cats. Cats with HCM were significantly older (P <0.001), heavier (P = 0.006), more obese (P = 0.008), and had longer humeri (P = 0.02) compared with the HCM- group. Cats with HCM also had higher serum glucose (P = 0.01), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and IGF-1 (P = 0.01) concentrations, were from smaller litters (P = 0.04), and were larger at 6 months (P = 0.02) and at 1 year of age (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis revealed that age (P <0.001), BCS (P = 0.03) and HOMA (P = 0.047) remained significantly associated with HCM. These results support the hypothesis that early growth and nutrition, larger body size and obesity may be environmental modifiers of genetic predisposition to HCM. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of early nutrition on the phenotypic expression of HCM.

  3. Myocardial collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration in cats with pre-clinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Khor, K H; Campbell, F E; Owen, H; Shiels, I A; Mills, P C

    2015-02-01

    The histological features of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have been well documented, but there are no reports describing the histological features in mild pre-clinical disease, since cats are rarely screened for the disease in the early stages before clinical signs are apparent. Histological changes at the early stage of the disease in pre-clinical cats could contribute to an improved understanding of disease aetiology or progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological features of HCM in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium of cats diagnosed with pre-clinical HCM. Clinically healthy cats with normal (n = 11) and pre-clinical HCM (n = 6) were identified on the basis of echocardiography; LV free wall dimensions (LVFWd) and/or interventricular septal wall (IVSd) dimensions during diastole of 6-7 mm were defined as HCM, while equivalent dimensions <5.5 mm were defined as normal. LV myocardial sections were assessed and collagen content and inflammatory cell infiltrates were quantified objectively. Multifocal areas of inflammatory cell infiltration, predominantly lymphocytes, were observed frequently in the left myocardium of cats with pre-clinical HCM. Tissue from cats with pre-clinical HCM also had a higher number of neutrophils and a greater collagen content than the myocardium of normal cats. The myocardium variably demonstrated other features characteristic of HCM, including arteriolar mural hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis and, to a lesser extent, myocardial fibre disarray and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that an inflammatory process could contribute to increased collagen content and the myocardial fibrosis known to be associated with HCM.

  4. Physical activity and other health behaviors in adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Reineck, Elizabeth; Rolston, Brice; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Salberg, Lisa; Baty, Linda; Kumar, Suwen; Wheeler, Matthew T; Ashley, Euan; Saberi, Sara; Day, Sharlene M

    2013-04-01

    The clinical expression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is undoubtedly influenced by modifying genetic and environmental factors. Lifestyle practices such as tobacco and alcohol use, poor nutritional intake, and physical inactivity are strongly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased mortality in the general population. Before addressing the direct effect of such modifiable factors on the natural history of HC, it is critical to define their prevalence in this population. A voluntary survey, drawing questions in part from the 2007 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), was posted on the HC Association website and administered to patients with HC at the University of Michigan. Propensity score matching to NHANES participants was used. Dichotomous and continuous health behaviors were analyzed using logistic and linear regression, respectively, and adjusted for body mass index and propensity score quintile. Compared to the matched NHANES participants, the patients with HC reported significantly less alcohol and tobacco use but also less time engaged in physical activity at work and for leisure. Time spent participating in vigorous or moderate activity was a strong predictor of self-reported exercise capacity. The body mass index was greater in the HC cohort than in the NHANES cohort. Exercise restrictions negatively affected emotional well-being in most surveyed subjects. In conclusion, patients with HC are less active than the general United States population. The well-established relation of inactivity, obesity, and cardiovascular mortality might be exaggerated in patients with HC. More data are needed on exercise in those with HC to strike a balance between acute risks and the long-term health benefits of exercise.

  5. Exercise restrictions trigger psychological difficulty in active and athletic adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Luiten, Rebecca C; Ormond, Kelly; Post, Lisa; Asif, Irfan M; Wheeler, Matthew T; Caleshu, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the extent and nature of the psychological difficulty experienced by athletic adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), correlates of that difficulty and coping mechanisms. Methods A survey assessed athletic history and psychological impact of exercise restrictions. LASSO penalised linear regression identified factors associated with psychological difficulty. Semistructured interviews provided deeper insight into the nature and origins of psychological difficulty. Results 54 individuals (33% female, mean age 55.9) completed the survey. The majority were recreational athletes at the time of restriction (67%). There was a drop in athleticism after diagnosis, including time spent exercising (p=0.04) and identification as an athlete (p=0.0005). Most respondents (54%) found it stressful and/or difficult to adjust to exercise restrictions. Greater psychological morbidity was associated with history of elite or competitive athletics, athletic identity and decrease in time spent exercising. 16 individuals (44% female, mean age 52.4) were interviewed. Long-term effects included weight gain and uncertainty about exercising safely. The role of exercise in interviewees' lives contracted significantly after restriction, from multiple functions (eg, social, stress relief, fitness) to solely health maintenance. Interviewees reported a unique form of social support: having family and friends participate with them in lower intensity exercise. Lack of understanding from family or friends and avoiding exercise completely were detrimental to coping. Conclusions Athletic adults with HCM experience multifaceted, lasting difficulty adjusting to exercise recommendations. These data can guide clinicians in identifying patients at highest risk for distress and in helping to bolster coping and adaptation. PMID:27843566

  6. Cardiac Troponin and Tropomyosin: Structural and Cellular Perspectives to Unveil the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Mayra de A.; de Oliveira, Guilherme A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Inherited myopathies affect both skeletal and cardiac muscle and are commonly associated with genetic dysfunctions, leading to the production of anomalous proteins. In cardiomyopathies, mutations frequently occur in sarcomeric genes, but the cause-effect scenario between genetic alterations and pathological processes remains elusive. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was the first cardiac disease associated with a genetic background. Since the discovery of the first mutation in the β-myosin heavy chain, more than 1400 new mutations in 11 sarcomeric genes have been reported, awarding HCM the title of the “disease of the sarcomere.” The most common macroscopic phenotypes are left ventricle and interventricular septal thickening, but because the clinical profile of this disease is quite heterogeneous, these phenotypes are not suitable for an accurate diagnosis. The development of genomic approaches for clinical investigation allows for diagnostic progress and understanding at the molecular level. Meanwhile, the lack of accurate in vivo models to better comprehend the cellular events triggered by this pathology has become a challenge. Notwithstanding, the imbalance of Ca2+ concentrations, altered signaling pathways, induction of apoptotic factors, and heart remodeling leading to abnormal anatomy have already been reported. Of note, a misbalance of signaling biomolecules, such as kinases and tumor suppressors (e.g., Akt and p53), seems to participate in apoptotic and fibrotic events. In HCM, structural and cellular information about defective sarcomeric proteins and their altered interactome is emerging but still represents a bottleneck for developing new concepts in basic research and for future therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on the structural and cellular alterations triggered by HCM-causing mutations in troponin and tropomyosin proteins and how structural biology can aid in the discovery of new platforms for therapeutics. We highlight the

  7. Endothelin-1 contributes to the Frank-Starling response in hypertrophic rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Piuhola, Jarkko; Szokodi, István; Kinnunen, Pietari; Ilves, Mika; deChâtel, Rudolf; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Ruskoaho, Heikki

    2003-01-01

    Endothelin-1 is involved in mechanical load-induced cardiac growth processes; it also has effects on contractility. The interaction of endothelin-1 and the Frank-Starling response is unknown. The present study aimed to characterize the role of endothelin-1 in the regulation of the Frank-Starling response, one of the major mechanisms regulating cardiac contractile force, in both normal and hypertrophied hearts. Nontransgenic rat hearts and hypertrophic hearts of hypertensive double transgenic rats harboring human angiotensinogen and renin genes were studied in a Langendorff isolated heart setup with a liquid-filled balloon inside the left ventricle used to measure contractile parameters. The rats were studied at compensated phase, before showing any signs of heart failure. Compensated hypertrophy in double transgenic rat hearts resulted in improved contractility at a given level of preload when compared with nontransgenic rat hearts. Hearts of both rat lines showed preserved Frank-Starling responses, that is, increased contractile function in response to increased end-diastolic pressure. The mixed endothelin A/B receptor antagonist bosentan attenuated the Frank-Starling response by 53% (P<0.01) in the double transgenic hearts but not in nontransgenic hearts. The diastolic parameters remained unaffected. The left ventricles of the double transgenic rat hearts showed an 82% higher level of endothelin type A receptor mRNA and a 25% higher level of immunoreactive endothelin-1 compared with nontransgenic rat hearts. The type 1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist CV-11974 had no significant effect on contractile function in response to load in either strain. These results show that endogenous endothelin-1 contributes to the Frank-Starling response in hypertrophied rat hearts by affecting systolic performance.

  8. Comparison of Maximal Wall Thickness in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Differs Between Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Bois, John P; Geske, Jeffrey B; Foley, Thomas A; Ommen, Steve R; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2017-02-15

    Left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is a prognostic marker in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). LV wall thickness ≥30 mm (massive hypertrophy) is independently associated with sudden cardiac death. Presence of massive hypertrophy is used to guide decision making for cardiac defibrillator implantation. We sought to determine whether measurements of maximal LV wall thickness differ between cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Consecutive patients were studied who had HC without previous septal ablation or myectomy and underwent both cardiac MRI and TTE at a single tertiary referral center. Reported maximal LV wall thickness was compared between the imaging techniques. Patients with ≥1 technique reporting massive hypertrophy received subset analysis. In total, 618 patients were evaluated from January 1, 2003, to December 21, 2012 (mean [SD] age, 53 [15] years; 381 men [62%]). In 75 patients (12%), reported maximal LV wall thickness was identical between MRI and TTE. Median difference in reported maximal LV wall thickness between the techniques was 3 mm (maximum difference, 17 mm). Of the 63 patients with ≥1 technique measuring maximal LV wall thickness ≥30 mm, 44 patients (70%) had discrepant classification regarding massive hypertrophy. MRI identified 52 patients (83%) with massive hypertrophy; TTE, 30 patients (48%). Although guidelines recommend MRI or TTE imaging to assess cardiac anatomy in HC, this study shows discrepancy between the techniques for maximal reported LV wall thickness assessment. In conclusion, because this measure clinically affects prognosis and therapeutic decision making, efforts to resolve these discrepancies are critical.

  9. Extended myectomy in the treatment of patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kołsut, Piotr; Różański, Jacek; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Kłopotowski, Mariusz; Kumor, Magda; Kowalski, Mirosław; Kopyłowska, Natalia; Kuriata, Jarosław; Kuśmierczyk, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Partial resection of the septal muscle is a well-established and effective method of surgical treatment for patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). The procedure is characterized by a low operative mortality rate and long-term clinical improvement that has been confirmed in numerous publications. Mitral insufficiency in patients with HOCM is mostly functional due to the effect of systolic anterior motion (SAM). Aim To present the early results of surgical treatment provided to HOCM patients and to compare the effectiveness of two surgical procedures: isolated myectomy and myectomy combined with mitral valve replacement. Material and methods The study analyzed a group of 49 patients (20 women) with HOCM who underwent surgical treatment between 2012 and 2015. Isolated myectomy was performed in 67.25% (n = 33) of patients, myectomy combined with mitral valve replacement in 30.61% (n = 15), and 1 (2.04%) patient underwent myectomy combined with mitral valvuloplasty (papillary muscle repositioning). Results A greater reduction of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient was observed in the population with concomitant mitral valve replacement in comparison to patients after isolated myectomy; the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.020). No significant correlation was observed between residual SAM and the grade of mitral regurgitation (p = 0.699) or between residual SAM and the LVOT gradient (p = 0.280). Conclusions Surgical myectomy is a well-established, effective method of reducing increased LVOT gradients in patients with HOCM. Additional mitral valve replacement may be associated with greater reductions of the LVOT gradient in the early postoperative period. Valve replacement should be considered in patients with concomitant mitral valve degeneration and patients with narrowed left ventricular cavities. PMID:28096824

  10. Biophysical properties of human β-cardiac myosin with converter mutations that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kawana, Masataka; Sarkar, Saswata S.; Sutton, Shirley; Ruppel, Kathleen M.; Spudich, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) affects 1 in 500 individuals and is an important cause of arrhythmias and heart failure. Clinically, HCM is characterized as causing hypercontractility, and therapies are aimed toward controlling the hyperactive physiology. Mutations in the β-cardiac myosin comprise ~40% of genetic mutations associated with HCM, and the converter domain of myosin is a hotspot for HCM-causing mutations; however, the underlying primary effects of these mutations on myosin’s biomechanical function remain elusive. We hypothesize that these mutations affect the biomechanical properties of myosin, such as increasing its intrinsic force and/or its duty ratio and therefore the ensemble force of the sarcomere. Using recombinant human β-cardiac myosin, we characterize the molecular effects of three severe HCM-causing converter domain mutations: R719W, R723G, and G741R. Contrary to our hypothesis, the intrinsic forces of R719W and R723G mutant myosins are decreased compared to wild type and unchanged for G741R. Actin and regulated thin filament gliding velocities are ~15% faster for R719W and R723G myosins, whereas there is no change in velocity for G741R. Adenosine triphosphatase activities and the load-dependent velocity change profiles of all three mutant proteins are very similar to those of wild type. These results indicate that the net biomechanical properties of human β-cardiac myosin carrying these converter domain mutations are very similar to those of wild type or are even slightly hypocontractile, leading us to consider an alternative mechanism for the clinically observed hypercontractility. Future work includes how these mutations affect protein interactions within the sarcomere that increase the availability of myosin heads participating in force production. PMID:28246639

  11. Differentiating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from athlete's heart: An electrocardiographic and echocardiographic approach.

    PubMed

    Grazioli, Gonzalo; Usín, Domingo; Trucco, Emilce; Sanz, Maria; Montserrat, Silvia; Vidal, Bàrbara; Gutierrez, Josep; Canal, Ramon; Brugada, Josep; Mont, Lluis; Sitges, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) vs athlete's heart is challenging in individuals with mild-moderate left-ventricular hypertrophy. This study aimed to assess ECG and echocardiographic parameters proposed for the differential diagnosis of HCM. The study included 75 men in three groups: control (n=30), "gray zone" athletes with interventricular septum (IVS) measuring 13-15mm (n=25) and HCM patients with IVS of 13-18mm (n=20). The most significant differences were found in relative septal thickness (RST), calculated as the ratio of 2 x IVS to left ventricle end-diastolic diameter (LV-EDD) (0.37, 0.51, 0.71, respectively; p<0.01) and in spatial QRS-T angle as visually estimated (9.8, 33.6, 66.2, respectively; p<0.01). The capacity for differential HCM diagnosis of each of the 5 criteria was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC), as follows: LV-EDD<54 (0.60), family history (0.61), T-wave inversion (TWI) (0.67), spatial QRS-T angle>45 (0.75) and RST>0.54 (0.92). Pearson correlation between spatial QRS-T angle>45 and TWI was 0.76 (p 0.01). The combination of spatial QRS-T angle>45 and RST>0.54 for diagnosis of HCM had an AUC of 0.79. The best diagnostic criteria for HCM was RST>0.54. The spatial QRS-T angle>45 did not add sensitivity if TWI was present. No additional improvement in differential diagnosis was obtained by combining parameters.

  12. Genetics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: advances and pitfalls in molecular diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Fernandes, Alexandra R

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary disease of the cardiac muscle that occurs mainly due to mutations (>1,400 variants) in genes encoding for the cardiac sarcomere. HCM, the most common familial form of cardiomyopathy, affecting one in every 500 people in the general population, is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, and presents variable expressivity and age-related penetrance. Due to the morphological and pathological heterogeneity of the disease, the appearance and progression of symptoms is not straightforward. Most HCM patients are asymptomatic, but up to 25% develop significant symptoms, including chest pain and sudden cardiac death. Sudden cardiac death is a dramatic event, since it occurs without warning and mainly in younger people, including trained athletes. Molecular diagnosis of HCM is of the outmost importance, since it may allow detection of subjects carrying mutations on HCM-associated genes before development of clinical symptoms of HCM. However, due to the genetic heterogeneity of HCM, molecular diagnosis is difficult. Currently, there are mainly four techniques used for molecular diagnosis of HCM, including Sanger sequencing, high resolution melting, mutation detection using DNA arrays, and next-generation sequencing techniques. Application of these methods has proven successful for identification of mutations on HCM-related genes. This review summarizes the features of these technologies, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, current therapeutics for HCM patients are correlated with clinically observed phenotypes and are based on the alleviation of symptoms. This is mainly due to insufficient knowledge on the mechanisms involved in the onset of HCM. Tissue engineering alongside regenerative medicine coupled with nanotherapeutics may allow fulfillment of those gaps, together with screening of novel therapeutic drugs and target delivery systems.