Suresh, T.R.; Srinivasan, T.N.
Switches into mania have been observed in unipolar and bipolar depressed patients following physical treatments as well as cognitive therapy. Such a phenomenon has not been observed with hypnotherapy and its occurrence in a depressive patient is reported here and discussed. PMID:21743665
Riehl, Megan E; Keefer, Laurie
Hypnotherapy is an evidence based intervention for the treatment of functional bowel disorders, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. While similar in pathophysiology, less is known about the utility of hypnotherapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal disorders, most of which are functional in nature, cause painful and uncomfortable symptoms that impact patient quality of life and are difficult to treat from a medical perspective. After a thorough medical workup and a failed trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy, options for treatment are significantly limited. While the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, two critical factors are believed to drive esophageal symptoms--visceral hypersensitivity and symptom hypervigilance. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn. In this article the authors will provide a rationale for the use of hypnosis in these disorders, presenting the science whenever available, describing their approach with these patients, and sharing a case study representing a successful outcome. PMID:26046715
Stalpers, Lukas J.A. . E-mail: email@example.com; Costa, Hanna C. da; Merbis, Merijn A.E.; Fortuin, Andries A.; Muller, Martin J.; Dam, Frits van
Purpose: To determine whether hypnotherapy reduces anxiety and improves the quality of life in cancer patients undergoing curative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and materials: After providing written informed consent, 69 patients were randomized between standard curative RT alone (36 controls) and RT plus hypnotherapy (33 patients). Patients in the hypnotherapy group received hypnotherapy at the intake, before RT simulation, before the first RT session, and halfway between the RT course. Anxiety was evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory DY-1 form at six points. Quality of life was measured by the Rand Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Health Survey (SF-36) at five points. Additionally, patients answered a questionnaire to evaluate their experience and the possible benefits of this research project. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in anxiety or quality of life between the hypnotherapy and control groups. However, significantly more patients in the hypnotherapy group indicated an improvement in mental (p < 0.05) and overall (p < 0.05) well-being. Conclusion: Hypnotherapy did not reduce anxiety or improve the quality of life in cancer patients undergoing curative RT. The absence of statistically significant differences between the two groups contrasts with the hypnotherapy patients' own sense of mental and overall well-being, which was significantly greater after hypnotherapy. It cannot be excluded that the extra attention by the hypnotherapist was responsible for this beneficial effect in the hypnotherapy group. An attention-only control group would be necessary to control for this effect.
Edwards, S. D.; Van Der Spuy, H. I. J.
Assesses the efficacy of hypnotherapy in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis in boys aged 8 to 13 years. Treatment consisted of six weekly standardized sessions. Results indicated that hypnotherapy was significantly effective over 6 months in decreasing nocturnal enuresis, compared with both pretreatment enuresis frequency and no-treatment…
Beebe, Kathleen R
Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. PMID:24548496
Beebe, Kathleen R
Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by lifelong relapsing gastrointestinal symptoms and associated with high rates of chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. In this review the author covers the existing literature including randomized controlled studies, open trials, and case reports as well as expert opinion in evaluating how hypnotherapy can be most beneficial in adolescents and adults with IBD. Hypnotherapy evidence for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is also reviewed as many of the gut-focused hypnotherapy (GHT) approaches used in IBD trials were developed for this latter population. Collectively, the strongest evidence of use of hypnotherapy is its association with reduced IBD-related inflammation and improved health-related quality of life with mixed results in terms of its effects on psychological and pain outcomes in adults with IBD. Studies of hypnotherapy for FGID symptoms show consistently more positive results. Post-operative hypnotherapy may also be helpful based on findings in other surgical samples. Adolescents with IBD have not been as systematically studied but small case series support the use of hypnotherapy to improve inflammation and pain. Future studies are needed to better delineate the specific brain-gut pathways which are most influenced by hypnotherapy in the IBD population and to investigate the longer-term course of the positive short-term findings. PMID:26046718
Greetham, Stephanie; Goodwin, Sarah; Wells, Liz; Whitham, Claire; Jones, Huw; Rigby, Alan; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Reid, Marie; Atkin, Stephen
This 24-week-long pilot investigation of 30 men and women with a BMI > 27 kg/m(2) aimed to determine whether virtual gastric band (VGB) hypnotherapy has an effect on weight loss in overweight adults, compared to relaxation hypnotherapy and a self-directed diet. Levels of weight loss and gain ranged from -17 kg to +4.7 kg in the VGB hypnotherapy group and -9.3 kg to +7.8 kg in the relaxation group. There was no significant difference between VGB hypnotherapy as a main effect on weight loss, (X(2) = 0.67, p = .41, df = 1) and there was no evidence of differential weight loss over time, (X(2) = 4.2, p = .64, df = 6). Therefore, the authors conclude that there was no significant difference between VGB hypnotherapy and the relaxation hypnotherapy. PMID:27585726
Olness, K N
Physicians have long used the power of suggestion informally in their practice as a means of motivating patients and boosting compliance. Recent research shows that formal use of hypnosis can be a valuable primary or adjunctive therapy, especially in children. Children are more in touch with innate imagery processes than adults and consequently can learn and use self-hypnosis easily, particularly to control autonomic responses. Hypnotherapy has proven useful in habit and behavior disorders, psychophysiologic disorders, pain control, anxiety control, cellular growth, and chronic conditions. The cases reported here illustrate the effectiveness of this process in children. Before hypnotherapy can be used clinically, the physician should become certified by an association approved by the American Medical Association and know when hypnotherapy is indicated and how long it should be continued.
Artimon, Henrieta Mihaela
Hypnotherapy's effectiveness in improving and controlling chronic pain of various etiologies has been demonstrated by studies; the mechanism by which hypnosis does this is more complex than a simple induction of muscle relaxation. This study reveals, in addition to this mechanism, a deeper dimension of hypnotherapy from the vantage of a patient with a medical-surgical background, diagnosed with a pain disorder and major severe depressive disorder in addition to incurable painful symptoms, through treatment associated with hypnoanalysis. Following psychotherapy, which included some elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy, a complete remission of the anxious-depressive mood and the painful symptoms was achieved. PMID:25719524
The purpose of this article is to formulate a theoretical conceptualization for utilizing ego state therapy (EST) as an adjunct with cognitive hypnotherapy (CH) for depression. As the relationship between life events and onset of depression is very complex, it is not clear from current literature how stressors cause depressive symptoms. The notion of "wounded self," derived from the work of Wolfe (2005, 2006), is examined as a potential unifying concept for binding the role of risk factors in the precipitation of depression. By incorporating wounded self, the circular feedback model of depression, on which CH for depression is based, is expanded. This revised version provides conceptual and empirical underpinnings for integrating EST with CH in the management of depression.
Freeman, R M; Baxby, K
Fifty incontinent women with proved detrusor instability completed 12 sessions of hypnosis (symptom removal by direct suggestion and "ego strengthening") over one month. This was continued at home with a prerecorded cassette, and all patients were followed up for at least six months. At the end of the 12 sessions 29 patients were entirely symptom free, 14 improved, and seven unchanged. Three months later cystometry in 44 of the patients showed conversion of the cystometrogram to stability in 22 and a significant improvement in a further 16; only six showed no objective improvement. Seven patients relapsed (three after bereavement). Further treatment was given and five out of six patients were rendered symptom free again. Patients with detrusor instability were not found to have a noticeably increased susceptibility to hypnosis. It is concluded that psychological factors are very important in "idiopathic" detrusor instability and that hypnotherapy is effective for incontinence due to this disorder. PMID:6805716
Der, D F; Lewington, P
A single-subject research design was employed to assess the efficacy of rational self-directed hypnotherapy in the treatment of panic attacks. Presenting symptoms were acute fear, dizziness, constricted throat, upset stomach, loss of appetite, loss of weight, insomnia, fear of doctors, and fear of returning to work. Treatment lasted 13 weeks plus a 2-week baseline and posttherapy period and a 6-month follow-up. Objective measurements (MMPI, TSCS, POMS) and self-report assessments (physiological symptoms and a subjective stress inventory) were implemented. Using hypnosis and guided imagery, the subject reviewed critical incidents identifying self-defeating components within a cognitive paradigm, revising and rehearsing these incidents. Results showed an increased sense of control, improved self-concept, elimination of pathological symptoms, and cessation of panic attacks.
Perczel, Kristóf; Gál, János
Hypnosis is well known for its modulatory effects on immune and inflammatory processes, and it is a therapeutic option for certain diseases of such pathogenesis. The authors report treatment of an adult patient with extensive atopic dermatitis, who was only minimally responsive to conservative treatment. In a 15 session hypnotherapy the authors combined the use of direct, symptom-oriented suggestive techniques with hypnotic procedures to identify and modify comorbid psychological issues. To monitor the effect of the treatment, patient diaries (quality and quantity of sleep, intensity of pain and itch) and repeated psychometric tests were used. At the end of treatment there were improvements in all measured dimensions (itch, pain, insomnia, activity, anxiety and emotional state) both clinically and psychometrically. The authors conclude, that hypnosis can be an effective adjunctive therapy in atopic dermatitis, and in certain severe cases may constitute a salvage therapy. PMID:26929974
Lövdahl, Jenny; Ringström, Gisela; Agerforz, Pia; Törnblom, Hans; Simrén, Magnus
Hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is often delivered by a psychotherapist and is costly and time consuming. Nurse-administered hypnotherapy could increase availability and reduce costs. In this study the authors evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-administered, gut-directed hypnotherapy and identify factors predicting treatment outcome. Eighty-five patients were included in the study. Participants received hypnotherapy by a nurse once/week for 12 weeks. Patients reported marked improvement in gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-colonic symptoms after treatment, as well as a reduction in GI-specific anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Fifty-eight percent were responders after the 12 weeks treatment period, and of these 82% had a favorable clinical response already at week 6. Women were more likely than men to respond favorably to the treatment. Nurse-administered hypnotherapy is an effective treatment for IBS. Being female and reporting a favorable response to treatment by week 6 predicted a positive treatment response at the end of the 12 weeks treatment period. PMID:26046719
DeVoge, Susan D.
This paper describes a treatment approach which uses hypnotherapy techniques in combination with assertive training and behavioral rehearsal. It discusses the use of this treatment with a client who exhibited psychogenic symptoms due to personal anxiety. At the beginning of the treatment the client was shy, non-assertive and extremely…
Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Morris, Julie; Evans, Raymond; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J
A medical artist asked 109 patients if they had an image of their IBS pre- and posthypnotherapy, making precise watercolor paintings of any images described. Results were related to treatment outcome, symptoms, anxiety, depression, and absorption (hypnotizability); 49% of patients had an image, and a wide variety were recorded and painted. Imagery was significantly associated with gender (p < .05), anxiety (p < .05), noncolonic symptomatology (p < .05), and absorption (p = .001); 57.8% of responders compared with 35.5% of nonresponders to hypnotherapy had an image of their disease (p < .05) before treatment, and color images were associated with better outcomes (p = .05) than monochrome ones. All images changed in responders, often becoming more nonspecific in nature. Inquiring about IBS imagery helps to identify potential responders and nonresponders to hypnotherapy and may also provide insights into how patients think about their illness.
Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Morris, Julie; Evans, Raymond; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J
A medical artist asked 109 patients if they had an image of their IBS pre- and posthypnotherapy, making precise watercolor paintings of any images described. Results were related to treatment outcome, symptoms, anxiety, depression, and absorption (hypnotizability); 49% of patients had an image, and a wide variety were recorded and painted. Imagery was significantly associated with gender (p < .05), anxiety (p < .05), noncolonic symptomatology (p < .05), and absorption (p = .001); 57.8% of responders compared with 35.5% of nonresponders to hypnotherapy had an image of their disease (p < .05) before treatment, and color images were associated with better outcomes (p = .05) than monochrome ones. All images changed in responders, often becoming more nonspecific in nature. Inquiring about IBS imagery helps to identify potential responders and nonresponders to hypnotherapy and may also provide insights into how patients think about their illness. PMID:19234964
Coping with a hypersensitive gag reflex can be a cause for concern for both the patient and the operator. This report describes a case of blood phobia directed solely towards the oral cavity, linked with the inability to tolerate dentures due to a hypersensitive gag reflex. Management by hypnotherapy using a systematic desensitization technique allowed for extraction of teeth and permanent elimination of the gagging problem.
Lowén, Mats B.O.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sjöberg, Martha; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Labus, Jennifer; Lundberg, Peter; Ström, Magnus; Engström, Maria; Walter, Susanna A.
SUMMARY Background Gut directed hypnotherapy can reduce IBS symptoms but the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect remain unknown. Aim We determined the effect of hypnotherapy and educational intervention on brain responses to cued rectal distensions in IBS patients. Methods 44 women with moderate to severe IBS and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were included. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during expectation and delivery of high (45 mmHg) and low (15 mmHg) intensity rectal distensions. Twenty-five patients were assigned to hypnotherapy (HYP) and 16 to educational intervention (EDU). 31 patients completed treatments and post treatment fMRI. Results Similar symptom reduction was achieved in both groups. Clinically successful treatment (all responders) was associated with significant BOLD attenuation during high intensity distension in the dorsal and ventral anterior insula (cluster size 142, p=0.006, and cluster size 101, p=0.005, respectively). Moreover HYP responders demonstrated a pre-post treatment BOLD attenuation in posterior insula (cluster sizes 59, p=0.05) while EDU responders had a BOLD attenuation in prefrontal cortex (cluster size 60, p=0.05). Pre-post differences for expectation conditions were almost exclusively seen in the HYP group. Following treatment, the brain response to distension was similar to that observed in HCs, suggesting that the treatment had a normalizing effect on the central processing abnormality of visceral signals in IBS. Conclusions The abnormal processing and enhanced perception of visceral stimuli in IBS can be normalized by psychological interventions. Symptom improvement in the treatment groups may be mediated by different brain mechanisms. PMID:23617618
Bay, Roohallah; Bay, Fatemeh
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most widespread diseases in the world. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of combined therapy using acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and transcendental meditation (TM) on the blood sugar (BS) level in comparison with placebo in type 2 diabetic patients. We used "convenience sampling" for selection of patients with type 2 diabetes; 20 patients were recruited. For collection of data, we used an identical quasi-experimental design called "nonequivalent control group." Therapy sessions each lasting 60-90 min were carried out on 10 successive days. We prescribed 2 capsules (containing 3g of wheat flour each) for each member of the placebo group (one for evening and one for morning). Pre-tests, post-tests, and follow-up tests were conducted in a medical laboratory recognized by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran. Mean BS level in the post-tests and follow-up tests for the experimental group was reduced significantly in comparison with the pre-tests whereas in the placebo group no changes were observed. Combined therapy including acupressure therapy, hypnotherapy, and TM reduced BS of type 2 diabetic patients and was more effective than placebo therapy on this parameter.
Patterson, D R; Questad, K A; de Lateur, B J
This paper presents a hypnotherapeutic intervention for controlling pain in severely burned patients while they go through dressing changes and wound debridement. The technique is based on Barber's (1977) Rapid Induction Analgesia (RIA) and involves hypnotizing patients in their rooms and having their nurses provide posthypnotic cues for analgesia during wound cleaning. Five subjects who underwent hypnotherapy showed reductions on their pain rating scores (Visual Analogue Scale) relative to their own baselines and to the pain curves of a historical control group (N = 8) matched for initial pain rating scores. Although the lack of randomized assignment to experimental and control groups limited the validity of the results, the findings provide encouraging preliminary evidence that RIA offers an efficient and effective method for controlling severe pain from burns. PMID:2563925
Vas, József Pál
Sound vibrations are viewed to play an important role in embryonic development. Before the cochlea evolves, the haptic and mechanic skin-receptors detect the amniotic fluid's pressure-waves produced by sounds in uterus. Touching and hearing are seen as primordial and the most relevant stimuli both of mother-fetus attunement and development of fetal nervous system. Man is attuned to environmental stimuli, mainly to human speaking since the embryonic period. Attunement is secured by energy zones (chakras) circling around body. It is considered to be base of our music capacity. Origin of hypnotic susceptibility is viewed as being in embryonic period as well. Movements, experiences supposed, bonding and communication patterns of both of fetus and hypnotized person are suggested to show similarities. Prenatal audio-somatosensory stimulating program facilitates newborn babies' cognitive, emotional and bonding capacities. As a matter of fact, by virtue of regressive fetus-like experiences, hypnotherapy contributes to the restart of personality development halted by trauma.
There is ample evidence that hypnosis enhances the effectiveness of psychotherapy and produces some astounding effects of its own. In this paper, the effective components and principles of hypnosis and hypnotherapy are analyzed. The "special" hypnotic and hypnotherapeutic effects are linked to the fact that the ecological requirements of therapeutic change are taken into account implicitly and/or explicitly when working with hypnotic trances in a therapeutic setting. The hypnotic situation is described--theoretically and in case examples--as a therapeutic modality that gratifies and aligns the basic emotional needs to feel autonomous, related, competent, and oriented. It is shown how the hypnotic relationship can help promote a sound ecological balance between these needs--a balance that is deemed to be a necessary prerequisite for salutogenesis. Practical implications for planning hypnotherapeutic interventions are discussed.
Vas, P József
Effects both of hypnotherapy and music therapy are originated from an attunement as supposed by the author. Either to a hypnotherapist's suggestions or to a piece of music one is able to be tuned in them. On one hand, the hypnotherapist's prosody, which can be called as melodic declamation seen as a musical phenomenon transmitting emotions. On the other hand, music has got emotional and visceral impacts. As a meeting points of these two methods four possibilities are shown by the author: 1. musical analogies of vitality affects ; 2. paternal and maternal archetypes in music; 3. analogies of copings in music; 4. corrections of psychological deficits by virtue of hypno- and music therapy with parallel used energy healing method. Finally, the author suggests, that hypnosis is regarded as an inductive method expressing its effect from outside to inside; music, however is likely to be employed as a deductive therapeutic tool, effecting from inside to outside. PMID:24142295
Roberts, Lesley; Wilson, Sue; Singh, Sukhdev; Roalfe, Andrea; Greenfield, Sheila
Background In western populations irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects between 10% and 30% of the population and has a significant effect on quality of life. It generates a substantial workload in both primary and secondary care and has significant cost implications. Gut-directed hypnotherapy has been demonstrated to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life but has not been assessed outside of secondary and tertiary referral centres. Aim To assess the effectiveness of gut-directed hypnotherapy as a complementary therapy in the management of IBS. Design of study Randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care patients aged 18–65 years inclusive, with a diagnosis of IBS of greater than 6 weeks' duration and having failed conventional management, located in South Staffordshire and North Birmingham, UK. Method Intervention patients received five sessions of hypnotherapy in addition to their usual management. Control patients received usual management alone. Data regarding symptoms and quality of life were collected at baseline and again 3, 6, and 12 months post-randomisation. Results Both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in all symptom dimensions and quality of life over 12 months. At 3 months the intervention group had significantly greater improvements in pain, diarrhoea and overall symptom scores (P<0.05). No significant differences between groups in quality of life were identified. No differences were maintained over time. Intervention patients, however, were significantly less likely to require medication, and the majority described an improvement in their condition. Conclusions Gut-directed hypnotherapy benefits patients via symptom reduction and reduced medication usage, although the lack of significant difference between groups beyond 3 months prohibits its general introduction without additional evidence. A large trial incorporating robust economic analysis is, therefore, urgently recommended. PMID:16464325
Dobbin, A; Dobbin, J; Ross, S C; Graham, C; Ford, M J
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder associated with profoundly impaired quality of life and emotional distress. The management of refractory IBS symptoms remains challenging and non-pharmacological therapeutic approaches have been shown to be effective. We compared brief interventions with biofeedback and hypnotherapy in women referred by their GP with refractory IBS symptoms. Patients were randomised to one of two treatment groups, biofeedback or hypnotherapy, delivered as three one-hour sessions over 12 weeks. Symptom assessments were undertaken using validated, self-administered questionnaires. Two of the 128 consecutive IBS patients suitable for the study declined to consider nonpharmacological therapy and 29 patients did not attend beyond the first session. Of the 97 patients randomised into the study, 21 failed to attend the therapy session; 15 of 76 patients who attended for therapy dropped out before week 12 post-therapy. The mean (SD) change in IBS symptom severity score 12 weeks post-treatment in the biofeedback group was -116.8 (99.3) and in the hypnotherapy group -58.0 (101.1), a statistically significant difference between groups (difference=-58.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference [-111.6, -6.1], p=0.029). In 61 patients with refractory IBS, biofeedback and hypnotherapy were equally effective at improving IBS symptom severity scores, total non-gastrointestinal symptom scores and anxiety and depression ratings during 24 weeks follow-up. Biofeedback may prove to be the more cost-effective option as it requires less expertise. PMID:23516685
Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther
A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)
Vas, József Pál
Sound vibrations are viewed to play an important role in embryonic development. Before the cochlea evolves, the haptic and mechanic skin-receptors detect the amniotic fluid's pressure-waves produced by sounds in uterus. Touching and hearing are seen as primordial and the most relevant stimuli both of mother-fetus attunement and development of fetal nervous system. Man is attuned to environmental stimuli, mainly to human speaking since the embryonic period. Attunement is secured by energy zones (chakras) circling around body. It is considered to be base of our music capacity. Origin of hypnotic susceptibility is viewed as being in embryonic period as well. Movements, experiences supposed, bonding and communication patterns of both of fetus and hypnotized person are suggested to show similarities. Prenatal audio-somatosensory stimulating program facilitates newborn babies' cognitive, emotional and bonding capacities. As a matter of fact, by virtue of regressive fetus-like experiences, hypnotherapy contributes to the restart of personality development halted by trauma. PMID:23880513
Stone, Alexander B; Sheinberg, Rosanne; Bertram, Amanda; Seymour, Anastasia Rowland
This study sought to measure current attitudes toward hypnosis among anesthesia providers using an in-person survey distributed at a single grand rounds at a single academic teaching hospital. One hundred twenty-six anesthesia providers (anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists) were included in this study. A 10-question Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved questionnaire was developed. One hundred twenty-six (73% of providers at the meeting) anesthesia providers completed the survey. Of the respondents, 54 (43%) were anesthesiologists, 42 (33%) were trainees (interns/residents/fellows) in anesthesia, and 30 (24%) were nurse anesthetists. Over 70% of providers, at each level of training, rated their knowledge of hypnosis as either below average or having no knowledge. Fifty-two (42%) providers agreed or strongly agreed that hypnotherapy has a place in the clinical practice of anesthesia, while 103 (83%) believed that positive suggestion has a place in the clinical practice of anesthesia (p < .0001). Common reasons cited against using hypnosis were that it is too time consuming (41%) and requires special training (34%). Only three respondents (2%) believed that there were no reasons for using hypnosis in their practice. These data suggest that there is a self-reported lack of knowledge about hypnosis among anesthesia providers, although many anesthesia providers are open to the use of hypnosis in their clinical practice. Anesthesia providers are more likely to support the use of positive suggestion in their practice than hypnosis. Practical concerns should be addressed if hypnosis and therapeutic verbal techniques are to gain more widespread use.
Stone, Alexander B; Sheinberg, Rosanne; Bertram, Amanda; Seymour, Anastasia Rowland
This study sought to measure current attitudes toward hypnosis among anesthesia providers using an in-person survey distributed at a single grand rounds at a single academic teaching hospital. One hundred twenty-six anesthesia providers (anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists) were included in this study. A 10-question Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved questionnaire was developed. One hundred twenty-six (73% of providers at the meeting) anesthesia providers completed the survey. Of the respondents, 54 (43%) were anesthesiologists, 42 (33%) were trainees (interns/residents/fellows) in anesthesia, and 30 (24%) were nurse anesthetists. Over 70% of providers, at each level of training, rated their knowledge of hypnosis as either below average or having no knowledge. Fifty-two (42%) providers agreed or strongly agreed that hypnotherapy has a place in the clinical practice of anesthesia, while 103 (83%) believed that positive suggestion has a place in the clinical practice of anesthesia (p < .0001). Common reasons cited against using hypnosis were that it is too time consuming (41%) and requires special training (34%). Only three respondents (2%) believed that there were no reasons for using hypnosis in their practice. These data suggest that there is a self-reported lack of knowledge about hypnosis among anesthesia providers, although many anesthesia providers are open to the use of hypnosis in their clinical practice. Anesthesia providers are more likely to support the use of positive suggestion in their practice than hypnosis. Practical concerns should be addressed if hypnosis and therapeutic verbal techniques are to gain more widespread use. PMID:27003489
Shahbazi, Korosh; Solati, Kamal
Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological disorders. IBS is characterized by abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, constipation, bloating and flatulence. Complementary therapy is a group of diverse therapeutic and health care systems products that are used in treatment of IBS. Hypnotherapy helps to alleviate the symptoms of a broad range of diseases and conditions. It can be used independently or along with other treatments. Aim This study was conducted to compare therapeutic effect of hypnotherapy plus standard medical treatment and standard medical treatment alone on quality of life in patients with IBS. Materials and Methods This study is a clinical trial investigating 60 patients who were enrolled according to Rome-III criteria. The sample size was determined per statistical advice, previous studies, and the formula of sample size calculation. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups of hypnotherapy plus standard medical treatment group (n: 30), and standard medical treatment group (30). The study consisted of three steps; prior to treatment, after treatment and six months after the last intervention (follow-up). The instruments of data gathering were a questionnaire of demographic characteristics and standard questionnaire of quality of life for IBS patients (Quality of Life IBS-34). The data were analysed by analysis of co-variance, Levene’s test and descriptive statistics in SPSS-18. Results There were significant differences between the two groups of study in post-treatment and follow-up stage with regards to quality of life (p<0.05). Conclusion Psychological intervention, particularly hypno-therapy, alongside standard medical therapy could contribute to improving quality of life, pain and fatigue, and psychological disorder in IBS patients resistant to treatment. Also, therapeutic costs, hospital stay and days lost from work could be decreased and patients’ efficiency could be increased
Research on the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of bulimia nervosa has produced mixed findings. This is due in part to the interplay between the characteristics of people with bulimia and the wide variety of hypnosis interventions that have been employed. Several authors have noted that methodological limitations in hypnosis research often make evaluation of treatment efficacy difficult. Many of the studies extant provide insufficient information regarding the specifics of participants' hypnotizability, the hypnotic induction, or the hypnotic suggestion(s) employed. Such limitations preclude replication and clinical implementation. This article reviews the literature with replicable methodologies and discusses the implications for evaluating treatment efficacy.
Keefer, Laurie; Kiebles, Jennifer L; Kwiatek, Monika A; Palsson, Olafur; Taft, Tiffany H; Martinovich, Zoran; Barrett, Terrence A
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory illnesses marked by unpredictable disease flares, which occur spontaneously and/or in response to external triggers, especially personal health behaviors. Behavioral triggers of flare may be responsive to disease self-management programs. We report on interim findings of a randomized controlled trial of gut-directed hypnotherapy (HYP, n = 19) versus active attention control (CON, n = 17) for quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). To date, 43 participants have enrolled; after 5 discontinuations (1 in HYP) and 2 exclusions due to excessive missing data, 36 were included in this preliminary analysis. Aim 1 was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of HYP in UC. This was achieved, demonstrated by a reasonable recruitment rate at our outpatient tertiary care clinic (20%), high retention rate (88% total), and our representative IBD sample, which is reflected by an equal distribution of gender, an age range between 21 and 69, recruitment of ethnic minorities (∽20%), and disease duration ranging from 1.5 to 35 years. Aim 2 was to estimate effect sizes on key clinical outcomes for use in future trials. Effect sizes (group × time at 20 weeks) were small to medium for IBD self-efficacy (.34), Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) total score (.41), IBDQ bowel (.50), and systemic health (.48). Between-group effects were observed for the IBDQ bowel health subscale (HYP > CON; p = .05) at 20 weeks and the Short Form 12 Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2) physical component (HYP > CON; p < .05) at posttreatment and 20 weeks. This study supports future clinical trials testing gut-directed HYP as a relapse prevention tool for IBD.
Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John
Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)
Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741
Windle, R; Samko, M
Several key Ericksonian concepts find cross-cultural validation and practical application in the Japanese martial art of Aikido. The Aikido psychophysiological state of centering shares several important attributes with the trance state, particularly in the relational aspects of shared trance. In Aikido methodology for dealing with others, blending is an almost exact parallel to Ericksonian utilization. The Aikido view of resistance offers an increased understanding of strategic/Ericksonian approaches. Therapist training may be enhanced by combining Aikido principles with traditional methods.
Fifteen homosexuals were treated with hypnosis. The patients were selected from a general psychiatric practice and had a long history of confirmed homosexual behaviour and showed no evidence of organic or psychotic illness. The type of hypnotic induction attempted in all cases is described. In those where a satisfactory depth of hypnotic trance was achieved a change in sexual orientation was suggested to the patient. Before therapy, each patient was assessed using the Kinsey scale. Results were evaluated in terms of the patient's subsequent behaviour and his subjective feelings. Of the 15 patients, three showed no improvement, four showed a mild improvement and eight showed a marked improvement. There was a significant correlation between the depth of hypnosis achieved and the therapeutic outcome. Those patients who reached a deep level of hypnotic trance were most likely to show a marked improvement. There were no significant correlations with other factors such as degree of homosexuality as measured on the Kinsey scale and the patient's marital status. Treatment of homosexuals with hypnosis may produce more satisfactory results than those obtainable by other means. The best results are likely to be achieved in patients who are good hypnotic subjects. PMID:6017544
Araoz, Daniel; Burte, Jan; Goldin, Eugene
Presents the utilization of Ericksonian hypnotic techniques in conjunction with cognitive behavioral techniques collectively labeled the New Hypnosis, as they apply to the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunction within a counseling setting. Specific techniques to improve functioning throughout the five stages of sexual response are…
Kavanagh, T.; Shephard, R. J.; Doney, H.; Pandit, V.
Over a two year period a group of 31 post-myocardial infarction patients were subjected to an exercise rehabilitation program of gradually increasing intensity and duration. At the same time a group of 14 similar patients were given a non-active program utilizing the teaching of autohypnosis to achieve a more relaxed lifestyle. Individuals were randomly allocated to each group. Only those exercisers capable of achieving and maintaining a heavy training program showed tangible gains of cardiorespiratory fitness in all parameters measured. Those who achieved a moderate level of training showed improvement in some indices, but regressed in others; their overall improvement was no better than the inactive group. Imagesp63-a PMID:20468985
Binyaminy, Binyamin; Haas, Eric J
In Israel, only physicians, dentists, and psychologists who complete an accredited licensing process may practice hypnosis. This study examines the characteristics of hypnotherapists compared to nonhypnotherapists in the same discipline. All hypnotherapists in Israel were compared to nonhypnotherapist health professionals. There are more subspecialists among hypnotists, and the most common specialties were psychiatry, pediatric dentistry, and clinical psychology. These findings imply self-sorting of hypnotists as a result of the regulation in Israel. Licensure of hypnotherapists could be useful in other countries by comprehensive follow-up of all licensed hypnotists and by improving public and health professional perceptions of the field and its relevance to clinical practice. PMID:27585729
Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…
Discusses use of hypnosis in traditional psychoanalysis, compares use of hypnosis in behavior modification therapy versus psychoanalysis, and presents a hypno-behavioral model which combines both approaches using hypnosis as the medium. (Author/NB)
Crowley, Richard J.; Mills, Joyce C.
Cartoon research includes the areas of experimental designs carried out in school classroom environments to determine the effects of cartoon viewing on children's behavior and the medical utilization of cartoons as part of an overall treatment program. This study differs from previous research by accepting the reality of cartoon viewing and…
Schubert, Donald K.
Studied the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of cigarette habituation. Volunteers (N=87) were randomly assigned to hypnosis, relaxation, or waiting list control groups. Hypnosis was found to be superior to relaxation only for subjects high in hypnotic susceptibility. Those who quit smoking increased food consumption. (Author/JAC)
Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of standardisation of hypnotic interventions in smoking cessation, the debriefing of the participants, the effects of group dynamics and the reasons for dropouts. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN72839675. PMID:22475087
Smith, William H
Traumatic events of many sorts result in the now familiar symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many accounts have been published of the helpful role of hypnosis in symptom amelioration when the symptom onset is immediate, or even delayed,following the trauma. For some patients, though, a virtual collapse of adaptive functioning occurs after long periods of relatively symptom-free functioning. For such individuals, the relevance of the earlier trauma to their current problems may not be recognized, either by those treating them or by themselves. This case study is an attempt to illustrate treatment strategies that may be helpful in such cases, based on a good treatment outcome with a seriously ill woman, where hypnosis was an integral part of a brief, but intensive, in patient treatment program.
A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…
Chronic and episodic headaches in children and adolescents are a common problem. Therefore, the growing resistance against frequent use of drugs is quite justified. This study was initiated in search for other helpful therapeutic approaches. The aim was to compare the effect of 5 sessions of hypnosis/ self-hypnosis given at weekly intervals and lasting half an hour each with two psychological treatments requiring the same amount of time, namely behavior therapy and talks to the doctor. Despite the small number of patients, both types of treatments were effective. However, the hypnosis/self-hypnosis seems to be superior not only in terms of frequency and intensity of the headaches but also concerning the patients' ability to keep their headaches and their well-being under control.
Fahey, David A.
Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)
Palsson, Olafur S
Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain's handling of sensory signals from the GI tract.
Towards the end of the nineteenth century, some Spanish physicians sought to legitimize hypnotherapy within medicine. At the same time, hypnotism was being popularized among the Spanish population through stage hypnosis shows. In order to extend the use of medical hypnotherapy, some physicians made efforts to demarcate the therapeutic use of hypnotic suggestion from its application for recreational purposes, as performed by stage hypnotists. However, in the eyes of some physicians, the first public session to legitimize hypnotherapy turned out to be a complete failure due to its similarities with a stage hypnosis performance. Apart from exploring this kind of hitherto little-known historical cases, we explore the role of spiritists in legitimizing medical hypnosis. At a time when Spanish citizens were still reluctant to accept hypnotherapy, the spiritists sponsored a charitable clinic where treatment using hypnosis was offered. We conclude that the clinic was effective in promoting the use of hypnotherapy, both among physicians as clinical practice, and as a medical treatment for patients from the less privileged classes of Spanish society.
Palsson, Olafur S
Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain's handling of sensory signals from the GI tract. PMID:26264539
Gartner, Ashley M; Dolan, Sara L; Stanford, Matthew S; Elkins, Gary R
Morgellons Disease is a condition involving painful skin lesions, fibrous growths protruding from the skin, and subcutaneous stinging and burning sensations, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and memory and attention deficits. The etiological and physiological bases of these symptoms are unclear, making the diagnosis controversial and challenging to treat. There are currently no established treatments for Morgellons Disease. The following case example depicts treatment of a woman with Morgellons Disease using hypnotherapy. Data from this case example suggest that hypnotherapy is a promising intervention for the physical and psychological symptoms associated with Morgellons Disease. PMID:21390982
Gartner, Ashley M; Dolan, Sara L; Stanford, Matthew S; Elkins, Gary R
Morgellons Disease is a condition involving painful skin lesions, fibrous growths protruding from the skin, and subcutaneous stinging and burning sensations, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and memory and attention deficits. The etiological and physiological bases of these symptoms are unclear, making the diagnosis controversial and challenging to treat. There are currently no established treatments for Morgellons Disease. The following case example depicts treatment of a woman with Morgellons Disease using hypnotherapy. Data from this case example suggest that hypnotherapy is a promising intervention for the physical and psychological symptoms associated with Morgellons Disease.
Gartner, Ashley M.; Dolan, Sara L.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Elkins, Gary R.
Morgellons Disease is a condition involving painful skin lesions, fibrous growths protruding from the skin, and subcutaneous stinging and burning sensations, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and memory and attention deficits. The etiological and physiological bases of these symptoms are unclear, making the diagnosis controversial and challenging to treat. There are currently no established treatments for Morgellons Disease. The following case example depicts treatment of a woman with Morgellons Disease using hypnotherapy. Data from this case example suggest that hypnotherapy is a promising intervention for the physical and psychological symptoms associated with Morgellons Disease. PMID:21390982
Eisel, Harry E.
Incorporated hypnotherapy with age regression into cognitive therapeutic approach with prisoners having history of anger. Technique involved age regression to establish first significant event causing current anger, catharsis of feelings for original event, and reorientation of event while under hypnosis. Results indicated decrease in acting-out…
Although hypnosis has not been extensively used in education, a review of past research reveals five areas which might benefit from hypnotherapy: (1) motivation, (2) study habits, (3) concentration, (4) remedial reading, and (5) test anxiety. A questionnaire focusing on these areas was developed to determine the attitude of professional personnel…
Allison, David B.; Faith, Myles S.
A meta-analysis for six weight-loss studies comparing the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone to CBT plus hypnotherapy. Notes that "the addition of hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome." Concludes that the addition of hypnosis to CBT for weight loss results in, at most, a small enhancement of treatment outcome. (KW)
Roberts, Janine; And Others
Describes process that six counselor trainees and two supervisors used with treatment and observation teams to examine their own coevolution as a therapeutic system using the Milan model of family therapy and Ericksonian hypnotherapy. Concludes with a discussion of advantages and pitfalls of this type of dual supervision. (Author/ABL)
Ewin, Dabney M
There is increasing evidence that the hypnotic cure of warts (infection by the human papilloma virus or HPV) results from activation of an immune response, but whether this is cellular or systemic is unknown. The hypnosis can be by direct suggestion or analytical hypnotherapy when indicated. The evidence is reviewed, and 4 clinical cases suggesting cellular immune response are presented. PMID:21867375
Gysin, T; Ziegler, C
As far as we know, this is the first controlled prospective study of hypnotherapy and teaching of self-hypnosis for children and adolescents with tension headache. It is designed to evaluate a simple method of teaching children and adolescents with psychosomatic complaints how they can help themselves.
McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D
Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis.
The methods of hypnotherapy are reviewed and their individual applicability in the treatment of neurotic and psychosomatic syndromes examined according to the criteria of the two most recognised schools of modern psychology; psychoanalysis and behaviourism. The agreements and divergences of these two theoretical approaches are described and other contemporary theories are examined, before their general inadequacy is pointed out. A combination of western psychotherapeutic techniques and oriental meditation methods is therefore suggested, justifying this on both psychological and neurophysiological grounds. A simultaneously rational and intuitive basis for hypnotherapy would appear to offer the hypnologist a more subtle technique and would also make it easier for him to acquire that "therapeutic mentality" indispensable for successful treatment.
Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E
Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639
Kaya, Yalcin; Alladin, Assen
This preliminary study investigates the combined effect of intensive hypnotherapy and diaphragmatic exercises in the management of stuttering. Fifty-nine clients with stuttering were trained to practice abdominal weightlifting to strengthen their respiratory muscles and to improve their diaphragmatic movements. The weightlifting exercises involved lifting a dumbbell (2.0-4.0 kg) with the abdomen for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Hypnotherapy was utilized to alleviate anxiety, to boost self-confidence, and to increase motivation for weightlifting exercise. The pre- and postmeasures were statistically significant (p < .001). Results of the study provide support for the effectiveness of hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic training in the management of stuttering but should be further studied in controlled trials.
Unlike the biomedical model, holistic health care takes a much broader view of what constitutes health and the responsibility for helping restore an individual's health. Homoeopathy addresses the physical, mental and emotional aspects of the whole individual, while alternative practices such as yoga, hypnotherapy and meditation can be described as 'functional' spiritual practices which demonstrate the taking of personal responsibility for health care to the individual.
A child or adolescent can suffer from chronic pain. Whatever the causes, it can trap the child in a specific process whereby they focus on the pain, fearing that it will appear and experiencing anxiety. Hypno-analgesia and hypnotherapy enable them to escape this process and find within themselves the capacity to face up to the pain. Moreover, these techniques offer them an autonomy which they can use in all areas of their life. PMID:24779171
Yüksel, Ramazan; Ozcan, Osman; Dane, Senol
Uslu et al. (2012 ) suggested that hypnotic status can modulate cerebral blood flow. The authors investigated the effects of hypnosis on heart rate variability (HRV). In women, HRV decreased during hypnosis. Posthypnotic values were higher compared to prehypnotic and hypnotic values. Women had highest HRV parameters in the posthypnotic condition. It appears that hypnosis can produce cardiac and cognitive activations. Hypnotherapy may be useful in some cardiac clinical conditions characterized by an autonomic imbalance or some cardiac arrhythmias.
Background Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. Methods This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. Results At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). Conclusions A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675. PMID:24365274
Roberts, J; Matthews, W J; Bodin, N A; Cohen, D; Lewandowski, L; Novo, J; Pumilia, J; Willis, C
Working with a treatment and observing team at the same time, behind the oneway mirror, offers a variety of ways to: (a) generate multiple realities; (b) work with two different models of family therapy simultaneously; and (c) provide feedback on the teams' own roles, rules and group process. The process that 6 trainees and two supervisors used with T and O teams to examine their own coevolution as a therapeutic system using the Milan model of family therapy and Ericksonian hypnotherapy is described. The article concludes with a discussion of the advantages and pitfalls of this type of dual supervision.
Elkins, Gary R; Barabasz, Arreed F; Council, James R; Spiegel, David
This article describes the history, rationale, and guidelines for developing a new definition of hypnosis by the Society of Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association. The definition was developed with the aim of being concise, heuristic, and allowing for alternative theories of the mechanisms (to be determined in empirical scientific study). The definition of hypnosis is presented as well as definitions of the following related terms: hypnotic induction, hypnotizability, and hypnotherapy. The implications for advancing research and practice are discussed. The definitions are presented within the article.
Hypnosis has been used in obstetrics for more than a century. However, with increasing numbers of women looking for alternative coping strategies for use during labour, the birth of a new discipline, HypnoBirthing, is gaining in popularity. HypnoBirthing is a hypnotherapy programme specifically designed for birth, employing the principles and techniques of hypnosis and self-relaxation. This article explains the philosophy and principles of HypnoBirthing, the evidence base and its physiological impact on labouring women, brought to life by real accounts. PMID:16562656
Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie R; Yeung, K Simon
Relief of cancer-related symptoms is essential in the supportive and palliative care of cancer patients. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, mind-body techniques, and massage therapy can help when conventional treatment does not bring satisfactory relief or causes undesirable side effects. Controlled clinical trials show that acupuncture and hypnotherapy can reduce pain and nausea. Meditation, relaxation therapy, music therapy, and massage mitigate anxiety and distress. Pilot studies suggest that complementary therapies may treat xerostomia, hot flashes, and fatigue. Botanicals or dietary supplements are popular but often problematic. Concurrent use of herbal products with mainstream medical treatment should be discouraged.
Rathbone, Clare J; Ellis, Judi A; Baker, Ian; Butler, Chris R
We report a case of psychogenic amnesia and examine the relationships between autobiographical memory impairment, the self, and ability to imagine the future. Case study JH, a 60-year-old male, experienced a 6-year period of pervasive psychogenic amnesia covering all life events from childhood to the age of 53. JH was tested during his amnesic period and again following hypnotherapy and the recovery of his memories. JH's amnesia corresponded with deficits in self-knowledge and imagining the future. Results are discussed with reference to models of self and memory and processes involving remembering and imagining.
Stevens-Guille, M E; Boersma, F J
The psychological literature contains little documentation of the therapeutic use of fairy tales. We suggest that fairy tales are uniquely suitable for hypnotherapy and for helping clients reframe existential issues. We propose that the structure of fairy tales allows the meaning of the story to be applied personally and that they also stimulate unconscious search. We examine the way in which hypnosis is achieved when fairy tales are read to children, as well as possible therapeutic uses of this learning set in therapy with both children and adults. We conclude by suggesting that fairy tales need to be given serious consideration as an alternative therapeutic trance procedure.
Elkins, Gary R; Barabasz, Arreed F; Council, James R; Spiegel, David
This article describes the history, rationale, and guidelines for developing a new definition of hypnosis by the Society of Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association. The definition was developed with the aim of being concise, being heuristic, and allowing for alternative theories of the mechanisms (to be determined in empirical scientific study). The definition of hypnosis is presented as well as definitions of the following related terms: hypnotic induction, hypnotizability, and hypnotherapy. The implications for advancing research and practice are discussed. The definitions are presented within the article.
Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712
Elkins, Gary; Marcus, Joel; Bunn, Jennifer; Perfect, Michelle; Palamara, Lynn; Stearns, Vered; Dove, Jacqueline
The purpose of this brief report is to identify imagery preferences of women receiving hypnotherapy to alleviate hot flashes. As part of a larger study, 51 breast cancer survivors were asked to identify their own personal preferences for imagery for reducing hot flashes. Most of the participants identified personal imagery associated with coolness; none of the participants selected imagery for warmth or heat. The most widely used was imagery involving water associated with coolness (27.0%). It is recommended that clinicians using hypnosis for reduction of hot flashes attend to patients' preferences as specific imagery may moderate the effectiveness of hypnosis for hot flashes. PMID:20509073
Kearney, David J; Brown-Chang, Janelle
Standard treatment for IBS focuses on the management or alleviation of the predominant gastrointestinal presenting symptoms, such as diarrhea or constipation, often using pharmacological therapy. For many patients, this approach is unsatisfactory, and patients frequently seek the advice of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in order to explore other treatment options. CAM practices include a broad range of modalities, and mind-body interventions hold particular promise as treatment modalities for IBS because psychological factors could have an important role in IBS symptomatology and quality of life. Psychological stressors are postulated to result in gastrointestinal symptoms through alteration of intestinal function mediated by the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system. Hypnotherapy has the strongest supportive evidence as a beneficial mind-body intervention for IBS. Clinical studies of hypnotherapy have uniformly shown improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety, depression and quality of life in patients with IBS. Mindfulness meditation remains unstudied for IBS, but is theoretically attractive as a stress-reduction technique. There is a suggestion that relaxation therapy or multimodal therapy (a combination of relaxation therapy, education and psychotherapy) is beneficial for IBS. The most generally accepted psychological mind-body intervention is cognitive behavioral therapy, and clinical trials support the beneficial effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with IBS.
Hauri, Peter J.; Silber, Michael H.; Boeve, Bradley F.
Study Objectives: This study involves a replication and extension of a previous one reported by Hurwitz et al (1991) on the treatment of certain parasomnias with hypnosis. Methods: Thirty-six patients (17 females), mean age 32.7 years (range 6–71). Four were children aged 6 to 16. All had chronic, “functionally autonomous” (self-sustaining) parasomnias. All underwent 1 or 2 hypnotherapy sessions and were then followed by questionnaire for 5 years. Results: Of the 36 patients, 45.4% were symptom-free or at least much improved at the 1-month follow-up, 42.2% at the 18-month follow-up, and 40.5% at the 5-year follow-up. Conclusions: One or 2 sessions of hypnotherapy might be an efficient first-line therapy for patients with certain types of parasomnias. Citation: Hauri PJ; Silber MH; Boeve BF. The treatment of parasomnias with hypnosis: a 5-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(4):369-373. PMID:17694725
This article examines how beliefs can influence the definition, classification, understanding, and treatment of depression. It is organized in five parts: The first part critically reviews the definition of depression; the second part explores the medicalization of depression; the third part examines the role of the pharmaceutical industry in the promotion and marketing of antidepressant medications; the fourth part surveys the psychological therapies for depression and examines the role of expectancy in outcome; and the last part looks at the mechanisms involved in the placebo effect. A list of evidence-based strategies, including hypnosis, are discussed in the context of cognitive hypnotherapy for depression to illustrate how expectancy effect can be maximized in psychotherapy.
Domangue, B B; Margolis, C G; Lieberman, D; Kaji, H
Self-reported levels of pain, anxiety, and depression, and plasma levels of beta-endorphin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin were measured in 19 arthritic pain patients before and after hypnosis designed to produce pain reduction. Correlations were found between levels of pain, anxiety, and depression. Anxiety and depression were negatively related to plasma norepinephrine levels. Dopamine levels were positively correlated with both depression and epinephrine levels and negatively correlated with levels of serotonin. Serotonin levels were positively correlated with levels of beta-endorphin and negatively correlated to epinephrine. Following hypnotherapy, there were clinically and statistically significant decreases in pain, anxiety, and depression and increases in beta-endorphin-like immunoreactive material.
Hypnosis has already been proven efficient in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The author was responsible for the hypnotherapy in a Swedish study and adds her clinical experience with IBS patients within and beyond that study. The hypnosis was labeled dynamic, and the treatment utilized the therapists' clinical competence and individually tailored techniques, including gut-oriented symptom relief and hypnoanalysis, separately or in combination. The author presents 2 cases, 1 with a focus on symptom relief and 1 on exploring traumatic causes. She illustrates her clinical rationale for technical flexibility from trauma resolving hypnoanalysis to symptom-alleviating suggestive hypnosis, including dynamics beyond the symptom when such are part of the case history.
Entwistle, Paul A; Webb, Richard J; Abayomi, Julie C; Johnson, Brian; Sparkes, Andrew C; Davies, Ian G
Hypnosis has long been recognized as an effective tool for producing behavioral change in the eating disorders anorexia and bulimia. Despite many studies from the latter half of the last century suggesting that hypnosis might also be of value in managing obesity situations, the efficacy of hypnotherapy for weight reduction has received surprisingly little formal research attention since 2000. This review presents a brief history of early clinical studies using hypnosis for weight reduction and describes a hypnotherapeutic approach within which a combination of instructional/pedagogic and exploratory therapeutic sessions can work together synergistically to maximize the potential for sustained weight loss. Hypnotic modulation of appetite- and satiation-associated peptides and hormone levels may yield additional physiological benefits in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
Fresé, Michael P.; Rapgay, Lobsang
Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies. PMID:18317547
Wu, Justin C Y
Due to unsatisfactory results from conventional treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities are increasingly popular treatment alternatives. Unfortunately, most CAM clinical trials have been of poor quality, and the efficacies of these therapies have not been adequately elucidated, even through systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is also a general lack of understanding of their mechanisms of action. Currently, insufficient evidence exists to support the use of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, meditation, and reflexology for treatment of IBS. However, there is some evidence supporting the use of peppermint oil and gut-directed hypnotherapy for IBS treatment. Due to mounting evidence of the microbiologic and immunologic basis of IBS, probiotics and exclusion diets are also becoming promising treatment modalities. This paper will review the current literature on various CAM practices for IBS treatment and appraise their advantages and disadvantages in clinical practice.
Brolinson, P G; Price, J H; Ditmyer, M; Reis, D
The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of nurses toward the effectiveness and safety, as well as their recommendations for and personal use of complementary and alternative medical therapies. A, random sample of 1000 nurses throughout the United States were surveyed using a three-wave mailing. About half of the respondents perceived there was conclusive evidence or preponderance of evidence that five therapies were effective: biofeedback, chiropractic, meditation/relaxation, multi-vitamins, and massage therapy. The same amount of nurses also perceived five therapies as definitely safe: hypnotherapy, chiropractic, acupressure, acupuncture, and healing touch. However, the nurses were most likely to recommend (regularly or periodically) four therapies: multivitamins, massage, meditation/relaxation, and pastoral/spiritual counseling. The vast majority (79%) of nurses perceived their professional preparation in this area to be fair or poor.
Willemsen, Ria; Vanderlinden, Johan
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease leading to loss of scalp hairs. The disease seems triggered by stress. Data on the possibility of using hypnotherapy in the treatment of AA are very limited. Twenty-eight patients with extensive AA, all refractory to previous conventional treatment, were treated with hypnosis at the Academic Hospital UZ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. This paper describes in detail the authors' hypnotherapeutic approach combining symptom-oriented suggestions with suggestions to improve self-esteem. Twelve out of 21 patients, including 4 with total loss of scalp hair, presented a significant hair growth. All patients presented a significant decrease in scores for anxiety and depression. Although the exact mechanism of hypnotic interventions has not been elucidated, the authors' results demonstrate that hypnotic interventions may ameliorate the clinical outcome of patients with AA and may improve their psychological well-being.
By definition, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) attempts to diagnose and treat illnesses in unconventional ways. CAM has been classified as: (1) alternative medical systems (eg, traditional Chinese medicine [including acupuncture], naturopathic medicine, ayurvedic medicine, and homeopathy); (2) biologic-based therapies (eg, herbal, special dietary, and individual biologic treatments); (3) energy therapies (eg, Reiki, therapeutic touch, magnet therapy, Qi Gong, and intercessory prayer); (4) manipulative and body-based systems (eg, chiropractic, osteopathy, and massage); and (5) mind-body interventions (eg, meditation, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, and the relaxation response). This review focuses on how to assess the effectiveness of CAM therapies for chronic musculoskeletal pains, emphasizing the role of specific and nonspecific analgesic mechanisms, including placebo.
Rossi, Ernest; Mortimer, Jane; Rossi, Kathryn
Culturomics is a new scientific discipline of the digital humanities-the use of computer algorithms to search for meaning in large databases of text and media. This new digital discipline is used to explore 200 years of the history of hypnosis and psychotherapy in over five million digitized books from more than 40 university libraries around the world. It graphically compares the frequencies of English words about hypnosis, hypnotherapy, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and their founders from 1800 to 2008. This new perspective explore issues such as: Who were the major innovators in the history of therapeutic hypnosis, psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy? How well does this new digital approach to the humanities correspond to traditional histories of hypnosis and psychotherapy? PMID:23724569
Amadasun, F E
This is an evidence-based review of the efficacy of hypnosis in pain management. Hypnosis is as old as mankind. It is reported in the Ebers Papyrus in ancient Egyptian cures. It went into decline in the Middle Ages with the rise of Christianity, being erroneously associated with witchcraft. There was resurgence of interest in the 19th century. In the early 1950s, the British Medical Association endorsed the teaching of hypnosis in all medical schools. The literature is replete with anecdotal and controlled studies of the efficacy of hypnotherapy in pain management. Not much is found of the effectiveness in acute pain conditions. Nevertheless, in spite of some methodological flaws in many reports, there seems to be sufficient clinical evidence of sufficient quality, to conclude that hypnosis has demonstrable efficacy in the treatment of chronic pain.
Phillips, M; Frederick, C
Age progression as a hypnotherapeutic technique is mentioned infrequently in the literature when compared with its counterpart, age regression. In this paper we explore the use of progressions, or "views of the future," as prognostic indicators of therapeutic progress and as valuable tools for ego strengthening and for the integration of clinical material. Age progressions vary in the types of suggestions given and can be used to promote growth on multiple levels, facilitating treatment goals and deepening the working-through process. We present six cases in which we used different types of age progressions, and we discuss the significance of the progressions used in each case, within the context of relevant clinical material. We conclude from our observations that the use of hypnotic progressions can be a sustaining, valuable aspect of hypnotherapy, particularly in providing an index of the current direction and progression of the therapy process itself.
Amadasun, F E
This is an evidence-based review of the efficacy of hypnosis in pain management. Hypnosis is as old as mankind. It is reported in the Ebers Papyrus in ancient Egyptian cures. It went into decline in the Middle Ages with the rise of Christianity, being erroneously associated with witchcraft. There was resurgence of interest in the 19th century. In the early 1950s, the British Medical Association endorsed the teaching of hypnosis in all medical schools. The literature is replete with anecdotal and controlled studies of the efficacy of hypnotherapy in pain management. Not much is found of the effectiveness in acute pain conditions. Nevertheless, in spite of some methodological flaws in many reports, there seems to be sufficient clinical evidence of sufficient quality, to conclude that hypnosis has demonstrable efficacy in the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:17767210
Wahbeh, Helané; Senders, Angela; Neuendorf, Rachel; Cayton, Julien
Objectives To 1) characterize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) studies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD), 2) evaluate the quality of these studies, and 3) systematically grade the scientific evidence for individual CAM modalities for PTSD. Design Systematic Review. Eight data sources were searched. Selection criteria included any study design assessing PTSD outcomes and any CAM intervention. The body of evidence for each modality was assessed with the Natural Standard evidence-based, validated grading rationale.™ Results and Conclusions Thirty-three studies (n=1329) were reviewed. Scientific evidence of benefit for PTSD was Strong for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and Good for acupuncture, hypnotherapy, meditation, and visualization. Evidence was Unclear or Conflicting for biofeedback, relaxation, Emotional Freedom and Thought Field therapies, yoga, and natural products. Considerations for clinical applications and future research recommendations are discussed. PMID:24676593
Rossi, Ernest; Mortimer, Jane; Rossi, Kathryn
Culturomics is a new scientific discipline of the digital humanities-the use of computer algorithms to search for meaning in large databases of text and media. This new digital discipline is used to explore 200 years of the history of hypnosis and psychotherapy in over five million digitized books from more than 40 university libraries around the world. It graphically compares the frequencies of English words about hypnosis, hypnotherapy, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and their founders from 1800 to 2008. This new perspective explore issues such as: Who were the major innovators in the history of therapeutic hypnosis, psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy? How well does this new digital approach to the humanities correspond to traditional histories of hypnosis and psychotherapy?
Dowd, E Thomas
This article describes the phenomenon of therapeutic resistance and reactance from the perspective of the wounded self. The concept of the wounded self is first presented as it is applied to anxiety and depression and then extended to anger applications. The wounded self can be seen as deeply embedded in human cognitive structures (or core beliefs) of tacit knowledge. The operation of tacit knowledge is then described in everyday life as well as in the therapeutic process. Then there is a discussion of the role of resistance and psychological reactance in psychotherapy with implications for the therapeutic alliance. Finally, a case of a resistant client with anger issues using the cognitive hypnotherapy model is presented. PMID:27196013
This article synthesizes the concept of "wounded self" in the understanding and psychological treatment of anxiety disorders. The focal point of this concept is the notion of self-wounds or early unresolved emotional injuries. According to this conceptualization, anxiety represents an unconscious fear of unbearable insult to the wounded self, which is protected by maladaptive conscious strategies such as avoidance, cognitive distortions, or emotional constriction. This perspective provides a theoretical basis for blending elements of psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential therapies in the psychological management of anxiety disorders. As cognitive hypnotherapy embodies all of these therapeutic elements, its application to anxiety disorders is described in this article. Various hypnotherapeutic techniques for symptomatic relief and for eliciting and healing the wounded self are discussed and exemplified by a case. This case illustrates that symptom-focused treatment is necessary, but not sufficient. A more durable treatment requires resolution of underlying conflicts that drive the anxiety.
Cook, Joan M; Biyanova, Tatuana; Elhai, Jon; Schnurr, Paula P; Coyne, James C
Over 2,200 North American psychotherapists completed a Web-based survey concerning their clinical work, including theoretical orientation, client characteristics, and use of specific psychotherapy techniques. Psychotherapeutic integration was common, with the majority of respondents identifying with more than one theoretical orientation or as having an eclectic orientation. The modal patient was a White female adult suffering from a mood or anxiety disorder and interpersonal problems. Individual psychotherapy was the preferred treatment modality. The most frequently endorsed techniques were relationship-oriented such as conveying warmth, acceptance, understanding, and empathy. The least frequently endorsed techniques were biofeedback, neurofeedback, body and energy therapies, and hypnotherapy. Efforts to disseminate empirically based therapies require understanding and accommodating clinicians' tendencies to integrate techniques. PMID:22402052
Meyerson, Joseph; Myerson, Joseph; Konichezy, Andres
Psychological dissociation is commonly perceived by mental health professionals as the pathological splitting of consciences or as an impairment in adaptive integration. In hypnotherapy dissociation is considered one of the most significant features of hypnosis, constituting a major therapeutic resource. In the present article, we use hypnotically induced dissociation (HID) to treat patients with obstinate mental disorders (OMD). These disorders are characterized by persistent, problematic behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that become organizing principals of identity and form enduring psychopathologies. To promote psychological change in patients with OMD, we use HID to enhance dissociative processes that enable the differentiation of health from pathology and allow the emergence of experiences previously overshadowed by pathological personality patterns. Three clinical cases of OMD (chronic depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and a personality disorder) illustrate the effects of HID as an effective therapeutic tool that facilitates emotional processing, consolidates therapeutic achievements, and secures therapeutic results.
Sampson, H; Schmidbauer, H; Klingler, D
164 patients were treated hypnotherapeutically. The therapeutical methods used were heterohypnosis and the so-called gestufte Aktivhypnose (graded active hypnosis), a method which is closely related to autogenous training. In most patients independent continuation of the application of guiding principles in autogenous training was envisaged for stabilizing the results of the hypnotherapy and also achieved. The indications include a wide range of psychovegetative syndromes, including addictions. Especially syndromes showing predominantly vegetative symptoms and a relatively insignificant neurotic component responded most positively to this type of treatment. The results were less satisfactory in patients suffering from pronounced personality disorders. Hynotherapy now supplements psychotherapeutical treatment, hitherto mainly orientated to behaviour therapy, in such a way, that psychotherapy in a general hospital can be realized more effectively.
Armstrong, Terri S; Gilbert, Mark R
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing. CAM includes mind-body interventions, biologically based therapies, energy therapies, and body-based methods. Primary brain tumors arise within the brain and have a poor prognosis when malignant. Even patients with benign tumors suffer neurologic and systemic symptoms as a result of the tumor or its treatment. CAM is used by 30% of brain tumor patients, who often do not report its use to their physician. Herbal medicines may affect the metabolism of prescribed medications or produce adverse effects that may be attributed to other causes. In patients with systemic cancer, mind-body modalities such as meditation and relaxation therapy have been shown to be helpful in reducing anxiety and pain; acupuncture and hypnotherapy may also reduce both pain and nausea. Recent preclinical studies have reported that ginseng, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Angelica sinensis may promote apoptosis of tumor cells or exercise antiangiogenic effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of CAM on symptom control or tumor growth in this vulnerable patient population.
Koritsánszky, Nelli; Madléna, Melinda
The experience of pain and discomfort during orthodontic treatment is common. Pain is a subjective response to noxious stimuli, but it is also influenced by age, gender, previous pain experience, emotional factors and stress. The ortodontic treatments such as separation, placement of the arch wire, activation of the fix or removable appliances and debonding cause some degree of pain for the patient. In a prospective study 95% of the patients reported pain experience during orthodontic treatment. The periodontal pain caused by the combination of pressure, ischemia, inflammation and oedema. The pain starts within 4 hours, increases over the next 24 hours, and decrease within 7 days, so it may not be identified by the orthodontist at recall visit. The most common method to measure the intensity of the pain is the NRS (numerical rating scale), where patients can rate their pain intensity from 1 to 10 or 1 to 100. There are many modalities to control orthodontic pain, we can use different analgesic agents, solf-laser irradiation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and hypnotherapy. The aim of this review to provide an overview on discomfort and pain reaction during orthodontic treatments and discussion of the possible measurement and alleviation of pain.
Barton, R T
The problem of management of patients with spastic dysphonia has been complicated by a general resistance to speech therapy, psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, and drug therapy. Dedo introduced the concept of recurrent laryngeal nerve section in an attempt to eliminate the hyperfunction and excessive adduction of the vocal folds. Eleven patients were treated by RLN section with satisfactory results in 8 and some improvement in the other 3. The operation was found to be generally uncomplicated and required on average 4 days of hospitalization. Dedo's theory that spastic dysphonia is caused by a neurotropic viral-induced proprioceptive nerve deficit represents a new search for organic cause. His most recent report of finding unmyelinated fibres in one-third of the resected recurrent laryngeal nerves is of questionable significance. The evidence of deep emotional conflict and/or compulsive life-style is found in the majority of the patients, but the syndrome is not typical of an hysterical or conversion neurosis. Regardless of etiologic theory, RLN section is an effective treatment in selected, long-standing, and resistant instances of spastic dysphonia.
Surdea-Blaga, Teodora; Baban, Adriana; Nedelcu, Laurentiu; Dumitrascu, Dan L
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients often present psychoform symptoms or psychiatric disorders. Among the psychological factors studied in IBS patients, two seem to influence mostly its severity: catastrophizing and somatization. Somatization is an independent risk factor for IBS. In addition, somatization more than the severity of IBS influences the way the patients perceive their illness, the outcome and the efficacy of treatment. Irritable bowel syndrome patients demonstrate greater catastrophizing scores than controls, and pain catastrophizing is a significant predictor of gastrointestinal symptoms related to pain. In this context we analysed the data regarding the efficacy of two psychological treatments in IBS: cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnosis. Cognitive behavioral therapy is focused on replacing maladaptive coping strategies with more positive cognitions and behaviors. Several studies showed that cognitive behavioral therapy is effective in reducing bowel symptoms in IBS, both post-treatment and short-term follow-up. Gut-directed hypnotherapy has beneficial short-term effects in improving gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with IBS, and the results are maintained after one year in half of the patients. Psychological treatments are a suitable option for selected IBS patients. PMID:27689201
An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled studies, which preclude any definite conclusion about their effectiveness in specific phobias, agoraphobia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), CBT was clearly better than psychoanalytic therapy in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and performance anxiety Psychological debriefing for PTSD appeared detrimental to the patients in one high-quality meta-analysis. Uncontrolled studies of psychosurgery techniques for intractable OCD demonstrated a limited success and detrimental side effects. The same was true for sympathectomy in ereutophobia. Transcranial neurostimulation for OCD is under preliminary study. The theoretical and practical problems of CBT dissemination are discussed. PMID:22034140
Spiegel, Eric B
The concept of the "wounded self" (Wolfe, 2005) offers an integrative theoretical framework for self-wounds and their developmental origins. Alladin (2013, 2014, 2016) integrated hypnotherapy into this model to comprehensively address the unconscious protective mechanisms and maladaptive conscious cognitive strategies of the wounded self. The purpose of this article is to propose how an attachment-focused psychotherapy could be utilized in working with the wounded self. With its emphasis on developmental maturation through the frame of the attachment relationship, attachment theory is well-positioned to offer conceptual and treatment insights in treating the wounded self. E. B. Spiegel's (2016) attunement, representation, and mentalization approach to attachment-focused psychotherapy described how hypnosis can be utilized across attachment processes of attunement, representation, and mentalization toward structural maturation and developmental repair of patients with histories of complex relational trauma. In this article, the attunement, representation, and mentalization attachment approach and associated interventions are further explicated in the treatment of self-wounds in the borderline and narcissistic spectrums of personality organization. These principles of conceptualization and treatment interventions are then applied in a case example.
Spiller, R; Aziz, Q; Creed, F; Emmanuel, A; Houghton, L; Hungin, P; Jones, R; Kumar, D; Rubin, G; Trudgill, N; Whorwell, P
Background IBS affects 5–11% of the population of most countries. Prevalence peaks in the third and fourth decades, with a female predominance. Aim To provide a guide for the assessment and management of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Members of the Clinical Services Committee of The British Society of Gastroenterology were allocated particular areas to produce review documents. Literature searching included systematic searches using electronic databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases and extensive personal reference databases. Results Patients can usefully be classified by predominant bowel habit. Few investigations are needed except when diarrhoea is a prominent feature. Alarm features may warrant further investigation. Adverse psychological features and somatisation are often present. Ascertaining the patients' concerns and explaining symptoms in simple terms improves outcome. IBS is a heterogeneous condition with a range of treatments, each of which benefits a small proportion of patients. Treatment of associated anxiety and depression often improves bowel and other symptoms. Randomised placebo controlled trials show benefit as follows: cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy improve coping; hypnotherapy benefits global symptoms in otherwise refractory patients; antispasmodics and tricyclic antidepressants improve pain; ispaghula improves pain and bowel habit; 5‐HT3 antagonists improve global symptoms, diarrhoea, and pain but may rarely cause unexplained colitis; 5‐HT4 agonists improve global symptoms, constipation, and bloating; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve global symptoms. Conclusions Better ways of identifying which patients will respond to specific treatments are urgently needed. PMID:17488783
The father of hypnotherapy, Milton Erickson, insisted that trance was a fairly common state for individuals, one that we drop into many times a day without any help at all--not at all the sensational image we think of with the magician hypnotizing the audience volunteer, or the psychiatrist the patient. Trances have a number of things in common--they: (1) are an altered state of consciousness; (2) feel autonomous; (3) come packaged with any of a number of "Deep Trance Phenomena"; (4) tend to repeat; (5) are universal. Organizations have trances, too. They have autonomous states of mind, ways of thinking that seem to come from nowhere, that seem impossible to change. They have automatic behaviors--ways of meeting, building of bureaucratic structures, interactions between departments. If organizations had knees, we might call them "knee-jerk reactions." Or communal habits. Or organizational trances. If the trance is a harmful one, how can you loosen its grip? By building up parallel realities.
Grundmann, Oliver; Yoon, Saunjoo L
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with a high incidence in the general population. The diagnosis of IBS is mainly based on exclusion of other intestinal conditions through the absence of inflammatory markers and specific antigens. The current pharmacological treatment approaches available focus on reducing symptom severity while often limiting quality of life because of significant side effects. This has led to an effectiveness gap for IBS patients that seek further relief to increase their quality of life. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have been associated with a higher degree of symptom management and quality of life in IBS patients. Over the past decade, a number of important clinical trials have shown that specific herbal therapies (peppermint oil and Iberogast®), hypnotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, acupuncture, and yoga present with improved treatment outcomes in IBS patients. We propose an integrative approach to treating the diverse symptoms of IBS by combining the benefits of and need for pharmacotherapy with known CAM therapies to provide IBS patients with the best treatment outcome achievable. Initial steps in this direction are already being considered with an increasing number of practitioners recommending CAM therapies to their patients if pharmacotherapy alone does not alleviate symptoms sufficiently. PMID:24574705
Introduction The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) varies depending on the criteria used to diagnose it, but it ranges from about 5% to 20%. IBS is associated with abnormal gastrointestinal motor function and enhanced visceral perception, as well as psychosocial and genetic factors. People with IBS often have other bodily and psychiatric symptoms, and have an increased likelihood of having unnecessary surgery compared with people without IBS. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with IBS? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 18 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5HT3 receptor antagonists (alosetron and ramosetron); 5HT4 receptor agonists (tegaserod); antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]); antispasmodics (including peppermint oil); cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); hypnotherapy; soluble and insoluble fibre supplementation; and loperamide. PMID:21718578
Introduction The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) varies depending on the criteria used to diagnose it, but it ranges from about 5% to 20%. IBS is associated with abnormal gastrointestinal motor function and enhanced visceral perception, as well as psychosocial and genetic factors. People with IBS often have other bodily and psychiatric symptoms, and have an increased likelihood of having unnecessary surgery compared with people without IBS. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with IBS? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5HT3 receptor antagonists (alosetron and ramosetron), 5HT4 receptor agonists (tegaserod), antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]), antispasmodics (including peppermint oil), cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), hypnotherapy, loperamide, and soluble and insoluble fibre supplementation. PMID:22296841
Spiegel, Eric B
The concept of the "wounded self" (Wolfe, 2005) offers an integrative theoretical framework for self-wounds and their developmental origins. Alladin (2013, 2014, 2016) integrated hypnotherapy into this model to comprehensively address the unconscious protective mechanisms and maladaptive conscious cognitive strategies of the wounded self. The purpose of this article is to propose how an attachment-focused psychotherapy could be utilized in working with the wounded self. With its emphasis on developmental maturation through the frame of the attachment relationship, attachment theory is well-positioned to offer conceptual and treatment insights in treating the wounded self. E. B. Spiegel's (2016) attunement, representation, and mentalization approach to attachment-focused psychotherapy described how hypnosis can be utilized across attachment processes of attunement, representation, and mentalization toward structural maturation and developmental repair of patients with histories of complex relational trauma. In this article, the attunement, representation, and mentalization attachment approach and associated interventions are further explicated in the treatment of self-wounds in the borderline and narcissistic spectrums of personality organization. These principles of conceptualization and treatment interventions are then applied in a case example. PMID:27196010
Stankiewicz, Sylwia; Golczyńska, Maria
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) could also be referred to as multiple personality disorder (MPD). Due to rare occurrence and difficulty in its' identification it is infrequently diagnosed in Poland. The indicated disorder has been portrayed by the authors throughout the historical context, referring to initial 18th century's references concerning dissociation. A typical dissociatively disordered person has been characterized along with his individual personality categories such as: original personality, altered personality, host and personality fragment. Moreover various diagnosis criterions of DID have been introduced. DID has also been differentiated with other disorders: PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and BPD (borderline personality disorder). A hypothesis has been set up, stating that DID is directly correlated with the trauma experienced during childhood, while PTSD is linked with traumatic lived-through events in the later period of ones' life. The most contemporary and frequently used research tools for DID have been indicated: dissociative experience scale (DES) and somatoform dissociation questionnaire (SDQ-20). Based upon the known literature, the authors have presented treatment methods such as hypnotherapy and recorded therapy sessions. It is the view of the authors that the switching in dissociative identity disorder is of adaptive character (it occurrs depending upon adaptive needs).
That commensal bacteria play an important role in human health is beyond doubt, and it is now widely accepted that humans function as super organisms, whose collective metabolic potential exceeds the sum of our individual eukaryotic and prokaryotic components. However, while it is has been established that the prokaryotic component of the human superorganism is amenable to manipulation by chemotherapeutic, dietary or microbial interventions, the significance of such alterations in terms of human health or well being is less well established. Prebiotics (non- digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system) and probiotics (live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host) are often bracketed among 'alternative' approaches to influencing human health, such as homeopathy, naturopathy, acupuncture and hypnotherapy. Others believe that prebiotics and probiotics have proven their effectiveness in properly conducted, clinically controlled human trials and therefore can be considered as evidence-based alternatives or adjuncts to conventional medicines. My journey from a position of total skepticism to 'reluctant convert' is the basis of this article, which should not be considered in any sense as a review of the literature but simply a personal account of this transition. While I am not bent on converting other doubters, I will recount some of the thought processes and evidence that has helped to form my current opinion.
Grundmann, Oliver; Yoon, Saunjoo L
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with a high incidence in the general population. The diagnosis of IBS is mainly based on exclusion of other intestinal conditions through the absence of inflammatory markers and specific antigens. The current pharmacological treatment approaches available focus on reducing symptom severity while often limiting quality of life because of significant side effects. This has led to an effectiveness gap for IBS patients that seek further relief to increase their quality of life. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have been associated with a higher degree of symptom management and quality of life in IBS patients. Over the past decade, a number of important clinical trials have shown that specific herbal therapies (peppermint oil and Iberogast(®)), hypnotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, acupuncture, and yoga present with improved treatment outcomes in IBS patients. We propose an integrative approach to treating the diverse symptoms of IBS by combining the benefits of and need for pharmacotherapy with known CAM therapies to provide IBS patients with the best treatment outcome achievable. Initial steps in this direction are already being considered with an increasing number of practitioners recommending CAM therapies to their patients if pharmacotherapy alone does not alleviate symptoms sufficiently. PMID:24574705
Poder, Thomas G.; Lemieux, Renald
Background: The effects of cancer and associated treatments have a considerable impact on the well-being and quality of life of pediatric oncology patients. To support children and their families, complementary and alternative medicines are seen by nurses and doctors as practical to integrate to the services offered by hospitals. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to examine if the practice of complementary and alternative medicine, specifically spiritual care and treatments based on body manipulation, is likely to improve the health and well-being of children suffering from cancer. Method: This objective is achieved through a systematic review of the literature. The level of evidence associated with each practice of complementary and alternative medicine was assessed according to the methodological design used by the studies reviewed. Results and Conclusion: Studies reviewed are of a methodological quality that could be described as fair due to the small sample size of patients and the existence of a number of biases in the conduct and analysis of these studies. However, results obtained are consistent from one study to another, allowing us to make certain recommendations. It is thus advisable to consider the introduction of hypnotherapy in pediatric oncology services. Based on the data collected, it is the complementary and alternative medicine with the most evidence in favor of effectiveness of the well-being of pediatric oncology patients, especially during painful procedures. It is also recommended to use art therapy and music therapy. Conversely, too little evidence is present to be able to recommend the use of acupuncture, chiropractic or osteopathy. PMID:24576371
Thomas, Dennis; Abramson, Michael J; Bonevski, Billie; Taylor, Simone; Poole, Susan G; Weeks, Gregory R; Dooley, Michael J; George, Johnson
Objective Understanding smokers’ quit experiences and their preferences for a future quit attempt may aid in the development of effective cessation treatments. The aims of this study were to measure tobacco use behaviour; previous quit attempts and outcomes; methods used to assist quitting; difficulties experienced during previous attempts; the motives and preferred methods to assist quitting in a future attempt; identify the factors associated with preferences for smoking cessation. Design Face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Setting Inpatient wards of three Australian public hospitals. Participants Hospitalised smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. Results Of 600 enrolled patients (42.8% participation rate), 64.3% (n=386) had attempted quitting in the previous 12 months. On a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high), current motivation to quit smoking was high (median 9; IQR 6.5–10), but confidence was modest (median 5; IQR 3–8). Among 386 participants who reported past quit attempts, 69.9% (n=270) had used at least one cessation aid to assist quitting. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was most commonly stated (222, 57.5%), although the majority had used NRT for <4 weeks. Hypnotherapy was the most common (68, 17.6%) non-pharmacological treatment. Over 80% (n=311) experienced withdrawal symptoms; craving and irritability were commonly reported. Most participants (351, 58.5%) believed medications, especially NRT (322, 53.7%), would assist them to quit in the future. History of previous smoking cessation medication use was the only independent predictor of interest in using medications for a future quit attempt. Conclusions The majority of smokers had attempted quitting in the previous 12 months; NRT was a popular cessation treatment, although it was not used as recommended by most. This suggests a need for assistance in the selection and optimal use of cessation aids for hospitalised smokers. Trial registration number Australian and
Diseth, Trond H; Christie, Helen J
A high proportion of patients in child and adolescent psychiatry with significant dissociative symptomatology after early childhood traumatization may go undiagnosed, be wrongly diagnosed and/or inappropriately treated. The diagnostics and treatment of dissociative disorders have been limited by lack of comprehensive, reliable and valid instruments and the ongoing polarization and fierce controversy regarding treatment. However, recent neurobiological findings of neurochemical, functional and structural cerebral consequences of early stressful childhood experiences point out a need for active, early and effective identification and treatment interventions. We present an update on assessment tools available in the Nordic countries, and an overview of different appropriate therapeutic intervention models for children and adolescents. A systematic overview of studies of dissociation in children and adolescent published over the last decade disclosed a total of 1019 references. The 465 papers describing aspects of assessment tools and/or treatment were studied in detail. Reliable and valid screening questionnaires and diagnostic interviews for children and adolescents now allow for effective early identification of dissociative disorders. A combination of individual psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and family therapy are often required to handle dissociative disorders in children and adolescents. Cognitive-behavioural therapy, hypnotherapy, Eye-Movement Desensitization-Reprocessing (EMDR), psychodynamic therapy and an integrated approach are the main described psychotherapeutic approaches, but treatment of dissociation in children and adolescent does not require allegiance to any one particular treatment model. However, achievement of physical safety by providing a safe environment is a primary goal that supersedes any other therapeutic work. Assessments tools are now available, and appropriate therapeutic intervention models may hopefully contribute to reduce the risk
Wearn, A M; Greenfield, S M
Complementary therapy (CT) has become increasingly popular with the general public and interest from the health professions has been rising. There has been no study focusing on the pattern of availability of CT within urban and inner-city general practice. We aimed to describe the prevalence and pattern of access to complementary therapy in this setting, identifying the characteristics of practices offering CT and the perceived barriers to service provision. We sent a postal questionnaire to all 254 general practices on the Birmingham Family Health Services Authority list. Practices were asked whether they offered any access to CTs, how services were organized and which therapies were available and to identify any barriers to provision. 175 practices (68.9%) responded. Half of the practices offered access to CT. Of these, half offered an in-house service, usually provided by the doctor (81.8%). Of GPs practising therapies themselves, 58% began in or after 1990. Seventeen separate therapies were offered, most commonly acupuncture, osteopathy, chiropractic, hypnotherapy and homoeopathy. Practices significantly more likely to offer access to CT were of larger list size and training or teaching practices. They were equally likely to be fundholders or non-fundholders. Practices offering an in-house service tended to be fundholding, training and of larger list size. Finance was perceived as the major barrier. In the area studied, many patients now have some access to CT within primary care, often within their own practice. In the main, therapies offered are the 'medically acceptable face' of complementary medicine.
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can significantly affect an individual's quality of life, the health care system, and even society. The first decade of the new millennium has seen renewed interest in this condition, but etiological understanding and evidence-based treatment availability remain limited. After the diagnosis of PNES is established, the first therapeutic step includes a presentation of the diagnosis that facilitates engagement in treatment. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence of treatments for PNES published since the year 2000 and to discuss further needs for clinical treatment implementation and research. This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of structured, standardized psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions. The primary outcome measure in clinical trials for PNES is event frequency, although it is questionable whether this is the most accurate indicator of functional recovery. Cognitive behavioral therapy has evidence of efficacy, including one pilot randomized, controlled trial where cognitive behavioral therapy was compared with standard medical care. The antidepressant sertraline did not show a significant difference in event frequency change when compared to placebo in a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, but it did show a significant pre- versus posttreatment decrease in the active arm. Other interventions that have shown efficacy in uncontrolled trials include augmented psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy, group psychodynamic psychotherapy, group psychoeducation, and the antidepressant venlafaxine. Larger clinical trials of these promising treatments are necessary, while other psychotherapeutic interventions such as hypnotherapy, mindfulness-based therapies, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing may deserve exploration. Flexible delivery of treatment that considers the heterogeneous backgrounds of patients is emphasized as
at night, baclofen to decrease transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations, pain modulators, acupuncture, or hypnotherapy. At this time, antireflux surgery should be limited to patients with abnormal acid reflux defined by pH testing and a good correlation of symptoms with acid reflux. PMID:27551249
Richter, Joel E
night, baclofen to decrease transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations, pain modulators, acupuncture, or hypnotherapy. At this time, antireflux surgery should be limited to patients with abnormal acid reflux defined by pH testing and a good correlation of symptoms with acid reflux.
Häuser, Winfried; Arnold, Bernhard; Eich, Wolfgang; Felde, Eva; Flügge, Christl; Henningsen, Peter; Herrmann, Markus; Köllner, Volker; Kühn, Edeltraud; Nutzinger, Detlev; Offenbächer, Martin; Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Sommer, Claudia; Thieme, Kati; Kopp, Ina
, multicomponent treatment and amitriptyline. Based on expert opinion, a stepwise FMS-management was proposed. Step 1 comprises confirming the diagnosis and patient education and treatment of physical or mental comorbidities or aerobic exercise or cognitive behavioural therapy or amitriptyline. Step 2 includes multicomponent treatment. Step 3 comprises no further treatment or self-management (aerobic exercise, stress management) and/or booster multicomponent therapy and/or pharmacological therapy (duloxetine or fluoxetine or paroxetine or pregabalin or tramadol/aminoacetophen) and/or psychotherapy (hypnotherapy or written emotional disclosure) and/or physical therapy (balneotherapy or whole body heat therapy) and/or complementary therapies (homeopathy or vegetarian diet). The choice of treatment options should be based on informed decision-making and respect of the patients' preferences.
O'Donnell, Amy; McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C; Beyer, Fiona; Moloney, Eoin; Bryant, Andrew; Bradley, Jennifer; Muirhead, Colin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Norman, Justine; Simpson, Emma; Swallow, Brian; Yates, Laura; Vale, Luke
BACKGROUND Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, British Nursing Index, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Conference Proceedings Index, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from inception to September 2014. References from studies and literature reviews identified were also examined. Obstetric Medicine was hand-searched, as were websites of relevant organisations. Costs came from NHS sources. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for effectiveness, and population-based case series for adverse events and fetal outcomes. Treatments: vitamins B6 and B12, ginger, acupressure/acupuncture, hypnotherapy, antiemetics, dopamine antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists, intravenous (i.v.) fluids, corticosteroids, enteral and parenteral feeding or other novel treatment. Two reviewers extracted data and quality assessed studies. Results were narratively synthesised; planned meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and incomplete reporting. A simple economic evaluation considered