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Sample records for hypnotherapy

  1. Hypnotherapy for birth.

    PubMed

    Howell, Maggie

    2014-05-01

    There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.

  2. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  3. Hypnotherapy for sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ng, Beng-Yeong; Lee, Tih Shih

    2008-08-01

    Hypnosis can be defined as a procedure during which changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings or behaviour are suggested. Hypnosis can be used to amplify whatever it is about therapy that makes it therapeutic. It permits a wide range of choices regarding where and how to intervene in the patient's problems. In this paper, we set out to examine the rationale of using hypnotherapy to manage various types of sleep disorders, and to explore the techniques, strategies and hypnotic scripts employed by various hypnotherapists. We also examine the research data available on the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of sleep disorders. Acute and chronic insomnia often respond to relaxation and hypnotherapy approaches, along with sleep hygiene instructions. Hypnotherapy has also helped with nightmares and sleep terrors. There are several reports of successful use of hypnotherapy for parasomnias, specifically for head and body rocking, bedwetting and sleepwalking. Hypnosis is a specialised technique, not a therapy itself, and should be used as an adjunctive intervention within a complete psychological and medical treatment package. Most of the literature is limited to case reports or studies with such a small sample that at times it is very difficult to interpret the results. There is a major placebo effect, so uncontrolled trials are of limited value. It is hard to perform a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial to evaluate hypnotherapy given that cooperation and rapport between patient and therapist is needed to achieve a receptive trance state.

  4. MANIA FOLLOWING HYPNOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, T.R.; Srinivasan, T.N.

    1994-01-01

    Switches into mania have been observed in unipolar and bipolar depressed patients following physical treatments as well as cognitive therapy. Such a phenomenon has not been observed with hypnotherapy and its occurrence in a depressive patient is reported here and discussed. PMID:21743665

  5. Hypnotherapy for Esophageal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Megan E.; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an evidence based intervention for the treatment of functional bowel disorders, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. While similar in pathophysiology, less is known about the utility of hypnotherapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal disorders, most of which are functional in nature, cause painful and uncomfortable symptoms that impact patient quality of life and are difficult to treat from a medical perspective. After a thorough medical workup and a failed trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy, options for treatment are significantly limited. While the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, two critical factors are believed to drive esophageal symptoms—visceral hypersensitivity and symptom hypervigilance. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn. In this article the authors will provide a rationale for the use of hypnosis in these disorders, presenting the science whenever available, describing their approach with these patients, and sharing a case study representing a successful outcome. PMID:26046715

  6. Hypnotherapy for Esophageal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Megan E; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-07-01

    Hypnotherapy is an evidence based intervention for the treatment of functional bowel disorders, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. While similar in pathophysiology, less is known about the utility of hypnotherapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal disorders, most of which are functional in nature, cause painful and uncomfortable symptoms that impact patient quality of life and are difficult to treat from a medical perspective. After a thorough medical workup and a failed trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy, options for treatment are significantly limited. While the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, two critical factors are believed to drive esophageal symptoms--visceral hypersensitivity and symptom hypervigilance. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn. In this article the authors will provide a rationale for the use of hypnosis in these disorders, presenting the science whenever available, describing their approach with these patients, and sharing a case study representing a successful outcome.

  7. Medical hypnotherapy for pain management.

    PubMed

    Colón, Yvette; Avnet, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. Hypnotherapy, its uses and process, and certification and training of hypnotherapy professionals are addressed.

  8. Cognitive hypnotherapy for pain management.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a serious health care problem and there is growing evidence to support the use of hypnosis and cognitive-behavioral interventions for pain management. This article reviews clinical techniques and methods of cognitive hypnotherapy for pain management. Current research with emphasis given to randomized, controlled trials is presented and the efficacy of hypnotherapy for pain management is discussed. Evidence for cognitive hypnotherapy in the treatment in chronic pain, cancer, osteoarthritis, sickle cell disease, temporomandibular disorder, fibromyalgia, non-cardiac chest pain, and disability related chronic pains are identified. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed in light of the accumulating evidence in support of the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive hypnotherapy for pain management.

  9. Hypnotherapy in radiotherapy patients: A randomized trial

    SciTech Connect

    Stalpers, Lukas J.A. . E-mail: l.stalpers@amc.uva.nl; Costa, Hanna C. da; Merbis, Merijn A.E.; Fortuin, Andries A.; Muller, Martin J.; Dam, Frits van

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hypnotherapy reduces anxiety and improves the quality of life in cancer patients undergoing curative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and materials: After providing written informed consent, 69 patients were randomized between standard curative RT alone (36 controls) and RT plus hypnotherapy (33 patients). Patients in the hypnotherapy group received hypnotherapy at the intake, before RT simulation, before the first RT session, and halfway between the RT course. Anxiety was evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory DY-1 form at six points. Quality of life was measured by the Rand Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Health Survey (SF-36) at five points. Additionally, patients answered a questionnaire to evaluate their experience and the possible benefits of this research project. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in anxiety or quality of life between the hypnotherapy and control groups. However, significantly more patients in the hypnotherapy group indicated an improvement in mental (p < 0.05) and overall (p < 0.05) well-being. Conclusion: Hypnotherapy did not reduce anxiety or improve the quality of life in cancer patients undergoing curative RT. The absence of statistically significant differences between the two groups contrasts with the hypnotherapy patients' own sense of mental and overall well-being, which was significantly greater after hypnotherapy. It cannot be excluded that the extra attention by the hypnotherapist was responsible for this beneficial effect in the hypnotherapy group. An attention-only control group would be necessary to control for this effect.

  10. Hypnotherapy as a Treatment for Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, S. D.; Van Der Spuy, H. I. J.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the efficacy of hypnotherapy in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis in boys aged 8 to 13 years. Treatment consisted of six weekly standardized sessions. Results indicated that hypnotherapy was significantly effective over 6 months in decreasing nocturnal enuresis, compared with both pretreatment enuresis frequency and no-treatment…

  11. Hypnotherapy as a Treatment for Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, S. D.; Van Der Spuy, H. I. J.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the efficacy of hypnotherapy in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis in boys aged 8 to 13 years. Treatment consisted of six weekly standardized sessions. Results indicated that hypnotherapy was significantly effective over 6 months in decreasing nocturnal enuresis, compared with both pretreatment enuresis frequency and no-treatment…

  12. Hypnotherapy for labor and birth.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Kathleen R

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.

  13. Evidence-based hypnotherapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2010-04-01

    Cognitive hypnotherapy (CH) is a comprehensive evidence-based hypnotherapy for clinical depression. This article describes the major components of CH, which integrate hypnosis with cognitive-behavior therapy as the latter provides an effective host theory for the assimilation of empirically supported treatment techniques derived from various theoretical models of psychotherapy and psychopathology. CH meets criteria for an assimilative model of psychotherapy, which is considered to be an efficacious model of psychotherapy integration. The major components of CH for depression are described in sufficient detail to allow replication, verification, and validation of the techniques delineated. CH for depression provides a template that clinicians and investigators can utilize to study the additive effects of hypnosis in the management of other psychological or medical disorders. Evidence-based hypnotherapy and research are encouraged; such a movement is necessary if clinical hypnosis is to integrate into mainstream psychotherapy.

  14. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Webb, A N; Kukuruzovic, R H; Catto-Smith, A G; Sawyer, S M

    2007-10-17

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder of unknown aetiology. Current pharmacological treatments have limited value. Hypnotherapy has been reported to have beneficial effects for IBS symptoms. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised clinical trials were identified through structured searches of MEDLINE (1966 to March 2006), EMBASE (1980 to March 2006), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2006), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1982 to March 2006), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, 1985 to March 2006) and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials. Conference proceedings from Digestive Disease Week (1980 to 2005) were also searched. Eligible studies included all randomised and quasi-randomised clinical studies comparing hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with no treatment or another therapeutic intervention. All studies were evaluated for eligibility for inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality and data were extracted independently by four authors. The primary outcome measure of interest was the overall bowel symptom severity score which combines abdominal pain, diarrhoea or constipation and bloating. Secondary outcomes included abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation, bloating, quality of life, patient's overall assessment of well-being, psychological measures as per validated questionnaires, and adverse events. Four studies including a total of 147 patients met the inclusion criteria. Only one study compared hypnotherapy to an alternative therapy (psychotherapy and placebo pill), two studies compared hypnotherapy with waiting-list controls and the final study compared hypnotherapy to usual medical management. Data were not pooled for meta-analysis due to differences in outcome measures and study design. The therapeutic

  15. Erythromelalgia--the role of hypnotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, K.; Pharoah, P. D.; Scott, D. G.; Barker, S.

    1992-01-01

    Erythromelalgia is an unusual condition characterized by attacks of burning pain in the hands and feet with local congestion and increased skin temperature. We report a case of erythromelalgia, with transient hypertension and elevated urinary catecholamines successfully treated by hypnotherapy. Such an association has not to our knowledge been previously reported in English language publications. PMID:1561190

  16. Cognitive hypnotherapy for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2012-04-01

    Since the publication of the special issue on cognitive hypnotherapy in the Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly (1994), there have been major developments in the application of hypnosis to the treatment of depression. However, there is no "one-size-fits-all" treatment for depressive disorders as the conditions represent a complex set of heterogeneous symptoms, involving multiple etiologies. It is thus important for therapists to promote a multimodal approach to treating depressive disorders. This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), an evidence-based multimodal psychological treatment that can be applied to a wide range of depressed patients. CH combines hypnosis with cognitive behavior therapy as the latter provides the best integrative lodestone for assimilating empirically supported treatment techniques derived from various psychotherapies.

  17. Hypnotherapy in child psychiatry: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Melanie Ekholdt; Vandvik, Inger Helene; Diseth, Trond H

    2008-07-01

    Children are more easily hypnotized than adults, and hypnotherapy as a method responds to the general developmental needs of children by addressing their ability for fantasy and imagination. Hypnotherapy and self-hypnosis are tools with which to assess and develop protective factors, and enhance positive adjustment. Meta-analyses and overviews have demonstrated the effect of hypnotherapy in paediatric disorders like asthma, chronic and acute pain, and in procedure-related distress in cancer patients. We wanted to examine the use and benefits of hypnotherapy when applied to child psychiatric disorders. A review of a literature search from PubMed, PsychINFO and the Cochrane databases revealed 60 publications, mostly case reports based on 2-60 cases, addressing the use of hypnotherapy in various child psychiatric conditions. Findings indicate that hypnotherapy may be useful for a wide range of disorders and problems, and may be particularly valuable in the treatment of anxiety disorders and trauma-related conditions. In conclusion, knowledge of hypnosis is useful in clinical practice and hypnotherapy may play an important role as an adjunctive therapy in cognitive-behavioural treatment and family therapy. Additional qualitative and quantitative studies are needed to assess the place for hypnosis/hypnotherapy in child psychiatry.

  18. Hypnotherapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Szigethy, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by lifelong relapsing gastrointestinal symptoms and associated with high rates of chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. In this review the author covers the existing literature including randomized controlled studies, open trials, and case reports as well as expert opinion in evaluating how hypnotherapy can be most beneficial in adolescents and adults with IBD. Hypnotherapy evidence for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is also reviewed as many of the gut-focused hypnotherapy (GHT) approaches used in IBD trials were developed for this latter population. Collectively, the strongest evidence of use of hypnotherapy is its association with reduced IBD-related inflammation and improved health-related quality of life with mixed results in terms of its effects on psychological and pain outcomes in adults with IBD. Studies of hypnotherapy for FGID symptoms show consistently more positive results. Post-operative hypnotherapy may also be helpful based on findings in other surgical samples. Adolescents with IBD have not been as systematically studied but small case series support the use of hypnotherapy to improve inflammation and pain. Future studies are needed to better delineate the specific brain-gut pathways which are most influenced by hypnotherapy in the IBD population and to investigate the longer-term course of the positive short-term findings.

  19. Cognitive Hypnotherapy as a Transdiagnostic Protocol for Emotional Disorders.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen; Amundson, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), an integrative treatment that provides an evidence-based framework for synthesizing clinical practice and research. CH combines hypnotherapy with cognitive-behavior therapy in the management of emotional disorders. This blended version of clinical practice meets criteria for an assimilative model of integrative psychotherapy, which incorporates both theory and empirical findings. Issues related to (a) additive effect of hypnosis in treatment, (b) transdiagnostic consideration, and (c) unified treatment protocols in the treatment of emotional disorders are considered in light of cognitive hypnotherapy.

  20. [Role of hypnotherapy in the treatment of debilitating tinnitus].

    PubMed

    Gajan, F; Pannetier, B; Cordier, A; Amstutz-Montadert, I; Dehesdin, D; Marie, J P

    2011-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is currently used for tinnitus therapy in our university hospital. The aim of this study was to evaluate its efficacy. This study was performed on 110 patients suffering from distressing tinnitus. They were treated during five sessions with hypnotherapy, supplemented by instruction on self-hypnotherapy. A subjective evaluation was done by the practitioner at the end of the sessions of hypnotherapy. Then a questionnaire on psychologic distress (Wilson 1991) was sent retrospectively to the patients. We received 65 responses which were used for this study. Before treatment, the mean value of the Wilson score was 54 (28-104). After treatment, it was: 31 (0-86). 69% of the patients felt an improvement > or = 5 points Wilson score. These results were compared with the evaluation carried out by the practitioner at the end of the sessions of hypnosis. There was a "significant correlation" between the evaluation of the felt benefice, analyzed by the practitioner at the end of the sessions of hypnosis, and by the patient questioned long after the treatment. These results had significant correlation with the evaluation made by the therapist at the end of the five sessions of hypnotherapy. They show, how effective (68% improvement) this therapeutic approach can be. Hypnotherapy can be regarded as an effective treatment against distressing tinnitus.

  1. Nocturnal bruxism and hypnotherapy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Dowd, E Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a hypnotherapeutic treatment of nocturnal bruxism. The author saw the client for a total of 7 sessions. Hypnotherapy was interspersed with an exploration of tacit and initially denied hostility in the client's life as well as aspects of a somewhat difficult childhood. At the end, the bruxism had disappeared. Follow-up 1 year later indicated that the bruxism had not returned, and the client had become more assertive in her relations with others and had more exploratory activities in her life directions. The latter had not been dealt with in therapy. Thus, there appeared to be a "ripple effect" of successful therapy from one part of her life into its other aspects.

  2. Hypnotherapy: A Useful Adjunctive Therapeutic Modality in Hansen's Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdul Latheef, En; Riyaz, Najeeba

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is a useful adjunctive psychotherapeutic procedure used in various conditions such as pain disorders, atopic dermatitis, and alopecia areata. However, it is less utilized in the field of dermatology. Only limited data exist on its role in the management of various skin diseases. There is dearth of literature on the role of hypnotherapy in Hansen's disease (HD). We report two cases of HD, one with very resistant neuralgia and the other with recurrent erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Both the patients were assessed using hospital anxiety and depression scale, dermatology life quality index and the neuralgia was assessed using the visual analog scale. Three sessions of hypnotherapy were given to both the patients. There was dramatic improvement in the incidence of ENL and neuralgia and we could rapidly reduce the dose of drugs used for both conditions.

  3. Hypnotherapy: A Useful Adjunctive Therapeutic Modality in Hansen's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Latheef, EN; Riyaz, Najeeba

    2014-01-01

    Hypnotherapy is a useful adjunctive psychotherapeutic procedure used in various conditions such as pain disorders, atopic dermatitis, and alopecia areata. However, it is less utilized in the field of dermatology. Only limited data exist on its role in the management of various skin diseases. There is dearth of literature on the role of hypnotherapy in Hansen's disease (HD). We report two cases of HD, one with very resistant neuralgia and the other with recurrent erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Both the patients were assessed using hospital anxiety and depression scale, dermatology life quality index and the neuralgia was assessed using the visual analog scale. Three sessions of hypnotherapy were given to both the patients. There was dramatic improvement in the incidence of ENL and neuralgia and we could rapidly reduce the dose of drugs used for both conditions. PMID:24700936

  4. Hypnotherapy: the salutogenic solution to dealing with phobias.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Maria; Gregory, Colette

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggests that around a quarter of women can suffer from an intense fear of giving birth (tocophobia). This can be costly to these women in terms of enduring negative effects of the increased use of medical interventions associated with tocophobia. Other phobias, such as white coat hypertension, can also be problematic in pregnancy. This article describes the establishment of a hypnotherapy service within the antenatal day assessment unit at East Lancashire Hospitals NHS Trust and recounts a recent case study in which the use of hypnotherapy was employed to help Rebecca, a white coat hypertension sufferer, to successfully manage her condition.

  5. Hypnotherapy of a pain disorder: a clinical case study.

    PubMed

    Artimon, Henrieta Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotherapy's effectiveness in improving and controlling chronic pain of various etiologies has been demonstrated by studies; the mechanism by which hypnosis does this is more complex than a simple induction of muscle relaxation. This study reveals, in addition to this mechanism, a deeper dimension of hypnotherapy from the vantage of a patient with a medical-surgical background, diagnosed with a pain disorder and major severe depressive disorder in addition to incurable painful symptoms, through treatment associated with hypnoanalysis. Following psychotherapy, which included some elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy, a complete remission of the anxious-depressive mood and the painful symptoms was achieved.

  6. The Uses of Hypnotherapy with Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explored the impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled (LD) children. Important predictors of self-esteem improvement were the child's hypnotic susceptibility score and self-hypnotic practice by children and parents. Hypnotherapy is of potential benefit to self-esteem…

  7. The Use of Role Play in the Training of Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Shirley

    A model has been developed for using role play in the supervision and training of hypnotherapy. Specific techniques can be role played by trainee and supervisor which can enable the trainee to develop skill and confidence in the use of hypnotic techniques. Hypnotic induction, listening, observing and providing feedback, relaxation,…

  8. The Uses of Hypnotherapy with Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explored the impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled (LD) children. Important predictors of self-esteem improvement were the child's hypnotic susceptibility score and self-hypnotic practice by children and parents. Hypnotherapy is of potential benefit to self-esteem…

  9. The Use of Role Play in the Training of Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Shirley

    A model has been developed for using role play in the supervision and training of hypnotherapy. Specific techniques can be role played by trainee and supervisor which can enable the trainee to develop skill and confidence in the use of hypnotic techniques. Hypnotic induction, listening, observing and providing feedback, relaxation,…

  10. Long-term effects of hypnotherapy in patients with refractory irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Perjohan; Unge, Peter; Nyhlin, Henry; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Björnsson, Einar S; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Simrén, Magnus

    2012-04-01

    Gut-directed hypnotherapy is considered to be an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but few studies report the long-term effects. This retrospective study aims to evaluate the long-term perceived efficacy of gut-directed hypnotherapy given outside highly specialized hypnotherapy centers. 208 patients, who all had received gut-directed hypnotherapy, were retrospectively evaluated. The Subjective Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) was used to measure changes in IBS symptoms, and patients were classified as responders and non-responders. Patients were also asked to report changes in health-care seeking, use of drugs for IBS symptoms, use of alternative non-pharmacological treatments, and if they still actively used hypnotherapy. Immediately after hypnotherapy, 103 of 208 patients (49%) were responders and 75 of these (73%) had improved further at the follow-up 2-7 years after hypnotherapy (mean 4 years). A majority of the responders still used hypnotherapy on a regular basis at follow-up (73%), and the responders reported a greater reduction in health-care seeking than non-responders. A total of 87% of all patients reported that they considered gut-directed hypnotherapy to be worthwhile, and this differed between responders and non-responders (100% vs. 74%; p < 0.0001). This long-term follow-up study indicates that gut-directed hypnotherapy in refractory IBS is an effective treatment option with long-lasting effects, also when given outside highly specialized hypnotherapy centers. Apart from the clinical benefits, the reduction in health-care utilization has the potential to reduce the health-care costs.

  11. Hypnotherapy for disability-related pain: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Emma; Dorstyn, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Hypnotherapy can address the biopsychosocial aspects of disability-related pain, although the available evidence is limited in quality and quantity. Meta-analytic techniques were utilised to evaluate 10 controlled studies. Hypnotherapy produced significant short-term improvements in fatigue, pain experience and affect. However, a lack of significance was noted at 3- to 6-month follow-up. A beneficial effect size (d(w)= 0.53; confidence interval = 0.28-0.84) in comparison to control conditions was reported, although comparability with other cognitive-behavioural treatments could not be confirmed across the few studies reporting this data (d(w)= 0.06; confidence interval = -0.33 to 0.45). The findings highlight the need for further controlled and longitudinal research in this area. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Hypnotherapy for persistent genital arousal disorder: a case study.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary R; Ramsey, Derek; Yu, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is characterized by intrusive sexual arousal that is unresolvable via sexual activity and persists for an extended period of time. PGAD's etiology is unknown, and it has no established treatments. This case study reports on a 71-year-old female patient diagnosed with PGAD who received 9 sessions of hypnotherapy. The following measures were administered at baseline and follow-up: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and visual analogue measurements of quality of life, intensity of symptoms, and marital interference. At follow-up, there were significant improvements in all measures. Given the currently limited alternatives for treatment, this case study suggests that hypnotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with PGAD.

  13. Hypnotherapy: Fact or Fiction: A Review in Palliative Care and Opinions of Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Geetha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K; Ramachandra, Srinivasa

    2011-01-01

    Context: Complementary medicine like hypnotherapy is often used for pain and palliative care. Health professionals vary in views about hypnotherapy, its utility, value, and attitudes. Aims: To understand the opinions of health professionals on hypnotherapy. Settings and Design: A semi-qualitative method to survey opinions of the health professionals from various disciplines attending a programme on hypnotherapy was conducted. Materials and Methods: The survey form consisted of 32 statements about hypnosis and hypnotherapy. Participants were asked to indicate whether they agreed, disagreed, or were not sure about each statement. A qualitative feedback form was used to obtain further views about hypnotherapy. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentage, frequency distribution. Results: The sample consisted of 21 participants from various disciplines. Two-thirds of the participants gave correct responses to statements on dangerousness of hypnosis (90%), weak mind and hypnosis (86%), and hypnosis as therapy (81%). The participants gave incorrect responses about losing control in hypnosis (57%), hypnosis being in sleep (62%), and becoming dependent on hypnotist (62%). Participants were not sure if one could not hear the hypnotist one is not hypnotized (43%) about the responses on gender and hypnosis (38%), hypnosis leading to revealing secrets (23%). Conclusions: Despite patients using complementary medicine services, often health professionals are unaware of the issues associated with these services. These myths may interfere in using hypnotherapy as therapeutic tool in palliative care. It is important for health professionals to have an appropriate and evidence-based understanding about the complementary therapies including hypnotherapy. PMID:21976856

  14. Hypnotherapy: fact or fiction: a review in palliative care and opinions of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Desai, Geetha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K; Ramachandra, Srinivasa

    2011-05-01

    Complementary medicine like hypnotherapy is often used for pain and palliative care. Health professionals vary in views about hypnotherapy, its utility, value, and attitudes. To understand the opinions of health professionals on hypnotherapy. A semi-qualitative method to survey opinions of the health professionals from various disciplines attending a programme on hypnotherapy was conducted. The survey form consisted of 32 statements about hypnosis and hypnotherapy. Participants were asked to indicate whether they agreed, disagreed, or were not sure about each statement. A qualitative feedback form was used to obtain further views about hypnotherapy. Percentage, frequency distribution. The sample consisted of 21 participants from various disciplines. Two-thirds of the participants gave correct responses to statements on dangerousness of hypnosis (90%), weak mind and hypnosis (86%), and hypnosis as therapy (81%). The participants gave incorrect responses about losing control in hypnosis (57%), hypnosis being in sleep (62%), and becoming dependent on hypnotist (62%). Participants were not sure if one could not hear the hypnotist one is not hypnotized (43%) about the responses on gender and hypnosis (38%), hypnosis leading to revealing secrets (23%). Despite patients using complementary medicine services, often health professionals are unaware of the issues associated with these services. These myths may interfere in using hypnotherapy as therapeutic tool in palliative care. It is important for health professionals to have an appropriate and evidence-based understanding about the complementary therapies including hypnotherapy.

  15. Cognitive hypnotherapy: a new vision and strategy for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2012-04-01

    This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), a visionary model of adjunctive hypnotherapy that advances the role of clinical hypnosis to a recognized integrative model of psychotherapy. As hypnosis lacks a coherent theory of psychotherapy and behavior change, hypnotherapy has embodied a mixed bag of techniques and thus hindered from transfiguring into a mainstream school of psychotherapy. One way of promoting the therapeutic standing of hypnotherapy as an adjunctive therapy is to systematically integrate it with a well-established psychotherapy. By blending hypnotherapy with cognitive behavior therapy, CH offers a unified version of clinical practice that fits the assimilative model of integrated psychotherapy, which represents the best integrative psychotherapy approach for merging both theory and empirical findings.

  16. Gut-directed hypnotherapy significantly augments clinical remission in quiescent ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Laurie; Taft, Tiffany H; Kiebles, Jennifer L; Martinovich, Zoran; Barrett, Terrence A; Palsson, Olafur S

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Psychotherapy is not routinely recommended for in ulcerative colitis (UC). Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HYP) has been linked to improved function in the gastrointestinal tract and may operate through immune-mediated pathways in chronic diseases. Aims To determine the feasibility and acceptability of hypnotherapy and estimate the impact of hypnotherapy on clinical remission status over a 1 year period in patients with an historical flare rate of 1.3 times per year. Methods 54 patients were randomized at a single site to 7 sessions of gut-directed hypnotherapy (N = 26) or attention control (CON; N = 29) and followed for 1 year. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants in each condition that had remained clinically asymptomatic (clinical remission) through 52 weeks post-treatment. Results One-way ANOVA comparing hypnotherapy and control subjects on number of days to clinical relapse favored the hypnotherapy condition [F = 4.8 (1, 48), p = .03] by 78 days. Chi square analysis comparing the groups on proportion maintaining remission at 1 year was also significant [X2(1) = 3.9, p = .04], with 68% of hypnotherapy and 40% of control patients maintaining remission for 1 year. There were no significant differences between groups over time in quality of life, medication adherence, perceived stress or psychological factors. Conclusions This is the first prospective study that has demonstrated a significant effect of a psychological intervention on prolonging clinical remission in patients with quiescent UC. Clinical Trial # NCT00798642 PMID:23957526

  17. Hypnotherapy for incontinence caused by the unstable detrusor.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, R M; Baxby, K

    1982-01-01

    Fifty incontinent women with proved detrusor instability completed 12 sessions of hypnosis (symptom removal by direct suggestion and "ego strengthening") over one month. This was continued at home with a prerecorded cassette, and all patients were followed up for at least six months. At the end of the 12 sessions 29 patients were entirely symptom free, 14 improved, and seven unchanged. Three months later cystometry in 44 of the patients showed conversion of the cystometrogram to stability in 22 and a significant improvement in a further 16; only six showed no objective improvement. Seven patients relapsed (three after bereavement). Further treatment was given and five out of six patients were rendered symptom free again. Patients with detrusor instability were not found to have a noticeably increased susceptibility to hypnosis. It is concluded that psychological factors are very important in "idiopathic" detrusor instability and that hypnotherapy is effective for incontinence due to this disorder. PMID:6805716

  18. HYPNOTHERAPY INTERVENTION FOR LOIN PAIN HEMATURIA: A CASE STUDY1

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Gary R.; Koep, Lauren L.; Kendrick, Cassie E.

    2012-01-01

    Loin pain hematuria is characterized by chronic loin pain, hematuria, and dysuria. There are no known effective treatments for loin pain hematuria and longer-term use of analgesics and surgical options are often ineffective or associated with negative side effects. This article reports on a 17-year-old female patient diagnosed with loin pain hematuria who presented with unilateral, uncontrolled loin pain following numerous unsuccessful attempts at controlling her symptoms with traditional medical interventions—including antibiotics, opioids, and renal denervation. The patient received 8 sessions of hypnotherapy. Baseline, end-point, and follow-up measures administered included the General Health Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Discomfort Scale, and visual analogue measures of pain, academic interference, and social interference. At follow-up, results indicated clinically significant decreases in pain, anxiety, and depression with nearly complete remission of presenting symptoms. PMID:22098573

  19. Healing the wounded self: combining hypnotherapy with ego state therapy.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to formulate a theoretical conceptualization for utilizing ego state therapy (EST) as an adjunct with cognitive hypnotherapy (CH) for depression. As the relationship between life events and onset of depression is very complex, it is not clear from current literature how stressors cause depressive symptoms. The notion of "wounded self," derived from the work of Wolfe (2005, 2006), is examined as a potential unifying concept for binding the role of risk factors in the precipitation of depression. By incorporating wounded self, the circular feedback model of depression, on which CH for depression is based, is expanded. This revised version provides conceptual and empirical underpinnings for integrating EST with CH in the management of depression.

  20. [Hypnotherapy of atopic dermatitis in an adult. Case report].

    PubMed

    Perczel, Kristóf; Gál, János

    2016-01-17

    Hypnosis is well known for its modulatory effects on immune and inflammatory processes, and it is a therapeutic option for certain diseases of such pathogenesis. The authors report treatment of an adult patient with extensive atopic dermatitis, who was only minimally responsive to conservative treatment. In a 15 session hypnotherapy the authors combined the use of direct, symptom-oriented suggestive techniques with hypnotic procedures to identify and modify comorbid psychological issues. To monitor the effect of the treatment, patient diaries (quality and quantity of sleep, intensity of pain and itch) and repeated psychometric tests were used. At the end of treatment there were improvements in all measured dimensions (itch, pain, insomnia, activity, anxiety and emotional state) both clinically and psychometrically. The authors conclude, that hypnosis can be an effective adjunctive therapy in atopic dermatitis, and in certain severe cases may constitute a salvage therapy.

  1. Patient satisfaction after gut-directed hypnotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, P; Ljótsson, B; Bjornsson, E; Abrahamsson, H; Simrén, M

    2013-02-01

    Gut-directed hypnotherapy is an effective treatment option for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, clinical observations suggest that patient satisfaction with hypnotherapy is not always associated with improvement in IBS symptoms. We evaluated 83 patients with IBS treated with gut-directed hypnotherapy (1 h week(-1), 12 weeks). After the treatment period, patients reported their satisfaction with the treatment (ranging from 1 = not at all satisfied, to 5 = very satisfied) and completed questionnaires to assess IBS symptom severity, quality of life, cognitive function, sense of coherence, depression, and anxiety before and after treatment. After hypnotherapy improved IBS symptom severity, quality of life, cognitive function, and anxiety were seen. Thirty patients (36%) were very satisfied with the treatment and 57 (69%) patients scored 4 or 5 on the patient satisfaction scale. Patient satisfaction was associated with less severe IBS symptoms and better quality of life after the treatment. In a multiple linear regression analysis, only the quality of life domain sexual relations was independently associated with patient satisfaction after hypnotherapy, explaining 22% of the variance. Using 25% reduction of IBS symptom severity to define an IBS symptom responder, 52% of the responders were very satisfied with hypnotherapy, but this was also true for 31% in the non-responder group. Patient satisfaction with gut-directed hypnotherapy in IBS is associated with improvement of quality of life and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. However, other factors unrelated to GI symptoms also seems to be of importance for patient satisfaction, as a substantial proportion of patients without GI symptom improvement were also very satisfied with this treatment option. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A hypnotherapy intervention for the treatment of anxiety in patients with cancer receiving palliative care.

    PubMed

    Plaskota, Marek; Lucas, Caroline; Evans, Rosie; Cook, Karen; Pizzoferro, Kathleen; Saini, Treena

    2012-02-01

    This pilot study aimed to assess the benefits of hypnotherapy in the management of anxiety and other symptoms, including depression and sleep disturbance, in palliative care patients with cancer. Eleven hospice patients received four sessions of hypnotherapy and completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, and the Verran and Snyder-Halpern Scale at set time points. Wrist actigraphy also provided an objective assessment of sleep quality. After the second hypnotherapy session there was a statistically significant reduction in mean anxiety and symptom severity, but not in depression or sleep disturbance. After the fourth session there was a statistically significant reduction in all four patient-reported measures but not in actigraphy. These results offer evidence that hypnotherapy can reduce anxiety in palliative care patients, as well as improving sleep and the severity of psychological and physical symptoms. Further studies are needed to explore whether the observed benefits were a direct result of the hypnotherapy and how the intervention could most benefit this patient population.

  3. Nurse-Administered, Gut-Directed Hypnotherapy in IBS: Efficacy and Factors Predicting a Positive Response.

    PubMed

    Lövdahl, Jenny; Ringström, Gisela; Agerforz, Pia; Törnblom, Hans; Simrén, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is often delivered by a psychotherapist and is costly and time consuming. Nurse-administered hypnotherapy could increase availability and reduce costs. In this study the authors evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-administered, gut-directed hypnotherapy and identify factors predicting treatment outcome. Eighty-five patients were included in the study. Participants received hypnotherapy by a nurse once/week for 12 weeks. Patients reported marked improvement in gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-colonic symptoms after treatment, as well as a reduction in GI-specific anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Fifty-eight percent were responders after the 12 weeks treatment period, and of these 82% had a favorable clinical response already at week 6. Women were more likely than men to respond favorably to the treatment. Nurse-administered hypnotherapy is an effective treatment for IBS. Being female and reporting a favorable response to treatment by week 6 predicted a positive treatment response at the end of the 12 weeks treatment period.

  4. A randomised controlled trial on hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: design and methodological challenges (the IMAGINE study).

    PubMed

    Flik, Carla E; van Rood, Yanda R; Laan, Wijnand; Smout, André Jpm; Weusten, Bas Lam; Whorwell, Peter J; de Wit, Niek J

    2011-12-20

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common gastro-intestinal disorder in primary and secondary care, characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort, altered bowel habits and/or symptoms of bloating and distension. In general the efficacy of drug therapies is poor. Hypnotherapy as well as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and short Psychodynamic Therapy appear to be useful options for patients with refractory IBS in secondary care and are cost-effective, but the evidence is still limited. The IMAGINE-study is therefore designed to assess the overall benefit of hypnotherapy in IBS as well as comparing the efficacy of individual versus group hypnotherapy in treating this condition. The design is a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The study group consists of 354 primary care and secondary care patients (aged 18-65) with IBS (Rome-III criteria). Patients will be randomly allocated to either 6 sessions of individual hypnotherapy, 6 sessions of group hypnotherapy or 6 sessions of educational supportive therapy in a group (placebo), with a follow up of 9 months post treatment for all patients. Ten hospitals and four primary care psychological practices in different parts of The Netherlands will collaborate in this study. The primary efficacy parameter is the responder rate for adequate relief of IBS symptoms. Secondary efficacy parameters are changes in the IBS symptom severity, quality of life, cognitions, psychological complaints, self-efficacy as well as direct and indirect costs of the condition. Hypnotherapy is expected to be more effective than the control therapy, and group hypnotherapy is expected not to be inferior to individual hypnotherapy. If hypnotherapy is effective and if there is no difference in efficacy between individual and group hypnotherapy, this group form of treatment could be offered to more IBS patients, at lower costs. ISRCTN: ISRCTN22888906.

  5. Group hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Charles D; Gerson, Jessica; Gerson, Mary-Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study tested whether group gut-focused hypnotherapy would improve irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several possible outcome predictors were also studied. Before treatment, 75 patients completed a Symptom Severity Scale, a Mind-Body attribution questionnaire, and a Quality of Relationship Inventory (QRI). The symptom scale was completed posttreatment, 3, 6, and 12 months later. There was significant symptom reduction at each data point (p < .001). Sixty percent had a reduction of more than 50 points, indicative of clinical improvement. Initial severity score (p = .0004) and QRI conflict (p = .057) were directly correlated with a response to hypnotherapy, while attribution of symptoms to mind (emotional) causation was inversely correlated (p = .0056). The authors conclude that group hypnotherapy is effective in patients with IBS.

  6. Ericksonian hypnotherapy for selective mutism: A single-case study.

    PubMed

    Cavarra, Mauro; Brizio, Adelina; Gava, Nicoletta

    2017-01-16

    Children affected by selective mutism don't speak in contexts that are unfamiliar to them or in which speaking is expected or required (e.g. school, kindergarten…). Such disorder interferes with the child's normal activities, may have invalidating consequences in the long run if left untreated, is associated to anxious conditions and is considered hard to treat. Contemporary research is still in need of methodologically rigorous outcome studies and the results described in the small number of published randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies indicate cognitive-behavioral interventions lasting 20-24 sessions as the best therapeutic option. This case study, involving a 7-year-old girl, aims at providing preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of Ericksonian hypnosis in the treatment of this condition. A brief review of current evidence is provided. The case was treated by a licensed hypnotherapist, specialized in family therapy, in 5 sessions during the course of 3 months. After 3 months the symptoms of the client were resolved and the diagnosis was no longer applicable. Other improvements regarded her mood, social skills and school performance.  Conclusions: Ericksonian Hypnotherapy lead to the remission of the disorder and to the improvement of the general well being of the client in 5 sessions, a much briefer time span compared to what is reported in current literature. This paper represents the first step in the elaboration of replicable and reliable intervention principles.

  7. Effects on gastrointestinal transit and antroduodenojejunal manometry after gut-directed hypnotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Perjohan; Törnblom, Hans; Sadik, Riadh; Björnsson, Einar S; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Simrén, Magnus

    2012-12-01

    Gut-directed hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but little is known about the mechanisms of action. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects on gastrointestinal motility when treating IBS with gut-directed hypnotherapy. We randomized 90 patients with IBS, refractory to standard management to receive gut-directed hypnotherapy 1 h/week for 12 weeks or supportive treatment for the same time period. Eighty-one subjects (40 hypnotherapy, 41 controls) could be evaluated by one or more of the following investigations, both before and after the intervention: gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, colonic transit time, and antroduodenojejunal manometry. No significant differences in gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, or colonic transit time was found when comparing the baseline and post-intervention measurements in the hypnotherapy group or in the control group. The same was true concerning the results of the antroduodenojejunal manometry. However, there was a numerical trend toward a higher number of migrating motor complexes at manometry and an accelerated gastric emptying time after hypnotherapy that did not reach statistical significance. In this study, we were not able to find evidence for long-standing effects on gastrointestinal motility as a mediator of the effects on IBS when treating the condition with gut-directed hypnotherapy. Further research to understand the mechanism of action is needed.

  8. Randomised controlled trial comparing hypnotherapy versus gabapentin for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    MacLaughlan David, Shannon; Salzillo, Sandra; Bowe, Patrick; Scuncio, Sandra; Malit, Bridget; Raker, Christina; Gass, Jennifer S; Granai, C O; Dizon, Don S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of hypnotherapy versus gabapentin for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors, and to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a clinical trial comparing a drug with a complementary or alternative method (CAM). Design Prospective randomised trial. Setting Breast health centre of a tertiary care centre. Participants 15 women with a personal history of breast cancer or an increased risk of breast cancer who reported at least one daily hot flash. Interventions Gabapentin 900 mg daily in three divided doses (control) compared with standardised hypnotherapy. Participation lasted 8 weeks. Outcome measures The primary endpoints were the number of daily hot flashes and hot flash severity score (HFSS). The secondary endpoint was the Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS). Results 27 women were randomised and 15 (56%) were considered evaluable for the primary endpoint (n=8 gabapentin, n=7 hypnotherapy). The median number of daily hot flashes at enrolment was 4.5 in the gabapentin arm and 5 in the hypnotherapy arm. HFSS scores were 7.5 in the gabapentin arm and 10 in the hypnotherapy arm. After 8 weeks, the median number of daily hot flashes was reduced by 33.3% in the gabapentin arm and by 80% in the hypnotherapy arm. The median HFSS was reduced by 33.3% in the gabapentin arm and by 85% in the hypnotherapy arm. HFRDIS scores improved by 51.6% in the gabapentin group and by 55.2% in the hypnotherapy group. There were no statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusions Hypnotherapy and gabapentin demonstrate efficacy in improving hot flashes. A definitive trial evaluating traditional interventions against CAM methods is feasible, but not without challenges. Further studies aimed at defining evidence-based recommendations for CAM are necessary. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00711529). PMID:24022390

  9. Modification of Irrational Ideas and Test Anxiety through Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, Gerard E.; Tosi, Donald J.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of four treatment conditions on the modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety in female nursing students (N=48). The Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH) treatment group was significantly more effective than the hypnosis only group. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects. (Author/JAC)

  10. Modification of Irrational Ideas and Test Anxiety through Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, Gerard E.; Tosi, Donald J.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of four treatment conditions on the modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety in female nursing students (N=48). The Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH) treatment group was significantly more effective than the hypnosis only group. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects. (Author/JAC)

  11. Suggestion, hypnosis and hypnotherapy: a survey of use, knowledge and attitudes of anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Coldrey, J C; Cyna, A M

    2004-10-01

    Clinical hypnosis is a skill of using words and gestures (frequently called suggestions) in particular ways to achieve specific outcomes. It is being increasingly recognised as a useful intervention for managing a range of symptoms, especially pain and anxiety. We surveyed all 317 South Australian Fellows and trainees registered with ANZCA to determine their use, knowledge of, and attitudes towards positive suggestion, hypnosis and hypnotherapy in their anaesthesia practice. The response rate was 218 anaesthetists (69%). The majority of respondents (63%) rated their level of knowledge on this topic as below average. Forty-eight per cent of respondents indicated that there was a role for hypnotherapy in clinical anaesthesia, particularly in areas seen as traditional targets for the modality, i.e. pain and anxiety states. Nearly half of the anaesthetists supported the use of hypnotherapy and positive suggestions within clinical anaesthesia. Those respondents who had experience of clinical hypnotherapy were more likely to support hypnosis teaching at undergraduate or postgraduate level when compared with those with no experience.

  12. Use of Hypnotherapy for Assertive Training and Behavioral Rehearsal: An Active Mode of Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoge, Susan D.

    This paper describes a treatment approach which uses hypnotherapy techniques in combination with assertive training and behavioral rehearsal. It discusses the use of this treatment with a client who exhibited psychogenic symptoms due to personal anxiety. At the beginning of the treatment the client was shy, non-assertive and extremely…

  13. Nurse-led hypnotherapy: an innovative approach to Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Helen

    2013-08-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic functional illness, which can greatly reduce patients' quality of life, and consumes healthcare resources. Standard treatments include dietary changes and medication, though these are often ineffective. Clinical studies of hypnotherapy demonstrate improvement in symptoms and quality of life in over 80% of subjects with intractable IBS. Our experience of a nurse-led hypnotherapy service for IBS in a community setting provides evidence of comparable efficacy for symptom control, improved quality of life, reduced dependence on medication and improved general health measures. We address the challenges of setting up and maintaining the service in a changing healthcare environment. This model of care could act as a template for providers of gastroenterology and functional disease services wishing to provide IBS care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using art to help understand the imagery of irritable bowel syndrome and its response to hypnotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Morris, Julie; Evans, Raymond; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    A medical artist asked 109 patients if they had an image of their IBS pre- and posthypnotherapy, making precise watercolor paintings of any images described. Results were related to treatment outcome, symptoms, anxiety, depression, and absorption (hypnotizability); 49% of patients had an image, and a wide variety were recorded and painted. Imagery was significantly associated with gender (p < .05), anxiety (p < .05), noncolonic symptomatology (p < .05), and absorption (p = .001); 57.8% of responders compared with 35.5% of nonresponders to hypnotherapy had an image of their disease (p < .05) before treatment, and color images were associated with better outcomes (p = .05) than monochrome ones. All images changed in responders, often becoming more nonspecific in nature. Inquiring about IBS imagery helps to identify potential responders and nonresponders to hypnotherapy and may also provide insights into how patients think about their illness.

  15. The management of blood phobia and a hypersensitive gag reflex by hypnotherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Noble, Suzanne

    2002-03-01

    Coping with a hypersensitive gag reflex can be a cause for concern for both the patient and the operator. This report describes a case of blood phobia directed solely towards the oral cavity, linked with the inability to tolerate dentures due to a hypersensitive gag reflex. Management by hypnotherapy using a systematic desensitization technique allowed for extraction of teeth and permanent elimination of the gagging problem.

  16. Hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: an audit of one thousand adult patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, V; Carruthers, H R; Morris, J; Hasan, S S; Archbold, S; Whorwell, P J

    2015-05-01

    Gut-focused hypnotherapy improves the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with benefits being sustained for many years. Despite this, the technique has not been widely adopted by healthcare systems, possibly due to relatively small numbers in published studies and uncertainty about how it should be provided. To review the effect of hypnotherapy in a large cohort of refractory IBS patients. One thousand IBS patients fulfilling Rome II criteria, mean age 51.6 years (range 17-91 years), 80% female, receiving 12 sessions of hypnotherapy over 3 months, were studied. The primary outcome was a 50 point reduction in the IBS Symptom Severity Score. The fall in scores for Noncolonic Symptoms, Quality of Life and Anxiety or Depression, were secondary outcomes. The Federal Drug Administration's recommended outcome of a 30% or more reduction in abdominal pain was also recorded. Overall, 76% met the primary outcome which was higher in females (females: 80%, males: 62%, P < 0.001) and those with anxiety (anxious: 79%, non-anxious: 71%, P = 0.010). The mean reduction in other scores was: IBS Symptom Severity Score, 129 points (P < 0.001), Noncolonic Symptom Score, 65 (P < 0.001) and Quality of Life Score, 66 (P < 0.001). Sixty-seven per cent reported a 30% or more reduction in abdominal pain scores. Pain days fell from 18 to 9 per month. Patients with anxiety and depression fell from 63% to 34% and 25% to 12% respectively (P < 0.001). Outcome was unaffected by bowel habit subtype. These results provide further evidence that gut-focused hypnotherapy is an effective intervention for refractory IBS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Review article: The history of hypnotherapy and its role in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Whorwell, P J

    2005-12-01

    Hypnosis is a technique by which an individual can gain a degree of control over physiological as well as psychological function. This paper reviews the history of the phenomenon as well as the accumulating evidence that it is effective in relieving the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and improving the quality of life of sufferers. The physiological effects of hypnosis are also discussed coupled with an outline of how a hypnotherapy service might be provided.

  18. Effects of gut-directed hypnotherapy on IBS in different clinical settings-results from two randomized, controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Perjohan; Unge, Peter; Arvidsson, Patrik; Nyhlin, Henry; Björnsson, Einar; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Simrén, Magnus

    2012-02-01

    Gut-directed hypnotherapy has been found to be effective in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, randomized, controlled studies are rare and few have been performed outside highly specialized research centers. The objective of this study was to study the effect of gut-directed hypnotherapy in IBS in different clinical settings outside the traditional research units. The study population included IBS patients refractory to standard management. In study 1, patients were randomized to receive gut-directed hypnotherapy (12 sessions, 1 h/week) in psychology private practices or supportive therapy, whereas patients were randomized to receive gut-directed hypnotherapy in a small county hospital or to serve as waiting list controls in study 2. Gastrointestinal symptom severity and quality of life were evaluated at baseline, at 3 months follow-up and after 1 year. We randomized 138 IBS patients refractory to standard management, 90 in study 1 and 48 in study 2. In both the studies, IBS-related symptoms were improved at 3 months in the gut-directed hypnotherapy groups (P<0.05), but not in the control groups (ns). In study 1, a significantly greater improvement of IBS-related symptom severity could be detected in the gut-directed hypnotherapy group than in the control group (P<0.05), and a trend in the same direction was seen in study 2 (P=0.17). The results seen at 3 months were sustained up to 1 year. Gut-directed hypnotherapy is an effective treatment alternative for patients with refractory IBS, but the effectiveness is lower when the therapy is given outside the highly specialized research centers.

  19. Hypnotherapy is more effective than nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Faysal M; Zagarins, Sofija E; Pischke, Karen M; Saiyed, Shamila; Bettencourt, Ann Marie; Beal, Laura; Macys, Diane; Aurora, Sanjay; McCleary, Nancy

    2014-02-01

    The efficacy of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation is well documented. However, due to relapse rates and side effects, hypnotherapy is gaining attention as an alternative treatment option. The aim of this one-center randomized study was to compare the efficacy of hypnotherapy alone, as well as hypnotherapy with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), to conventional NRT in patients hospitalized with a cardiac or pulmonary illness. We evaluated self-reported and biochemically verified 7-day prevalence smoking abstinence rates at 12 and 26 weeks post-hospitalization. Patients (n=164) were randomized into one of three counseling-based treatment groups: NRT for 30 days (NRT; n=41), a 90-min hypnotherapy session (H; n=39), and NRT with hypnotherapy (HNRT; n=37). Treatment groups were compared to a "self-quit" group of 35 patients who refused intervention. Hypnotherapy patients were more likely than NRT patients to be nonsmokers at 12 weeks (43.9% vs. 28.2%; p=0.14) and 26 weeks after hospitalization (36.6% vs. 18.0%; p=0.06). Smoking abstinence rates in the HNRT group were similar to the H group. There was no difference in smoking abstinence rates at 26 weeks between "self quit" and participants in any of the treatment groups. In multivariable regression analysis adjusting for diagnosis and demographic characteristics, H and HNRT were over three times more likely than NRT participants to abstain at 26-weeks post-discharge (RR=3.6; p=0.03 and RR=3.2; p=0.04, respectively). Hypnotherapy is more effective than NRT in improving smoking abstinence in patients hospitalized for a smoking-related illness, and could be an asset to post-discharge smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mood color choice helps to predict response to hypnotherapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately two thirds of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) respond well to hypnotherapy. However, it is time consuming as well as expensive to provide and therefore a way of predicting outcome would be extremely useful. The use of imagery and color form an integral part of the hypnotherapeutic process and we have hypothesised that investigating color and how it relates to mood might help to predict response to treatment. In order to undertake this study we have previously developed and validated a method of presenting colors to individuals for research purposes called the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW). Using this instrument we have been able to classify colors into positive, neutral and negative shades and this study aimed to assess their predictive role in hypnotherapy. Methods 156 consecutive IBS patients (aged 14-74, mean 42.0 years, 127 (81%) females, 29 (19%) males) were studied. Before treatment, each patient was asked to relate their mood to a color on the MCW as well as completing the IBS Symptom Severity Score, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale, the Non-colonic Symptom Scale, the Quality of Life Scale and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) which is a measure of hypnotisability. Following hypnotherapy all these measures were repeated with the exception of the TAS. Results For patients with a positive mood color the odds of responding to hypnotherapy were nine times higher than that of those choosing either a neutral or negative color or no color at all (odds ratio: 8.889; p = 0.042). Furthermore, a high TAS score and the presence of HAD anxiety also had good predictive value (odds ratio: 4.024; p = 0.092, 3.917; p < 0.001 respectively) with these markers and a positive mood color being independent of each other. In addition, these factors could be combined to give an even stronger prediction of outcome. Twice as many responders (63, 77.8%) had a positive mood color or were anxious or had a high TAS score compared with

  1. Mood color choice helps to predict response to hypnotherapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Helen R; Morris, Julie; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2010-12-07

    Approximately two thirds of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) respond well to hypnotherapy. However, it is time consuming as well as expensive to provide and therefore a way of predicting outcome would be extremely useful. The use of imagery and color form an integral part of the hypnotherapeutic process and we have hypothesised that investigating color and how it relates to mood might help to predict response to treatment. In order to undertake this study we have previously developed and validated a method of presenting colors to individuals for research purposes called the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW). Using this instrument we have been able to classify colors into positive, neutral and negative shades and this study aimed to assess their predictive role in hypnotherapy. 156 consecutive IBS patients (aged 14-74, mean 42.0 years, 127 (81%) females, 29 (19%) males) were studied. Before treatment, each patient was asked to relate their mood to a color on the MCW as well as completing the IBS Symptom Severity Score, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale, the Non-colonic Symptom Scale, the Quality of Life Scale and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) which is a measure of hypnotisability. Following hypnotherapy all these measures were repeated with the exception of the TAS. For patients with a positive mood color the odds of responding to hypnotherapy were nine times higher than that of those choosing either a neutral or negative color or no color at all (odds ratio: 8.889; p = 0.042). Furthermore, a high TAS score and the presence of HAD anxiety also had good predictive value (odds ratio: 4.024; p = 0.092, 3.917; p < 0.001 respectively) with these markers and a positive mood color being independent of each other. In addition, these factors could be combined to give an even stronger prediction of outcome. Twice as many responders (63, 77.8%) had a positive mood color or were anxious or had a high TAS score compared with 32 (42.7%) without these

  2. The mind-body connection in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomised controlled trial of hypnotherapy as a treatment.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Moore, Julie S; Talley, Nicholas J; Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotherapy has been reported as being beneficial in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients with IBS treated 'holistically' by hypnosis (i.e. by combined psychological and physiological symptom imagery) would have greater improvement in their IBS symptoms than patients treated by hypnosis using standard 'gut-directed' hypnotherapy, and both would be superior to simple relaxation therapy. Patients (n = 51) with Rome II criteria were randomised to 'individualised' (holistic) hypnotherapy, standard 'gut-directed' hypnotherapy or relaxation therapy for a period of 11 weeks with two follow-up assessments at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the completion of the trial. The primary outcome was bowel symptom severity scale (BSSS). All the participants in this study improved their IBS symptoms (pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea) and physical functioning at the end of the treatment from baseline, but this was not significantly different across the treatment arms. Neither 'individualised' nor 'gut-directed' hypnotherapy is superior to relaxation therapy in IBS.

  3. The mind–body connection in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomised controlled trial of hypnotherapy as a treatment

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Nicholas J; Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypnotherapy has been reported as being beneficial in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients with IBS treated ‘holistically’ by hypnosis (i.e. by combined psychological and physiological symptom imagery) would have greater improvement in their IBS symptoms than patients treated by hypnosis using standard ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy, and both would be superior to simple relaxation therapy. Methods: Patients (n = 51) with Rome II criteria were randomised to ‘individualised’ (holistic) hypnotherapy, standard ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy or relaxation therapy for a period of 11 weeks with two follow-up assessments at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the completion of the trial. The primary outcome was bowel symptom severity scale (BSSS). Results: All the participants in this study improved their IBS symptoms (pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea) and physical functioning at the end of the treatment from baseline, but this was not significantly different across the treatment arms. Conclusion: Neither ‘individualised’ nor ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy is superior to relaxation therapy in IBS. PMID:28070348

  4. Review article: gut-directed hypnotherapy in the management of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Peters, S L; Muir, J G; Gibson, P R

    2015-06-01

    Gut-directed hypnotherapy is being increasingly applied to patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to a lesser extent, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To review the technique, mechanisms of action and evidence for efficacy, and to identify gaps in the understanding of gut-directed hypnotherapy as a treatment for IBS and IBD. A review of published literature and a systematic review of clinical trials in its application to patients with IBS and IBD were performed. Gut-directed hypnotherapy is a clearly described technique. Its potential mechanisms of action on the brain-gut axis are multiple with evidence spanning psychological effects through to physiological gastrointestinal modifications. Six of seven randomised IBS studies reported a significant reduction (all P < 0.05) in overall gastrointestinal symptoms following treatment usually compared to supportive therapy only. Response rates amongst those who received gut-directed hypnotherapy ranged between 24% and 73%. Efficacy was maintained long-term in four of five studies. A therapeutic effect was also observed in the maintenance of clinical remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. Uncontrolled trials supported the efficacy and durability of gut-directed hypnotherapy in IBS. Gaps in understanding included to whom and when it should be applied, the paucity of adequately trained hypnotherapists, and the difficulties in designing well controlled-trials. Gut-directed hypnotherapy has durable efficacy in patients with IBS and possibly ulcerative colitis. Whether it sits in the therapeutic arsenal as a primary and/or adjunctive therapy cannot be ascertained on the current evidence base. Further research into efficacy, mechanisms of action and predictors of response is required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Efficacy of Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Hee; Choi, Yoon Young; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2014-04-30

    Hypnotherapy is considered as a promising intervention for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the evidence is still limited. The aims of this study were to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for the treatment of IBS. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL database). Only randomized controlled trials that compared hypnotherapy with any other conven-tional treatment or no treatment in patients with IBS were included. Studies had to report outcomes as IBS symptom score or quality of life. The mean change in outcome score was used to pool these outcomes for the meta-analysis. Data were syn-thesized using the standardized mean difference for continuous data. Seven randomized controlled trials (6 papers) involving 374 patients with IBS were identified. Performance bias was high in all trials because it was impossible to blind participants and therapists in this type of intervention. The outcomes in this meta-anal-ysis were evaluated at 3 months for short-term effects and at 1 year for long-term effects. The change in abdominal pain score at 3 months was significant in the hypnotherapy group (standardized mean difference, -0.83; 95% CI, -1.65 to -0.01). Three of the 4 trials showed greater improvement in overall gastrointestinal symptoms in the hypnotherapy group. This study provides clearer evidence that hypnotherapy has beneficial short-term effects in improving gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with IBS.

  6. Effect of hypnotherapy and educational intervention on brain response to visceral stimulusin the irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lowén, Mats B.O.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sjöberg, Martha; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Labus, Jennifer; Lundberg, Peter; Ström, Magnus; Engström, Maria; Walter, Susanna A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Gut directed hypnotherapy can reduce IBS symptoms but the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect remain unknown. Aim We determined the effect of hypnotherapy and educational intervention on brain responses to cued rectal distensions in IBS patients. Methods 44 women with moderate to severe IBS and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were included. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during expectation and delivery of high (45 mmHg) and low (15 mmHg) intensity rectal distensions. Twenty-five patients were assigned to hypnotherapy (HYP) and 16 to educational intervention (EDU). 31 patients completed treatments and post treatment fMRI. Results Similar symptom reduction was achieved in both groups. Clinically successful treatment (all responders) was associated with significant BOLD attenuation during high intensity distension in the dorsal and ventral anterior insula (cluster size 142, p=0.006, and cluster size 101, p=0.005, respectively). Moreover HYP responders demonstrated a pre-post treatment BOLD attenuation in posterior insula (cluster sizes 59, p=0.05) while EDU responders had a BOLD attenuation in prefrontal cortex (cluster size 60, p=0.05). Pre-post differences for expectation conditions were almost exclusively seen in the HYP group. Following treatment, the brain response to distension was similar to that observed in HCs, suggesting that the treatment had a normalizing effect on the central processing abnormality of visceral signals in IBS. Conclusions The abnormal processing and enhanced perception of visceral stimuli in IBS can be normalized by psychological interventions. Symptom improvement in the treatment groups may be mediated by different brain mechanisms. PMID:23617618

  7. Hypnotherapy for insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tak-Ho; Chung, Ka-Fai; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Yu, Branda Yee-Man; Yung, Kam-Ping; Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee

    2015-10-01

    To examine the efficacy and safety of hypnotherapy for insomnia as compared to placebo, pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention, or no treatment. A systematic search on major electronic databases was conducted up until March 2014. Inclusion criteria are: (1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs; (2) intervention targeted at improving sleep; (3) hypnosis as an intervention; and (4) English language articles. Sleep diary variable is the primary outcome measure. Six RCTs of hypnotherapy and seven on autogenic training or guided imagery, comprising 502 subjects, were included. Eleven of the 13 studies had low methodological quality, as indicated by a modified Jadad score below 3, and high risks of bias in blinding and design of the control interventions. No adverse events related to hypnosis were reported, though seldom investigated. Meta-analyses found hypnotherapy significantly shortened sleep latency compared to waitlist (standardized mean difference, SMD=-0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.56, -0.19, P=0.01, I(2)=15%), but no difference compared to sham intervention (SMD: -1.08, 95% CI: -3.15, 0.09, P=0.31, I(2)=90%). Similar results were found for autogenic training or guided imagery (SMD with waitlist=-1.16, 95% CI: -1.92, -0.40, P=0.003, I(2)=0%; SMD with sham intervention=-0.50, 95% CI: -1.19, 0.19, P=0.15, I(2)=0%). Generalizability of the positive results is doubtful due to the relatively small sample size and methodological limitations. Future studies with larger sample size and better study design and methodology are called for. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What should we mean by empirical validation in hypnotherapy: evidence-based practice in clinical hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen; Sabatini, Linda; Amundson, Jon K

    2007-04-01

    This paper briefly surveys the trend of and controversy surrounding empirical validation in psychotherapy. Empirical validation of hypnotherapy has paralleled the practice of validation in psychotherapy and the professionalization of clinical psychology, in general. This evolution in determining what counts as evidence for bona fide clinical practice has gone from theory-driven clinical approaches in the 1960s and 1970s through critical attempts at categorization of empirically supported therapies in the 1990s on to the concept of evidence-based practice in 2006. Implications of this progression in professional psychology are discussed in the light of hypnosis's current quest for validation and empirical accreditation.

  9. Combined therapy using acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and transcendental meditation versus placebo in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bay, Roohallah; Bay, Fatemeh

    2011-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the most widespread diseases in the world. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of combined therapy using acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and transcendental meditation (TM) on the blood sugar (BS) level in comparison with placebo in type 2 diabetic patients. We used "convenience sampling" for selection of patients with type 2 diabetes; 20 patients were recruited. For collection of data, we used an identical quasi-experimental design called "nonequivalent control group." Therapy sessions each lasting 60-90 min were carried out on 10 successive days. We prescribed 2 capsules (containing 3g of wheat flour each) for each member of the placebo group (one for evening and one for morning). Pre-tests, post-tests, and follow-up tests were conducted in a medical laboratory recognized by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran. Mean BS level in the post-tests and follow-up tests for the experimental group was reduced significantly in comparison with the pre-tests whereas in the placebo group no changes were observed. Combined therapy including acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and TM reduced BS of type 2 diabetic patients and was more effective than placebo therapy on this parameter.

  10. What the public think about hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A narrative review of literature covering opinions and attitudes of the general public 1996-2016.

    PubMed

    Krouwel, Matthew; Jolly, Kate; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-06-01

    To describe the public's understanding of hypnosis and openness to hypnotherapy. A comprehensive search of English language peer reviewed journal articles from 1st January 1996-11th March 2016 was performed over 9 databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, Embase (excerpta medica), PsychInfo, Cochrane, Science citation index-expanded, Conference citation index) and a title-only search of Google scholar. 39 keyword combinations were employed: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotic, perception, beliefs, knowledge, view, opinion and understanding, in singular and plural where appropriate. A search of the bibliographies of eligible articles was undertaken. Inclusion criteria - Articles containing original data regarding the general public's attitudes towards hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Exclusion criteria - Non-therapy hypnosis (forensic, entertainment) materials and those concerned with groups likely to possess prior or professional knowledge of hypnosis, (hypnotists, clinicians and psychologists). Analysis was conducted in line with the questions. 31 articles were identified, covering diverse populations. Most people believe that: hypnosis is an altered state which requires collaboration to enter; once hypnotized perception changes; hypnotherapy is beneficial for psychological issues and is supportive of medical interventions; hypnosis can also enhance abilities especially memory. People are open to hypnotherapy subject to validation from the psychological or medical establishment. Similarity of opinion is more apparent than difference. Most people are positive towards hypnotherapy, and would consider its use under the right circumstances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The effects of a medical hypnotherapy on clothing industry employees suffering from chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Problems associated with pain in several body regions due to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs), repetitive movement and negative stress at work are quite common in many manufacturing industries of Latvia, int.al. clothing industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficiency of the psychotherapeutic intervention using medical hypnotherapy (MH) program for mind-body relaxation with pain-blocking imagery, cognitive restructuring of unpleasant physical and emotional experience. Methods 300 sewers and 50 cutters with chronic pain were involved in the study. Self-rated WRMDs symptoms, pain intensity and interference were assessed using the extended version of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and Brief Pain Inventory Scale. Assessment of the functional state of muscles was carried out using myotonometric (MYO) measurements. Work heaviness degree was estimated via heart rate monitoring (HRM). The MH program was composed of cognitive hypnotherapy and self-hypnosis training. Sunnen Trance Scale was used to determine person’s hypnotic susceptibility. Life quality assessment before and after MH program was carried out using Quality of Life Scale. Results At the beginning of MH program sessions both sewers and cutters reported on pain interference with general activities, mood, sleep, normal work, etc., but after MH the interference of pain significantly decreased. HRM data confirmed that work heaviness degree of sewers and cutters can be referred to as light and moderate work (energy expenditure for their tasks varies from 3.4 till 4.7 kcal/min). Using MYO measurements it was stated that before MH 22% of workers involved in the study fell under III MYO category indices, consequently, their muscle tone was increased, which is associated with muscular fatigue. After MH muscle tone remained within the normal range meaning that they were able to adapt to the existing workload (II MYO category) or fully relax (I MYO category). Conclusions MH

  12. [Tones and being tuned. Suggestions for the common origins of music therapy and hypnotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vas, József Pál

    2013-01-01

    Sound vibrations are viewed to play an important role in embryonic development. Before the cochlea evolves, the haptic and mechanic skin-receptors detect the amniotic fluid's pressure-waves produced by sounds in uterus. Touching and hearing are seen as primordial and the most relevant stimuli both of mother-fetus attunement and development of fetal nervous system. Man is attuned to environmental stimuli, mainly to human speaking since the embryonic period. Attunement is secured by energy zones (chakras) circling around body. It is considered to be base of our music capacity. Origin of hypnotic susceptibility is viewed as being in embryonic period as well. Movements, experiences supposed, bonding and communication patterns of both of fetus and hypnotized person are suggested to show similarities. Prenatal audio-somatosensory stimulating program facilitates newborn babies' cognitive, emotional and bonding capacities. As a matter of fact, by virtue of regressive fetus-like experiences, hypnotherapy contributes to the restart of personality development halted by trauma.

  13. Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Accessing and Healing Emotional Injuries for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2016-07-01

    Although anxiety disorders on the surface may appear simple, they often represent complex problems that are compounded by underlying factors. For these reasons, treatment of anxiety disorders should be individualized. This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy, an individual comprehensive treatment protocol that integrates cognitive, behavioral, mindfulness, psychodynamic, and hypnotic strategies in the management of anxiety disorders. The treatment approach is based on the self-wounds model of anxiety disorders, which provides the rationale for integrating diverse strategies in the psychotherapy for anxiety disorders. Due to its evidence-based and integrated nature, the psychotherapy described here provides accuracy, efficacy, and sophistication in the formulation and treatment of anxiety disorders. This model can be easily adapted to the understanding and treatment of other emotional disorders.

  14. The role of hypnotherapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Moser, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic disorders of unknown aetiology which are characterized by episodes of exacerbations and remissions. There is evidence that perceived distress contributes to IBD symptom flares; anxiety and depression are frequently found in patients with the active disease. Because there is no cure, treatment has to focus on prevention of complications, induction/maintenance of remission and improvement of quality of life. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (GHT) has been used successfully in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Few experimental studies and case reports have been published for IBD; GHT increases the health-related quality of life and reduces symptoms. Additionally, GHT seems to have an immune-modulating effect and is able to augment clinical remission in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis.

  15. The special effects of hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A contribution to an ecological model of therapeutic change.

    PubMed

    Mende, Matthias

    2006-04-01

    There is ample evidence that hypnosis enhances the effectiveness of psychotherapy and produces some astounding effects of its own. In this paper, the effective components and principles of hypnosis and hypnotherapy are analyzed. The "special" hypnotic and hypnotherapeutic effects are linked to the fact that the ecological requirements of therapeutic change are taken into account implicitly and/or explicitly when working with hypnotic trances in a therapeutic setting. The hypnotic situation is described--theoretically and in case examples--as a therapeutic modality that gratifies and aligns the basic emotional needs to feel autonomous, related, competent, and oriented. It is shown how the hypnotic relationship can help promote a sound ecological balance between these needs--a balance that is deemed to be a necessary prerequisite for salutogenesis. Practical implications for planning hypnotherapeutic interventions are discussed.

  16. The illness/non-illness model: hypnotherapy for physically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Navon, Shaul

    2014-07-01

    This article proposes a focused, novel sub-set of the cognitive behavioral therapy approach to hypnotherapy for physically ill patients, based upon the illness/non-illness psychotherapeutic model for physically ill patients. The model is based on three logical rules used in differentiating illness from non-illness: duality, contradiction, and complementarity. The article discusses the use of hypnotic interventions to help physically ill and/or disabled patients distinguish between illness and non-illness in their psychotherapeutic themes and attitudes. Two case studies illustrate that patients in this special population group can be taught to learn the language of change and to use this language to overcome difficult situations. The model suggests a new clinical mode of treatment in which individuals who are physically ill and/or disabled are helped in coping with actual motifs and thoughts related to non-illness or non-disability.

  17. A Meta-Analysis for the Efficacy of Hypnotherapy in Alleviating PTSD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rotaru, Tudor-Ștefan; Rusu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of hypnotherapy in the treatment of PTSD used literature searches to obtain 47 articles. However, only 6 were experiments testing the efficacy of hypnosis-based treatments. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was applied to postintervention assessment results and 4-week follow-ups. A large effect in favor of hypnosis-based (especially manualized abreactive hypnosis) treatment was found for the studies that reported the posttest results (d = 1.17). The temporal stability of the effect remains strong, as reflected by the 4-week follow-up assessments (d = 1.58) and also by long-term evaluations (e.g., 12 months). Hypnosis appears to be effective in alleviating PTSD symptoms.

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder: cognitive hypnotherapy, mindfulness, and acceptance-based treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Malakataris, Anne; Condon, Liam; Maxwell, Reed; Cleere, Colleen

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we describe how cognitive hypnotherapy can be used in conjunction with evidence-based practices for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We review cognitive-behavioral interventions for PTSD, including mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches, and contend that (a) empirical support for the use of hypnosis in treating a variety of conditions is considerable; (b) hypnosis is fundamentally a cognitive-behavioral intervention; (c) psychological interventions with a firm footing in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are well-suited to treat the symptoms of PTSD; and (d) hypnosis can be a useful adjunct to evidence-based cognitive-behavioral approaches, including mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions, for treating PTSD.

  19. [Life paths and motifs. Meeting points of hypnotherapy and music therapy].

    PubMed

    Vas, P József

    2013-01-01

    Effects both of hypnotherapy and music therapy are originated from an attunement as supposed by the author. Either to a hypnotherapist's suggestions or to a piece of music one is able to be tuned in them. On one hand, the hypnotherapist's prosody, which can be called as melodic declamation seen as a musical phenomenon transmitting emotions. On the other hand, music has got emotional and visceral impacts. As a meeting points of these two methods four possibilities are shown by the author: 1. musical analogies of vitality affects ; 2. paternal and maternal archetypes in music; 3. analogies of copings in music; 4. corrections of psychological deficits by virtue of hypno- and music therapy with parallel used energy healing method. Finally, the author suggests, that hypnosis is regarded as an inductive method expressing its effect from outside to inside; music, however is likely to be employed as a deductive therapeutic tool, effecting from inside to outside.

  20. Modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety through rational stage directed hypnotherapy [RSDH].

    PubMed

    Boutin, G E; Tosi, D J

    1983-05-01

    Examined the effects of four treatment conditions on the modification of Irrational Ideas and test anxiety in female nursing students. The treatments were Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy, a cognitive behavioral approach that utilized hypnosis and vivid-emotive-imagery, a hypnosis-only treatment, a placebo condition, and a no-treatment control. The 48 Ss were assigned randomly to one of these treatment groups, which met for 1 hour per week for 6 consecutive weeks with in-vivo homework assignments also utilized. Statistically significant treatment effects on cognitive, affective, behavioral, and physiological measures were noted for both the RSDH and hypnosis group at the posttest and at a 2-month follow-up. Post-hoc analyses revealed the RSDH treatment group to be significantly more effective than the hypnosis only group on both the post- and follow-up tests. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects either at post-treatment or at follow-up.

  1. Feasibility and acceptability of esophageal-directed hypnotherapy for functional heartburn.

    PubMed

    Riehl, M E; Pandolfino, J E; Palsson, O S; Keefer, L

    2016-07-01

    Functional heartburn (FH) is a benign but burdensome condition characterized by painful, burning epigastric sensations in the absence of acid reflux or symptom-reflux correlation. Esophageal hypersensitivity and its psychological counterpart, esophageal hypervigilance (EHv) drive symptom experience. Hypnotherapy (HYP) is an established and preferred intervention for refractory symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and could be applied to FH. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of 7 weekly sessions of esophageal-directed HYP (EHYP) on heartburn symptoms, quality of life, and EHv. Similar to other work in FGIDs and regardless of hypnotizability, there were consistent and significant changes in heartburn symptoms, visceral anxiety, and quality of life and a trend for improvement in catastrophizing. We would recommend EHYP in FH patients who are either non-responsive to medications or who would prefer a lifestyle intervention.

  2. Gut-directed hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: piloting a primary care-based randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lesley; Wilson, Sue; Singh, Sukhdev; Roalfe, Andrea; Greenfield, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    Background In western populations irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects between 10% and 30% of the population and has a significant effect on quality of life. It generates a substantial workload in both primary and secondary care and has significant cost implications. Gut-directed hypnotherapy has been demonstrated to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life but has not been assessed outside of secondary and tertiary referral centres. Aim To assess the effectiveness of gut-directed hypnotherapy as a complementary therapy in the management of IBS. Design of study Randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care patients aged 18–65 years inclusive, with a diagnosis of IBS of greater than 6 weeks' duration and having failed conventional management, located in South Staffordshire and North Birmingham, UK. Method Intervention patients received five sessions of hypnotherapy in addition to their usual management. Control patients received usual management alone. Data regarding symptoms and quality of life were collected at baseline and again 3, 6, and 12 months post-randomisation. Results Both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in all symptom dimensions and quality of life over 12 months. At 3 months the intervention group had significantly greater improvements in pain, diarrhoea and overall symptom scores (P<0.05). No significant differences between groups in quality of life were identified. No differences were maintained over time. Intervention patients, however, were significantly less likely to require medication, and the majority described an improvement in their condition. Conclusions Gut-directed hypnotherapy benefits patients via symptom reduction and reduced medication usage, although the lack of significant difference between groups beyond 3 months prohibits its general introduction without additional evidence. A large trial incorporating robust economic analysis is, therefore, urgently recommended. PMID:16464325

  3. Randomised controlled trial of brief intervention with biofeedback and hypnotherapy in patients with refractory irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dobbin, A; Dobbin, J; Ross, S C; Graham, C; Ford, M J

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder associated with profoundly impaired quality of life and emotional distress. The management of refractory IBS symptoms remains challenging and non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches have been shown to be effective. We compared brief interventions with biofeedback and hypnotherapy in women referred by their GP with refractory IBS symptoms. Patients were randomised to one of two treatment groups, biofeedback or hypnotherapy, delivered as three one-hour sessions over 12 weeks. Symptom assessments were undertaken using validated, self-administered questionnaires. Two of the 128 consecutive IBS patients suitable for the study declined to consider nonpharmacological therapy and 29 patients did not attend beyond the first session. Of the 97 patients randomised into the study, 21 failed to attend the therapy session; 15 of 76 patients who attended for therapy dropped out before week 12 post-therapy. The mean (SD) change in IBS symptom severity score 12 weeks post-treatment in the biofeedback group was -116.8 (99.3) and in the hypnotherapy group -58.0 (101.1), a statistically significant difference between groups (difference=-58.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference [-111.6, -6.1], p=0.029). In 61 patients with refractory IBS, biofeedback and hypnotherapy were equally effective at improving IBS symptom severity scores, total non-gastrointestinal symptom scores and anxiety and depression ratings during 24 weeks follow-up. Biofeedback may prove to be the more cost-effective option as it requires less expertise.

  4. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  5. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  6. The effects of hypnotherapy during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy for pain and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hızlı, Fatih; Özcan, Osman; Selvi, İsmail; Eraslan, Pınar; Köşüş, Aydın; Baş, Okan; Yıkılmaz, Taha Numan; Güven, Oğuz; Başar, Halil

    2015-11-01

    Several studies evaluating the tolerance of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided needle biopsies showed that moderate-to-severe pain was associated with the procedure. Additionally, prebiopsy anxiety or rebiopsy as a result of a prior biopsy procedure is mentioned as factors predisposing to higher pain intensity. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effects of hypnotherapy during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy for pain and anxiety. Sixty-four patients presenting for TRUS-guided prostate needle biopsy were randomly assigned to receive either 10-min presurgery hypnosis session (n = 32, mean age 63.5 ± 6.1, p = 0.289) or a presurgery control session (n = 32, mean age 61.8 ± 6.8, p = 0.289). The hypnosis session involved suggestions for increased relaxation and decreased anxiety. Presurgery pain and anxiety were measured using visual analog scales (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS), respectively. In our statistics, p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Postintervention, and before surgery, patients in the hypnosis group had significantly lower mean values for presurgery VAS [mean 1 (0-8); p = 0.011], BAI (6.0 vs 2.0; p < 0.001), and HAS (11.0 vs 6.0; p < 0.001). The study results indicate that a brief presurgery hypnosis intervention can be an effective means of controlling presurgical anxiety, and therefore pain, in patients awaiting diagnostic prostate cancer surgery.

  7. Effect of hypnotherapy and educational intervention on brain response to visceral stimulus in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lowén, M B O; Mayer, E A; Sjöberg, M; Tillisch, K; Naliboff, B; Labus, J; Lundberg, P; Ström, M; Engström, M; Walter, S A

    2013-06-01

    Gut-directed hypnotherapy can reduce IBS symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect remain unknown. To determine the effect of hypnotherapy and educational intervention on brain responses to cued rectal distensions in IBS patients. Forty-four women with moderate-to-severe IBS and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were included. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during expectation and delivery of high- (45 mmHg) and low-intensity (15 mmHg) rectal distensions. Twenty-five patients were assigned to hypnotherapy (HYP) and 16 to educational intervention (EDU). Thirty-one patients completed treatments and posttreatment fMRI. Similar symptom reduction was achieved in both groups. Clinically successful treatment (all responders) was associated with significant BOLD attenuation during high-intensity distension in the dorsal and ventral anterior insula (cluster size 142, P = 0.006, and cluster size 101, P = 0.005 respectively). Moreover HYP responders demonstrated a pre-post treatment BOLD attenuation in posterior insula (cluster sizes 59, P = 0.05) while EDU responders had a BOLD attenuation in prefrontal cortex (cluster size 60, P = 0.05). Pre-post differences for expectation conditions were almost exclusively seen in the HYP group. Following treatment, the brain response to distension was similar to that observed in HCs, suggesting that the treatment had a normalising effect on the central processing abnormality of visceral signals in IBS. The abnormal processing and enhanced perception of visceral stimuli in IBS can be normalised by psychological interventions. Symptom improvement in the treatment groups may be mediated by different brain mechanisms. NCT01815164. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Are Anesthesia Providers Ready for Hypnosis? Anesthesia Providers' Attitudes Toward Hypnotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stone, Alexander B; Sheinberg, Rosanne; Bertram, Amanda; Seymour, Anastasia Rowland

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to measure current attitudes toward hypnosis among anesthesia providers using an in-person survey distributed at a single grand rounds at a single academic teaching hospital. One hundred twenty-six anesthesia providers (anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists) were included in this study. A 10-question Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved questionnaire was developed. One hundred twenty-six (73% of providers at the meeting) anesthesia providers completed the survey. Of the respondents, 54 (43%) were anesthesiologists, 42 (33%) were trainees (interns/residents/fellows) in anesthesia, and 30 (24%) were nurse anesthetists. Over 70% of providers, at each level of training, rated their knowledge of hypnosis as either below average or having no knowledge. Fifty-two (42%) providers agreed or strongly agreed that hypnotherapy has a place in the clinical practice of anesthesia, while 103 (83%) believed that positive suggestion has a place in the clinical practice of anesthesia (p < .0001). Common reasons cited against using hypnosis were that it is too time consuming (41%) and requires special training (34%). Only three respondents (2%) believed that there were no reasons for using hypnosis in their practice. These data suggest that there is a self-reported lack of knowledge about hypnosis among anesthesia providers, although many anesthesia providers are open to the use of hypnosis in their clinical practice. Anesthesia providers are more likely to support the use of positive suggestion in their practice than hypnosis. Practical concerns should be addressed if hypnosis and therapeutic verbal techniques are to gain more widespread use.

  9. Randomised clinical trial: the efficacy of gut-directed hypnotherapy is similar to that of the low FODMAP diet for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peters, S L; Yao, C K; Philpott, H; Yelland, G W; Muir, J G; Gibson, P R

    2016-09-01

    A low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet is effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To compare the effects of gut-directed hypnotherapy to the low FODMAP diet on gastrointestinal symptoms and psychological indices, and assess additive effects. Irritable bowel syndrome patients were randomised (computer-generated list), to receive hypnotherapy, diet or a combination. Primary end-point: change in overall gastrointestinal symptoms across the three groups from baseline to week 6. Secondary end-points: changes in psychological indices, and the durability of effects over 6 months. Of 74 participants, 25 received hypnotherapy, 24 diet and 25 combination. There were no demographic differences at baseline across groups. Improvements in overall symptoms were observed from baseline to week 6 for hypnotherapy [mean difference (95% CI): -33 (-41 to -25)], diet [-30 (-42 to -19)] and combination [-36 (-45 to -27)] with no difference across groups (P = 0.67). This represented ≥20 mm improvement on visual analogue scale in 72%, 71% and 72%, respectively. This improvement relative to baseline symptoms was maintained 6 months post-treatment in 74%, 82% and 54%. Individual gastrointestinal symptoms similarly improved. Hypnotherapy resulted in superior improvements on psychological indices with mean change from baseline to 6 months in State Trait Personality Inventory trait anxiety of -4(95% CI -6 to -2) P < 0.0001; -1(-3 to 0.3) P = ns; and 0.3(-2 to 2) P = ns, and in trait depression of -3(-5 to -0.7) P = 0.011; -0.8(-2 to 0.2) P = ns; and 0.6(-2 to 3) P = ns, respectively. Groups improved similarly for QOL (all p ≤ 0.001). Durable effects of gut-directed hypnotherapy are similar to those of the low FODMAP diet for relief of gastrointestinal symptoms. Hypnotherapy has superior efficacy to the diet on psychological indices. No additive effects were observed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparison of Hypnotherapy and Standard Medical Treatment Alone on Quality of Life in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Korosh; Solati, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological disorders. IBS is characterized by abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, constipation, bloating and flatulence. Complementary therapy is a group of diverse therapeutic and health care systems products that are used in treatment of IBS. Hypnotherapy helps to alleviate the symptoms of a broad range of diseases and conditions. It can be used independently or along with other treatments. Aim This study was conducted to compare therapeutic effect of hypnotherapy plus standard medical treatment and standard medical treatment alone on quality of life in patients with IBS. Materials and Methods This study is a clinical trial investigating 60 patients who were enrolled according to Rome-III criteria. The sample size was determined per statistical advice, previous studies, and the formula of sample size calculation. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups of hypnotherapy plus standard medical treatment group (n: 30), and standard medical treatment group (30). The study consisted of three steps; prior to treatment, after treatment and six months after the last intervention (follow-up). The instruments of data gathering were a questionnaire of demographic characteristics and standard questionnaire of quality of life for IBS patients (Quality of Life IBS-34). The data were analysed by analysis of co-variance, Levene’s test and descriptive statistics in SPSS-18. Results There were significant differences between the two groups of study in post-treatment and follow-up stage with regards to quality of life (p<0.05). Conclusion Psychological intervention, particularly hypno-therapy, alongside standard medical therapy could contribute to improving quality of life, pain and fatigue, and psychological disorder in IBS patients resistant to treatment. Also, therapeutic costs, hospital stay and days lost from work could be decreased and patients’ efficiency could be increased

  11. Effect of antidepressants and psychological therapies, including hypnotherapy, in irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Alexander C; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Lacy, Brian E; Lembo, Anthony J; Saito, Yuri A; Schiller, Lawrence R; Soffer, Edy E; Spiegel, Brennan M R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder. Evidence relating to the treatment of this condition with antidepressants and psychological therapies continues to accumulate. We performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched (up to December 2013). Trials recruiting adults with IBS, which compared antidepressants with placebo, or psychological therapies with control therapy or "usual management," were eligible. Dichotomous symptom data were pooled to obtain a relative risk (RR) of remaining symptomatic after therapy, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The search strategy identified 3,788 citations. Forty-eight RCTs were eligible for inclusion: thirty-one compared psychological therapies with control therapy or "usual management," sixteen compared antidepressants with placebo, and one compared both psychological therapy and antidepressants with placebo. Ten of the trials of psychological therapies, and four of the RCTs of antidepressants, had been published since our previous meta-analysis. The RR of IBS symptom not improving with antidepressants vs. placebo was 0.67 (95% CI=0.58-0.77), with similar treatment effects for both tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The RR of symptoms not improving with psychological therapies was 0.68 (95% CI=0.61-0.76). Cognitive behavioral therapy, hypnotherapy, multicomponent psychological therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy were all beneficial. Antidepressants and some psychological therapies are effective treatments for IBS. Despite the considerable number of studies published in the intervening 5 years since we last examined this issue, the overall summary estimates of treatment effect have remained remarkably stable.

  12. The characteristics of women who use hypnotherapy for intrapartum pain management: Preliminary insights from a nationally-representative sample of Australian women.

    PubMed

    Steel, A; Frawley, J; Sibbritt, D; Broom, A; Adams, J

    2016-04-01

    This manuscript presents a preliminary examination of the characteristics of women who choose intrapartum hypnosis for pain management. Cross-sectional analysis of 2445 women (31-36 years) from a sub-study of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), employing Fisher exact tests. Australia. Use of intrapartum hypnosis, or hypnobirthing, for pain management during labour and birth. Women using hypnobirthing were more likely to have consulted with an acupuncturist or naturopath, or attended yoga/meditation classes during pregnancy (p<0.0001). Use of CM products such as herbal medicines, aromatherapy oils, homoeopathy, herbal teas or flower essences (p<0.001) was also more common amongst these women. Women choosing hypnotherapy for intrapartum pain management less commonly identified as feeling safer knowing that an obstetrician is providing their care (p<0.001), and were more likely to labour in a birth centre or in a community centre (i.e. at home). This analysis provides preliminary analysis into an as yet unexamined topic in contemporary maternity health service utilisation. The findings from this analysis may be useful for maternity health professionals and policy makers when responding to the needs of women choosing to use hypnotherapy for intrapartum pain management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Home-Based Hypnotherapy Self-exercises vs Individual Hypnotherapy With a Therapist for Treatment of Pediatric Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Functional Abdominal Pain, or Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Juliette M T M; Vlieger, Arine M; Frankenhuis, Carla; George, Elvira K; Groeneweg, Michael; Norbruis, Obbe F; Tjon A Ten, Walther; van Wering, Herbert M; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Merkus, Maruschka P; Benninga, Marc A

    2017-05-01

    Individual gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) is effective in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAP[S]). It is, however, unavailable to many children. To compare the effectiveness of HT by means of home-based self-exercises using a CD with that of individual HT (iHT) performed by qualified therapists. This noninferiority randomized clinical trial with a follow-up of 1 year after the end of treatment was conducted from July 15, 2011, through June 24, 2013, at 9 secondary and tertiary care centers throughout the Netherlands. A total of 303 children were eligible to participate. Of those, 260 children (aged 8-18 years) with IBS or FAP(S) were included in this study. Children were randomized (1:1 ratio) to home-based HT with a CD (CD group) or iHT performed by qualified therapists (iHT group). No children withdrew from the study because of adverse effects. The CD group was instructed to perform exercises 5 times per week or more for 3 months. The iHT group consisted of 6 sessions during 3 months. Primary outcomes were treatment success directly after treatment and after 1-year follow-up. Treatment success was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in pain frequency and intensity scores. The noninferiority limit was set at 50% treatment success in the CD group, with a maximum of 25% difference in treatment success with the iHT group after 1-year follow-up. Modified intention-to-treat analyses were performed. A total of 132 children were assigned to the CD group and 128 to the iHT group; 250 children were analyzed (126 in the CD group and 124 in the iHT group) (mean [SD] age, 13.4 [2.9] years in the CD group and 13.3 [2.8] years in the iHT group; 94 female [74.6%] in the CD group and 85 [68.5%] in the iHT group). Directly after treatment, 46 children (36.8%) in the CD group and 62 (50.1%) in the iHT group were successfully treated. After 1-year follow-up, the 62.1% treatment success in the CD group

  14. Cognitive hypnotherapy with bulimia.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Marianne

    2012-04-01

    Research on the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of bulimia nervosa has produced mixed findings. This is due in part to the interplay between the characteristics of people with bulimia and the wide variety of hypnosis interventions that have been employed. Several authors have noted that methodological limitations in hypnosis research often make evaluation of treatment efficacy difficult. Many of the studies extant provide insufficient information regarding the specifics of participants' hypnotizability, the hypnotic induction, or the hypnotic suggestion(s) employed. Such limitations preclude replication and clinical implementation. This article reviews the literature with replicable methodologies and discusses the implications for evaluating treatment efficacy.

  15. [The tribute of the pioneer of hypnotherapy--Franz Anton Mesmer, MD, PhD in the history of psychotherapy and medicine].

    PubMed

    Radovancević, Ljubomir

    2009-01-01

    Modern hypnosis started with the Austrian physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), who believed that the phenomenon known as mesmerism, or animal magnetism, or fluidum was related to an invisible substance--a fluid that runs within the subject or between the subject and the therapist, that is, the hypnotist, or the "magnetizer". The term hypnosis was introduced in the 1840s by a Scottish surgeon James Braid (1795-1860), who believed the subject to be in a particular state of sleep--a trance. In the late 19th century, a French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893) thought hypnotism to be a special physiological state, and his contemporary Hyppotite-Marie Bernheim (1840-1919) believed it to be a psychological state of heightened suggestibility. Sigmund Freud, who studied with Charcot, used hypnosis early in his career to help patients recover repressed memories. He noted that patients would relive traumatic events while under hypnosis, a process know as abreaction. Freud later replaced hypnosis with the technique of free associations. Today, hypnosis is used as a form of therapy (hypnotherapy), a method of investigation to recover lost memories, and research tool. According to Caplan & Sadock, F.A. Mesmer is generally thought of as the fons et origo of modern psychotherapy; and from the early techniques of mesmerism, it is said, have evolved the more elaborate and sophisticated therapeutic measures of the analyst and his colleagues. Although Mesmer was certainly dealing with individuals suffering from a variety of neurotic disorders, and though the clinical successes he achieved were the result of psychological processes that his procedures induced in his patients, Mesmer's theoretical formulations, his understanding of the nature of the treatment he developed, and his specific procedures were all totally different from those of the 20th century analyst. He was one of the corne stones in the development of psychoanalysis through hypnosis mainly of hysterical

  16. The Potential Role of a Self-Management Intervention for Ulcerative Colitis: A Brief Report From the Ulcerative Colitis Hypnotherapy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Laurie; Kiebles, Jennifer L.; Kwiatek, Monika A.; Palsson, Olafur; Taft, Tiffany H.; Martinovich, Zoran; Barrett, Terrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory illnesses marked by unpredictable disease flares, which occur spontaneously and/or in response to external triggers, especially personal health behaviors. Behavioral triggers of flare may be responsive to disease self-management programs. We report on interim findings of a randomized controlled trial of gut-directed hypnotherapy (HYP, n = 19) versus active attention control (CON, n = 17) for quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). To date, 43 participants have enrolled; after 5 discontinuations (1 in HYP) and 2 exclusions due to excessive missing data, 36 were included in this preliminary analysis. Aim 1 was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of HYP in UC. This was achieved, demonstrated by a reasonable recruitment rate at our outpatient tertiary care clinic (20%), high retention rate (88% total), and our representative IBD sample, which is reflected by an equal distribution of gender, an age range between 21 and 69, recruitment of ethnic minorities (~20%), and disease duration ranging from 1.5 to 35 years. Aim 2 was to estimate effect sizes on key clinical outcomes for use in future trials. Effect sizes (group × time at 20 weeks) were small to medium for IBD self-efficacy (.34), Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) total score (.41), IBDQ bowel (.50), and systemic health (.48). Between-group effects were observed for the IBDQ bowel health subscale (HYP > CON; p = .05) at 20 weeks and the Short Form 12 Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2) physical component (HYP > CON; p < .05) at posttreatment and 20 weeks. This study supports future clinical trials testing gut-directed HYP as a relapse prevention tool for IBD. PMID:21362636

  17. Hypnotherapy and Female Sexual Inadequacy

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741

  18. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  19. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  20. Hypnotherapy and the Suicidal Patient

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1973-01-01

    Three cases are presented in which a family physician treats a suicidal patient by the hypnotherapeutic method described. It is postulated that such a method may be quick, effective, and relatively safe method for a diagnostic and therapeutic approach in family practice. In the hypnotic state, the patient is hypersuggestible and can accept suggestions which meet her unconscious needs to be loved as an individual within the milieu of the ego state at the time her psychopathology occurred. PMID:20468906

  1. Gut-directed hypnotherapy in children with irritable bowel syndrome or functional abdominal pain (syndrome): a randomized controlled trial on self exercises at home using CD versus individual therapy by qualified therapists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (syndrome) (FAP(S)) are common pediatric disorders, characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain. Treatment is challenging, especially in children with persisting symptoms. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) performed by a therapist has been shown to be effective in these children, but is still unavailable to many children due to costs, a lack of qualified child-hypnotherapists and because it requires a significant investment of time by child and parent(s). Home-based hypnotherapy by means of exercises on CD has been shown effective as well, and has potential benefits, such as lower costs and less time investment. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare cost-effectiveness of individual HT performed by a qualified therapist with HT by means of CD recorded self-exercises at home in children with IBS or FAP(S). Methods/Design 260 children, aged 8-18 years with IBS or FAP(S) according to Rome III criteria are included in this currently conducted RCT with a follow-up period of one year. Children are randomized to either 6 sessions of individual HT given by a qualified therapist over a 3-month period or HT through self-exercises at home with CD for 3 months. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients in which treatment is successful at the end of treatment and after one year follow-up. Treatment success is defined as at least 50% reduction in both abdominal pain frequency and intensity scores. Secondary outcomes include adequate relief, cost-effectiveness and effects of both therapies on depression and anxiety scores, somatization scores, QoL, pain beliefs and coping strategies. Discussion If the effectiveness of home-based HT with CD is comparable to, or only slightly lower, than HT by a therapist, this treatment may become an attractive form of therapy in children with IBS or FAP(S), because of its low costs and direct availability. Trial registration Dutch Trial

  2. Gut-directed hypnotherapy in children with irritable bowel syndrome or functional abdominal pain (syndrome): a randomized controlled trial on self exercises at home using CD versus individual therapy by qualified therapists.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Juliette M T M; Vlieger, Arine M; Frankenhuis, Carla; George, Elvira K; Groeneweg, Michael; Norbruis, Obbe F; Tjon a Ten, Walther; Van Wering, Herbert; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Merkus, Maruschka P; Benninga, Marc A

    2014-06-04

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (syndrome) (FAP(S)) are common pediatric disorders, characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain. Treatment is challenging, especially in children with persisting symptoms. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) performed by a therapist has been shown to be effective in these children, but is still unavailable to many children due to costs, a lack of qualified child-hypnotherapists and because it requires a significant investment of time by child and parent(s). Home-based hypnotherapy by means of exercises on CD has been shown effective as well, and has potential benefits, such as lower costs and less time investment. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare cost-effectiveness of individual HT performed by a qualified therapist with HT by means of CD recorded self-exercises at home in children with IBS or FAP(S). 260 children, aged 8-18 years with IBS or FAP(S) according to Rome III criteria are included in this currently conducted RCT with a follow-up period of one year. Children are randomized to either 6 sessions of individual HT given by a qualified therapist over a 3-month period or HT through self-exercises at home with CD for 3 months.The primary outcome is the proportion of patients in which treatment is successful at the end of treatment and after one year follow-up. Treatment success is defined as at least 50% reduction in both abdominal pain frequency and intensity scores. Secondary outcomes include adequate relief, cost-effectiveness and effects of both therapies on depression and anxiety scores, somatization scores, QoL, pain beliefs and coping strategies. If the effectiveness of home-based HT with CD is comparable to, or only slightly lower, than HT by a therapist, this treatment may become an attractive form of therapy in children with IBS or FAP(S), because of its low costs and direct availability. Dutch Trial Register number NTR2725 (date of registration: 1 February

  3. Sexual Hypnotherapy for Couples and Family Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel; Burte, Jan; Goldin, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    Presents the utilization of Ericksonian hypnotic techniques in conjunction with cognitive behavioral techniques collectively labeled the New Hypnosis, as they apply to the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunction within a counseling setting. Specific techniques to improve functioning throughout the five stages of sexual response are…

  4. Cognitive behavioral hypnotherapy for dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Fine, Catherine G

    2012-04-01

    Dissociative disorders (DD) prevail as sequelae to overwhelming experiences in childhood. These readily formed post-traumatic responses and trance states develop in high hypnotizable subjects whose dysregulations become organized into ego states. A cognitive behavioral hypnotherapeutic treatment model will effectively contain, explore, metabolize, and resolve these life-endangering conditions. This article will detail the cognitive hypnotic world of DD patients, the relational spaces of the ego states, and the triphasic treatment mode to successfully resolve the dissociative pathology. Structured and phase appropriate hypnotic interventions will be described.

  5. Sexual Hypnotherapy for Couples and Family Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel; Burte, Jan; Goldin, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    Presents the utilization of Ericksonian hypnotic techniques in conjunction with cognitive behavioral techniques collectively labeled the New Hypnosis, as they apply to the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunction within a counseling setting. Specific techniques to improve functioning throughout the five stages of sexual response are…

  6. The Effects of Hypnotherapy on Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Peter

    1967-01-01

    Fifteen homosexuals were treated with hypnosis. The patients were selected from a general psychiatric practice and had a long history of confirmed homosexual behaviour and showed no evidence of organic or psychotic illness. The type of hypnotic induction attempted in all cases is described. In those where a satisfactory depth of hypnotic trance was achieved a change in sexual orientation was suggested to the patient. Before therapy, each patient was assessed using the Kinsey scale. Results were evaluated in terms of the patient's subsequent behaviour and his subjective feelings. Of the 15 patients, three showed no improvement, four showed a mild improvement and eight showed a marked improvement. There was a significant correlation between the depth of hypnosis achieved and the therapeutic outcome. Those patients who reached a deep level of hypnotic trance were most likely to show a marked improvement. There were no significant correlations with other factors such as degree of homosexuality as measured on the Kinsey scale and the patient's marital status. Treatment of homosexuals with hypnosis may produce more satisfactory results than those obtainable by other means. The best results are likely to be achieved in patients who are good hypnotic subjects. PMID:6017544

  7. The role of hypnotherapy in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Facco, Enrico; Zanette, Gastone; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Dental fear is a universal phenomenon justifying the increasing relevance of psychology and the behavioural sciences to dental training and clinical practice. Pharmacological sedation has been used more and more over the past two decades, in order to relieve dental anxiety and phobia and let the patient face oral surgery safely. Hypnosis is a still underused but powerful non-pharmacological tool in dentistry. It provides an effective sedation whilst maintaining patient collaboration, but it also may help patients recovering from dental anxiety and phobia as well as those with a severe gag reflex. While pharmacological sedation affords a temporary respite and helps the patient to cope with a single procedure, hypnosis can effectively allow for both an excellent sedation in a physiological way and the treatment of patients' anxiety, or substantially decrease the doses used for sedative and analgesic drugs when these are needed.

  8. Hypnotherapy for the Management of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Gary; Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews controlled prospective trials of hypnosis for the treatment of chronic pain. Thirteen studies, excluding studies of headaches, were identified that compared outcomes from hypnosis for the treatment of chronic pain to either baseline data or a control condition. The findings indicate that hypnosis interventions consistently produce significant decreases in pain associated with a variety of chronic-pain problems. Also, hypnosis was generally found to be more effective than nonhypnotic interventions such as attention, physical therapy, and education. Most of the hypnosis interventions for chronic pain include instructions in self-hypnosis. However, there is a lack of standardization of the hypnotic interventions examined in clinical trials, and the number of patients enrolled in the studies has tended to be low and lacking long-term follow-up. Implications of the findings for future clinical research and applications are discussed. PMID:17558718

  9. Strategic eclecticism in hypnotherapy: effectiveness research considerations.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Jon K; Nuttgens, Simon A

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is attempting to come to grips with the EST (Empirically Supported Therapy) revolution in mental health practice. However, there are ways to account for outcome outside of simple empirical validation of treatment models. In this light, strategic eclecticism as a broader research-based consideration is used to illustrate empirical principles within Eriksonian hypnotherapeutic approaches.

  10. Group Hypnotherapy With Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others

    The impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled children was explored. Three hypnotic training sessions and instructions for six weeks of daily self-hypnotic practice containing suggestions for imagery related to improvement in these areas were given to 15 children, their…

  11. Group Hypnotherapy With Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others

    The impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled children was explored. Three hypnotic training sessions and instructions for six weeks of daily self-hypnotic practice containing suggestions for imagery related to improvement in these areas were given to 15 children, their…

  12. Hypnotherapy: A Combined Approach Using Psychotherapy and Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of hypnosis in traditional psychoanalysis, compares use of hypnosis in behavior modification therapy versus psychoanalysis, and presents a hypno-behavioral model which combines both approaches using hypnosis as the medium. (Author/NB)

  13. Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

  14. Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

  15. Hypnotherapy: A Combined Approach Using Psychotherapy and Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of hypnosis in traditional psychoanalysis, compares use of hypnosis in behavior modification therapy versus psychoanalysis, and presents a hypno-behavioral model which combines both approaches using hypnosis as the medium. (Author/NB)

  16. Cartoon Hypnotherapy: An Innovative Treatment Approach for Childhood Emotional Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Richard J.; Mills, Joyce C.

    Cartoon research includes the areas of experimental designs carried out in school classroom environments to determine the effects of cartoon viewing on children's behavior and the medical utilization of cartoons as part of an overall treatment program. This study differs from previous research by accepting the reality of cartoon viewing and…

  17. Apnea in postsurgical hypnotherapy of an esophageal cancer patient: a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Jones, M M

    1994-07-01

    Use of clinical hypnosis in the postsurgical psychotherapy of an esophageal cancer patient who could not swallow involved reenactment of the successful surgery and producing hallucinations of taste and smell, as well as working through emotions relations to the surgery and her disease. An apnea that occurred in a late phase of the treatment was addressed with the familiar arm pumping technique that had been used as a deepening technique, resulting in the patient's resuming normal breathing. The experience reminds the practitioner of the possible unexpected professional demands when working in a medical environment. It also provides clues as to the underlying psychological mechanisms and their role in successful symptom removal. A 6-year follow-up confirmed the lasting effect of this brief psychotherapy.

  18. Comparison of Hypnotherapy with Systematic Relaxation in the Treatment of Cigarette Habituation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Donald K.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of cigarette habituation. Volunteers (N=87) were randomly assigned to hypnosis, relaxation, or waiting list control groups. Hypnosis was found to be superior to relaxation only for subjects high in hypnotic susceptibility. Those who quit smoking increased food consumption. (Author/JAC)

  19. Comparison of Hypnotherapy with Systematic Relaxation in the Treatment of Cigarette Habituation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Donald K.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of cigarette habituation. Volunteers (N=87) were randomly assigned to hypnosis, relaxation, or waiting list control groups. Hypnosis was found to be superior to relaxation only for subjects high in hypnotic susceptibility. Those who quit smoking increased food consumption. (Author/JAC)

  20. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of standardisation of hypnotic interventions in smoking cessation, the debriefing of the participants, the effects of group dynamics and the reasons for dropouts. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN72839675. PMID:22475087

  1. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Kraemer, Thomas; Rust, Kristina; Schaub, Michael

    2012-04-04

    A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of standardisation of hypnotic interventions in smoking cessation, the debriefing of the participants, the effects of group dynamics and the reasons for dropouts. Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN72839675.

  2. Systemic hypnotherapy: deconstructing entrenched ambivalent meanings in self-organizing systems.

    PubMed

    Fourie, David P

    2007-07-01

    Systemic hypnosis is often seen as equivalent to an Ericksonian approach even though they reflect different epistemologies. Second-order articulations of systems theory emphasize the self-organization and autonomy of living systems: all systemic actions are aimed at the conservation of the system's autonomy; loss of autonomy means death as a system. In human systems verbal and non-verbal language reflects the meanings central to the system's autonomy and its conservation. Previous work has shown how symptomatic behaviour can be seen as linguistic expressions of the conservation of an ambivalent autonomy (Fourie, 1996a, 2003). Such behaviour therefore implies, expresses and even recursively conserves certain meanings that in time have become entrenched in the system. In this view, psychotherapy is aimed at the co-operative deconstruction of such entrenched meanings, helping them to transform into more functional, less ambivalent, understandings and actions. It is the aim of this paper to show how hypnosis can be employed for this purpose in a way which is coherent with a systemic rather than an Ericksonian epistemology.

  3. [To test the impact of hypnotherapy upon immunity and circadian rhythms among palliative cancer patients: a promising goal?].

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, F; Bignon, Y-J

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical researches in the borderline domain between psychology and cancer have produced consequent results, despite the large variety of employed approaches and aimed goals: these results permit to define domains where new investigations still appear promising. If randomized prospective controlled trials that test the impact of psychosocial interventions, constitute to our mind a strategy that must not be bypassed, a special attention should be focussed on the following topics: 1) it seems necessary to add to standard goals (survival and quality of life) the evaluation of the impact on immunity and main biological rhythms (circadian and ultradian). Specific questionnaires should be included (pain, sleep, mood, self-esteem, life events...) and others may need to be developed or adapted (sexuality, spirituality, coping with death); 2) among types of psychosocial management, hypnosis and/or learning of self-hypnosis appears to be a modality of choice since some results have already been obtained on immune pathologies and also on cancer. Mixed to an approach of clinical psychology, such a management could arouse behavior changes toward pathology but also promote an improvement of biological rhythms (action on sleep...) and perhaps, by the way, an immune rebound; 3) on a methodological point of view, trials cannot be double-blind. The effort must then concern sample sizes, that were often insufficient in many trials, but also targeted populations: palliative cancer patients with a good performance status seem more relevant for this type of investigation, since psychosocial interventions usually improve quality of life.

  4. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  5. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  6. Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2002. Other mind and body practices include acupuncture , relaxation techniques (such as breathing exercises, guided imagery, and progressive muscle relaxation), tai chi , qi gong , healing touch , hypnotherapy , and ...

  7. Hypnosis in pediatrics: applications at a pediatric pulmonary center

    PubMed Central

    Anbar, Ran D

    2002-01-01

    Background This report describes the utility of hypnosis for patients who presented to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center over a 30 month period. Methods Hypnotherapy was offered to 303 patients from May 1, 1998 – October 31, 2000. Patients offered hypnotherapy included those thought to have pulmonary symptoms due to psychological issues, discomfort due to medications, or fear of procedures. Improvement in symptoms following hypnosis was observed by the pulmonologist for most patients with habit cough and conversion reaction. Improvement of other conditions for which hypnosis was used was gauged based on patients' subjective evaluations. Results Hypnotherapy was associated with improvement in 80% of patients with persistent asthma, chest pain/pressure, habit cough, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, sighing, and vocal cord dysfunction. When improvement was reported, in some cases symptoms resolved immediately after hypnotherapy was first employed. For the others improvement was achieved after hypnosis was used for a few weeks. No patients' symptoms worsened and no new symptoms emerged following hypnotherapy. Conclusions Patients described in this report were unlikely to have achieved rapid improvement in their symptoms without the use of hypnotherapy. Therefore, hypnotherapy can be an important complementary therapy for patients in a pediatric practice. PMID:12460456

  8. Alternative Cancer Treatments: 11 Options to Consider

    MedlinePlus

    ... days of the week. Hypnosis. Hypnosis is a deep state of concentration. During a hypnotherapy session, a ... be light and gentle, or it can be deep with more pressure. Studies have found massage can ...

  9. Mindfulness-based hypnosis: blending science, beliefs, and wisdoms to catalyze healing.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2014-01-01

    We live in a global village, comprised of people with diverse cultural and religious orientations. How do we integrate these different beliefs and values into our clinical practice? Mindfulness-based psychotherapy (MBP), an evidence-based psychological intervention, provides a secular template for assimilating various cultural beliefs and wisdoms in therapies. MBP represents a cross-fertilization between Western psychological practice and Eastern meditative disciplines. Guided by MBP, this article describes how intention, mindfulness, acceptance, gratitude, and the "heart" can be combined with cognitive hypnotherapy to catalyze healing of emotional disorders-particularly depression. This integrated approach is referred to as mindfulness-based cognitive hypnotherapy (MBCH) as it assimilates cognitive hypnotherapy with mindfulness strategies. MBCH represents an attempt to broaden the comprehensiveness of hypnotherapy as an integrated form of psychotherapy. Additionally, based on new understanding of the heart as a complex information center, an innovative hypnotherapeutic strategy for generating psychophysiological coherence and psychological well-being is described.

  10. School Counselors and Psychological Aspects of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, David A.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)

  11. Psychological Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Jump to Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS The cause of irritable ... used to treat IBS include psychotherapy (dynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy ), ... hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments ...

  12. School Counselors and Psychological Aspects of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, David A.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)

  13. Hypnosis in Spain (1888-1905): from spectacle to medical treatment of mediumship.

    PubMed

    Graus, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Towards the end of the nineteenth century, some Spanish physicians sought to legitimize hypnotherapy within medicine. At the same time, hypnotism was being popularized among the Spanish population through stage hypnosis shows. In order to extend the use of medical hypnotherapy, some physicians made efforts to demarcate the therapeutic use of hypnotic suggestion from its application for recreational purposes, as performed by stage hypnotists. However, in the eyes of some physicians, the first public session to legitimize hypnotherapy turned out to be a complete failure due to its similarities with a stage hypnosis performance. Apart from exploring this kind of hitherto little-known historical cases, we explore the role of spiritists in legitimizing medical hypnosis. At a time when Spanish citizens were still reluctant to accept hypnotherapy, the spiritists sponsored a charitable clinic where treatment using hypnosis was offered. We conclude that the clinic was effective in promoting the use of hypnotherapy, both among physicians as clinical practice, and as a medical treatment for patients from the less privileged classes of Spanish society.

  14. Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Palsson, Olafur S

    2015-10-01

    Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain's handling of sensory signals from the GI tract.

  15. [Use of hypnosis in the treatment of combat post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)].

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Eitan G; Bonne, Omer

    2013-08-01

    Clinical reports and observations going back almost two centuries consistently indicate that hypnotherapy is an effective modality for the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pierre Janet was the first clinician to describe the successful initiation of stepwise hypnotic techniques in PTSD symptom reduction. Hypnotherapy may accelerate the formation of a therapeutic alliance and contribute to a positive treatment outcome. Hypnotic techniques may be valuable for patients with PTSD who exhibit symptoms such as anxiety, dissociation, widespread somatoform pain complaints and sleep disturbances. Hypnotic techniques may also facilitate the arduous tasks of working through traumatic memories, increasing coping skills, and promoting a sense of competency. In this review we will present guidelines for the stepwise implementation of hypnotherapy in PTSD. Since most data regarding the use of hypnotherapy in PTSD has been gathered from uncontrolled clinical observations, methodologically sound research demonstrating the efficacy of hypnotic techniques in PTSD is required for hypnotherapy to be officially added to the therapeutic armamentarium for this disorder.

  16. Hypnosis in the treatment of Morgellons disease: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Ashley M; Dolan, Sara L; Stanford, Matthew S; Elkins, Gary R

    2011-04-01

    Morgellons Disease is a condition involving painful skin lesions, fibrous growths protruding from the skin, and subcutaneous stinging and burning sensations, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and memory and attention deficits. The etiological and physiological bases of these symptoms are unclear, making the diagnosis controversial and challenging to treat. There are currently no established treatments for Morgellons Disease. The following case example depicts treatment of a woman with Morgellons Disease using hypnotherapy. Data from this case example suggest that hypnotherapy is a promising intervention for the physical and psychological symptoms associated with Morgellons Disease.

  17. HYPNOSIS IN THE TREATMENT OF MORGELLONS DISEASE: A Case Study1

    PubMed Central

    Gartner, Ashley M.; Dolan, Sara L.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Elkins, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Morgellons Disease is a condition involving painful skin lesions, fibrous growths protruding from the skin, and subcutaneous stinging and burning sensations, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and memory and attention deficits. The etiological and physiological bases of these symptoms are unclear, making the diagnosis controversial and challenging to treat. There are currently no established treatments for Morgellons Disease. The following case example depicts treatment of a woman with Morgellons Disease using hypnotherapy. Data from this case example suggest that hypnotherapy is a promising intervention for the physical and psychological symptoms associated with Morgellons Disease. PMID:21390982

  18. Hypnosis in Educational Programs: Its Implications As an Educational Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Joseph

    Although hypnosis has not been extensively used in education, a review of past research reveals five areas which might benefit from hypnotherapy: (1) motivation, (2) study habits, (3) concentration, (4) remedial reading, and (5) test anxiety. A questionnaire focusing on these areas was developed to determine the attitude of professional personnel…

  19. Age Regression in the Treatment of Anger in a Prison Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisel, Harry E.

    1988-01-01

    Incorporated hypnotherapy with age regression into cognitive therapeutic approach with prisoners having history of anger. Technique involved age regression to establish first significant event causing current anger, catharsis of feelings for original event, and reorientation of event while under hypnosis. Results indicated decrease in acting-out…

  20. Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Obesity: A Meta-analytic Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, David B.; Faith, Myles S.

    1996-01-01

    A meta-analysis for six weight-loss studies comparing the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone to CBT plus hypnotherapy. Notes that "the addition of hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome." Concludes that the addition of hypnosis to CBT for weight loss results in, at most, a small enhancement of treatment…

  1. Hypnosis in Educational Programs: Its Implications As an Educational Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Joseph

    Although hypnosis has not been extensively used in education, a review of past research reveals five areas which might benefit from hypnotherapy: (1) motivation, (2) study habits, (3) concentration, (4) remedial reading, and (5) test anxiety. A questionnaire focusing on these areas was developed to determine the attitude of professional personnel…

  2. Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Obesity: A Meta-analytic Reappraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, David B.; Faith, Myles S.

    1996-01-01

    A meta-analysis for six weight-loss studies comparing the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone to CBT plus hypnotherapy. Notes that "the addition of hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome." Concludes that the addition of hypnosis to CBT for weight loss results in, at most, a small enhancement of treatment…

  3. Age Regression in the Treatment of Anger in a Prison Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisel, Harry E.

    1988-01-01

    Incorporated hypnotherapy with age regression into cognitive therapeutic approach with prisoners having history of anger. Technique involved age regression to establish first significant event causing current anger, catharsis of feelings for original event, and reorientation of event while under hypnosis. Results indicated decrease in acting-out…

  4. Training with O (Observing) and T (Treatment) Teams in Live Supervision: Reflections in the Looking Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Janine; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes process that six counselor trainees and two supervisors used with treatment and observation teams to examine their own coevolution as a therapeutic system using the Milan model of family therapy and Ericksonian hypnotherapy. Concludes with a discussion of advantages and pitfalls of this type of dual supervision. (Author/ABL)

  5. Brief Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brom, Daniel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic methods for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders. Compared trauma desensitization, hypnotherapy, psychodynamic therapy and control condition for 112 persons suffering from serious disorders resulting from traumatic events in the past 5 years. Results indicated that treated cases were…

  6. Dimensions of multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1994-06-01

    Research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has burgeoned, and large-scale investigations indicate that a typical MPD patient is a woman, a victim of childhood abuse (especially sexual abuse), a person whose symptoms meet criteria for other psychiatric disorders, and a person who would employ many psychological defenses. Treatment approaches have frequently included hypnotherapy, which requires skill and caution.

  7. Training with O (Observing) and T (Treatment) Teams in Live Supervision: Reflections in the Looking Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Janine; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes process that six counselor trainees and two supervisors used with treatment and observation teams to examine their own coevolution as a therapeutic system using the Milan model of family therapy and Ericksonian hypnotherapy. Concludes with a discussion of advantages and pitfalls of this type of dual supervision. (Author/ABL)

  8. Hypnocounseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.

    The rationale for referring to 'hypnocounseling' rather than to 'hypnotherapy' lies in the rejection of the medical model for dealing with behavioral problems. Hypnocounseling is a modality of mental health counseling, a body of knowledge which can be applied to the framework of any personality theory by a trained mental health counselor of any…

  9. Brain function and conditioning in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Redgrave, K

    2003-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly treated by psychotherapy, which may draw upon behavioural psychology or cognitive-behavioural psychology, thereby making use of desensitisation techniques--amongst others; hypnotherapy may also be used. Hypnotherapy and psychotherapy are also available for helping patients who suffer from symptoms associated with general stress or who show phobic symptoms, such as a fear of heights or of walking across bridges. Studies of patients with such disorders have not always linked emotional (affective) and behavioural symptoms with psychophysical factors, which correlate with the symptoms. The present article not only does this, but also shows that it is possible for brain function and psychoemotional outcome to mislead a person and 'trick' him or her into believing that certain fears or panics appear 'out of the blue' or might be due to experiences other than the true cause. These may be important when, for instance, childhood memories form an issue in any court case.

  10. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  11. Hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic exercises in the treatment of stuttering: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yalcin; Alladin, Assen

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the combined effect of intensive hypnotherapy and diaphragmatic exercises in the management of stuttering. Fifty-nine clients with stuttering were trained to practice abdominal weightlifting to strengthen their respiratory muscles and to improve their diaphragmatic movements. The weightlifting exercises involved lifting a dumbbell (2.0-4.0 kg) with the abdomen for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Hypnotherapy was utilized to alleviate anxiety, to boost self-confidence, and to increase motivation for weightlifting exercise. The pre- and postmeasures were statistically significant (p < .001). Results of the study provide support for the effectiveness of hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic training in the management of stuttering but should be further studied in controlled trials.

  12. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  13. [Hypnosis in psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Romero, A

    1982-03-10

    The methods of hypnotherapy are reviewed and their individual applicability in the treatment of neurotic and psychosomatic syndromes examined according to the criteria of the two most recognised schools of modern psychology; psychoanalysis and behaviourism. The agreements and divergences of these two theoretical approaches are described and other contemporary theories are examined, before their general inadequacy is pointed out. A combination of western psychotherapeutic techniques and oriental meditation methods is therefore suggested, justifying this on both psychological and neurophysiological grounds. A simultaneously rational and intuitive basis for hypnotherapy would appear to offer the hypnologist a more subtle technique and would also make it easier for him to acquire that "therapeutic mentality" indispensable for successful treatment.

  14. [Therapy perspectives in subjective tinnitus].

    PubMed

    Lacosta Nicolás, J L; García Cano, J

    2001-01-01

    The AA. of this article have achieved a bibliographical perusal about treatment of subjective tinnitus, including even papers based on controlled clinical trials. Pharmacologic agents are settled on vasodilators of cochlear microcirculation (nimodipine, trimetazidine, Ginkgo biloba extract, misoprostol), lidocaine, the anxiolitics (alprazolam, corazepam) and the antidepressants (nortrityline). Comments sonorous amplification. Also are displayed, because of their benefits, the relaxation techniques (biofeeback, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and yoga) and psychological counseling.

  15. [Hypnosis for chronic pain of children].

    PubMed

    Célestin-Lhopiteau, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    A child or adolescent can suffer from chronic pain. Whatever the causes, it can trap the child in a specific process whereby they focus on the pain, fearing that it will appear and experiencing anxiety. Hypno-analgesia and hypnotherapy enable them to escape this process and find within themselves the capacity to face up to the pain. Moreover, these techniques offer them an autonomy which they can use in all areas of their life.

  16. [Description of current hypnosis practice in French university hospitals].

    PubMed

    Chabridon, G; Nekrouf, N; Bioy, A

    2017-10-01

    Hypnosis is very fashionable as an entertainment through TV shows searching for new sensational experiences. What about its practice in the medical world? The aim of this article is to answer to this question. Therefore, we contacted every French University Hospital of each region to find out if hypnosis was practiced for the care of pain (hypnoanalgesia), for chirurgical procedures (hypnosedation) and in adult psychiatry care units (hypnotherapy). For this last practice, we also questioned the type of indications. All 30 of the French University Hospitals had replied by November 2015. Hypnoanalgesia is practiced by all and two-thirds offer hypnosedation. Hypnotherapy is practiced by 40 % of the University Hospitals, 91,7 % for anxiety disorders, 66,7 % for psychotraumatic care and 25 % for mood disorders. Therefore, hypnosis seems to have found its place in the care of pain and as an anesthetic to replace standard procedures. However, the use of hypnotherapy in psychiatry is less frequent, indications for its use being variable and not very consensual. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychotherapeutic intervention with hypnosis in 554 couples with reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Rajni; Adwanikar, Geeta; Hathi, Leena; Vyas, Bhaskar

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the efficacy of psychotherapeutic intervention including hypnotherapy in couples with "unexplained" reproductive failure. The study was based on a prospective clinical model set at a Trust Hospital. The couples with reproductive failure reported for treatment. Over a period of 28 years, 554 couples without any anatomical or physiological anomaly were studied. Psychotherapeutic intervention with indirect and direct hypnosis was added to the standard protocol for investigation and therapy of infertile couples. Several stressors were identified. Stress of barrenness was seen in 100% of women. Other stressors of marital life were identified. Hypnotherapy was targeted at general stress relief initially and, towards the specific stressor/s subsequently. The results were judged as success in terms of occurrence of pregnancy. The success rate was 71.67%. There could not have been a double blind study. However, 349/554 came after failing elsewhere. They had the same success rate ie, 70%. A persistent, unprecedented high success rate establishes that "unexplained" reproductive failure is psychodynamically triggered, is reversible with psychotherapy that includes hypnosis. The study explains causation in terms of psychosomatic stress. When that is alleviated with hypnotherapy, there are remarkable results.

  18. Hypnosis in patients with perceived stress - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fisch, S; Brinkhaus, B; Teut, M

    2017-06-19

    Although hypnosis and hypnotherapy have become more popular in recent years, the evidence for hypnosis to influence perceived stress is unclear. In this systematic review we searched and evaluated randomized clinical studies investigating the effect of hypnosis on perceived stress reduction and coping. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Review of Effects, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and PubMed were systematically screened from their inception until December 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting about hypnosis or hypnotherapy for stress reduction in healthy participants. Risk of Bias was assessed according the Cochrane Collaboration recommendations. Nine RCTs with a total of 365 participants met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Most included participants were medical students, predominantly female (n = 211). Mean age of participants ranged in most studies between 20 and 25 years, in three studies the mean ages were between 30 and 42 years. Perceived stress was measured by a wide range of psychological questionnaires including Face Valid Stress Test, Stress Thermometer, and immunological data was collected. All nine included studies used explorative designs and showed a high risk of bias. Six out of nine studies reported significant positive effects of hypnosis for stress reduction in the main outcome parameter compared to control groups (3 active controls, 3 no therapy controls). Immunological outcomes were assessed in six studies, the results were inconclusive. Due to exploratory designs and high risk of bias, the effectiveness of hypnosis or hypnotherapy in stress reduction remains still unclear. More high quality clinical research is urgently needed.

  19. Hypnosis and Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Visual Disorders During Pregnancy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giancarlo; Remonato, Alessandro; Remonato, Roberto; Zanier, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    Context • Pregnancy causes physiological alterations to the visual system, particularly in relation to retinal vascularization, with a consequent increase of intraocular pressure, and to the lacrimal fluid, with a consequent ocular dryness, which both can lead to a reduction in visual acuity. Numerous case reports refer to the employment of hypnotic treatment in cases of myopia, but the literature does not report any case of decreased visual acuity postpartum that was treated with hypnosis. Objective • For women with visual disorders that had appeared during pregnancy or were preexisting, the study intended to evaluate the benefits of treatment of the diaphragm by hypnotherapy and osteopathy to modify intracorporeal pressure and restore the women's visual function. Design • The research team performed a case study. Setting • The setting was a private osteopathic clinic. Participant • The participant was a 35-y-old woman lacking visual acuity postpartum. Intervention • The study took place during a period of 1 d. The participant first took part in a hypnotherapy session, the first intervention, and then participated in an osteopathic session, the second intervention. Outcome Measures • For the first evaluation of visual function at baseline, 3 tests were performed: (1) a visual acuity test; (2) a cover test for near and distance vision; and (3) a test for near point convergence. The visual function evaluation (all 3 tests) occurred after the 2 types of treatment (T1, T2). Finally, a visual function evaluation (all 3 tests) occurred at a follow-up session 1 mo after the end of treatment (T3). Results • The intervention produced a significant improvement in visual acuity, due to the multidisciplinary approach of treatment with hypnotherapy and osteopathy, and achieved a result that was maintained in the medium term. Conclusions • Hypnosis and osteopathy produced a significant improvement in visual acuity and the result was maintained in the medium

  20. Methodology for a trial of brain-centered versus anticholinergic therapy in women with urgency urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Komesu, Yuko M; Rogers, Rebecca G; Sapien, Robert E; Schrader, Ronald M; Simmerman-Sierra, Timothy; Mayer, Andrew R; Ketai, Loren H

    2017-06-01

    We describe the rationale and methodology for a study comparing mind-body treatment and pharmacotherapy in women with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). To explore brain associations in UUI, a subset of patients will also undergo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesize that hypnotherapy, a mind-body intervention, will be at least as effective as pharmacotherapy in treating UUI. We also hypothesize that fMRI findings will change following treatment, with changes potentially differing between groups. We describe the development and design challenges of a study comparing the efficacy of hypnotherapy and conventional pharmacotherapy in the treatment of UUI. The study randomizes women to either of these treatments, and outcome measures include bladder diaries and validated questionnaires. Sample size estimates, based on a noninferiority test (alpha = 0.025, beta = 0.20), after considering dropout subjects and subjects lost to follow-up, indicated that approximately 150 woman would be required to test the hypothesis that hypnotherapy is not inferior to pharmacotherapy within a 5 % noninferiority margin. The study will also evaluate fMRI changes in a subset of participants before and after therapy. Challenges included designing a study with a mind-body therapy and a comparison treatment equally acceptable to participants, standardizing the interventions, and confronting the reality that trials are time-consuming for participants who have to make appropriate accommodations in their schedule. Study enrollment began in March 2013 and is ongoing. We describe the design of a randomized controlled trial comparing mind-body therapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of UUI and the challenges encountered in its implementation.

  1. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. Methods This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. Results At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). Conclusions A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675. PMID:24365274

  2. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Haug, Severin; Schaub, Michael P

    2013-12-23

    Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675.

  3. [Dreams and imaginations in the therapy of eating disordered patients].

    PubMed

    Gáti, Agnes; Abrahám, Ildikó; Arkovits, Amaryl

    2009-01-01

    Recently the integrative approach has been applied in the treatment of eating disorders with multicausal origin. In order to achieve long-term therapeutic effect, the psychodynamic interpretation is often needed and favoured as a part of the personal, multimodal therapeutic strategy. The present paper focuses on body image distortion as one of the most decisive and least influenceable symptom of the disorder. The symptom is interpreted along the body image distortion-body boundaries-self boundaries-autonomy line. With illustrative therapy details of dreams, imaginations, the authors aim to demonstrate the therapeutic use of dynamically oriented therapy and dynamically oriented hypnotherapy.

  4. Advancing research and practice: the revised APA Division 30 definition of hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary R; Barabasz, Arreed F; Council, James R; Spiegel, David

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the history, rationale, and guidelines for developing a new definition of hypnosis by the Society of Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association. The definition was developed with the aim of being concise, heuristic, and allowing for alternative theories of the mechanisms (to be determined in empirical scientific study). The definition of hypnosis is presented as well as definitions of the following related terms: hypnotic induction, hypnotizability, and hypnotherapy. The implications for advancing research and practice are discussed. The definitions are presented within the article.

  5. Advancing Research and Practice: The Revised APA Division 30 Definition of Hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary R; Barabasz, Arreed F; Council, James R; Spiegel, David

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the history, rationale, and guidelines for developing a new definition of hypnosis by the Society of Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association. The definition was developed with the aim of being concise, being heuristic, and allowing for alternative theories of the mechanisms (to be determined in empirical scientific study). The definition of hypnosis is presented as well as definitions of the following related terms: hypnotic induction, hypnotizability, and hypnotherapy. The implications for advancing research and practice are discussed. The definitions are presented within the article.

  6. Self, memory, and imagining the future in a case of psychogenic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, Clare J; Ellis, Judi A; Baker, Ian; Butler, Chris R

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of psychogenic amnesia and examine the relationships between autobiographical memory impairment, the self, and ability to imagine the future. Case study JH, a 60-year-old male, experienced a 6-year period of pervasive psychogenic amnesia covering all life events from childhood to the age of 53. JH was tested during his amnesic period and again following hypnotherapy and the recovery of his memories. JH's amnesia corresponded with deficits in self-knowledge and imagining the future. Results are discussed with reference to models of self and memory and processes involving remembering and imagining.

  7. Complementary therapies for cancer-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie R; Yeung, K Simon

    2004-01-01

    Relief of cancer-related symptoms is essential in the supportive and palliative care of cancer patients. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, mind-body techniques, and massage therapy can help when conventional treatment does not bring satisfactory relief or causes undesirable side effects. Controlled clinical trials show that acupuncture and hypnotherapy can reduce pain and nausea. Meditation, relaxation therapy, music therapy, and massage mitigate anxiety and distress. Pilot studies suggest that complementary therapies may treat xerostomia, hot flashes, and fatigue. Botanicals or dietary supplements are popular but often problematic. Concurrent use of herbal products with mainstream medical treatment should be discouraged.

  8. Smoking Cessation Strategies: The Family Physician's Role.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D

    1982-03-01

    Family physicians are in an ideal position to help patients who smoke. Our most effective strategy is ourselves, offering clear information and advice to stop smoking, combined with a follow up plan. Although controlled research is lacking for most intervention strategies, a number of them do work at least for the short-term. Combined with the physician's ongoing support and reinforcement, patients may choose from 'cold turkey', hypnotherapy, nicotine-containing gum, acupuncture, group programs or behavioral methods such as rapid smoking. The author's experience with some of these interventions is included.

  9. Counterintuitive findings on the hypnotizability of state and nonstate theorists: a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Holroyd, J

    1989-07-01

    17 research psychologists, identified as reflecting state or nonstate theoretical positions regarding hypnosis, were requested to provide anonymous information about their personal hypnosis test scores. There were no differences between the state and nonstate groups in mean scores on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962) or the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962), and no differences in the numbers who reported that they used hypnotherapy to treat patients. Small sample size suggests caution in interpretation of the present results, but it appears that commitment to a state or nonstate theory is not necessarily related to the hypnosis researcher's personal experience with hypnosis.

  10. Clinical Hypnosis — A Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, S.; Banack, A. D.; Marks, C. P.

    1974-01-01

    Hypnosis and trance states are as old as man himself. Over the years, many misconceptions concerning this phenomenon have arisen from lack of knowledge and misrepresentations in the literature and on the stage; however, these are being dispelled as more scientific research into the nature of hypnosis is undertaken. When applied in accordance with ethical principles, hypnotherapy has a very wide range of clinical applications, only one of which is psychotherapy. This overview of the current status of medical hypnosis includes a discussion of misconceptions, myths, and dangers, as well as an outline of common uses. PMID:20469081

  11. Hypnosis for dental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxiety can be a hindrance to treatment. It is prevalent, so helping patients to overcome it should not be regarded as the province of a specialist. Hypnosis can be effective but is underused. A comparison of the conscious, alert state and hypnosis/nitrous oxide sedation is shown by electroencephalogram examples. The benefits and drawbacks of the use of hypnosis are discussed and suggestions of ways of learning and using hypnosis outlined. This paper is an overview of the common problem of dental anxiety and a pragmatic approach to overcoming it using hypnotherapy.

  12. [Unexplained physical symptoms successfully treated by symptom-based psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Reinders, Michel J; Veth, C P M Niels

    2009-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman suffered severe weight loss due to unexplained vomiting. No physical cause was detected. She was treated with hypnotherapy, cognitive therapy and a gradual increase in food with the help of a dietician. The vomiting stopped and the patient was able to eat again. For patients with unexplained physical symptoms, it is often difficult to understand that a psychological component is involved. This psychological component should not be emphasized. It is more important to tell the patient that there is no explanation for their problem, but that there is a possible treatment: psychotherapy.

  13. Noncardiac chest pain: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Schey, Ron; Villarreal, Autumn; Fass, Ronnie

    2007-04-01

    Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is very common, affecting up to 25% of the adult population in the United States. Treatment for NCCP has markedly evolved in the past decade and is presently focused on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and visceral hypersensitivity. Aggressive treatment with proton pump inhibitors has become the standard of care for GERD-related NCCP. Pain modulators such as tricyclics, trazodone, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are considered the mainstay of therapy for non-GERD-related NCCP Other therapeutic modalities such as botulinum toxin injections and hypnotherapy have demonstrated promise in small clinical trials.

  14. Fairy tales as a trance experience: possible therapeutic uses.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Guille, M E; Boersma, F J

    1992-04-01

    The psychological literature contains little documentation of the therapeutic use of fairy tales. We suggest that fairy tales are uniquely suitable for hypnotherapy and for helping clients reframe existential issues. We propose that the structure of fairy tales allows the meaning of the story to be applied personally and that they also stimulate unconscious search. We examine the way in which hypnosis is achieved when fairy tales are read to children, as well as possible therapeutic uses of this learning set in therapy with both children and adults. We conclude by suggesting that fairy tales need to be given serious consideration as an alternative therapeutic trance procedure.

  15. Hypnosis for reduction of background pain and pain anxiety in men with burns: A blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jafarizadeh, Hossein; Lotfi, Mojgan; Ajoudani, Fardin; Kiani, Arezou; Alinejad, Vahid

    2017-08-08

    'Background pain' and 'pain anxiety' are among the numerous problems of patients with burns. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions have been used to reduce background pain and pain anxiety. This study compared the effectiveness of hypnosis and 'neutral hypnosis' (as a placebo in the control group) in decreasing the background burn pain and pain anxiety of adult male survivors with burns. This is a blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Sixty men with burns were included in the minimisation method (30 individuals in the intervention group and 30 individuals in the control group). Four hypnotherapy sessions were performed every other day for each participant in the intervention group. Four neutral hypnosis sessions were performed every other day in the control group. Burn pain and pain anxiety of the patients in both groups were measured at the end of the second and fourth sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. There was no significant difference between the groups in the reduction in background pain intensity. There was a significant reduction in background pain quality and pain anxiety in the intervention group during the four hypnosis sessions. After two hypnotherapy sessions, a significant reduction was observed in the level of background pain quality and pain anxiety of participants. Hypnosis is effective in reducing background pain quality and pain anxiety of men with burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Complementary/alternative medicine in dermatology: evidence-assessed efficacy of two diseases and two treatments.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard; Pittler, Max H; Stevinson, Clare

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a brief, but critical, overview of the evidence related to complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use, and to offer valid and useful information for dermatologists in clinical practice. Systematic literature searches were conducted on these databases: Medline, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CISCOM and AMED (until October 2000). Where appropriate, the evaluation of the published literature was based on systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials. After scanning the literature it was decided to focus on a selection of two conditions (atopic dermatitis and chronic venous insufficiency) and two treatment modalities (aloe vera gel and tea tree oil). Data for the life-time prevalence of CAM use by patients with dermatological disease ranges between 35 to 69%. The most popular modalities include herablism and (other) dietary supplements, while atopic dermatitis is one of the conditions most frequently treated with CAM. For patients with atopic dermatitis the evidence relates to autogenic training, hypnotherapy, diet, herbal medicine, and dietary supplements. Compelling evidence of effectiveness exists for none of these therapies. However, some promising data have been reported for those with a psychological component: autogenic training, biofeedback and hypnotherapy. For chronic venous insufficiency there is relatively convincing evidence for the effectiveness of oral horse chestnut seed extract. The data for aloe vera gel and tea tree oil indicate that for neither is there compelling evidence of effectiveness. The use of CAM treatments is not free of risk; direct and indirect risks associated with CAM must be considered.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine for IBS in adults: mind-body interventions.

    PubMed

    Kearney, David J; Brown-Chang, Janelle

    2008-11-01

    Standard treatment for IBS focuses on the management or alleviation of the predominant gastrointestinal presenting symptoms, such as diarrhea or constipation, often using pharmacological therapy. For many patients, this approach is unsatisfactory, and patients frequently seek the advice of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in order to explore other treatment options. CAM practices include a broad range of modalities, and mind-body interventions hold particular promise as treatment modalities for IBS because psychological factors could have an important role in IBS symptomatology and quality of life. Psychological stressors are postulated to result in gastrointestinal symptoms through alteration of intestinal function mediated by the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system. Hypnotherapy has the strongest supportive evidence as a beneficial mind-body intervention for IBS. Clinical studies of hypnotherapy have uniformly shown improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety, depression and quality of life in patients with IBS. Mindfulness meditation remains unstudied for IBS, but is theoretically attractive as a stress-reduction technique. There is a suggestion that relaxation therapy or multimodal therapy (a combination of relaxation therapy, education and psychotherapy) is beneficial for IBS. The most generally accepted psychological mind-body intervention is cognitive behavioral therapy, and clinical trials support the beneficial effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with IBS.

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi-Hao A.; Nahas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the evidence supporting selected complementary and alternative medicine approaches used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched until March 2008, combining the terms irritable bowel syndrome or irritable colon with complementary therapies, alternative medicine, acupuncture, fiber, peppermint oil, herbal, traditional, yoga, massage, meditation, mind, relaxation, probiotic, hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, or behavior therapy. Results were screened to include only clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Level I evidence was available for most interventions. MAIN MESSAGE Soluble fibre improves constipation and global IBS symptoms. Peppermint oil alleviates IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain. Probiotic trials show overall benefit for IBS but there is little evidence supporting the use of any specific strain. Hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy are also effective therapeutic options for appropriate patients. Certain herbal formulas are supported by limited evidence, but safety is a potential concern. All interventions are supported by systematic reviews or meta-analyses. CONCLUSION Several complementary and alternative therapies can be recommended as part of an evidence-based approach to the treatment of IBS; these might provide patients with satisfactory relief and improve the therapeutic alliance. PMID:19221071

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Hao A; Nahas, Richard

    2009-02-01

    To review the evidence supporting selected complementary and alternative medicine approaches used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched until March 2008, combining the terms irritable bowel syndrome or irritable colon with complementary therapies, alternative medicine, acupuncture, fiber, peppermint oil, herbal, traditional, yoga, massage, meditation, mind, relaxation, probiotic, hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, or behavior therapy. Results were screened to include only clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Level I evidence was available for most interventions. Soluble fibre improves constipation and global IBS symptoms. Peppermint oil alleviates IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain. Probiotic trials show overall benefit for IBS but there is little evidence supporting the use of any specific strain. Hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy are also effective therapeutic options for appropriate patients. Certain herbal formulas are supported by limited evidence, but safety is a potential concern. All interventions are supported by systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Several complementary and alternative therapies can be recommended as part of an evidence-based approach to the treatment of IBS; these might provide patients with satisfactory relief and improve the therapeutic alliance.

  20. Turning breech babies after 34 weeks: the if, how, & when of turning breech babies.

    PubMed

    Cohain, Judy Slome

    2007-01-01

    Techniques for turning a term breech baby are 1). External cephalic version (ECV) using hands and ultrasound only; 2). Acupuncture point stimulation, by needle or moxibustion; 3). Chiropractic "Webster" technique; 4). Hypnotherapy; and 5). Special exercises. Fifty % of breech fetuses at 34 weeks will turn by themselves to head down by 38 weeks. Therefore, to be considered effective, a technique for turning breech must turn the baby and keep it turned more than 50% of the time. Only ECV with an experienced practitioner has been documented to have a greater than 50% success rate at 37 weeks; in 95% of cases the head stays down. Most women experience the fetus turning by hand as quick but very painful. "Unstable lie" is sometimes used as a baseless excuse for inducing labor after the baby turns from breech to head down. (judyslome@hotmail.com).

  1. The Nazi's daughter: the therapist as Jewish mother.

    PubMed

    Mendelberg, H E

    2000-01-01

    The article gives an inside look at a case where posttraumatic stress is intertwined with disturbances in object relations and ego-identity. The patient was a victim of a brutal authoritarian father who had abused her sexually. The trauma left her powerless and isolated. The treatment was aimed at enabling the patient to achieve connection and empowerment. Hypnotherapy, psychoanalytic psychotherapy and hypnosis allowed the patient to understand and overcome symptoms and underlying conflicts in the context of the therapeutic relationship. In spite of regressions and resistances during the course of treatment, therapy yielded the following results: 1. Symptoms were in remission at the end of treatment, and at one- and two-year follow-ups. 2. During the course of psychotherapy the patient was able to process traumatic events cognitively and affectively. 3. There were corrective changes in relatedness modes. 4. Modifications in object internalization and representation were made.

  2. Paediatric Pain Management: Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie C.I; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Children undergo acute painful procedures and many also experience chronic pain. Due to their developing systems, infants and children may be at greater risk than adults for protracted pain sensitivity. There is a need to manage acute and chronic paediatric pain to reduce children's suffering and to prevent future pain problems. Consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in management of acute and chronic paediatric pain. Although research is limited for paediatric pain, CAM interventions receiving the most empirical attention include hypnotherapy, acupuncture and music therapy. Evidence also exists for the therapeutic benefits of yoga, massage, humor therapy and the use of certain biological based therapies. PMID:26525515

  3. [Patients, physicians and nursing personnel in intensive care units: Psychological and psychotherapeutic interventions].

    PubMed

    Meraner, V; Sperner-Unterweger, B

    2016-03-01

    During intensive care treatment patients suffer from various forms of stress. Certain psychological and psychotherapeutic interventions (e. g. cognitive behavior therapy, hypnotherapy and psychoeducation) can provide relief. Even patients with a severely reduced ability to communicate can benefit from an early psychological intervention as supportive treatment. The aim of these interventions is to reduce psychological impairments and burdens, provide strategies for coping with physical handicaps or necessary treatment and avoid long-term negative psychological impacts. Organizational and institutional constraints as well as emotional stress are a specific challenge for intensive care personnel. In order to guarantee an efficient collaboration within an interdisciplinary team it is vital to follow clearly defined methods of communication exchange, such as daily ward rounds, regular multidisciplinary meetings and team or case-focused supervision. Properly functioning teamwork increases job satisfaction and is the key to an optimal therapy for the patients.

  4. Resistance and the Wounded Self: Self-Protection in Service of the Ego.

    PubMed

    Dowd, E Thomas

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the phenomenon of therapeutic resistance and reactance from the perspective of the wounded self. The concept of the wounded self is first presented as it is applied to anxiety and depression and then extended to anger applications. The wounded self can be seen as deeply embedded in human cognitive structures (or core beliefs) of tacit knowledge. The operation of tacit knowledge is then described in everyday life as well as in the therapeutic process. Then there is a discussion of the role of resistance and psychological reactance in psychotherapy with implications for the therapeutic alliance. Finally, a case of a resistant client with anger issues using the cognitive hypnotherapy model is presented.

  5. Therapeutic hypnosis, psychotherapy, and the digital humanities: the narratives and culturomics of hypnosis, 1800-2008.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ernest; Mortimer, Jane; Rossi, Kathryn

    2013-04-01

    Culturomics is a new scientific discipline of the digital humanities-the use of computer algorithms to search for meaning in large databases of text and media. This new digital discipline is used to explore 200 years of the history of hypnosis and psychotherapy in over five million digitized books from more than 40 university libraries around the world. It graphically compares the frequencies of English words about hypnosis, hypnotherapy, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and their founders from 1800 to 2008. This new perspective explore issues such as: Who were the major innovators in the history of therapeutic hypnosis, psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy? How well does this new digital approach to the humanities correspond to traditional histories of hypnosis and psychotherapy?

  6. [Changing methods of pain- and fear-relief in dental treatments based on reports published in 'Fogorvosi Szemle'].

    PubMed

    Tarján, Ildikó; Gábris, Katalin

    2008-12-01

    In the dental practice--for more than a 100 years--it has been a vital topic how to prevent, eliminate, or at least relieve pain and fear associated with dental treatments. 'Fogorvosi Szemle,' the scientific journal of the Hungarian Dental Association is now a 100 years old. Authors present how the approaches and methods of relieving pain and fear have changed in the past century, based on the reports published in this journal. The reports are grouped in three main topics: local anaesthetics and sedatives; ambulatory narcosis and sedative analgesia; hypnosis and hypnotherapy. Based on the publications of the last one hundred years, it can be concluded that the Hungarian dental practice has followed the trends and principles of the well-known international dental schools.

  7. [Breaking the drinking habits of alcoholics with hypnosis. Psychological and technical dynamisms].

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, V

    1980-04-28

    Hypnosis therapy, with its ego support and strengthening techniques, with its cathartic or hypoanalytic method (automatic writing, drawing, hypnodrama but, above all, age regression), by means of will strengthening technique, post-hypnotic comands, etc., represents an all-round system whose aims are not simply to reach a speedy analysis of the patient's inner recesses, but to decondition by negative stimuli and recondition by positive stimuli. Hypnotherapy is based essentially on the dynamism of visualisation. The role of perception as a moment of input or penetration of the pathogenic idea in different growth stages, is the same that is exploited when, in that moment of enhanced receptivity which is hypnosis, in that moment of "burning boats with respect to the subjective perception of reality", haemotigenous visualisations are inculcated which remain dynamically active and operative after long-standing distorted perceptions have been destructured.

  8. MARRIAGE PROBLEMS—Dealing with Them in Private Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ruskin, Isidore W.

    1959-01-01

    Marriages and divorces in Los Angeles County almost equal each other. Marriage per se is not the cause of neurosis. When two neurotic persons marry, the resulting neurotic interaction too often ends in conflict, broken homes and a new generation of neurotic children. Psychotherapy must be related to the diagnosis of family psychopathology, should include all the involved members and should be directed toward the realistic goal of integrating them into family living. Of 100 cases taken from the author's experience, 64 involved married couples and the majority of these had serious interspouse conflicts. In 37 cases both spouses were treated and substantial psychotherapy was given to one or both of the partners. It included one or more modalities varying from electroshock therapy, tranquilizers, and such psychotherapy as supportive, dynamic interpretive, individual, spouses together, group and hypnotherapy. Thirteen achieved clinical recovery, nine improved, twelve were still in therapy. In three cases therapy failed. PMID:13629353

  9. Perspectives of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Erin; Sevigny, Marika; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Phillips, Karen P

    2014-10-14

    Infertility patients are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to supplement or replace conventional fertility treatments. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of CAM practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ottawa, Canada in 2011 with CAM practitioners who specialized in naturopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, hypnotherapy and integrated medicine. CAM practitioners played an active role in both treatment and support of infertility, using a holistic, interdisciplinary and individualized approach. CAM practitioners recognized biological but also environmental and psychosomatic determinants of infertility. Participants were receptive to working with physicians, however little collaboration was described. Integrated infertility patient care through both collaboration with CAM practitioners and incorporation of CAM's holistic, individualized and interdisciplinary approaches would greatly benefit infertility patients.

  10. The power of belief and expectancy in understanding and management of depression.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how beliefs can influence the definition, classification, understanding, and treatment of depression. It is organized in five parts: The first part critically reviews the definition of depression; the second part explores the medicalization of depression; the third part examines the role of the pharmaceutical industry in the promotion and marketing of antidepressant medications; the fourth part surveys the psychological therapies for depression and examines the role of expectancy in outcome; and the last part looks at the mechanisms involved in the placebo effect. A list of evidence-based strategies, including hypnosis, are discussed in the context of cognitive hypnotherapy for depression to illustrate how expectancy effect can be maximized in psychotherapy.

  11. The vulvodynia guideline.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Hope K; Collins, Michael E; Davis, Gordon D; Edwards, Libby; Foster, David C; Hartmann, Elizabeth Dee Heaton; Kaufman, Raymond H; Lynch, Peter J; Margesson, Lynette J; Moyal-Barracco, Micheline; Piper, Claudia K; Reed, Barbara D; Stewart, Elizabeth G; Wilkinson, Edward J

    2005-01-01

    To provide a review of the literature and make known expert opinion regarding the treatment of vulvodynia. Experts reviewed the existing literature to provide new definitions for vulvar pain and to describe treatments for this condition. Vulvodynia has been redefined by the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease as vulvar discomfort in the absence of gross anatomic or neurologic findings. Classification is based further on whether the pain is generalized or localized and whether it is provoked, unprovoked, or both. Treatments described include general vulvar care, topical medications, oral medications, injectables, biofeedback and physical therapy, dietary changes with supplementations, acupuncture, hypnotherapy, and surgery. No one treatment is clearly the best for an individual patient. Vulvodynia has many possible treatments, but very few controlled trials have been performed to verify efficacy of these treatments. Provided are guidelines based largely on expert opinion to assist the patient and practitioner in dealing with this condition.

  12. Paediatric Pain Management: Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Subhadra; Tsao, Jennie C I; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2008-09-01

    Children undergo acute painful procedures and many also experience chronic pain.Due to their developing systems, infants and children may be at greater risk than adults for protracted pain sensitivity.There is a need to manage acute and chronic paediatric pain to reduce children's suffering and to prevent future pain problems.Consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in management of acute and chronic paediatric pain.Although research is limited for paediatric pain, CAM interventions receiving the most empirical attention include hypnotherapy, acupuncture and music therapy. Evidence also exists for the therapeutic benefits of yoga, massage, humor therapy and the use of certain biological based therapies.

  13. Childhood anxiety and psychophysiological reactivity: hypnosis to build discrimination and self-regulation skills.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    Clinically anxious, worried, and fearful children and teens need clinicians' assistance in reducing their exaggerated psychophysiological stress reactivity. Affective neuroscience finds that chronic activation of the body's emergency response system inhibits neurogenesis, disrupts neuronal plasticity, and is detrimental to physical and mental health. Patterns of faulty discrimination skills, for example, over-estimation of threat and danger and under-estimation of their coping capacity, fuel this over-arousal. Similarly, contributory patterns of reduced self-regulation skills are shown by "stuck" attention to and poor control of their exaggerated psychophysiological reactivity and somatization. This article considers the literature and focuses on cognitive hypnotherapy to enhance these under-developed capacities. A case illustration highlights various hypnotic phenomena and techniques, psychoeducation, and relaxation training that address the goals of interrupting these unproductive, interconnected patterns and fostering new patterns of more realistic and accurate discrimination capacities and sturdier psychophysiological self-regulation skills.

  14. The use of complementary therapies for chronic pain in Italian hospices.

    PubMed

    Latina, Roberto; Mastroianni, Chiara; Sansoni, Julita; Piredda, Michele; Casale, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Daniela; Tarsitani, Gianfranco; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been an increase in the use of CT (Complementary Therapy) in Europe, little is known about CT available in Italian hospices. The present study is aimed at assessing the diffusion and typologies of CT used to treat chronic pain in Italian hospices. METHODS. An online survey was e-mailed to a regional sample of 16 hospices, which included questions on common CT used to treat malignant or nonmalignant chronic pain, and the barriers to their utilization. The response rate was 81%. Only 5 hospices (38%) offered CT with conventional treatment. Massage therapy was the most common type of CT used, followed by naturopathy, nurturing touch, hypnotherapy, guided imagery, and aromatherapy. Barriers to the delivery of CT included insufficient knowledge of CT by staff, limited knowledge, and lack of funding. Although limited to Lazio hospices, this survey shows a partial use of CT for the treatment of chronic pain, caused by economic and cultural barriers.

  15. The wounded self: new approach to understanding and treating anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2014-04-01

    This article synthesizes the concept of "wounded self" in the understanding and psychological treatment of anxiety disorders. The focal point of this concept is the notion of self-wounds or early unresolved emotional injuries. According to this conceptualization, anxiety represents an unconscious fear of unbearable insult to the wounded self, which is protected by maladaptive conscious strategies such as avoidance, cognitive distortions, or emotional constriction. This perspective provides a theoretical basis for blending elements of psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential therapies in the psychological management of anxiety disorders. As cognitive hypnotherapy embodies all of these therapeutic elements, its application to anxiety disorders is described in this article. Various hypnotherapeutic techniques for symptomatic relief and for eliciting and healing the wounded self are discussed and exemplified by a case. This case illustrates that symptom-focused treatment is necessary, but not sufficient. A more durable treatment requires resolution of underlying conflicts that drive the anxiety.

  16. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Modalities for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Facts or Myths?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Due to unsatisfactory results from conventional treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities are increasingly popular treatment alternatives. Unfortunately, most CAM clinical trials have been of poor quality, and the efficacies of these therapies have not been adequately elucidated, even through systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is also a general lack of understanding of their mechanisms of action. Currently, insufficient evidence exists to support the use of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, meditation, and reflexology for treatment of IBS. However, there is some evidence supporting the use of peppermint oil and gut-directed hypnotherapy for IBS treatment. Due to mounting evidence of the microbiologic and immunologic basis of IBS, probiotics and exclusion diets are also becoming promising treatment modalities. This paper will review the current literature on various CAM practices for IBS treatment and appraise their advantages and disadvantages in clinical practice. PMID:21437019

  17. Chronic abdominal pain in children: what to do following the medical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Banez, Gerard A

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented review of conventional, alternative, and rehabilitation therapies for chronic or recurrent abdominal pain in children. Cognitive-behavioral procedures, including contingency management training for parents and self-regulation training for children, emerge as a probably efficacious treatment. Symptom-based pharmacological therapies can be helpful, but may be best reserved for children with severe symptoms that have not responded to simple management. Biofeedback therapy, hypnotherapy, and peppermint oil are among the most promising alternative therapies. For patients with severe functional disability, an interdisciplinary rehabilitation approach may be warranted. As more is learned about different therapies for recurrent abdominal pain, an integrative approach that blends these interventions may become increasingly common.

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wahbeh, Helané; Senders, Angela; Neuendorf, Rachel; Cayton, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To 1) characterize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) studies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD), 2) evaluate the quality of these studies, and 3) systematically grade the scientific evidence for individual CAM modalities for PTSD. Design Systematic Review. Eight data sources were searched. Selection criteria included any study design assessing PTSD outcomes and any CAM intervention. The body of evidence for each modality was assessed with the Natural Standard evidence-based, validated grading rationale.™ Results and Conclusions Thirty-three studies (n=1329) were reviewed. Scientific evidence of benefit for PTSD was Strong for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and Good for acupuncture, hypnotherapy, meditation, and visualization. Evidence was Unclear or Conflicting for biofeedback, relaxation, Emotional Freedom and Thought Field therapies, yoga, and natural products. Considerations for clinical applications and future research recommendations are discussed. PMID:24676593

  19. Mind/Body Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fresé, Michael P.; Rapgay, Lobsang

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies. PMID:18317547

  20. Let's talk about sleep: a systematic review of psychological interventions to improve sleep in college students.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Anja; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2017-06-15

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence in college students. Insomnia, nightmares and impaired sleep quality lead to several mental health issues, as well as impaired academic performance. Although different sleep programmes exist, a systematic overview comparing their effectiveness is still missing. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of psychological interventions to improve sleep in college students. Seven databases were searched from November to December 2016 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, PubMed, OpenSigle). The search string included search terms from three different topics: sleep, intervention and college students. Outcome measures included subjective as well as objective measures and focused on sleep, sleep-related and mental health variables. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. They were assigned to four intervention categories: (1) sleep hygiene, (2) cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), (3) relaxation, mindfulness and hypnotherapy and (4) other psychotherapeutic interventions. Fifteen studies were randomized controlled trials. While sleep hygiene interventions provided small to medium effects, the CBTs showed large effects. The variability of the effect sizes was especially large in the relaxation category, ranging from very small to very large effect sizes. Other psychotherapeutic interventions showed medium effects. CBT approaches provided the best effects for the improvement of different sleep variables in college students. Five studies included insomnia patients. The other three intervention categories also showed promising results with overall medium effects. In the future, CBT should be combined with relaxation techniques, mindfulness and hypnotherapy. Furthermore, the interventions should broaden their target group and include more sleep disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. The Beneficial Effect of Hypnosis in Elective Cardiac Surgery: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Akgul, Ahmet; Guner, Beyhan; Çırak, Musa; Çelik, Derya; Hergünsel, Oya; Bedirhan, Sevim

    2016-10-01

    Background Single-session hypnosis has never been evaluated as a premedication technique in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of clinical hypnotherapy on perioperative anxiety, pain perception, sedation, and necessity for ventilator assistance in patients undergoing CABG. Methods Double-blind, randomized, clinical trial was performed. Forty-four patients undergoing CABG surgery were randomized into two groups. The patients in group A received preprocedural hypnosis by an anesthesiologist. Patients in group B (control) had only information on the surgical intervention by the same anesthesiologist. State-Trait-Anxiety Index-I (STAI-I) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were performed preoperatively in both groups. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Ramsay sedation scale (RSS) were evaluated on 0th, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, and 24th hours, postoperatively. Postoperative anxiety level, analgesic drug consumption, and duration of ventilator assistance and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were also documented. Results When anxiety and depression levels were compared, significantly lower STA-I and BDI values were detected in group A after hypnotherapy (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). Significantly less total doses of remifentanil (34.4 ± 11.4 vs. 50.0 ± 13.6 mg) and morphine (4.9 ± 3.3 vs. 13.6 ± 2.7 mg) were administered in group A in the postoperative period. Ventilator assistance duration (6.8 ± 2.0 vs. 8.9 ± 2.7 hours) was also shorter in group A when compared with that in group B (p = 0.007). Conclusion Hypnosis session prior to surgery was an effective complementary method in decreasing presurgical anxiety, and it resulted in better pain control as well as reduced ventilator assistance following CABG surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Mind-body interventions during pregnancy for preventing or treating women's anxiety.

    PubMed

    Marc, Isabelle; Toureche, Narimane; Ernst, Edzard; Hodnett, Ellen D; Blanchet, Claudine; Dodin, Sylvie; Njoya, Merlin M

    2011-07-06

    Anxiety during pregnancy is a common problem. Anxiety and stress could have consequences on the course of the pregnancy and the later development of the child. Anxiety responds well to treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and/or medication. Non-pharmacological interventions such as mind-body interventions, known to decrease anxiety in several clinical situations, might be offered for treating and preventing anxiety during pregnancy. To assess the benefits of mind-body interventions during pregnancy in preventing or treating women's anxiety and in influencing perinatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2010), MEDLINE (1950 to 30 November 2010), EMBASE (1974 to 30 November 2010), the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (1 December 2010), ClinicalTrials.gov (December 2010) and Current Controlled Trials (1 December 2010), searched the reference lists of selected studies and contacted professionals and authors in the field. Randomized controlled trials, involving pregnant women of any age at any time from conception to one month after birth, comparing mind-body interventions with a control group. Mind-body interventions include: autogenic training, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, imagery, meditation, prayer, auto-suggestion, tai-chi and yoga. Control group includes: standard care, other pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions, other types of mind-body interventions or no treatment at all. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion all assessed risk of bias for each included study. We extracted data independently using an agreed form and checked it for accuracy. We included eight trials (556 participants), evaluating hypnotherapy (one trial), imagery (five trials), autogenic training (one trial) and yoga (one trial). Due to the small number of studies per intervention and to the diversity of outcome measurements, we performed no meta

  3. [Functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2012-09-01

    We summarize and discuss the studies presented at the congress of the American Association of Gastroenterology (Digestive Disease Week) that, in our opinion, are of greatest interest. Both clinically and physiopathologically, functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are highly complex. A single cause is unlikely to explain symptoms as heterogeneous as those of functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore, it is easier (and more useful) to try to understand functional GI disorders using a bio-psycho-social model. Moreover, data supporting the combined importance of genetic, organic and psychological factors in the onset and persistence of functional GI disorders are increasingly convincing. This year, new data have been provided on pharmacogenetics in gastroparesis, on microinflammation or alterations in the modulation of somatic and visceral sensitivity in functional dyspepsia, and on the impact of psychological factors in IBS. From the therapeutic point of view, further information has been provided on the role of probiotics, the antinociceptive effect of linaclotide (demonstrated in several studies presented this year), and on the high efficacy of hypnotherapy in patients with IBS. Finally, data on the clinical management of patients with constipation due to pelvic floor dyssynergia and on the safety and efficacy of prucalopride in patients with severe constipation were also of interest.

  4. Conversion Disorder, Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder, and Chronic Pain: Comorbidity, Assessment, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Patricia; Deptula, Andrew; Yuan, Derek Y

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the overlap of conversion disorder with chronic pain conditions, describes ways to assess for conversion disorder, and provides an overview of evidence-based treatments for conversion disorder and chronic pain, with a focus on conversion symptoms. Conversion disorder is a significant problem that warrants further study, given that there are not many well-established guidelines. Accurate and timely assessment should help move treatment in a more fruitful direction and avoid unnecessary medical interventions. Advances in neuroimaging may also help further our understanding of conversion disorder. Creating a supportive environment and a collaborative treatment relationship and improving understanding of conversion symptoms appear to help individuals diagnosed with conversion disorder engage in appropriate treatments. Novel uses of earlier treatments, such as hypnosis and psychodynamic approaches, could potentially be beneficial and require a more vigorous and systematic study. There are treatments that produce significant improvements in functioning and reduction of physical symptoms from conversion disorder even for very severe cases. Hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and inpatient multidisciplinary treatment with intensive physiotherapy for severe cases have the most evidence to support reduction of symptoms. Components of treatment for conversion disorder overlap with treatments for chronic pain and can be used together to produce therapeutic effects for both conditions. Treatment needs to be tailored for each individual's specific symptoms.

  5. Physical therapy under hypnosis for the treatment of patients with type 1 complex regional pain syndrome of the hand and wrist: Retrospective study of 20 cases.

    PubMed

    Lebon, J; Rongières, M; Apredoaei, C; Delclaux, S; Mansat, P

    2017-06-01

    Type 1 complex regional painful syndrome (CRPS-1) has a complex physiopathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of physical therapy under hypnotherapy to treat this condition. Twenty patients with CRPS-1 at the wrist and hand were evaluated retrospectively: 13 women and 7 men with an average age of 56 years (34-75). Thirteen patients were in the inflammatory phase and 7 in the dystrophic phase. The main endpoints were pain (VAS, analgesic use), stiffness (wrist and finger range of motion), and strength (pinch and grasp). Secondary endpoints were functional scores (QuickDASH, PWRE), patient satisfaction, return to work, and side effects. Results were satisfactory in all cases after 5.4 sessions on average. VAS decreased by 4 points, PWRE-pain by 4.1 points, and analgesic use was limited to paracetamol upon request. Finger and wrist range of motion increased and the QuickDASH decreased by 34 points, PRWE-function by 3.8 points, pinch strength increased 4 points, and grasp strength by 10 points. Return to work was possible in 80% of the cases. All patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment. Physical therapy under hypnosis appears to be an effective treatment for CRPS-1 at the wrist and hand no matter the etiology. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, Robert A

    2017-03-16

    Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations.

  7. The evidence base for efficacy of the low FODMAP diet in irritable bowel syndrome: is it ready for prime time as a first-line therapy?

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter R

    2017-03-01

    Six randomized controlled trials comparing low FODMAP diet with placebo approaches have all indicated efficacy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The studies have provided all the food (n = 3) or utilized dietitian-led education (n = 3). They have variably met criticisms regarding issues such as the choice of placebo, the number of patients studied, the success of blinding, and the duration of the interventions, but the results are uniformly positive for the diet. Real-world experience of the low FODMAP diet has confirmed the findings of the randomized studies, in that about 70% of patients respond. Difficulty in delivering the diet has not been an issue, and the majority of patients find the diet easy to follow when dietitian led. Observational studies have suggested durability of efficacy, even in association with reintroduction of FODMAPs as recommended. Three studies comparing institution of standard dietary guidelines for IBS with the low FODMAP diet have found either similar or improved outcomes with the latter. Low FODMAP diet also has similar efficacy to that of gut-directed hypnotherapy, another strategy with broad benefit in IBS. There are currently no clinically applicable indices that predict response to the diet. In conclusion, clinical trials and observational studies support the notion that a dietitian-led low FODMAP diet is ready for primetime and should be considered as a first-line therapy for patients with IBS where the use of a restrictive diet is appropriate.

  8. How effective are spiritual care and body manipulation therapies in pediatric oncology? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Poder, Thomas G; Lemieux, Renald

    2013-12-10

    The effects of cancer and associated treatments have a considerable impact on the well-being and quality of life of pediatric oncology patients. To support children and their families, complementary and alternative medicines are seen by nurses and doctors as practical to integrate to the services offered by hospitals. The purpose of this paper is to examine if the practice of complementary and alternative medicine, specifically spiritual care and treatments based on body manipulation, is likely to improve the health and well-being of children suffering from cancer. This objective is achieved through a systematic review of the literature. The level of evidence associated with each practice of complementary and alternative medicine was assessed according to the methodological design used by the studies reviewed. Studies reviewed are of a methodological quality that could be described as fair due to the small sample size of patients and the existence of a number of biases in the conduct and analysis of these studies. However, results obtained are consistent from one study to another, allowing us to make certain recommendations. It is thus advisable to consider the introduction of hypnotherapy in pediatric oncology services. Based on the data collected, it is the complementary and alternative medicine with the most evidence in favor of effectiveness of the well-being of pediatric oncology patients, especially during painful procedures. It is also recommended to use art therapy and music therapy. Conversely, too little evidence is present to be able to recommend the use of acupuncture, chiropractic or osteopathy.

  9. [Irritable bowel syndrome: diet and complementary medicine therapies?].

    PubMed

    Gerkens, A

    2012-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent and invalidating functional bowel disorder with entangled mechanisms. Its therapeutic approach is therefore complex. Classical therapies, prescribed alone or in combination in light of the predominant symptom, consist of antispasmodics, fibers, laxatives, antidiarrheals, and psychotropic agents. Other emerging pharmacological therapies, such as prokinetics, prosecretory or serotoninergic agents, bile acid modulators and antibiotics have been recently studied in clinical trials. Dietary measures can include reduction of short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (FODMAPs) and gluten restriction. Assessment of food allergy can be proposed in a subgroup of IBS patients. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies, that are generally low cost and safe, appear to be appreciated by patients. Probiotics have demonstrated action on the gut microbiote modulation, and may be helpful in a subset of patients. Peppermint oil has an established visceral analgesic effect. Hypnotherapy represents an original, global and effective approach. Finally, education, reassurance and listening to the patient, leading to a solid therapeutic relationship, represents an essential backdrop of remedy or diet effectiveness.

  10. Psychological treatments for pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Brent, Meredith; Lobato, Debra; LeLeiko, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to systematically review and evaluate behavioral and psychological treatments applied to pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders. Electronic searches were conducted in bibliographic databases including PubMed, PsychInfo, and Medline. Psychological and behavioral interventions were classified into the following 5 primary treatment modalities: psychoeducation, behavior therapy/contingency management, relaxation-based therapies (including biofeedback and hypnotherapy), and cognitive-behavioral therapy (including cognitive-behavioral family therapy). There was a wide variation in the quality and quantity of studies within each treatment category. Effective interventions generally involved multiple therapeutic components and included elements of both individual and family treatment. Psychological interventions that combine psychoeducation, relaxation-based therapies, and cognitive-behavioral therapy appear superior to standard care (reassurance or dietary manipulation) in the elimination of pain and reduction in functional disability. Although many psychological treatments demonstrated evidence of positive effects, few well-designed randomized controlled trials of psychological treatments for functional gastrointestinal disorders exist. More work is needed to determine the most potent, essential elements of psychological treatments alone or in combination with standard medical intervention, and to establish their applicability with diverse populations. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  11. Attachment-Focused Psychotherapy and the Wounded Self.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Eric B

    2016-07-01

    The concept of the "wounded self" (Wolfe, 2005) offers an integrative theoretical framework for self-wounds and their developmental origins. Alladin (2013, 2014, 2016) integrated hypnotherapy into this model to comprehensively address the unconscious protective mechanisms and maladaptive conscious cognitive strategies of the wounded self. The purpose of this article is to propose how an attachment-focused psychotherapy could be utilized in working with the wounded self. With its emphasis on developmental maturation through the frame of the attachment relationship, attachment theory is well-positioned to offer conceptual and treatment insights in treating the wounded self. E. B. Spiegel's (2016) attunement, representation, and mentalization approach to attachment-focused psychotherapy described how hypnosis can be utilized across attachment processes of attunement, representation, and mentalization toward structural maturation and developmental repair of patients with histories of complex relational trauma. In this article, the attunement, representation, and mentalization attachment approach and associated interventions are further explicated in the treatment of self-wounds in the borderline and narcissistic spectrums of personality organization. These principles of conceptualization and treatment interventions are then applied in a case example.

  12. [Hypnosis as a resource in palliative care. A qualitative study of the contribution of hypnosis to the care of oncology patients].

    PubMed

    Teike Luethi, Fabienne; Currat, Thierry; Spencer, Brenda; Jayet, Nicolas; Cantin, Boris

    2012-09-01

    Hypnosis is recognised in medicine as an effective complementary therapy. However, few qualitative data are available concerning the benefits it may bring. This qualitative exploratory study aimed to examine the contribution of hypnosis to the care of advanced cancer patients. Results demonstrate that hypnosis is an effective and efficient means of developing the resources of people suffering from serious illness. After an average of four hypnotherapy sessions, patients said they were able to locate previously unexploited resources within themselves and were able to become autonomous in the use of self-hypnosis. The major benefit reported concerned a reduction in anxiety. For patients experiencing anxiety about death, hypnosis allowed them, within a therapeutic environment perceived as safe, to explore different facets of their fears and to develop adaptive strategies. Aside from slight fatigue experienced during the sessions, no adverse side-effects were reported. In conclusion, this study exploring the effects of hypnosis allowed us to identify important benefits for patients suffering from advanced cancer. Consequently, replication on a larger scale is recommended in order to ascertain the extent to which it is possible to generalise from these results and in order better to define the characteristics of patients most likely to benefit from this therapy.

  13. Breaking the trance.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1997-01-01

    The father of hypnotherapy, Milton Erickson, insisted that trance was a fairly common state for individuals, one that we drop into many times a day without any help at all--not at all the sensational image we think of with the magician hypnotizing the audience volunteer, or the psychiatrist the patient. Trances have a number of things in common--they: (1) are an altered state of consciousness; (2) feel autonomous; (3) come packaged with any of a number of "Deep Trance Phenomena"; (4) tend to repeat; (5) are universal. Organizations have trances, too. They have autonomous states of mind, ways of thinking that seem to come from nowhere, that seem impossible to change. They have automatic behaviors--ways of meeting, building of bureaucratic structures, interactions between departments. If organizations had knees, we might call them "knee-jerk reactions." Or communal habits. Or organizational trances. If the trance is a harmful one, how can you loosen its grip? By building up parallel realities.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicines in irritable bowel syndrome: an integrative view.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Oliver; Yoon, Saunjoo L

    2014-01-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with a high incidence in the general population. The diagnosis of IBS is mainly based on exclusion of other intestinal conditions through the absence of inflammatory markers and specific antigens. The current pharmacological treatment approaches available focus on reducing symptom severity while often limiting quality of life because of significant side effects. This has led to an effectiveness gap for IBS patients that seek further relief to increase their quality of life. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have been associated with a higher degree of symptom management and quality of life in IBS patients. Over the past decade, a number of important clinical trials have shown that specific herbal therapies (peppermint oil and Iberogast(®)), hypnotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, acupuncture, and yoga present with improved treatment outcomes in IBS patients. We propose an integrative approach to treating the diverse symptoms of IBS by combining the benefits of and need for pharmacotherapy with known CAM therapies to provide IBS patients with the best treatment outcome achievable. Initial steps in this direction are already being considered with an increasing number of practitioners recommending CAM therapies to their patients if pharmacotherapy alone does not alleviate symptoms sufficiently.

  15. Guidelines on the irritable bowel syndrome: mechanisms and practical management

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, R; Aziz, Q; Creed, F; Emmanuel, A; Houghton, L; Hungin, P; Jones, R; Kumar, D; Rubin, G; Trudgill, N; Whorwell, P

    2007-01-01

    Background IBS affects 5–11% of the population of most countries. Prevalence peaks in the third and fourth decades, with a female predominance. Aim To provide a guide for the assessment and management of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Members of the Clinical Services Committee of The British Society of Gastroenterology were allocated particular areas to produce review documents. Literature searching included systematic searches using electronic databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases and extensive personal reference databases. Results Patients can usefully be classified by predominant bowel habit. Few investigations are needed except when diarrhoea is a prominent feature. Alarm features may warrant further investigation. Adverse psychological features and somatisation are often present. Ascertaining the patients' concerns and explaining symptoms in simple terms improves outcome. IBS is a heterogeneous condition with a range of treatments, each of which benefits a small proportion of patients. Treatment of associated anxiety and depression often improves bowel and other symptoms. Randomised placebo controlled trials show benefit as follows: cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy improve coping; hypnotherapy benefits global symptoms in otherwise refractory patients; antispasmodics and tricyclic antidepressants improve pain; ispaghula improves pain and bowel habit; 5‐HT3 antagonists improve global symptoms, diarrhoea, and pain but may rarely cause unexplained colitis; 5‐HT4 agonists improve global symptoms, constipation, and bloating; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve global symptoms. Conclusions Better ways of identifying which patients will respond to specific treatments are urgently needed. PMID:17488783

  16. [Functional dyspepsia. New pathophysiologic knowledge with therapeutic implications].

    PubMed

    Hernando-Harder, Ana C; Franke, Andreas; Singer, Manfred V; Harder, Hermann

    2007-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a heterogeneous, highly prevalent symptom complex in the community and general practice. FD is defined as the presence of symptoms considered as originated in the gastroduodenal region, in the absence of any organic, systemic, or metabolic disease that is likely to explain the symptoms. Pathogenetic features include disturbed gastric accommodation and emptying, duodenal dysmotility, heightened sensitivity, notably psychosocial disturbances and an association with a postinfective state. Increasing efforts are made to determine the etiopathogenesis of the disease, including new molecular and genetic aspects. However, the exact etiopathologic mechanism that causes the symptoms in an individual patient remains to be identified. The new Rome III criteria redefine and sub-characterize FD patients according to their main symptoms and this can be of value for standardized research, development and control of new therapeutic strategies and calculated therapeutic recommendations in the clinical practice. Various treatment modalities have been employed including dietary modifications, pharmacological agents directed at different targets within the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system and psychological therapies including hypnotherapy. Unfortunately, to date, all of these therapies have yielded only marginal results. After excluding organic diseases, it is essential that the patient be assured about the benign nature and prognosis of the disease, and this can be sometimes the most helpful inversion for the patient and his/her physician.

  17. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Pendergrast, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations. PMID:28300761

  18. [Dispute over the multiple personality disorder: theoretical or practical dilemma?].

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Sylwia; Golczyńska, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) could also be referred to as multiple personality disorder (MPD). Due to rare occurrence and difficulty in its' identification it is infrequently diagnosed in Poland. The indicated disorder has been portrayed by the authors throughout the historical context, referring to initial 18th century's references concerning dissociation. A typical dissociatively disordered person has been characterized along with his individual personality categories such as: original personality, altered personality, host and personality fragment. Moreover various diagnosis criterions of DID have been introduced. DID has also been differentiated with other disorders: PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and BPD (borderline personality disorder). A hypothesis has been set up, stating that DID is directly correlated with the trauma experienced during childhood, while PTSD is linked with traumatic lived-through events in the later period of ones' life. The most contemporary and frequently used research tools for DID have been indicated: dissociative experience scale (DES) and somatoform dissociation questionnaire (SDQ-20). Based upon the known literature, the authors have presented treatment methods such as hypnotherapy and recorded therapy sessions. It is the view of the authors that the switching in dissociative identity disorder is of adaptive character (it occurrs depending upon adaptive needs).

  19. Rapunzel syndrome is not just a mere surgical problem: A case report and review of current management

    PubMed Central

    Obinwa, Obinna; Cooper, David; Khan, Faraz; O’Riordan, James M

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent Rapunzel syndrome (RRS) is a rare clinical presentation with fewer than six cases reported in the PubMed literature. A report of RRS and literature review is presented. A 25-year-old female was admitted to hospital with a 4-wk history of epigastric pain and swelling. She had a known history of trichophagia with a previous admission for Rapunzel syndrome requiring a laparotomy nine years earlier, aged 16. Psychological treatment had been successfully achieved for nine years with outpatient hypnotherapy sessions only, but she defaulted on her last session due to stressors at home. The abdominal examination demonstrated an epigastric mass. Computer tomography scan revealed a large gastric bezoar and features of aspiration pneumonia. The patient underwent emergency open surgical laparotomy for removal as the bezoar could not be removed endoscopically. The bezoar was cast in a shape that mimicked the contours of the stomach and proximal small bowel, hence the diagnosis of RRS. The patient was seen by a psychiatrist and was commenced on Quetiapine before discharge. She continues to attend follow-up. PMID:28255548

  20. Nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Cottraux, Jean

    2002-09-01

    An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled studies, which preclude any definite conclusion about their effectiveness in specific phobias, agoraphobia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), CBT was clearly better than psychoanalytic therapy in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and performance anxiety Psychological debriefing for PTSD appeared detrimental to the patients in one high-quality meta-analysis. Uncontrolled studies of psychosurgery techniques for intractable OCD demonstrated a limited success and detrimental side effects. The same was true for sympathectomy in ereutophobia. Transcranial neurostimulation for OCD is under preliminary study. The theoretical and practical problems of CBT dissemination are discussed.

  1. [The efficacy of smoking cessation methods available in the Netherlands: a systematic review based on Cochrane data].

    PubMed

    Willemsen, M C; Wagena, E J; van Schayck, C P

    2003-05-10

    To obtain an overview of data from the Cochrane Library on smoking-cessation methods and aids available in the Netherlands. Systematic literature review. Common smoking-cessation methods in the Netherlands in 1999 and 2000 were selected from previous research. Data from relevant Cochrane reviews about these cessation methods were collected, after which the efficacy was calculated as a pooled odds ratio and the effectiveness as a percentage of 12 months' continuous abstinence. The following methods were found to be more efficacious than placebo: tailored written advice, individual counselling, telephonic counselling, group courses, all forms of nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion and nortriptyline. Acupuncture was not superior to placebo. It was not possible to draw any unequivocal conclusions about hypnotherapy. No randomised studies were found with respect to the 'Allen Carr method'. Rates of 12 months' continuous abstinence were as follows for those methods with proven efficacy: tailored advice: 7%, individual counselling: 16%, telephonic counselling: 7.5%, nicotine gum: 17%, nicotine patch: 13%, nicotine inhaler: 17%, nicotine tablets: 20%, bupropion: 17%, and nortriptyline: 24%. The success rates for nicotine tablets and nortriptyline were based on only 2 and 1 study respectively. Several effective smoking-cessation methods are available in the Netherlands. In trials the long-term effectiveness of these methods was between 7-24%.

  2. Pain and palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Sorger, Brooke; Rosenfeld, Kenneth E; Lorenz, Karl A; Bailey, Amos F; Bui, Trinh; Weinberger, Lawrence; Montagnini, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    Severe pain is highly prevalent, with rates of 40% to 70% in patients with advanced cancer, liver disease, heart failure, human immunodeficiency virus, and renal failure. Wide variations in pain assessment and reporting methods and the measurement of multiple symptoms should be addressed in future studies. Regarding psychological approaches, determining whether hypnotherapy or other individual psychotherapeutic interventions reduce pain and/or psychological distress in a palliative care population is difficult. Interest is increasing in the concept of demoralization syndromes and the role of posttraumatic stress disorder in modulating responses to pain at the end of life. We review evidence from multiple studies that the use of rehabilitative therapy improves functional status and pain control among patients with advanced cancer, and we raise the possibility that rehabilitation therapy will be helpful in patients with other advanced diseases. We summarize ongoing clinical trials of electronic order sets, clinical care pathways, and care management pathways to improve pain management in palliative care. Wagner's Chronic Illness Model provides a way of analyzing how healthcare systems can be changed to provide adequate and continuing pain management in palliative care. Much work remains to ensure that pain is recognized, treated, and monitored effectively.

  3. Psychosocial interventions for recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rebecca A; Martin, Alice E; Newlove-Delgado, Tamsin V; Bethel, Alison; Thompson-Coon, Joanna; Whear, Rebecca; Logan, Stuart

    2017-01-10

    This review supersedes the original Cochrane review first published in 2008 (Huertas-Ceballos 2008).Between 4% and 25% of school-aged children complain of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) severe enough to interfere with their daily activities. No organic cause for this pain can be found on physical examination or investigation for the majority of such children. Although many children are managed by reassurance and simple measures, a large range of psychosocial interventions involving cognitive and behavioural components have been recommended. To determine the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for reducing pain in school-aged children with RAP. In June 2016 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, eight other databases, and two trials registers. We also searched the references of identified studies and relevant reviews. Randomised controlled trials comparing psychosocial therapies with usual care, active control, or wait-list control for children and adolescents (aged 5 to 18 years) with RAP or an abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder defined by the Rome III criteria were eligible for inclusion. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Five review authors independently selected studies, assessed them for risk of bias, and extracted relevant data. We also assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review includes 18 randomised controlled trials (14 new to this version), reported in 26 papers, involving 928 children and adolescents with RAP between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The interventions were classified into four types of psychosocial therapy: cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), hypnotherapy (including guided imagery), yoga, and written self-disclosure. The studies were carried out in the USA, Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Germany, and Brazil. The majority of the studies were small and short term; only two studies included more than 100 participants, and only five studies had

  4. [Intermixture of politics and science in the GDR. The investigation of deaths at the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry at Leipzig University under Müller-Hegemann in 1963].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H; Weber, M M

    2011-10-01

    This study presents archival sources that shed light on a topic still being discussed by psychiatrists in East Germany: the death of two patients at the Leipzig Department that occurred in 1960 and 1962 under the directorship of Dietfried Müller-Hegemann. These fatalities were supposed to have been induced by obsolete psychotropic drugs and were associated with Ivan Pavlov's hypnotherapy. The incidents were investigated both by highest administrative bodies and the General State Prosecutor of the former GDR. Archival sources suggest that lower party organs and the ministerial administration tried to make use of the proceedings to bring about the downfall of the head of the Leipzig Department, who had become ideologically suspicious. However, the official General State Prosecutor's investigation ascertained that both Müller-Hegemann and Christa Kohler, head of the psychotherapeutic ward, were not to be held responsible. Although the SED Central Committee at first tried to influence the outcome on the basis of ideological reservations made by the university party organisation, it finally accepted and confirmed the judgment of the General State Prosecutor. Hence, in this case, the highest party bodies followed arguments that were the result of an independent investigation and were not influenced by an individual bias or ideological motives. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Complementary medicine and general practice in an urban setting: a decade on.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel; Dowrick, Christopher; Ernst, Edzard

    2014-07-01

    To conduct a follow-up survey ascertaining changes in usage, referral rate, beliefs and attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) during the last decade. In many countries, CAM use is reported to be substantial and increasing. A questionnaire was posted to all GPs registered with the Liverpool Primary Care Trust. Respondents were asked whether they treat, refer, endorse or discuss eight common CAM therapies and about their views on National Health Service (NHS) funding, effectiveness, CAM training needs and theoretical validity of each therapy. Comparisons were made between these results and those collected in 1999. The response rate was low (32%) compared with the 1999 survey (52%). The main findings were similar to the most popular therapies still being acupuncture, hypnotherapy and chiropractic and the least being aromatherapy, reflexology and medical herbalism. GPs felt most comfortable with acupuncture, with greater belief in its theoretical validity, a greater desire for training and a greater support for acupuncture to receive NHS funding than for the other CAM therapies under question. Opinions about homeopathy had become less supportive. Overall, GPs were less likely to endorse CAMs than previously shown (38% versus 19%).

  6. Relaxation therapies for asthma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Huntley, A; White, A R; Ernst, E

    2002-02-01

    Emotional stress can either precipitate or exacerbate both acute and chronic asthma. There is a large body of literature available on the use of relaxation techniques for the treatment of asthma symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if there is any evidence for or against the clinical efficacy of such interventions. Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data from trials that statistically compared the treatment group with that of the control were extracted in a standardised predefined manner and assessed critically by two independent reviewers. Fifteen trials were identified, of which nine compared the treatment group with the control group appropriately. Five RCTs tested progressive muscle relaxation or mental and muscular relaxation, two of which showed significant effects of therapy. One RCT investigating hypnotherapy, one of autogenic training, and two of biofeedback techniques revealed no therapeutic effects. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was poor. There is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of relaxation therapies in the management of asthma. This deficiency is due to the poor methodology of the studies as well as the inherent problems of conducting such trials. There is some evidence that muscular relaxation improves lung function of patients with asthma but no evidence for any other relaxation technique.

  7. The Cavendish Centre for integrated cancer care: assessment of patients' needs and responses.

    PubMed

    Peace, G; Manasse, A

    2002-03-01

    The use of complementary therapies in combination with conventional medicine is increasing. In cancer care, as at the Cavendish Centre for Cancer Care in Sheffield, the range of therapies offered can include aromatherapy, massage, reflexology, shiatsu, acupuncture, homeopathy, counselling, visualization, hypnotherapy, relaxation, healing and art therapy. Before offering any therapy careful assessment of patients' needs is important as patients seeking complementary therapies may present with unrealistic hopes and expectations of benefit. There are wide variations in provision of services offering complementary cancer care throughout the United Kingdom but few offer a comprehensive assessment which is used as a baseline for both planning treatment and evaluating its outcome and which is conducted by a trained and objective practitioner who has no investment in any specific therapy. We describe the model of care developed at the Cavendish Centre with particular emphasis on the assessment process. Our model of assessment provides an opportunity for patients to tell their story, make sense of the illness experience, construct meaning from it and set realistic expectations for the chosen intervention. It also offers patients involvement and choice in decisions about their care. In addition we present evaluative data from a case series of 157 patients, 138 of whom (88%) reported improvement in their main concern on MYMOP (Measure Your Medical Outcome Profile).

  8. Complementary and alternative medicines in irritable bowel syndrome: An integrative view

    PubMed Central

    Grundmann, Oliver; Yoon, Saunjoo L

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with a high incidence in the general population. The diagnosis of IBS is mainly based on exclusion of other intestinal conditions through the absence of inflammatory markers and specific antigens. The current pharmacological treatment approaches available focus on reducing symptom severity while often limiting quality of life because of significant side effects. This has led to an effectiveness gap for IBS patients that seek further relief to increase their quality of life. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have been associated with a higher degree of symptom management and quality of life in IBS patients. Over the past decade, a number of important clinical trials have shown that specific herbal therapies (peppermint oil and Iberogast®), hypnotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, acupuncture, and yoga present with improved treatment outcomes in IBS patients. We propose an integrative approach to treating the diverse symptoms of IBS by combining the benefits of and need for pharmacotherapy with known CAM therapies to provide IBS patients with the best treatment outcome achievable. Initial steps in this direction are already being considered with an increasing number of practitioners recommending CAM therapies to their patients if pharmacotherapy alone does not alleviate symptoms sufficiently. PMID:24574705

  9. Nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cottraux, Jean

    2002-01-01

    An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled studies, which preclude any definite conclusion about their effectiveness in specific phobias, agoraphobia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), CBT was clearly better than psychoanalytic therapy in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and performance anxiety Psychological debriefing for PTSD appeared detrimental to the patients in one high-quality meta-analysis. Uncontrolled studies of psychosurgery techniques for intractable OCD demonstrated a limited success and detrimental side effects. The same was true for sympathectomy in ereutophobia. Transcranial neurostimulation for OCD is under preliminary study. The theoretical and practical problems of CBT dissemination are discussed. PMID:22034140

  10. What Are Effective Psychological Interventions for Veterans With Sleep Disturbances? A Rapid Evidence Assessment.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Andrea J; Varker, Tracey; Metcalf, Olivia; Dell, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    yield of 1,131 articles, 18 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. The majority of the studies investigated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi; n = 10). Five studies investigated CBTi with an adjunctive psychotherapy, typically for PTSD-related sleep disturbances. One further study investigated sleep hygiene education (a component of CBTi) with pharmacotherapy. Two final studies investigated hypnotherapy and mind-body bridging, respectively. Overall, the quality of the studies was mixed, with some high and some poor quality studies. There was sufficient evidence to support CBTi with adjunctive psychotherapy for veterans with PTSD-related sleep disturbances, although the evidence for CBTi in the treatment of general sleep disturbance for veterans was ranked as "promising." This indicates a beneficial effect, but more research is needed to confidently establish efficacy in a veteran population. There is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of sleep hygiene education and pharmacotherapy, hypnotherapy, or mind-body bridging. Further research dismantling the components of CBTi is needed to identify which are the critical components. Such research has the potential to lead to brief, targeted, and accessible treatments that overcome the time and stigma-related barriers to care that veterans often face. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. Systematic review: The placebo effect of psychological interventions in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Flik, Carla E; Bakker, Laura; Laan, Wijnand; van Rood, Yanda R; Smout, André J P M; de Wit, Niek J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the placebo response rate associated with different types of placebo interventions used in psychological intervention studies for irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS Randomized controlled trials comparing psychological interventions (stress management/relaxation therapy (cognitive) behavioral therapy, short-term psychodynamic therapy, and hypnotherapy) for the treatment of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnosed with the Manning or Rome criteria with an adequate placebo control treatment and reporting data on IBS symptom severity were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases. Full-text articles that were written in English and published between 1966 and February 2016 in peer-reviewed journals were selected for the present review. Placebo interventions were considered to be adequate if the number of sessions and the amount of time spent with the therapist were the same as in the active treatment. The placebo response rate (PRR) was computed for IBS symptom severity (primary outcome measure) as well as for anxiety, depression and quality of life (secondary outcome measures). RESULTS Six studies, with a total of 555 patients met the inclusion criteria. Four studies used an educational intervention, whereas two studies used a form of supportive therapy as the placebo intervention. The PRR for IBS symptom severity ranged from 25% to 59%, with a pooled mean of 41.4%. The relative PRR for the secondary outcome measures ranged from 0% to 267% for anxiety, 6% to 52% for depression 20% to 125% for quality of life. The PRR associated with pharmacological treatments, treatment with dietary bran and complementary medicine ranged from 37.5% to 47%. Contrary to our expectations, the PRR in studies on psychological interventions was comparable to that in studies on pharmacological, dietary and alternative medical interventions. CONCLUSION The PRR is probably determined to a larger extent by

  12. The Effect of Hypnosis on Anxiety in Patients With Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Ying; Liu, Ying-Mei; Chen, Mei-Ling

    2017-06-01

    Anxiety is a common form of psychological distress in patients with cancer. One recognized nonpharmacological intervention to reduce anxiety for various populations is hypnotherapy or hypnosis. However, its effect in reducing anxiety in cancer patients has not been systematically evaluated. This meta-analysis was designed to synthesize the immediate and sustained effects of hypnosis on anxiety of cancer patients and to identify moderators for these hypnosis effects. Qualified studies including randomized controlled trials (RCT) and pre-post design studies were identified by searching seven electronic databases: Scopus, Medline Ovidsp, PubMed, PsycInfo-Ovid, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with FT-EBSCO, and SDOL. Effect size (Hedges' g) was computed for each study. Random-effect modeling was used to combine effect sizes across studies. All statistical analyses were conducted with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2 (Biostat, Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Our meta-analysis of 20 studies found that hypnosis had a significant immediate effect on anxiety in cancer patients (Hedges' g: 0.70-1.41, p < .01) and the effect was sustained (Hedges' g: 0.61-2.77, p < .01). The adjusted mean effect size (determined by Duvan and Tweedie's trim-and-fill method) was 0.46. RCTs had a significantly higher effect size than non-RCT studies. Higher mean effect sizes were also found with pediatric study samples, hematological malignancy, studies on procedure-related stressors, and with mixed-gender samples. Hypnosis delivered by a therapist was significantly more effective than self-hypnosis. Hypnosis can reduce anxiety of cancer patients, especially for pediatric cancer patients who experience procedure-related stress. We recommend therapist-delivered hypnosis should be preferred until more effective self-hypnosis strategies are developed. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder: recommendations for the clinician based on a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michael; Humphreys, Leanne; Ray, Rebecca

    2004-03-01

    This article reviews available research data supporting the use of psychotherapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors highlight how this evidence might inform clinical choices in treating PTSD, as well as demonstrating how assumptions based on gaps in the available literature may be misleading. The authors first discuss findings concerning a number of interventions that are commonly used in the treatment of trauma victims or patients with PTSD: critical incident stress debriefing, psychoeducation, exposure therapy, eye movement desensitization reprocessing, stress inoculation therapy, trauma management therapy, cognitive therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and hypnotherapy. They also discuss a number of treatment strategies that have recently been studied in PTSD, including imagery rehearsal, memory structure intervention, interpersonal psychotherapy, and dialectical behavior therapy. PTSD is associated with significant symptomatic morbidity, although desired outcomes in clinical practice are typically related more to reduction in social, interpersonal, and occupational impairment. The most methodologically robust studies, which have typically examined cognitive or behavioral treatments, indicate that psychotherapy helps to relieve symptom severity; however, there is no consistent information about whether these interventions are helpful in improving other domains of impairment and associated disability, even though these problems are often the greatest concern to patients. Nor does the available evidence indicate when, and for whom, various psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided, or whether different modalities of treatment can and should be combined, or sequentially offered, as is often done in specialized treatment programs. Clinicians should keep these issues in mind in reviewing the literature on current (and future) clinical research. Unfortunately, the current evidence base on psychotherapy for PTSD gives only

  14. Integrating psychotherapy with obstetrics and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Linder, Rupert

    2007-01-01

    As a specialist Obstetrics and Gynaecology I then became a specialist also in psychotherapy, including: psychodynamic therapy, group therapy, hypnotherapy, and body-therapy. In the last nineteen years I have been working to integrate the medical and psychotherapeutic approach, including attention to psychosocial factors. After some years, I found our German rate of premature birth to be 7%. This amazed me because prematurity very rarely occurred in my patients, which was down to about 1%. In France they did some surveys and studies. By informing the mothers how to live, and reducing smoking and drugs, they reduced their prematurity rate to about half, but still much above my rate of 1%. I have described my method in articles. This is vital work, because serious prematurity is responsible for most damage and death amongst the children. A mother's complaint may be an early suggestion of danger. We then check it with the regular obstetric assessments. Even before birth symptoms can indicate a problem, such as premature labour, much as postnatal problems while breast feeding are indicated by symptoms. And before birth, as well as after birth stress and emotional problems can be the cause for serious somatic illness. It is really an effect of one relationship on the other. The way a woman relates to her child depends on her feeling of security among all who support her. All her relationships are important: how she grew up with her parents; her work: her other children. Further problems that experience of psychotherapy can help to reduce are: exceeding the estimated date of delivery: pre-eclampsia: HELLP-syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets). The lectures we offer on the subject are also relevant to psychotherapeutic understanding and in guiding to treatment.

  15. Hypnopraxia, a new hypnotic technique for hypnoanesthesia.

    PubMed

    Drouet, Nicolas; Chedeau, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Various hypnotic techniques are used in anesthesia, either on their own or as adjuncts. A new hypnotic technique, hypnopraxia, was tested in 5 patients undergoing various procedures (4 colonoscopies, 1 inguinal hernia repair, and 1 transobturator tape procedure). The patients were accompanied throughout the procedure by an anesthetist trained in hypnoanesthesia and hypnopraxia. Initially developed for use in hypnotherapy, the accompaniment with hypnopraxia relied on the closeness of the link between the anesthetist and the patient. This was constantly built in the present moment, here and now, by giving back to the patient what the anesthetist observed of the manifestations of the patient's unconscious mind (the patient's speech and choice of words, facial microexpressions, involuntary bodily movements, and emotions). The anesthetist's verbal accompaniment was therefore determined by the patient. No other anesthetic technique was needed during the colonoscopies. For the 2 surgical procedures, some sufentanil was given and local anesthetic was applied by the surgeon. All 5 patients were well satisfied after the procedure. They were especially pleased at having been able to go through their procedure without needing any drug anesthesia, and at being in charge throughout. This preliminary experience with hypnopraxia would tend to show that this technique could be useful in the anesthetic setting. More experience is obviously required with hypnopraxia in anesthesia so as to improve the technique further, and to determine its implications, if any, for the patients and for the procedures. Furthermore, it will be of the greatest interest to determine, before carrying out any procedure with hypnoanesthesia, which patient will benefit most from which hypnotic technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Evolutionary Psychology of Envy and Jealousy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vilayanur S; Jalal, Baland

    2017-01-01

    The old dogma has always been that the most complex aspects of human emotions are driven by culture; Germans and English are thought to be straight-laced whereas Italians and Indians are effusive. Yet in the last two decades there has been a growing realization that even though culture plays a major role in the final expression of human nature, there must be a basic scaffolding specified by genes. While this is recognized to be true for simple emotions like anger, fear, and joy, the relevance of evolutionary arguments for more complex nuances of emotion have been inadequately explored. In this paper, we consider envy or jealousy as an example; the feeling evoked when someone is better off than you. Our approach is broadly consistent with traditional evolutionary psychology (EP) approaches, but takes it further by exploring the complexity and functional logic of the emotion - and the precise social triggers that elicit them - by using deliberately farfetched, and contrived "thought experiments" that the subject is asked to participate in. When common sense (e.g., we should be jealous of Bill Gates - not of our slightly richer neighbor) appears to contradict observed behavior (i.e., we are more envious of our neighbor) the paradox can often be resolved by evolutionary considerations which h predict the latter. Many - but not all - EP approaches fail because evolution and common sense do not make contradictory predictions. Finally, we briefly raise the possibility that gaining deeper insight into the evolutionary origins of certain undesirable emotions or behaviors can help shake them off, and may therefore have therapeutic utility. Such an approach would complement current therapies (such as cognitive behavior therapies, psychoanalysis, psychopharmacologies, and hypnotherapy), rather than negate them.

  17. Identification of children who may benefit from self-hypnosis at a pediatric pulmonary center

    PubMed Central

    Anbar, Ran D; Geisler, Susan C

    2005-01-01

    Background Emotional difficulties can trigger respiratory symptoms. Thus, children presenting with respiratory complaints may benefit from a psychological intervention. The purpose of this study was to define the proportion of patients referred to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center who may benefit from instruction in self-hypnosis, as a psychological intervention. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all newly referred patients to the SUNY Upstate Medical University Pediatric Pulmonary Center during an 18 month period beginning January 1, 2000. Patients were offered hypnosis if they presented with symptoms or signs suggestive of psychological difficulties. Hypnosis was taught in one or two 15–45 minute sessions by a pediatric pulmonologist. Results Of 725 new referrals, 424 were 0–5 years old, 193 were 6–11 years old, and 108 were 12–18 years old. Diagnoses of anxiety, habit cough, or vocal cord dysfunction accounted for 1% of the 0–5 year olds, 20% of the 6–11 year olds, and 31% of the 12–18 year olds. Hypnotherapy was offered to 1% of 0–5 year olds, 36% of 6–11 year olds, and 55% of 12–18 year olds. Of 81 patients who received instruction in self-hypnosis for anxiety, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, or inspiratory difficulties, 75% returned for follow-up, and among the returning patients 95% reported improvement or resolution of their symptoms. Conclusion A large number of patients referred to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center appeared to benefit from instruction in self-hypnosis, which can be taught easily as a psychological intervention. PMID:15850484

  18. Self-reported smoking cessation interventions were not associated with quitting in older women.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Knut; Lawlor, Debbie A; Montaner, David; Ebrahim, Shah

    2006-06-01

    To determine the extent to which smoking cessation interventions are used in the community and their relative success in older women. Prospective cohort study located in 23 general practices in England, Scotland. and Wales and including 3,622 women aged 60 to 79 years at recruitment from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Of the 370 smokers at baseline, 77 (21%) had stopped smoking at 3 years, reducing the prevalence of smoking from 10.2% to 8.8%. Women who were light smokers (<10 per day) at baseline were more likely to have quit than heavier smokers. The most common interventions reported by women who smoked at baseline were advice from a general practitioner (GP), family or friend's advice, and use of nicotine replacement, but 42% of the women reported having no intervention to help them to stop smoking. None of the individual interventions were associated with increased odds of quitting smoking over the follow-up period. Women reported finding a GP's advice, referral to a clinic, and nicotine replacement more useful than complementary treatments (acupuncture and hypnotherapy) or advice from family and friends. Smoking cessation rates in this study were in line with national targets and surveys. Self-reports of ever receiving interventions were not associated with quitting smoking among these older women. Different and innovative approaches to smoking cessation may need to be developed, and evaluated in future randomized clinical trials, for individuals who have smoked for a long period of time and for whom other smoking cessation interventions have not proved successful.

  19. Controversies and Recent Developments of the Low-FODMAP Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Peta; Muir, Jane G.

    2017-01-01

    The low–fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a 2-phased intervention, with strict reduction of all slowly absorbed or indigestible short-chain carbohydrates (ie, FODMAPs) followed by reintroduction of specific FODMAPs according to tolerance. The efficacy of the elimination phase of the FODMAP diet is well established, but the success of maintaining this diet has been shown in only a few observational studies. How the efficacy of the low-FODMAP diet compares with that of other therapies has received limited attention, but recent studies have shown this diet to be comparable or superior to diets that address eating style and choice of food as well as to gut hypnotherapy. There has been no comparison between the low-FODMAP diet and the gluten-free diet, which moderately reduces FODMAP intake. Mechanistically, dietary FODMAPs have very limited effects on the consistency of bowel actions but seem to suppress the release of histamine. Neither symptom pattern nor breath hydrogen testing for fructose or polyol malabsorption is a useful predictor of efficacy, but analysis of gut microbiota has potential. As a restrictive diet, the low-FODMAP diet carries risks of nutritional inadequacy and of fostering disordered eating, which has received little attention. Strict FODMAP restriction induces a potentially unfavorable gut microbiota, although the impact of this consequence upon health is unknown. This observation puts additional impetus on the reintroduction of FODMAPs according to tolerance during the maintenance phase of the diet. Studies of the low-FODMAP diet in children are few but do suggest benefit. However, such a strategy should be implemented with care due to the psychological and nutritional risks of a restrictive diet. Clinical wisdom is required in utilizing the low-FODMAP diet. PMID:28420945

  20. Practice Bulletin No. 177 Summary: Obstetric Analgesia and Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    Labor causes severe pain for many women. There is no other circumstance in which it is considered acceptable for an individual to experience untreated severe pain that is amenable to safe intervention while the individual is under a physician's care. Many women desire pain management during labor and delivery, and there are many medical indications for analgesia and anesthesia during labor and delivery. In the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labor. A woman who requests epidural analgesia during labor should not be deprived of this service based on the status of her health insurance. Third-party payers that provide reimbursement for obstetric services should not deny reimbursement for labor analgesia because of an absence of "other medical indications." Anesthesia services should be available to provide labor analgesia and surgical anesthesia in all hospitals that offer maternal care (levels I-IV) (1). Although the availability of different methods of labor analgesia will vary from hospital to hospital, the methods available within an institution should not be based on a patient's ability to pay.The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that in order to allow the maximum number of patients to benefit from neuraxial analgesia, labor nurses should not be restricted from participating in the management of pain relief during labor. Under appropriate physician supervision, labor and delivery nursing personnel who have been educated properly and have demonstrated current competence should be able to participate in the management of epidural infusions.The purpose of this document is to review medical options for analgesia during labor and anesthesia for surgical procedures that are common at the time of delivery. Nonpharmacologic options such as massage, immersion in water during the first stage of labor, acupuncture, relaxation, and hypnotherapy are not covered in this

  1. Practice Bulletin No. 177: Obstetric Analgesia and Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    Labor causes severe pain for many women. There is no other circumstance in which it is considered acceptable for an individual to experience untreated severe pain that is amenable to safe intervention while the individual is under a physician's care. Many women desire pain management during labor and delivery, and there are many medical indications for analgesia and anesthesia during labor and delivery. In the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labor. A woman who requests epidural analgesia during labor should not be deprived of this service based on the status of her health insurance. Third-party payers that provide reimbursement for obstetric services should not deny reimbursement for labor analgesia because of an absence of "other medical indications." Anesthesia services should be available to provide labor analgesia and surgical anesthesia in all hospitals that offer maternal care (levels I-IV) (). Although the availability of different methods of labor analgesia will vary from hospital to hospital, the methods available within an institution should not be based on a patient's ability to pay.The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that in order to allow the maximum number of patients to benefit from neuraxial analgesia, labor nurses should not be restricted from participating in the management of pain relief during labor. Under appropriate physician supervision, labor and delivery nursing personnel who have been educated properly and have demonstrated current competence should be able to participate in the management of epidural infusions.The purpose of this document is to review medical options for analgesia during labor and anesthesia for surgical procedures that are common at the time of delivery. Nonpharmacologic options such as massage, immersion in water during the first stage of labor, acupuncture, relaxation, and hypnotherapy are not covered in this

  2. Access to complementary medicine in general practice: survey in one UK health authority.

    PubMed

    Wearn, A M; Greenfield, S M

    1998-09-01

    Complementary therapy (CT) has become increasingly popular with the general public and interest from the health professions has been rising. There has been no study focusing on the pattern of availability of CT within urban and inner-city general practice. We aimed to describe the prevalence and pattern of access to complementary therapy in this setting, identifying the characteristics of practices offering CT and the perceived barriers to service provision. We sent a postal questionnaire to all 254 general practices on the Birmingham Family Health Services Authority list. Practices were asked whether they offered any access to CTs, how services were organized and which therapies were available and to identify any barriers to provision. 175 practices (68.9%) responded. Half of the practices offered access to CT. Of these, half offered an in-house service, usually provided by the doctor (81.8%). Of GPs practising therapies themselves, 58% began in or after 1990. Seventeen separate therapies were offered, most commonly acupuncture, osteopathy, chiropractic, hypnotherapy and homoeopathy. Practices significantly more likely to offer access to CT were of larger list size and training or teaching practices. They were equally likely to be fundholders or non-fundholders. Practices offering an in-house service tended to be fundholding, training and of larger list size. Finance was perceived as the major barrier. In the area studied, many patients now have some access to CT within primary care, often within their own practice. In the main, therapies offered are the 'medically acceptable face' of complementary medicine.

  3. Complementary medicine and general practice: an urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Perry, R; Dowrick, C F

    2000-06-01

    Complementary medicine appears to be an increasingly popular option amongst both doctors and patients. General practitioners in more affluent parts of Britain have showed considerable interest in its use. To ascertain use of and attitudes towards complementary medicine, amongst general practitioners working in a socioeconomically deprived urban area. A postal questionnaire survey of all general practice principles in Liverpool, using freepost envelopes and one reminder after 3 weeks. With respect to eight common complementary therapies, respondents were asked whether they treat with, refer to or endorse each therapy; for their views on NHS funding, effectiveness, adverse reactions, training needs, and theoretical validity, for each therapy. The response rate was 131/252 (52%), higher amongst women and doctors aged under 40. During the previous week 74 (56%) of respondents had been involved in complementary medical activity with their patients: 13% had treated directly, 31% had referred to and 38% had endorsed one or more complementary therapies. Acupuncture was most popular as an NHS option, and along with osteopathy and chiropractic was the therapy most highly regarded by respondents in terms of effectiveness. Homeopathy and hypnotherapy received a mixed reaction, while medical herbalism, aromatherapy and reflexology were viewed more sceptically. Sixty-two per cent of respondents reported successful outcomes of complementary treatments, compared with 21% reporting adverse reactions. Knowledge and training desires were highest for homeopathy and acupuncture. Respondents were generally uncertain about the theoretical validity of these therapies: 50% though acupuncture had a valid basis, compared with only 23% for homeopathy and 8% for reflexology. The degree of support for complementary medicine therapies amongst general practitioners in this socioeconomically deprived urban area was similar to that found elsewhere in Britain. These general practitioners appeared to

  4. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions for Adult and Pediatric Patients with Vocal Cord Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guglani, Loveleen; Atkinson, Sarah; Hosanagar, Avinash; Guglani, Lokesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) or paradoxical vocal-fold motion (PVFM) is a functional disorder of the vocal cords that requires multidisciplinary treatment. Besides relaxation techniques, the use of psychological interventions can help treat the underlying psychological co-morbidities. There is currently no literature that examines the effectiveness of psychological interventions for VCD/PVFM. Objectives: To review the evidence for psychological interventions used for the treatment of patients with VCD/PVFM. Data sources: We searched electronic databases for English medical literature using Pubmed (Medline), PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and Clinicaltrials.gov. The date range for our search is from June 1964 to June 2014. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions: We included studies that reported the use of psychological interventions in both adults and children diagnosed with VCD/PVFM. We included randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, retrospective chart reviews, prospective case series, and individual case reports. Results: Most reported studies are small case series or individual case reports that have described the use of interventions such as psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, use of anti-anxiety and anti-depressant medications, and hypnotherapy in conjunction with breathing exercises taught by speech therapists for symptomatic relief. Among the various psychological interventions that have been reported, there is no data regarding effectiveness and/or superiority of one approach over another in either adult or pediatric patients. Conclusions: Psychological interventions have a role to play in the management of adult and pediatric patients with VCD/PVFM. Future prospective studies using uniform approaches for treatment of associated psychopathology may help address this question. PMID:25152871

  5. Sleep problems in university students – an intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schlarb, Angelika Anita; Friedrich, Anja; Claßen, Merle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Up to 60% of all college students suffer from a poor sleep quality, and 7.7% meet all criteria of an insomnia disorder. Sleep problems have a great impact on the students’ daily life, for example, the grade point average. Due to irregular daytime routines, chronotype changes, side jobs and exam periods, they need specialized treatments for improving sleep. “Studieren wie im Schlaf” (SWIS; (studying in your sleep)) is a multicomponent sleep training that combines Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia and Hypnotherapy for Insomnia to improve students’ sleep, insomnia symptoms and nightmares. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the acceptance, feasibility and the first effects of SWIS. Methods Twenty-seven students (mean =24.24, standard deviation =3.57) participated in a study of pre–post design. The acceptance and feasibility were measured with questionnaires. In addition, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep logs and actigraphy were implemented. Further variables encompassed daytime sleepiness, sleep-related personality traits and cognitions about sleep. Results Seventy-four percent of the participants reported symptoms of an insomnia disorder, and 51.9% fulfilled all criteria of an insomnia disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition). Correspondingly, the students suffered from clinically relevant sleep problems according to the PSQI. The SWIS sleep training is a well-accepted and feasible program. Significant improvements were observed in the subjective sleep quality and sleep-related personality traits, as well as clinical improvements in objective sleep measures. Discussion Findings showed that SWIS is a feasible program for the treatment of sleep problems in college and university students due to its various effects on sleep and cognitive outcomes. Further evaluation of follow-up measurements and additional variables, that is, cognitive performance and mental

  6. How Effective Are Spiritual Care and Body Manipulation Therapies in Pediatric Oncology? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Poder, Thomas G.; Lemieux, Renald

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effects of cancer and associated treatments have a considerable impact on the well-being and quality of life of pediatric oncology patients. To support children and their families, complementary and alternative medicines are seen by nurses and doctors as practical to integrate to the services offered by hospitals. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to examine if the practice of complementary and alternative medicine, specifically spiritual care and treatments based on body manipulation, is likely to improve the health and well-being of children suffering from cancer. Method: This objective is achieved through a systematic review of the literature. The level of evidence associated with each practice of complementary and alternative medicine was assessed according to the methodological design used by the studies reviewed. Results and Conclusion: Studies reviewed are of a methodological quality that could be described as fair due to the small sample size of patients and the existence of a number of biases in the conduct and analysis of these studies. However, results obtained are consistent from one study to another, allowing us to make certain recommendations. It is thus advisable to consider the introduction of hypnotherapy in pediatric oncology services. Based on the data collected, it is the complementary and alternative medicine with the most evidence in favor of effectiveness of the well-being of pediatric oncology patients, especially during painful procedures. It is also recommended to use art therapy and music therapy. Conversely, too little evidence is present to be able to recommend the use of acupuncture, chiropractic or osteopathy. PMID:24576371

  7. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern.

  8. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Allen, Laura B; Tsao, Jennie C I; Hayes, Loran P; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2011-05-22

    This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants). The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18) who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants) and at 4 month follow-up to see if improvements

  9. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants). The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18) who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants) and at 4 month follow-up to

  10. Impact of a preoperative conversational hypnotic session on propofol consumption using closed-loop anesthetic induction guided by the bispectral index: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Aurélien; Besset, Sébastien; Szekely, Barbara; Michel-Cherqui, Mireille; Dumans, Virginie; Liu, Ngai; Chazot, Thierry; Fischler, Marc; Le Guen, Morgan

    2017-05-01

    The automated administration of propofol in a closed loop could be used to objectively evaluate the nonpharmacological anesthetic action of hypnotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a conversational hypnosis session on the consumption of propofol for anesthetic induction. A randomized, usual care-controlled, single-center, patient-blind trial. Tertiary care center in France from November 2012 to December 2013. Adult patients scheduled for a surgical procedure under general anesthesia. Before surgery, patients were randomized with a computer-generated random list for a preoperative conversational hypnosis session or for usual care. The conversational hypnosis session was conducted and individualized by the therapist with an academic degree in hypnosis in a quiet environment. Anesthetic induction was automatically performed by propofol without opioids and was assisted by the bispectral index in a closed loop. Primary endpoint was the propofol dose required for anesthesia induction, defined as a Bispectral index less than 60 for at least 30 seconds. The study included 48 patients in the hypnosis group and 49 patients in the control group. No difference in propofol consumption to obtain anesthesia induction was observed between the groups (total dose: 138.6 [67.5] and 130 [47.9] mg, P = .47; adjusted dose: 2.15 [1.09] and 1.95 [0.66] mg/kg, P = .28, for the hypnosis and control groups, respectively). Hetero-evaluation of arm movement during propofol injection (no reaction: 98% and 74%; P = .004, in the hypnosis and control groups, respectively) and face reaction at venous access placement (no reaction 59% and 30%; P = .017, in the hypnosis and control groups, respectively) were lower in the hypnosis group. No adverse event was reported. No difference in propofol consumption was observed in this study designed to evaluate the effect of a hypnotic conversational session on anesthesia induction using an automated tool

  11. Persistent Encopresis, Enuresis, and Anxiety in a 7-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Theodora; Chae, Heekyung; Anbar, Ran D; Stein, Martin T

    2017-09-19

    Sonia is a 7-year-old old girl who was referred to the Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic by the Pediatric Urology Clinic because of persistent wetting and soiling behaviors. Since age 3 years, she has had a history of encopresis (and wetting) for which she has seen gastroenterology and urology specialists. The mother reports that Sonia has accidents almost daily, and she is not upset when sitting in her urine or feces. She dislikes going into the bathroom or sitting on the toilet by herself. She participated in a behavior modification program associated with the pediatric urology clinic, which helps children learn healthy voiding habits and achieve continence.Sonia also has anxious behaviors. She bites her nails and chews on her hair or shirt. She is afraid of small spaces such as those between the bed and the wall and needs to have stuffed animals cover them. Other instances that trigger her anxious behaviors include loud noises, having a substitute teacher, being separated from her mother, and going to certain bathrooms or new places. She also has severe tantrums, which involve throwing and breaking objects, kicking, and hitting her head against doors.A cognitive behavioral therapy program was recommended to target anxiety symptoms, in addition to timed toileting after meals and polyethylene glycol. At a clinic visit several months later, symptoms of anxiety, encopresis, and enuresis persisted. Cognitive behavior therapy was continued and sertraline 25 mg was prescribed for anxiety. In addition, she was referred to a pediatrician who specializes in relaxation techniques and hypnotherapy.Sonia showed modest improvement with these interventions. There were fewer episodes of angry outbursts and a decrease in soiling and wetting, but at times, but she continued to have intermittent periods of wetting and soiling and fear of going to the bathroom by herself persisted.(This Challenging Case extends observations reviewed in a previous Challenging Case: J Dev

  12. Management of fibromyalgia syndrome – an interdisciplinary evidence-based guideline

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Winfried; Arnold, Bernhard; Eich, Wolfgang; Felde, Eva; Flügge, Christl; Henningsen, Peter; Herrmann, Markus; Köllner, Volker; Kühn, Edeltraud; Nutzinger, Detlev; Offenbächer, Martin; Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Sommer, Claudia; Thieme, Kati; Kopp, Ina

    2008-01-01

    , multicomponent treatment and amitriptyline. Based on expert opinion, a stepwise FMS-management was proposed. Step 1 comprises confirming the diagnosis and patient education and treatment of physical or mental comorbidities or aerobic exercise or cognitive behavioural therapy or amitriptyline. Step 2 includes multicomponent treatment. Step 3 comprises no further treatment or self-management (aerobic exercise, stress management) and/or booster multicomponent therapy and/or pharmacological therapy (duloxetine or fluoxetine or paroxetine or pregabalin or tramadol/aminoacetophen) and/or psychotherapy (hypnotherapy or written emotional disclosure) and/or physical therapy (balneotherapy or whole body heat therapy) and/or complementary therapies (homoeopathy or vegetarian diet). The choice of treatment options should be based on informed decision-making and respect of the patients’ preferences. PMID:19675740

  13. Current Diagnosis and Management of Suspected Reflux Symptoms Refractory to Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel E

    2014-09-01

    night, baclofen to decrease transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations, pain modulators, acupuncture, or hypnotherapy. At this time, antireflux surgery should be limited to patients with abnormal acid reflux defined by pH testing and a good correlation of symptoms with acid reflux.

  14. Hypnosis Antenatal Training for Childbirth (HATCh): a randomised controlled trial [NCT00282204

    PubMed Central

    Cyna, Allan M; Andrew, Marion I; Robinson, Jeffrey S; Crowther, Caroline A; Baghurst, Peter; Turnbull, Deborah; Wicks, Graham; Whittle, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Background Although medical interventions play an important role in preserving lives and maternal comfort they have become increasingly routine in normal childbirth. This may increase the risk of associated complications and a less satisfactory birth experience. Antenatal hypnosis is associated with a reduced need for pharmacological interventions during childbirth. This trial seeks to determine the efficacy or otherwise of antenatal group hypnosis preparation for childbirth in late pregnancy. Methods/design A single centre, randomised controlled trial using a 3 arm parallel group design in the largest tertiary maternity unit in South Australia. Group 1 participants receive antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth administered by a qualified hypnotherapist with the use of an audio compact disc on hypnosis for re-enforcement; Group 2 consists of antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth using an audio compact disc on hypnosis administered by a nurse with no training in hypnotherapy; Group 3 participants continue with their usual preparation for childbirth with no additional intervention. Women > 34 and < 39 weeks gestation, planning a vaginal birth, not in active labour, with a singleton, viable fetus of vertex presentation, are eligible to participate. Allocation concealment is achieved using telephone randomisation. Participants assigned to hypnosis groups commence hypnosis training as near as possible to 37 weeks gestation. Treatment allocations are concealed from treating obstetricians, anaesthetists, midwives and those personnel collecting and analysing data. Our sample size of 135 women/group gives the study 80% power to detect a clinically relevant fall of 20% in the number of women requiring pharmacological analgesia – the primary endpoint. We estimate that approximately 5–10% of women will deliver prior to receiving their allocated intervention. We plan to recruit 150 women/group and perform sequential interim analyses

  15. Current Diagnosis and Management of Suspected Reflux Symptoms Refractory to Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    at night, baclofen to decrease transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations, pain modulators, acupuncture, or hypnotherapy. At this time, antireflux surgery should be limited to patients with abnormal acid reflux defined by pH testing and a good correlation of symptoms with acid reflux. PMID:27551249

  16. Help-seeking for fecal incontinence in people with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Christine; Dibley, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance our understanding of factors that influence help-seeking in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related fecal incontinence (FI), and their needs or desire for continence services. We conducted a survey of FI in community-dwelling people with IBD, all members of a United Kingdom IBD charity, and received 3264 responses. As part of the study, we asked 3 questions about help-seeking for IBD-related FI to which respondents were able to give free-text responses. We analyzed the responses to these help-seeking questions, continuing until data saturation when no new themes emerged (617 free text comments analyzed, 19% of total respondents). For the full survey, a mixed-methods design was used to collect and analyze quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative (free-text) responses relating to help-seeking behavior reported in this article were analyzed using a pragmatic thematic approach. Seventy-four percent of the total sample (2415 out of 3264 respondents) reported some degree of FI. Of these, only 38% (n = 927) reported seeking help for FI. In the data reported in this article (n = 617), only 13.5% reported seeking help for FI. Help was described as satisfactory, unsatisfactory, or alternative (acupuncture, counseling, hypnotherapy). Reasons for not seeking help included believing nothing could be done, not knowing who to ask, feeling too embarrassed, ashamed or dirty, and perceived lack of interest, sympathy, or understanding from health care professionals. Although respondents wanted to talk to "someone with specialist knowledge about incontinence" only 6 out of 617 (0.9%) reported awareness of specialist continence services. Standard treatments were rarely mentioned (n = 2). Respondents' focus was on better management of FI rather than on cure. Many people with IBD-related FI are not aware of the services or treatments that are available to help them manage this distressing problem, and most do not seek help

  17. Hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kelly; Middleton, Philippa; Cyna, Allan M; Matthewson, Mandy; Jones, Leanne

    2012-11-14

    This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pain management for childbirth. These reviews all contribute to an overview of systematic reviews of pain management for women in labour, and share a generic protocol. We examined the current evidence regarding the use of hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth. This review updates the findings regarding hypnosis from an earlier review of complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour into a stand-alone review. To examine the effectiveness and safety of hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (11 January 2012) and the reference lists of primary studies and review articles. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing preparation for labour using hypnosis and/or use of hypnosis during labour, with or without concurrent use of pharmacological or non-pharmacological pain relief methods versus placebo, no treatment or any analgesic drug or technique. Two assessors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Where possible we contacted study authors seeking additional information about data and methodology. We included seven trials randomising a total of 1213 women. All but one of the trials were at moderate to high risk of bias. Although six of the seven trials assessed antenatal hypnotherapy, there were considerable differences between these trials in timing and technique. One trial provided hypnotherapy during labour. No significant differences between women in the hypnosis group and those in the control group were found for the primary outcomes: use of pharmacological pain relief (average risk ratio (RR) 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 1.01, six studies, 1032 women), spontaneous vaginal birth (average RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.96, four studies, 472 women) or satisfaction with pain relief (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.94 to 1

  18. Psychological and behavioural treatments for adults with non-epileptic attack disorder.

    PubMed

    Martlew, Jayne; Pulman, Jennifer; Marson, Anthony G

    2014-02-11

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, also known as non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD), have the outward appearance of epilepsy in the absence of physiological or electroencephalographic correlates. Non-epileptic seizures can occur in isolation or in combination with epileptic seizures. The development and maintenance of non-epileptic seizures has been well documented and there is a growing literature on the treatment of non-epileptic seizures which includes non-psychological (including anti-anxiety and antidepressant pharmacological treatment) and psychological therapies (including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), hypnotherapy and paradoxical therapy). Various treatment methodologies have been tried with variable success. The purpose of this Cochrane review was to establish the evidence base for the treatment of non-epileptic seizures with behavioural and psychological therapies only. To assess whether behavioural or psychological treatments for non-epileptic seizures or NEAD result in a reduction in the frequency of seizures or improvement in quality of life, or both, and whether any treatment is significantly more effective than others. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (4 February 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1) (January 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to 4 February 2013), PsycINFO (4 February 2013) and SCOPUS (4 February 2013). No language restrictions were imposed. We checked the reference lists of retrieved studies for additional reports of relevant studies Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and before and after controlled and non-controlled studies were eligible for inclusion. Studies were required to assess one or more types of behavioural or psychological interventions, or both, for the treatment of non-epileptic seizures. Studies of childhood non-epileptic seizures were excluded from our review. Two review authors (JM, JP) independently assessed the trials for

  19. Treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a systematic review and economic assessment.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Amy; McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C; Beyer, Fiona; Moloney, Eoin; Bryant, Andrew; Bradley, Jennifer; Muirhead, Colin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Norman, Justine; Simpson, Emma; Swallow, Brian; Yates, Laura; Vale, Luke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, British Nursing Index, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Conference Proceedings Index, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from inception to September 2014. References from studies and literature reviews identified were also examined. Obstetric Medicine was hand-searched, as were websites of relevant organisations. Costs came from NHS sources. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for effectiveness, and population-based case series for adverse events and fetal outcomes. Treatments: vitamins B6 and B12, ginger, acupressure/acupuncture, hypnotherapy, antiemetics, dopamine antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists, intravenous (i.v.) fluids, corticosteroids, enteral and parenteral feeding or other novel treatment. Two reviewers extracted data and quality assessed studies. Results were narratively synthesised; planned meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and incomplete reporting. A simple economic evaluation considered

  20. Hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kelly; Middleton, Philippa; Cyna, Allan M; Matthewson, Mandy; Jones, Leanne

    2016-05-19

    This review is one in a series of Cochrane reviews investigating pain management for childbirth. These reviews all contribute to an overview of systematic reviews of pain management for women in labour, and share a generic protocol. This review updates an earlier version of the review of the same title. To examine the effectiveness and safety of hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2015) and the reference lists of primary studies and review articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTS comparing preparation for labour using hypnosis and/or use of hypnosis during labour, with or without concurrent use of pharmacological or non-pharmacological pain relief methods versus placebo, no treatment or any analgesic drug or technique. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Where possible we contacted study authors seeking additional information about data and methodology. We included nine trials randomising a total of 2954 women. The risk of bias in trials was variable, there were several well-designed large trials and some trials where little was reported about trial design. Although eight of the nine trials assessed antenatal hypnotherapy, there were considerable differences between these trials in timing and technique. One trial provided hypnotherapy during labour. In this updated review we compared hypnosis interventions with all control groups (main comparison) and also with specific control conditions: standard care (nine RCTs), supportive counselling (two RCTs) and relaxation training (two RCTs).In the main comparison, women in the hypnosis group were less likely to use pharmacological pain relief or analgesia than those in the control groups, (average risk ratio (RR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94, eight studies, 2916 women; very low-quality evidence; random-effects model). There were no clear differences between

  1. Non-pharmacological interventions for assisting the induction of anaesthesia in children.

    PubMed

    Manyande, Anne; Cyna, Allan M; Yip, Peggy; Chooi, Cheryl; Middleton, Philippa

    2015-07-14

    operating/induction room (mYPAS MD -24.41, 95% CI -38.43 to -10.48; random-effects, I² 75%) in three trials with a total of 133 children. However, we saw no significant differences in child anxiety in the operating room between clowns/clown doctors and sedative premedication (mYPAS MD -9.67, 95% CI -21.14 to 1.80, random-effects, I² 66%; 2 trials of 93 children). In a trial of hypnotherapy versus sedative premedication in 50 children, there were no significant differences in children's anxiety at induction (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.04). Parental interventions: Children of parents having acupuncture compared with parental sham acupuncture were less anxious during induction (mYPAS MD -17, 95% CI -30.51 to -3.49) and were more co-operative (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.53) in a single trial of 67 children. Two trials with 191 parents assessed the effects of parental video viewing but did not report any of the review's prespecified primary outcomes. This review shows that the presence of parents during induction of general anaesthesia does not diminish their child's anxiety. Potentially promising non-pharmacological interventions such as parental acupuncture; clowns/clown doctors; playing videos of the child's choice during induction; low sensory stimulation; and hand-held video games need further investigation in larger studies.

  2. Psychological interventions for symptomatic management of non-specific chest pain in patients with normal coronary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve R; Campbell, Leslie A; Yelland, Michael J; Paydar, Anita

    2015-06-30

    : relative risk 0.59 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.76). There was also a significant increase in the number of chest pain-free days up to three months following the intervention: mean difference (MD) 3.00 (95% CI 0.23 to 5.77). This was associated with reduced chest pain frequency (random-effects MD -2.26, 95% CI -4.41 to -0.12) but there was no evidence of effect of treatment on chest pain frequency from three to twelve months (random-effects MD -0.81, 95% CI -2.35 to 0.74). There was no effect on severity (random-effects MD -4.64 (95% CI -12.18 to 2.89) up to three months after the intervention. Due to the nature of the main interventions of interest, it was impossible to blind the therapists as to whether the participant was in the intervention or control arm. In addition, in three studies the blinding of participants was expressly forbidden by the local ethics committee because of issues in obtaining fully informed consent . For this reason, all studies had a high risk of performance bias. In addition, three studies were thought to have a high risk of outcome bias. In general, there was a low risk of bias in the other domains. However, there was high heterogeneity and caution is required in interpreting these results. The wide variability in secondary outcome measures made it difficult to integrate findings from studies. This Cochrane review suggests a modest to moderate benefit for psychological interventions, particularly those using a cognitive-behavioural framework, which was largely restricted to the first three months after the intervention. Hypnotherapy is also a possible alternative. However, these conclusions are limited by high heterogeneity in many of the results and low numbers of participants in individual studies. The evidence for other brief interventions was less clear. Further RCTs of psychological interventions for NSCP with follow-up periods of at least 12 months are needed.