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Sample records for hypoferremia alters dopamine

  1. Prenatal Inflammation-Induced Hypoferremia Alters Dopamine Function in the Adult Offspring in Rat: Relevance for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Valles, Argel; Flores, Cecilia; Luheshi, Giamal N.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy has been associated with increased incidence of schizophrenia in the adult offspring. Mechanistically, this has been partially attributed to neurodevelopmental disruption of the dopamine neurons, as a consequence of exacerbated maternal immunity. In the present study we sought to target hypoferremia, a cytokine-induced reduction of serum non-heme iron, which is common to all types of infections. Adequate iron supply to the fetus is fundamental for the development of the mesencephalic dopamine neurons and disruption of this following maternal infection can affect the offspring's dopamine function. Using a rat model of localized injury induced by turpentine, which triggers the innate immune response and inflammation, we investigated the effects of maternal iron supplementation on the offspring's dopamine function by assessing behavioral responses to acute and repeated administration of the dopamine indirect agonist, amphetamine. In addition we measured protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, and tissue levels of dopamine and its metabolites, in ventral tegmental area, susbtantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Offspring of turpentine-treated mothers exhibited greater responses to a single amphetamine injection and enhanced behavioral sensitization following repeated exposure to this drug, when compared to control offspring. These behavioral changes were accompanied by increased baseline levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine and its metabolites, selectively in the nucleus accumbens. Both, the behavioral and neurochemical changes were prevented by maternal iron supplementation. Localized prenatal inflammation induced a deregulation in iron homeostasis, which resulted in fundamental alterations in dopamine function and behavioral alterations in the adult offspring. These changes are characteristic of schizophrenia symptoms in humans. PMID:20532043

  2. Prenatal inflammation-induced hypoferremia alters dopamine function in the adult offspring in rat: relevance for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Valles, Argel; Flores, Cecilia; Luheshi, Giamal N

    2010-06-04

    Maternal infection during pregnancy has been associated with increased incidence of schizophrenia in the adult offspring. Mechanistically, this has been partially attributed to neurodevelopmental disruption of the dopamine neurons, as a consequence of exacerbated maternal immunity. In the present study we sought to target hypoferremia, a cytokine-induced reduction of serum non-heme iron, which is common to all types of infections. Adequate iron supply to the fetus is fundamental for the development of the mesencephalic dopamine neurons and disruption of this following maternal infection can affect the offspring's dopamine function. Using a rat model of localized injury induced by turpentine, which triggers the innate immune response and inflammation, we investigated the effects of maternal iron supplementation on the offspring's dopamine function by assessing behavioral responses to acute and repeated administration of the dopamine indirect agonist, amphetamine. In addition we measured protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, and tissue levels of dopamine and its metabolites, in ventral tegmental area, susbtantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Offspring of turpentine-treated mothers exhibited greater responses to a single amphetamine injection and enhanced behavioral sensitization following repeated exposure to this drug, when compared to control offspring. These behavioral changes were accompanied by increased baseline levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine and its metabolites, selectively in the nucleus accumbens. Both, the behavioral and neurochemical changes were prevented by maternal iron supplementation. Localized prenatal inflammation induced a deregulation in iron homeostasis, which resulted in fundamental alterations in dopamine function and behavioral alterations in the adult offspring. These changes are characteristic of schizophrenia symptoms in humans.

  3. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity.

    PubMed

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L Judson

    2015-12-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC.

  4. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity

    PubMed Central

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L. Judson

    2015-01-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC. PMID:26558348

  5. Research Review: Dopamine Transfer Deficit: A Neurobiological Theory of Altered Reinforcement Mechanisms in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R.

    2008-01-01

    This review considers the hypothesis that changes in dopamine signalling might account for altered sensitivity to positive reinforcement in children with ADHD. The existing evidence regarding dopamine cell activity in relation to positive reinforcement is reviewed. We focus on the anticipatory firing of dopamine cells brought about by a transfer…

  6. Research Review: Dopamine Transfer Deficit: A Neurobiological Theory of Altered Reinforcement Mechanisms in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R.

    2008-01-01

    This review considers the hypothesis that changes in dopamine signalling might account for altered sensitivity to positive reinforcement in children with ADHD. The existing evidence regarding dopamine cell activity in relation to positive reinforcement is reviewed. We focus on the anticipatory firing of dopamine cells brought about by a transfer…

  7. Altered Neurocircuitry in the Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Bearer, Elaine L.; Boulat, Benoit; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Jacobs, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO) mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a wealth of new information about the function of these proteins at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels. In the present work we use the unique properties of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to probe the effects of altered dopaminergic dynamics on meso-scale neuronal circuitry and overall brain morphology, since changes at these levels of organization might help to account for some of the extensive pharmacological and behavioral differences observed in dopamine transporter (DAT) KO mice. Despite the smaller size of these animals, voxel-wise statistical comparison of high resolution structural MR images indicated little morphological change as a consequence of DAT KO. Likewise, proton magnetic resonance spectra recorded in the striatum indicated no significant changes in detectable metabolite concentrations between DAT KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, alterations in the circuitry from the prefrontal cortex to the mesocortical limbic system, an important brain component intimately tied to function of mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine reward pathways, were revealed by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Analysis of co-registered MEMRI images taken over the 26 hours after introduction of Mn2+ into the prefrontal cortex indicated that DAT KO mice have a truncated Mn2+ distribution within this circuitry with little accumulation beyond the thalamus or contralateral to the injection site. By contrast, WT littermates exhibit Mn2+ transport into more posterior midbrain nuclei and contralateral mesolimbic structures at

  8. Striatal Dopamine Links Gastrointestinal Rerouting to Altered Sweet Appetite.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenfei; Tellez, Luis A; Niu, Jingjing; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Zhang, Xiaobing; Su, Jiansheng; Tong, Jenny; Schwartz, Gary J; van den Pol, Anthony; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-01-12

    Reductions in calorie intake contribute significantly to the positive outcome of bariatric surgeries. However, the physiological mechanisms linking the rerouting of the gastrointestinal tract to reductions in sugar cravings remain uncertain. We show that a duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) intervention inhibits maladaptive sweet appetite by acting on dopamine-responsive striatal circuitries. DJB disrupted the ability of recurrent sugar exposure to promote sweet appetite in sated animals, thereby revealing a link between recurrent duodenal sugar influx and maladaptive sweet intake. Unlike ingestion of a low-calorie sweetener, ingestion of sugar was associated with significant dopamine effluxes in the dorsal striatum, with glucose infusions into the duodenum inducing greater striatal dopamine release than equivalent jejunal infusions. Consistently, optogenetic activation of dopamine-excitable cells of the dorsal striatum was sufficient to restore maladaptive sweet appetite in sated DJB mice. Our findings point to a causal link between striatal dopamine signaling and the outcomes of bariatric interventions.

  9. Striatal Dopamine Links Gastrointestinal Rerouting to Altered Sweet Appetite

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenfei; Tellez, Luis A; Niu, Jingjing; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Zhang, Xiaobing; Su, Jiansheng; Tong, Jenny; Schwartz, Gary J; van den Pol, Anthony; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in calorie intake contribute significantly to the positive outcome of bariatric surgeries. However, the physiological mechanisms linking the rerouting of the gastrointestinal tract to reductions in sugar cravings remain uncertain. We show that a duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) intervention inhibits maladaptive sweet appetite by acting on dopamine-responsive striatal circuitries. DJB disrupted the ability of recurrent sugar exposure to promote sweet appetite in sated animals, thereby revealing a link between recurrent duodenal sugar influx and maladaptive sweet intake. Unlike ingestion of a low-calorie sweetener, ingestion of sugar was associated with significant dopamine effluxes in dorsal striatum, with glucose infusions into the duodenum inducing greater striatal dopamine release than equivalent jejunal infusions. Consistently, optogenetic activation of dopamine-excitable cells of dorsal striatum was sufficient to restore maladaptive sweet appetite in sated DJB mice. Our findings point to a causal link between striatal dopamine signaling and the outcomes of bariatric interventions. PMID:26698915

  10. Research review: dopamine transfer deficit: a neurobiological theory of altered reinforcement mechanisms in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R

    2008-07-01

    This review considers the hypothesis that changes in dopamine signalling might account for altered sensitivity to positive reinforcement in children with ADHD. The existing evidence regarding dopamine cell activity in relation to positive reinforcement is reviewed. We focus on the anticipatory firing of dopamine cells brought about by a transfer of dopamine cell responses to cues that precede reinforcers. It is proposed that in children with ADHD there is diminished anticipatory dopamine cell firing, which we call the dopamine transfer deficit (DTD). The DTD theory leads to specific and testable predictions for human and animal research. The extent to which DTD explains symptoms of ADHD and effects of pharmacological interventions is discussed. We conclude by considering the neural changes underlying the etiology of DTD.

  11. Orbitofrontal Dopamine Depletion Upregulates Caudate Dopamine and Alters Behavior via Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, R. N.; Rygula, R.; Hong, Y. T.; Fryer, T. D.; Sawiak, S. J.; Ferrari, V.; Cockcroft, G.; Aigbirhio, F. I.; Robbins, T. W.; Roberts, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with upregulation of dopamine (DA) release in the caudate nucleus. The caudate has dense connections with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) via the frontostriatal loops, and both areas exhibit pathophysiological change in schizophrenia. Despite evidence that abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and prefrontal cortex function co-occur in schizophrenia, the influence of OFC DA on caudate DA and reinforcement processing is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that OFC dopaminergic dysfunction disrupts caudate dopamine function, we selectively depleted dopamine from the OFC of marmoset monkeys and measured striatal extracellular dopamine levels (using microdialysis) and dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding (using positron emission tomography), while modeling reinforcement-related behavior in a discrimination learning paradigm. OFC dopamine depletion caused an increase in tonic dopamine levels in the caudate nucleus and a corresponding reduction in D2/D3 receptor binding. Computational modeling of behavior showed that the lesion increased response exploration, reducing the tendency to persist with a recently chosen response side. This effect is akin to increased response switching previously seen in schizophrenia and was correlated with striatal but not OFC D2/D3 receptor binding. These results demonstrate that OFC dopamine depletion is sufficient to induce striatal hyperdopaminergia and changes in reinforcement learning relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:24872570

  12. Elevated tonic extracellular dopamine concentration and altered dopamine modulation of synaptic activity precede dopamine loss in the striatum of mice overexpressing human α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hoa A; Wu, Nanping; Cely, Ingrid; Kelly, Rachel L; Hean, Sindalana; Richter, Franziska; Magen, Iddo; Cepeda, Carlos; Ackerson, Larry C; Walwyn, Wendy; Masliah, Eliezer; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise; Levine, Michael S; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-07-01

    Overexpression or mutation of α-synuclein (α-Syn), a protein associated with presynaptic vesicles, causes familial forms of Parkinson's disease in humans and is also associated with sporadic forms of the disease. We used in vivo microdialysis, tissue content analysis, behavioral assessment, and whole-cell patch clamp recordings from striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSSNs) in slices to examine dopamine transmission and dopaminergic modulation of corticostriatal synaptic function in mice overexpressing human wild-type α-Syn under the Thy1 promoter (α-Syn mice). Tonic striatal extracellular dopamine and 3-methoxytyramine levels were elevated in α-Syn mice at 6 months of age, prior to any reduction in total striatal tissue content, and were accompanied by an increase in open-field activity. Dopamine clearance and amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux were unchanged. The frequency of MSSN spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) was lower in α-Syn mice. Amphetamine reduced sEPSC frequency in wild types (WTs) but produced no effect in α-Syn mice. Furthermore, whereas quinpirole reduced and sulpiride increased sEPSC frequency in WT mice, they produced the opposite effects in α-Syn mice. These observations indicate that overexpression of α-Syn alters dopamine efflux and D2 receptor modulation of corticostriatal glutamate release at a young age. At 14 months of age, the α-Syn mice presented with significantly lower striatal tissue dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase content relative to WT littermates, accompanied by an L-DOPA-reversible sensory motor deficit. Together, these data further validate this transgenic mouse line as a slowly progressing model of Parkinson's disease and provide evidence for early dopamine synaptic dysfunction prior to loss of striatal dopamine. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Alteration of dopamine receptor sensitivity by opiates and the subsequent effect of this alteration on opiate tolerance and dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether there is an alteration of dopamine receptor sensitivity following opiate administration, and whether this alteration has any influence on the development of opiate tolerance and dependence. Behavioral hypersensitivity to direct-acting dopamine agonists was observed in mice following acute or chronic morphine administration. Acute levorphanol administration also resulted in potentiation of dopamine agonist-induced behaviors. An increase in density of dopamine receptors, as measured by (/sup 3/H)butyrophenone binding accompanied the development of behavioral hypersensitivity. This increase was localized to the striatum, an area important in the mediation of dopamine-agonist induced behaviors. Naloxone or LiCl coadministered with the opiates prevented the development of hypersensitivity and the increase in density of dopamine receptors. Coadministration of lithium enhanced the development of acute and chronic tolerance. Lithium enhanced the development of dependence as determined by naloxone-induced hypothermia in chronically morphine-treated mice. Apomorphine enhanced naloxone-induced withdrawal in acutely dependent mice. This enhancement was blocked by coadministration of lithium with the opiates. These results suggest that dopamine receptor supersensitivity influences the degree of tolerance and dependence.

  14. Extracellular dopamine and alterations on dopamine transporter are related to reserpine toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Reckziegel, Patrícia; Chen, Pan; Caito, Sam; Gubert, Priscila; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fachinetto, Roselei; Aschner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Reserpine is used as an animal model of parkinsonism. We hypothesized that the involuntary movements induced by reserpine in rodents are induced by dopaminergic toxicity caused by extracellular dopamine accumulation. The present study tested the effects of reserpine on the dopaminergic system in Caenorhabditis elegans. Reserpine was toxic to worms (decreased the survival, food intake, development and changed egg laying and defecation cycles). In addition, reserpine increased the worms' locomotor rate on food and decreased dopamine levels. Morphological evaluations of dopaminergic CEP neurons confirmed neurodegeneration characterized by decreased fluorescence intensity and the number of worms with intact CEP neurons, and increased number of shrunken somas per worm. These effects were unrelated to reserpine's effect on decreased expression of the dopamine transporter, dat-1. Interestingly, the locomotor rate on food and the neurodegenerative parameters fully recovered to basal conditions upon reserpine withdrawal. Furthermore, reserpine decreased survival in vesicular monoamine transporter and dat-1 loss-of-function mutant worms. In addition, worms pre-exposed to dopamine followed by exposure to reserpine had decreased survival. Reserpine activated gst-4, which controls a phase II detoxification enzymes downstream of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2. Our findings establish that the dopamine transporter, dat-1, plays an important role in reserpine toxicity, likely by increasing extracellular dopamine concentrations.

  15. Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function

    SciTech Connect

    Elwan, Mohamed A.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Miller, Gary W. . E-mail: gary.miller@emory.edu

    2006-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determined that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM-100 {mu}M) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 {mu}M) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 {mu}M) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD.

  16. Dopamine depletion alters phosphorylation of striatal proteins in a model of Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Abigail M; Deutch, Ariel Y; Colbran, Roger J

    2005-07-01

    Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion disrupts striatal medium spiny neuron morphology in Parkinson's disease and modulates striatal synaptic plasticity in animal models of parkinsonism. We demonstrate that long-term nigrostriatal dopamine depletion in the rat induces evolving changes in the phosphorylation of striatal proteins critical for synaptic plasticity. Dopamine depletion increased the phosphorylation of the alpha isoform of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIalpha) at Thr286, a site associated with enhanced autonomous kinase activity, but did not alter total levels of CaMKIIalpha or other synaptic proteins. Dopamine depletion decreased CaMKIIalpha levels in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions without significant changes in other proteins. The activity of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a postsynaptic phosphatase that dephosphorylates CaMKII, is regulated by DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa). Dopamine depletion had no effect on DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr34, but increased DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr75. Levodopa administration reversed the increased phosphorylation of both CaMKIIalpha and DARPP-32. Normal ageing increased the levels of PP1(gamma1 isoform) but decreased levels of the PP1gamma1-targeting proteins spinophilin and neurabin. Elevated phosphorylations of CaMKIIalpha and DARPP-32 were maintained for up to 20 months after dopamine depletion. However, phosphorylation of the CaMKII-PP1 substrate, Ser831 in the glutamate receptor GluR1 subunit, was increased only after sustained (9-20 months) dopamine depletion. Interaction of ageing-related changes in PP1 with the dopamine depletion-induced changes in CaMKIIalpha may account for enhanced GluR1 phosphorylation only after long-term dopamine depletion. These evolving changes may impact striatal synaptic plasticity, Parkinson's disease progression and the changing efficacy and side-effects associated with dopamine replacement therapy.

  17. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Biphenyls, Dopamine, Parkinson’s Disease , Neurological Function, Aging, Gender 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders in New Haven, CT under the supervision of Dr. Kenneth Marek . Results, obtained using β-CIT SPECT imaging...These findings are supported by epidemiological data demonstrating increased Parkinson’s disease mortality, again only in women (Steenland et al

  18. Alterations of dopamine and serotonin transmission in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Remington, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The present chapter outlines current thinking regarding serotonin and dopamine in schizophrenia. Each has individually been linked to theories regarding the illness' pathophysiology although the focus here is on their interactive role, a model that has driven drug development in the field for the last 10-15 years. With clozapine as a prototype, a new class of 'atypical' antipsychotics entered the clinical market, hinged predominantly on the notion that these agents were superior to conventional antipsychotics through their ratio of serotonin 5-HT(2)/dopamine D(2) binding. This model has since been challenged both clinically and theoretically, but interest in serotonin-dopamine interactions remains high in the face of a broader conceptualization of schizophrenia's symptom domains, in combination with a shift in the perceived role of dopamine vis-à-vis these different clinical features. At present, there is particular interest in the 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors as the search for improved pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia continues.

  19. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Dopamine, Parkinson’s Disease , Neurological Function, Aging, Gender 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...under the supervision of Dr. Kenneth Marek . Results, obtained using -CIT SPECT imaging, demonstrate that women, but not men, showed an inverse...These findings are reported in Neurobiology of Disease doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2010.01.009 and are supported by epidemiological data demonstrating

  20. Prolonged High Fat Diet Reduces Dopamine Reuptake without Altering DAT Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Jackson J.; Chartoff, Elena H.; Potter, David N.; Ebner, Stephanie R.; Roitman, Mitchell F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of diet-induced obesity (DIO) can potently alter multiple aspects of dopamine signaling, including dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and dopamine reuptake. However, the time-course of diet-induced changes in DAT expression and function and whether such changes are dependent upon the development of DIO remains unresolved. Here, we fed rats a high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat diet for 2 or 6 weeks. Following diet exposure, rats were anesthetized with urethane and striatal DAT function was assessed by electrically stimulating the dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and recording resultant changes in dopamine concentration in the ventral striatum using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. We also quantified the effect of HFD on membrane associated DAT in striatal cell fractions from a separate group of rats following exposure to the same diet protocol. Notably, none of our treatment groups differed in body weight. We found a deficit in the rate of dopamine reuptake in HFD rats relative to LFD rats after 6 but not 2 weeks of diet exposure. Additionally, the increase in evoked dopamine following a pharmacological challenge of cocaine was significantly attenuated in HFD relative to LFD rats. Western blot analysis revealed that there was no effect of diet on total DAT protein. However, 6 weeks of HFD exposure significantly reduced the 50 kDa DAT isoform in a synaptosomal membrane-associated fraction, but not in a fraction associated with recycling endosomes. Our data provide further evidence for diet-induced alterations in dopamine reuptake independent of changes in DAT production and demonstrates that such changes can manifest without the development of DIO. PMID:23516454

  1. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  2. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  3. Altered effect of dopamine transporter 3'UTR VNTR genotype on prefrontal and striatal function in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Prata, Diana P; Mechelli, Andrea; Picchioni, Marco M; Fu, Cynthia H Y; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Bramon, Elvira; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M; Collier, David A; McGuire, Philip

    2009-11-01

    The dopamine transporter plays a key role in the regulation of central dopaminergic transmission, which modulates cognitive processing. Disrupted dopamine function and impaired executive processing are robust features of schizophrenia. To examine the effect of a polymorphism in the dopamine transporter gene (the variable number of tandem repeats in the 3' untranslated region) on brain function during executive processing in healthy volunteers and patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that this variation would have a different effect on prefrontal and striatal activation in schizophrenia, reflecting altered dopamine function. Case-control study. Psychiatric research center. Eighty-five subjects, comprising 44 healthy volunteers (18 who were 9-repeat carriers and 26 who were 10-repeat homozygotes) and 41 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (18 who were 9-repeat carriers and 23 who were 10-repeat homozygotes). Regional brain activation during word generation relative to repetition in an overt verbal fluency task measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Main effects of genotype and diagnosis on activation and their interaction were estimated with analysis of variance in SPM5. Irrespective of diagnosis, the 10-repeat allele was associated with greater activation than the 9-repeat allele in the left anterior insula and right caudate nucleus. Trends for the same effect in the right insula and for greater deactivation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex were also detected. There were diagnosis x genotype interactions in the left middle frontal gyrus and left nucleus accumbens, where the 9-repeat allele was associated with greater activation than the 10-repeat allele in patients but not controls. Insular, cingulate, and striatal function during an executive task is normally modulated by variation in the dopamine transporter gene. Its effect on activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum is altered in patients with schizophrenia

  4. Alterations in adult behavioral responses to cocaine and dopamine transporters following juvenile exposure to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Matuszewich, Leslie

    2011-01-20

    The present experiment assessed whether preadolescent exposure to methamphetamine would alter adult behavioral responses to cocaine and dopamine transporter immunoreactivity in the striatum of male and female rats. Juvenile rats were injected once daily with 0 or 2 mg/kg methamphetamine from postnatal days 21 to 35 and tested in adulthood. Male rats, but not female rats, exposed to methamphetamine showed an increase in responsiveness to cocaine in the open field and an increase in dopamine transporter immunoreactivity in the striatum. These findings suggest that early exposure to methamphetamine can lead to sex specific altered responses to psychostimulants in adulthood, which may contribute to later vulnerability to drug use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered pattern of brain dopamine synthesis in male adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forssberg, Hans; Fernell, Elisabeth; Waters, Susanna; Waters, Nicholas; Tedroff, Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Background Limited data from positron emission tomography (PET) studies of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicate alterations in brain dopamine neurotransmission. However, these studies have used conventional univariate approaches that are less sensitive to detect complex interactions that may exist between different brain dopamine pathways and individual symptoms of ADHD. We aimed to investigate these potential interactions in adolescents with ADHD. Methods We used a 3D PET scan to measure utilization of native L-[11C]-DOPA to map dopamine presynaptic function in various cortical, striatal and midbrain regions in a group of 8 male adolescents with ADHD and 6 age matched controls. To evaluate the interactions between the studied brain regions, multivariate statistical methods were used. Results Abnormal dopaminergic function was found in multiple brain regions of patients with ADHD. A main finding was lower L-[11C]-DOPA utilization in adolescent with ADHD as compared to control subjects, especially in subcortical regions. This pattern of dopaminergic activity was correlated specifically with symptoms of inattention. Conclusion Dopamine signalling in the brain plays an important modulatory role in a variety of motor and cognitive functions. We have identified region-specific functional abnormalities in dopaminergic function, which may help better account for the symptoms of ADHD. PMID:17144907

  6. Modeling Parkinson's disease genetics: altered function of the dopamine system in Adh4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Belin, Andrea Carmine; Westerlund, Marie; Anvret, Anna; Lindqvist, Eva; Pernold, Karin; Ogren, Sven Ove; Duester, Gregg; Galter, Dagmar

    2011-03-01

    Class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH4) efficiently reduces aldehydes produced during lipid peroxidation, and may thus serve to protect from toxic effects of aldehydes e.g. on neurons. We hypothesized that ADH4 dysfunction may increase risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) and previously reported association of an ADH4 allele with PD. We found that a promoter polymorphism in this allele induced a 25-30% reduction of transcriptional activity. Based on these findings, we have now investigated whether Adh4 homo- (Adh4-/-) or heterozygous (Adh4+/-) knockout mice display any dopamine system-related changes in behavior, biochemical parameters or olfaction compared to wild-type mice. The spontaneous locomotor activity was found to be similar in the three groups, whereas administration of d-amphetamine or apomorphine induced a significant increase in horizontal activity in the Adh4-/- mice compared to wild-type mice. We measured levels of monoamines and their metabolites in striatum, frontal cortex and substantia nigra and found increased levels of dopamine and DOPAC in substantia nigra of Adh4-/- mice. Investigation of olfactory function revealed a reduced sense of smell in Adh4-/- mice accompanied by alterations in dopamine metabolite levels in the olfactory bulb. Taken together, our results suggest that lack of Adh4 gene activity induces changes in the function of the dopamine system, findings which are compatible with a role of loss-of-function mutations in ADH4 as possible risk factors for PD.

  7. Hepcidin-induced hypoferremia is a critical host defense mechanism against the siderophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Arezes, João; Jung, Grace; Gabayan, Victoria; Valore, Erika; Ruchala, Piotr; Gulig, Paul A; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Bulut, Yonca

    2015-01-14

    Hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disease caused by a deficiency in the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin, is associated with lethal infections by siderophilic bacteria. To elucidate the mechanisms of this susceptibility, we infected wild-type and hepcidin-deficient mice with the siderophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus and found that hepcidin deficiency results in increased bacteremia and decreased survival of infected mice, which can be partially ameliorated by dietary iron depletion. Additionally, timely administration of hepcidin agonists to hepcidin-deficient mice induces hypoferremia that decreases bacterial loads and rescues these mice from death, regardless of initial iron levels. Studies of Vibrio vulnificus growth ex vivo show that high iron sera from hepcidin-deficient mice support extraordinarily rapid bacterial growth and that this is inhibited in hypoferremic sera. Our findings demonstrate that hepcidin-mediated hypoferremia is a host defense mechanism against siderophilic pathogens and suggest that hepcidin agonists may improve infection outcomes in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis or thalassemia.

  8. Role of hepcidin in the setting of hypoferremia during acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Vaulont, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The anemia of chronic disease (also called anemia of inflammation) is an acquired disorder of iron homeostasis associated with infection, malignancy, organ failure, trauma, or other causes of inflammation. It is now widely accepted that induction of hepcidin expression in response to inflammation might explain the characteristic hypoferremia associated with this condition. To determine the role of hepcidin in acute inflammation and the regulation of its receptor, the iron exporter, ferroportin, wild-type, heterozygote and hepcidin knockout mice (Hepc-/-) were challenged with sublethal doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Six hours after injection, ferroportin mRNA and protein levels were assessed in the duodenum and the spleen and plasma iron was determined. Our results demonstrate that hepcidin is crucial, though not the sole mediator of LPS-mediated acute hypoferremia, and also that hepcidin major contribution relies on decreased ferroportin protein levels found in the spleen. Furthermore, we establish that LPS-mediated repression of the membrane iron transporter DMT1 and oxidoreductase Dcytb in the duodenum is independent of hepcidin. Finally, our results in the hepc+/- mice indicate that elevated hepcidin gene expression is not a prerequisite for the setting of hypoferremia during early inflammatory response, and they highlight the intimate crosstalk between inflammatory and iron-responsive pathways for the control of hepcidin.

  9. Intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain alters synaptic plasticity and dopamine release in rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Li; Song, Xiao-Jin; Ren, Jie; Ju, Li-Hua; Wang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of ouabain, a specific Na-K-ATPase inhibitor, in rats mimics the manic phenotypes of bipolar disorder and thus has been proposed as one of the best animal models of mania. Bipolar mania has been known to be associated with dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain area critically involved in mental functions; however, the exact mechanism underlying these dysfunctions is not yet clear. The present study investigated synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and dopamine release in Sprague-Dawley rat mPFC following ICV administration of ouabain (5 μl of 1 mM ouabain). The electrophysiological results demonstrated that ouabain depressed the short- and the long-term synaptic plasticity, represented by paired-pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, respectively, in the mPFC. These ouabain-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity can be prevented by pre-treatment with lithium (intraperitoneal injection of 47.5 mg/kg lithium, twice a day, 7 days), which acts as an effective mood stabilizer in preventing mania. The electrochemical results demonstrated that ICV administration of ouabain enhanced dopamine release in the mPFC, which did not be affected by pre-treatment with lithium. These findings suggested that alterations in synaptic plasticity and dopamine release in the mPFC might underlie the dysfunctions of mPFC accompanied with ouabain administration-induced bipolar mania.

  10. PINK1 heterozygous mutations induce subtle alterations in dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, G.; Schirinzi, T.; Martella, G.; Latagliata, E.C.; Puglisi, F.; Shen, J.; Valente, E.M.; Federici, M.; Mercuri, N.B.; Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are causative of autosomal recessive, early onset PD. Single heterozygous mutations have been repeatedly detected in a subset of patients as well as in non-affected subjects, and their significance has long been debated. Several neurophysiological studies from non-manifesting PINK1 heterozygotes have shown the existence of neural plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in the heterozygous state. Methods In the present study, we performed a functional analysis of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knock-out (PINK1+/−) mice by a multidisciplinary approach. Results We found that, despite a normal motor behavior, repetitive activation of cortical inputs to striatal neurons failed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas long-term depression (LTD) was normal. Although nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited normal morphological and electrophysiological properties with normal responses to dopamine receptor activation, we measured a significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum of PINK1+/−, compared to control mice, suggesting that a decrease in stimulus-evoked dopamine overflow acts as a major determinant for the LTP deficit. Accordingly, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the availability of dopamine in the synaptic cleft restored a normal LTP in heterozygous mice. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors rescued a physiological LTP and a normal dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence for striatal plasticity abnormalities even in the heterozygous disease state. These alterations might be considered an endophenotype to this monogenic form of PD, and a valid tool to characterize early disease stage and design possible disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24167038

  11. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo /sup 3/H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-04-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased /sup 3/H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous /sup 3/H-spiperone (/sup 3/H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound /sup 3/H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. /sup 3/H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by /sup 3/H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. /sup 3/H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of /sup 3/H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo.

  12. Dopamine Release and Uptake Impairments and Behavioral Alterations Observed in Mice that Model Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the relationship between amphetamine-induced behavioral alterations and dopamine release and uptake characteristics in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mice, which model fragile X syndrome. The behavioral analyses, obtained at millisecond temporal resolution and 2 mm spatial resolution using a force-plate actometer, revealed that Fmr1 KO mice express a lower degree of focused stereotypy compared with wild-type (WT) control mice after injection with 10 mg/kg (ip) amphetamine. To identify potentially related neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we measured electrically evoked dopamine release and uptake using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in striatal brain slices. At 10 weeks of age, dopamine release per pulse, which is dopamine release corrected for differences in uptake, was unchanged. However, at 15 (the age of behavioral testing) and 20 weeks of age, dopamine per pulse and the maximum rate of dopamine uptake was diminished in Fmr1 KO mice compared with WT mice. Dopamine uptake measurements, obtained at different amphetamine concentrations, indicated that dopamine transporters in both genotypes have equal affinities for amphetamine. Moreover, dopamine release measurements from slices treated with quinpirole, a D2-family receptor agonist, rule out enhanced D2 autoreceptor sensitivity as a mechanism of release inhibition. However, dopamine release, uncorrected for uptake and normalized against the corresponding predrug release peaks, increased in Fmr1 KO mice, but not in WT mice. Collectively, these data are consistent with a scenario in which a decrease in extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum result in diminished expression of focused stereotypy in Fmr1 KO mice. PMID:21116467

  13. Dopamine Release and Uptake Impairments and Behavioral Alterations Observed in Mice that Model Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fulks, Jenny L; O'Bryhim, Bliss E; Wenzel, Sara K; Fowler, Stephen C; Vorontsova, Elena; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ortiz, Andrea N; Johnson, Michael A

    2010-10-20

    In this study we evaluated the relationship between amphetamine-induced behavioral alterations and dopamine release and uptake characteristics in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mice, which model fragile X syndrome. The behavioral analyses, obtained at millisecond temporal resolution and 2 mm spatial resolution using a force-plate actometer, revealed that Fmr1 KO mice express a lower degree of focused stereotypy compared to wild type (WT) control mice after injection with 10 mg/kg (ip) amphetamine. To identify potentially related neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we measured electrically-evoked dopamine release and uptake using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in striatal brain slices. At 10 weeks of age, dopamine release per pulse, which is dopamine release corrected for differences in uptake, was unchanged. However, at 15 (the age of behavioral testing) and 20 weeks of age, dopamine per pulse and the maximum rate of dopamine uptake was diminished in Fmr1 KO mice compared to WT mice. Dopamine uptake measurements, obtained at different amphetamine concentrations, indicated that dopamine transporters in both genotypes have equal affinities for amphetamine. Moreover, dopamine release measurements from slices treated with quinpirole, a D2-family receptor agonist, rule out enhanced D2 autoreceptor sensitivity as a mechanism of release inhibition. However, dopamine release, uncorrected for uptake and normalized against the corresponding pre-drug release peaks, increased in Fmr1 KO mice, but not in WT mice. Collectively, these data are consistent with a scenario in which a decrease in extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum result in diminished expression of focused stereotypy in Fmr1 KO mice.

  14. SCH 23390 may alter dopamine-mediated motor behaviour via striatal D-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Boyce, S; Kelly, E; Davis, A; Fleminger, S; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1985-05-15

    SCH 23390 potently displaced the specific binding of 3H-piflutixol to D-1 sites in striatal membranes but haloperidol was only weakly effective. SCH 23390 weakly displaced specific 3H-spiperone binding to D-2 sites, but haloperidol was potent. SCH 23390 was more effective than haloperidol in inhibiting dopamine stimulated striatal adenylate cyclase activity. These results confirm the D-1 selectivity of SCH 23390. However, SCH 23390 inhibited apomorphine-induced stereotypy and climbing behaviour in rats with equal potency to haloperidol. Haloperidol dose-dependently increased striatal HVA and DOPAC concentrations without altering dopamine content. Low doses of SCH 23390 elevated striatal DOPAC concentrations but higher doses were without effect; striatal dopamine and HVA overall was unaffected by administration of SCH 23390. Haloperidol did not affect basal 3H-acetylcholine release from striatal slices but reversed the apomorphine-induced inhibition of 3H-acetylcholine release. SCH 23390 did not affect basal 3H-acetylcholine release nor did it reverse the apomorphine-induced inhibition of 3H-acetylcholine release. The ability of SCH 23390 to inhibit motor behaviour in the rat may be due to its action on D-1 receptors since the drug does not cause typical changes in parameters of striatal D-2 receptor function.

  15. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Responses to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Fordahl, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    , the dopamine transporter (DAT). Preclinical literature has shown that reduced cocaine potency at the DAT increases cocaine taking, highlighting the key role of tolerance in addiction. Addiction is characterized by cycles of abstinence, often for many months, followed by relapse, making it important to determine possible interactions between abstinence and subsequent drug re-exposure. Using a rodent model of cocaine abuse, we found long-lasting, possibly permanent, cocaine-induced alterations to the DAT, whereby cocaine tolerance is reinstated by minimal drug exposure, even after recovery of DAT function over prolonged abstinence periods. PMID:27466327

  16. Modafinil evokes striatal [(3)H]dopamine release and alters the subjective properties of stimulants.

    PubMed

    Dopheide, Marsha M; Morgan, Russell E; Rodvelt, Kelli R; Schachtman, Todd R; Miller, Dennis K

    2007-07-30

    Modafinil is a mild psychostimulant used for the treatment of sleep and arousal-related disorders, and has been considered a pharmacotherapy for cocaine and amphetamine dependence; however, modafinil's mechanism of action is largely unclear. The present study investigated modafinil using drug discrimination and slice superfusion techniques. Rats were trained to discriminate cocaine (1.6 or 5 mg/kg) or amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg) from saline injection for food reinforcement. Modafinil (64-128 mg/kg) substituted partially for both cocaine doses and amphetamine. Pretreatment with a lower modafinil dose (32 mg/kg) augmented the discriminative stimulus properties of cocaine (1.6 mg/kg dose group) and amphetamine. In neurochemical experiments, modafinil (100-300 microM) evoked [(3)H]overflow from rat striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]dopamine in a concentration-dependent manner; however, modafinil was less potent and efficacious than amphetamine and nicotine. The dopamine transporter inhibitor nomifensine (10 microM) blocked modafinil-evoked [(3)H]overflow, and concentrations of modafinil (<100 microM) that did not have intrinsic activity attenuated amphetamine (1 and 3 microM)-evoked [(3)H]overflow. Modafinil-evoked [(3)H]overflow was not altered by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and modafinil did not alter nicotine-evoked [(3)H]overflow, indicating that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors likely are not important for modafinil's mechanism of action. The present results indicate that modafinil evokes dopamine release from striatal neurons and is a psychostimulant that is pharmacologically similar to, but much less potent and efficacious than, amphetamine.

  17. Early Antipsychotic Treatment in Juvenile Rats Elicits Long-Term Alterations to the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Michael; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-11-22

    Prescription of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to children has substantially increased in recent years. Whilst current investigations into potential long-term effects have uncovered some alterations to adult behaviours, further investigations into potential changes to neurotransmitter systems are required. The current study investigated potential long-term changes to the adult dopamine (DA) system following aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone treatment in female and male juvenile rats. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphorylated-TH (p-TH), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and D₁ and D₂ receptors were measured via Western blot and/or receptor autoradiography. Aripiprazole decreased TH and D₁ receptor levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and p-TH levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of females, whilst TH levels decreased in the PFC of males. Olanzapine decreased PFC p-TH levels and increased D₂ receptor expression in the PFC and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in females only. Additionally, risperidone treatment increased D₁ receptor levels in the hippocampus of females, whilst, in males, p-TH levels increased in the PFC and hippocampus, D₁ receptor expression decreased in the NAc, and DAT levels decreased in the caudate putamen (CPu), and elevated in the VTA. These results suggest that early treatment with various APDs can cause different long-term alterations in the adult brain, across both treatment groups and genders.

  18. Early life experience alters behavioral responses to sweet food and accumbal dopamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Silveira, P P; Portella, A K; Assis, S A C N; Nieto, F B; Diehl, L A; Crema, L M; Peres, W; Costa, G; Scorza, C; Quillfeldt, J A; Lucion, A B; Dalmaz, C

    2010-02-01

    Neonatal handling in rats persistently alters behavioral parameters and responses to stress. Such animals eat more sweet food in adult life, without alterations in lab chow ingestion. Here, we show that neonatally handled rats display greater incentive salience to a sweet reward in a runway test; however they are less prone to conditioned place preference and show less positive hedonic reactions to sweet food. When injected with methylphenidate (a dopamine mimetic agent), non-handled rats increase their sweet food ingestion in the fasted state, while neonatally handled rats do not respond. We did not observe any differences regarding baseline general ambulatory activity between the groups. A lower dopamine metabolism in the nucleus accumbens was observed in handled animals, without differences in norepinephrine content. We suggest that early handling leads to a particular response to positive reinforcers such as palatable food, in a very peculiar fashion of higher ingestion but lower hedonic impact, as well as higher incentive salience, but diminished dopaminergic metabolism in the nucleus accumbens. Copyright 2009 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Antipsychotic Treatment in Juvenile Rats Elicits Long-Term Alterations to the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Michael; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Prescription of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to children has substantially increased in recent years. Whilst current investigations into potential long-term effects have uncovered some alterations to adult behaviours, further investigations into potential changes to neurotransmitter systems are required. The current study investigated potential long-term changes to the adult dopamine (DA) system following aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone treatment in female and male juvenile rats. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphorylated-TH (p-TH), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and D1 and D2 receptors were measured via Western blot and/or receptor autoradiography. Aripiprazole decreased TH and D1 receptor levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and p-TH levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of females, whilst TH levels decreased in the PFC of males. Olanzapine decreased PFC p-TH levels and increased D2 receptor expression in the PFC and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in females only. Additionally, risperidone treatment increased D1 receptor levels in the hippocampus of females, whilst, in males, p-TH levels increased in the PFC and hippocampus, D1 receptor expression decreased in the NAc, and DAT levels decreased in the caudate putamen (CPu), and elevated in the VTA. These results suggest that early treatment with various APDs can cause different long-term alterations in the adult brain, across both treatment groups and genders. PMID:27879654

  20. LRRK2 overexpression alters glutamatergic presynaptic plasticity, striatal dopamine tone, postsynaptic signal transduction, motor activity and memory.

    PubMed

    Beccano-Kelly, Dayne A; Volta, Mattia; Munsie, Lise N; Paschall, Sarah A; Tatarnikov, Igor; Co, Kimberley; Chou, Patrick; Cao, Li-Ping; Bergeron, Sabrina; Mitchell, Emma; Han, Heather; Melrose, Heather L; Tapia, Lucia; Raymond, Lynn A; Farrer, Matthew J; Milnerwood, Austen J

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (Lrrk2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder affecting 1-2% of those >65 years old. The neurophysiology of LRRK2 remains largely elusive, although protein loss suggests a role in glutamatergic synapse transmission and overexpression studies show altered dopamine release in aged mice. We show that glutamate transmission is unaltered onto striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of adult LRRK2 knockout mice and that adult animals exhibit no detectable cognitive or motor deficits. Basal synaptic transmission is also unaltered in SPNs of LRRK2 overexpressing mice, but they do exhibit clear alterations to D2-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity, behavioral hypoactivity and impaired recognition memory. These phenomena are associated with decreased striatal dopamine tone and abnormal dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kDa signal integration. The data suggest that LRRK2 acts at the nexus of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the adult striatum, where it regulates dopamine levels, presynaptic glutamate release via D2-dependent synaptic plasticity and dopamine-receptor signal transduction.

  1. Neonatal excitotoxic ventral hippocampal damage alters dopamine response to mild repeated stress and to chronic haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Lipska, B K; Chrapusta, S J; Egan, M F; Weinberger, D R

    1995-06-01

    The effects of neonatal excitotoxic ventral hippocampus (VH) lesions on dopamine release in response to repeated stress (saline injections) and to chronic haloperidol treatment were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats infused with ibotenic acid or vehicle into the VH on day 7 of postnatal life (PD7). Beginning on PD35, lesioned and sham-operated rats were injected i.p. with saline (INJ) once daily for 3 weeks or were not treated (NO INJ). Another cohort of rats was given haloperidol (HAL, 0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle beginning on PD35 and thereafter once daily for 3 weeks. 3-Methoxytyramine (3-MT) was measured by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the frontal cortex (FC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and striatum (STR) at PD56 following MAO inhibition with pargyline. At baseline (NO INJ), 3-MT was reduced in STR of lesioned rats. Repeated saline injections resulted in a further 3-MT reduction in STR, FC, and NAcc of lesioned animals, but had no effect in sham rats. Chronic HAL, compared with vehicle, suppressed locomotor activity, and increased 3-MT accumulation in the FC, NAcc, and STR in sham and lesioned rats. This increase was enhanced in the FC of lesioned rats. These data show that mild repeated stress attenuates dopamine release in FC, NAcc, and STR of lesioned rats, while chronic HAL augments it in FC of lesioned animals versus controls. We conclude that the neonatal excitotoxic lesion of VH alters the functioning of midbrain dopamine systems during environmental and pharmacological challenge.

  2. Maternal cannabis use alters ventral striatal dopamine D2 gene regulation in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    DiNieri, Jennifer A; Wang, Xinyu; Szutorisz, Henrietta; Spano, Sabrina M; Kaur, Jasbir; Casaccia, Patrizia; Dow-Edwards, Diana; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2011-01-01

    Background Prenatal cannabis exposure has been linked to addiction vulnerability, but the neurobiology underlying this risk is unknown. Methods Striatal dopamine and opioid-related genes were studied in human fetal subjects exposed to cannabis (as well as cigarettes and alcohol). Cannabis-related gene disturbances observed in the human fetus were subsequently characterized using an animal model of prenatal delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 0.15 mg/kg) exposure. Results Prenatal cannabis exposure decreased dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) mRNA expression in the human ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens; NAc), a key brain reward region. No significant alterations were observed for the other genes in cannabis-exposed subjects. Maternal cigarette use was associated with reduced NAc prodynorphin mRNA expression and alcohol exposure induced broad alterations primarily in the dorsal striatum of most genes. To explore the mechanisms underlying the cannabis-associated disturbances, we exposed pregnant rats to THC and examined the epigenetic regulation of the NAc Drd2 gene in their offspring at postnatal day 2, comparable to the human fetal period studied, and in adulthood. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of the adult NAc revealed increased 2meH3K9 repressive mark and decreased 3meH3K4 and RNA polymerase II at the Drd2 gene locus in the THC-exposed offspring. Decreased Drd2 expression was accompanied by reduced D2R binding sites and increased sensitivity to opiate reward in adulthood. Conclusions These data suggest that maternal cannabis use alters developmental regulation of mesolimbic D2R in offspring through epigenetic mechanisms that regulate histone lysine methylation, and the ensuing reduction of D2R may contribute to addiction vulnerability later in life. PMID:21820648

  3. Expression of human dopamine receptor in potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in altered tuber carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Skirycz, Aleksandra; Swiedrych, Anna; Szopa, Jan

    2005-02-09

    Even though the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine) have been detected in plants their role is poorly documented. Correlations between norepinephrine, soluble sugars and starch concentration have been recently reported for potato plants over-expressing tyrosine decarboxylase, the enzyme mediating the first step of catecholamine synthesis. More recently norepinephrine level was shown to significantly increase after osmotic stress, abscisic acid treatment and wounding. Therefore, it is possible that catecholamines might play a role in plant stress responses by modulating primary carbon metabolism, possibly by a mechanism similar to that in animal cells. Since to date no catecholamine receptor has been identified in plants we transformed potato plants with a cDNA encoding human dopamine receptor (HD1). Tuber analysis of transgenic plants revealed changes in the activities of key enzymes mediating sucrose to starch conversion (ADP-glucose phosphorylase and sucrose synthase) and sucrose synthesis (sucrose phosphate synthase) leading to altered content of both soluble sugars and starch. Surprisingly the catecholamine level measured in transgenic plants was significantly increased; the reason for this is as yet unknown. However the presence of the receptor affected a broader range of enzyme activities than those affected by the massive accumulation of norepinephrine reported for plants over-expressing tyrosine decarboxylase. Therefore, it is suggested that the presence of the exogenous receptor activates catecholamine cAMP signalling in plants. Our data support the possible involvement of catecholamines in regulating plant carbon metabolism via cAMP signalling pathway.

  4. Hepcidin-Induced Hypoferremia Is a Critical Host Defense Mechanism Against the Siderophilic Bacterium Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Arezes, João; Jung, Grace; Gabayan, Victoria; Valore, Erika; Ruchala, Piotr; Gulig, Paul A.; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Bulut, Yonca

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disease caused by a deficiency in the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin, is associated with lethal infections by siderophilic bacteria. To elucidate the mechanisms of this susceptibility, we infected wild-type and hepcidin-deficient mice with the siderophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus, and found that hepcidin deficiency results in increased bacteremia and decreased survival of infected mice, which can be partially ameliorated by dietary iron depletion. Additionally, timely administration of hepcidin agonists to hepcidin-deficient mice induces hypoferremia that decreases bacterial loads and rescues these mice from death, regardless of initial iron levels. Studies of Vibrio vulnificus growth ex vivo show that high iron sera from hepcidin-deficient mice support extraordinarily rapid bacterial growth, and that this is inhibited in hypoferremic sera. Our findings demonstrate that hepcidin-mediated hypoferremia is a host defense mechanism against siderophilic pathogens and suggest that hepcidin agonists may improve infection outcomes in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis or thalassemia. PMID:25590758

  5. High-fat diet alters the dopamine and opioid systems: effects across development

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, T M

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet has been linked to obesity, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Less well appreciated are adverse effects on the brain and behavior. Recent research has shown that consumption of a high-fat diet can alter gene expression within the brain, and the dopamine and opioid neurotransmitter systems appear to be vulnerable to dysregulation. This review will focus on recent reports in both humans and animal models that describe adverse effects of high-fat diet consumption on the central reward circuitry. In addition, the importance of different development windows will be discussed, with effects observed in both the prenatal/perinatal time period and with chronic high-fat diet consumption in adulthood. PMID:27152150

  6. Altered striatal function in a mutant mouse lacking D1A dopamine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Drago, J; Gerfen, C R; Lachowicz, J E; Steiner, H; Hollon, T R; Love, P E; Ooi, G T; Grinberg, A; Lee, E J; Huang, S P

    1994-01-01

    Of the five known dopamine receptors, D1A and D2 represent the major subtypes expressed in the striatum of the adult brain. Within the striatum, these two subtypes are differentially distributed in the two main neuronal populations that provide direct and indirect pathways between the striatum and the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. Movement disorders, including Parkinson disease and various dystonias, are thought to result from imbalanced activity in these pathways. Dopamine regulates movement through its differential effects on D1A receptors expressed by direct output neurons and D2 receptors expressed by indirect output neurons. To further examine the interaction of D1A and D2 neuronal pathways in the striatum, we used homologous recombination to generate mutant mice lacking functional D1A receptors (D1A-/-). D1A-/- mutants are growth retarded and die shortly after weaning age unless their diet is supplemented with hydrated food. With such treatment the mice gain weight and survive to adulthood. Neurologically, D1A-/- mice exhibit normal coordination and locomotion, although they display a significant decrease in rearing behavior. Examination of the striatum revealed changes associated with the altered phenotype of these mutants. D1A receptor binding was absent in striatal sections from D1A-/- mice. Striatal neurons normally expressing functional D1A receptors are formed and persist in adult homozygous mutants. Moreover, substance P mRNA, which is colocalized specifically in striatal neurons with D1A receptors, is expressed at a reduced level. In contrast, levels of enkephalin mRNA, which is expressed in striatal neurons with D2 receptors, are unaffected. These findings show that D1A-/- mice exhibit selective functional alterations in the striatal neurons giving rise to the direct striatal output pathway. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7809078

  7. Alterations in striatal dopamine catabolism precede loss of substantia nigra neurons in a mouse model of Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Jill M.; Benedict, Jared W.; Elshatory, Yasser M.; Short, Douglas W.; Ramirez-Montealegre, Denia; Ryan, Deborah A.; Alexander, Noreen A.; Federoff, Howard J.; Cooper, Jonathan D.; Pearce, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Batten disease, or juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), results from mutations in the CLN3 gene. This disorder presents clinically around the age of five years with visual deficits progressing to include seizures, cognitive impairment, motor deterioration, hallucinations, and premature death by the third to forth decade of life. The motor deficits include coordination and gait abnormalities, myoclonic jerks, inability to initiate movements, and spasticity. Previous work from our laboratory has identified an early reduction in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme responsible for the efficient degradation of dopamine. Alterations in the kinetics of dopamine metabolism could cause the accumulation of undegraded or unsequestered dopamine leading to the formation of toxic dopamine intermediates. We report an imbalance in the catabolism of dopamine in three month Cln3-/- mice persisting through nine months of age that may be causal to oxidative damage within the striatum at nine months of age. Combined with the previously reported inflammatory changes and loss of post-synaptic D1α receptors, this could facilitate cell loss in striatal projection regions and underlie a general locomotion deficit that becomes apparent at twelve months of age in Cln3-/- mice. This study provides evidence for early changes in the kinetics of COMT in the Cln3-/- mouse striatum, affecting the turnover of dopamine, likely leading to neuron loss and motor deficits. These data provide novel insights into the basis of motor deficits in JNCL and how alterations in dopamine catabolism may result in oxidative damage and localized neuronal loss in this disorder. PMID:17617387

  8. Developmental exposure to the pesticide dieldrin alters the dopamine system and increases neurotoxicity in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Caudle, W Michael; Wang, Minzheng; Dean, E Danielle; Pennell, Kurt D; Miller, Gary W

    2006-08-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms responsible for this association are not clear. Here, we report that perinatal exposure of mice during gestation and lactation to low levels of dieldrin (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg every 3 days) alters dopaminergic neurochemistry in their offspring and exacerbates MPTP toxicity. At 12 wk of age, protein and mRNA levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were increased by perinatal dieldrin exposure in a dose-related manner. We then administered MPTP (2 x 10 mg/kg s.c) at 12 wk of age and observed a greater reduction of striatal dopamine in dieldrin-exposed offspring, which was associated with a greater DAT:VMAT2 ratio. Additionally, dieldrin exposure during development potentiated the increase in GFAP and alpha-synuclein levels induced by MPTP, indicating increased neurotoxicity. In all cases there were greater effects observed in the male offspring than the female, similar to that observed in human cases of PD. These data suggest that developmental exposure to dieldrin leads to persistent alterations of the developing dopaminergic system and that these alterations induce a "silent" state of dopamine dysfunction, thereby rendering dopamine neurons more vulnerable later in life.

  9. Altered Dopamine Modulation of Inhibition in the Prefrontal Cortex of Cocaine-Sensitized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kroener, Sven; Lavin, Antonieta

    2010-01-01

    A functionally hypoactive prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to contribute to decreased cognitive inhibitory control over drug-seeking behavior in cocaine addicts. Alterations in PFC dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission are involved in the development of behavioral sensitization to cocaine, and repeated exposure to cocaine decreases DA D2 receptor (D2R) function in the PFC. We used recordings in PFC slices from adult rats to investigate how repeated cocaine treatment followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal affects DA modulation of GABA transmission and interneuron firing. In agreement with previous results in drug-naïve animals we found that in saline-treated control animals DA (20 μM) modulated evoked inhibitory post-synaptic currents (eIPSCs) in a biphasic, time- and receptor-dependent manner. Activation of D2Rs transiently reduced, whereas D1 receptor activation persistently increased the amplitude of eIPSCs. In cocaine-sensitized animals the D2R-dependent modulation of eIPSCs was abolished and the time course of DA effects was altered. In both saline- and cocaine-treated animals the effects of DA on eIPSCs were paralleled by distinct changes in spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs). In cocaine-treated animals the alterations in DA modulation of eIPSCs and sIPSCs correlated with a lack of D2R-specific reduction in action potential-independent GABA release, which might normally oppose D1-dependent increases in GABA transmission. Recordings from interneurons furthermore show that D2R activation can increase current-evoked spike firing in saline, but not in cocaine-treated animals. Altered DA regulation of inhibition during cocaine withdrawal could disturb normal cortical processing and contribute to a hypoactive PFC. PMID:20664581

  10. Altered dopamine modulation of inhibition in the prefrontal cortex of cocaine-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Kroener, Sven; Lavin, Antonieta

    2010-10-01

    A functionally hypoactive prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to contribute to decreased cognitive inhibitory control over drug-seeking behavior in cocaine addicts. Alterations in PFC dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission are involved in the development of behavioral sensitization to cocaine, and repeated exposure to cocaine decreases DA D2 receptor (D2R) function in the PFC. We used recordings in PFC slices from adult rats to investigate how repeated cocaine treatment followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal affects DA modulation of GABA transmission and interneuron firing. In agreement with previous results in drug-naïve animals we found that in saline-treated control animals DA (20 μM) modulated evoked inhibitory post-synaptic currents (eIPSCs) in a biphasic, time- and receptor-dependent manner. Activation of D2Rs transiently reduced, whereas D1 receptor activation persistently increased the amplitude of eIPSCs. In cocaine-sensitized animals the D2R-dependent modulation of eIPSCs was abolished and the time course of DA effects was altered. In both saline- and cocaine-treated animals the effects of DA on eIPSCs were paralleled by distinct changes in spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs). In cocaine-treated animals the alterations in DA modulation of eIPSCs and sIPSCs correlated with a lack of D2R-specific reduction in action potential-independent GABA release, which might normally oppose D1-dependent increases in GABA transmission. Recordings from interneurons furthermore show that D2R activation can increase current-evoked spike firing in saline, but not in cocaine-treated animals. Altered DA regulation of inhibition during cocaine withdrawal could disturb normal cortical processing and contribute to a hypoactive PFC.

  11. Dopamine depletion impairs gait automaticity by altering cortico-striatal and cerebellar processing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gilat, Moran; Bell, Peter T; Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Georgiades, Matthew J; Hall, Julie M; Walton, Courtney C; Lewis, Simon J G; Shine, James M

    2017-03-03

    -scale network interactions during gait. A main effect of medication was found for functional connectivity within an attentional motor network and a significant condition by medication interaction for functional connectivity was found within the striatum. Furthermore, functional connectivity within the striatum correlated strongly with increasing step time variability during walk in the off state (r=0.616, p=0.002), but not in the on state (r=-0.233, p=0.284). Post-hoc analyses revealed that functional connectivity in the dopamine depleted state within an orbitofrontal-striatal limbic circuit was correlated with worse step time variability (r=0.653, p<0.001). Overall, this study demonstrates that dopamine ameliorates gait automaticity in Parkinson's disease by altering striatal, limbic and cerebellar processing, thereby informing future therapeutic avenues for gait and falls prevention.

  12. Chronic Back Pain Is Associated with Alterations in Dopamine Neurotransmission in the Ventral Striatum.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Ilkka K; Nuechterlein, Emily B; Peciña, Marta; Love, Tiffany M; Cummiford, Chelsea M; Green, Carmen R; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2015-07-08

    Back pain is common in the general population, but only a subgroup of back pain patients develops a disabling chronic pain state. The reasons for this are incompletely understood, but recent evidence implies that both preexisting and pain-related variations in the structure and function of the nervous system may contribute significantly to the development of chronic pain. Here, we addressed the role of striatal dopamine (DA) D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) function in chronic non-neuropathic back pain (CNBP) by comparing CNBP patients and healthy controls using PET and the D2/D3R-selective radioligand [(11)C]raclopride. D2/D3R availability was measured at baseline and during a pain challenge, yielding in vivo measures of receptor availability (binding potential, BPND) and DA release (change in BPND from baseline to activated state). At baseline, CNBP patients demonstrated reductions in D2/D3R BPND in the ventral striatum compared with controls. These reductions were associated with greater positive affect scores and pain tolerance measures. The reductions in D2/D3R BPND were also correlated with μ-opioid receptor BPND and pain-induced endogenous opioid system activation in the amygdala, further associated with measures of positive affect, the affective component of back pain and pain tolerance. During the pain challenge, lower magnitudes of DA release, and therefore D2/D3R activation, were also found in the ventral striatum in the CNBP sample compared with controls. Our results show that CNBP is associated with adaptations in ventral striatal D2/D3R function, which, together with endogenous opioid system function, contribute to the sensory and affective-motivational features of CNBP. The neural systems that underlie chronic pain remain poorly understood. Here, using PET, we provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that regulate sensory and affective dimensions of pain in chronic back pain patients. We found that patients with back pain have alterations in brain

  13. Dopamine D2 receptor over-expression alters behavior and physiology in Drd2-EGFP mice

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Paul F.; Christensen, Christine H.; Hazelwood, Lisa A.; Dobi, Alice; Bock, Roland; Sibley, David R.; Mateo, Yolanda; Alvarez, Veronica A.

    2011-01-01

    BAC transgenic mice expressing the fluorescent reporter protein EGFP under the control of the D1 and D2 dopamine receptor promoters (Drd1-EGFP and Drd2-EGFP) have been widely used to study striatal function and have contributed to our understanding of the physiological and pathological function of the basal ganglia. These tools were produced and promptly made available to address questions in a cell-specific manner that has transformed the way we frame hypotheses in neuroscience. However, these mice have not been fully characterized until now. We found that Drd2-EGFP mice display a ~40% increase in membrane expression of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and a two-fold increase in D2R mRNA levels in the striatum when compared to wild-type and Drd1-EGFP mice D2R over-expression was accompanied by behavioral hypersensitivity to D2R-like agonists, as well as enhanced electrophysiological responses to D2R activation in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. DA transients evoked by stimulation in the nucleus accumbens showed slower clearance in Drd2-EGFP mice and cocaine actions on DA clearance were impaired in these mice. Thus, it was not surprising to find that Drd2-EGFP mice were hyperactive when exposed to a novel environment and locomotion was suppressed by acute cocaine administration. All together, this study demonstrates that Drd2-EGFP mice over-express D2R and have altered dopaminergic signaling that fundamentally differentiates them from wild-type and Drd1-EGFP mice. PMID:21209197

  14. Altered Dopamine and Serotonin Metabolism in Motorically Asymptomatic R6/2 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mochel, Fanny; Durant, Brandon; Durr, Alexandra; Schiffmann, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    The pattern of cerebral dopamine (DA) abnormalities in Huntington disease (HD) is complex, as reflected by the variable clinical benefit of both DA antagonists and agonists in treating HD symptoms. In addition, little is known about serotonin metabolism despite the early occurrence of anxiety and depression in HD. Post-mortem enzymatic changes are likely to interfere with the in vivo profile of biogenic amines. Hence, in order to reliably characterize the regional and chronological profile of brain neurotransmitters in a HD mouse model, we used a microwave fixation system that preserves in vivo concentrations of dopaminergic and serotoninergic amines. DA was decreased in the striatum of R6/2 mice at 8 and 12 weeks of age while DA metabolites, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid, were already significantly reduced in 4-week-old motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice. In the striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex of 4, 8 and 12-week-old R6/2 mice, serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased in association with a decreased turnover of serotonin. In addition, automated high-resolution behavioural analyses displayed stress-like behaviours such as jumping and grooming and altered spatial learning in R6/2 mice at age 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Therefore, we describe the earliest alterations of DA and serotonin metabolism in a HD murine model. Our findings likely underpin the neuropsychological symptoms at time of disease onset in HD. PMID:21483838

  15. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens is altered following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Hao; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Kuo, Tung-Tai; Hoffer, Barry J; Miller, Jonathan; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao

    2017-04-21

    Mild-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently associated with prolonged dysfunction of reward circuitry, including motivation and salience, which suggests alterations of dopamine (DA) processing within the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAC). Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury, we found that stimulus-evoked DA release is distinct in the core and shell of the NAC, with the shell being less responsive to tonic stimulation and more sensitive to the number of pulses when phasic stimulation is applied. Exposure to TBI was associated with major changes in both release and reuptake of DA in both the core and shell of NAC, with greater changes seen in the core. These alterations evolved over time, becoming most severe 1-2weeks after injury with subsequent recovery, and the extent and progression of these abnormalities was correlated with severity of injury. Taken together, these data support behavior and anatomical studies suggesting the NAC core and striatum may subserve parallel functions, whereas the shell is distinct. These data offer a unique window on how different neurological systems respond to TBI and may help explain affective and cognitive changes that are seen.

  16. Arsenic exposure in drinking water alters the dopamine system in the brains of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Seo, Sangwook; Sung, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kisok

    2014-12-01

    Although exposure to arsenic (As) induces neurotoxic changes, there is a lack of data regarding its specific effects on neurotransmission, particularly dopaminergic neurotransmission. In this study, the dopamine content and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine receptors (DRs) were examined in the striatum and cerebral cortex of the mouse brain following the administration of As (1-100 mg/L NaAsO2 in drinking water). After 3 weeks, significantly decreased TH expression and dopamine content, both in the striatum and the cerebral cortex of mice treated with 100 mg/L As, were observed when compared with controls. Although DR expression was similar in the cerebral cortex of As-treated mice, DRD1 to DRD4 expression significantly increased in the striatum of 100 mg/L As-exposed mice. These data indicate that altered dopaminergic neurotransmission may contribute to As-induced neurotoxic effects.

  17. Glutamate Counteracts Dopamine/PKA Signaling via Dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 Ser-97 and Alteration of Its Cytonuclear Distribution.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akinori; Matamales, Miriam; Musante, Veronica; Valjent, Emmanuel; Kuroiwa, Mahomi; Kitahara, Yosuke; Rebholz, Heike; Greengard, Paul; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Nairn, Angus C

    2017-01-27

    The interaction of glutamate and dopamine in the striatum is heavily dependent on signaling pathways that converge on the regulatory protein DARPP-32. The efficacy of dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling is regulated by DARPP-32 phosphorylated at Thr-34 (the PKA site), a process that inhibits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and potentiates PKA action. Activation of dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling also leads to dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 (the CK2 site), leading to localization of phospho-Thr-34 DARPP-32 in the nucleus where it also inhibits PP1. In this study the role of glutamate in the regulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation at four major sites was further investigated. Experiments using striatal slices revealed that glutamate decreased the phosphorylation states of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 as well as Thr-34, Thr-75, and Ser-130 by activating NMDA or AMPA receptors in both direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons. The effect of glutamate in decreasing Ser-97 phosphorylation was mediated by activation of PP2A. In vitro phosphatase assays indicated that the PP2A/PR72 heterotrimer complex was likely responsible for glutamate/Ca(2+)-regulated dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser-97. As a consequence of Ser-97 dephosphorylation, glutamate induced the nuclear localization in cultured striatal neurons of dephospho-Thr-34/dephospho-Ser-97 DARPP-32. It also reduced PKA-dependent DARPP-32 signaling in slices and in vivo Taken together, the results suggest that by inducing dephosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser-97 and altering its cytonuclear distribution, glutamate may counteract dopamine/D1 receptor/PKA signaling at multiple cellular levels.

  18. Adolescent binge-like alcohol alters sensitivity to acute alcohol effects on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Shnitko, Tatiana A.; Spear, Linda P.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Early onset of alcohol drinking has been associated with alcohol abuse in adulthood. The neurobiology of this phenomenon is unclear, but mesolimbic dopamine pathways, which are dynamic during adolescence, may play a role. Objectives We investigated the impact of adolescent binge-like alcohol on phasic dopaminergic neurotransmission during adulthood. Methods Rats received intermittent intragastric ethanol, water or nothing during adolescence. In adulthood, electrically-evoked dopamine release and subsequent uptake were measured in the nucleus accumbens core at baseline and after acute challenge of ethanol or saline. Results Adolescent ethanol exposure did not alter basal measures of evoked dopamine release or uptake. Ethanol challenge dose-dependently decreased the amplitude of evoked dopamine release in rats by 30–50% in control groups, as previously reported, but did not alter evoked release in ethanol-exposed animals. To address the mechanism by which ethanol altered dopamine signaling, the evoked signals were modeled to estimate dopamine efflux per impulse and the velocity of the dopamine transporter. Dopamine uptake was slower in all exposure groups after ethanol challenge compared to saline, while dopamine efflux per pulse of electrical stimulation was reduced by ethanol only in ethanol-naive rats. Conclusions The results demonstrate that exposure to binge levels of ethanol during adolescence blunts the effect of ethanol challenge to reduce the amplitude of phasic dopamine release in adulthood. Large dopamine transients may result in more extracellular dopamine after alcohol challenge in adolescent-exposed rats, and may be one mechanism by which alcohol is more reinforcing in people who initiated drinking at an early age. PMID:26487039

  19. Dampened Amphetamine-Stimulated Behavior and Altered Dopamine Transporter Function in the Absence of Brain GDNF.

    PubMed

    Kopra, Jaakko J; Panhelainen, Anne; Af Bjerkén, Sara; Porokuokka, Lauriina L; Varendi, Kärt; Olfat, Soophie; Montonen, Heidi; Piepponen, T Petteri; Saarma, Mart; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle

    2017-02-08

    Midbrain dopamine neuron dysfunction contributes to various psychiatric and neurological diseases, including drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. Because of its well established dopaminotrophic effects, the therapeutic potential of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been studied extensively in various disorders with disturbed dopamine homeostasis. However, the outcomes from preclinical and clinical studies vary, highlighting a need for a better understanding of the physiological role of GDNF on striatal dopaminergic function. Nevertheless, the current lack of appropriate animal models has limited this understanding. Therefore, we have generated novel mouse models to study conditional Gdnf deletion in the CNS during embryonic development and reduction of striatal GDNF levels in adult mice via AAV-Cre delivery. We found that both of these mice have reduced amphetamine-induced locomotor response and striatal dopamine efflux. Embryonic GDNF deletion in the CNS did not affect striatal dopamine levels or dopamine release, but dopamine reuptake was increased due to increased levels of both total and synaptic membrane-associated dopamine transporters. Collectively, these results suggest that endogenous GDNF plays an important role in regulating the function of dopamine transporters in the striatum.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Delivery of ectopic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes the function, plasticity, and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, the dysfunction of which contributes to various neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, how the deletion or reduction of GDNF in the CNS affects the function of dopaminergic neurons has remained unknown. Using conditional Gdnf knock-out mice, we found that endogenous GDNF affects striatal dopamine homeostasis and regulates amphetamine-induced behaviors by regulating the level and function of dopamine transporters. These data regarding the physiological role of GDNF are

  20. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Insulin resistance in brain alters dopamine turnover and causes behavioral disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kleinridders, Andre; Cai, Weikang; Cappellucci, Laura; Ghazarian, Armen; Collins, William R.; Vienberg, Sara G.; Pothos, Emmanuel N.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and insulin resistance are associated with altered brain imaging, depression, and increased rates of age-related cognitive impairment. Here we demonstrate that mice with a brain-specific knockout of the insulin receptor (NIRKO mice) exhibit brain mitochondrial dysfunction with reduced mitochondrial oxidative activity, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, and increased levels of lipid and protein oxidation in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. NIRKO mice also exhibit increased levels of monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO A and B) leading to increased dopamine turnover in these areas. Studies in cultured neurons and glia cells indicate that these changes in MAO A and B are a direct consequence of loss of insulin signaling. As a result, NIRKO mice develop age-related anxiety and depressive-like behaviors that can be reversed by treatment with MAO inhibitors, as well as the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, which inhibits MAO activity and reduces oxidative stress. Thus, insulin resistance in brain induces mitochondrial and dopaminergic dysfunction leading to anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, demonstrating a potential molecular link between central insulin resistance and behavioral disorders. PMID:25733901

  2. Altered dopamine transporter function and phosphorylation following chronic cocaine self-administration and extinction in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Samuvel, Devadoss J; Balasubramaniam, Annamalai; See, Ronald E; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D

    2010-01-15

    Cocaine binds with the dopamine transporter (DAT), an effect that has been extensively implicated in its reinforcing effects. However, persisting adaptations in DAT regulation after cocaine self-administration have not been extensively investigated. Here, we determined the changes in molecular mechanisms of DAT regulation in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of rats with a history of cocaine self-administration, followed by 3weeks of withdrawal under extinction conditions (i.e., no cocaine available). DA uptake was significantly higher in the CPu of cocaine-experienced animals as compared to saline-yoked controls. DAT V(max) was elevated in the CPu without changes in apparent affinity for DA. In spite of elevated CPu DAT activity, total and surface DAT density and DAT-PP2Ac (protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit) interaction remained unaltered, although p-Ser- DAT phosphorylation was elevated. In contrast to the CPu, there were no differences between cocaine and saline rats in the levels of DA uptake, DAT V(max) and K(m) values, total and surface DAT, p-Ser-DAT phosphorylation, or DAT-PP2Ac interactions in the NAcc. These results show that chronic cocaine self-administration leads to lasting, regionally specific alterations in striatal DA uptake and DAT-Ser phosphorylation. Such changes may be related to habitual patterns of cocaine-seeking observed during relapse. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alterations in the Striatal Dopamine System During Intravenous Methamphetamine Exposure: Effects of Contingent and Noncontingent Administration

    PubMed Central

    Laćan, Goran; Hadamitzky, Martin; Kuczenski, Ronald; Melega, William P.

    2014-01-01

    The continuing spread of methamphetamine (METH) abuse has stimulated research aimed at understanding consequences of its prolonged exposure. Alterations in nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system parameters have been characterized in experimental studies after discontinuation of long term METH but fewer studies have included similar assessments during METH exposure. Here, we report METH plasma pharmacokinetics and striatal DA system alterations in rat after noncontingent and contingent METH administration for 7.5 weeks. Escalating METH exposure was delivered by dynamic infusion (DI) that incorporated a ‘humanized’ plasma METH half life, or by intravenous self-administration (IVSA) that included binge intakes. Kinetic modeling of DI and IVSA for 24 h periods during the final week of METH exposure showed that plasma METH levels remained between 0.7–1.5 μM. Animals were sacrificed during their last METH administration for autoradiography assessment using [3H]ligands and D2 agonist-induced [35S]GTPγS binding. DA transporter binding was decreased (DI, 34%; IVSA, 15%) while vesicular monoamine transporter binding and substantia nigra DA cell numbers were unchanged. Decreases were measured for D2 receptor (DI and IVSA, 15–20%) and [35S]GTPγS binding (DI, 35%; IVSA, 18%). These similar patterns of DI and IVSA associated decreases in striatal DA markers reflect consequences of cumulative METH exposure and not the drug delivery method. For METH IVSA, individual differences were observed, yet each animal’s total intake was similar within and across three 24 h binges. IVSA rodent models may be useful for identifying molecular mechanisms that are associated with METH binges in humans. PMID:23417852

  4. Alterations in the striatal dopamine system during intravenous methamphetamine exposure: effects of contingent and noncontingent administration.

    PubMed

    Laćan, Goran; Hadamitzky, Martin; Kuczenski, Ronald; Melega, William P

    2013-08-01

    The continuing spread of methamphetamine (METH) abuse has stimulated research aimed at understanding consequences of its prolonged exposure. Alterations in nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system parameters have been characterized in experimental studies after discontinuation of long-term METH but fewer studies have included similar assessments during METH exposure. Here, we report METH plasma pharmacokinetics and striatal DA system alterations in rat after noncontingent and contingent METH administration for 7.5 weeks. Escalating METH exposure was delivered by dynamic infusion (DI) that incorporated a "humanized" plasma METH half life or by intravenous self-administration (IVSA) that included binge intakes. Kinetic modeling of DI and IVSA for 24 h periods during the final week of METH exposure showed that plasma METH levels remained between 0.7 and 1.5 µM. Animals were sacrificed during their last METH administration for autoradiography assessment using [³H]ligands and D2 agonist-induced [³⁵S]GTPγS binding. DA transporter binding was decreased (DI, 34%; IVSA, 15%) while vesicular monoamine transporter binding and substantia nigra DA cell numbers were unchanged. Decreases were measured for D2 receptor (DI and IVSA, 15-20%) and [³⁵S]GTPγS binding (DI, 35%; IVSA, 18%). These similar patterns of DI and IVSA associated decreases in striatal DA markers reflect consequences of cumulative METH exposure and not the drug delivery method. For METH IVSA, individual differences were observed, yet each animal's total intake was similar within and across three 24-h binges. IVSA rodent models may be useful for identifying molecular mechanisms that are associated with METH binges in humans. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cadherin 13: Human cis-Regulation and Selectively Altered Addiction Phenotypes and Cerebral Cortical Dopamine in Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Drgonova, Jana; Walther, Donna; Hartstein, G Luke; Bukhari, Mohammad O; Baumann, Michael H; Katz, Jonathan; Hall, F Scott; Arnold, Elizabeth R; Flax, Shaun; Riley, Anthony; Rivero, Olga; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Troncoso, Juan; Ranscht, Barbara; Uhl, George R

    2016-01-01

    The cadherin 13 (CDH13) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development and connections of brain circuits that modulate addiction, locomotion and cognition, including those that involve midbrain dopamine neurons. Human CDH13 mRNA expression differs by more than 80% in postmortem cerebral cortical samples from individuals with different CDH13 genotypes, supporting examination of mice with altered CDH13 expression as models for common human variation at this locus. Constitutive CDH13 knockout mice display evidence for changed cocaine reward: shifted dose response relationship in tests of cocaine-conditioned place preference using doses that do not alter cocaine-conditioned taste aversion. Reduced adult CDH13 expression in conditional knockouts also alters cocaine reward in ways that correlate with individual differences in cortical CDH13 mRNA levels. In control and comparison behavioral assessments, knockout mice display modestly quicker acquisition of rotarod and water maze tasks, with a trend toward faster acquisition of 5-choice serial reaction time tasks that otherwise displayed no genotype-related differences. They display significant differences in locomotion in some settings, with larger effects in males. In assessments of brain changes that might contribute to these behavioral differences, there are selective alterations of dopamine levels, dopamine/metabolite ratios, dopaminergic fiber densities and mRNA encoding the activity dependent transcription factor npas4 in cerebral cortex of knockout mice. These novel data and previously reported human associations of CDH13 variants with addiction, individual differences in responses to stimulant administration and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotypes suggest that levels of CDH13 expression, through mechanisms likely to include effects on mesocortical dopamine, influence stimulant reward and may contribute modestly to cognitive and locomotor phenotypes relevant to ADHD

  6. Early social deprivation impairs pair bonding and alters serum corticosterone and the NAcc dopamine system in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; An, Shucheng; Tai, Fadao; Wang, Jianli; Wu, Ruiyong; Wang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Early life stress has a long-term negative impact on emotion, learning, memory and adult sexual behavior, and these deficits most likely impair pair bonding. Here, we investigated whether early social deprivation (ED) affects the formation of pair bonds in socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). In a partner preference test (PPT), ED-reared adult females and males did not show a preference for their partner, spent more time exploring the cage of an unfamiliar animal and directed high levels of aggression toward unfamiliar animals. In social interaction test, ED increased exploring behavior only in females, but increased movement around the partner and reduced inactivity in both males and females. Three days of cohabitation did not alter serum corticosterone levels in ED-reared males, but increased corticosterone levels in males that received bi-parental care (PC). Interestingly, serum corticosterone levels in ED- and PC-reared females declined after cohabitation. ED significantly increased basal serum corticosterone levels in males, but had no effect on females. ED significantly up-regulated the levels of dopamine and the mRNA expression of dopamine 1-type receptor (D1R) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in females and males. ED suppressed dopamine 2-type receptor mRNA (D2R) expression in females, but increased this in males. After three days of cohabitation, levels of D1R mRNA and D2R mRNA expression changed in opposite directions in PC-reared voles, but in the same direction in ED-reared males, and only the expression of D2R mRNA increased in ED-reared females. Our results indicate that early social deprivation inhibits pair bonding at adulthood. This inhibition is possibly associated with sex-specific alterations in serum corticosterone, levels of dopamine and mRNA expression of two types of dopamine receptors in the NAcc. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic Back Pain Is Associated with Alterations in Dopamine Neurotransmission in the Ventral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Martikainen, Ilkka K.; Nuechterlein, Emily B.; Peciña, Marta; Love, Tiffany M.; Cummiford, Chelsea M.; Green, Carmen R.; Stohler, Christian S.

    2015-01-01

    alterations in brain dopamine function that are associated with measures of pain sensitivity and affective state, but also with brain endogenous opioid system functional measures. These findings suggest that brain dopamine–opioid interactions are involved in the pathophysiology of chronic pain, which has potential therapeutic implications. Our results may also help to explain individual variation in susceptibility to opioid medication misuse and eventual addiction in the context of chronic pain. PMID:26156996

  8. The legacy pesticide dieldrin acts as a teratogen and alters the expression of dopamine transporter and dopamine receptor 2a in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Sarty, Kathleena I; Cowie, Andrew; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Dieldrin (DLD) is a lipophilic pesticide that shows environmental persistence. The objectives were to determine the effects of DLD on GABAergic and dopaminergic systems in developing zebrafish. Both chorionated and dechorionated embryos (~24h post-hatch) were exposed to a single concentration of DLD (0.347-3470μM) for 48h. Following exposure, a subset of larvae was placed into clean water for 6days (i.e. depuration phase). Chorionated embryos showed <15% mortality while dechorionated embryos showed higher mortality (>30%), suggesting that the chorion protected the embryos. Over a 6day depuration phase, there was a dose dependent effect observed in both the "dechorionated and chorionated embryo" treatments for larval mortality (>60%). At the end of depuration, there was no detectable change in neuro-morphological endpoints that included the ratio of notochord length to body length (%) and the ratio of head area to body area (%). However, DLD did induce cardiac edema, skeletal deformities, and tremors. GABA-related transcripts were not affected in abundance by DLD. Conversely, the relative mRNA levels of dopamine transporter (dat1) and dopamine receptor drd2a mRNA were decreased in dechorionated, but not chorionated, embryos. These data suggest that DLD can alter the expression of transcripts related to dopaminergic signaling. Lastly, GABAA receptor subunits gabrB1 and gabrB2, as well as dopamine receptors drd1 and drd2a, were inherently higher in abundance in dechorionated embryos compared to chorionated embryos. This is an important consideration when incorporating transcriptomics into embryo testing as expression levels can change with removal of the chorion prior to exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetic retinopathy alters light-induced clock gene expression and dopamine levels in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Lahouaoui, Hasna; Coutanson, Christine; Cooper, Howard M.; Bennis, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common consequences of diabetes that affects millions of working-age adults worldwide and leads to progressive degeneration of the retina, visual loss, and blindness. Diabetes is associated with circadian disruption of the central and peripheral circadian clocks, but the mechanisms responsible for such alterations are unknown. Using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of diabetes, we investigated whether diabetes alters 1) the circadian regulation of clock genes in the retina and in the central clocks, 2) the light response of clock genes in the retina, and/or 3) light-driven retinal dopamine (DA), a major output marker of the retinal clock. Methods To quantify circadian expression of clock and clock-controlled genes, retinas and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) from the same animals were collected every 4 h in circadian conditions, 12 weeks post-diabetes. Induction of Per1, Per2, and c-fos mRNAs was quantified in the retina after the administration of a pulse of monochromatic light (480 nm, 1.17×1014 photons/cm2/s, 15 min) at circadian time 16. Gene expression was assessed with real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT–PCR). Pooled retinas from the control and STZ-diabetic mice were collected 2 h after light ON and light OFF (Zeitgeber time (ZT)2 and ZT14), and DA and its metabolite were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results We found variable effects of diabetes on the expression of clock genes in the retina and only slight differences in phase and/or amplitude in the SCN. c-fos and Per1 induction by a 480 nm light pulse was abolished in diabetic animals at 12 weeks post-induction of diabetes in comparison with the control mice, suggesting a deficit in light-induced neuronal activation of the retinal clock. Finally, we quantified a 56% reduction in the total number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunopositive cells, associated with a decrease in DA levels during the subjective day (ZT2

  10. Altered Refractive Development in Mice With Reduced Levels of Retinal Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Michael A.; Park, Han na; Chakraborty, Ranjay; Landis, Erica G.; Sidhu, Curran; He, Li; Iuvone, P. Michael; Pardue, Machelle T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neuromodulator dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the prevention of excessive ocular elongation and myopia in various animal models. This study used retina-specific DA knockout mice to investigate the role of retinal DA in refractive development and susceptibility to experimental myopia. Methods Measurements of refractive error, corneal curvature, and ocular biometrics were obtained as a function of age for both untreated and form-deprived (FD) groups of retina-specific tyrosine hydroxylase knockout (rTHKO) and control (Ctrl) mice. Retinas from each group were analyzed by HPLC for levels of DA and its primary metabolite (DOPAC). Results Under normal visual conditions, rTHKO mice showed significantly myopic refractions (F(1,188) = 7.602, P < 0.001) and steeper corneas (main effect of genotype F(1,180) = 5.1, P < 0.01) at 4 and 6 weeks of age compared with Ctrl mice. Retina-specific THKO mice also had thinner corneas (main effect of genotype F(1,181) = 37.17, P < 0.001), thinner retinas (F(6,181) = 6.07, P < 0.001), and shorter axial lengths (F(6,181) = 3.78, P < 0.01) than Ctrl mice. Retina-specific THKO retinas contained less than 15% of DA and DOPAC compared with Ctrl retinas, and the remaining DA had a significantly higher turnover, as indicated by DOPAC/DA ratios (Student's t-test, P < 0.05). Retina-specific THKO mice showed similar, yet more variable, responses to 6 weeks of FD compared with Ctrl mice. Conclusions Diminished retinal DA induced spontaneous myopia in mice raised under laboratory conditions without form deprivation. The relative myopic shift in rTHKO mice may be explained by steeper corneas, an unexpected finding. The chronic loss of DA did not significantly alter the FD myopia response in rTHKO mice. PMID:27750284

  11. Abstinence from Chronic Cocaine Self-Administration Alters Striatal Dopamine Systems in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Thomas JR; Smith, Hilary R; Nader, Michael A; Porrino, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Although dysregulation within the dopamine (DA) system is a hallmark feature of chronic cocaine exposure, the question of whether these alterations persist into abstinence remains largely unanswered. Nonhuman primates represent an ideal model in which to assess the effects of abstinence on the DA system following chronic cocaine exposure. In this study, male rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (0.3 mg/kg per injection, 30 reinforcers per session) under a fixed-interval 3-min schedule for 100 days followed by either 30 or 90 days abstinence. This duration of cocaine self-administration has been previously shown to decrease DA D2-like receptor densities and increase levels of D1-like receptors and DA transporters (DAT). Responding by control monkeys was maintained by food presentation under an identical protocol and the same abstinence periods. [3H]SCH 23390 binding to DA D1 receptors following 30 days of abstinence was significantly higher in all portions of the striatum, compared to control animals, whereas [3H]raclopride binding to DA D2 receptors was not different between groups. [3H]WIN 35 428 binding to DAT was also significantly higher throughout virtually all portions of the dorsal and ventral striatum following 30 days of abstinence. Following 90 days of abstinence, however, levels of DA D1 receptors and DAT were not different from control values. Although these results indicate that there is eventual recovery of the separate elements of the DA system, they also highlight the dynamic nature of these components during the initial phases of abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration. PMID:18769473

  12. Lamotrigine, carbamazepine and phenytoin differentially alter extracellular levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shagufta; Fowler, Leslie J; Whitton, Peter S

    2005-02-01

    We have studied the effects of treatment with the anticonvulsants lamotrigine (LTG), phenytoin (PHN) and carbamazepine (CBZ) on basal and stimulated extracellular aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), taurine (TAU), GABA, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the hippocampus of freely moving rats using microdialysis. All of the drugs investigated have had inhibition of Na(+) channel activity implicated as their principal mechanism of action. Neither LTG (10-20 mg/kg), PHN (20-40 mg/kg) or CBZ (10-20 mg/kg) had an effect on the basal extracellular concentrations of any of the amino acids studied with the exception of glutamate, which was decreased at the highest LTG dose. However, when amino acid transmitter levels were increased with 50 microM veratridine, LTG was found to cause a dose-dependent decrease in dialysate levels of all four amino acids, with the effect being most pronounced for glutamate. In contrast, PHN decreased extracellular aspartate levels but had no effect on evoked-extracellular GLU, TAU or GABA. Somewhat unexpectedly, CBZ did not alter the stimulated increase in the excitatory amino acids, GLU and ASP, but, rather surprisingly for an antiepileptic drug, markedly decreased that of the inhibitory substances TAU and GABA. The three drugs had differing effects on basal extracellular 5-HT and DA. LTG caused a dose-dependent decrease in both, while CBZ and PHN both increased extracellular 5-HT and DA. When extracellular 5-HT and DA was evoked by veratridine LTG had no significant effect on this, while PHN but not CBZ increased stimulated extracellular 5-HT and both PHN and CBZ augmented DA. Thus, the effects of the three drugs studied seemed to depend on whether extracellular transmitter levels are evoked or basal and the particular transmitter in question. This suggests that there are marked differences in the neurochemical mechanisms of antiepileptic drug action of the three compounds studied.

  13. Antipsychotic treatment leading to dopamine supersensitivity persistently alters nucleus accumbens function.

    PubMed

    El Hage, Cynthia; Bédard, Anne-Marie; Samaha, Anne-Noël

    2015-12-01

    Chronic exposure to some antipsychotic medications can induce supersensitivity to dopamine receptor stimulation. This is linked to a worsening of clinical outcome and to antipsychotic treatment failure. Here we investigated the role of striatal subregions [nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate-putamen (CPu)] in the expression of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity. We treated rats with haloperidol (HAL) or olanzapine (OLZ), using regimens that achieve clinically relevant kinetics of striatal D2 receptor occupancy. Under these conditions, HAL produces dopamine supersensitivity whereas OLZ does not. We then assessed behaviors evoked by the dopamine agonist amphetamine (AMPH). We either injected AMPH into the striatum or inhibited striatal function with microinjections of GABA receptor agonists prior to injecting AMPH systemically. HAL-treated rats were dopamine supersensitive, as indicated by sensitization to systemic AMPH-induced potentiation of both locomotor activity and operant responding for a conditioned reward (CR). Intra-CPu injections of AMPH had no effect on these behaviors, in any group. Intra-NAc injections of AMPH enhanced operant responding for CR in OLZ-treated and control rats, but not in HAL-treated rats. In HAL-treated rats, inhibition of the NAc also failed to disrupt systemic AMPH-induced potentiation of operant responding for CR. Furthermore, while intra-NAc AMPH enhanced locomotion in both HAL-treated and control animals, inhibition of the NAc disrupted systemic AMPH-induced locomotion only in control rats. Thus, antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity persistently disrupts NAc function, such that some behaviors that normally depend upon NAc dopamine no longer do so. This has implications for understanding dysfunctions in dopamine-mediated behaviors in patients undergoing chronic antipsychotic treatment.

  14. Altered basal and stimulated accumbens dopamine release in obese OLETF rats as a function of age and diabetic status

    PubMed Central

    Anderzhanova, Elmira; Covasa, Mihai; Hajnal, Andras

    2011-01-01

    The Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat lacking the CCK-1 receptor is hyperphagic, prefers palatable and high caloric meals, and gradually develops obesity and type-2 diabetes. To determine dopamine levels in this strain, we used in-vivo quantitative (no-net flux) microdialyis at three different ages representing non-diabetic (8 weeks), pre-diabetic (18 weeks), and diabetic (56 weeks) stages in OLETF and age-matched lean LETO controls. Results showed significantly elevated basal dopamine levels in the caudomedial nucleus accumbens of OLETF rats compared to LETO at younger ages (8 weeks: 20.10 ± 5.61 nM vs. 15.85 ± 5.63 nM; 18 weeks: 7.37 ± 3.71 nM vs. 4.75 ± 1.25 nM, Mean ± SD). In contrast, at 56 weeks of age, a profound decline in extracellular dopamine concentrations was seen in both strains with a tendency for a greater effect in OLETF rats (1.78 ± 0.40 nM vs. 2.39 ± 0.42 nM). Further, extracellular fraction, an index for reuptake, was higher in 56-week old OLETF compared to LETO (0.648 ± 0.049 vs. 0.526 ± 0.057). Potassium-stimulated dopamine efflux revealed an increased capacity of vesicular pool in OLETF rats compared to LETO across all age groups with an accentuated strain difference at 56 weeks. These findings demonstrate altered striatal dopamine functions (i.e. increased stimulated release and uptake) in obese OLETF rat. This could be due to the lack of functional CCK-1 receptors, or metabolic and hormonal factors associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance, or both. PMID:17553848

  15. Alterations in dopamine system function across the estrous cycle of the MAM rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Stephanie M; Chen, Li; Lodge, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Clinical studies have reported differences in the incidence and severity of schizophrenia symptoms between male and female schizophrenia patients. Unfortunately, the cause of these differences is not currently known due, in part, to the fact that preclinical studies largely focus on male subjects. Dopamine neuron activity has been previously demonstrated to change across the estrous cycle, and may therefore be of relevance, as aberrant dopamine signaling is thought to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Here we examine dopamine neuron activity across the estrous cycle in the MAM rodent model of schizophrenia. We demonstrate that the elevation in dopamine neuron activity, consistently observed in male MAM-treated rats, is most prominent during estrus and attenuated in met-estrus. Furthermore, this appears to be mediated, in part, by progesterone in the ventral hippocampus, as increases in dopamine neuron population activity (observed in estrus) were normalized by the intra-hippocampal administration of the progesterone receptor antagonist, mifepristone (but not the estrogen receptor antagonists, fulvestrant). Taken together, these data suggest that changes in dopamine system function occur across the estrous cycle in MAM-treated rats and may contribute to the differences in symptomatology between male and female schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Peter J; Calderon, Tina M; Coley, Jacqueline S; Berman, Joan W

    2013-06-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70 % of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers.

  17. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

  18. Dopamine transporter site-directed mutations differentially alter substrate transport and cocaine binding.

    PubMed Central

    Kitayama, S; Shimada, S; Xu, H; Markham, L; Donovan, D M; Uhl, G R

    1992-01-01

    Polar amino acids lying within three hydrophobic regions of the dopamine transporter (DAT) are analogous to those important for ligand recognition by catecholamine receptors. Possible functional significance of these amino acids was examined by expressing DAT cDNAs mutated in these polar residues. Replacement of aspartate at position 79 with alanine, glycine, or glutamate dramatically reduced uptake of [3H]dopamine and the tritium-labeled Parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and reduced the mutants' affinity for the tritium-labeled cocaine analog (-)-2 beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT) without affecting Bmax. Replacement of the serine residues at positions 356 and 359 in the seventh hydrophobic region by alanine or glycine caused reductions in [3H]dopamine and [3H]MPP+ uptake, whereas [3H]CFT binding was less affected. Substitution of two serines in the eighth hydrophobic region yielded wild-type values for [3H]dopamine and [3H]MPP+ uptake and [3H]CFT binding. These results demonstrate that aspartate and serine residues lying within the first and seventh hydrophobic putative transmembrane regions are crucial for DAT function and provide identification of residues differentially important for cocaine binding and for dopamine uptake. PMID:1502198

  19. Pre-Existing Differences and Diet-Induced Alterations in Striatal Dopamine Systems of Obesity-Prone Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Nelson, Andrew D.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Interactions between pre-existing differences in mesolimbic function and neuroadaptations induced by consumption of fatty, sugary foods are thought to contribute to human obesity. This study examined basal and cocaine-induced changes in striatal neurotransmitter levels without diet manipulation and D2/D3 dopamine receptor-mediated transmission prior to and after consumption of “junk-foods” in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Microdialysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine basal and cocaine-induced changes in neurotransmitter levels in real time with cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Sensitivity to the D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole was examined before and after restricted junk-food exposure. Selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats were used. Results Cocaine-induced locomotion was greater in obesity-prone rats versus obesity-resistant rats prior to diet manipulation. Basal and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. Obesity-prone rats were more sensitive to the D2 receptor-mediated effects of quinpirole, and junk-food produced modest alterations in quinpirole sensitivity in obesity-resistant rats. Conclusions These data show that mesolimbic systems differ prior to diet manipulation in susceptible versus resistant rats, and that consumption of fatty, sugary foods produce different neuroadaptations in these populations. These differences may contribute to enhanced food craving and an inability to limit food intake in susceptible individuals. PMID:26847484

  20. Pre-existing differences and diet-induced alterations in striatal dopamine systems of obesity-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Mabrouk, Omar S; Nelson, Andrew D; Kennedy, Robert T; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between pre-existing differences in mesolimbic function and neuroadaptations induced by consumption of fatty, sugary foods are thought to contribute to human obesity. This study examined basal and cocaine-induced changes in striatal neurotransmitter levels without diet manipulation and D2 /D3 dopamine receptor-mediated transmission prior to and after consumption of "junk-foods" in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Microdialysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine basal and cocaine-induced changes in neurotransmitter levels in real time with cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Sensitivity to the D2 /D3 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole was examined before and after restricted junk-food exposure. Selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats were used. Cocaine-induced locomotion was greater in obesity-prone rats versus obesity-resistant rats prior to diet manipulation. Basal and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. Obesity-prone rats were more sensitive to the D2 receptor-mediated effects of quinpirole, and junk-food produced modest alterations in quinpirole sensitivity in obesity-resistant rats. These data show that mesolimbic systems differ prior to diet manipulation in susceptible versus resistant rats, and that consumption of fatty, sugary foods produce different neuroadaptations in these populations. These differences may contribute to enhanced food craving and an inability to limit food intake in susceptible individuals. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. History of cannabis use is not associated with alterations in striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Paul R A; Egerton, Alice; Watson, Ben; Reid, Alistair; Lappin, Julia; Howes, Oliver D; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis use in adolescence is emerging as a risk factor for the development of psychosis. In animal studies, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis, modulates striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Alterations in human striatal dopaminergic function have also been reported both in psychosis and in stimulant use. We sought to examine whether striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor availability was altered in volunteers with a history of cannabis use using a database of previously acquired [(11)C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Ten [(11)C]-raclopride scans from volunteers with a history of cannabis use were compared to ten control scans using a functional striatal subdivision region of interest (ROI) analysis. No significant differences in either overall striatal BP(ND) values or BP(ND) values in any functional striatal subdivision were found between the two groups. There was also no correlation between lifetime frequency of cannabis use and BP(ND) values. Limbic striatal BP(ND) values were ten percent lower in current nicotine cigarette smokers. These findings suggest that, unlike other drugs of abuse, a history of cannabis use is not associated with alterations in striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor availability.

  2. Blink Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Evidence for Altered Dopamine Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. E.; Symons, F. J.; Johnson, A.-M.; Hatton, D. D.; Boccia, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motor and cognitive functioning, can be non-invasively measured via observation of spontaneous blink rates. Blink rates have been studied in a number of clinical conditions including schizophrenia, autism, Parkinsons, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with results implicating either…

  3. Blink Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Evidence for Altered Dopamine Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. E.; Symons, F. J.; Johnson, A.-M.; Hatton, D. D.; Boccia, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motor and cognitive functioning, can be non-invasively measured via observation of spontaneous blink rates. Blink rates have been studied in a number of clinical conditions including schizophrenia, autism, Parkinsons, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with results implicating either…

  4. Dopamine and paraquat enhance α-synuclein-induced alterations in membrane conductance

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li Rebekah; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that α-synuclein overexpression increases the membrane conductance of dopaminergic-like cells. Although α-synuclein is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy and diffuse Lewy body disease the mechanism of action is not completely understood. In this study we sought to determine whether multiple factors act together with α-synuclein to engender cell vulnerability through an augmentation of membrane conductance. Here we employed a cell model that mimics dopaminergic neurons coupled with α-synuclein overexpression and oxidative stressors. We demonstrate an enhancement of α-synuclein-induced toxicity in the presence of combined treatment with dopamine and paraquat, two molecules known to incite oxidative stress. In addition we show that combined dopamine and paraquat treatment increases the expression of heme oxygenase-1, an antioxidant response protein. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that combined treatment of dopaminergic cells with paraquat and dopamine enhances α-synuclein-induced leak channel properties resulting in increased membrane conductance. Importantly, these increases are most robust when both paraquat and dopamine are present suggesting the need for multiple oxidative insults to augment α-synuclein-induced disruption of membrane integrity. PMID:21735318

  5. Behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal is altered after prefrontocortical dopamine depletion in rats: monoaminergic correlates.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E F; Serrano, M I; Caillé, S; Stinus, L

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effects of prefrontocortical dopamine depletion on opiate withdrawal and prefrontocortical neurochemical changes elicited by morphine dependence and withdrawal. The dopaminergic content was also measured in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal, in order to detect reactive changes induced by prefrontocortical lesion. Withdrawal was induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent rats. Monoamine levels were analyzed post-mortem by high performance liquid cromatography. The results showed that chronic morphine dependence did not modify basal levels of monoamines in sham rats, revealing neuroadaptation of prefrontocortical dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin systems to chronic morphine. The neuroadaptive phenomenon remained after prefrontocortical lesion (> 79% dopamine depletion). On the other hand, a strong increase of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents in the medial prefrontal cortex of sham rats was detected during opiate withdrawal. However, in lesioned rats, the increase of prefrontocortical dopamine and serotonin content, but not that of noradrenaline, was much lower. In the nucleus accumbens, prefrontocortical lesion reactively enhanced the dopaminergic tone and, although opiate withdrawal reduced dopaminergic activity in both sham and lesioned rats, this reduction was less intense in the latter group. At a behavioral level, some symptoms of physical opiate withdrawal were exacerbated in lesioned rats (writhing, mastication, teeth-chattering, global score) and exploration was reduced. The findings hence indicate that: (i) prefrontocortical monoaminergic changes play a role in the behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal; (ii) the severity of some withdrawal signs are related to the dopaminergic and serotonergic tone of the medial prefrontal cortex rather than to the noradrenergic one, and (iii) an inverse relationship between mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems exists.

  6. Litter size reduction alters insulin signaling in the ventral tegmental area and influences dopamine-related behaviors in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Portella, A K; Silveira, P P; Laureano, D P; Cardoso, S; Bittencourt, V; Noschang, C; Werlang, I; Fontella, F U; Dalmaz, C; Goldani, M Z

    2015-02-01

    Postnatal overfeeding is a well-known model of early-life induced obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, little is known about its impact on insulin signaling in specific brain regions such as the mesocorticolimbic system, and its putative effects on dopamine-related hedonic food intake in adulthood. For this study, rat litters were standardized to 4 (small litter - SL) or 8 pups (control - NL) at postnatal day 1. Weaning was at day 21, and all tests were conducted after day 60 of life in male rats. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that the SL animals were heavier than the NL at all time points and had decreased AKT/pAKT ratio in the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA), without differences in the skeletal muscle insulin signaling in response to insulin injection. In Experiment 2, the standard rat chow intake was addressed using an automated system (BioDAQ, Research Diets(®)), and showed no differences between the groups. On the other hand, the SL animals ingested more sweet food in response to the 1 min tail-pinch challenge and did not develop conditioned place preference to sweet food. In Experiment 3 we showed that the SL rats had increased VTA TH content but had no difference in this protein in response to a sweet food challenge, as the NL had. The SL rats also showed decreased levels of dopamine D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Here we showed that early postnatal overfeeding was linked to an altered functioning of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which was associated with altered insulin signaling in the VTA, suggesting increased sensitivity, and expression of important proteins of the dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-05-12

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD's acute inflammatory phase.

  8. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD’s acute inflammatory phase. PMID:27187366

  9. Blocking serotonin but not dopamine reuptake alters neural processing during perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vincent D.; Kakalios, Laura; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine and serotonin have opponent interactions on aspects of impulsivity. Therefore we wanted to test the hypothesis that dopamine and serotonin would have opposing effects on speed-accuracy trade-offs in a perceptual decision making task. Unlike other behavioral measures of impulsivity, perceptual decision making allows us to determine whether decreasing premature responses, often interpreted as decreased impulsivity, corresponds to increased behavioral performance. We administered GBR-12909 (a dopamine transporter blocker), escitalopram (a serotonin transporter blocker) or saline in separate sessions to three rhesus macaques. We found that animals had slower reaction times on escitalopram than on GBR-12909 or saline. However, they were also least accurate on escitalopram. Animals were faster, although non-significantly, on GBR than saline and had equivalent accuracy. Administration of GBR-12909 did cause animals to be faster in error trials than correct trials. Therefore, from the point of view of reaction times the animals were less impulsive on escitalopram. However, the decreased accuracy shows that they were not able to make use of the slower response time to make more accurate decisions. Therefore, impulsivity was reduced on escitalopram, but at the expense of information processing rate in the perceptual inference task. PMID:27513807

  10. Alterations in dopamine and serotonin uptake systems in the striatum of the weaver mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Stotz, E H; Palacios, J M; Landwehrmeyer, B; Norton, J; Ghetti, B; Simon, J R; Triarhou, L C

    1994-01-01

    In the striatum of the homozygous weaver mutant mouse (wv/wv), dopamine content, uptake and tyrosine hydroxylase activity are decreased compared to wild-type (+/+) mice. In mice heterozygous for the weaver gene (wv/+), these dopaminergic parameters exhibit only minor reductions compared to +/+ mice. The wv/wv striatum has recently been shown to have an increase in serotonin content. In the present study, the serotonin uptake system of the weaver striatum was investigated. Synaptosomal uptake of [3H] serotonin was determined in the dorsal portion of wv/wv and +/+ striatum, and serotonin uptake sites were examined by the binding of [3H] citalopram in the striatum of wv/wv, wv/+ and +/+ mice. The dopamine uptake system was also investigated in all three genotypes via the binding of [3H] mazindol. Synaptosomal uptake of [3H] serotonin was increased by 79% in the dorsal portion of the wv/wv striatum compared to that seen in the +/+ striatum. The binding of [3H] citalopram was increased by 62% in the dorsolateral and by 111% in the dorsomedial portions of the wv/wv striatum compared to +/+. [3H] Citalopram binding in the wv/+ striatum was also higher than +/+, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. Within the wv/wv striatum, [3H] mazindol binding was almost completely absent (88-89% reduction) in the dorsal portion and severely reduced in the other striatal areas. These data support the notion that the dorsal portion of the wv/wv striatum, which has the severest reduction in dopamine uptake, is hyperinnervated by serotonin fibers.

  11. Dopamine transporter (DAT) genetic hypofunction in mice produces alterations consistent with ADHD but not schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Mereu, M; Contarini, G; Buonaguro, E F; Latte, G; Managò, F; Iasevoli, F; de Bartolomeis, A; Papaleo, F

    2017-07-15

    ADHD, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are psychiatric diseases with a strong genetic component which share dopaminergic alterations. Dopamine transporter (DAT) genetics might be potentially implicated in all these disorders. However, in contrast to DAT absence, the effects of DAT hypofunction especially in developmental trajectories have been scarcely addressed. Thus, we comprehensively studied DAT hypofunctional mice (DAT+/-) from adolescence to adulthood to disentangle DAT-dependent alterations in the development of psychiatric-relevant phenotypes. From pre-adolescence onward, DAT+/- displayed a hyperactive phenotype, while responses to external stimuli and sensorimotor gating abilities were unaltered. General cognitive impairments in adolescent DAT+/- were partially ameliorated during adulthood in males but not in females. Despite this, attentional and impulsivity deficits were evident in DAT+/- adult males. At the molecular level, DAT+/- mice showed a reduced expression of Homer1a in the prefrontal cortex, while other brain regions as well as Arc and Homer1b expression were mostly unaffected. Amphetamine treatments reverted DAT+/- hyperactivity and rescued cognitive deficits. Moreover, amphetamine shifted DAT-dependent Homer1a altered expression from prefrontal cortex to striatal regions. These behavioral and molecular phenotypes indicate that a genetic-driven DAT hypofunction alters neurodevelopmental trajectories consistent with ADHD, but not with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Control of heterogeneous nucleation and growth kinetics of dopamine-melanin by altering substrate chemistry.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, Luke; Riley, John K; Bettinger, Christopher John

    2015-03-24

    Dopamine-melanin (DM or "polydopamine") can be deposited on virtually any substrate from solution through autoxidation of dopamine. The versatility of this process has allowed surface-mediated assembly of DM for a wide variety of functional coatings. Here we report the impact of well-defined surface chemistries on the nucleation and growth of such films. DM was deposited on silicon dioxide (SiO2) and SiO2 substrates modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) bearing octadecyl (C18), phenethyl, and aminopropyl functional groups. Atomic force microscopy revealed three-dimensional islands whose areal density and surface coverage are lowest on bare SiO2 substrates and highest on the neutral aromatic and aliphatic substrates. Increasing the pH of the solution from 8.2 to 10 dissociates catechol moieties in DM and inhibits adsorption on negatively charged SiO2 substrates. The growth rate of DM films on SAM-modified SiO2 is maximized at pH 9.5 and almost completely abolished at pH 10 because of increased DM solubility. The initial rates of DM adsorption were measured using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation measurements. The initial adsorption rate is proportional to the nucleation density, which increases as the hydrophobicity of the substrate increases. Taken together, these data provide insight into the rates of heterogeneous nucleation and growth of DM on substrates with well-defined chemistries.

  13. Increased dopamine D2 receptor activity in the striatum alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, Sabine; Duda, Johanna; Schiemann, Julia; Poetschke, Christina; Schneider, Gaby; Kandel, Eric R.; Liss, Birgit; Roeper, Jochen; Simpson, Eleanor H.

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that the core deficits of schizophrenia result from dysfunction of the dopamine (DA) system, but details of this dysfunction remain unclear. We previously reported a model of transgenic mice that selectively and reversibly overexpress DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum (D2R-OE mice). D2R-OE mice display deficits in cognition and motivation that are strikingly similar to the deficits in cognition and motivation observed in patients with schizophrenia. Here, we show that in vivo, both the firing rate (tonic activity) and burst firing (phasic activity) of identified midbrain DA neurons are impaired in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not in the substantia nigra (SN), of D2R-OE mice. Normalizing striatal D2R activity by switching off the transgene in adulthood recovered the reduction in tonic activity of VTA DA neurons, which is concordant with the rescue in motivation that we previously reported in our model. On the other hand, the reduction in burst activity was not rescued, which may be reflected in the observed persistence of cognitive deficits in D2R-OE mice. We have identified a potential molecular mechanism for the altered activity of DA VTA neurons in D2R-OE mice: a reduction in the expression of distinct NMDA receptor subunits selectively in identified mesolimbic DA VTA, but not nigrostriatal DA SN, neurons. These results suggest that functional deficits relevant for schizophrenia symptoms may involve differential regulation of selective DA pathways. PMID:25675529

  14. Long-term daily access to alcohol alters dopamine-related synthesis and signaling proteins in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Kashem, Mohammed Abul; Ahmed, Selina; Sarker, Ranjana; Ahmed, Eakhlas U; Hargreaves, Garth A; McGregor, Iain S

    2012-12-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure can adversely affect neuronal morphology, synaptic architecture and associated neuroplasticity. However, the effects of moderate levels of long-term alcohol intake on the brain are a matter of debate. The current study used 2-DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) proteomics to examine proteomic changes in the striatum of male Wistar rats after 8 months of continuous access to a standard off-the-shelf beer in their home cages. Alcohol intake under group-housed conditions during this time was around 3-4 g/kg/day, a level below that known to induce physical dependence in rats. After 8 months of access rats were euthanased and 2-DE proteomic analysis of the striatum was conducted. A total of 28 striatal proteins were significantly altered in the beer drinking rats relative to controls. Strikingly, many of these were dopamine (DA)-related proteins, including tyrosine hydroxylase (an enzyme of DA biosynthesis), pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase (a co-enzyme in DA biosynthesis), DA and cAMP regulating phosphoprotein (a regulator of DA receptors and transporters), protein phosphatase 1 (a signaling protein) and nitric oxide synthase (which modulates DA uptake). Selected protein expression changes were verified using Western blotting. We conclude that long-term moderate alcohol consumption is associated with substantial alterations in the rat striatal proteome, particularly with regard to dopaminergic signaling pathways. This provides potentially important evidence of major neuroadaptations in dopamine systems with daily alcohol consumption at relatively modest levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. G-protein coupled receptor 6 deficiency alters striatal dopamine and cAMP concentrations and reduces dyskinesia in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Oeckl, Patrick; Hengerer, Bastian; Ferger, Boris

    2014-07-01

    The orphan G-protein coupled receptor 6 (GPR6) is a constitutively active receptor which is positively coupled to the formation of cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP). GPR6 is predominantly expressed in striatopallidal neurons. Here, we investigated neurochemical and behavioural effects of Gpr6 deficiency in mice. Gpr6 depletion decreased in vivo cAMP tissue concentrations (20%) in the striatum. An increase of striatal tissue dopamine concentrations (10%) was found in Gpr6(-/-) mice, whereas basal extracellular dopamine levels were not changed compared with Gpr6(+/+) mice, as shown by in vivo microdialysis. Western blot analyses revealed no alteration in the expression and subcellular localisation of the dopamine D2 receptor in the striatum of Gpr6(-/-) mice, and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the substantia nigra was unchanged. DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32kDa) expression in the striatum of Gpr6(-/-) mice was not altered, however, a twofold increase in the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 was detected in Gpr6(-/-) compared with Gpr6(+/+) mice. Gpr6(-/-) mice showed higher locomotor activity in the open field, which persisted after treatment with the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol. They also displayed reduced abnormal involuntary movements after apomorphine and quinpirole treatment in the mouse dyskinesia model of Parkinson's disease. In conclusion, the depletion of Gpr6 reduces cAMP concentrations in the striatum and alters the striatal dopaminergic system. Gpr6 deficiency causes an interesting behavioural phenotype in the form of enhanced motor activity combined with reduced abnormal involuntary movements. These findings could offer an opportunity for the treatment of Parkinson's disease beyond dopamine replacement.

  16. Terminal Dopamine Release Kinetics in the Accumbens Core and Shell Are Distinctly Altered after Withdrawal from Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Repeated self-administration of cocaine is associated with impairments in motivated behaviors as well as alterations in both dopamine (DA) release and neural signaling within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These impairments are present even after several weeks of abstinence from drug taking, suggesting that the self-administration experience induces long-lasting neuroplastic alterations in the mesolimbic DA circuit. To understand these changes at the terminal level, rats were allowed to self-administer either cocaine intravenously (∼1 mg/kg per infusion) or water to a receptacle (control) in 2-h sessions over 14 days, followed by 30 days of enforced abstinence. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to record real-time DA release in either NAc core or shell after electrical stimulations of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in freely-moving animals. In controls, the kinetics of DA release in the core and shell strikingly differed, with shell displaying slower release and reuptake rates than core. However, cocaine experience differentially altered these signaling patterns by NAc subregion. In the shell, cocaine rats showed less sensitivity to the dynamic range of applied stimulations than controls. In the core, by contrast, cocaine rats displayed robustly reduced peak DA release given the same stimulation, while also showing slower release and reuptake kinetics. The differential effects of cocaine self-administration on terminal function between core and shell is consistent with a region-specific functional reorganization of the mesolimbic DA system after repeated exposure and may provide an anatomical substrate for altered cognitive function after chronic drug-taking and addiction. PMID:27752541

  17. Valeriana officinalis does not alter the orofacial dyskinesia induced by haloperidol in rats: role of dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Fachinetto, Roselei; Villarinho, Jardel G; Wagner, Caroline; Pereira, Romaiana P; Avila, Daiana Silva; Burger, Marilise E; Calixto, João Batista; Rocha, João B T; Ferreira, Juliano

    2007-10-01

    Chronic treatment with classical neuroleptics in humans can produce a serious side effect, known as tardive dyskinesia (TD). Here, we examined the effects of V. officinalis, a medicinal herb widely used as calming and sleep-promoting, in an animal model of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) induced by long-term treatment with haloperidol. Adult male rats were treated during 12 weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38 mg/kg, i.m., each 28 days) and with V. officinalis (in the drinking water). Vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), locomotor activity and plus maze performance were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment produced VCM in 40% of the treated rats and the concomitant treatment with V. officinalis did not alter either prevalence or intensity of VCMs. The treatment with V. officinalis increased the percentage of the time spent on open arm and the number of entries into open arm in the plus maze test. Furthermore, the treatment with haloperidol and/or V. officinalis decreased the locomotor activity in the open field test. We did not find any difference among the groups when oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment significantly decreased [(3)H]-dopamine uptake in striatal slices and V. officinalis was not able to prevent this effect. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanism involving the reduction of dopamine transport in the maintenance of chronic VCMs in rats. Furthermore, chronic treatment with V. officinalis seems not produce any oxidative damage to central nervous system (CNS), but it also seems to be devoid of action to prevent VCM, at least in the dose used in this study.

  18. Disruption of the D2 dopamine receptor alters GH and IGF-I secretion and causes dwarfism in male mice.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Torga, G; Feierstein, C; Libertun, C; Gelman, D; Kelly, M A; Low, M J; Rubinstein, M; Becú-Villalobos, D

    2002-04-01

    We determined the consequences of the loss of D2 receptors (D2R) on the GH-IGF-I axis using mice deficient in functional dopamine D2 receptors by targeted mutagenesis (D2R(-/-)). Body weights were similar at birth, but somatic growth was less in male D2R(-/-) mice from 1-8 months of age and in D2R(-/-) females during the first 2 months. The rate of skeletal maturation, as indexed by femur length, and the weight of the liver and white adipose tissue were decreased in knockout male mice even though food intake was not altered. The serum GH concentration was significantly decreased during the first 2 months in knockout female and male mice, and IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 levels were lower in knockout mice. PRL was significantly higher in knockout mice, and females attained higher levels than males. Pituitaries from adult knockout mice had impaired basal GH release and a lower response to GHRH in vitro. We propose that the D2R participates in GHRH/GH release in the first month of life. In accordance, the D2R antagonist sulpiride lowered GH levels in 1-month-old wild-type mice. Our results indicate that lack of D2R alters the GHRH-GH-IGF-I axis, and impairs body growth and the somatotrope population.

  19. Neonatal intra-hippocampal immune challenge alters dopamine modulation of prefrontal cortical interneurons in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Feleder, Carlos; Tseng, Kuei Yuan; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G; O’Donnell, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Among the diverse animal models proposed for schizophrenia, the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) is one of the most widely used. However, its construct validity can be questioned because there is no evidence of a lesion present in schizophrenia. Other approaches that have tried to capture environmental influences on development include diverse models of maternal infection. METHODS As the early postnatal days in rodents are equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy in terms of brain development, we decided to test whether a neonatal immune challenge with an injection of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the ventral hippocampus caused deficits in interneuron function similar to those reported for the NVHL. RESULTS Neonatal LPS injection caused a persistent elevation in cytokines in several brain regions, deficits in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response and a loss of the periadolescent maturation in the response of prefrontal cortical fast-spiking interneurons to dopamine. CONCLUSIONS The same phenotypes elicited by a NVHL can be obtained with an intra-hippocampal immune challenge, suggesting that perinatal environmental factors can affect adult prefrontal interneuron maturation during adolescence. PMID:19914600

  20. Neonatal intrahippocampal immune challenge alters dopamine modulation of prefrontal cortical interneurons in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Feleder, Carlos; Tseng, Kuei Yuan; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2010-02-15

    Among the diverse animal models proposed for schizophrenia, the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) is one of the most widely used. However, its construct validity can be questioned because there is no evidence of a lesion present in schizophrenia. Other approaches that have tried to capture environmental influences on development include diverse models of maternal infection. As the early postnatal days in rodents are equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy in terms of brain development, we decided to test whether a neonatal immune challenge with an injection of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the ventral hippocampus caused deficits in interneuron function similar to those reported for the NVHL. Neonatal LPS injection caused a persistent elevation in cytokines in several brain regions, deficits in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, and a loss of the periadolescent maturation in the response of prefrontal cortical fast-spiking interneurons to dopamine. The same phenotypes elicited by a NVHL can be obtained with an intrahippocampal immune challenge, suggesting that perinatal environmental factors can affect adult prefrontal interneuron maturation during adolescence. 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. D3 dopamine and kappa opioid receptor alterations in human brain of cocaine-overdose victims.

    PubMed

    Mash, D C; Staley, J K

    1999-06-29

    Cocaine is thought to be addictive because chronic use leads to molecular adaptations within the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry, which affects motivated behavior and emotion. Although the reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated primarily by blockade of DA uptake, reciprocal signaling between DA and endogenous opioids has important implications for understanding cocaine dependence. We have used in vitro autoradiography and ligand binding to map D3 DA and kappa opioid receptors in the human brains of cocaine-overdose victims. The number of D3 binding sites was increased one-to threefold over the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial sectors of the caudate and putamen from cocaine-overdose victims, as compared to age-matched and drug-free control subjects. D3 receptor/cyclophilin mRNA ratios in the nucleus accumbens were increased sixfold in cocaine-overdose victims over control values, suggesting that cocaine exposure also affects the expression of D3 receptor mRNA. The number of kappa opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens and other corticolimbic areas from cocaine fatalities was increased twofold as compared to control values. Cocaine-overdose victims exhibiting preterminal excited delirium had a selective upregulation of kappa receptors measured also in the amygdala. Understanding the complex regulatory profiles of DA and opioid synaptic markers that occur with chronic misuse of cocaine may suggest multitarget strategies for treating cocaine dependence.

  2. Methamphetamine Alters Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2 Function and Potassium-Stimulated Dopamine Release

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Pei-Wen; Hadlock, Gregory C.; Vieira-Brock, Paula; Stout, Kristen; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2012-01-01

    This report demonstrates that a repeated “challenge” high-dose methamphetamine (METH) injection regimen rapidly decreases striatal K+-stimulated dopamine (DA) release concurrent with decreases in both synaptosomal membrane-associated (referred to herein as membrane-associated) and previously-reported decreases in non-synaptosomal membrane-associated (presumably cytoplasmic) vesicular DA uptake and content. Resembling previously reported effects involving cytoplasmic vesicles wherein uptake was decreased 48 h after treatment, the decrease in membrane-associated uptake persisted 72 h. Cytoplasmic and membrane-associated vesicular DA uptakes were decreased 7 d after the challenge regimen. A single METH injection also rapidly decreased K+-stimulated DA release, membrane-associated DA content, and membrane-associated DA uptake; however, unlike after the challenge regimen, the decrease in uptake recovered by 24 h. Pretreatment with the D2 receptor antagonist, eticlopride, did not attenuate the decrease in membrane-associated uptake as assessed 1 h after either a single or challenge treatment. However, eticlopride attenuated the decrease in membrane-associated uptake caused by the challenge regimen as assessed 24 h later. These data reveal complex effects of METH on vesicular function that vary according to the vesicle population under study, dosing regimen, and time after treatment. These may contribute to both the decrease in K+-stimulated DA release and the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by METH. PMID:20649837

  3. Altered dopamine D2-like receptor binding in rats with behavioral sensitization to quinpirole: effects of pre-treatment with Ro 41-1049a

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Kirsten E.; Szechtman, Henry; Levant, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Repeated treatment with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole produces a sensitized behavioral response in rats manifested as an increase in locomotor activity. Pre-treatment with certain monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as Ro 41-1049 [N-(2-aminomethyl)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-thiazolecarboxamide HCl], changes the sensitized response from locomotion to stationary, self-directed mouthing. In this study, the effects of quinpirole sensitization, with and without pre-treatment with Ro 41-1049, were determined on dopamine D2-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum. Long-Evans rats were pre-treated with Ro 41-1049 (1 mg/kg) 90 min prior to administration of quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, 8 injections, every 3–4 days). Dopamine D2-like receptor binding was determined 3 days after the last injection by ex vivo radioligand assays using [3H]spiperone and [3H]quinpirole. Densities of [3H]spiperone- and [3H]quinpirole-labeled sites were both increased 32% in the nucleus accumbens of rats with demonstrated locomotor sensitization to quinpirole. In contrast, the density of dopamine D2-like receptors in quinpirole-sensitized rats pre-treated with Ro 41-1049 was not different from saline controls. These findings support the involvement of alterations in dopamine D2-like receptors in the development of locomotor sensitization to quinpirole and suggest that modification of these alterations in dopamine D2-like receptors contributes to the change from sensitized locomotion to mouthing observed when rats are pre-treated with Ro 41-1049. PMID:18644362

  4. Epigenetic alteration of the dopamine transporter gene in alcohol-dependent patients is associated with age.

    PubMed

    Nieratschker, Vanessa; Grosshans, Martin; Frank, Josef; Strohmaier, Jana; von der Goltz, Christoph; El-Maarri, Osman; Witt, Stephanie H; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Kiefer, Falk; Rietschel, Marcella

    2014-03-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with dysfunctional dopaminergic neurotransmission in mesocorticolimbic circuits. Genetic and environmental factors have been shown to modulate susceptibility to alcohol dependence, and both may act through epigenetic mechanisms that can modulate gene expression, e.g. DNA methylation at CpG sites. Recent studies have suggested that DNA methylation patterns may change over time. However, few data are available concerning the rate of these changes in specific genes. A recent study found that hypermethylation of the promoter of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene was positively correlated with alcohol dependence and negatively correlated with alcohol craving. The aim of the present study was to replicate these findings in a larger sample of alcohol-dependent patients and population-based controls matched for age and sex. No difference in methylation level was observed between patients and controls, and no difference in methylation level was observed before and after alcohol withdrawal in patients. However, patients with more severe craving showed a trend towards lower DAT methylation levels (P = 0.07), which is consistent with previous findings. Furthermore, in our overall sample, DAT methylation levels increased with age. Interestingly, a separate analysis of patients suggested that this finding was mainly driven by the patient group. Although the present data do not clarify whether chronic alcohol abuse is responsible for this phenomenon or merely enhances an ageing-specific process, our findings suggest that hypermethylation in alcohol-dependent patients is a consequence, rather than a cause, of the disorder. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Chronic levodopa treatment alters basal and dopamine agonist-stimulated cerebral glucose utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Engber, T.M.; Susel, Z.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T.N. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of chronic levodopa administration on the functional activity of the basal ganglia and its output regions was evaluated by means of the 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiographic technique in rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway. The rates of local cerebral glucose utilization were studied under basal conditions as well as in response to challenge with a selective D1 or D2 dopamine-receptor agonist. Levodopa (100 mg/kg/d, i.p.) was administered for 19 d either continuously via infusion with an osmotic pump or intermittently by twice-daily injections. Following a 3-d washout, glucose utilization was found to be decreased by both levodopa regimens in the nucleus accumbens; intermittent levodopa also decreased glucose utilization in the entopeduncular nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, ventrolateral thalamus, ventromedial thalamus, ventroposterolateral thalamus, and lateral habenula. In control (lesioned and treated chronically with saline) rats, the D1 agonist SKF 38393 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) increased 2-DG uptake in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and entopeduncular nucleus ipsilateral to the lesion by 84% and 56%, respectively. Both continuous and intermittent levodopa blunted the SKF 38393-induced elevation in glucose metabolism in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, while intermittent levodopa also attenuated the increase in the entopeduncular nucleus. The D2 agonist quinpirole (0.4 mg/kg, i.v.) did not increase glucose utilization in any brain region in control animals; following intermittent levodopa treatment, however, quinpirole increased 2-DG uptake by 64% in the subthalamic nucleus and by 39% in the deep layers of the superior colliculus on the ipsilateral side.

  6. Neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion alters the dopamine content in the limbic regions in postpubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Alquicer, Glenda; Silva-Gómez, Adriana B; Peralta, Fernando; Flores, Gonzalo

    2004-04-01

    The neonatal ventral Hippocampus (nVH) lesion in rats has been used as a model to test the hypothesis that early neurodevelopmental abnormalities lead to behavioral changes putatively linked to schizophrenia. The schizophrenic patients tend to social isolation. In addition, considerable evidence from behavioral and neurochemistry studies strongly implicate the dopamine (DA) system and the medial part of the prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the pathophysiology of the social isolation syndrome. In order to assess effects of the postweaning social isolation (pwSI) on the DA system of the nVH lesions, we investigated the DA content and its metabolite, DOPAC in different limbic subregions in rats postpubertally at postnatal day (P) 78 following nVH lesions at P7 with and without pwSI for 8 weeks. The DA and DOPAC were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The nVH lesion induces increase in the DA content in the hippocampus with no effect in the mPFC, nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen, while the pwSI induces major increase in the DA content in limbic subregions such as the mPFC, nucleus accumbens and hipocampus with opposite effect in the caudate-putamen. These results suggest that while pwSI has an effect in the postpubertal content of DA in both sham and nVH lesions in rats, the nVH-lesioned rats appear to be affected to a greater extent than the sham animals underscoring the influence of pwSI differences in the development of behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals.

  7. Motor impairments, striatal degeneration, and altered dopamine-glutamate interplay in mice lacking PSD-95.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingping; Saur, Taixiang; Duke, Angela N; Grant, Seth G N; Platt, Donna M; Rowlett, James K; Isacson, Ole; Yao, Wei-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Excessive activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) mediate neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration under many neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by the preferential loss of medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) in the striatum. PSD-95 is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of dendritic spines, where a classical role for PSD-95 is to stabilize glutamate receptors at sites of synaptic transmission. Our recent studies indicate that PSD-95 also interacts with the D1 DA receptor localized in spines and negatively regulates spine D1 signaling. Moreover, PSD-95 forms ternary protein complexes with D1 and NMDA receptors, and plays a role in limiting the reciprocal potentiation between both receptors from being escalated. These studies suggest a neuroprotective role for PSD-95. Here we show that mice lacking PSD-95, resulting from genetic deletion of the GK domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95-ΔGK mice), sporadically develop progressive neurological impairments characterized by hypolocomotion, limb clasping, and loss of DARPP-32-positive MSNs. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that NMDA receptors in mutant MSNs were overactive, suggested by larger, NMDA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and higher ratios of NMDA- to AMPA-mediated corticostriatal synaptic transmission. In addition, NMDA receptor currents in mutant cortical neurons were more sensitive to potentiation by the D1 receptor agonist SKF81297. Finally, repeated administration of the psychostimulant cocaine at a dose regimen not producing overt toxicity-related phenotypes in normal mice reliably converted asymptomatic mutant mice to clasping symptomatic mice. These results support the hypothesis that deletion of PSD-95 in mutant mice produces concomitant overactivation of both D1 and NMDA receptors that makes neurons more

  8. Relationship between dopamine deficit and the expression of depressive behavior resulted from alteration of serotonin system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minkyung; Ryu, Young Hoon; Cho, Won Gil; Kang, Yeo Wool; Lee, Soo Jin; Jeon, Tae Joo; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Goo; Lee, Kyochul; Choi, Tae Hyun; Choi, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    Depression frequently accompanies in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous research suggested that dopamine (DA) and serotonin systems are closely linked with depression in PD. However, comprehensive studies about the relationship between these two neurotransmitter systems are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of dopaminergic destruction on the serotonin system. The interconnection between motor and depression was also examined. Two PET scans were performed in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned and sham operated rats: [(18) F]FP-CIT for DA transporters and [(18) F]Mefway for serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors. Here, 6-OHDA is a neurotoxin for dopaminergic neurons. Behavioral tests were used to evaluate the severity of symptoms: rotational number for motor impairment and immobility time, acquired from the forced swim test for depression. Region-of-interests were drawn in the striatum and cerebellum for the DA system and hippocampus and cerebellum for the 5-HT system. The cerebellum was chosen as a reference region. Nondisplaceable binding potential in the striatum and hippocampus were compared between 6-OHDA and sham groups. As a result, the degree of DA depletion was negatively correlated with rotational behavior (R(2)  = 0.79, P = 0.003). In 6-OHDA lesioned rats, binding values for 5-HT(1A) receptors was 22% lower than the sham operated group. This decrement of 5-HT(1A) receptor binding was also correlated with the severity of depression (R(2)  = 0.81, P = 0.006). Taken together, this research demonstrated that the destruction of dopaminergic system causes the reduction of the serotonergic system resulting in the expression of depressive behavior. The degree of dopaminergic dysfunction was positively correlated with the impairment of the serotonin system. Severity of motor symptoms was also closely related to depressive behavior.

  9. A dopamine receptor d2-type agonist attenuates the ability of stress to alter sleep in mice.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, F; Ehlen, J C; Williams, N S; Montemarano, J J; Paul, K N

    2014-11-01

    Although sleep disruptions that accompany stress reduce quality of life and deteriorate health, the mechanisms through which stress alters sleep remain obscure. Psychological stress can alter sleep in a variety of ways, but it has been shown to be particularly influential on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Prolactin (PRL), a sexually dimorphic, stress-sensitive hormone whose basal levels are higher in females, has somnogenic effects on REM sleep. In the current study, we examined the relationship between PRL secretion and REM sleep after restraint stress to determine whether: 1) the ability of stress to increase REM sleep is PRL-dependent, and 2) fluctuating PRL levels underlie sex differences in sleep responses to stress. Because dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary gland are the primary regulator of PRL secretion, D2 receptor agonist, 1-[(6-allylergolin-8β-yl)-carbonyl]-1-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-3-ethylurea (cabergoline), was used to attenuate PRL levels in mice before 1 hour of restraint stress. Mice were implanted with electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording electrodes and received an ip injection of either 0.3-mg/kg cabergoline or vehicle before a control procedure of 1 hour of sleep deprivation by gentle handling during the light phase. Six days after the control procedure, mice received cabergoline or vehicle 15 minutes before 1 hour of restraint stress. Cabergoline blocked the ability of restraint stress to increase REM sleep amount in males but did not alter REM sleep amount after stress in females even though it reduced basal REM sleep amount in female controls. These data provide evidence that the ability for restraint stress to increase REM sleep is dependent on PRL and that sex differences in REM sleep amount may be driven by PRL.

  10. Alterations of Dopamine D2 Receptors and Related Receptor-Interacting Proteins in Schizophrenia: The Pivotal Position of Dopamine Supersensitivity Psychosis in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasunori; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-12-17

    Although the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) has been a main target of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy for the treatment of schizophrenia, the standard treatment does not offer sufficient relief of symptoms to 20%-30% of patients suffering from this disorder. Moreover, over 80% of patients experience relapsed psychotic episodes within five years following treatment initiation. These data strongly suggest that the continuous blockade of DRD2 by antipsychotic(s) could eventually fail to control the psychosis in some point during long-term treatment, even if such treatment has successfully provided symptomatic improvement for the first-episode psychosis, or stability for the subsequent chronic stage. Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is historically known as a by-product of antipsychotic treatment in the manner of tardive dyskinesia or transient rebound psychosis. Numerous data in psychopharmacological studies suggest that the up-regulation of DRD2, caused by antipsychotic(s), is likely the mechanism underlying the development of the dopamine supersensitivity state. However, regardless of evolving notions of dopamine signaling, particularly dopamine release, signal transduction, and receptor recycling, most of this research has been conducted and discussed from the standpoint of disease etiology or action mechanism of the antipsychotic, not of DSP. Hence, the mechanism of the DRD2 up-regulation or mechanism evoking clinical DSP, both of which are caused by pharmacotherapy, remains unknown. Once patients experience a DSP episode, they become increasingly difficult to treat. Light was recently shed on a new aspect of DSP as a treatment-resistant factor. Clarification of the detailed mechanism of DSP is therefore crucial, and a preventive treatment strategy for DSP or treatment-resistant schizophrenia is urgently needed.

  11. Alterations of Dopamine D2 Receptors and Related Receptor-Interacting Proteins in Schizophrenia: The Pivotal Position of Dopamine Supersensitivity Psychosis in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yasunori; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Although the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) has been a main target of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy for the treatment of schizophrenia, the standard treatment does not offer sufficient relief of symptoms to 20%–30% of patients suffering from this disorder. Moreover, over 80% of patients experience relapsed psychotic episodes within five years following treatment initiation. These data strongly suggest that the continuous blockade of DRD2 by antipsychotic(s) could eventually fail to control the psychosis in some point during long-term treatment, even if such treatment has successfully provided symptomatic improvement for the first-episode psychosis, or stability for the subsequent chronic stage. Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is historically known as a by-product of antipsychotic treatment in the manner of tardive dyskinesia or transient rebound psychosis. Numerous data in psychopharmacological studies suggest that the up-regulation of DRD2, caused by antipsychotic(s), is likely the mechanism underlying the development of the dopamine supersensitivity state. However, regardless of evolving notions of dopamine signaling, particularly dopamine release, signal transduction, and receptor recycling, most of this research has been conducted and discussed from the standpoint of disease etiology or action mechanism of the antipsychotic, not of DSP. Hence, the mechanism of the DRD2 up-regulation or mechanism evoking clinical DSP, both of which are caused by pharmacotherapy, remains unknown. Once patients experience a DSP episode, they become increasingly difficult to treat. Light was recently shed on a new aspect of DSP as a treatment-resistant factor. Clarification of the detailed mechanism of DSP is therefore crucial, and a preventive treatment strategy for DSP or treatment-resistant schizophrenia is urgently needed. PMID:26694375

  12. Dopamine D3 receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: Role of hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Newman, Amy H.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. PMID:24685638

  13. Dopamine D(3) receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: role of hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; Nielsen, Shannon M; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-06-05

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia.

  14. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brandon J.; Wall, Teagan R.; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Nichols, Weston A.; Moaddel, Ruin; Xiao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    , menthol alone exerts several neurobiological changes. We are among the first to show that menthol, by itself, increases the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mouse brain. It does so at a dose that matches nicotine in its ability to increase nAChR number. At this same dose, menthol also alters midbrain dopamine neuron function and prevents nicotine reward-related behavior. Together, our data show that menthol is more than an “inert” flavor additive and is able to change the function of midbrain dopamine neurons that are part of the mesolimbic reward pathway. PMID:26961950

  15. Locally infused taurine, GABA and homotaurine alter differently the striatal extracellular concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, M; Majasaari, M; Salimäki, J; Ahtee, L

    1998-01-01

    We studied in vivo the effects of locally infused taurine (50, 150, and 450 mM) on the striatal dopamine and its metabolites in comparison with those of GABA and homotaurine, a GABAA receptor agonist, in freely moving rats. The extracellular dopamine concentration was elevated maximally 2.5-, 2- and 4-fold by taurine, GABA and homotaurine, respectively. At 150 mM concentration, at which the maximum effects occurred, homotaurine increased the extracellular dopamine more than taurine or GABA. When taurine and GABA were infused simultaneously with tetrodotoxin the output of dopamine did not differ from that in the presence of tetrodotoxin alone. In comparison, tetrodotoxin did not inhibit the increase in extracellular dopamine caused by homotaurine. Furthermore, omission of calcium from the perfusion fluid inhibited the increase of extracellular dopamine caused by GABA. However, it did not block the increase of dopamine caused by taurine or homotaurine. The present study suggests that the effects of intrastriatal taurine, GABA and homotaurine on the striatal extracellular dopamine differ. Thus, these amino acids seem to affect the striatal dopaminergic neurons via more than one mechanism.

  16. Demon voltammetry and analysis software: Analysis of cocaine-induced alterations in dopamine signaling using multiple kinetic measures

    PubMed Central

    Yorgason, Jordan T.; España, Rodrigo A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    The fast sampling rates of fast scan cyclic voltammetry make it a favorable method for measuring changes in brain monoamine release and uptake kinetics in slice, anesthetized, and freely moving preparations. The most common analysis technique for evaluating changes in dopamine signaling uses well-established Michaelis-Menten kinetic methods that can accurately model dopamine release and uptake parameters across multiple experimental conditions. Nevertheless, over the years, many researchers have turned to other measures to estimate changes in dopamine release and uptake, yet to our knowledge no systematic comparison amongst these measures has been conducted. To address this lack of uniformity in kinetic analyses, we have created the Demon Voltammetry and Analysis software suite, which is freely available to academic and non-profit institutions. Here we present an explanation of the Demon Acquisition and Analysis features, and demonstrate its utility for acquiring voltammetric data under in vitro, in vivo anesthetized, and freely moving conditions. Additionally, the software was used to compare the sensitivity of multiple kinetic measures of release and uptake to cocaine-induced changes in electrically evoked dopamine efflux in nucleus accumbens core slices. Specifically, we examined and compared tau, full width at half height, half-life, T20, T80, slope, peak height, calibrated peak dopamine concentration, and area under the curve to the well-characterized Michaelis-Menten parameters, dopamine per pulse, maximal uptake rate, and apparent affinity. Based on observed results we recommend tau for measuring dopamine uptake and calibrated peak dopamine concentration for measuring dopamine release. PMID:21392532

  17. Demon voltammetry and analysis software: analysis of cocaine-induced alterations in dopamine signaling using multiple kinetic measures.

    PubMed

    Yorgason, Jordan T; España, Rodrigo A; Jones, Sara R

    2011-11-15

    The fast sampling rates of fast scan cyclic voltammetry make it a favorable method for measuring changes in brain monoamine release and uptake kinetics in slice, anesthetized, and freely moving preparations. The most common analysis technique for evaluating changes in dopamine signaling uses well-established Michaelis-Menten kinetic methods that can accurately model dopamine release and uptake parameters across multiple experimental conditions. Nevertheless, over the years, many researchers have turned to other measures to estimate changes in dopamine release and uptake, yet to our knowledge no systematic comparison amongst these measures has been conducted. To address this lack of uniformity in kinetic analyses, we have created the Demon Voltammetry and Analysis software suite, which is freely available to academic and non-profit institutions. Here we present an explanation of the Demon Voltammetry acquisition and analysis features, and demonstrate its utility for acquiring voltammetric data under in vitro, in vivo anesthetized, and freely moving conditions. Additionally, the software was used to compare the sensitivity of multiple kinetic measures of release and uptake to cocaine-induced changes in electrically evoked dopamine efflux in nucleus accumbens core slices. Specifically, we examined and compared tau, full width at half height, half-life, T₂₀, T₈₀, slope, peak height, calibrated peak dopamine concentration, and area under the curve to the well-characterized Michaelis-Menten parameters, dopamine per pulse, maximal uptake rate, and apparent affinity. Based on observed results we recommend tau for measuring dopamine uptake and calibrated peak dopamine concentration for measuring dopamine release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Leptin and interleukin-6 alter the function of mesolimbic dopamine neurons in a rodent model of prenatal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Valles, Argel; Jung, Suna; Poole, Stephen; Flores, Cecilia; Luheshi, Giamal N

    2012-07-01

    Maternal inflammation during critical stages of gestation is thought to underlie the link between prenatal infection and several neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders in the offspring, including schizophrenia. Increased activity of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons, a hallmark of psychosis, is found in offspring of rodents exposed to a prenatal inflammatory challenge but it is unclear how this effect is elicited. Using an experimental model of localized aseptic inflammation with turpentine oil (TURP) we sought to establish whether circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leptin play a role in the effects of prenatal inflammation on DA neurons. Both mediators are involved in the systemic inflammatory response to immunogens, with IL-6 mediating the early phase, followed by leptin in the late phase of the response. Maternal treatment with TURP at gestational day (GD) 15 enhanced the locomotor response to the DA indirect agonist, amphetamine (AMPH), increased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme involved in DA synthesis, DA levels and the expression of the post-synaptic protein spinophilin in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the adult offspring. All of these alterations were totally abolished by co-treating the pregnant dams with a neutralizing IL-6 antiserum. Neutralization of maternal leptin prevented the enhanced behavioral sensitization and elevation of DA and spinophilin in the NAcc but spared other changes regulated by IL-6, such as increased NAcc TH levels and acute locomotor response to AMPH. Our results provide novel evidence to suggest that prenatal surges in both maternal circulating IL-6 and leptin contribute to the appearance of sensitized DA function in the adult offspring.

  19. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jones G; Wanat, Matthew J; Soden, Marta E; Ahmad, Kinza; Zweifel, Larry S; Bamford, Nigel S; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-11-23

    Phasic dopamine (DA) transmission encodes the value of reward-predictive stimuli and influences both learning and decision-making. Altered DA signaling is associated with psychiatric conditions characterized by risky choices such as pathological gambling. These observations highlight the importance of understanding how DA neuron activity is modulated. While excitatory drive onto DA neurons is critical for generating phasic DA responses, emerging evidence suggests that inhibitory signaling also modulates these responses. To address the functional importance of inhibitory signaling in DA neurons, we generated mice lacking the β3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor specifically in DA neurons (β3-KO mice) and examined their behavior in tasks that assessed appetitive learning, aversive learning, and risk preference. DA neurons in midbrain slices from β3-KO mice exhibited attenuated GABA-evoked IPSCs. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of excitatory afferents to DA neurons elicited more DA release in the nucleus accumbens of β3-KO mice as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. β3-KO mice were more active than controls when given morphine, which correlated with potential compensatory upregulation of GABAergic tone onto DA neurons. β3-KO mice learned faster in two food-reinforced learning paradigms, but extinguished their learned behavior normally. Enhanced learning was specific for appetitive tasks, as aversive learning was unaffected in β3-KO mice. Finally, we found that β3-KO mice had enhanced risk preference in a probabilistic selection task that required mice to choose between a small certain reward and a larger uncertain reward. Collectively, these findings identify a selective role for GABA(A) signaling in DA neurons in appetitive learning and decision-making.

  20. Prolactin secretory surge during estrus coincides with increased dopamine activity in the hypothalamus and preoptic area and is not altered by ovariectomy on proestrus.

    PubMed

    Szawka, Raphael E; Rodovalho, Gisele V; Helena, Cleyde V V; Franci, Celso R; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2007-06-15

    Prolactin (PRL) secretory surges have been reported on the afternoons of both proestrus and estrous in cycling rats. As neuroendocrine regulation of estrous PRL surge is poorly understood, the present study aimed to investigate the involvement of hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin as well as of plasma ovarian steroids in this hormonal surge generation. For that, we determined the concentrations of dopamine, serotonin and their respective metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) throughout the day of estrus and correlated them with plasma PRL levels. In a second study, we evaluated the effect of ovariectomy on the morning of proestrus on PRL surges of both proestrus and estrus. Dopamine turnover, as determined by DOPAC/dopamine ratio, increased in both the MBH and MPOA coinciding with the afternoon PRL surge on estrus. In contrast, both the concentration and turnover (5-HIAA/serotonin) of serotonin within these areas were unaltered during estrus. In addition, ovariectomy reduced plasma estradiol and progesterone levels but did not alter the PRL surges on proestrus and estrus. Considering that dopamine is the main inhibitor of PRL release and that PRL auto-regulates its secretion through a short-loop feedback mechanism, our present results suggest that PRL may suppress its own secretion during the estrus surge through the activation of the dopaminergic neurons in the MBH and MPOA. In addition, the PRL surge on estrus seems do not depend on either the activity of hypothalamic serotonin or the increased secretion of ovarian steroids on proestrus.

  1. Multiscale imaging characterization of dopamine transporter knockout mice reveals regional alterations in spine density of medium spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, M L; Price, D L; Phung, B S; Giuly, R; Terada, M; Yamada, N; Cyr, M; Caron, M G; Laakso, A; Martone, M E; Ellisman, M H

    2011-05-16

    The dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mouse is a model of chronic hyperdopaminergia used to study a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug abuse, depression, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Early studies characterizing this mouse model revealed a subtle, but significant, decrease in the anterior striatal volume of DAT KO mice accompanied by a decrease in neuronal cell body numbers (Cyr et al., 2005). The present studies were conducted to examine medium spiny neuron (MSN) morphology by extending these earlier reports to include multiscale imaging studies using correlated light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) techniques. Specifically, we set out to determine if chronic hyperdopaminergia results in quantifiable or qualitative changes in DAT KO mouse MSNs relative to wild-type (WT) littermates. Using Neurolucida Explorer's morphometric analysis, we measured spine density, dendritic length and synapse number at ages that correspond with the previously reported changes in striatal volume and progressive cell loss. Light microscopic analysis using Neurolucida tracings of photoconverted striatal MSNs revealed a highly localized loss of dendritic spines on the proximal portion of the dendrite (30 μm from the soma) in the DAT KO group. Next, thick sections containing MSN dendritic segments located at a distance of 20-60 μm from the cell soma, a region of the dendrite where spine density is reported to be the highest, were analyzed using electron microscope tomography (EMT). Because of the resolution limits of LM, the EM analysis was an extra measure taken to assure that our analysis included nearly all spines. Spine density measurements collected from the EMT data revealed only a modest decrease in the DAT KO group (n=3 mice) compared to age-matched WT controls (n=3 mice), a trend that supports the LM findings. Finally, a synaptic quantification using unbiased stereology did not

  2. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Persistently Alters Endocannabinoid Signaling and Endocannabinoid-Mediated Excitatory Synaptic Plasticity in Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Hausknecht, Kathryn; Shen, Ying-Ling; Wang, Rui-Xiang; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Shen, Roh-Yu

    2017-06-14

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) leads to increased addiction risk which could be mediated by enhanced excitatory synaptic strength in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. Previous studies have shown that PE enhances excitatory synaptic strength by facilitating an anti-Hebbian form of long-term potentiation (LTP). In this study, we investigated the effect of PE on endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in VTA DA neurons. Rats were exposed to moderate (3 g/kg/d) or high (6 g/kg/d) levels of ethanol during gestation. Whole-cell recordings were conducted in male offspring between 4 and 10 weeks old.We found that PE led to increased amphetamine self-administration. Both moderate and high levels of PE persistently reduced low-frequency stimulation-induced eCB-LTD. Furthermore, action potential-independent glutamate release was regulated by tonic eCB signaling in PE animals. Mechanistic studies for impaired eCB-LTD revealed that PE downregulated CB1 receptor function. Interestingly, eCB-LTD in PE animals was rescued by metabotropic glutamate receptor I activation, suggesting that PE did not impair the synthesis/release of eCBs. In contrast, eCB-LTD in PE animals was not rescued by increasing presynaptic activity, which actually led to LTP in PE animals, whereas LTD was still observed in controls. This result shows that the regulation of excitatory synaptic plasticity is fundamentally altered in PE animals. Together, PE leads to impaired eCB-LTD at the excitatory synapses of VTA DA neurons primarily due to CB1 receptor downregulation. This effect could contribute to enhanced LTP and the maintenance of augmented excitatory synaptic strength in VTA DA neurons and increased addiction risk after PE.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) is among many adverse developmental factors known to increase drug addiction risk. Increased excitatory synaptic strength in VTA DA neurons is a critical cellular mechanism for addiction risk. Our

  3. SLC6A3 coding variant Ala559Val found in two autism probands alters dopamine transporter function and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bowton, E; Saunders, C; Reddy, I A; Campbell, N G; Hamilton, P J; Henry, L K; Coon, H; Sakrikar, D; Veenstra-VanderWeele, J M; Blakely, R D; Sutcliffe, J; Matthies, H J G; Erreger, K; Galli, A

    2014-10-14

    Emerging evidence associates dysfunction in the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) with the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The human DAT (hDAT; SLC6A3) rare variant with an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 559 (hDAT A559V) was previously reported in individuals with bipolar disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have demonstrated that this variant is hyper-phosphorylated at the amino (N)-terminal serine (Ser) residues and promotes an anomalous DA efflux phenotype. Here, we report the novel identification of hDAT A559V in two unrelated ASD subjects and provide the first mechanistic description of its impaired trafficking phenotype. DAT surface expression is dynamically regulated by DAT substrates including the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH), which causes hDAT trafficking away from the plasma membrane. The integrity of DAT trafficking directly impacts DA transport capacity and therefore dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here, we show that hDAT A559V is resistant to AMPH-induced cell surface redistribution. This unique trafficking phenotype is conferred by altered protein kinase C β (PKCβ) activity. Cells expressing hDAT A559V exhibit constitutively elevated PKCβ activity, inhibition of which restores the AMPH-induced hDAT A559V membrane redistribution. Mechanistically, we link the inability of hDAT A559V to traffic in response to AMPH to the phosphorylation of the five most distal DAT N-terminal Ser. Mutation of these N-terminal Ser to Ala restores AMPH-induced trafficking. Furthermore, hDAT A559V has a diminished ability to transport AMPH, and therefore lacks AMPH-induced DA efflux. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCβ or Ser to Ala substitution in the hDAT A559V background restores AMPH-induced DA efflux while promoting intracellular AMPH accumulation. Although hDAT A559V is a rare variant, it has been found in multiple probands with neuropsychiatric disorders associated with imbalances in DA neurotransmission

  4. Analysis of IL-22 contribution to hepcidin induction and hypoferremia during the response to LPS in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Daniel F; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2015-06-01

    The anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) results from inflammation-mediated up-regulation of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, with the consequent sequestration of iron limiting its availability for erythropoiesis. The inflammatory cytokine IL-6, a regulator of hepcidin, has been implicated in this process. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that IL-22 is also able to stimulate hepcidin expression. We aimed to determine if IL-22 had a role in causing the hypoferremia associated with the inflammatory response. Wild-type and Il22-knockout mice were subjected to an acute inflammatory stimulus via administration of LPS and the response of hepcidin and iron homeostasis was analysed. In the absence of IL-22, there was a response of hepcidin, resulting in a reduction in serum iron levels. However, the hypoferremic response to LPS was slightly blunted in mice lacking IL-22, suggesting that, during LPS-mediated inflammation, IL-22 may play a minor role in mediating the hypoferremic response. These results may have implications for the treatment and management of the ACD.

  5. Methamphetamine-induced dopamine-independent alterations in striatal gene expression in the 6-hydroxydopamine hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Brannock, Christie; Krasnova, Irina N; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T; Chou, Jenny; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H; Becker, Kevin G; Wang, Yun

    2010-12-13

    Unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle are used extensively as a model of Parkinson's disease. The present experiments sought to identify genes that were affected in the dopamine (DA)-denervated striatum after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced destruction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in the rat. We also examined whether a single injection of methamphetamine (METH) (2.5 mg/kg) known to cause changes in gene expression in the normally DA-innervated striatum could still influence striatal gene expression in the absence of DA. Unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle resulted in METH-induced rotational behaviors ipsilateral to the lesioned side and total striatal DA depletion on the lesioned side. This injection also caused decrease in striatal serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels. DA depletion was associated with increases in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios that were potentiated by the METH injection. Microarray analyses revealed changes (±1.7-fold, p<0.025) in the expression of 67 genes on the lesioned side in comparison to the intact side of the saline-treated hemiparkinsonian animals. These include follistatin, neuromedin U, and tachykinin 2 which were up-regulated. METH administration caused increases in the expression of c-fos, Egr1, and Nor-1 on the intact side. On the DA-depleted side, METH administration also increased the expression of 61 genes including Pdgf-d and Cox-2. There were METH-induced changes in 16 genes that were common in the DA-innervated and DA-depleted sides. These include c-fos and Nor-1 which show greater changes on the normal DA side. Thus, the present study documents, for the first time, that METH mediated DA-independent changes in the levels of transcripts of several genes in the DA-denervated striatum. Our results also implicate 5-HT as a potential player in these METH-induced alterations in gene expression because the METH injection also caused

  6. Methamphetamine-Induced Dopamine-Independent Alterations in Striatal Gene Expression in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Hemiparkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Brannock, Christie; Krasnova, Irina N.; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T.; Chou, Jenny; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Becker, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle are used extensively as a model of Parkinson's disease. The present experiments sought to identify genes that were affected in the dopamine (DA)–denervated striatum after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced destruction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in the rat. We also examined whether a single injection of methamphetamine (METH) (2.5 mg/kg) known to cause changes in gene expression in the normally DA-innervated striatum could still influence striatal gene expression in the absence of DA. Unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle resulted in METH-induced rotational behaviors ipsilateral to the lesioned side and total striatal DA depletion on the lesioned side. This injection also caused decrease in striatal serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels. DA depletion was associated with increases in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios that were potentiated by the METH injection. Microarray analyses revealed changes (± 1.7-fold, p<0.025) in the expression of 67 genes on the lesioned side in comparison to the intact side of the saline-treated hemiparkinsonian animals. These include follistatin, neuromedin U, and tachykinin 2 which were up-regulated. METH administration caused increases in the expression of c-fos, Egr1, and Nor-1 on the intact side. On the DA-depleted side, METH administration also increased the expression of 61 genes including Pdgf-d and Cox-2. There were METH-induced changes in 16 genes that were common in the DA-innervated and DA-depleted sides. These include c-fos and Nor-1 which show greater changes on the normal DA side. Thus, the present study documents, for the first time, that METH mediated DA-independent changes in the levels of transcripts of several genes in the DA-denervated striatum. Our results also implicate 5-HT as a potential player in these METH-induced alterations in gene expression because the METH injection also

  7. Misassembly of full-length Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 protein is linked to altered dopamine homeostasis and behavioral deficits

    PubMed Central

    Trossbach, S V; Bader, V; Hecher, L; Pum, M E; Masoud, S T; Prikulis, I; Schäble, S; de Souza Silva, M A; Su, P; Boulat, B; Chwiesko, C; Poschmann, G; Stühler, K; Lohr, K M; Stout, K A; Oskamp, A; Godsave, S F; Müller-Schiffmann, A; Bilzer, T; Steiner, H; Peters, P J; Bauer, A; Sauvage, M; Ramsey, A J; Miller, G W; Liu, F; Seeman, P; Brandon, N J; Huston, J P; Korth, C

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a mental illness gene first identified in a Scottish pedigree. So far, DISC1-dependent phenotypes in animal models have been confined to expressing mutant DISC1. Here we investigated how pathology of full-length DISC1 protein could be a major mechanism in sporadic mental illness. We demonstrate that a novel transgenic rat model, modestly overexpressing the full-length DISC1 transgene, showed phenotypes consistent with a significant role of DISC1 misassembly in mental illness. The tgDISC1 rat displayed mainly perinuclear DISC1 aggregates in neurons. Furthermore, the tgDISC1 rat showed a robust signature of behavioral phenotypes that includes amphetamine supersensitivity, hyperexploratory behavior and rotarod deficits, all pointing to changes in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. To understand the etiology of the behavioral deficits, we undertook a series of molecular studies in the dorsal striatum of tgDISC1 rats. We observed an 80% increase in high-affinity DA D2 receptors, an increased translocation of the dopamine transporter to the plasma membrane and a corresponding increase in DA inflow as observed by cyclic voltammetry. A reciprocal relationship between DISC1 protein assembly and DA homeostasis was corroborated by in vitro studies. Elevated cytosolic dopamine caused an increase in DISC1 multimerization, insolubility and complexing with the dopamine transporter, suggesting a physiological mechanism linking DISC1 assembly and dopamine homeostasis. DISC1 protein pathology and its interaction with dopamine homeostasis is a novel cellular mechanism that is relevant for behavioral control and may have a role in mental illness. PMID:26754951

  8. Prefrontocortical dopamine depletion induces antidepressant-like effects in rats and alters the profile of desipramine during Porsolt's test.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E F; Miñano, F J

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether bilateral dopamine depletion within the medial prefrontal cortex affects depression state, as well as the antidepressant efficacy of desipramine, in the forced swimming test. The rat's behaviour was evaluated by quantifying duration of immobility, climbing, swimming and diving. Immobility latency was also quantified and proved to be a suitable novel parameter. Monoamine levels within the medial prefrontal cortex were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography during Porsolt's test, as well as one week after it. While Porsolt's test was followed by a typical depression-like profile in sham rats, depletion of prefrontocortical dopamine (86% vs sham controls) reduced immobility and enhanced swimming, which is consistent with a diminished depression tonus. The observed enhancement of swimming was correlated with a high prefrontocortical serotonergic neurotransmission. On the other hand, desipramine induced antidepression-like effects in sham rats by increasing prefrontocortical noradrenaline and serotonin neurotransmisson, but also by blocking the normal increase in dopamine activity during the swimming test. Interestingly, desipramine behaved in a quite different manner in lesioned rats. Thus, immobility duration was not further reduced and only climbing, but not swimming, was enhanced. These effects were correlated with a preferential enhancement of noradrenaline neurotransmission. In conclusion, the results indicate that: (i) dopamine neurotransmission within the medial prefrontal cortex is a factor involved in depression, since dopamine reduction led to a low depression tonus; (ii) desipramine induces antidepression not only by enhancing prefrontocortical noradrenaline and serotonin neurotransmission, but also by blocking the normal increase in dopamine neurotransmission during a depressant situation; (iii) a selective enhancement of prefrontocortical serotonin neurotransmission mediates swimming; and

  9. Pre-weaning manganese exposure causes hyperactivity, disinhibition, and spatial learning and memory deficits associated with altered dopamine receptor and transporter levels

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Cynthia; Stanwood, Gregg; Smith, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in children have reported associations between elevated dietary manganese (Mn) exposure and neurobehavioral and neurocognitive deficits. To better understand the relationship between early Mn exposure and neurobehavioral deficits, we treated neonate rats with oral Mn doses of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d over postnatal day (PND) 1 – 21, and evaluated behavioral performance using open arena (PND 23), elevated plus maze (PND 23), and 8-arm radial maze (PND 33–46) paradigms. Brain dopamine D1 and D2-like receptors, and DAT transporter densities were determined on PND 24, and blood and brain Mn levels were measured to coincide with behavioral testing (PND 24, PND 36). Pre-weaning Mn exposure caused hyperactivity and behavioral disinhibition in the open arena, but no altered behavior in the elevated plus maze. Manganese-exposed males committed significantly more reference and marginally more working errors in the radial arm maze compared to controls. Fewer Mn exposed males achieved the radial maze learning criterion, and they required more session days to reach it compared to controls. Manganese-exposed animals also exhibited a greater frequency of stereotypic response strategy in searching for the baited arms in the maze. These behavioral and learning deficits were associated with altered expression of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and the dopamine transporter in prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum. These data corroborate epidemiological studies in children, and suggest that exposure to Mn during neurodevelopment significantly alters dopaminergic synaptic environments in brain nuclei that mediate control of executive function behaviors, such as reactivity and cognitive flexibility. PMID:20029834

  10. Food restriction alters pramipexole-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: Evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gregory T.; Calinski, Diane M.; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Woods, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Food restriction enhances sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse including opiates, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Food restriction has also been shown to alter a variety of behavioral and pharmacological responses to dopaminergic agonists including an increased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of direct- and indirect-dopamine agonists, elevated extracellular dopamine levels in responses to psychostimulants, as well as suppression of agonist-induced yawning. Behavioral and molecular studies suggests that augmented dopaminergic responses observed in food-restricted animals result from a sensitization of the dopamine D2 receptor, however, little is known about how food restriction affects dopamine D3 receptor function. The current studies were aimed at better defining the effects of food restriction on D2 and D3 receptor function by assessing the capacity of pramipexole to induce yawning, penile erection (PE), hypothermia, and locomotor activity in free-fed and food-restricted rats. Food restriction resulted in a suppression of pramipexole-induced yawning, a sensitized hypothermic response, and an enhanced locomotor response to pramipexole, effects that are suggestive of an enhanced D2 receptor activity; no effect on pramipexole-induced PE was observed. Antagonist studies further supported a food restriction-induced enhancement of D2 receptor activity as the D2 antagonist, L-741,626, recovered pramipexole-induced yawning to free-fed levels, while yawning and PE were suppressed following pretreatment with the D3 antagonist, PG01037. The results of the current studies suggest that food restriction sensitized rats to the D2-mediated effects of pramipexole while having no effect on the D3-mediated effects of pramipexole. PMID:18305018

  11. Adolescent life-event stress in boys is associated with elevated IL-6 and hepcidin but not hypoferremia.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Little Flower; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez; Rao, Mendu Vishnuvardhana; Ravinder, Punjal; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Laxmaiah, Avula; Vazir, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    The link between stress-related increases in inflammatory markers, hepcidin, and iron status are poorly understood, especially in developing countries like India. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between adolescent life-event stress (ALES), inflammatory markers, and its association with hepcidin and biomarkers of iron status among adolescent boys. Data pertaining to a subsample of 145 participants from a cross-sectional, school-based study recruiting 370 adolescent boys aged 15-19 years, from 5 schools in Hyderabad, India, were analyzed. Stress was assessed using the ALES scale, psychological distress by the General Health Questionnaire-2 (GHQ-12), and approach and avoidance coping using the Coping Strategies Scale. Biomarkers of iron and concentrations of other micronutrients, hepcidin, IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma were analyzed. Data were subjected to regression, path analyses, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). ALES was a significant predictor of interleukin (IL)-6 (β = 0.196, p = 0.012), CRP (β = 0.217, p = 0.010), and log hepcidin (β = 0.228, p = 0.006). Hepcidin correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with IL-6 (r = 0.344) and CRP (r = 0.370) but not with the biomarkers of iron status. Path analysis showed that the model had an acceptable fit, with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.019, 90% confidence interval (CI) of 0.00-0.074, comparative fit index of 0.988, chi-square p = 0.393, and chi-square/df of 1.053. Adolescent life-event stress is associated with elevated IL-6 and hepcidin concentration but not hypoferremia. These findings may help in iron supplementation programs for tackling anemia.

  12. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy; Ellis, Linda A.; Galea, Liisa A. M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic dopamine activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and dopamine (DA) systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and dopamine systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24 hours following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared

  13. Dopamine receptor antagonists reverse amphetamine-induced behavioral alteration on a differential reinforcement for low-rate (DRL) operant task in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Liao, Ruey-Ming

    2007-04-30

    Previous studies have shown that amphetamine significantly alters operant responding on the behavior maintained on a schedule of differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL). As such, behavioral deficiency of DRL responding has been observed by the drug-induced increase of non-reinforced responses and a leftward shift of inter-response time (IRT) curve on DRL responding in the rat. However, the neurochemical basis for amphetamine-induced DRL behavioral alternations remain to be elucidated. The present study was then designed to examine whether the effects of amphetamine were dependent on dopamine-subtyped receptors, this was carried out by the co-administration of the selective D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, SCH23390 and raclopride respectively. Rats were first trained to perform on DRL 10-sec task and then divided into four groups, which received separate types of double injections before the behavioral session. The four groups were the saline control group, the amphetamine alone group, the dopamine antagonist alone group, and the combination of [corrected] amphetamine and dopamine antagonist group. The saline control group performed DRL responding in an efficient manner with a major index for the peak time of the IRT curve, which was fairly localized within the 10-sec bin throughout the test phase. The subjects injected with amphetamine (1 mg/kg) significantly shortened IRT that led to a leftward shift of IRT curve, which was further revealed by a decreased peak time without significant effectiveness on the peak rate and burst response. Even though the group given SCH23390 or raclopride alone showed profound disruption on DRL behavior by flattening the IRT curve, the co-administration of amphetamine with SCH23390 or raclopride reversed the aforementioned amphetamine-induced behavioral deficiency on DRL task. Together, these results suggest that the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are involved and important to the temporal regulation of DRL response under

  14. Long-term exposure to paraquat alters behavioral parameters and dopamine levels in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Josiane W; Cognato, Giana P; Christoff, Raissa R; Roesler, Laura N; Leite, Carlos E; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Mauricio R; Vianna, Monica R; Bonan, Carla D

    2014-04-01

    Chronic exposure to paraquat (Pq), a toxic herbicide, can result in Parkinsonian symptoms. This study evaluated the effect of the systemic administration of Pq on locomotion, learning and memory, social interaction, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels, and dopamine transporter (DAT) gene expression in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish received an i.p. injection of either 10 mg/kg (Pq10) or 20 mg/kg (Pq20) of Pq every 3 days for a total of six injections. Locomotion and distance traveled decreased at 24 h after each injection in both treatment doses. In addition, both Pq10- and Pq20-treated animals exhibited differential effects on the absolute turn angle. Nonmotor behaviors were also evaluated, and no changes were observed in anxiety-related behaviors or social interactions in Pq-treated zebrafish. However, Pq-treated animals demonstrated impaired acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory in the Y-maze task. Interestingly, dopamine levels increased while DOPAC levels decreased in the zebrafish brain after both treatments. However, DAT expression decreased in the Pq10-treated group, and there was no change in the Pq20-treated group. The amount of TH protein showed no significant difference in the treated group. Our study establishes a new model to study Parkinson-associated symptoms in zebrafish that have been chronically treated with Pq.

  15. Schizophrenia, amphetamine-induced sensitized state and acute amphetamine exposure all show a common alteration: increased dopamine D2 receptor dimerization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background All antipsychotics work via dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs), suggesting a critical role for D2Rs in psychosis; however, there is little evidence for a change in receptor number or pharmacological nature of D2Rs. Recent data suggest that D2Rs form dimers in-vitro and in-vivo, and we hypothesized that schizophrenia, as well as preclinical models of schizophrenia, would demonstrate altered dimerization of D2Rs, even though the overall number of D2Rs was unaltered. Methods We measured the expression of D2Rs dimers and monomers in patients with schizophrenia using Western blots, and then in striatal tissue from rats exhibiting the amphetamine-induced sensitized state (AISS). We further examined the interaction between D2Rs and the dopamine transporter (DAT) by co-immunoprecipitation, and measured the expression of dopamine D2High receptors with ligand binding assays in rat striatum slices with or without acute amphetamine pre-treatment. Results We observed significantly enhanced expression of D2Rs dimers (277.7 ± 33.6%) and decreased expression of D2Rs monomers in post-mortem striatal tissue of schizophrenia patients. We found that amphetamine facilitated D2Rs dimerization in both the striatum of AISS rats and in rat striatal neurons. Furthermore, amphetamine-induced D2Rs dimerization may be associated with the D2R-DAT protein-protein interaction as an interfering peptide that disrupts the D2R-DAT coupling, blocked amphetamine-induced up-regulation of D2Rs dimerization. Conclusions Given the fact that amphetamine induces psychosis and that the AISS rat is a widely accepted animal model of psychosis, our data suggest that D2R dimerization may be important in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may be a promising new target for novel antipsychotic drugs. PMID:20813060

  16. Cocaine exposure prior to pregnancy alters the psychomotor response to cocaine and transcriptional regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Aya; Constantinof, Andrea; Pan, Pauline; Kupferschmidt, Dave A; McGowan, Patrick O; Erb, Suzanne

    2014-05-15

    There is evidence that maternal experience prior to pregnancy can play an important role in behavioral, physiological, and genetic programming of offspring. Likewise, exposure to cocaine in utero can result in marked changes in central nervous system function of offspring. In this study, we examined whether exposure of rat dams to cocaine prior to pregnancy subsequently alters indices of behavior, physiology, and gene expression in offspring. Multiple outcome measures were examined in adult male offspring: (1) behavioral expression of cocaine-induced psychomotor activation; (2) levels of corticosterone in response to immobilization stress; and (3) expression of multiple genes, including dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) and D2 (DRD2), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), in functionally relevant brain regions. Adult Sprague-Dawley females were exposed to cocaine (15-30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 10 days, and were then mated to drug naïve males of the same strain. Separate groups of adult male offspring were tested for their acute psychomotor response to cocaine (0, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), corticosterone responsivity to 20 min of immobilization stress, and expression of multiple genes using quantitative PCR. Offspring of dams exposed to cocaine prior to conception exhibited increased psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine, and upregulated gene expression of DRD1 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Neither stress-induced corticosterone levels nor gene expression of GR or CRF genes were altered. These data suggest that cocaine exposure before pregnancy can serve to enhance psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine in offspring, possibly via alterations in dopamine function that include upregulation of the DRD1.

  17. Dopamine receptor dysregulation in hippocampus of aged rats underlies chronic pulsatile L-Dopa treatment induced cognitive and emotional alterations.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Vito S; Luquín, Sonia; Jáuregui-Huerta, Fernando; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Medina, Mauricio P; Ruíz-Velasco, Silvia; Zhang, Limei

    2014-07-01

    L-Dopa is the major symptomatic therapy for Parkinson's disease, which commonly occurs in elderly patients. However, the effects of chronic use on mood and cognition in old subjects remain elusive. In order to compare the effects of a chronic pulsatile L-Dopa treatment on emotional and cognitive functions in young (3 months) and old (18 months) intact rats, an L-Dopa/carbidopa treatment was administered every 12 h over 4 weeks. Rats were assessed for behavioural despair (repeated forced swimming test, RFST), anhedonia (sucrose preference test, SPT) and spatial learning (Morris water maze, MWM) in the late phase of treatment (T). Neuronal expression of Fos in the hippocampus at the early and late phases of T, as well as after MWM was studied. The density and ratio of dopamine D5r, D3r and D2r receptors were also evaluated in the hippocampus using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Young rats showed similar patterns during behavioural tests, whereas aged treated rats showed increased immobility counts in RFST, diminished sucrose liquid intake in SPT, and spatial learning impairment during MWM. Fos expression was significantly blunted in the aged treated group after MWM. The density of D5r, D3r and D2r was increased in both aged groups. The treatment reduced the ratio of D5r/D3r and D5r/D2r in both groups. Moreover, aged treated subjects had significant lower values of D5r/D3r and higher values of D5r/D2r when compared with young treated subjects. These results indicate that chronic L-Dopa treatment in itself could trigger emotional and cognitive dysfunctions in elderly subjects through dopamine receptor dysregulation.

  18. D1 and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists decrease behavioral bout duration, without altering the bout's repeated behavioral components, in a naturalistic model of repetitive and compulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Kurt L; Rueda Morales, Rafael I

    2012-04-21

    Nest building behavior in the pregnant female rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a model for compulsive behavior in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This behavior comprises a cycle of repeated, stereotyped components (collecting straw, entering nest box and depositing the straw there, returning to collect more straw), which itself is repeated 80+ times in a single bout that lasts approximately 50min. The bout, in turn, is repeated if necessary, according to the rabbit's perception of whether or not the nest is finished. We administered SCH23390 (5-100μg/kg; D1/D5 antagonist) or raclopride (0.05-1.0mg/kg; D2/D3 antagonist), subcutaneously to day 28 pregnant female rabbits, 30 or 60min before placing straw inside their home cage. At doses that minimally affected ambulatory behavior in open field (5-12.5μg/kg SCH23390, 0.5-1.0mg/kg raclopride), both antagonists dramatically reduced bout duration while not significantly affecting the initiation of straw carrying behavior, the sequential performance of the individual cycle components, maximum cycle frequency, or the total number of bouts performed. These results point to an important role for dopamine neurotransmission for the prolonged expression of a normal, repetitive and compulsive-like behavior. Moreover, the finding that dopamine receptor antagonists decrease the time spent engaged in repetitive behavior (without significantly altering the form of the repetitive behavior itself) suggests a possible explanation for why neuroleptics can be clinically effective for treating OCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Repeated cocaine enhances ventral hippocampal-stimulated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and alters ventral hippocampal NMDA receptor subunit expression.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jeffrey L; Forster, Gina L; Unterwald, Ellen M

    2014-08-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens is important for various reward-related cognitive processes including reinforcement learning. Repeated cocaine enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and phasic elevations of accumbal dopamine evoked by unconditioned stimuli are dependent on impulse flow from the ventral hippocampus. Therefore, sensitized hippocampal activity may be one mechanism by which drugs of abuse enhance limbic dopaminergic activity. In this study, in vivo microdialysis in freely moving adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was used to investigate the effect of repeated cocaine on ventral hippocampus-mediated dopaminergic transmission within the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens. Following seven daily injections of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, ip), unilateral infusion of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA, 0.5 μg) into the ventral hippocampus transiently increased both motoric activity and ipsilateral dopamine efflux in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, and this effect was greater in rats that received repeated cocaine compared to controls that received repeated saline. In addition, repeated cocaine altered NMDA receptor subunit expression in the ventral hippocampus, reducing the NR2A : NR2B subunit ratio. Together, these results suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine produces maladaptive ventral hippocampal-nucleus accumbens communication, in part through changes in glutamate receptor composition. A behaviorally sensitizing regimen of cocaine (20 mg/kg, ip 7 days) also sensitized ventral hippocampus (hipp)-mediated dopaminergic transmission within the nucleus accumbens (Nac) to NMDA stimulation (bolts). This was associated with reduced ventral hippocampal NR2A:NR2B subunit ratio, suggesting that repeated exposure to cocaine produces changes in hippocampal NMDA receptor composition that lead to enhanced ventral hippocampus-nucleus accumbens communication.

  20. Neonatal overexpression of estrogen receptor-α alters midbrain dopamine neuron development and reverses the effects of low maternal care in female offspring.

    PubMed

    Peña, Catherine Jensen; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-10-01

    Maternal behavior is dependent on estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα; Esr1) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) signaling in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the hypothalamus, as well as dopamine signaling from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to forebrain regions. Previous studies in rats indicate that low levels of maternal care, particularly licking/grooming (LG), lead to reduced levels of MPOA ERα and VTA dopamine neurons in female offspring and predict lower levels of postpartum maternal behavior by these offspring. The aim of this study was to determine the functional impact on maternal behavior of neonatal manipulation of ERα in females that had experienced low versus high levels of postnatal maternal LG. Adenovirus expressing ESR1 was targeted to the MPOA in female pups from low and high LG litters on postnatal day 2-3. Overexpression of ESR1 in low LG offspring elevated the level of ERα-immunoreactive cells in the MPOA and of tyrosine hydroxylase cells in the VTA to that observed in high LG females. Amongst juvenile female low LG offspring, ESR1 overexpression also decreased the latency to engage in maternal behavior toward donor pups. These results show that virally mediated expression of ESR1 in the neonatal rat hypothalamus results in lasting changes in ESR1 expression through the juvenile period, and can "rescue" hormone receptor levels and behavior of offspring reared by low LG dams, potentially mediated by downstream alterations within reward circuitry. Thus, the transmission of maternal behavior from one generation to the next can be augmented by neonatal ERα in the MPOA.

  1. Single-quantum-dot tracking reveals altered membrane dynamics of an attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder-derived dopamine transporter coding variant.

    PubMed

    Kovtun, Oleg; Sakrikar, Dhananjay; Tomlinson, Ian D; Chang, Jerry C; Arzeta-Ferrer, Xochitl; Blakely, Randy D; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2015-04-15

    The presynaptic, cocaine- and amphetamine-sensitive dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) controls the intensity and duration of synaptic dopamine signals by rapid clearance of DA back into presynaptic nerve terminals. Abnormalities in DAT-mediated DA clearance have been linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction, autism, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Membrane trafficking of DAT appears to be an important, albeit incompletely understood, post-translational regulatory mechanism; its dysregulation has been recently proposed as a potential risk determinant of these disorders. In this study, we demonstrate a link between an ADHD-associated DAT mutation (Arg615Cys, R615C) and variation on DAT transporter cell surface dynamics, a combination only previously studied with ensemble biochemical and optical approaches that featured limited spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we utilize high-affinity, DAT-specific antagonist-conjugated quantum dot (QD) probes to establish the dynamic mobility of wild-type and mutant DATs at the plasma membrane of living cells. Single DAT-QD complex trajectory analysis revealed that the DAT 615C variant exhibited increased membrane mobility relative to DAT 615R, with diffusion rates comparable to those observed after lipid raft disruption. This phenomenon was accompanied by a loss of transporter mobilization triggered by amphetamine, a common component of ADHD medications. Together, our data provides the first dynamic imaging of single DAT proteins, providing new insights into the relationship between surface dynamics and trafficking of both wild-type and disease-associated transporters. Our approach should be generalizable to future studies that explore the possibilities of perturbed surface DAT dynamics that may arise as a consequence of genetic alterations, regulatory changes, and drug use that contribute to the etiology or treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell induces anti-obesity effects in obese rats with alteration of dopamine neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wei, Nai-Li; Wang, Yao; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Kai

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-sh) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in diet-induced obese (DIO) and chow-fed (chow) rats. The influence of DBS on dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc-sh was also evaluated. DIO and chow rats were subjected to DBS for 14 consecutive days. Food intake and weight gain were measured daily. The gene expression of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors was evaluated by qPCR. In addition, the extracellular levels of DA and its metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were determined by microdialysis. We observed that chronic DBS induced significant reductions in total energy intake (596.0±65.0kcal vs. 1161.6±22.2kcal, p<0.001) and weight gain (1.45±0.57% vs. 9.64±0.38%, p<0.001) in DIO rats compared to sham-DIO rats. Up-regulated D2 receptor gene expression (2.43±0.12 vs. 0.64±0.04, p<0.001) and increased DA levels (2.73±0.15pmol/mL vs. 0.62±0.05pmol/mL, p<0.001) were observed in DIO rats compared to sham-DIO rats. DBS had no influence on food intake, weight gain, or DA neurotransmission in chow rats. Our results support an association of the anorexigenic effects of NAc-sh DBS with mesolimbic DA signaling and indicate that the positive alteration of DA function in DIO rats may be responsible for the different effects of DBS in DIO and chow rats.

  3. Morphofunctional alterations in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in acute and prolonged opiates withdrawal. A computational perspective.

    PubMed

    Enrico, P; Migliore, M; Spiga, S; Mulas, G; Caboni, F; Diana, M

    2016-05-13

    Dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play a key role in the neurobiological basis of goal-directed behaviors and addiction. Morphine (MOR) withdrawal induces acute and long-term changes in the morphology and physiology of VTA DA cells, but the mechanisms underlying these modifications are poorly understood. Because of their predictive value, computational models are a powerful tool in neurobiological research, and are often used to gain further insights and deeper understanding on the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the development of various psychiatric disorders. Here we present a biophysical model of a DA VTA neuron based on 3D morphological reconstruction and electrophysiological data, showing how opiates withdrawal-driven morphological and electrophysiological changes could affect the firing rate and discharge pattern. The model findings suggest how and to what extent a change in the balance of GABA/GLU inputs can take into account the experimentally observed hypofunction of VTA DA neurons during acute and prolonged withdrawal, whereas morphological changes may play a role in the increased excitability of VTA DA cell to opiate administration observed during opiate withdrawal.

  4. Dynamic Nigrostriatal Dopamine Biases Action Selection.

    PubMed

    Howard, Christopher D; Li, Hao; Geddes, Claire E; Jin, Xin

    2017-03-22

    Dopamine is thought to play a critical role in reinforcement learning and goal-directed behavior, but its function in action selection remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that nigrostriatal dopamine biases ongoing action selection. When mice were trained to dynamically switch the action selected at different time points, changes in firing rate of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, as well as dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum, were found to be associated with action selection. This dopamine profile is specific to behavioral choice, scalable with interval duration, and doesn't reflect reward prediction error, timing, or value as single factors alone. Genetic deletion of NMDA receptors on dopamine or striatal neurons or optogenetic manipulation of dopamine concentration alters dopamine signaling and biases action selection. These results unveil a crucial role of nigrostriatal dopamine in integrating diverse information for regulating upcoming actions, and they have important implications for neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and substance dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethanol and acetaldehyde differentially alter extracellular dopamine and serotonin in Aldh2-knockout mouse dorsal striatum: A reverse microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Miki, Takanori; Tanaka, Naoko; Ito, Asuka; Ono, Junichiro; Takakura, Ayaka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) seem to be involved in several of the effects of ethanol (EtOH). Acetaldehyde (AcH), especially in the brain, induces effects that mimic those of EtOH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of local perfusion of EtOH and AcH on extracellular DA and 5-HT in the dorsal striatum of Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Aldh2-KO mice were used as a model of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency in humans to examine the effects of AcH. Mice were perfused with Ringer's solution (control), EtOH (100, 200, or 500mM) and AcH (100, 200, or 500μM) into the dorsal striatum. Dialysate samples were collected every 5min, and then analyzed with HPLC coupled to an ECD. We found that local perfusion with 500mM EtOH increased extracellular levels of DA (p<0.05) in both Aldh2-KO and WT mice, while 5-HT levels remain unchanged. EtOH at a dose of 200mM also increased DA in WT mice, but this was limited to a 30-40-min time-point. In contrast, perfusion with 200 and 500μM AcH decreased both DA and 5-HT (p<0.05) in Aldh2-KO mice, but this decrease was not found in WT mice at any AcH dose, indicating an effect of AcH on DA and 5-HT levels. There were no genotype effects on the basal levels of DA and 5-HT. These results indicate that high EtOH can stimulate DA, whereas high AcH can depress both DA and 5-HT in the dorsal striatum of mice.

  6. Increased excitability of spinal pain reflexes and altered frequency-dependent modulation in the dopamine D3-receptor knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Benjamin E; Baran, Christine A; Brewer, Kori L; Clemens, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Frequency-dependent modulation and dopamine (DA) receptors strongly modulate neural circuits in the spinal cord. Of the five known DA receptor subtypes, the D3 receptor has the highest affinity to DA, and D3-mediated actions are mainly inhibitory. Using an animal model of spinal sensorimotor dysfunction, the D3 receptor knockout mouse (D3KO), we investigated the physiological consequences of D3 receptor dysfunction on pain-associated signaling pathways in the spinal cord, the initial integration site for the processing of pain signaling. In the D3KO spinal cord, inhibitory actions of DA on the proprioceptive monosynaptic stretch reflex are converted from depression to facilitation, but its effects on longer-latency and pain-associated reflex responses and the effects of FM have not been studied. Using behavioral approaches in vivo, we found that D3KO animals exhibit reduced paw withdrawal latencies to thermal pain stimulation (Hargreaves' test) over wild type (WT) controls. Electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches in the isolated spinal cord in vitro showed that constant current stimulation of dorsal roots at a pain-associated frequency was associated with a significant reduction in the frequency-dependent modulation of longer-latency reflex (LLRs) responses but not monosynaptic stretch reflexes (MSRs) in D3KO. Application of the D1 and D2 receptor agonists and the voltage-gated calcium-channel ligand, pregabalin, but not DA, was able to restore the frequency-dependent modulation of the LLR in D3KO to WT levels. Thus we demonstrate that nociception-associated LLRs and proprioceptive MSRs are differentially modulated by frequency, dopaminergics and the Ca(2+) channel ligand, pregabalin. Our data suggest a role for the DA D3 receptor in pain modulation and identify the D3KO as a possible model for increased nociception. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analogs of SR-141716A (Rimonabant) alter d-amphetamine-evoked [3H] dopamine overflow from preloaded striatal slices and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dennis K; Rodvelt, Kelli R; Constales, Consuela; Putnam, William C

    2007-06-13

    The CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR-141716A (Rimonabant) markedly diminishes the behavioral effects of opiates and nicotine and has been an important tool to ascertain the role of cannabinoid receptors in drug addiction. The present goal was to determine the less-explored interaction of SR-141716A and d-amphetamine in neurochemical and behavioral assays. Additionally, the effect of the substituents and substitution patterns on the phenyl ring located at the 5 position of SR-141716A (4-chlorophenyl), and of the CB(1)/CB(2) cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2, was determined. SR-141716A, AM-251 (4-iodophenyl) and NIDA-41020 (4-methoxyphenyl) did not alter amphetamine-evoked [(3)H]overflow from rat striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]dopamine. MRI-8273-30-1 (4-fluorophenyl; 0.1-10 microM) attenuated amphetamine (3 microM)-evoked [(3)H]overflow, and MRI-8273-59 (3,4-dichlorphenyl; 0.01-10 microM) augmented amphetamine (0.3-3 microM)-evoked [(3)H]overflow. WIN-55,212-2 was without effect. In a locomotor activity experiment, SR-141716A and MRI-8273-30-1 did not alter amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. However, MRI-8273-59 (1-3 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated amphetamine (1 mg/kg)-induced hyperactivity. The present results suggest that SR-141716A is less efficacious to alter amphetamine effects than its reported efficacy to diminish the effects of opiates and nicotine. Modification of the 5-phenyl position of SR-141716A affords compounds that do interact with amphetamine in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Persistent behavioral impairments and alterations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats.

    PubMed

    Olczak, Mieszko; Duszczyk, Michalina; Mierzejewski, Pawel; Meyza, Ksenia; Majewska, Maria Dorota

    2011-09-30

    The neurotoxic organomercurial thimerosal (THIM), used for decades as vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the pathogenesis of some neurodevelopmental disorders. Previously we showed that neonatal administration of THIM at doses equivalent to those used in infant vaccines or higher, causes lasting alterations in the brain opioid system in rats. Here we investigated neonatal treatment with THIM (at doses 12, 240, 1440 and 3000 μg Hg/kg) on behaviors, which are characteristically altered in autism, such as locomotor activity, anxiety, social interactions, spatial learning, and on the brain dopaminergic system in Wistar rats of both sexes. Adult male and female rats, which were exposed to the entire range of THIM doses during the early postnatal life, manifested impairments of locomotor activity and increased anxiety/neophobia in the open field test. In animals of both sexes treated with the highest THIM dose, the frequency of prosocial interactions was reduced, while the frequency of asocial/antisocial interactions was increased in males, but decreased in females. Neonatal THIM treatment did not significantly affect spatial learning and memory. THIM-exposed rats also manifested reduced haloperidol-induced catalepsy, accompanied by a marked decline in the density of striatal D₂ receptors, measured by immunohistochemical staining, suggesting alterations to the brain dopaminergic system. Males were more sensitive than females to some neurodisruptive/neurotoxic actions of THIM. These data document that early postnatal THIM administration causes lasting neurobehavioral impairments and neurochemical alterations in the brain, dependent on dose and sex. If similar changes occur in THIM/mercurial-exposed children, they could contribute do neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. Altered emotional experiences attributed to antipsychotic medications - A potential link with estimated dopamine D2 receptor occupancy.

    PubMed

    Lako, Irene M; Taxis, Katja; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Burger, Huibert; Wiersma, Durk; Slooff, Cees J; Knegtering, Henderikus; Bruggeman, Richard

    2016-02-28

    Altered emotional experiences in response to antipsychotics may increase the burden of disease in patients with schizophrenia. In a large cross-sectional study, patients with schizophrenia completed the Subjects Reaction to Antipsychotics questionnaire (SRA) to assess whether they attributed altered emotional experiences (flattened affect or depressive symptoms) to their antipsychotics. Association with antipsychotic D2 receptor affinity and occupancy was examined using logistic regression. We compared antipsychotic-attributed emotional experiences between patients using antipsychotic monotherapy and combination therapy. Of the 1298 included patients, 23% attributed flattened affect to their antipsychotics and 16% attributed depressive symptoms to their antipsychotics, based on the SRA. No differences were observed between antipsychotics in patients on monotherapy. We discuss that within these patients' relatively low dose range, altered emotional experiences did not appear to relate to the level of D2 receptor affinity of antipsychotic monotherapy. Patients using antipsychotic combination therapy (22%) were more likely to attribute depressive symptoms to their antipsychotics than patients using antipsychotic monotherapy (OR [95%CI]=1.443 [1.033-2.015]); possibly due to higher D2 receptor occupancies as estimated by dose equivalents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Long-Term Citalopram Treatment Alters the Stress Responses of the Cortical Dopamine and Noradrenaline Systems: the Role of Cortical 5-HT1A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Fumi; Kishikawa, Yuki; Hanada, Yuuki; Yamada, Makiko; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Nishi, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cortical dopamine and noradrenaline are involved in the stress response. Citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has direct and indirect effects on the serotonergic system. Furthermore, long-term treatment with citalopram affects the dopamine and noradrenaline systems, which could contribute to the therapeutic action of antidepressants. Methods: The effects of long-term treatment with citalopram on the responses of the dopamine and noradrenaline systems in the rat prefrontal cortex to acute handling stress were evaluated using in vivo microdialysis. Results: Acute handling stress increased dopamine and noradrenaline levels in the prefrontal cortex. The dopamine and noradrenaline responses were suppressed by local infusion of a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 7-(Dipropylamino)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ol;hydrobromide, into the prefrontal cortex. The dopamine response was abolished by long-term treatment with citalopram, and the abolished dopamine response was reversed by local infusion of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (Z)-but-2-enedioic acid;N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-N-pyridin-2-ylcyclohexanecarboxamide into the prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, long-term treatment with citalopram reduced the basal noradrenaline levels (approximately 40% of the controls), but not the basal dopamine levels. The noradrenaline response was maintained despite the low basal noradrenaline levels. Signaling from the 5-HT1A receptors and α2-adrenoceptors was not involved in the decrease in the basal noradrenaline levels but partially affected the noradrenaline response. Conclusions: Chronic citalopram treatment differentially suppresses the dopamine and noradrenaline systems in the prefrontal cortex, and the dopamine stress response was preferentially controlled by upregulating 5-HT1A receptor signaling. Our findings provide insight into how antidepressants modulate the dopamine and noradrenaline systems to overcome acute stress. PMID

  11. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-05

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs.

  12. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  13. Depressive-like behaviors alterations induced by intranigral MPTP, 6-OHDA, LPS and rotenone models of Parkinson's disease are predominantly associated with serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Ronise M; Barbieiro, Janaína; Lima, Marcelo M S; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F

    2010-08-16

    Depression is a frequently encountered non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it can have a significant impact on patient's quality of life. Considering the differential pathophysiology of depression in PD, it prompts the idea that a degenerated nigrostriatal system plays a role in depressive-like behaviors, whilst animal models of PD are employed. Therefore, we addressed the question of whether dopamine (DA) depletion, promoted by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and rotenone are able to induce depressive-like behaviors and neurotransmitters alterations similarly that encountered in PD. To test this rationale, we performed intranigral injections of each neurotoxin, followed by motor behavior, depressive-like behaviors, histological and neurochemical tests. After the motor recovery period, MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone were able to produce anhedonia and behavioral despair. These altered behavioral responses were accompanied by reductions of striatal DA, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) restricted to the 6-OHDA group. Additionally, decreases on the hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) content were detected for the MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone groups. Notably, strong correlations were detected among the groups when 5-HT and DA were correlated with swimming (r=+0.97; P=0.001) and immobility (r=-0.90; P=0.012), respectively. Our data indicate that MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone, but not LPS were able to produce depressive-like behaviors accompanied primarily by hippocampal 5-HT reductions. Moreover, DA and 5-HT strongly correlated with "emotional" impairments suggesting an important participation of these neurotransmitters in anhedonia and behavioral despair after nigral lesions promoted by the neurotoxins.

  14. Chronic levodopa treatment alters expression and function of dopamine D3 receptor in the MPTP/p mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cote, Samantha R; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2015-01-12

    Chronic treatment with levodopa or antipsychotics results in manifestation of side-effects such as dyskinesia which correlates with changes in expression and function of receptors and signaling proteins. Previous studies have suggested a role for the dopamine D3 receptor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and tardive dyskinesia. Yet the expression and signaling function of D3 receptor in these disorders is not well understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic levodopa treatment alters both expression and function of D3 receptors in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid (MPTP/p) mouse model of PD. drd3-EGFP reporter mice were injected biweekly with saline or MPTP and probenecid for a 5-week period. During the last two weeks of the 5-week period, the mice were administered saline or levodopa twice daily. Locomotor activity was measured during the treatment period. D3 receptor expression was determined by western blot analysis. D3 receptor signaling function was determined at tissue and single cell level by measuring the activation of D3 receptor-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The drd3-EGFP mice administered MPTP/p exhibited akinesia/bradykinesia. Expression of D3 receptor protein in the dorsal striatum specifically increased in the MPTP/p-treated mice administered levodopa. In the dorsal striatum of levodopa and MPTP/p-treated drd3-EGFP mice, administration of a D3 receptor-selective dose of agonist, PD128907, failed to activate D3 receptor-MAPK signaling. These results suggest that MPTP-induced lesion and chronic levodopa treatment alters D3 receptor expression and function in the dorsal striatum which could contribute to the development of dyskinesias and other motor side-effects.

  15. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Nichols, Weston A; Moaddel, Ruin; Xiao, Cheng; Lester, Henry A

    2016-03-09

    Upregulation of β2 subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is implicated in several aspects of nicotine addiction, and menthol cigarette smokers tend to upregulate β2* nAChRs more than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. We investigated the effect of long-term menthol alone on midbrain neurons containing nAChRs. In midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mice containing fluorescent nAChR subunits, menthol alone increased the number of α4 and α6 nAChR subunits, but this upregulation did not occur in midbrain GABAergic neurons. Thus, chronic menthol produces a cell-type-selective upregulation of α4* nAChRs, complementing that of chronic nicotine alone, which upregulates α4 subunit-containing (α4*) nAChRs in GABAergic but not DA neurons. In mouse brain slices and cultured midbrain neurons, menthol reduced DA neuron firing frequency and altered DA neuron excitability following nAChR activation. Furthermore, menthol exposure before nicotine abolished nicotine reward-related behavior in mice. In neuroblastoma cells transfected with fluorescent nAChR subunits, exposure to 500 nm menthol alone also increased nAChR number and favored the formation of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs; this contrasts with the action of nicotine itself, which favors (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs. Menthol alone also increases the number of α6β2 receptors that exclude the β3 subunit. Thus, menthol stabilizes lower-sensitivity α4* and α6 subunit-containing nAChRs, possibly by acting as a chemical chaperone. The abolition of nicotine reward-related behavior may be mediated through menthol's ability to stabilize lower-sensitivity nAChRs and alter DA neuron excitability. We conclude that menthol is more than a tobacco flavorant: administered alone chronically, it alters midbrain DA neurons of the nicotine reward-related pathway.

  16. Elevated Urinary Glyphosate and Clostridia Metabolites With Altered Dopamine Metabolism in Triplets With Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Suspected Seizure Disorder: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, William

    2017-01-01

    male triplet was retested postintervention and was found to have a markedly lower amount of glyphosate in his urine. Conclusions The pattern of metabolites in the urine samples of the males with autism are consistent with a recent theory of autism that connects widespread glyphosate use with alteration of animal and human gastrointestinal flora. That theory is that the normally beneficial bacteria species that are sensitive to glyphosate are diminished and harmful bacteria species, such as Clostridia, that are insensitive to glyphosate, are increased following exposure to glyphosate. Excessive dopamine, caused by inhibition of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase by Clostridia metabolites, in turn, produces oxidative species that damage neuronal Krebs cycle enzymes, neuronal mitochondria, and neuronal structural elements such as the neurofibrils. PMID:28223908

  17. Elevated Urinary Glyphosate and Clostridia Metabolites With Altered Dopamine Metabolism in Triplets With Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Suspected Seizure Disorder: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Shaw, William

    2017-02-01

    amount of glyphosate in his urine. The pattern of metabolites in the urine samples of the males with autism are consistent with a recent theory of autism that connects widespread glyphosate use with alteration of animal and human gastrointestinal flora. That theory is that the normally beneficial bacteria species that are sensitive to glyphosate are diminished and harmful bacteria species, such as Clostridia, that are insensitive to glyphosate, are increased following exposure to glyphosate. Excessive dopamine, caused by inhibition of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase by Clostridia metabolites, in turn, produces oxidative species that damage neuronal Krebs cycle enzymes, neuronal mitochondria, and neuronal structural elements such as the neurofibrils.

  18. Dopamine regulates body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Oami, Eitaro; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ishiura, Shoichi; Suo, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of animal body sizes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, an amine neurotransmitter, dopamine, is required for the tactile perception of food and food-dependent behavioral changes, while its role in development is unknown. In this study, we show that dopamine negatively regulates body size through a D2-like dopamine receptor, DOP-3, in C. elegans. Dopamine alters body size without affecting food intake or developmental rate. We also found that dopamine promotes egg-laying, although the regulation of body size by dopamine was not solely caused by this effect. Furthermore, dopamine negatively regulates body size through the suppression of signaling by octopamine and Gq-coupled octopamine receptors, SER-3 and SER-6. Our results demonstrate that dopamine and octopamine regulate the body size of C. elegans and suggest a potential role for perception in addition to ingestion of food for growth.

  19. MAPT Genetic Variation and Neuronal Maturity Alter Isoform Expression Affecting Axonal Transport in iPSC-Derived Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Joel E; Lai, Mang Ching; Collins, Emma; Booth, Heather D E; Zambon, Federico; Parkkinen, Laura; Vowles, Jane; Cowley, Sally A; Wade-Martins, Richard; Caffrey, Tara M

    2017-08-08

    The H1 haplotype of the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) locus is genetically associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), and affects gene expression and splicing. However, the functional impact on neurons of such expression differences has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we employ extended maturation phases during differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into mature dopaminergic neuronal cultures to obtain cultures expressing all six adult tau protein isoforms. After 6 months of maturation, levels of exon 3+ and exon 10+ transcripts approach those of adult brain. Mature dopaminergic neuronal cultures display haplotype differences in expression, with H1 expressing 22% higher levels of MAPT transcripts than H2 and H2 expressing 2-fold greater exon 3+ transcripts than H1. Furthermore, knocking down adult tau protein variants alters axonal transport velocities in mature iPSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal cultures. This work links haplotype-specific MAPT expression with a biologically functional outcome relevant for PD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dopamine receptor alterations in female rats with diet-induced decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): interactions with reproductive status

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Paul F.; Ozias, Marlies K.; Carlson, Susan E.; Reed, Gregory A.; Winter, Michelle K.; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Levant, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Decreased tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. This study examined the effects of a diet-induced loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status on dopaminergic parameters in adult female Long–Evans rats. An α-linolenic acid-deficient diet and breeding protocols were used to produce virgin and parous female rats with cortical phospholipid DHA levels 20–22% lower than those fed a control diet containing adequate α-linolenic acid. Decreased brain DHA produced a significant main effect of decreased density of ventral striatal D2-like receptors. Virgin females with decreased DHA also exhibited higher density of D1-like receptors in the caudate nucleus than virgin females with normal DHA. These receptor alterations are similar to those found in several rodent models of depression, and are consistent with the proposed hypodopaminergic basis for anhedonia and motivational deficits in depression. PMID:20670471

  1. Dopamine agonist radioligand binds to both D2High and D2Low receptors, explaining why alterations in D2High are not detected in human brain scans.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The features of schizophrenia are consistent with increased sensitivity to endogenous dopamine. Animal models of schizophrenia reveal an increase in the in vitro proportion of striatal dopamine D2 receptors in the high-affinity state for dopamine (i.e., D2High), as measured by dopamine/[(3) H]domperidone competition. However, in vivo studies did not reveal the dopamine agonist [(11) C](+)PHNO to be elevated in amphetamine-sensitized rats. Also, no increase was found in the in vivo binding of [(11) C](+)PHNO in schizophrenia patients. This work was done to resolve the contradictory findings. It was found that the in vitro density of rat striatal D2 receptors was 18 pmol/g for [(3) H]raclopride and 12 pmol/g for [(3) H](+)PHNO; most of the latter sites disappeared in the presence of guanine nucleotide. Using 2 nM [(3) H](+)PHNO (K(d) of 0.72 nM at D2) to label D2 receptors in the striata and the human D2 clone, 10 nM to 100 nM dopamine inhibited 10-20% of the [(3) H](+)PHNO bound, representing high-affinity binding of [(3) H](+)PHNO, with the remainder inhibited above 100 nM dopamine, representing low-affinity binding of [(3) H](+)PHNO. It was found that (+)PHNO and (-)NPA dissociated from the D2 clone with half-times of 96 and 600 s, respectively. These rates are slower than the reported sub-second dissociation of the G protein from a receptor, suggesting that these two ligands still occupy the D2Low receptor after the G protein has separated. Thus, the radio-agonist label for (+)PHNO is not selective for dopamine D2High receptors, but also binds to the D2Low state of the dopamine receptor. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress.

    PubMed

    Uban, Kristina A; Comeau, Wendy L; Ellis, Linda A; Galea, Liisa A M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-10-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine (DA) systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic DA activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and DA systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and DA systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24h following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared to CVS-exposed control

  3. Mouse social stress induces increased fear conditioning, helplessness and fatigue to physical challenge together with markers of altered immune and dopamine function.

    PubMed

    Azzinnari, Damiano; Sigrist, Hannes; Staehli, Simon; Palme, Rupert; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Leparc, German; Hengerer, Bastian; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R

    2014-10-01

    In neuropsychiatry, animal studies demonstrating causal effects of environmental manipulations relevant to human aetiology on behaviours relevant to human psychopathologies are valuable. Such valid models can improve understanding of aetio-pathophysiology and preclinical discovery and development of new treatments. In depression, specific uncontrollable stressful life events are major aetiological factors, and subsequent generalized increases in fearfulness, helplessness and fatigue are core symptoms or features. Here we exposed adult male C57BL/6 mice to 15-day psychosocial stress with loss of social control but minimal physical wounding. One cohort was assessed in a 3-day test paradigm of motor activity, fear conditioning and 2-way avoid-escape behaviour on days 16-18, and a second cohort was assessed in a treadmill fatigue paradigm on days 19 and 29, followed by the 3-day paradigm on days 30-32. All tests used a physical aversive stimulus, namely mild, brief electroshocks. Socially stressed mice displayed decreased motor activity, increased fear acquisition, decreased 2-way avoid-escape responding (increased helplessness) and increased fatigue. They also displayed increased plasma TNF and spleen hypertrophy, and adrenal hypertrophy without hyper-corticoidism. In a third cohort, psychosocial stress effects on brain gene expression were assessed using next generation sequencing. Gene expression was altered in pathways of inflammation and G-protein coupled receptors in prefrontal cortex and amygdala; in the latter, expression of genes important in dopamine function were de-regulated including down-regulated Drd2, Adora2a and Darpp-32. This model can be applied to identify targets for treating psychopathologies such as helplessness or fatigue, and to screen compounds/biologics developed to act at these targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endogenous neurotoxic dopamine derivative covalently binds to Parkinson's disease-associated ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 and alters its structure and function.

    PubMed

    Contu, Viorica Raluca; Kotake, Yaichiro; Toyama, Takashi; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Miyara, Masatsugu; Sakamoto, Shuichiro; Samizo, Shigeyoshi; Sanoh, Seigo; Kumagai, Yoshito; Ohta, Shigeru

    2014-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, but its pathogenesis remains elusive. A mutation in ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is responsible for a form of genetic PD which strongly resembles the idiopathic PD. We previously showed that 1-(3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (3',4'DHBnTIQ) is an endogenous parkinsonism-inducing dopamine derivative. Here, we investigated the interaction between 3',4'DHBnTIQ and UCH-L1 and its possible role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic PD. Our results indicate that 3',4'DHBnTIQ binds to UCH-L1 specifically at Cys152 in vitro. In addition, 3',4'DHBnTIQ treatment increased the amount of UCH-L1 in the insoluble fraction of SH-SY5Y cells and inhibited its hydrolase activity to 60%, reducing the level of ubiquitin in the soluble fraction of SH-SY5Y cells. Catechol-modified UCH-L1 as well as insoluble UCH-L1 were detected in the midbrain of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated PD model mice. Structurally as well as functionally altered UCH-L1 have been detected in the brains of patients with idiopathic PD. We suggest that conjugation of UCH-L1 by neurotoxic endogenous compounds such as 3',4'DHBnTIQ might play a key role in onset and progression of idiopathic PD. We investigated the interaction between ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) and the brain endogenous parkinsonism inducer 1-(3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (3',4'DHBnTIQ). Our results indicate that 3',4'DHBnTIQ binds to UCH-L1 specifically at cysteine 152 and induces its aggregation. 3',4'DHBnTIQ also inhibits the hydrolase activity of UCH-L1. Catechol-modified as well as insoluble UCH-L1 were detected in the midbrains of MPTP-treated Parkinson's disease (PD) model mice. Conjugation of UCH-L1 by neurotoxic endogenous compounds like 3',4'DHBnTIQ might play a key role in onset and progression of PD.

  5. Alterations in brain extracellular dopamine and glycine levels following combined administration of the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor Org-24461 and risperidone.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Katalin; Marko, Bernadett; Zsilla, Gabriella; Matyus, Peter; Pallagi, Katalin; Szabo, Geza; Juranyi, Zsolt; Barkoczy, Jozsef; Levay, Gyorgy; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2010-12-01

    The most dominant hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia have focused primarily upon hyperfunctional dopaminergic and hypofunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The therapeutic efficacy of all atypical antipsychotics is explained in part by antagonism of the dopaminergic neurotransmission, mainly by blockade of D(2) dopamine receptors. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia can be reversed by glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitors, which regulate glycine concentrations at the vicinity of NMDA receptors. Combined drug administration with D(2) dopamine receptor blockade and activation of hypofunctional NMDA receptors may be needed for a more effective treatment of positive and negative symptoms and the accompanied cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. To investigate this type of combined drug administration, rats were treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone together with the GlyT-1 inhibitor Org-24461. Brain microdialysis was applied in the striatum of conscious rats and determinations of extracellular dopamine, DOPAC, HVA, glycine, glutamate, and serine concentrations were carried out using HPLC/electrochemistry. Risperidone increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine but failed to influence those of glycine or glutamate measured in microdialysis samples. Org-24461 injection reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations and elevated extracellular glycine levels but the concentrations of serine and glutamate were not changed. When risperidone and Org-24461 were added in combination, a decrease in extracellular dopamine concentrations was accompanied with sustained elevation of extracellular glycine levels. Interestingly, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate were also enhanced. Our data indicate that coadministration of an antipsychotic with a GlyT-1 inhibitor may normalize hypofunctional NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission with reduced

  6. Neonatal +-methamphetamine exposure in rats alters adult locomotor responses to dopamine D1 and D2 agonists and to a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, but not to serotonin agonists.

    PubMed

    Graham, Devon L; Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Braun, Amanda A; Grace, Curtis E; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2013-03-01

    Neonatal exposure to (+)-methamphetamine (Meth) results in long-term behavioural abnormalities but its developmental mechanisms are unknown. In a series of experiments, rats were treated from post-natal days (PD) 11-20 (stage that approximates human development from the second to third trimester) with Meth or saline and assessed using locomotor activity as the readout following pharmacological challenge doses with dopamine, serotonin and glutamate agonists or antagonists during adulthood. Exposure to Meth early in life resulted in an exaggerated adult locomotor hyperactivity response to the dopamine D1 agonist SKF-82958 at multiple doses, a high dose only under-response activating effect of the D2 agonist quinpirole, and an exaggerated under-response to the activating effect of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801. No change in locomotor response was seen following challenge with the 5-HT releaser p-chloroamphetamine or the 5-HT2/3 receptor agonist, quipazine. These are the first data to show that PD 11-20 Meth exposure induces long-lasting alterations to dopamine D1, D2 and glutamate NMDA receptor function and may suggest how developmental Meth exposure leads to many of its long-term adverse effects.

  7. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica M

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system.

  8. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water Causes Alterations in Locomotor Activity and Decreases Striatal mRNA for the D2 Dopamine Receptor in CD1 Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Ávila, Claudia Leticia

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases. No alterations on aggressive behavior or monoamines levels in striatum or frontal cortex were observed. A significant decrease in the expression of mRNA for D2 receptors was found in striatum of mice exposed to 5.0 mg As/L. This study provides evidence for the use of dopamine receptor D2 as potential target of arsenic toxicity in the dopaminergic system. PMID:27375740

  9. Dopamine and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Zandian, M

    2016-01-01

    We have suggested that reduced food intake increases the risk for anorexia nervosa by engaging mesolimbic dopamine neurons, thereby initially rewarding dieting. Recent fMRI studies have confirmed that dopamine neurons are activated in anorexia nervosa, but it is not clear whether this response is due to the disorder or to its resulting nutritional deficit. When the body senses the shortage of nutrients, it rapidly shifts behavior toward foraging for food as a normal physiological response and the mesolimbic dopamine neurons may be involved in that process. On the other hand, the altered dopamine status of anorexics has been suggested to result from a brain abnormality that underlies their complex emotional disorder. We suggest that the outcomes of the treatments that emerge from that perspective remain poor because they target the mental symptoms that are actually the consequences of the food deprivation that accompanies anorexia. On the other hand, a method that normalizes the disordered eating behavior of anorexics results in much better physiological, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Food restriction alters N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole)-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; Calinski, Diane M; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Woods, James H

    2008-05-01

    Food restriction enhances sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse including opiates, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Food restriction has also been shown to alter a variety of behavioral and pharmacological responses to dopaminergic agonists, including an increased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of direct- and indirect-dopamine agonists, elevated extracellular dopamine levels in responses to psychostimulants, as well as suppression of agonist-induced yawning. Behavioral and molecular studies suggest that augmented dopaminergic responses observed in food-restricted animals result from a sensitization of the dopamine D2 receptor; however, little is known about how food restriction affects dopamine D3 receptor function. The current studies were aimed at better defining the effects of food restriction on D2 and D3 receptor function by assessing the capacity of N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole) to induce yawning, penile erection (PE), hypothermia, and locomotor activity in free-fed and food-restricted rats. Food restriction resulted in a suppression of pramipexole-induced yawning, a sensitized hypothermic response, and an enhanced locomotor response to pramipexole, effects that are suggestive of an enhanced D2 receptor activity; no effect on pramipexole-induced PE was observed. Antagonist studies further supported a food restriction-induced enhancement of the D2 receptor activity because the D2 antagonist 3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl]methyl-1H-indole (L741,626) recovered pramipexole-induced yawning to free-fed levels, whereas yawning and PE were suppressed following pretreatment with the D3 antagonist N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-trans-but-2-enyl}-4-pyridine-2-yl-benzamide hydrochloride (PG01037). The results of the current studies suggest that food restriction sensitized rats to the D2-mediated effects of pramipexole while having no effect

  11. Mice lacking the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α gene present reduced number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra without altering motor behavior or dopamine neuron decline over life.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Aparicio, R; Flores, J A; Tasset, I; Tunez, I; Fernandez-Espejo, E

    2011-07-14

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), which is expressed by neurons of the nigrostriatal circuit, plays a prominent role in oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. The objectives were: (i) to discern if levels of antioxidant molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with PPAR-γ expression are modified in the nigrostriatal region of null PPAR-α mice, (ii) to discern whether dopaminergic neuronal features of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and dorsal striatum are affected in null mice, and (iii) to establish if aging-induced decline of nigral neurons is different in null PPAR-α mice relative to wild-type littermates. A substantial decrease in antioxidant molecules was found in SNpc of null mice, by using ELISA. The pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-3 were found to be reduced in the substantia nigra, suggesting dual and opposite effects of PPAR-α deficiency on oxidative and pro-inflammatory molecules. Immunohistological and stereological studies revealed that young null mice present a smaller SNpc (-19.8%; TH downregulation was discarded). Normal locomotion in an open-field was not affected in null mice. Dopamine cell death could be caused by reduced protection against oxidative stress. Old null mice showed a percentage reduction of nigral dopamine neurons similar to that of young null animals, with a rate of decline over life of around 44%, the same value than that of wild-type littermates. These findings suggest that nuclear PPAR-α is necessary for the normal development of the substantia nigra along with normal levels of antioxidant molecules. Lack of PPAR-α does not modify the normal motor behavior of mice or decline of nigral dopamine neurons throughout life. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Going for broke: dopamine influences risky choice.

    PubMed

    Moschak, Travis M; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-10-01

    Dopamine neurons track reward by increasing or decreasing their firing rate when a reward is present or absent. In this issue of Neuron, Stopper et al. (2014) demonstrate that artificially eliminating these dopamine bursts or dips can alter risky decision-making.

  13. The Effects of Dopamine and Estrogen upon Cortical Parvalbumin Expression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    parvalbumin expression in the deep cortical layers in the in vivo model. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are located on parvalbumin containing interneurons ...D2 dopamine receptors in the inhibition of the evoked release of [3H]GABA in the rat prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience 43:323-329. Sandhu S, Cook P and...Furthermore, estrogen treatment blocks dopamine D2 receptors (Paden et al, 1982) and altered dopamine mediated behaviors, such as locomotor activity

  14. A novel synthetic cathinone, 2-(methylamino)-1-(naphthalen-2-yl) propan-1-one (BMAPN), produced rewarding effects and altered striatal dopamine-related gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Yoon, Seong Shoon; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Kim, Mikyung; Woo, Taeseon; Seo, Joung-Wook; Jang, Choon-Gon; Park, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Young Hun; Lee, Yong Sup; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2017-01-15

    The recreational use of synthetic cathinones has grown rapidly which prompted concerns from legal authorities and health care providers. However, in response to legislative regulations, synthesis of novel synthetic cathinones by introducing substituents in cathinone molecule has dramatically increased the diversity of these substances. Based on current trends, the aromatic ring is one of the popular sites in cathinone molecule being explored by designer-type modifications. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel synthetic cathinone, 2-(methylamino)-1-(naphthalen-2-yl) propan-1-one (BMAPN), which has a naphthalene substituent on the aromatic ring. Thereafter, we determined whether BMAPN has rewarding and reinforcing effects through the conditioned place preference (CPP) test in mice and self-administration (SA) paradigm in rats. Locomotor sensitization was also assessed in mice during daily BMAPN treatment for 7days and drug challenge. Furthermore, we investigated the effects on BMAPN on dopamine-related genes in the striatum of mice using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). BMAPN induced CPP at 10 and 30mg/kg and was modestly self-administered at 0.3mg/kg/infusion. Repeated BMAPN (30mg/kg) administration also produced locomotor sensitization. qRT-PCR analyses revealed decreased dopamine transporter and increased dopamine receptor D2 gene expression in the striatum of the BMAPN-treated mice. These data indicate that BMAPN has rewarding and reinforcing properties, which might be due to its effects on dopamine-related genes. The present study suggests that these findings may be useful in predicting abuse potential of future cathinone entities with aromatic ring substitutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Control of extracellular dopamine at dendrite and axon terminals

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Christopher P.; Gantz, Stephanie C.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Williams, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons release dopamine from both axons and dendrites. The mechanism underlying release at these different sites has been proposed to differ. This study used electrochemical and electrophysiological methods to compare the time course and calcium-dependence of somatodendritc dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) to that of axonal dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. The amount of dopamine released in the striatum was ~20 fold greater than in cell body regions of the VTA or SNc. However the calcium dependence and time to peak of the dopamine transients were similar. These results illustrate an unexpected overall similarity in the mechanisms of dopamine release in the striatum and cell body regions. To examine how diffusion regulates the time course of dopamine following release, dextran was added to the extracellular solution to slow diffusion. In the VTA, dextran slowed the rate of rise and fall of the extracellular dopamine transient as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) yet did not alter the kinetics of the dopamine dependent inhibitory post-synaptic current (IPSC). Dextran failed to significantly alter the time course of the rise and fall of the dopamine transient in the striatum suggesting a more influential role for reuptake in the striatum. The conclusion is that the time course of dopamine within the extracellular space of the VTA is dependent on both diffusion and reuptake, whereas the activation of D2-receptors on dopamine neurons is primarily limited by reuptake. PMID:20484639

  16. Dopamine transporter mutant animals: a translational perspective

    PubMed Central

    Efimova, Evgenia V.; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Sotnikova, Tatiana D.

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays an important homeostatic role in the control of both the extracellular and intraneuronal concentrations of dopamine, thereby providing effective control over activity of dopaminergic transmission. Since brain dopamine is known to be involved in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, investigations using mice with genetically altered DAT function and thus intensity of dopamine-mediated signaling have provided numerous insights into the pathology of these disorders and highlight novel pathological mechanisms that could be targeted to provide new therapeutic approaches for these disorders. In this brief overview we discuss recent investigations involving animals with genetically altered DAT function, particularly focusing on translational studies providing new insights into pathology and pharmacology of dopamine-related disorders. Perspective applications of these and newly developed models of DAT dysfunction are also discussed. PMID:27276191

  17. Mesolimbic Dopamine Signals the Value of Work

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Arif A.; Pettibone, Jeffrey R.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Hetrick, Vaughn L.; Schmidt, Robert; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.; Berke, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine cell firing can encode errors in reward prediction, providing a learning signal to guide future behavior. Yet dopamine is also a key modulator of motivation, invigorating current behavior. Existing theories propose that fast (“phasic”) dopamine fluctuations support learning, while much slower (“tonic”) dopamine changes are involved in motivation. We examined dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens across multiple time scales, using complementary microdialysis and voltammetric methods during adaptive decision-making. We first show that minute-by-minute dopamine levels covary with reward rate and motivational vigor. We then show that second-by-second dopamine release encodes an estimate of temporally-discounted future reward (a value function). We demonstrate that changing dopamine immediately alters willingness to work, and reinforces preceding action choices by encoding temporal-difference reward prediction errors. Our results indicate that dopamine conveys a single, rapidly-evolving decision variable, the available reward for investment of effort, that is employed for both learning and motivational functions. PMID:26595651

  18. Dopamine receptor-interacting proteins: the Ca(2+) connection in dopamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Bergson, Clare; Levenson, Robert; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S; Lidow, Michael S

    2003-09-01

    Abnormal activity of the dopamine system has been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological illnesses; however, lack of knowledge about the precise sites of dopamine dysfunction has compromised our ability to improve the efficacy and safety of dopamine-related drugs used in treatment modalities. Recent work suggests that dopamine transmission is regulated via the concerted efforts of a cohort of cytoskeletal, adaptor and signaling proteins called dopamine receptor-interacting proteins (DRIPs). The discovery that two DRIPs, calcyon and neuronal Ca(2+) sensor 1 (NCS-1), are upregulated in schizophrenia highlights the possibility that altered protein interactions and defects in Ca(2+) homeostasis might contribute to abnormalities in the brain dopamine system in neuropsychiatric diseases.

  19. Repeated isolation in the neonatal rat produces alterations in behavior and ventral striatal dopamine release in the juvenile after amphetamine challenge.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, P; Shoemaker, W J; Triano, L; Hoffman, J; Arons, C

    1996-12-01

    Rat pups were isolated from the mother and nest for 1 hr per day from Postnatal Day (PN) 2 to 9 At PN 27, rats were tested for behavioral responsiveness to 2.0 or 7.5 mg/kg amphetamine. Only isolated rats receiving the 7.5 mg/kg dose displayed increased activity scores, compared with nonisolated and nonhandled controls. Their increased activity is attributed to a slower latency to enter into stereotypy. In a second experiment, similarly treated groups were challenged by the 7.5 mg/kg dose during a session in which a microdialysis probe implanted in the ventral striatum was being perfused. The challenge drug elicited a much greater increase in dialysate dopamine in isolated vs. nonisolated groups. Results are discussed with regard to dissociation between sensitized and subsensitized responses.

  20. Regional differences in dopamine receptor blockade affect timing impulsivity that is altered by d-amphetamine on differential reinforcement of low-rate responding (DRL) behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Liao, Ruey-Ming

    2017-07-28

    The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or to carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively. By directly infusing selective D1 or D2 receptor antagonists (SCH23390 and raclopride, respectively) into three brain areas, we aimed to uncover which brain regions and which dopamine receptor subtypes are involved in counteracting the rat's deficit of DRL performance induced by the systemic injection of AMP. We found that D1, but not D2 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus (dHIP) and nucleus accumbens (NAC) played an important role in impulsive control as well as in timing. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both D1 and D2 receptors played an equal role in impulsive control, but only mPFC D1 was critical in the control of timing. Together, our data revealed a regional-dependent and dopamine receptor subtype specific effect across each region tested in the mesocorticolimbic circuits on the deleterious effect of AMP in the DRL task. The current findings further advance our understanding of the neurobehavioral mechanisms involved in timing impulsivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on hydroxyl radical, dopamine, and glutamate in the striatum of rats with altered function of VMAT2.

    PubMed

    Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Dziubina, Anna

    2012-08-01

    It has been shown that a decreased vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) function and the disruption of dopamine (DA) storage is an early contributor to oxidative damage of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists suppressed oxidative stress in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats suggesting that this effect may account for neuroprotective properties of drugs. In the present study, rats were injected with reserpine (10 mg/kg sc) and 18 h later the effect of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) on extracellular DA, glutamate and hydroxyl radical formation was studied in the rat striatum using in vivo microdialysis. By disrupting VMAT2 function, reserpine depleted DA stores, and increased glutamate and hydroxyl radical levels in the rat striatum. CSC (1 mg/kg) but not ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) increased extracellular DA level and production of hydroxyl radical in reserpinised rats. Both antagonists decreased the reserpine-induced increase in extracellular glutamate. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (25 mg/kg) significantly enhanced extracellular DA, had no effect on reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production and decreased extracellular glutamate concentration. CSC but not ZM 241385 given jointly with L-DOPA increased the effect of L-DOPA on extracellular DA and augmented the reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production. CSC and ZM 241385 did not influence extracellular glutamate level, which was decreased by L-DOPA. It seems that by decreasing the MAO-dependent DA metabolism rate, CSC raised cytosolic DA and by DA autoxidation, it induced hydroxyl radical overproduction. Thus, the methylxanthine A(2A) receptor antagonists bearing properties of MAO-B inhibitor, like CSC, may cause a risk of oxidative stress resulting from dysfunctional DA storage

  2. Altered dendritic distribution of dopamine D2 receptors and reduction in mitochondrial number in parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Megan L; Chan, June; Mackie, Kenneth; Lupica, Carl R; Pickel, Virginia M

    2012-12-01

    The prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL) is a brain region integral to complex behaviors that are highly influenced by cannabinoids and by dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated regulation of fast-firing parvalbumin-containing interneurons. We have recently shown that constitutive deletion of the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) greatly reduces parvalbumin levels in these neurons. The effects of CB1R deletion on PL parvalbumin interneurons may be ascribed to loss of CB1R-mediated retrograde signaling on mesocortical dopamine transmission, and, in turn, altered expression and/or subcellular distribution of D2R in the PL. Furthermore, diminished parvalbumin expression could indicate metabolic changes in fast-firing interneurons that may be reflected in changes in mitochondrial density in this population. We therefore comparatively examined electron microscopic dual labeling of D2R and parvalbumin in CB1 (-/-) and CB1 (+/+) mice to test the hypothesis that absence of CB1R produces changes in D2R localization and mitochondrial distribution in parvalbumin-containing interneurons of the PL. CB1 (-/-) mice had a significantly lower density of cytoplasmic D2R-immunogold particles in medium parvalbumin-labeled dendrites and a concomitant increase in the density of these particles in small dendrites. These dendrites received both excitatory and inhibitory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and contained many mitochondria, whose numbers were significantly reduced in CB1 (-/-) mice. Non-parvalbumin dendrites showed no between-group differences in either D2R distribution or mitochondrial number. These results suggest that cannabinoid signaling provides an important determinant of dendritic D2 receptor distribution and mitochondrial availability in fast-spiking interneurons.

  3. Acute Depletion of D2 Receptors from the Rat Substantia Nigra Alters Dopamine Kinetics in the Dorsal Striatum and Drug Responsivity.

    PubMed

    Budygin, Evgeny A; Oleson, Erik B; Lee, Yun Beom; Blume, Lawrence C; Bruno, Michael J; Howlett, Allyn C; Thompson, Alexis C; Bass, Caroline E

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have used conditional knockout mice to selectively delete the D2 autoreceptor; however, these approaches result in global deletion of D2 autoreceptors early in development. The present study takes a different approach using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown the expression of the D2 receptors (D2R) in the substantia nigra (SN), including dopaminergic neurons, which project primarily to the dorsal striatum (dStr) in adult rats. This approach restricts the knockdown primarily to nigrostriatal pathways, leaving mesolimbic D2 autoreceptors intact. Analyses of dopamine (DA) kinetics in the dStr reveal a decrease in DA transporter (DAT) function in the knockdown rats, an effect not observed in D2 autoreceptor knockout mouse models. SN D2 knockdown rats exhibit a behavioral phenotype characterized by persistent enhancement of locomotor activity in a familiar open field, reduced locomotor responsiveness to high doses of cocaine and the ability to overcome haloperidol-induced immobility on the bar test. Together these results demonstrate that presynaptic D2R can be depleted from specific neuronal populations and implicates nigrostriatal D2R in different behavioral responses to psychotropic drugs.

  4. Acute Depletion of D2 Receptors from the Rat Substantia Nigra Alters Dopamine Kinetics in the Dorsal Striatum and Drug Responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Budygin, Evgeny A.; Oleson, Erik B.; Lee, Yun Beom; Blume, Lawrence C.; Bruno, Michael J.; Howlett, Allyn C.; Thompson, Alexis C.; Bass, Caroline E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have used conditional knockout mice to selectively delete the D2 autoreceptor; however, these approaches result in global deletion of D2 autoreceptors early in development. The present study takes a different approach using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown the expression of the D2 receptors (D2R) in the substantia nigra (SN), including dopaminergic neurons, which project primarily to the dorsal striatum (dStr) in adult rats. This approach restricts the knockdown primarily to nigrostriatal pathways, leaving mesolimbic D2 autoreceptors intact. Analyses of dopamine (DA) kinetics in the dStr reveal a decrease in DA transporter (DAT) function in the knockdown rats, an effect not observed in D2 autoreceptor knockout mouse models. SN D2 knockdown rats exhibit a behavioral phenotype characterized by persistent enhancement of locomotor activity in a familiar open field, reduced locomotor responsiveness to high doses of cocaine and the ability to overcome haloperidol-induced immobility on the bar test. Together these results demonstrate that presynaptic D2R can be depleted from specific neuronal populations and implicates nigrostriatal D2R in different behavioral responses to psychotropic drugs. PMID:28154530

  5. Altered regional brain volumes in elderly carriers of a risk variant for drug abuse in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2)

    PubMed Central

    Roussotte, Florence F.; Jahanshad, Neda; Hibar, Derrek P.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors mediate the rewarding effects of many drugs of abuse. In humans, several polymorphisms in DRD2, the gene encoding these receptors, increase our genetic risk for developing addictive disorders. Here, we examined one of the most frequently studied candidate variants for addiction in DRD2 for association with brain structure. We tested whether this variant showed associations with regional brain volumes across two independent elderly cohorts, totaling 1,032 subjects. We first examined a large sample of 738 elderly participants with neuroimaging and genetic data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI1). We hypothesized that this addiction-related polymorphism would be associated with structural brain differences in regions previously implicated in familial vulnerability for drug dependence. Then, we assessed the generalizability of our findings by testing this polymorphism in a non-overlapping replication sample of 294 elderly subjects from a continuation of the first ADNI project (ADNI2) to minimize the risk of reporting false positive results. In both cohorts, the minor allele – previously linked with increased risk for addiction – was associated with larger volumes in various brain regions implicated in reward processing. These findings suggest that neuroanatomical phenotypes associated with familial vulnerability for drug dependence may be partially mediated by DRD2 genotype. PMID:24634060

  6. Reduced levels of dopamine and altered metabolism in brains of HPRT knock-out rats: a new rodent model of Lesch-Nyhan Disease.

    PubMed

    Meek, Stephen; Thomson, Alison J; Sutherland, Linda; Sharp, Matthew G F; Thomson, Julie; Bishop, Valerie; Meddle, Simone L; Gloaguen, Yoann; Weidt, Stefan; Singh-Dolt, Karamjit; Buehr, Mia; Brown, Helen K; Gill, Andrew C; Burdon, Tom

    2016-05-17

    Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a severe neurological disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), an enzyme required for efficient recycling of purine nucleotides. Although this biochemical defect reconfigures purine metabolism and leads to elevated levels of the breakdown product urea, it remains unclear exactly how loss of HPRT activity disrupts brain function. As the rat is the preferred rodent experimental model for studying neurobiology and diseases of the brain, we used genetically-modified embryonic stem cells to generate an HPRT knock-out rat. Male HPRT-deficient rats were viable, fertile and displayed normal caged behaviour. However, metabolomic analysis revealed changes in brain biochemistry consistent with disruption of purine recycling and nucleotide metabolism. Broader changes in brain biochemistry were also indicated by increased levels of the core metabolite citrate and reduced levels of lipids and fatty acids. Targeted MS/MS analysis identified reduced levels of dopamine in the brains of HPRT-deficient animals, consistent with deficits noted previously in human LND patients and HPRT knock-out mice. The HPRT-deficient rat therefore provides a new experimental platform for future investigation of how HPRT activity and disruption of purine metabolism affects neural function and behaviour.

  7. Reduced levels of dopamine and altered metabolism in brains of HPRT knock-out rats: a new rodent model of Lesch-Nyhan Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Stephen; Thomson, Alison J.; Sutherland, Linda; Sharp, Matthew G. F.; Thomson, Julie; Bishop, Valerie; Meddle, Simone L.; Gloaguen, Yoann; Weidt, Stefan; Singh-Dolt, Karamjit; Buehr, Mia; Brown, Helen K.; Gill, Andrew C.; Burdon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a severe neurological disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), an enzyme required for efficient recycling of purine nucleotides. Although this biochemical defect reconfigures purine metabolism and leads to elevated levels of the breakdown product urea, it remains unclear exactly how loss of HPRT activity disrupts brain function. As the rat is the preferred rodent experimental model for studying neurobiology and diseases of the brain, we used genetically-modified embryonic stem cells to generate an HPRT knock-out rat. Male HPRT-deficient rats were viable, fertile and displayed normal caged behaviour. However, metabolomic analysis revealed changes in brain biochemistry consistent with disruption of purine recycling and nucleotide metabolism. Broader changes in brain biochemistry were also indicated by increased levels of the core metabolite citrate and reduced levels of lipids and fatty acids. Targeted MS/MS analysis identified reduced levels of dopamine in the brains of HPRT-deficient animals, consistent with deficits noted previously in human LND patients and HPRT knock-out mice. The HPRT-deficient rat therefore provides a new experimental platform for future investigation of how HPRT activity and disruption of purine metabolism affects neural function and behaviour. PMID:27185277

  8. Alterations of central serotonin and dopamine turnover in rats treated with ipsapirone and other 5-hydroxytryptamine1A agonists with potential anxiolytic properties.

    PubMed

    Hamon, M; Fattaccini, C M; Adrien, J; Gallissot, M C; Martin, P; Gozlan, H

    1988-08-01

    Measurements of tissue levels of monoamines and their metabolites, and of the rates of 5-hydroxytryptophan and dihydroxy-phenylalanine accumulation after blockade of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase by benserazid indicated that ipsapirone (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) decreased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) turnover and accelerated dopamine (DA) turnover in various brain regions. The reduced 5-HT turnover probably resulted from the stimulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors within the anterior raphe nuclei as in vitro tests [( 3H]-8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino]tetralin binding and adenylate cyclase assays) demonstrated that ipsapirone was a 5-HT1A agonist almost as potent as 8-OH-DPAT, and the same decrease in 5-hydroxytryptophan accumulation could be induced by the i.p. (5 mg/kg) or intraraphe (1 microgram) injection of ipsapirone. Ipsapirone-induced acceleration of DA turnover persisted after the selective degeneration of serotoninergic neurons by intraraphe 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine infusion, and could be reproduced by i.p. administration of other 5-HT1A agonists like buspirone and gepirone, but not 8-OH-DPAT. These results demonstrate that ipsapirone-induced acceleration of DA turnover did not result from the stimulation of 5-HT1A (auto)receptors, but involved additional target(s) of the drug. The possible participation of dopaminergic systems in the "anxiolytic" properties of ipsapirone should deserve further investigations.

  9. The presence of cortical neurons in striatal-cortical co-cultures alters the effects of dopamine and BDNF on medium spiny neuron dendritic development

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Rachel D.; Campagna, Justin; Panneck, Travis; Preese, Laura; Lanier, Lorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are the major striatal neuron and receive synaptic input from both glutamatergic and dopaminergic afferents. These synapses are made on MSN dendritic spines, which undergo density and morphology changes in association with numerous disease and experience-dependent states. Despite wide interest in the structure and function of mature MSNs, relatively little is known about MSN development. Furthermore, most in vitro studies of MSN development have been done in simple striatal cultures that lack any type of non-autologous synaptic input, leaving open the question of how MSN development is affected by a complex environment that includes other types of neurons, glia, and accompanying secreted and cell-associated cues. Here we characterize the development of MSNs in striatal-cortical co-culture, including quantitative morphological analysis of dendritic arborization and spine development, describing progressive changes in density and morphology of developing spines. Overall, MSN growth is much more robust in the striatal-cortical co-culture compared to striatal mono-culture. Inclusion of dopamine (DA) in the co-culture further enhances MSN dendritic arborization and spine density, but the effects of DA on dendritic branching are only significant at later times in development. In contrast, exogenous Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has only a minimal effect on MSN development in the co-culture, but significantly enhances MSN dendritic arborization in striatal mono-culture. Importantly, inhibition of NMDA receptors in the co-culture significantly enhances the effect of exogenous BDNF, suggesting that the efficacy of BDNF depends on the cellular environment. Combined, these studies identify specific periods of MSN development that may be particularly sensitive to perturbation by external factors and demonstrate the importance of studying MSN development in a complex signaling environment. PMID:26257605

  10. Ovarian steroids alter dopamine receptor populations in the medial preoptic area of female rats: implications for sexual motivation, desire, and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Graham, M Dean; Gardner Gregory, James; Hussain, Dema; Brake, Wayne G; Pfaus, James G

    2015-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) plays a critical role in the control of appetitive sexual behaviour in the female rat. We have shown previously that a DA D1 receptor (D1R)-mediated excitatory state appears to occur in females primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P), whereas a DA D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated inhibitory state appears to occur in females primed only with EB. The present experiment employed three techniques to better understand what changes occur to DA receptors (DARs) in the mPOA under different hormonal profiles. Ovariectomized females were randomly assigned to one of three steroid treatment groups: EB + P (10 and 500 μg, respectively), EB + Oil, or the control (Oil + Oil), with hormone injections administered at 48 and 4 h prior to euthanizing. First, the number of neurons in the mPOA that contained D1R or D2R was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Second, the mPOA and two control areas (the prelimbic cortex and caudate putamen) were analysed for DAR protein levels using western blot, and DAR functional binding levels using autoradiography. Ovarian steroid hormones affected the two DAR subtypes in opposite ways in the mPOA. All three techniques supported previous behavioural findings that females primed with EB have a lower D1R : D2R ratio, and thus a D2R-mediated system, and females primed with EB + P have a higher D1R : D2R ratio, and thus a D1R-mediated system. This provides strong evidence for a DA-driven pathway of female sexual motivation, desire, and behaviour that is modified by different hormone priming regimens. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Alteration of dopamine uptake into rat striatal vesicles and synaptosomes caused by an in vitro exposure to atrazine and some of its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Muhammad M; Filipov, Nikolay M

    2008-06-03

    Studies have shown that both in vivo and in vitro exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) results in dopaminergic neurotoxicity manifested by decreased striatal dopamine (DA) levels. However, the mechanism behind this reduction is largely unknown. A decrease in striatal DA could be due to ATR exposure affecting vesicular and/or synaptosomal uptake resulting in disrupted vesicular storage and/or cellular uptake of DA. Hence, we investigated the effects of in vitro ATR exposure on DA uptake into isolated rat striatal synaptosomes and synaptic vesicles. In addition to ATR, effects of its major mammalian metabolites, didealkyl atrazine (DACT), desethyl atrazine (DE) and desiopropyl atrazine (DIP) were investigated. ATR (1-250 microM) inhibited DA uptake into synaptic vesicles in a dose-dependent manner. Of the three ATR metabolites tested, DACT did not affect vesicular DA uptake. DE and DIP, on the other hand, significantly decreased vesicular DA uptake with the effect of 100 microM DE/DIP being similar to the effect of the same concentration of ATR. Kinetic analysis of vesicular DA uptake indicated that ATR significantly decreased the V(max) while the K(m) value was not affected. Contrary to the inhibitory effects on vesicular DA uptake, synaptosomal DA uptake was marginally (6-13%) increased by ATR and DE, but not by DACT and DIP, at concentrations of

  12. Alteration of dopamine uptake into rat striatal vesicles and synaptosomes caused by an in vitro exposure to atrazine and some of its metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Muhammad M.; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that both in vivo and in vitro exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) results in dopaminergic neurotoxicity manifested by decreased striatal dopamine (DA) levels. However, the mechanism behind this reduction is largely unknown. A decrease in striatal DA could be due to ATR exposure affecting vesicular and/or synaptosomal uptake resulting in disrupted vesicular storage and/or cellular uptake of DA. Hence, we investigated the effects of in vitro ATR exposure on DA uptake into isolated rat striatal synaptosomes and synaptic vesicles. In addition to ATR, effects of its major mammalian metabolites, didealkyl atrazine (DACT), desethyl atrazine (DE) and desiopropyl atrazine (DIP) were investigated. ATR (1–250 μM) inhibited DA uptake into synaptic vesicles in a dose dependent manner. Of the three ATR metabolites tested, DACT did not affect vesicular DA uptake. DE and DIP, on the other hand, significantly decreased vesicular DA uptake with the effect of 100 μM DE/DIP being similar to the effect of the same concentration of ATR. Kinetic analysis of vesicular DA uptake indicated that ATR significantly decreased the Vmax while the Km value was not affected. Contrary to the inhibitory effects on vesicular DA uptake, synaptosomal DA uptake was marginally (6–13%) increased by ATR and DE, but not by DACT and DIP, at concentrations of ≤100 μM. As a result, ATR, DIP and DE increased the synaptosomal/vesicular (DAT/VMAT-2) uptake ratio. Collectively, results from this study suggest that ATR and two of its metabolites, DIP and DE, but not its major mammalian metabolite, DACT, decrease striatal DA levels, at least in part, by increasing cytosolic DA, which is prone to oxidative breakdown. PMID:18423833

  13. Tonic Nanomolar Dopamine Enables an Activity-Dependent Phase Recovery Mechanism That Persistently Alters the Maximal Conductance of the Hyperpolarization-Activated Current in a Rhythmically Active Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Edmund W.; Fu, Jing Jing; Krenz, Wulf-Dieter C.

    2011-01-01

    The phases at which network neurons fire in rhythmic motor outputs are critically important for the proper generation of motor behaviors. The pyloric network in the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion generates a rhythmic motor output wherein neuronal phase relationships are remarkably invariant across individuals and throughout lifetimes. The mechanisms for maintaining these robust phase relationships over the long-term are not well described. Here we show that tonic nanomolar dopamine (DA) acts at type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs) to enable an activity-dependent mechanism that can contribute to phase maintenance in the lateral pyloric (LP) neuron. The LP displays continuous rhythmic bursting. The activity-dependent mechanism was triggered by a prolonged decrease in LP burst duration, and it generated a persistent increase in the maximal conductance (Gmax) of the LP hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih), but only in the presence of steady-state DA. Interestingly, micromolar DA produces an LP phase advance accompanied by a decrease in LP burst duration that abolishes normal LP network function. During a 1 h application of micromolar DA, LP phase recovered over tens of minutes because, the activity-dependent mechanism enabled by steady-state DA was triggered by the micromolar DA-induced decrease in LP burst duration. Presumably, this mechanism restored normal LP network function. These data suggest steady-state DA may enable homeostatic mechanisms that maintain motor network output during protracted neuromodulation. This DA-enabled, activity-dependent mechanism to preserve phase may be broadly relevant, as diminished dopaminergic tone has recently been shown to reduce Ih in rhythmically active neurons in the mammalian brain. PMID:22072689

  14. Tonic nanomolar dopamine enables an activity-dependent phase recovery mechanism that persistently alters the maximal conductance of the hyperpolarization-activated current in a rhythmically active neuron.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Edmund W; Fu, Jing Jing; Krenz, Wulf-Dieter C; Baro, Deborah J

    2011-11-09

    The phases at which network neurons fire in rhythmic motor outputs are critically important for the proper generation of motor behaviors. The pyloric network in the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion generates a rhythmic motor output wherein neuronal phase relationships are remarkably invariant across individuals and throughout lifetimes. The mechanisms for maintaining these robust phase relationships over the long-term are not well described. Here we show that tonic nanomolar dopamine (DA) acts at type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs) to enable an activity-dependent mechanism that can contribute to phase maintenance in the lateral pyloric (LP) neuron. The LP displays continuous rhythmic bursting. The activity-dependent mechanism was triggered by a prolonged decrease in LP burst duration, and it generated a persistent increase in the maximal conductance (G(max)) of the LP hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)), but only in the presence of steady-state DA. Interestingly, micromolar DA produces an LP phase advance accompanied by a decrease in LP burst duration that abolishes normal LP network function. During a 1 h application of micromolar DA, LP phase recovered over tens of minutes because, the activity-dependent mechanism enabled by steady-state DA was triggered by the micromolar DA-induced decrease in LP burst duration. Presumably, this mechanism restored normal LP network function. These data suggest steady-state DA may enable homeostatic mechanisms that maintain motor network output during protracted neuromodulation. This DA-enabled, activity-dependent mechanism to preserve phase may be broadly relevant, as diminished dopaminergic tone has recently been shown to reduce I(h) in rhythmically active neurons in the mammalian brain.

  15. Insulin resistance impairs nigrostriatal dopamine function.

    PubMed

    Morris, J K; Bomhoff, G L; Gorres, B K; Davis, V A; Kim, J; Lee, P-P; Brooks, W M; Gerhardt, G A; Geiger, P C; Stanford, J A

    2011-09-01

    Clinical studies have indicated a link between Parkinson's disease (PD) and Type 2 Diabetes. Although preclinical studies have examined the effect of high-fat feeding on dopamine function in brain reward pathways, the effect of diet on neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal pathway, which is affected in PD and parkinsonism, is less clear. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet, which models early-stage Type 2 Diabetes, would disrupt nigrostriatal dopamine function in young adult Fischer 344 rats. Rats were fed a high fat diet (60% calories from fat) or a normal chow diet for 12 weeks. High fat-fed animals were insulin resistant compared to chow-fed controls. Potassium-evoked dopamine release and dopamine clearance were measured in the striatum using in vivo electrochemistry. Dopamine release was attenuated and dopamine clearance was diminished in the high-fat diet group compared to chow-fed rats. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra of the high fat group. This finding was supported by alterations in the expression of several proteins involved in iron metabolism in the substantia nigra in this group compared to chow-fed animals. The diet-induced systemic and basal ganglia-specific changes may play a role in the observed impairment of nigrostriatal dopamine function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High sodium intake increases the urinary excretion of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine but fails to alter the urinary excretion of dopamine and amine metabolites in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Coelho, M A; Pestana, M; Soares-da-Silva, P

    1996-12-01

    1. The present study has examined the daily urinary excretion of L-DOPA, dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA) during normal salt (NS) and high salt(HS) diets. 2. Daily urinary excretion of L-DOPA, DA, DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA during the 4-day period of NS diet averaged, respectively, 7.6 +/- 0.4, 71 +/- 5, 217 +/- 22, 570 +/- 90 and 1217 +/- 110 nmol/kg/day. The slight increase in the urinary excretion of DA, DOPAC and 3-MT (16% to 42% increase), when rats were fed a HS diet, did not achieve statistical significance. 3. In contrast, the urinary levels of L-DOPA during the HS diet period (11 +/- 1 nmol/kg/day) were found to be significantly higher than during the NS diet period; the maximal increase in the urinary excretion of L-DOPA (93% increase) was observed in the first day and then a progressive decline was observed towards the end of the HS intake period. 4. During the first 5 days of the HS intake period, the urine output of noradrenaline (NA) was found to increase (27% to 83%) and then to progressively decline to baseline values (13.5 +/- 0.7 nmol/ kg/day). Urinary excretion of adrenaline (AD) during the HS intake period was found to increase (72% to 146%); the mean daily urinary excretion of AD during the NS diet period averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 nmol/ kg/day. NS and DA contents in the kidney of rats on a NS diet were not significantly different from that of rats in a HS diet. 6. It is concluded that long-term HS intake in Wistar rats fail to change the urinary excretion of DA and of its metabolites (DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA). Furthermore, the discrepant profile in the urinary excretion of L-DOPA and DA during HS intake might be related to a reduction in the tubular uptake of the amino acid, rather than reflecting a decrease in its decarboxylation.

  17. Tonic Dopamine Modulates Exploitation of Reward Learning

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Daw, Nathaniel; Frazier, Cristianne R. M.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this “closed economy” paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior. PMID:21120145

  18. Cholinergic Interneurons Underlie Spontaneous Dopamine Release in Nucleus Accumbens.

    PubMed

    Yorgason, Jordan T; Zeppenfeld, Douglas M; Williams, John T

    2017-02-22

    demonstrates that spontaneous dopamine release is (1) dependent of the activation of nicotinic receptors, (2) independent on the spontaneous activity of cholinergic interneurons, and (3) that cocaine increased the detection of dopamine transients by prolonging the presence and increasing the diffusion of dopamine in the extracellular space. The release of acetylcholine is therefore responsible for spontaneous dopamine transients, and cocaine augments dopamine tone without altering activity of cholinergic interneurons. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/372086-11$15.00/0.

  19. D2 dopamine receptor but not AMPA and kainate glutamate receptor genes show altered expression in response to long term treatment with trans- and cis-flupenthixol in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Chen, A C; Gurling, H M

    1999-05-07

    Glutamate receptor function has been hypothesized as an important factor in both the aetiology and treatment of schizophrenia. We have used a multiprobe oligonucleotide solution hybridization (MOSH) technique to examine the regulation of gene expression of the GluR1-7, KA1, and KA2 glutamate receptor subunits in the left rat brain following treatment with the optical isomers of flupenthixol at a dose of 0.2 mg kg-1 day-1 over a period of 4, 12, 24 weeks in order to understand how specific glutamate receptor genes are involved in the treatment of schizophrenia. The GluR2/3 and GluR6/7 subunit immunoreactivity in the right brain following 4 and 24 weeks of drug treatment was also examined by Western blotting. Neither trans- nor cis-flupenthixol was found to alter the gene expression of any of the 9 non-NMDA glutamate receptor subunits. On the other hand, we found a nearly two-fold increase in gene expression of the D2 dopamine receptor in specific brain regions. These results suggest that non-NMDA types of glutamate receptor subunits, in contrast to NMDA receptors, are less likely to have a role in the action of antipsychotic drugs. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Prefrontal and Striatal Glutamate Differently Relate to Striatal Dopamine: Potential Regulatory Mechanisms of Striatal Presynaptic Dopamine Function?

    PubMed

    Gleich, Tobias; Deserno, Lorenz; Lorenz, Robert Christian; Boehme, Rebecca; Pankow, Anne; Buchert, Ralph; Kühn, Simone; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Theoretical and animal work has proposed that prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamate inhibits dopaminergic inputs to the ventral striatum (VS) indirectly, whereas direct VS glutamatergic afferents have been suggested to enhance dopaminergic inputs to the VS. In the present study, we aimed to investigate relationships of glutamate and dopamine measures in prefrontostriatal circuitries of healthy humans. We hypothesized that PFC and VS glutamate, as well as their balance, are differently associated with VS dopamine. Glutamate concentrations in the left lateral PFC and left striatum were assessed using 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity was measured by fluorine-18-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (F-18-FDOPA) positron emission tomography. First, a negative relationship was observed between glutamate concentrations in lateral PFC and VS dopamine synthesis capacity (n = 28). Second, a positive relationship was revealed between striatal glutamate and VS dopamine synthesis capacity (n = 26). Additionally, the intraindividual difference between PFC and striatal glutamate concentrations correlated negatively with VS dopamine synthesis capacity (n = 24). The present results indicate an involvement of a balance in PFC and striatal glutamate in the regulation of VS dopamine synthesis capacity. This notion points toward a potential mechanism how VS presynaptic dopamine levels are kept in a fine-tuned range. A disruption of this mechanism may account for alterations in striatal dopamine turnover as observed in mental diseases (e.g., in schizophrenia). The present work demonstrates complementary relationships between prefrontal and striatal glutamate and ventral striatal presynaptic dopamine using human imaging measures: a negative correlation between prefrontal glutamate and presynaptic dopamine and a positive relationship between striatal glutamate and presynaptic dopamine are revealed. The results may reflect a regulatory role

  1. Heterogeneity of dopamine neuron activity across traits and states

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, Michela; McCutcheon, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons fire irregularly, with interspersed clusters of high-frequency spikes, commonly called ‘bursts’. In this review we examine such heterogeneity in activity, and provide insight into how it can participate in psychiatric conditions such as drug addiction. We first describe several techniques used to evaluate dopamine neuron activity, and comment on the different measures that each provides. We next describe the activity of dopamine neurons in ‘basal’ conditions. Specifically, we discuss how the use of anesthesia and reduced preparations may alter aspects of dopamine cell activity, and how there is heterogeneity across species and regions. We also describe how dopamine cell firing changes throughout the peri-adolescent period and how dopamine neuron activity differs across the population. In the final section, we discuss how dopamine neuron activity changes in response to life events. First, we focus attention on drugs of abuse. Drugs themselves change firing activity through a variety of mechanisms, with effects on firing while drug is present differing from those seen after drug discontinuation. We then review how stimuli that are rewarding, aversive, or salient can evoke changes in firing rate and discharge pattern of dopamine neurons, and provide behavioral relevance of dopamine signaling. Finally, we discuss how stress can modulate dopamine neuron firing and how this may contribute to the role that stressful experiences play in psychiatric disorders such as addiction and depression. PMID:25084048

  2. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  3. Increased conditioned fear response and altered balance of dopamine in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens during amphetamine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Pezze, M A; Feldon, J; Murphy, C A

    2002-04-01

    It has been suggested that neuroadaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAC) dopaminergic (DA) projection contribute to the negative affect associated with psychostimulant withdrawal. The present study assessed the effects of amphetamine (AMPH) withdrawal on behavioral and NAC DA responses to conditioned fear stress. Animals injected with escalating-dose AMPH (1-5mg/kg, three injections/day, 6 days) or saline (SAL) acquired a tone-shock association on withdrawal day 3 and were tested for extinction of conditioned freezing to the tone on withdrawal day 4. Extracellular levels of NAC shell and core DA were monitored using in vivo microdialysis on both days. AMPH-withdrawn animals exhibited more conditioned freezing than SAL animals during both acquisition and extinction. During acquisition, DA increased more in the shell than the core of the NAC in both AMPH and SAL groups. During extinction to the tone, shell DA increased in SAL- but not AMPH-treated animals, whereas core DA activity was greater in AMPH than SAL animals. These data demonstrate that AMPH withdrawal alters the balance between shell and core DA transmission while increasing the behavioral expression of conditioned fear. Such drug-induced neuroadaptations in the NAC stress response may be involved in the exacerbation of negative emotions associated with drug withdrawal and stimulant-induced psychosis.

  4. Regional and source-based patterns of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO binding potential reveal concurrent alterations in dopamine D2 and D3 receptor availability in cocaine-use disorder.

    PubMed

    Worhunsky, Patrick D; Matuskey, David; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Gaiser, Edward C; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Angarita, Gustavo A; Calhoun, Vince D; Malison, Robert T; Potenza, Marc N; Carson, Richard E

    2017-03-01

    Dopamine type 2 and type 3 receptors (D2R/D3R) appear critical to addictive disorders. Cocaine-use disorder (CUD) is associated with lower D2R availability and greater D3R availability in regions primarily expressing D2R or D3R concentrations, respectively. However, these CUD-related alterations in D2R and D3R have not been concurrently detected using available dopaminergic radioligands. Furthermore, receptor availability in regions of mixed D2R/D3R concentration in CUD remains unclear. The current study aimed to extend investigations of CUD-related alterations in D2R and D3R availability using regional and source-based analyses of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO positron emission tomography (PET) of 26 individuals with CUD and 26 matched healthy comparison (HC) participants. Regional analysis detected greater binding potential (BPND) in CUD in the midbrain, consistent with prior [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO research, and lower BPND in CUD in the dorsal striatum, consistent with research using non-selective D2R/D3R radiotracers. Exploratory independent component analysis (ICA) identified three sources of BPND (striatopallidal, pallidonigral, and mesoaccumbens sources) that represent systems of brain regions displaying coherent variation in receptor availability. The striatopallidal source was associated with estimates of regional D2R-related proportions of BPND (calculated using independent reports of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO receptor binding fractions), was lower in intensity in CUD and negatively associated with years of cocaine use. By comparison, the pallidonigral source was associated with estimates of regional D3R distribution, was greater in intensity in CUD and positively associated with years of cocaine use. The current study extends previous D2R/D3R research in CUD, demonstrating both lower BPND in the D2R-rich dorsal striatum and greater BPND in the D3R-rich midbrain using a single radiotracer. In addition, exploratory ICA identified sources of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO BPND that were correlated

  5. Daily Exposure to Sucrose Impairs Subsequent Learning About Food Cues: A Role for Alterations in Ghrelin Signaling and Dopamine D2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, M J; Clemens, K J; Morris, M J; Westbrook, R F

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hedonic foods and associated advertising slogans has contributed to the rise of the obesity epidemic in the modern world. Research has shown that intake of these foods disrupt dopaminergic systems. It may be that a disruption of these circuits produces aberrant learning about food–cue relationships. We found that rodents given 28 days of intermittent access to sucrose exhibited a deficit in the ability to block learning about a stimulus when it is paired in compound with food and another stimulus that has already been established as predictive of the food outcome. This deficit was characterized by an approach to a cue signaling food delivery that is usually blocked by prior learning, an effect dependent on dopaminergic prediction-error signaling in the midbrain. Administering the D2 agonist quinpirole during learning restored blocking in animals with a prior history of sucrose exposure. Further, repeated central infusions of ghrelin produced a deficit in blocking in the same manner as sucrose exposure. We argue that changes in dopaminergic systems resulting from sucrose exposure are mediated by a disruption of ghrelin signaling as rodents come to anticipate delivery of the highly palatable sucrose outside of normal feeding schedules. This suggestion is supported by our finding that both sucrose and ghrelin treatments resulted in increases in amphetamine-induced locomotor responding. Thus, for the first time, we have provided evidence of a potential link between alterations in D2 receptors caused by the intake of hedonic foods and aberrant learning about cue–food relationships capable of promoting inappropriate feeding habits. In addition, we have found preliminary evidence to suggest that this is mediated by changes in ghrelin signaling, a finding that should stimulate further research into modulation of ghrelin activity to treat obesity. PMID:26365954

  6. Daily Exposure to Sucrose Impairs Subsequent Learning About Food Cues: A Role for Alterations in Ghrelin Signaling and Dopamine D2 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, M J; Clemens, K J; Morris, M J; Westbrook, R F

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of hedonic foods and associated advertising slogans has contributed to the rise of the obesity epidemic in the modern world. Research has shown that intake of these foods disrupt dopaminergic systems. It may be that a disruption of these circuits produces aberrant learning about food-cue relationships. We found that rodents given 28 days of intermittent access to sucrose exhibited a deficit in the ability to block learning about a stimulus when it is paired in compound with food and another stimulus that has already been established as predictive of the food outcome. This deficit was characterized by an approach to a cue signaling food delivery that is usually blocked by prior learning, an effect dependent on dopaminergic prediction-error signaling in the midbrain. Administering the D2 agonist quinpirole during learning restored blocking in animals with a prior history of sucrose exposure. Further, repeated central infusions of ghrelin produced a deficit in blocking in the same manner as sucrose exposure. We argue that changes in dopaminergic systems resulting from sucrose exposure are mediated by a disruption of ghrelin signaling as rodents come to anticipate delivery of the highly palatable sucrose outside of normal feeding schedules. This suggestion is supported by our finding that both sucrose and ghrelin treatments resulted in increases in amphetamine-induced locomotor responding. Thus, for the first time, we have provided evidence of a potential link between alterations in D2 receptors caused by the intake of hedonic foods and aberrant learning about cue-food relationships capable of promoting inappropriate feeding habits. In addition, we have found preliminary evidence to suggest that this is mediated by changes in ghrelin signaling, a finding that should stimulate further research into modulation of ghrelin activity to treat obesity.

  7. Methamphetamine Regulation of Firing Activity of Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min; Sambo, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a substrate for the dopamine transporter that increases extracellular dopamine levels by competing with dopamine uptake and increasing reverse transport of dopamine via the transporter. METH has also been shown to alter the excitability of dopamine neurons. The mechanism of METH regulation of the intrinsic firing behaviors of dopamine neurons is less understood. Here we identified an unexpected and unique property of METH on the regulation of firing activity of mouse dopamine neurons. METH produced a transient augmentation of spontaneous spike activity of midbrain dopamine neurons that was followed by a progressive reduction of spontaneous spike activity. Inspection of action potential morphology revealed that METH increased the half-width and produced larger coefficients of variation of the interspike interval, suggesting that METH exposure affected the activity of voltage-dependent potassium channels in these neurons. Since METH has been shown to affect Ca2+ homeostasis, the unexpected findings that METH broadened the action potential and decreased the amplitude of afterhyperpolarization led us to ask whether METH alters the activity of Ca2+-activated potassium (BK) channels. First, we identified BK channels in dopamine neurons by their voltage dependence and their response to a BK channel blocker or opener. While METH suppressed the amplitude of BK channel-mediated unitary currents, the BK channel opener NS1619 attenuated the effects of METH on action potential broadening, afterhyperpolarization repression, and spontaneous spike activity reduction. Live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, electrophysiology, and biochemical analysis suggest METH exposure decreased the activity of BK channels by decreasing BK-α subunit levels at the plasma membrane. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Methamphetamine (METH) competes with dopamine uptake, increases dopamine efflux via the dopamine transporter, and affects the excitability of

  8. Dopamine denervation of the prefrontal cortex increases expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1

    PubMed Central

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Simmler, Linda D.; Blakely, Randy D.; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2014-01-01

    Both dopamine and glutamate are critically involved in cognitive processes such as working memory. Astrocytes, which express dopamine receptors, are essential elements in the termination of glutamatergic signaling: the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 is responsible for >90% of cortical glutamate uptake. The effect of dopamine depletion on glutamate transporters in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is unknown. In an effort to determine if astrocytes are a locus of cortical dopamine-glutamate interactions, we examined the effects of chronic dopamine denervation on PFC protein and mRNA levels of glutamate transporters. PFC dopamine denervation elicited a marked increase in GLT-1 protein levels, but had no effect on levels of other glutamate transporters; high affinity glutamate transport was positively correlated with the extent of dopamine depletion. GLT-1 gene expression was not altered. Our data suggests that dopamine depletion may lead to post-translational modifications that result in increased expression and activity of GLT-1 in PFC astrocytes. PMID:24611756

  9. Basal ganglia circuit loops, dopamine and motivation: A review and enquiry.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Satoshi; Yang, Chen; Tan, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine neurons located in the midbrain play a role in motivation that regulates approach behavior (approach motivation). In addition, activation and inactivation of dopamine neurons regulate mood and induce reward and aversion, respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that such motivational role of dopamine neurons is not limited to those located in the ventral tegmental area, but also in the substantia nigra. The present paper reviews previous rodent work concerning dopamine's role in approach motivation and the connectivity of dopamine neurons, and proposes two working models: One concerns the relationship between extracellular dopamine concentration and approach motivation. High, moderate and low concentrations of extracellular dopamine induce euphoric, seeking and aversive states, respectively. The other concerns circuit loops involving the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, epithalamus, and midbrain through which dopaminergic activity alters approach motivation. These models should help to generate hypothesis-driven research and provide insights for understanding altered states associated with drugs of abuse and affective disorders.

  10. Cytokine Effects on the Basal Ganglia and Dopamine Function: the Subcortical Source of Inflammatory Malaise

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. PMID:23000204

  11. Cytokine effects on the basal ganglia and dopamine function: the subcortical source of inflammatory malaise.

    PubMed

    Felger, Jennifer C; Miller, Andrew H

    2012-08-01

    Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture DE-71 damages the nigrostriatal dopamine system: role of dopamine handling in neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bradner, Joshua M; Suragh, Tiffany A; Wilson, W Wyatt; Lazo, Carlos R; Stout, Kristen A; Kim, Hye Mi; Wang, Min Z; Walker, Douglas I; Pennell, Kurt D; Richardson, Jason R; Miller, Gary W; Caudle, W Michael

    2013-03-01

    In the last several decades polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have replaced the previously banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in multiple flame retardant utilities. As epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested PCBs as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), the similarities between PBDEs and PCBs suggest that PBDEs have the potential to be neurotoxic to the dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of the PBDE mixture, DE-71, on the nigrostriatal dopamine system and address the role of altered dopamine handling in mediating this neurotoxicity. Using an in vitro model system we found DE-71 effectively caused cell death in a dopaminergic cell line as well as reducing the number of TH+ neurons isolated from VMAT2 WT and LO animals. Assessment of DE-71 neurotoxicity in vivo demonstrated significant deposition of PBDE congeners in the brains of mice, leading to reductions in striatal dopamine and dopamine handling, as well as reductions in the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT2. Additionally, DE-71 elicited a significant locomotor deficit in the VMAT2 WT and LO mice. However, no change was seen in TH expression in dopamine terminal or in the number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). To date, these are the first data to demonstrate that exposure to PBDEs disrupts the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Given their similarities to PCBs, additional laboratory and epidemiological research should be considered to assess PBDEs as a potential risk factor for PD and other neurological disorders.

  13. How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, David

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging. PMID:21338876

  14. Homeostatic mechanisms in dopamine synthesis and release: a mathematical model

    PubMed Central

    Best, Janet A; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Background Dopamine is a catecholamine that is used as a neurotransmitter both in the periphery and in the central nervous system. Dysfunction in various dopaminergic systems is known to be associated with various disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Tourette's syndrome. Furthermore, microdialysis studies have shown that addictive drugs increase extracellular dopamine and brain imaging has shown a correlation between euphoria and psycho-stimulant-induced increases in extracellular dopamine [1]. These consequences of dopamine dysfunction indicate the importance of maintaining dopamine functionality through homeostatic mechanisms that have been attributed to the delicate balance between synthesis, storage, release, metabolism, and reuptake. Methods We construct a mathematical model of dopamine synthesis, release, and reuptake and use it to study homeostasis in single dopaminergic neuron terminals. We investigate the substrate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by tyrosine, the consequences of the rapid uptake of extracellular dopamine by the dopamine transporters, and the effects of the autoreceoptors on dopaminergic function. The main focus is to understand the regulation and control of synthesis and release and to explicate and interpret experimental findings. Results We show that the substrate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by tyrosine stabilizes cytosolic and vesicular dopamine against changes in tyrosine availability due to meals. We find that the autoreceptors dampen the fluctuations in extracellular dopamine caused by changes in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and changes in the rate of firing. We show that short bursts of action potentials create significant dopamine signals against the background of tonic firing. We explain the observed time courses of extracellular dopamine responses to stimulation in wild type mice and mice that have genetically altered dopamine transporter densities and the observed half-lives of extracellular

  15. Dopamine Transporters, D2 Receptors, and Dopamine Release in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schneier, Franklin R.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Martinez, Diana; Slifstein, Mark; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Laruelle, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2 receptor and dopamine transporter availability in the striatum have each been reported abnormal in generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) in studies using single photon computerized tomography (SPECT). D2 receptors and dopamine transporters have not previously been studied within the same GSAD subjects, however, and prior GSAD studies have not assessed dopamine release or subdivided striatum into functional subregions. Methods Unmedicated adults with GSAD (N=17) and matched healthy comparison subjects (HC, N=13) participated in this study. Of these, 15 GSAD and 13 HC subjects completed baseline assessment of D2 receptor availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiotracer [11C] raclopride. Twelve GSAD and 13 HC subjects completed a repeat scan after intravenous administration of D-amphetamine, to study dopamine release. Twelve of the GSAD subjects and 10 of the HC subjects also completed SPECT with the radiotracer [123I] methyl 3ß-(4-iodophenyl) tropane-2ß-carboxylate ([123I] ß-CIT) to assess dopamine transporter availability. Results GSAD and HC groups did not differ significantly in striatal dopamine transporter availability, overall striatal or striatal subregion D2 receptor availability at baseline, or change in D2 receptor availability after D-amphetamine. Receptor availability and change after D-amphetamine were not significantly associated with severity of social anxiety or trait detachment. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previous findings of altered striatal dopamine transporter and D2 receptor availability in GSAD subjects assessed with SPECT. The differences from results of prior studies may be due to differences in imaging methods or characteristics of samples. PMID:19180583

  16. Mesolimbic dopamine and its neuromodulators in obesity and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Naef, Lindsay; Pitman, Kimberley A; Borgland, Stephanie L

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic prevalence, and much research has focused on homeostatic and nonhomeostatic mechanisms underlying overconsumption of food. Mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is a key substrate for nonhomeostatic feeding. The goal of the present review is to compare changes in mesolimbic dopamine function in human obesity with diet-induced obesity in rodents. Additionally, we will review the literature to determine if dopamine signaling is altered with binge eating disorder in humans or binge eating modeled in rodents. Finally, we assess modulation of dopamine neurons by neuropeptides and peripheral peptidergic signals that occur with obesity or binge eating. We find that while decreased dopamine concentration is observed with obesity, there is inconsistency outside the human literature on the relationship between striatal D2 receptor expression and obesity. Finally, few studies have explored how orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides modulate dopamine neuronal activity or striatal dopamine in obese models. However, ghrelin modulation of dopamine neurons may be an important factor for driving binge feeding in rodents.

  17. Dopamine uptake dynamics are preserved under isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brodnik, Zachary D; España, Rodrigo A

    2015-10-08

    Fast scan cyclic voltammetry is commonly used for measuring the kinetics of dopamine release and uptake. For experiments using an anesthetized preparation, urethane is preferentially used because it does not alter dopamine uptake kinetics compared to freely moving animals. Unfortunately, urethane is highly toxic, can induce premature death during experiments, and cannot be used for recovery surgeries. Isoflurane is an alternative anesthetic that is less toxic than urethane, produces a stable level of anesthesia over extended periods, and is often used for recovery surgeries. Despite these benefits, the effects of isoflurane on dopamine release and uptake have not been directly characterized. In the present studies, we assessed the utility of isoflurane for voltammetry experiments by testing dopamine signaling parameters under baseline conditions, after treatment with the dopamine uptake inhibitor cocaine, and after exposure to increasing concentrations of isoflurane. Our results indicate that surgical levels of isoflurane do not significantly alter terminal mechanisms of dopamine release and uptake over prolonged periods of time. Consequently, we propose that isoflurane is an acceptable anesthetic for voltammetry experiments, which in turn permits the design of studies in which dopamine signaling is examined under anesthesia prior to recovery and subsequent experimentation in the same animals.

  18. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Dopamine Release by Nicotine and Dopamine D1 Receptor Ligands: An In Vitro Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Study in Rat Striatum.

    PubMed

    Goutier, W; Lowry, J P; McCreary, A C; O'Connor, J J

    2016-05-01

    Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts this effect partially through the modulation of dopamine release and increasing extracellular dopamine in regions such as the brain reward systems. Nicotine acts in these regions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The effect of nicotine on the frequency dependent modulation of dopamine release is well established and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) ligands have an influence on this. Using fast cyclic voltammetry and rat corticostriatal slices, we show that D1R ligands are able to modulate the effect of nicotine on dopamine release. Nicotine (500 nM) induced a decrease in dopamine efflux at low frequency (single pulse or five pulses at 10 Hz) and an increase at high frequency (100 Hz) electrical field stimulation. The D1R agonist SKF-38393, whilst having no effect on dopamine release on its own or on the effect of nicotine upon multiple pulse evoked dopamine release, did significantly prevent and reverse the effect of nicotine on single pulse dopamine release. Interestingly similar results were obtained with the D1R antagonist SCH-23390. In this study we have demonstrated that the modulation of dopamine release by nicotine can be altered by D1R ligands, but only when evoked by single pulse stimulation, and are likely working via cholinergic interneuron driven dopamine release.

  19. Heterogeneity in Dopamine Neuron Synaptic Actions Across the Striatum and Its Relevance for Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chuhma, Nao; Mingote, Susana; Kalmbach, Abigail; Yetnikoff, Leora; Rayport, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Brain imaging has revealed alterations in dopamine uptake, release, and receptor levels in patients with schizophrenia that have been resolved on the scale of striatal subregions. However, the underlying synaptic mechanisms are on a finer scale. Dopamine neuron synaptic actions vary across the striatum, involving variations not only in dopamine release but also in dopamine neuron connectivity, cotransmission, modulation, and activity. Optogenetic studies have revealed that dopamine neurons release dopamine in a synaptic signal mode, and that the neurons also release glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid as cotransmitters, with striking regional variation. Fast glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid cotransmission convey discrete patterns of dopamine neuron activity to striatal neurons. Glutamate may function not only in a signaling role at a subset of dopamine neuron synapses, but also in mediating vesicular synergy, contributing to regional differences in loading of dopamine into synaptic vesicles. Regional differences in dopamine neuron signaling are likely to be differentially involved in the schizophrenia disease process and likely determine the subregional specificity of the action of psychostimulants that exacerbate the disorder, and antipsychotics that ameliorate the disorder. Elucidating dopamine neuron synaptic signaling offers the potential for achieving greater pharmacological specificity through intersectional pharmacological actions targeting subsets of dopamine neuron synapses. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces behavioral alterations in its hosts including phenotypes increasing the likelihood of its transmission in rodents and reports of psychobehavioral alterations in humans. We have found that elevated levels of dopamine are associated with the encysted stage...

  1. Dopamine triggers Heterosynaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Huang, Yanhua; Neumann, Peter A.; Winters, Bradley D.; Grace, Anthony A.; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    As a classic neuromodulator, dopamine has long been thought to modulate, rather than trigger, synaptic plasticity. In contrast, our present results demonstrate that within the parallel projections of dopaminergic and GABAergic terminals from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to nucleus accumbens core (NAcCo), action potential-activated release of dopamine heterosynaptically triggers LTD at GABAergic synapses, which is likely mediated by activating presynaptically-located dopamine D1 class receptors and expressed by inhibiting presynaptic release of GABA. Moreover, this dopamine-mediated heterosynaptic LTD is abolished after withdrawal from cocaine exposure. These results suggest that action potential-dependent dopamine release triggers very different cellular consequences from those induced by volume release or pharmacological manipulation. Activation of the VTA-to-NAcCo projections is essential for emotional and motivational responses. This dopamine-mediated LTD allows a flexible output of NAcCo neurons, whereas disruption of this LTD may contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in addicts during cocaine withdrawal. PMID:23595734

  2. Basal ganglia circuit loops, dopamine and motivation: A review and enquiry

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Satoshi; Yang, Chen; Tan, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine neurons located in the midbrain play a role in motivation that regulates approach behavior (approach motivation). In addition, activation and inactivation of dopamine neurons regulate mood and induce reward and aversion, respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that such motivational role of dopamine neurons is not limited to those located in the ventral tegmental area, but also in the substantia nigra. The present paper reviews previous rodent work concerning dopamine’s role in approach motivation and the connectivity of dopamine neurons, and proposes two working models: One concerns the relationship between extracellular dopamine concentration and approach motivation. High, moderate and low concentrations of extracellular dopamine induce euphoric, seeking and aversive states, respectively. The other concerns circuit loops involving the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, epithalamus, and midbrain through which dopaminergic activity alters approach motivation. These models should help to generate hypothesis-driven research and provide insights for understanding altered states associated with drugs of abuse and affective disorders. PMID:25907747

  3. Methamphetamine Regulation of Firing Activity of Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min; Sambo, Danielle; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2016-10-05

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a substrate for the dopamine transporter that increases extracellular dopamine levels by competing with dopamine uptake and increasing reverse transport of dopamine via the transporter. METH has also been shown to alter the excitability of dopamine neurons. The mechanism of METH regulation of the intrinsic firing behaviors of dopamine neurons is less understood. Here we identified an unexpected and unique property of METH on the regulation of firing activity of mouse dopamine neurons. METH produced a transient augmentation of spontaneous spike activity of midbrain dopamine neurons that was followed by a progressive reduction of spontaneous spike activity. Inspection of action potential morphology revealed that METH increased the half-width and produced larger coefficients of variation of the interspike interval, suggesting that METH exposure affected the activity of voltage-dependent potassium channels in these neurons. Since METH has been shown to affect Ca(2+) homeostasis, the unexpected findings that METH broadened the action potential and decreased the amplitude of afterhyperpolarization led us to ask whether METH alters the activity of Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels. First, we identified BK channels in dopamine neurons by their voltage dependence and their response to a BK channel blocker or opener. While METH suppressed the amplitude of BK channel-mediated unitary currents, the BK channel opener NS1619 attenuated the effects of METH on action potential broadening, afterhyperpolarization repression, and spontaneous spike activity reduction. Live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, electrophysiology, and biochemical analysis suggest METH exposure decreased the activity of BK channels by decreasing BK-α subunit levels at the plasma membrane.

  4. Ih Current Is Necessary to Maintain Normal Dopamine Fluctuations and Sleep Consolidation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo-Gomez, Alicia; Turiegano, Enrique; León, Yolanda; Molina, Isabel; Torroja, Laura; Canal, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    HCN channels are becoming pharmacological targets mainly in cardiac diseases. But apart from their well-known role in heart pacemaking, these channels are widely expressed in the nervous system where they contribute to the neuron firing pattern. Consequently, abolishing Ih current might have detrimental consequences in a big repertoire of behavioral traits. Several studies in mammals have identified the Ih current as an important determinant of the firing activity of dopaminergic neurons, and recent evidences link alterations in this current to various dopamine-related disorders. We used the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to investigate how lack of Ih current affects dopamine levels and the behavioral consequences in the sleep∶activity pattern. Unlike mammals, in Drosophila there is only one gene encoding HCN channels. We generated a deficiency of the DmIh core gene region and measured, by HPLC, levels of dopamine. Our data demonstrate daily variations of dopamine in wild-type fly heads. Lack of Ih current dramatically alters dopamine pattern, but different mechanisms seem to operate during light and dark conditions. Behaviorally, DmIh mutant flies display alterations in the rest∶activity pattern, and altered circadian rhythms. Our data strongly suggest that Ih current is necessary to prevent dopamine overproduction at dark, while light input allows cycling of dopamine in an Ih current dependent manner. Moreover, lack of Ih current results in behavioral defects that are consistent with altered dopamine levels. PMID:22574167

  5. Genetic variants of dopamine D2 receptor impact heterodimerization with dopamine D1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Błasiak, Ewa; Łukasiewicz, Sylwia; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2017-04-01

    The human dopamine D2 receptor gene has three polymorphic variants that alter its amino acid sequence: alanine substitution by valine in position 96 (V96A), proline substitution by serine in position 310 (P310S) and serine substitution by cysteine in position 311 (S311C). Their functional role has never been the object of extensive studies, even though there is some evidence that their occurrence correlates with schizophrenia. The HEK293 cell line was transfected with dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (or genetic variants of the D2 receptor), coupled to fluorescent proteins which allowed us to measure the extent of dimerization of these receptors, using a highly advanced biophysical approach (FLIM-FRET). Additionally, Fluoro-4 AM was used to examine changes in the level of calcium release after ligand stimulation of cells expressing different combinations of dopamine receptors. Using FLIM-FRET experiments we have shown that in HEK 293 expressing dopamine receptors, polymorphic mutations in the D2 receptor play a role in dimmer formation with the dopamine D1 receptor. The association level of dopamine receptors is affected by ligand administration, with variable effects depending on polymorphic variant of the D2 dopamine receptor. We have found that the level of heteromer formation is reflected by calcium ion release after ligand stimulation and have observed variations of this effect dependent on the polymorphic variant and the ligand. The data presented in this paper support the hypothesis on the role of calcium signaling regulated by the D1-D2 heteromer which may be of relevance for schizophrenia etiology. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Dopamine denervation of the prefrontal cortex increases expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1.

    PubMed

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Simmler, Linda D; Blakely, Randy D; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2014-07-01

    Both dopamine and glutamate are critically involved in cognitive processes such as working memory. Astrocytes, which express dopamine receptors, are essential elements in the termination of glutamatergic signaling: the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 is responsible for > 90% of cortical glutamate uptake. The effect of dopamine depletion on glutamate transporters in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unknown. In an effort to determine if astrocytes are a locus of cortical dopamine-glutamate interactions, we examined the effects of chronic dopamine denervation on PFC protein and mRNA levels of glutamate transporters. PFC dopamine denervation elicited a marked increase in GLT-1 protein levels, but had no effect on levels of other glutamate transporters; high-affinity glutamate transport was positively correlated with the extent of dopamine depletion. GLT-1 gene expression was not altered. Our data suggest that dopamine depletion may lead to post-translational modifications that result in increased expression and activity of GLT-1 in PFC astrocytes. The glutamate transporter GLT-1 is expressed by astrocytes, which also express dopamine receptors. Regulation of prefrontal cortical (PFC) GLT-1 potentially offers a novel treatment approach to the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Partial PFC dopamine deafferentation increased membrane expression of GLT-1 protein and glutamate uptake, but did not alter levels of the other two neocortical glutamate transporters, GLAST and EAAC1.

  7. Acute fasting increases somatodendritic dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Roseberry, Aaron G

    2015-08-01

    Fasting and food restriction alter the activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system to affect multiple reward-related behaviors. Food restriction decreases baseline dopamine levels in efferent target sites and enhances dopamine release in response to rewards such as food and drugs. In addition to releasing dopamine from axon terminals, dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also release dopamine from their soma and dendrites, and this somatodendritic dopamine release acts as an autoinhibitory signal to inhibit neighboring VTA dopamine neurons. It is unknown whether acute fasting also affects dopamine release, including the local inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release in the VTA. In these studies, I have tested whether fasting affects the inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release within the VTA by examining whether an acute 24-h fast affects the inhibitory postsynaptic current mediated by evoked somatodendritic dopamine release (D2R IPSC). Fasting increased the contribution of the first action potential to the overall D2R IPSC and increased the ratio of repeated D2R IPSCs evoked at short intervals. Fasting also reduced the effect of forskolin on the D2R IPSC and led to a significantly bigger decrease in the D2R IPSC in low extracellular calcium. Finally, fasting resulted in an increase in the D2R IPSCs when a more physiologically relevant train of D2R IPSCs was used. Taken together, these results indicate that fasting caused a change in the properties of somatodendritic dopamine release, possibly by increasing dopamine release, and that this increased release can be sustained under conditions where dopamine neurons are highly active. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Acute fasting increases somatodendritic dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fasting and food restriction alter the activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system to affect multiple reward-related behaviors. Food restriction decreases baseline dopamine levels in efferent target sites and enhances dopamine release in response to rewards such as food and drugs. In addition to releasing dopamine from axon terminals, dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also release dopamine from their soma and dendrites, and this somatodendritic dopamine release acts as an autoinhibitory signal to inhibit neighboring VTA dopamine neurons. It is unknown whether acute fasting also affects dopamine release, including the local inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release in the VTA. In these studies, I have tested whether fasting affects the inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release within the VTA by examining whether an acute 24-h fast affects the inhibitory postsynaptic current mediated by evoked somatodendritic dopamine release (D2R IPSC). Fasting increased the contribution of the first action potential to the overall D2R IPSC and increased the ratio of repeated D2R IPSCs evoked at short intervals. Fasting also reduced the effect of forskolin on the D2R IPSC and led to a significantly bigger decrease in the D2R IPSC in low extracellular calcium. Finally, fasting resulted in an increase in the D2R IPSCs when a more physiologically relevant train of D2R IPSCs was used. Taken together, these results indicate that fasting caused a change in the properties of somatodendritic dopamine release, possibly by increasing dopamine release, and that this increased release can be sustained under conditions where dopamine neurons are highly active. PMID:26084913

  9. Inhaled dopamine induces bronchodilatation in patients with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, G A; Lezama, Y; Vidal, A; Velasco, M

    1999-10-01

    To determine the probable bronchodilating effect of dopamine administered by inhalation route in patients with crisis of bronchial asthma and the effect of dopamine on bronchial motor tone. We have studied eighteen (18) patients with crisis of bronchial asthma, ten (10) subjects with bronchial hyperreactivity and ten (10) healthy subjects. Patients with other pulmonary or cardiac disease were excluded. All received by inhalation placebo (0.9% saline solution), dopamine at 0.5 microg/kg/min (controlled by heart rate and arterial pressure with a dynamap), and placebo. Respiratory parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1), forced maximal expiratory flow (FEFmax) and forced expiratory flow at the 50% of vital capacity (FEF50) were measured in each protocol period. Student's paired t test, Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney analysis were performed. After dopamine inhalation, there was an increase of FVC by 23% (p<0.001); an increase of FEV1 by 39% (p<0.0001); an increase of FEF50 by 33% (p<0.001) and an increase of FEFmax by 31% (p<0.001). There were no respiratory parameter changes in both, subjects with bronchial hyperreactivity and normal after dopamine inhalation. Inhaled dopamine induces bronchodilatation in patients with crisis of bronchial asthma. Inhaled dopamine neither alters basal bronchial tone in healthy subjects nor in subjects with bronchial hyperreactivity.

  10. Dopamine depresses cholinergic oscillatory network activity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Torsten; Veh, Rüdiger W; Heinemann, Uwe

    2003-11-01

    The dopaminergic neuronal system is implicated in cognitive processes in a variety of brain regions including the mesolimbic system. We have investigated whether dopamine also affects synchronized network activity in the hippocampus, which has been ascribed to play a pivotal role in memory formation. Gamma frequency (20-80 Hz) oscillations were induced by the cholinergic agonist carbachol. Oscillatory activity was examined in area CA3 of Wistar rat hippocampal slices, employing field potential and intracellular recordings. Application of carbachol initiated synchronized population activity in the gamma band at 40 Hz. Induced gamma activity persisted over hours and required GABAA receptors. Dopamine reversibly decreased the integrated gamma band power of the carbachol rhythm by 62%, while its frequency was not changed. By contrast, individual pyramidal cells recorded during carbachol-induced field gamma activity exhibited theta frequency (5-15 Hz) membrane potential oscillations that were not altered by dopamine. The dopamine effect on the field gamma activity was mimicked by the D1 receptor agonist SKF-383393 and partially antagonized by the D1 antagonist SCH-23390. Conversely, the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole failed to depress the oscillations, and the D2 antagonist sulpiride did not prevent the suppressive dopamine effect. The data indicate that dopamine strongly depresses cholinergic gamma oscillations in area CA3 of rat hippocampus by activation of D1-like dopamine receptors and that this effect is most likely mediated via impairment of interneurons involved in generation and maintenance of the carbachol-induced network rhythm.

  11. A dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Minami, M; Kano, H; Ohhira, M; Nakamura, K; Yoshikawa, J

    2000-01-01

    We describe a patient with pheochromocytoma, which secretes dopamine. He was admitted to hospital because of chronic diarrhea. After surgical resection of the tumor, dramatic cessation of the diarrhea and blood pressure elevation were observed. Decreased expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the tumor was considered a possible mechanism of producing a pathophysiological concentration of dopamine. This case shows that excessive excretion of dopamine, a vasodilative hormone, may affect blood pressure.

  12. Morphine and endorphins modulate dopamine turnover in rat median eminence.

    PubMed Central

    Deyo, S N; Swift, R M; Miller, R J

    1979-01-01

    The is evidence that some of the actions of both endogenous and exogenous opioids (e.g., stimulation of prolactin release) are mediated by interaction with catecholaminergic systems. Morphine (1.67, 5, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally) altered dopamine turnover as measured by the alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine method in the median eminence, neostriatum, and frontal cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The turnover rate of dopamine was reduced in the median eminence and frontal cortex but accelerated in the neostriatum. In the frontal cortex all doses were effective in decreasing dopamine turnover; however, in the median eminence the lowest dose of morphine did not significantly alter dopamine turnover. All three doses accelerated dopamine turnover in the neostriatum. Naloxone effectively reversed the effects of morphine at all doses in all brain areas, whereas it had no effect on turnover when given alone. In the median eminence, neostriatum, and frontal cortex, intraventricular injection of [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin (25 micrograms) or beta-endorphin (15 micrograms) produced the same effects on dopamine turnover as morphine. The actions of these peptides were blocked by naloxone. It is hypothesized that opiates and opioid peptides increase prolactin release by reducing the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic system. PMID:288082

  13. Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion of phasic dopamine in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Shnitko, Tatiana A; Taylor, Sarah C; Stringfield, Sierra J; Zandy, Shannon L; Cofresí, Roberto U; Doherty, James M; Lynch, William B; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Gonzales, Rueben A; Robinson, Donita L

    2016-06-01

    Dopamine plays a critical role in striatal and cortical function, and depletion of the dopamine precursors phenylalanine and tyrosine is used in humans to temporarily reduce dopamine and probe the role of dopamine in behavior. This method has been shown to alter addiction-related behaviors and cognitive functioning presumably by reducing dopamine transmission, but it is unclear what specific aspects of dopamine transmission are altered. We performed this study to confirm that administration of an amino acid mixture omitting phenylalanine and tyrosine (Phe/Tyr[-]) reduces tyrosine tissue content in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), and to test the hypothesis that Phe/Tyr[-] administration reduces phasic dopamine release in the NAc. Rats were injected with a Phe/Tyr[-] amino acid mixture, a control amino acid mixture, or saline. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the concentration of tyrosine, dopamine, or norepinephrine in tissue punches from the PFC and ventral striatum. In a separate group of rats, phasic dopamine release was measured with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the NAc core after injection with either the Phe/Tyr[-] mixture or the control amino acid solution. Phe/Tyr[-] reduced tyrosine content in the PFC and NAc, but dopamine and norepinephrine tissue content were not reduced. Moreover, Phe/Tyr[-] decreased the frequency of dopamine transients, but not their amplitude, in freely moving rats. These results indicate that depletion of tyrosine via Phe/Tyr[-] decreases phasic dopamine transmission, providing insight into the mechanism by which this method modifies dopamine-dependent behaviors in human imaging studies.

  14. Could dopamine agonists aid in drug development for anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways.

  15. Could Dopamine Agonists Aid in Drug Development for Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways. PMID:25988121

  16. Amphetamine Paradoxically Augments Exocytotic Dopamine Release and Phasic Dopamine Signals

    PubMed Central

    Daberkow, DP; Brown, HD; Bunner, KD; Kraniotis, SA; Doellman, MA; Ragozzino, ME; Garris, PA; Roitman, MF

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse hijack brain reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting non-exocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties - which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to two hours. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, non-electrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sucrose reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sucrose-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify up-regulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

  17. Testosterone Induces Molecular Changes in Dopamine Signaling Pathway Molecules in the Adolescent Male Rat Nigrostriatal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D.; Owens, Samantha J.; Double, Kay L.; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-01-01

    -driven events as estradiol had minimal effect. We conclude that nigrostriatal responsivity to dopamine may be modulated by testosterone acting via androgen receptors to alter gene expression of molecules involved in dopamine signaling during adolescence. PMID:24618531

  18. Exposure to the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Mixture DE-71 Damages the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System: Role of Dopamine Handling in Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bradner, Joshua M.; Suragh, Tiffany A.; Wilson, W. Wyatt; Lazo, Carlos R.; Stout, Kristen A.; Kim, Hye Mi; Wang, Min Z.; Walker, Douglas I.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Richardson, Jason R.; Miller, Gary W.; Caudle, W. Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the last several decades polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have replaced the previously banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in multiple flame retardant utilities. As epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested PCBs as a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD), the similarities between PBDEs and PCBs suggest that PBDEs have the potential to be neurotoxic to the dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of the PBDE mixture, DE-71, on the nigrostriatal dopamine system and address the role of altered dopamine handling in mediating this neurotoxicity. Using an in vitro model system we found DE-71 effectively caused cell death in a dopaminergic cell line as well as reducing the number of TH+ neurons isolated from VMAT2 WT and LO animals. Assessment of DE-71 neurotoxicity in vivo demonstrated significant deposition of PBDE congeners in the brains of mice, leading to reductions in striatal dopamine and dopamine handling, as well as reductions in the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT2. Additionally, DE-71 elicited a significant locomotor deficit in the VMAT2 WT and LO mice. However, no change was seen in TH expression in dopamine terminal or in the number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). To date, these are the first data to demonstrate that exposure to PBDEs disrupts the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Given their similarities to PCBs, additional laboratory and epidemiological research should be considered to assess PBDEs as a potential risk factor for PD and other neurological disorders. PMID:23287494

  19. Regulation of Fear Extinction in the Basolateral Amygdala by Dopamine D2 Receptors Accompanied by Altered GluR1, GluR1-Ser845 and NR2B Levels.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Wei; Fan, Bu-Fang; Xue, Li; Wen, Jia-Ling; Zhao, Hu

    2017-01-01

    The amygdala, a critical structure for both Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction, receives sparse but comprehensive dopamine innervation and contains dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Fear extinction, which involves learning to suppress the expression of a previously learned fear, appears to require the dopaminergic system. The specific roles of D2 receptors in mediating associative learning underlying fear extinction require further study. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusions of a D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole, and a D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride, prior to fear extinction and extinction retention were tested 24 h after fear extinction training for long-term memory (LTM). LTM was facilitated by quinpirole and attenuated by sulpiride. In addition, A-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit, GluR1 phospho-Ser845, and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor NR2B subunit levels in the BLA were generally increased by quinpirole and down-regulated by sulpiride. The present study suggests that activation of D2 receptors facilitates fear extinction and that blockade of D2 receptors impairs fear extinction, accompanied by changes in GluR1, GluR1-Ser845 and NR2B levels in the amygdala.

  20. A genetic link between discriminative fear coding by the lateral amygdala, dopamine, and fear generalization.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graham L; Soden, Marta E; Knakal, Cerise R; Lee, Heather; Chung, Amanda S; Merriam, Elliott B; Zweifel, Larry S

    2015-09-24

    The lateral amygdala (LA) acquires differential coding of predictive and non-predictive fear stimuli that is critical for proper fear memory assignment. The neurotransmitter dopamine is an important modulator of LA activity and facilitates fear memory formation, but whether dopamine neurons aid in the establishment of discriminative fear coding by the LA is unknown. NMDA-type glutamate receptors in dopamine neurons are critical for the prevention of generalized fear following an aversive experience, suggesting a potential link between a cell autonomous function of NMDAR in dopamine neurons and fear coding by the LA. Here, we utilized mice with a selective genetic inactivation functional NMDARs in dopamine neurons (DAT-NR1 KO mice) combined with behavior, in vivo electrophysiology, and ex vivo electrophysiology in LA neurons to demonstrate that plasticity underlying differential fear coding in the LA is regulated by NMDAR signaling in dopamine neurons and alterations in this plasticity is associated non-discriminative cued-fear responses.

  1. Proteomic analysis of rat brain mitochondria following exposure to dopamine quinone: implications for Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Van Laar, Victor S; Dukes, April A; Cascio, Michael; Hastings, Teresa G

    2008-03-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson disease. We have previously shown that dopamine oxidation leads to selective dopaminergic terminal degeneration in vivo and alters mitochondrial function in vitro. In this study, we utilized 2-D difference in-gel electrophoresis to assess changes in the mitochondrial proteome following in vitro exposure to reactive dopamine quinone. A subset of proteins exhibit decreased fluorescence labeling following dopamine oxidation, suggesting a rapid loss of specific proteins. Amongst these proteins are mitochondrial creatine kinase, mitofilin, mortalin, the 75 kDa subunit of NADH dehydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase 2. Western blot analyses for mitochondrial creatine kinase and mitofilin confirmed significant losses in isolated brain mitochondria exposed to dopamine quinone and PC12 cells exposed to dopamine. These results suggest that specific mitochondrial proteins are uniquely susceptible to changes in abundance following dopamine oxidation, and carry implications for mitochondrial stability in Parkinson disease neurodegeneration.

  2. Amphetamine modulates excitatory neurotransmission through endocytosis of the glutamate transporter EAAT3 in dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Suzanne M; Wheeler, David S; Li, Minghua; Watts, Spencer D; Ingram, Susan L; Amara, Susan G

    2014-07-16

    Amphetamines modify the brain and alter behavior through mechanisms generally attributed to their ability to regulate extracellular dopamine concentrations. However, the actions of amphetamine are also linked to adaptations in glutamatergic signaling. We report here that when amphetamine enters dopamine neurons through the dopamine transporter, it stimulates endocytosis of an excitatory amino acid transporter, EAAT3, in dopamine neurons. Consistent with this decrease in surface EAAT3, amphetamine potentiates excitatory synaptic responses in dopamine neurons. We also show that the process of internalization is dynamin- and Rho-mediated and requires a unique sequence in the cytosolic C terminus of EAAT3. Introduction of a peptide based on this motif into dopamine neurons blocks the effects of amphetamine on EAAT3 internalization and its action on excitatory responses. These data indicate that the internalization of EAAT3 triggered by amphetamine increases glutamatergic signaling and thus contributes to the effects of amphetamine on neurotransmission.

  3. The impact of a parkinsonian lesion on dynamic striatal dopamine transmission depends on nicotinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Katie A; Platt, Nicola J; Cragg, Stephanie J

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), but whether and how release of dopamine from surviving neurons is altered has long been debated. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axons powerfully govern dopamine release and could be critical contributing factors. We revisited whether fundamental properties of dopamine transmission are changed in a parkinsonian brain and tested the potentially profound masking effects of nAChRs. Using real-time detection of dopamine in mouse striatum after a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and under nAChR inhibition, we reveal that dopamine signals show diminished sensitivity to presynaptic activity. This effect manifested as diminished contrast between DA release evoked by the lowest versus highest frequencies. This reduced activity-dependence was underpinned by loss of short-term facilitation of dopamine release, consistent with an increase in release probability (Pr). With nAChRs active, the reduced activity-dependence of dopamine release after a parkinsonian lesion was masked. Consequently, moment-by-moment variation in activity of nAChRs may lead to dynamic co-variation in dopamine signal impairments in PD.

  4. Dysregulated dopamine storage increases the vulnerability to α-synuclein in nigral neurons.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Ayse; Björklund, Tomas; Buck, Kerstin; Kirik, Deniz

    2012-09-01

    Impairments in the capacity of dopaminergic neurons to handle cytoplasmic dopamine may be a critical factor underlying the selective vulnerability of midbrain dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, toxicity of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons has been suggested to be mediated by direct interaction between dopamine and α-synuclein through formation of abnormal α-synuclein species, although direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis is lacking. Here, we investigated the role of dopamine availability on α-synuclein mediated neurodegeneration in vivo. We found that overexpression of α-synuclein in nigral dopamine neurons in mice with deficient vesicular storage of dopamine led to a significant increase in dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Importantly, silencing the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme - thereby reducing dopamine content in the nigral neurons - reversed the increased vulnerability back to the baseline level observed in wild-type littermates, but failed to eliminate it completely. Importantly, TH knockdown was not effective in altering the toxicity in the wild-type animals. Taken together, our data suggest that under normal circumstances, in healthy dopamine neurons, cytoplasmic dopamine is tightly controlled such that it does not contribute significantly to α-synuclein mediated toxicity. Dysregulation of the dopamine machinery in the substantia nigra, on the other hand, could act as a trigger for induction of increased toxicity in these neurons and could explain how these neurons become more vulnerable and die in the disease process.

  5. An acute, epitope-specific modification in the dopamine transporter associated with methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Fricks-Gleason, Ashley N; German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Friend, Danielle M; Ganesh, Kamala K; Carver, Aaron S; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Keefe, Kristen A

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical studies demonstrate that repeated, high-dose methamphetamine administrations rapidly decrease plasmalemmal dopamine uptake, which may contribute to aberrant dopamine accumulation, reactive species generation, and long-term dopaminergic deficits. The present study extends these findings by demonstrating a heretofore unreported, epitope-specific modification in the dopamine transporter caused by a methamphetamine regimen that induces these deficits. Specifically, repeated, high-dose methamphetamine injections (4 × 10 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) rapidly decreased immunohistochemical detection of striatal dopamine transporter as assessed 1 h after the final methamphetamine exposure. In contrast, neither a single high dose (1 × 10 mg/kg) nor repeated injections of a lower dose (4 × 2 mg/kg/injection) induced this change. The high-dose regimen-induced alteration was only detected using antibodies directed against the N-terminus. Immunohistochemical staining using antibodies directed against the C-terminus did not reveal any changes. The high-dose regimen also did not alter dopamine transporter expression as assessed using [(125) I]RTI-55 autoradiography. These data suggest that the repeated, high-dose methamphetamine regimen alters the N-terminus of the dopamine transporter. Further, these data may be predictive of persistent dopamine deficits caused by the stimulant. Future studies of the signaling cascades involved should provide novel insight into potential mechanisms underlying the physiological and pathophysiological regulation of the dopamine transporter. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dopamine and binge eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2010-01-01

    Central dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the motivational aspects of eating and food choices. This review focuses on human and animal data examining the importance of dopamine on binge eating behaviors. Early works examining dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of bulimic individuals suggested decreased dopamine turnover during the active phase of the illness. While neuroimaging studies of dopamine mechanisms in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are limited, genetic studies in humans have implicated an increased frequency of dopamine transporter and associated D2 receptor polymorphisms with binge pathology. Recent examinations of rodent models of dietary-induced binge eating (DIBE) have investigated plausible dopamine mechanisms involved in sustaining binge eating behaviors. In DIBE models, highly palatable foods (fats, sugars and their combination), as well as restricted access conditions appear to promote ingestive responses and result in sustained dopamine stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. Taken together with studies examining the comorbidity of illicit drug use and eating disorders, the data reviewed here support a role for dopamine in perpetuating the compulsive feeding patterns of BN and BED. As such, we propose that sustained stimulation of the dopamine systems by bingeing promoted by preexisting conditions (e.g., genetic traits, dietary restraint, stress, etc.) results in progressive impairments of dopamine signaling. To disrupt this vicious cycle, novel research-based treatment options aiming at the neural substrates of compulsive eating patterns are necessary. PMID:20417658

  7. Dopamine-Induced Conformational Changes in Alpha-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Outeiro, Tiago F.; Klucken, Jochen; Bercury, Kathryn; Tetzlaff, Julie; Putcha, Preeti; Oliveira, Luis M. A.; Quintas, Alexandre; McLean, Pamela J.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Oligomerization and aggregation of α-synuclein molecules play a major role in neuronal dysfunction and loss in Parkinson's disease [1]. However, α-synuclein oligomerization and aggregation have mostly been detected indirectly in cells using detergent extraction methods [2], [3], [4]. A number of in vitro studies showed that dopamine can modulate the aggregation of α-synuclein by inhibiting the formation of or by disaggregating amyloid fibrils [5], [6], [7]. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that α-synuclein adopts a variety of conformations in primary neuronal cultures using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Importantly, we found that dopamine, but not dopamine agonists, induced conformational changes in α-synuclein which could be prevented by blocking dopamine transport into the cell. Dopamine also induced conformational changes in α-synuclein expressed in neuronal cell lines, and these changes were also associated with alterations in oligomeric/aggregated species. Conclusion/Significance Our results show, for the first time, a direct effect of dopamine on the conformation of α-synuclein in neurons, which may help explain the increased vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:19730729

  8. Prenatal L-DOPA exposure produces lasting changes in brain dopamine content, cocaine-induced dopamine release and cocaine conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jia-Qian; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhihui; McCarthy, Deirdre; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M; Tropea, Thomas F; Kosofsky, Barry E; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine, its receptors and transporter are present in the brain beginning from early in the embryonic period. Dopamine receptor activation can influence developmental events including neurogenesis, neuronal migration and differentiation raising the possibility that dopamine imbalance in the fetal brain can alter development of the brain and behavior. We examined whether elevated dopamine levels during gestation can produce persisting changes in brain dopamine content and dopamine-mediated behaviors. We administered L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in drinking water to timed-pregnant CD1 mice from the 11th day of gestation until the day of parturition. The prenatal L-DOPA exposure led to significantly lower cocaine conditioned place preference, a behavioral test of reward, at postnatal day 60 (P60). However, in vivo microdialysis measurements showed significant increases in cocaine-induced dopamine release in the caudate putamen of P26 and P60 mice exposed to L-DOPA prenatally, ruling out attenuated dopamine release in the caudate putamen as a contributor to decreased conditioned place preference. Although dopamine release was induced in the nucleus accumbens of prenatally L-DOPA exposed mice at P60 by cocaine, the dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens was not significantly different between the L-DOPA and control groups. However, basal dopamine release was significantly higher in the prenatally L-DOPA exposed mice at P60 suggesting that the L-DOPA exposed mice may require a higher dose of cocaine for induction of cocaine place preference than the controls. The prenatal L-DOPA exposure did not alter cocaine-induced locomotor response, suggesting dissociation between the effects of prenatal L-DOPA exposure on conditioned place preference and locomotor activity. Tissue concentration of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum and ventral midbrain were significantly affected by the L-DOPA exposure as well as by developmental changes over the P14-P60

  9. Growth of dopamine crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Vidya Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  10. Growth of dopamine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  11. Updating dopamine reward signals

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has advanced our knowledge of phasic dopamine reward prediction error signals. The error signal is bidirectional, reflects well the higher order prediction error described by temporal difference learning models, is compatible with model-free and model-based reinforcement learning, reports the subjective rather than physical reward value during temporal discounting and reflects subjective stimulus perception rather than physical stimulus aspects. Dopamine activations are primarily driven by reward, and to some extent risk, whereas punishment and salience have only limited activating effects when appropriate controls are respected. The signal is homogeneous in terms of time course but heterogeneous in many other aspects. It is essential for synaptic plasticity and a range of behavioural learning situations. PMID:23267662

  12. Kappa-Opioid Receptor Signaling in the Striatum as a Potential Modulator of Dopamine Transmission in Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Trifilieff, Pierre; Martinez, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is accompanied by a decrease in striatal dopamine signaling, measured as a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor binding as well as blunted dopamine release in the striatum. These alterations in dopamine transmission have clinical relevance, and have been shown to correlate with cocaine-seeking behavior and response to treatment for cocaine dependence. However, the mechanisms contributing to the hypodopaminergic state in cocaine addiction remain unknown. Here we review the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies showing alterations in D2 receptor binding potential and dopamine transmission in cocaine abusers and their significance in cocaine-seeking behavior. Based on animal and human studies, we propose that the kappa receptor/dynorphin system, because of its impact on dopamine transmission and upregulation following cocaine exposure, could contribute to the hypodopaminergic state reported in cocaine addiction, and could thus be a relevant target for treatment development. PMID:23760592

  13. DOPAMINE AND FOOD ADDICTION: LEXICON BADLY NEEDED

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, the concept of food addiction has become a common feature in the scientific literature, as well as the popular press. Nevertheless, the use of the term “addiction” to describe pathological aspects of food intake in humans remains controversial, and even among those who affirm the validity of the concept, there is considerable disagreement about its utility for explaining the increasing prevalence of obesity throughout much of the world. An examination of the literature on food addiction indicates that mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine systems often are cited as mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of food addiction. However, in reviewing this literature, it is important to have a detailed consideration of the complex nature of dopaminergic involvement in motivational processes. For example, although it is often stated that mesolimbic dopamine mediates “reward”, there is no standard or consistent technical meaning of this term. Moreover, there is a persistent tendency to link dopamine transmission with pleasure or hedonia, as opposed to other aspects of motivation or learning. The present paper provides a critical discussion of some aspects of the food addiction literature, viewed through the lens of recent findings and current theoretical views of dopaminergic involvement in food motivation. Furthermore, compulsive food intake and binge eating will be considered from an evolutionary perspective, in terms of the motivational subsystems that are involved in adaptive patterns of food consumption and seeking behaviors, and a consideration of how these could be altered in pathological conditions. PMID:23177385

  14. Aberrant mesolimbic dopamine-opiate interaction in obesity.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Lauri; Tuulari, Jetro; Karlsson, Henry; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Salminen, Paulina; Parkkola, Riitta; Hietala, Jarmo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-11-15

    Dopamine and opioid neurotransmitter systems share many functions such as regulation of reward and pleasure. μ-Opioid receptors (MOR) modulate the mesolimbic dopamine system in ventral tegmental area and striatum, key areas implicated in reward. We hypothesized that dopamine and opioid receptor availabilities correlate in vivo and that this correlation is altered in obesity, a disease with altered reward processing. Twenty lean females (mean BMI 22) and 25 non-binge eating morbidly obese females (mean BMI 41) underwent two positron emission tomography scans with [(11)C]carfentanil and [(11)C]raclopride to measure the MOR and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability, respectively. In lean subjects, the MOR and DRD2 availabilities were positively associated in the ventral striatum (r=0.62, p=0.003) and dorsal caudate nucleus (r=0.62, p=0.004). Moreover, DRD2 availability in the ventral striatum was associated with MOR availability in other regions of the reward circuitry, particularly in the ventral tegmental area. In morbidly obese subjects, this receptor interaction was significantly weaker in ventral striatum but unaltered in the caudate nucleus. Finally, the association between DRD2 availability in the ventral striatum and MOR availability in the ventral tegmental area was abolished in the morbidly obese. The study demonstrates a link between DRD2 and MOR availabilities in living human brain. This interaction is selectively disrupted in mesolimbic dopamine system in morbid obesity. We propose that interaction between the dopamine and opioid systems is a prerequisite for normal reward processing and that disrupted cross-talk may underlie altered reward processing in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced Insulin Sensitivity Is Related to Less Endogenous Dopamine at D2/3 Receptors in the Ventral Striatum of Healthy Nonobese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Borlido, Carol; Hahn, Margaret; Feng, Zhe; Fervaha, Gagan; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Remington, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food addiction is a debated topic in neuroscience. Evidence suggests diabetes is related to reduced basal dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, similar to persons with drug addiction. It is unknown whether insulin sensitivity is related to endogenous dopamine levels in the ventral striatum of humans. We examined this using the agonist dopamine D2/3 receptor radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO and an acute dopamine depletion challenge. In a separate sample of healthy persons, we examined whether dopamine depletion could alter insulin sensitivity. Methods: Insulin sensitivity was estimated for each subject from fasting plasma glucose and insulin using the Homeostasis Model Assessment II. Eleven healthy nonobese and nondiabetic persons (3 female) provided a baseline [11C]-(+)-PHNO scan, 9 of which provided a scan under dopamine depletion, allowing estimates of endogenous dopamine at dopamine D2/3 receptor. Dopamine depletion was achieved via alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (64mg/kg, P.O.). In 25 healthy persons (9 female), fasting plasma and glucose was acquired before and after dopamine depletion. Results: Endogenous dopamine at ventral striatum dopamine D2/3 receptor was positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r(7)=.84, P=.005) and negatively correlated with insulin levels (r(7)=-.85, P=.004). Glucose levels were not correlated with endogenous dopamine at ventral striatum dopamine D2/3 receptor (r(7)=-.49, P=.18). Consistently, acute dopamine depletion in healthy persons significantly decreased insulin sensitivity (t(24)=2.82, P=.01), increased insulin levels (t(24)=-2.62, P=.01), and did not change glucose levels (t(24)=-0.93, P=.36). Conclusion: In healthy individuals, diminished insulin sensitivity is related to less endogenous dopamine at dopamine D2/3 receptor in the ventral striatum. Moreover, acute dopamine depletion reduces insulin sensitivity. These findings may have important implications for neuropsychiatric populations with metabolic

  16. Adrenergic hyperactivity and metanephrine excess in the nucleus accumbens after prefrontocortical dopamine depletion.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E F; Miñano, J

    2001-03-01

    Selective dopamine depletion within the medial prefrontal cortex in rats is known to enhance dopamine and norepinephrine levels in the nucleus accumbens and to induce characteristic behavioral disturbances. The present study was designed to determine levels of adrenaline, apart from dopamine and norepinephrine, and metabolites in the nucleus accumbens after prefrontocortical dopamine depletion. Prefrontocortical dopamine depletion was carried out by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine, and it was validated through: the emergence of behavioral disturbances such as amphetamine-induced stereotypies, spontaneous motor hyperactivity, and enhanced "anxiety-like" responses and through postmortem quantification of catecholamine levels by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The findings indicated that lesioned rats exhibited more oral stereotypies after amphetamine, were hyperlocomotive, and showed more pronounced anxiety-like behaviors than controls. Following prefrontocortical dopamine depletion, postmortem concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine, along with the metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and vanillylmandelic acid, were reliably enhanced in the nucleus accumbens as expected, and dopamine turnover was decreased. Furthermore the nucleus accumbens contained higher levels of adrenaline and its transmethylated metabolite metanephrine. To sum up, prefrontocortical dopamine depletion induces motor and emotional disturbances in rats and alters the neurochemical profile of the nucleus accumbens, not only inducing dopaminergic and noradrenergic hyperactivity but also leading to adrenaline and metanephrine excess.

  17. Conformational changes in dopamine transporter intracellular regions upon cocaine binding and dopamine translocation.

    PubMed

    Dehnes, Yvette; Shan, Jufang; Beuming, Thijs; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2014-07-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT), a member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter family, mediates the reuptake of dopamine at the synaptic cleft. DAT is the primary target for psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. We previously demonstrated that cocaine binding and dopamine transport alter the accessibility of Cys342 in the third intracellular loop (IL3). To study the conformational changes associated with the functional mechanism of the transporter, we made cysteine substitution mutants, one at a time, from Phe332 to Ser351 in IL3 of the background DAT construct, X7C, in which 7 endogenous cysteines were mutated. The accessibility of the 20 engineered cysteines to polar charged sulfhydryl reagents was studied in the absence and presence of cocaine or dopamine. Of the 11 positions that reacted with methanethiosulfonate ethyl ammonium, as evidenced by inhibition of ligand binding, 5 were protected against this inhibition by cocaine and dopamine (S333C, S334C, N336C, M342C and T349C), indicating that reagent accessibility is affected by conformational changes associated with inhibitor and substrate binding. In some of the cysteine mutants, transport activity is disrupted, but can be rescued by the presence of zinc, most likely because the distribution between inward- and outward-facing conformations is restored by zinc binding. The experimental data were interpreted in the context of molecular models of DAT in both the inward- and outward-facing conformations. Differences in the solvent accessible surface area for individual IL3 residues calculated for these states correlate well with the experimental accessibility data, and suggest that protection by ligand binding results from the stabilization of the outward-facing configuration. Changes in the residue interaction networks observed from the molecular dynamics simulations also revealed the critical roles of several positions during the conformational transitions. We conclude that the IL3 region of DAT

  18. The effect of striatal dopamine depletion on striatal and cortical glutamate: A mini-review

    PubMed Central

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Gerretsen, Philip; Chung, Jun Ku; Iwata, Yusuke; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate in the striatum has become the highlight of several theories of neuropsychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia. Using in vivo brain imaging in humans, alterations in dopamine and glutamate concentrations have been observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear a priori how alterations in striatal dopamine should modulate glutamate concentrations in the basal ganglia. In this selective mini-review, we examine the consequence of reducing striatal dopamine functioning on glutamate concentrations in the striatum and cortex; regions of interest heavily examined in the human brain imaging studies. We examine the predictions of the classical model of the basal ganglia, and contrast it with findings in humans and animals. The review concludes that chronic dopamine depletion (>4 months) produces decreases in striatal glutamate levels which are consistent with the classical model of the basal ganglia. However, acute alterations in striatal dopamine functioning, specifically at the D2 receptors, may produce opposite affects. This has important implications for models of the basal ganglia and theorizing about neurochemical alterations in neuropsychiatric diseases. Moreover, these findings may help guide a priori hypotheses for 1H-MRS studies measuring glutamate changes given alterations in dopaminergic functioning in humans. PMID:26334687

  19. In vivo measurement of somatodendritic release of dopamine in the ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Justin M.; Kile, Brian M.; Parker, Lauren E.; Wightman', R. Mark

    2009-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA), the locus of mesolimbic dopamine cell bodies, contains dopamine. Experiments in brain slices have demonstrated that VTA dopamine can be released by local electrical stimulation. Measurements with both push-pull cannula and microdialysis in intact animals have also obtained evidence for releasable dopamine. Here we demonstrate that dopamine release in the VTA can be evoked by remote stimulations of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in the anesthetized rat. In initial experiments, the MFB was electrically stimulated while a carbon-fiber electrode was lowered to the VTA, with recording by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. While release was not observed with the carbon fiber 4 to 6 mm below dura, a voltammetric response was observed a t 6-8 mm below dura, but the voltammogram was poorly defined. At lower depths, in the VTA, dopamine release was evoked. Immunohistochemistry experiments with antibodies for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) confirmed that dopamine processes were primarily found below 8 mm. Similarly, tissue content determined by liquid chromatography revealed serotonin but not dopamine dorsal to 8 mm with both dopamine and serotonin at lower depths. Evaluation of the VTA signal by pharmacological means showed that it increased with inhibitors of dopamine uptake, but release was not altered by D2 agents. Dopamine release in the VTA was frequency dependent and could be exhausted by stimulations longer than 5 s. Thus, VTA dopamine release can be evoked in vivo by remote stimulations and it resembles release in terminal regions, possessing a similar uptake mechanism and a finite releasable storage pool. PMID:19593821

  20. Mice that are resistant to diet-induced weight loss have greater food anticipatory activity and altered melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) and dopamine receptor 2 (D2) gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vaanholt, Lobke M; Mitchell, Sharon E; Sinclair, Rachel E; Speakman, John R

    2015-07-01

    Diet-induced weight loss varies considerably between individuals, but the mechanisms driving these individual differences remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether key neuropeptides involved in the regulation of energy balance or reward systems were differentially expressed in mice that were prone or resistant to caloric restriction (CR) induced weight loss. Mice (n=30 males and n=34 females) were fed 70% of their own baseline ad libitum intake for 25days, after which their brains were collected and expression of various neuropeptides were investigated and compared between the 10 male and 10 female mice that showed the greatest (high weight loss, HWL) or lowest weight loss (LWL) (n=40 in total). HWL mice showed a differential neuropeptide profile to LWL in both sexes, characterised by increased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), leptin receptor (ObRb), and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) in the arcuate nucleus. No changes in the expression of fat mass and obesity related gene (FTO) or suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (Socs3) were observed. Levels of dopamine D2 receptor were decreased in the nucleus accumbens in HWL compared to LWL mice. HWL mice showed a stronger increase in food anticipatory activity (FAA) in response to CR than LWL mice. These results indicate that the mice prone to diet-induced weight loss experienced greater hunger, potentially driving their elevated FAA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Herrera, Samantha; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Flores-Gutierrez, Enrique Octavio; Quintero-Fabián, Saray

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS) that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R). The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS), there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers. PMID:27795960

  2. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine.

    PubMed

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Alvarez-Herrera, Samantha; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Flores-Gutierrez, Enrique Octavio; Garcés-Alvarez, María Eugenia; de la Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz; Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; Pavón, Lenin

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS) that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R). The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS), there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers.

  3. Striatal dopamine, reward, and decision making in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Elevated striatal dopamine function is one of the best-established findings in schizophrenia. In this review, we discuss causes and consequences of this striata! dopamine alteration. We first summarize earlier findings regarding striatal reward processing and anticipation using functional neuroimaging. Secondly, we present a series of recent studies that are exemplary for a particular research approach: a combination of theory-driven reinforcement learning and decision-making tasks in combination with computational modeling and functional neuroimaging. We discuss why this approach represents a promising tool to understand underlying mechanisms of symptom dimensions by dissecting the contribution of multiple behavioral control systems working in parallel. We also discuss how it can advance our understanding of the neurobiological implementation of such functions. Thirdly, we review evidence regarding the topography of dopamine dysfunction within the striatum. Finally, we present conclusions and outline important aspects to be considered in future studies. PMID:27069382

  4. Striatal dopamine, reward, and decision making in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Elevated striatal dopamine function is one of the best-established findings in schizophrenia. In this review, we discuss causes and consequences of this striata! dopamine alteration. We first summarize earlier findings regarding striatal reward processing and anticipation using functional neuroimaging. Secondly, we present a series of recent studies that are exemplary for a particular research approach: a combination of theory-driven reinforcement learning and decision-making tasks in combination with computational modeling and functional neuroimaging. We discuss why this approach represents a promising tool to understand underlying mechanisms of symptom dimensions by dissecting the contribution of multiple behavioral control systems working in parallel. We also discuss how it can advance our understanding of the neurobiological implementation of such functions. Thirdly, we review evidence regarding the topography of dopamine dysfunction within the striatum. Finally, we present conclusions and outline important aspects to be considered in future studies.

  5. Developmental origins of brain disorders: roles for dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Money, Kelli M.; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as dopamine, participate in a wide range of behavioral and cognitive functions in the adult brain, including movement, cognition, and reward. Dopamine-mediated signaling plays a fundamental neurodevelopmental role in forebrain differentiation and circuit formation. These developmental effects, such as modulation of neuronal migration and dendritic growth, occur before synaptogenesis and demonstrate novel roles for dopaminergic signaling beyond neuromodulation at the synapse. Pharmacologic and genetic disruptions demonstrate that these effects are brain region- and receptor subtype-specific. For example, the striatum and frontal cortex exhibit abnormal neuronal structure and function following prenatal disruption of dopamine receptor signaling. Alterations in these processes are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, and emerging studies of neurodevelopmental disruptions may shed light on the pathophysiology of abnormal neuronal circuitry in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24391541

  6. Low-dose dopamine agonist administration blocks vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated vascular hyperpermeability without altering VEGF receptor 2-dependent luteal angiogenesis in a rat ovarian hyperstimulation model.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Raul; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, Miguel; Zimmermann, Ralf C; Novella-Maestre, Edurne; Alonso-Muriel, Isabel; Sanchez-Criado, Jose; Remohi, Jose; Simon, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio

    2006-11-01

    No specific treatment is available for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), the most important complication in infertile women treated with gonadotropins. OHSS is caused by increased vascular permeability (VP) through ovarian hypersecretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-activating VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). We previously demonstrated in an OHSS rodent model that increased VP was prevented by inactivating VEGFR-2 with a receptor antagonist (SU5416). However, due to its toxicity (thromboembolism) and disruption of VEGFR-2-dependent angiogenic processes critical for pregnancy, this kind of compound cannot be used clinically to prevent OHSS. Dopamine receptor 2 (Dp-r2) agonists, used in the treatment of human hyperprolactinemia including pregnancy, inhibit VEGFR-2-dependent VP and angiogenesis when administered at high doses in animal cancer models. To test whether VEGFR-2-dependent VP and angiogenesis could be segregated in a dose-dependent fashion with the Dp-r2 agonist cabergoline, a well-established OHSS rat model supplemented with prolactin was used. A 100 microg/kg low-dose Dp-r2 agonist cabergoline reversed VEGFR-2-dependent VP without affecting luteal angiogenesis through partial inhibition of ovarian VEGFR-2 phosphorylation levels. No luteolytic effects (serum progesterone levels and luteal apoptosis unaffected) were observed. Cabergoline administration also did not affect VEGF/VEGFR-2 ovarian mRNA levels. Results in the animal model and the safe clinical profile of Dp-r2 agonists encouraged us to administer cabergoline to oocyte donors at high risk for developing the syndrome. Prophylactic administration of cabergoline (5-10 microg/kg x d) decreased the occurrence of OHSS from 65% (controls) to 25% (treatment). Therefore, a specific, safe treatment for OHSS is now available.

  7. Activation of dopamine neurons is critical for aversive conditioning and prevention of generalized anxiety.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Larry S; Fadok, Jonathan P; Argilli, Emmanuela; Garelick, Michael G; Jones, Graham L; Dickerson, Tavis M K; Allen, James M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Bonci, Antonello; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-05-01

    Generalized anxiety is thought to result, in part, from impairments in contingency awareness during conditioning to cues that predict aversive or fearful outcomes. Dopamine neurons of the ventral midbrain exhibit heterogeneous responses to aversive stimuli that are thought to provide a critical modulatory signal to facilitate orientation to environmental changes and assignment of motivational value to unexpected events. Here we describe a mouse model in which activation of dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus is attenuated by conditional genetic inactivation of functional NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons. We discovered that altering the magnitude of excitatory responses by dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus was associated with impaired conditioning to a cue that predicts an aversive outcome. Impaired conditioning by these mice was associated with the development of a persistent, generalized anxiety-like phenotype. These data are consistent with a role for dopamine in facilitating contingency awareness that is critical for the prevention of generalized anxiety.

  8. Dopamine controls Parkinson's tremor by inhibiting the cerebellar thalamus.

    PubMed

    Dirkx, Michiel F; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Aarts, Esther; Timmer, Monique H M; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan; Helmich, Rick C

    2017-01-09

    Parkinson's resting tremor is related to altered cerebral activity in the basal ganglia and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit. Although Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic basis of resting tremor remains unclear: dopaminergic medication reduces tremor in some patients, but many patients have a dopamine-resistant tremor. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging, we test how a dopaminergic intervention influences the cerebral circuit involved in Parkinson's tremor. From a sample of 40 patients with Parkinson's disease, we selected 15 patients with a clearly tremor-dominant phenotype. We compared tremor-related activity and effective connectivity (using combined electromyography-functional magnetic resonance imaging) on two occasions: ON and OFF dopaminergic medication. Building on a recently developed cerebral model of Parkinson's tremor, we tested the effect of dopamine on cerebral activity associated with the onset of tremor episodes (in the basal ganglia) and with tremor amplitude (in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit). Dopaminergic medication reduced clinical resting tremor scores (mean 28%, range -12 to 68%). Furthermore, dopaminergic medication reduced tremor onset-related activity in the globus pallidus and tremor amplitude-related activity in the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus. Network analyses using dynamic causal modelling showed that dopamine directly increased self-inhibition of the ventral intermediate nucleus, rather than indirectly influencing the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit through the basal ganglia. Crucially, the magnitude of thalamic self-inhibition predicted the clinical dopamine response of tremor. Dopamine reduces resting tremor by potentiating inhibitory mechanisms in a cerebellar nucleus of the thalamus (ventral intermediate nucleus). This suggests that altered dopaminergic projections to the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit have a role

  9. Complexity of dopamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) coincides with a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. A key player in the loss of dopaminergic neurons is oxidative stress. Dopamine (DA) metabolism itself is strongly linked to oxidative stress as its degradation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DA oxidation can lead to endogenous neurotoxins whereas some DA derivatives show antioxidative effects. Therefore, DA metabolism is of special importance for neuronal redox-homeostasis and viability. In this review we highlight different aspects of dopamine metabolism in the context of PD and neurodegeneration. Since most reviews focus only on single aspects of the DA system, we will give a broader overview by looking at DA biosynthesis, sequestration, degradation and oxidation chemistry at the metabolic level, as well as at the transcriptional, translational and posttranslational regulation of all enzymes involved. This is followed by a short overview of cellular models currently used in PD research. Finally, we will address the topic from a medical point of view which directly aims to encounter PD. PMID:23683503

  10. Trans-blood brain barrier delivery of dopamine-loaded nanoparticles reverses functional deficits in parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, Richa; Seth, Kavita; Shukla, Anshi; Shukla, Rajendra Kumar; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Saxena, Prem Narain; Arun, Jharna; Chaudhari, Bhushan Pradosh; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap; Shukla, Rakesh; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-05-26

    Sustained and safe delivery of dopamine across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is a major hurdle for successful therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder. Therefore, in the present study we designed neurotransmitter dopamine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (DA NPs) to deliver dopamine to the brain. These nanoparticles slowly and constantly released dopamine, showed reduced clearance of dopamine in plasma, reduced quinone adduct formation, and decreased dopamine autoxidation. DA NPs were internalized in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum, regions affected in PD. Treatment with DA NPs did not cause reduction in cell viability and morphological deterioration in SH-SY5Y, as compared to bulk dopamine-treated cells, which showed reduced viability. Herein, we report that these NPs were able to cross the BBB and capillary endothelium in the striatum and substantia nigra in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of PD. Systemic intravenous administration of DA NPs caused significantly increased levels of dopamine and its metabolites and reduced dopamine-D2 receptor supersensitivity in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Further, DA NPs significantly recovered neurobehavioral abnormalities in 6-OHDA-induced parkinsonian rats. Dopamine delivered through NPs did not cause additional generation of ROS, dopaminergic neuron degeneration, and ultrastructural changes in the striatum and substantia nigra as compared to 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Interestingly, dopamine delivery through nanoformulation neither caused alterations in the heart rate and blood pressure nor showed any abrupt pathological change in the brain and other peripheral organs. These results suggest that NPs delivered dopamine into the brain, reduced dopamine autoxidation-mediated toxicity, and ultimately reversed neurochemical and neurobehavioral deficits in parkinsonian rats.

  11. Dopamine alleviates nutrient deficiency-induced stress in Malus hupehensis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bowen; Li, Cuiying; Ma, Changqing; Wei, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian; Huang, Dong; Chen, Qi; Li, Chao; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-10-01

    Dopamine mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, root system architecture, nutrient uptake, and responses to nutrient deficiencies in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Under a nutrient deficiency, plants showed significant reductions in growth, chlorophyll concentrations, and net photosynthesis, along with disruptions in nutrient uptake, transport, and distribution. However, pretreatment with 100 μM dopamine markedly alleviated such inhibitions. Supplementation with that compound enabled plants to maintain their photosynthetic capacity and development of the root system while promoting the uptake of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B, altering the way in which those nutrients were partitioned throughout the plant. The addition of dopamine up-regulated genes for antioxidant enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (MdcAPX, MdcGR, MdMDHAR, MdDHAR-1, and MdDHAR-2) but down-regulated genes for senescence (SAG12, PAO, and MdHXK). These results indicate that exogenous dopamine has an important antioxidant and anti-senescence effect that might be helpful for improving nutrient uptake. Our findings demonstrate that dopamine offers new opportunities for its use in agriculture, especially when addressing the problem of nutrient deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The immunoregulatory role of dopamine: an update

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Chandrani; Basu, Biswarup; Chakroborty, Debanjan; Dasgupta, Partha Sarthi; Basu, Sujit

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is an important molecule bridging the nervous and immune systems. DA through autocrine/paracrine manner modulates the functions of immune effector cells by acting through its receptors present in these cells. DA also has unique and opposite effects on T cell functions. Although DA activates naïve or resting T cells, but it inhibits activated T cells. In addition, changes in the expression of DA receptors and their signaling pathways especially in T cells are associated with altered immune functions in disorders like schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. These results suggest an immunoregulatory role of DA. Therefore targeting DA receptors and their signaling pathways in these cells by using DA receptor agonists and antagonists may be useful for the treatment of diseases where DA induced altered immunity play a pathogenic role. PMID:19896530

  13. Does dopamine connect the dots in ADPKD?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Arlene B

    2015-02-01

    Healthy autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with normal kidney function demonstrate reduced endothelial-dependent vasodilation that improves with increasing local dopamine levels. Dopamine regulates renal sodium excretion, and dopamine receptors are located on primary cilia in both vascular and renal tubular epithelial cells. The study by Lorthioir and colleagues links endothelial function and dopamine availability in ADPKD patients.

  14. Occupancy of dopamine D2/3 receptors in rat brain by endogenous dopamine measured with the agonist positron emission tomography radioligand [11C]MNPA.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Nicholas; Zoghbi, Sami S; Skinbjerg, Mette; Liow, Jeih-San; Hong, Jinsoo; Sibley, David R; Pike, Victor W; Halldin, Christer; Innis, Robert B

    2008-10-01

    Estimates of dopamine D(2/3) receptor occupancy by endogenous dopamine using positron emission tomography (PET) in animals have varied almost threefold. This variability may have been caused by incomplete depletion of dopamine or by the use of antagonist radioligands, which appear less sensitive than agonist radioligands to changes in endogenous dopamine. PET scans were performed in rats with the agonist PET radioligand [(11)C]MNPA ([O-methyl-(11)C]2-methoxy-N-propylnorapomorphine). [(11)C]MNPA was injected as a bolus plus constant infusion to achieve steady-state concentration in the body and equilibrium receptor binding in the brain. Radioligand binding was compared at baseline and after treatment with reserpine plus alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, which cause approximately 95% depletion of endogenous dopamine. Depletion of dopamine increased radioligand binding in striatum but had little effect in cerebellum. Striatal [(11)C]MNPA binding potential was 0.93 +/- 0.12 at baseline and increased to 1.99 +/- 0.25 after dopamine depletion. Occupancy of D(2/3) receptors by endogenous dopamine at baseline was calculated to be approximately 53%. Striatal binding was displaceable with raclopride, but not with BP 897 (a selective D(3) compound), thus confirming the D(2) receptor specificity of [(11)C]MNPA binding. Radioactivity extracted from rat brain contained only 8-10% radiometabolites and was insignificantly altered by administration of reserpine plus alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine. Hence, dopamine depletion did not increase the PET measurements via an effect on radiotracer metabolism. Our in vivo estimate of dopamine's occupancy of D(2/3) receptors at baseline is higher than that previously reported using antagonist radioligands and PET, but is similar to that reported using agonist radioligands and ex vivo measurements.

  15. Sensitization of Rapid Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell After Repeated Cocaine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii A.; Daberkow, David P.; Ford, Jeremy N.; Garris, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Repeated cocaine exposure and withdrawal leads to long-term changes, including behavioral and dopamine sensitization to an acute cocaine challenge, that are most pronounced after long withdrawal periods. However, the changes in dopamine neurotransmission after short withdrawal periods are less well defined. To study dopamine neurotransmission after 1-day withdrawal, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to determine whether repeated cocaine alters rapid dopamine release and uptake in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell. FSCV was performed in urethane anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats that had previously received one or seven daily injections of saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip). In response to acute cocaine, subjects showed increased dopamine overflow that resulted from both increased dopamine release and slowed dopamine uptake. One-day cocaine pre-exposure, however, did not alter dopaminergic responses to a subsequent cocaine challenge. In contrast, 7-day cocaine-treated subjects showed a potentiated rapid dopamine response in both the core and shell after an acute cocaine challenge. In addition, kinetic analysis during the cocaine challenge showed a greater increase in apparent Km of 7-day cocaine exposed subjects. Together, the data provide the first in vivo demonstration of rapid dopamine sensitization in the NAc core and shell after a short withdrawal period. In addition, the data clearly delineate cocaine's release and uptake effects and suggest that the observed sensitization results from greater uptake inhibition in cocaine pre-exposed subjects. PMID:20554845

  16. Inhibition of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells by D1-type Dopamine Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Yuki; Rodríguez, Carolina Varela; Ogata, Genki; Partida, Gloria J.; Oi, Hanako; Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Lee, Sherwin C.; Colado, Anselmo Felipe; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    The spike output of neural pathways can be regulated by modulating output neuron excitability and/or their synaptic inputs. Dopaminergic interneurons synapse onto cells that route signals to mammalian retinal ganglion cells, but it is unknown whether dopamine can activate receptors in these ganglion cells and, if it does, how this affects their excitability. Here, we show D1a-receptor-like immunoreactivity in ganglion cells identified in adult rats by retrogradely transported dextran, and that dopamine, D1-type receptor agonists, and cAMP analogs inhibit spiking in ganglion cells dissociated from adult rats. These ligands curtailed repetitive spiking during constant current injections, and reduced the number and rate of rise of spikes elicited by fluctuating current injections without significantly altering the timing of the remaining spikes. Consistent with mediation by D1-type receptors, SCH-23390 reversed the effects of dopamine on spikes. Contrary to a recent report, spike inhibition by dopamine was not precluded by blocking Ih. Consistent with the reduced rate of spike rise, dopamine reduced voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) amplitude and tetrodotoxin, at doses that reduced INa as moderately as dopamine, also inhibited spiking. These results provide the first direct evidence that D1-type dopamine receptor activation can alter mammalian retinal ganglion cell excitability, and demonstrate that dopamine can modulate spikes in these cells by a mechanism different from the pre- and postsynaptic means proposed by previous studies. To our knowledge, our results also provide the first evidence that dopamine receptor activation can reduce excitability without altering the temporal precision of spike firing. PMID:19940196

  17. Phasic-like stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle augments striatal gene expression despite methamphetamine-induced partial dopamine denervation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Christopher D; Pastuzyn, Elissa D; Barker-Haliski, Melissa L; Garris, Paul A; Keefe, Kristen A

    2013-05-01

    Methamphetamine-induced partial dopamine depletions are associated with impaired basal ganglia function, including decreased preprotachykinin mRNA expression and impaired transcriptional activation of activity-regulated, cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) gene in striatum. Recent work implicates deficits in phasic dopamine signaling as a potential mechanism linking methamphetamine-induced dopamine loss to impaired basal ganglia function. This study thus sought to establish a causal link between phasic dopamine transmission and altered basal ganglia function by determining whether the deficits in striatal neuron gene expression could be restored by increasing phasic dopamine release. Three weeks after pretreatment with saline or a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine, rats underwent phasic- or tonic-like stimulation of ascending dopamine neurons. Striatal gene expression was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Phasic-like, but not tonic-like, stimulation induced immediate-early genes Arc and zif268 in both groups, despite the partial striatal dopamine denervation in methamphetamine-pretreated rats, with the Arc expression occurring in presumed striatonigral efferent neurons. Phasic-like stimulation also restored preprotachykinin mRNA expression. These results suggest that disruption of phasic dopamine signaling likely underlies methamphetamine-induced impairments in basal ganglia function, and that restoring phasic dopamine signaling may be a viable approach to manage long-term consequences of methamphetamine-induced dopamine loss on basal ganglia functions. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Impairment in the mesohippocampal dopamine circuit following exposure to the brominated flame retardant, HBCDD.

    PubMed

    Pham-Lake, Camille; Aronoff, Elizabeth B; Camp, Chad R; Vester, Aimee; Peters, Sam J; Caudle, W Michael

    2017-03-01

    Many chemicals have been used to increase the safety of consumer products by reducing their flammability and risk for ignition. Recent focus on brominated flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has shown them to contribute to neurobehavioral deficits in children, including learning and memory. As the manufacture and use of PBDEs have been reduced, replacement chemicals, such as hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) have been substituted. Our current study evaluated the neurotoxicity of HBCDD, concentrating on dopaminergic innervation to the hippocampus. Using an in vivo model, we exposed male mice to HBCDD and then assessed alterations to the dopamine synapse 6 weeks later. These exposures elicited significant reductions in presynaptic dopaminergic proteins, including TH, COMT, MAO-B, DAT, VMAT2, and alpha-synuclein. In contrast, postsynaptic dopamine receptors were not impaired. These findings suggest that the mesohippocampal dopamine circuit is vulnerable to HBCDD and the dopamine terminal may be a selective target for alteration.

  19. Disruption of dopamine neuron activity pattern regulation through selective expression of a human KCNN3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Soden, Marta E; Jones, Graham L; Sanford, Christina A; Chung, Amanda S; Güler, Ali D; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-11-20

    The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel SK3 plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior.

  20. Dopamine Induced Neurodegeneration in a PINK1 Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhi; Duchen, Michael R.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Abramov, Andrey Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine depletion in the striatum. Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease. Loss of PINK1 function causes mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species production and calcium dysregulation, which increases susceptibility to neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. The basis of neuronal vulnerability to dopamine in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. Methodology We investigated the mechanism of dopamine induced cell death in transgenic PINK1 knockout mouse neurons. We show that dopamine results in mitochondrial depolarisation caused by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. Dopamine-induced mPTP opening is dependent on a complex of reactive oxygen species production and calcium signalling. Dopamine-induced mPTP opening, and dopamine-induced cell death, could be prevented by inhibition of reactive oxygen species production, by provision of respiratory chain substrates, and by alteration in calcium signalling. Conclusions These data demonstrate the mechanism of dopamine toxicity in PINK1 deficient neurons, and suggest potential therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. PMID:22662171

  1. Dopamine function in cigarette smokers: an [¹⁸F]-DOPA PET study.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Pepper, Fiona; Egerton, Alice; Demjaha, Arsime; Tomasi, Gianpaolo; Mouchlianitis, Elias; Maximen, Levi; Veronese, Mattia; Turkheimer, Federico; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Howes, Oliver D

    2014-09-01

    Tobacco addiction is a global public health problem. Addiction to tobacco is thought to involve the effects of nicotine on the dopaminergic system. Only one study has previously investigated dopamine synthesis capacity in cigarette smokers. This study, exclusively in male volunteers, reported increased dopamine synthesis capacity in heavy smokers compared with non-smokers. We sought to determine whether dopamine synthesis capacity was elevated in a larger sample of cigarette smokers that included females. Dopamine synthesis capacity was measured in 15 daily moderate smokers with 15 sex- and age-matched control subjects who had never smoked tobacco. Dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as the influx rate constant K(i)(cer)) was measured with positron emission tomography and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine. There was no significant group difference in dopamine synthesis capacity between smokers and non-smoker controls in the whole striatum (t28=0.64, p=0.53) or any of its functional subdivisions. In smokers, there were no significant relationships between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and dopamine synthesis capacity in the whole striatum (r=-0.23, p=0.41) or any striatal subdivision. These findings indicate that moderate smoking is not associated with altered striatal dopamine synthesis capacity.

  2. What Mechanisms Are Responsible for the Reuptake of Levodopa-Derived Dopamine in Parkinsonian Striatum?

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Haruo; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa is the most effective medication for motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. However, various motor and non-motor complications are associated with levodopa treatment, resulting from altered levodopa-dopamine metabolism with disease progression and long-term use of the drug. The present review emphasizes the role of monoamine transporters other than the dopamine transporter in uptake of extracellular dopamine in the dopamine-denervated striatum. When dopaminergic neurons are lost and dopamine transporters decreased, serotonin and norepinephrine transporters compensate by increasing uptake of excessive extracellular dopamine in the striatum. Organic cation transporter-3 and plasma membrane monoamine transporter, low affinity, and high capacity transporters, also potentially uptake dopamine when high-affinity transporters do not work normally. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are often administered to patients with Parkinson's disease presenting with depression, pain or other non-motor symptoms. Thus, it is important to address the potential of these drugs to modify dopamine metabolism and uptake through blockade of the compensatory function of these transporters, which could lead to changes in motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. PMID:28018168

  3. Dieldrin exposure induces oxidative damage in the mouse nigrostriatal dopamine system

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Jaime M.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; McCormack, Alison L.; Di Monte, Donato A.; Jones, Dean P.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Miller, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we provide evidence that the insecticide dieldrin causes specific oxidative damage in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. We report that exposure of mice to low levels of dieldrin for 30 days resulted in alterations in dopamine-handling as evidenced by a decrease in dopamine metabolites, DOPAC (31.7% decrease) and HVA (29.2% decrease) and significantly increased cysteinyl-catechol levels in the striatum. Furthermore, dieldrin resulted in a 53% decrease in total glutathione, an increase in the redox potential of glutathione, and a 90% increase in protein carbonyls. α-Synuclein protein expression was also significantly increased in the striatum (25% increase). Finally, dieldrin caused a significant decrease in striatal expression of the dopamine transporter as measured by 3H-WIN 35,428 binding and 3H-dopamine uptake. These alterations occurred in the absence of dopamine neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. These effects represent the ability of low doses of dieldrin to increase the vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by inducing oxidative stress and suggest that pesticide exposure may act as a promoter of PD. PMID:17291500

  4. Dieldrin exposure induces oxidative damage in the mouse nigrostriatal dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Jaime M; Richardson, Jason R; Guillot, Thomas S; McCormack, Alison L; Di Monte, Donato A; Jones, Dean P; Pennell, Kurt D; Miller, Gary W

    2007-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we provide evidence that the insecticide dieldrin causes specific oxidative damage in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. We report that exposure of mice to low levels of dieldrin for 30 days resulted in alterations in dopamine-handling as evidenced by a decrease in dopamine metabolites, DOPAC (31.7% decrease) and HVA (29.2% decrease) and significantly increased cysteinyl-catechol levels in the striatum. Furthermore, dieldrin resulted in a 53% decrease in total glutathione, an increase in the redox potential of glutathione, and a 90% increase in protein carbonyls. Alpha-synuclein protein expression was also significantly increased in the striatum (25% increase). Finally, dieldrin caused a significant decrease in striatal expression of the dopamine transporter as measured by (3)H-WIN 35,428 binding and (3)H-dopamine uptake. These alterations occurred in the absence of dopamine neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. These effects represent the ability of low doses of dieldrin to increase the vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by inducing oxidative stress and suggest that pesticide exposure may act as a promoter of PD.

  5. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor functional down regulation in the cerebellum of hypoxic neonatal rats: neuroprotective role of glucose and oxygen, epinephrine resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Binoy; Nandhu, M S; Paulose, C S

    2010-02-01

    Brain damage due to an episode of hypoxia remains a major problem in infants causing deficit in motor and sensory function. Molecular processes regulating the dopamine receptors play a very important role in motor and cognitive functions. Disturbances in the development of the dopaminergic system lead to dyskinesia, dystonia, tics and abnormal eye movements. The present study is to understand the hypoxic damage to the dopamine content and dopamine D(1), dopamine D(2) receptors in cerebellum and the neuroprotective effect of glucose supplementation prior to the current sequence of resuscitation-oxygen and epinephrine supplementation in neonatal rats. Dopamine content in the cerebellum showed a significant decrease in hypoxic neonatal rats when compared to control. Dopamine D(1) and dopamine D(2) receptors showed a decrease in B(max) during hypoxia. The cerebellar dopamine, dopamine D(1) and dopamine D(2) receptors showed significant decrease on supplementation of 100% oxygen alone to hypoxic rats when compared to control rats. Dopamine D(1) and dopamine D(2) receptors mRNA showed significant decrease during epinephrine supplementation prior to resuscitation. These dopaminergic receptor alterations were reversed to near control by glucose supplementation. Thus our results suggest that glucose acts as a neuroprotective agent in dopaminergic receptors function. This has immense clinical significance to correct the resuscitation sequence in neonatal care.

  6. Increased presynaptic regulation of dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens core following chronic ethanol self-administration in female macaques

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Calipari, Erin S.; Yorgason, Jordan T.; Lovinger, David M.; Mateo, Yolanda; Jimenez, Vanessa A.; Helms, Christa M.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Hypofunction of striatal dopamine neurotransmission, or hypodopaminergia, is a consequence of excessive ethanol use, and is hypothesized to be a critical component of alcoholism, driving alcohol intake in an attempt to restore dopamine levels; however, the neurochemical mechanisms involved in these dopaminergic deficiencies are unknown. Objective Here we examined the specific dopaminergic adaptations that produce hypodopaminergia and contribute to alcohol use disorders using direct, sub-second measurements of dopamine signaling in nonhuman primates following chronic ethanol self-administration. Methods Female rhesus macaques completed one year of daily (22 hr/day) ethanol self-administration. Subsequently, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used in nucleus accumbens core brain slices to determine alterations in dopamine terminal function, including release and uptake kinetics, and sensitivity to quinpirole (D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist) and U50,488 (kappa-opioid receptor agonist) induced inhibition of dopamine release. Results Ethanol drinking greatly increased uptake rates, which were positively correlated with lifetime ethanol intake. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors and kappa-opioid receptors, which both act as negative regulators of presynaptic dopamine release, were moderately and robustly enhanced in ethanol drinkers. Conclusions Greater uptake rates and sensitivity to D2-type autoreceptor and kappa-opioid receptor agonists could converge to drive a hypodopaminergic state, characterized by reduced basal dopamine and an inability to mount appropriate dopaminergic responses to salient stimuli. Together, we outline the specific alterations to dopamine signaling that may drive ethanol-induced hypofunction of the dopamine system, and suggest that the dopamine and dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor systems may be efficacious pharmcotherapeutic targets in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26892380

  7. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function.

    PubMed

    Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking.

  8. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards—an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. PMID:27069377

  9. Dopamine reward prediction error coding.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards-an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware.

  10. Using In Vivo Electrochemistry to Study the Physiological Effects of Cocaine and Other Stimulants on the Drosophila melanogaster Dopamine Transporter.

    PubMed

    Makos, Monique A; Han, Kyung-An; Heien, Michael L; Ewing, Andrew G

    2010-01-20

    Dopamine neurotransmission is thought to play a critical role in addiction reinforcing mechanisms of drugs of abuse. Electrochemical techniques have been employed extensively for monitoring in vivo dopamine changes in the brains of model organisms including rats, mice, and primates. Here, we investigated the effects of several stimulants on dopamine clearance using recently developed microanalytical tools for in vivo electrochemical measurements of dopamine in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. A cylindrical carbon-fiber microelectrode was placed in the protocerebral anterior medial region of the Drosophila brain (an area dense with dopamine neurons) while a micropipette injector was positioned to exogenously apply dopamine. Background-subtracted fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was carried out to quantify changes in dopamine concentration in the adult fly brain. Clearance of exogenously applied dopamine was significantly decreased in the protocerebral anterior medial area of the wild-type fly following treatment with cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or methylphenidate. In contrast, dopamine uptake remained unchanged when identical treatments were employed in fumin mutant flies that lack functional dopamine transporters. Our in vivo results support in vitro binding affinity studies that predict these four stimulants effectively block normal Drosophila dopamine transporter function. Furthermore, we found 10 muM to be a sufficient physiological cocaine concentration to significantly alter dopamine transporter uptake in the Drosophila central nervous system. Taken together, these data indicate dopamine uptake in the Drosophila brain is decreased by psychostimulants as observed in mammals. This validates the use of Drosophila as a model system for future studies into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying drug addiction in humans.

  11. Dopamine Modulates the Functional Organization of the Orbitofrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Tobler, Philippe N

    2017-02-08

    Neuromodulators such as dopamine can alter the intrinsic firing properties of neurons and may thereby change the configuration of larger functional circuits. The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) receives dopaminergic input from midbrain nuclei, but the role of dopamine in the OFC is still unclear. Here we tested the idea that dopaminergic activity changes the pattern of connectivity between the OFC and the rest of the brain and thereby reconfigures functional networks in the OFC. To this end, we combined double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacology [D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist amisulpride] in humans with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and clustering methods. In the placebo group, we replicated previously observed parcellations of the OFC into two and six subregions based on connectivity patterns with the rest of the brain. Most importantly, while the twofold clustering did not differ significantly between groups, blocking D2Rs significantly changed the composition of the sixfold parcellation, suggesting a dopamine-dependent reconfiguration of functional OFC subregions. Moreover, multivariate decoding analyses revealed that amisulpride changed the whole-brain connectivity patterns of individual OFC subregions. In particular, D2R blockade shifted the balance of OFC connectivity from associative areas in the temporal and parietal lobe toward functional connectivity with the frontal cortex. In summary, our results suggest that dopamine alters the composition of functional OFC circuits, possibly indicating a broader role for neuromodulators in the dynamic reconfiguration of functional brain networks.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A key role of any neuromodulator may be the reconfiguration of functional brain circuits. Here we test this idea with regard to dopamine and the organization of functional networks in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). We show that blockade of dopamine D2 receptors has profound effects on the functional connectivity patterns of

  12. Dopamine, Affordance and Active Inference

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M.; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J.; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level. PMID:22241972

  13. Reinforcement, dopamine and rodent models in drug development for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff

    2012-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents special challenges for drug development. Current treatment with psychostimulants and nonstimulants is effective, but their mechanism of action beyond the cellular level is incompletely understood. We review evidence suggesting that altered reinforcement mechanisms are a fundamental characteristic of ADHD. We show that a deficit in the transfer of dopamine signals from established positive reinforcers to cues that predict such reinforcers may underlie these altered reinforcement mechanisms, and in turn explain key symptoms of ADHD. We argue that the neural substrates controlling the excitation and inhibition of dopamine neurons during the transfer process are a promising target for future drug development. There is a need to develop animal models and behavioral paradigms that can be used to experimentally investigate these mechanisms and their effects on sensitivity to reinforcement. More specific and selective targeting of drug development may be possible through this approach.

  14. Dopamine Stimulation of Active Na and Cl Absorption in Rabbit Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Donowitz, Mark; Cusolito, Sheila; Battisti, Laurie; Fogel, Ronald; Sharp, Geoffrey W. G.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of dopamine on active intestinal ion transport have been evaluated. An epithelial sheet preparation of rabbit ileum was used in vitro with the Ussing chamber-voltage clamp technique. Dopamine, in the presence of 1 mM ascorbic acid, added to the serosal bathing solution caused a dose-dependent decrease in short-circuit current, with a half-maximal effect at 1.2 μM and maximal effect of −50 μA/cm2 at 50 μM; dopamine decreased the potential difference, and increased the conductance and net Na and net Cl absorption. There was no effect on the residual ion flux. Dopamine did not alter the change in short-circuit current caused by mucosal glucose (10 mM) or serosal theophylline (10 mM). Mucosal dopamine had no effect. The effect of dopamine on short-circuit current was inhibited by the dopamine antagonists haloperidol and domperidone and the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine; there was no effect of the α1-antagonist prazosin and the β-antagonist propranolol. In addition, the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine, but not the α1-agonist methoxamine caused a dose-dependent decrease in short-circuit current. The ileal effects of dopamine did not occur via conversion into norepinephrine or release of norepinephrine from the peripheral nerves since “peripheral sympathectomy” with 6-hydroxydopamine did not alter the dopamine-induced change in ileal short-circuit current. The dopamine effects were not associated with a change in basal ileal cyclic AMP content but were associated with a decrease in total ileal calcium content as measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and as estimated by 45Ca++ uptake. The decrease in calcium content could be attributed to a dopamine-induced decrease in 45Ca++ influx from the serosal surface. Because of the presence of dopamine in ileal mucosa and these effects on ileal electrolyte transport, it is possible that dopamine may be involved in the physiologic regulation of active intestinal electrolyte absorption. PMID

  15. DCC Receptors Drive Prefrontal Cortex Maturation by Determining Dopamine Axon Targeting in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lauren M; Pokinko, Matthew; Torres-Berrío, Angélica; Cuesta, Santiago; Lambert, Laura C; Del Cid Pellitero, Esther; Wodzinski, Michael; Manitt, Colleen; Krimpenfort, Paul; Kolb, Bryan; Flores, Cecilia

    2017-06-16

    Dopaminergic input to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) increases throughout adolescence and, by establishing precisely localized synapses, calibrates cognitive function. However, why and how mesocortical dopamine axon density increases across adolescence remains unknown. We used a developmental application of axon-initiated recombination to label and track the growth of dopamine axons across adolescence in mice. We then paired this recombination with cell-specific knockdown of the netrin-1 receptor DCC to determine its role in adolescent dopamine axon growth. We then assessed how altering adolescent PFC dopamine axon growth changes the structural and functional development of the PFC by quantifying pyramidal neuron morphology and cognitive performance. We show, for the first time, that dopamine axons continue to grow from the striatum to the PFC during adolescence. Importantly, we discover that DCC, a guidance cue receptor, controls the extent of this protracted growth by determining where and when dopamine axons recognize their final target. When DCC-dependent adolescent targeting events are disrupted, dopamine axons continue to grow ectopically from the nucleus accumbens to the PFC and profoundly change PFC structural and functional development. This leads to alterations in cognitive processes known to be impaired across psychiatric conditions. The prolonged growth of dopamine axons represents an extraordinary period for experience to influence their adolescent trajectory and predispose to or protect against psychopathology. DCC receptor signaling in dopamine neurons is a molecular link where genetic and environmental factors may interact in adolescence to influence the development and function of the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dopamine and oxytocin interactions underlying behaviors: potential contributions to behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Tracey A; Douglas, Alison J

    2010-06-01

    Dopamine is an important neuromodulator that exerts widespread effects on the central nervous system (CNS) function. Disruption in dopaminergic neurotransmission can have profound effects on mood and behavior and as such is known to be implicated in various neuropsychiatric behavioral disorders including autism and depression. The subsequent effects on other neurocircuitries due to dysregulated dopamine function have yet to be fully explored. Due to the marked social deficits observed in psychiatric patients, the neuropeptide, oxytocin is emerging as one particular neural substrate that may be influenced by the altered dopamine levels subserving neuropathologic-related behavioral diseases. Oxytocin has a substantial role in social attachment, affiliation and sexual behavior. More recently, it has emerged that disturbances in peripheral and central oxytocin levels have been detected in some patients with dopamine-dependent disorders. Thus, oxytocin is proposed to be a key neural substrate that interacts with central dopamine systems. In addition to psychosocial improvement, oxytocin has recently been implicated in mediating mesolimbic dopamine pathways during drug addiction and withdrawal. This bi-directional role of dopamine has also been implicated during some components of sexual behavior. This review will discuss evidence for the existence dopamine/oxytocin positive interaction in social behavioral paradigms and associated disorders such as sexual dysfunction, autism, addiction, anorexia/bulimia, and depression. Preliminary findings suggest that whilst further rigorous testing has to be conducted to establish a dopamine/oxytocin link in human disorders, animal models seem to indicate the existence of broad and integrated brain circuits where dopamine and oxytocin interactions at least in part mediate socio-affiliative behaviors. A profound disruption to these pathways is likely to underpin associated behavioral disorders. Central oxytocin pathways may serve as a

  17. Voltammetric study of the control of striatal dopamine release by glutamate.

    PubMed

    Borland, Laura M; Michael, Adrian C

    2004-10-01

    The central dopamine systems are involved in several aspects of normal brain function and are implicated in a number of human disorders. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control dopamine release in the brain. The striatum of the rat receives both dopaminergic and glutamatergic projections that synaptically target striatal neurons but not each other. Nevertheless, these afferents do form frequent appositional contacts, which has engendered interest in the question of whether they communicate with each other despite the absence of a direct synaptic connection. In this study, we used voltammetry in conjunction with carbon fiber microelectrodes in anesthetized rats to further examine the effect of the ionotropic glutamate antagonist, kynurenate, on extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum. Intrastriatal infusions of kynurenate decreased extracellular dopamine levels, suggesting that glutamate acts locally within the striatum via ionotropic receptors to regulate the basal extracellular dopamine concentration. Infusion of tetrodotoxin into the medial forebrain bundle or the striatum did not alter the voltammetric response to the intrastriatal kynurenate infusions, suggesting that glutamate receptors control a non-vesicular release process that contributes to the basal extracellular dopamine level. However, systemic administration of the dopamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine (20 mg/kg i.p.), markedly decreased the amplitude of the response to kynurenate infusions, suggesting that the dopamine transporter mediates non-vesicular dopamine release. Collectively, these findings are consistent with the idea that endogenous glutamate acts locally within the striatum via ionotropic receptors to control a tonic, impulse-independent, transporter-mediated mode of dopamine release. Although numerous prior in vitro studies had suggested that such a process might exist, it has not previously been clearly demonstrated in an in vivo experiment.

  18. Initial elevations in glutamate and dopamine neurotransmission decline with age, as does exploratory behavior, in LRRK2 G2019S knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Volta, Mattia; Beccano-Kelly, Dayne A; Paschall, Sarah A; Cataldi, Stefano; MacIsaac, Sarah E; Kuhlmann, Naila; Kadgien, Chelsie A; Tatarnikov, Igor; Fox, Jesse; Khinda, Jaskaran; Mitchell, Emma; Bergeron, Sabrina; Melrose, Heather; Farrer, Matthew J; Milnerwood, Austen J

    2017-09-20

    LRRK2 mutations produce end-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) with reduced nigrostriatal dopamine, whereas, asymptomatic carriers have increased dopamine turnover and altered brain connectivity. LRRK2 pathophysiology remains unclear, but reduced dopamine and mitochondrial abnormalities occur in aged G2019S mutant knock-in (GKI) mice. Conversely, cultured GKI neurons exhibit increased synaptic transmission. We assessed behavior and synaptic glutamate and dopamine function across a range of ages. Young GKI mice exhibit more vertical exploration, elevated glutamate and dopamine transmission, and aberrant D2-receptor responses. These phenomena decline with age, but are stable in littermates. In young GKI mice, dopamine transients are slower, independent of dopamine transporter (DAT), increasing the lifetime of extracellular dopamine. Slowing of dopamine transients is observed with age in littermates, suggesting premature ageing of dopamine synapses in GKI mice. Thus, GKI mice exhibit early, but declining, synaptic and behavioral phenotypes, making them amenable to investigation of early pathophysiological, and later parkinsonian-like, alterations. This model will prove valuable in efforts to develop neuroprotection for PD.

  19. Enduring increases in anxiety-like behavior and rapid nucleus accumbens dopamine signaling in socially isolated rats

    PubMed Central

    Yorgason, Jordan T.; España, Rodrigo A.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Weiner, Jeffrey L.; Jones, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Social isolation (SI) rearing, a model of early life stress, results in profound behavioral alterations, including increased anxiety-like behavior, impaired sensorimotor gating and increased self-administration of addictive substances. These changes are accompanied by alterations in mesolimbic dopamine function, such as increased dopamine and metabolite tissue content, increased dopamine responses to cues and psychostimulants, and increased dopamine neuron burst firing. Using voltammetric techniques, we examined the effects of SI rearing on dopamine transporter activity, vesicular release and dopamine D2-type autoreceptor activity in the nucleus accumbens core. Long–Evans rats were housed in group (GH; 4/cage) or SI (1/cage) conditions from weaning into early adulthood [postnatal day (PD) 28–77]. After this initial housing period, rats were assessed on the elevated plus-maze for an anxiety-like phenotype, and then slice voltammetry experiments were performed. To study the enduring effects of SI rearing on anxiety-like behavior and dopamine terminal function, another cohort of similarly reared rats was isolated for an additional 4 months (until PD 174) and then tested. Our findings demonstrate that SI rearing results in lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior, dopamine release and dopamine transporter activity, but not D2 activity. Interestingly, GH-reared rats that were isolated as adults did not develop the anxiety-like behavior or dopamine changes seen in SI-reared rats. Together, our data suggest that early life stress results in an anxiety-like phenotype, with lasting increases in dopamine terminal function. PMID:23294165

  20. Studies on striatal neurotoxicity caused by the 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine/ malonate combination: implications for serotonin/dopamine interactions.

    PubMed

    Goñi-Allo, Beatriz; Ramos, Mar'a; Herv'as, Isabel; Lasheras, Berta; Aguirre, Norberto

    2006-03-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces long-term toxicity to serotonin (5-HT) neurones in rats, which is exacerbated when combined with the mitochondrial inhibitor malonate. Moreover, MDMA, which does not produce dopamine depletion in the rat, potentiates malonate-induced striatal dopamine toxicity. Because the malonate/MDMA combination acutely causes a synergistic increase of 5-HT and dopamine release, in this study we sought to determine whether pharmacological blockade of MDMA- and/or malonate-induced dopamine release prevents neurotoxicity. Fluoxetine, given 30 min prior to the malonate/MDMA combination, afforded complete protection against 5-HT depletion and reversed MDMA-induced exacerbation of dopamine toxicity found in the malonate/MDMA treated rats. Protection afforded by fluoxetine was not related to changes in MDMA-induced hyperthermia. Similarly, potentiation of malonate-induced dopamine toxicity caused by MDMA was not observed in p-chlorophenylalanine-5-HT depleted rats. Finally, the dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR 12909 completely prevented dopamine neurotoxicity caused by the malonate/MDMA combination and reversed the exacerbating toxic effects of malonate on MDMA-induced 5-HT depletion without significantly altering the hyperthermic response. Overall, these results suggest that the synergic release of dopamine caused by the malonate/MDMA combination plays an important role in the long-term toxic effects. A possible mechanism of neurotoxicity and protection is proposed.

  1. Diet-induced obesity: dopamine transporter function, impulsivity and motivation

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswami, V; Thompson, AC; Cassis, LA; Bardo, MT; Dwoskin, LP

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) was used to determine dopamine transporter (DAT) function, impulsivity and motivation as neurobehavioral outcomes and predictors of obesity. DESIGN To evaluate neurobehavioral alterations following the development of DIO induced by an 8-week high-fat diet (HF) exposure, striatal D2-receptor density, DAT function and expression, extracellular dopamine concentrations, impulsivity, and motivation for high- and low-fat reinforcers were determined. To determine predictors of DIO, neurobehavioral antecedents including impulsivity, motivation for high-fat reinforcers, DAT function and extracellular dopamine were evaluated before the 8-week HF exposure. METHODS Striatal D2-receptor density was determined by in vitro kinetic analysis of [3H]raclopride binding. DAT function was determined using in vitro kinetic analysis of [3H]dopamine uptake, methamphetamine-evoked [3H]dopamine overflow and no-net flux in vivo microdialysis. DAT cell-surface expression was determined using biotinylation and western blotting. Impulsivity and food-motivated behavior were determined using a delay discounting task and progressive ratio schedule, respectively. RESULTS Relative to obesity-resistant (OR) rats, obesity-prone (OP) rats exhibited 18% greater body weight following an 8-week HF-diet exposure, 42% lower striatal D2-receptor density, 30% lower total DAT expression, 40% lower in vitro and in vivo DAT function, 45% greater extracellular dopamine and twofold greater methamphetamine-evoked [3H]dopamine overflow. OP rats exhibited higher motivation for food, and surprisingly, were less impulsive relative to OR rats. Impulsivity, in vivo DAT function and extracellular dopamine concentration did not predict DIO. Importantly, motivation for high-fat reinforcers predicted the development of DIO. CONCLUSION Human studies are limited by their ability to determine if impulsivity, motivation and DAT function are causes or consequences of DIO. The

  2. Dopamine Manipulation Affects Response Vigor Independently of Opportunity Cost.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Devesse, Sophie; Olivier, Etienne

    2016-09-14

    Dopamine is known to be involved in regulating effort investment in relation to reward, and the disruption of this mechanism is thought to be central in some pathological situations such as Parkinson's disease, addiction, and depression. According to an influential model, dopamine plays this role by encoding the opportunity cost, i.e., the average value of forfeited actions, which is an important parameter to take into account when making decisions about which action to undertake and how fast to execute it. We tested this hypothesis by asking healthy human participants to perform two effort-based decision-making tasks, following either placebo or levodopa intake in a double blind within-subject protocol. In the effort-constrained task, there was a trade-off between the amount of force exerted and the time spent in executing the task, such that investing more effort decreased the opportunity cost. In the time-constrained task, the effort duration was constant, but exerting more force allowed the subject to earn more substantial reward instead of saving time. Contrary to the model predictions, we found that levodopa caused an increase in the force exerted only in the time-constrained task, in which there was no trade-off between effort and opportunity cost. In addition, a computational model showed that dopamine manipulation left the opportunity cost factor unaffected but altered the ratio between the effort cost and reinforcement value. These findings suggest that dopamine does not represent the opportunity cost but rather modulates how much effort a given reward is worth. Dopamine has been proposed in a prevalent theory to signal the average reward rate, used to estimate the cost of investing time in an action, also referred to as opportunity cost. We contrasted the effect of dopamine manipulation in healthy participants in two tasks, in which increasing response vigor (i.e., the amount of effort invested in an action) allowed either to save time or to earn more

  3. Diet-induced obesity: dopamine transporter function, impulsivity and motivation.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswami, V; Thompson, A C; Cassis, L A; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2013-08-01

    A rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) was used to determine dopamine transporter (DAT) function, impulsivity and motivation as neurobehavioral outcomes and predictors of obesity. To evaluate neurobehavioral alterations following the development of DIO induced by an 8-week high-fat diet (HF) exposure, striatal D2-receptor density, DAT function and expression, extracellular dopamine concentrations, impulsivity, and motivation for high- and low-fat reinforcers were determined. To determine predictors of DIO, neurobehavioral antecedents including impulsivity, motivation for high-fat reinforcers, DAT function and extracellular dopamine were evaluated before the 8-week HF exposure. Striatal D2-receptor density was determined by in vitro kinetic analysis of [(3)H]raclopride binding. DAT function was determined using in vitro kinetic analysis of [(3)H]dopamine uptake, methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine overflow and no-net flux in vivo microdialysis. DAT cell-surface expression was determined using biotinylation and western blotting. Impulsivity and food-motivated behavior were determined using a delay discounting task and progressive ratio schedule, respectively. Relative to obesity-resistant (OR) rats, obesity-prone (OP) rats exhibited 18% greater body weight following an 8-week HF-diet exposure, 42% lower striatal D2-receptor density, 30% lower total DAT expression, 40% lower in vitro and in vivo DAT function, 45% greater extracellular dopamine and twofold greater methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine overflow. OP rats exhibited higher motivation for food, and surprisingly, were less impulsive relative to OR rats. Impulsivity, in vivo DAT function and extracellular dopamine concentration did not predict DIO. Importantly, motivation for high-fat reinforcers predicted the development of DIO. Human studies are limited by their ability to determine if impulsivity, motivation and DAT function are causes or consequences of DIO. The current animal model shows that

  4. Modulation of striatal projection systems by dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Gerfen, Charles R.; Surmeier, D. James

    2012-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a chain of subcortical nuclei that facilitate action selection. Striatal direct and indirect pathways form the functional backbone of the basal ganglia circuit. Twenty years ago it was proposed that the ability of the striatum to use the rise and fall of dopamine (DA) to control action selection was due to the segregation of D1 and D2 DA receptors in direct and indirect pathway spiny projection neurons. Although this sparked a debate, the evidence accumulated since clearly supports this model. In particular, recent advances in the means of marking neural circuits with optical or molecular reporters has revealed a clear-cut dichotomy between these two cell types at the molecular, anatomical and physiological levels. The contrast provided by these studies has provided new insights into how the striatum responds to fluctuations in DA signaling and how diseases that alter this signaling change striatal function. PMID:21469956

  5. Regulation of dopamine quantal size in midbrain and hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pothos, Emmanuel N

    2002-03-10

    Since the pioneering work of Bernard Katz and his colleagues decades ago, neurotransmitter quantal size (defined as the number of neurotransmitter molecules released by a single synaptic vesicle during exocytosis) is often modeled as invariant. This assumption had tremendous implications for basic research on synaptic plasticity. For instance, it focused attention on the postsynaptic rather than the presynaptic component in studies of learning and memory (the field of long-term potentiation comes to mind as the best example). Furthermore, this assumption somehow 'spilled over' onto studies of monoamine neurotransmitters, which apparently use diffusion and slow action to exert their modulatory effects, in contrast to the fast acting neurotransmitters studied by Katz. Consequently, research on dopamine-related diseases (e.g. psychotic and movement disorders) did not pay as much attention to presynaptic mechanisms that regulate dopamine release, as to postsynaptic receptor action. Part of the problem, of course, has been the lack of technology to directly measure quanta from presynaptic sites and the obligatory reliance on measurements of miniature postsynaptic potentials (minis) for reaching conclusions about presynaptic quantal events. Due to the introduction of the carbon fiber amperometric microelectrode in tissue electrophysiology, initially by Francois Gonon (University of Bordeaux) and then by Mark Wightman (University of North Carolina), we were able to directly measure dopamine quanta from neurites of cultured midbrain dopamine neurons by amperometry. This was the first approach to provide direct measurement of the number of molecules and kinetics of presynaptic quantal release from CNS neuronal terminals. The interventions altering dopamine quantal size are so far the following. (1) Alteration of neurotransmitter synthesis--an increase of cytosolic dopamine availability (e.g. by exposure to L-DOPA) increases quantal size and a decrease of cytosolic dopamine

  6. Adaptations of Presynaptic Dopamine Terminals Induced by Psychostimulant Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of research has focused on investigating neurobiological alterations induced by chronic psychostimulant use in an effort to describe, understand, and treat the pathology of psychostimulant addiction. It has been known for several decades that dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens is integrally involved in the selection and execution of motivated and goal-directed behaviors, and that psychostimulants act on this system to exert many of their effects. As such, a large body of work has focused on defining the consequences of psychostimulant use on dopamine signaling in the striatum as it relates to addictive behaviors. Here, we review presynaptic dopamine terminal alterations observed following self-administration of cocaine and amphetamine, as well as possible mechanisms by which these alterations occur and their impact on the progression of addiction. PMID:25491345

  7. Extrastriatal dopamine D2-receptor availability in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Plavén-Sigray, Pontus; Hedman, Erik; Victorsson, Pauliina; Matheson, Granville J; Forsberg, Anton; Djurfeldt, Diana R; Rück, Christian; Halldin, Christer; Lindefors, Nils; Cervenka, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Alterations in the dopamine system are hypothesized to influence the expression of social anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. However, molecular imaging studies comparing dopamine function between patients and control subjects have yielded conflicting results. Importantly, while all previous investigations focused on the striatum, findings from activation and blood flow studies indicate that prefrontal and limbic brain regions have a central role in the pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to investigate extrastriatal dopamine D2-receptor (D2-R) availability in SAD. We examined 12 SAD patients and 16 healthy controls using positron emission tomography and the high-affinity D2-R radioligand [(11)C]FLB457. Parametric images of D2-R binding potential were derived using the Logan graphical method with cerebellum as reference region. Two-tailed one-way independent ANCOVAs, with age as covariate, were used to examine differences in D2-R availability between groups using both region-based and voxel-wise analyses. The region-based analysis showed a medium effect size of higher D2-R levels in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in patients, although this result did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons. The voxel-wise comparison revealed elevated D2-R availability in patients within OFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after correction for multiple comparisons. These preliminary results suggest that an aberrant extrastriatal dopamine system may be part of the disease mechanism in SAD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  9. Blunted Dopamine Transmission in Addiction: Potential Mechanisms and Implications for Behavior.

    PubMed

    Trifilieff, Pierre; Ducrocq, Fabien; van der Veldt, Suzanne; Martinez, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging consistently shows blunted striatal dopamine release and decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in addiction. Here, we review the preclinical and clinical studies indicating that this neurobiological phenotype is likely to be both a consequence of chronic drug consumption and a vulnerability factor in the development of addiction. We propose that, behaviorally, blunted striatal dopamine transmission could reflect the increased impulsivity and altered cost/benefit computations that are associated with addiction. The factors that influence blunted striatal dopamine transmission in addiction are unknown. Herein, we give an overview of various factors, genetic, environmental, and social, that are known to affect dopamine transmission and that have been associated with the vulnerability to develop addiction. Altogether, these data suggest that blunted dopamine transmission and decreased D2 receptor availability are biomarkers both for the development of addiction and resistance to treatment. These findings support the view that blunted dopamine reflects impulsive behavior and deficits in motivation, which lead to the escalation of drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels

    PubMed Central

    Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA−/− mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA−/− brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower level of dopamine was observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA−/− mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathway are impaired in MsrA−/− mice, which may contribute to their abnormal bio-behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776

  11. MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels.

    PubMed

    Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-07-15

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  12. Levodopa increases memory encoding and dopamine release in the striatum in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Floel, A.; Garraux, G.; Xu, B.; Breitenstein, C.; Knecht, S.; Herscovitch, P.; Cohen, L.G.

    2008-01-01

    Normal aging is associated with a decrease in dopaminergic function and a reduced ability to form new motor memories with training. This study examined the link between both phenomena. We hypothesized that levodopa would (a) ameliorate aging-dependent deficits in motor memory formation, and (b) increase dopamine availability at the dopamine type 2-like (D2) receptor during training in task-relevant brain structures. The effects of training plus levodopa (100mg, plus 25 mg carbidopa) on motor memory formation and striatal dopamine availability were measured with [11C] raclopride (RAC) positron emission tomography (PET). We found that levodopa did not alter RAC-binding potential at rest but it enhanced training effects on motor memory formation as well as dopamine release in the dorsal caudate nucleus. Motor memory formation during training correlated with the increase of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus. These results demonstrate that levodopa may ameliorate dopamine deficiencies in the elderly by replenishing dopaminergic presynaptic stores, actively engaged in phasic dopamine release during motor training. PMID:17098331

  13. Stimulation of movement in a quiescent, hibernation-like form of Caenorhabditis elegans by dopamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Gaglia, Marta Maria; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2009-06-03

    One of the characteristics of animals in hibernation is reduced behavioral activity. The Caenorhabditis elegans dauer state is a hibernation-like state of diapause that displays a dramatic reduction in spontaneous locomotion. A similar dauer-like quiescent state is produced in adults by relatively strong mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor homolog daf-2. In this study, we show that mutations affecting the neurotransmitter dopamine, which regulates voluntary movement in many organisms, can stimulate movement in dauers and dauer-like quiescent adults. Surprisingly, the movement of quiescent animals is stimulated by conditions that reduce dopamine signaling and also by conditions predicted to increase dopamine signaling. Reducing dopamine signaling is likely to stimulate movement by activating a foraging response also seen in nondauers after withdrawal of food. In contrast, the stimulation of movement by increased dopamine is much more pronounced in quiescent daf-2(-) dauer and dauer-like adult animals than in nondauaer animals. This altered response to dopamine is primarily attributable to activity of the FOXO (forkhead box O) transcription factor DAF-16 in neurons. We suggest that dauers and dauer-like quiescent adults may have underlying changes in the dopamine system that enable them to respond differently to environmental stimulation.

  14. Beyond the Dopamine Receptor: Regulation and Roles of Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Walaas, Sven Ivar; Hemmings, Hugh Caroll; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus Clark

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important modulatory role in the central nervous system, helping to control critical aspects of motor function and reward learning. Alteration in normal dopaminergic neurotransmission underlies multiple neurological diseases including schizophrenia, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Modulation of dopamine-regulated signaling pathways is also important in the addictive actions of most drugs of abuse. Our studies over the last 30 years have focused on the molecular actions of dopamine acting on medium spiny neurons, the predominant neurons of the neostriatum. Striatum-enriched phosphoproteins, particularly dopamine and adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), regulator of calmodulin signaling (RCS), and ARPP-16, mediate pleiotropic actions of dopamine. Notably, each of these proteins, either directly or indirectly, regulates the activity of one of the three major subclasses of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, PP1, PP2B, and PP2A, respectively. For example, phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 by protein kinase A results in potent inhibition of PP1, leading to potentiation of dopaminergic signaling at multiple steps from the dopamine receptor to the nucleus. The discovery of DARPP-32 and its emergence as a critical molecular integrator of striatal signaling will be discussed, as will more recent studies that highlight novel roles for RCS and ARPP-16 in dopamine-regulated striatal signaling pathways. PMID:21904525

  15. The Role of Dopamine in Inflammation-Associated Depression: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Felger, Jennifer C

    Studies investigating the impact of a variety of inflammatory stimuli on the brain and behavior have consistently reported evidence that inflammatory cytokines affect the basal ganglia and dopamine to mediate depressive symptoms related to motivation and motor activity. Findings have included inflammation-associated reductions in ventral striatal responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine and dopamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid, and decreased availability of striatal dopamine, all of which correlate with symptoms of anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor retardation. Similar relationships between alterations in dopamine-relevant corticostriatal reward circuitry and symptoms of anhedonia and psychomotor slowing have also been observed in patients with major depression who exhibit increased peripheral cytokines and other inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein. Of note, these inflammation-associated depressive symptoms are often difficult to treat in patients with medical illnesses or major depression. Furthermore, a wealth of literature suggests that inflammation can decrease dopamine synthesis, packaging, and release, thus sabotaging or circumventing the efficacy of standard antidepressant treatments. Herein, the mechanisms by which inflammation and cytokines affect dopamine neurotransmission are discussed, which may provide novel insights into treatment of inflammation-related behavioral symptoms that contribute to an inflammatory malaise.

  16. The medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices differentially regulate dopamine system function.

    PubMed

    Lodge, Daniel J

    2011-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential for top-down control over higher-order executive function. In this study we demonstrate that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) differentially regulate VTA dopamine neuron activity, and furthermore, the pattern of activity in the PFC drastically alters the dopamine neuron response. Thus, although single-pulse activation of the mPFC either excites or inhibits equivalent numbers of dopamine neurons, activation of the OFC induces a primarily inhibitory response. Moreover, activation of the PFC with a pattern that mimics spontaneous burst firing of pyramidal neurons produces a strikingly different response. Specifically, burst-like activation of the mPFC induces a massive increase in dopamine neuron firing, whereas a similar pattern of OFC activation largely inhibits dopamine activity. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the mPFC and OFC differentially regulate dopamine neuron activity, and that the pattern of cortical activation is critical for determining dopamine system output.

  17. Dopamine controls neurogenesis in the adult salamander midbrain in homeostasis and during regeneration of dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Berg, Daniel A; Kirkham, Matthew; Wang, Heng; Frisén, Jonas; Simon, András

    2011-04-08

    Appropriate termination of regenerative processes is critical for producing the correct number of cells in tissues. Here we provide evidence for an end-product inhibition of dopamine neuron regeneration that is mediated by dopamine. Ablation of midbrain dopamine neurons leads to complete regeneration in salamanders. Regeneration involves extensive neurogenesis and requires activation of quiescent ependymoglia cells, which express dopamine receptors. Pharmacological compensation for dopamine loss by L-dopa inhibits ependymoglia proliferation and regeneration in a dopamine receptor-signaling-dependent manner, specifically after ablation of dopamine neurons. Systemic administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol alone causes ependymoglia proliferation and the appearance of excessive number of neurons. Our data show that stem cell quiescence is under dopamine control and provide a model for termination once normal homeostasis is restored. The findings establish a role for dopamine in the reversible suppression of neurogenesis in the midbrain and have implications for regenerative strategies in Parkinson's disease.

  18. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Andrew M.; Forster, Gina L.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.; Watt, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [3H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [3H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult DA system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. PMID:21741457

  19. Dopamine neurons modulate neural encoding and expression of depression-related behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Ferenczi, Emily A.; Tsai, Hsing-Chen; Finkelstein, Joel; Kim, Sung-Yon; Adhikari, Avishek; Thompson, Kimberly R.; Andalman, Aaron S.; Gunaydin, Lisa A.; Witten, Ilana B.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is characterized by diverse debilitating symptoms that include hopelessness and anhedonia1. Dopamine neurons involved in reward and motivation2–9 are among many neural populations that have been hypothesized to be relevant10, and certain antidepressant treatments, including medications and brain stimulation therapies, can influence the complex dopamine system. Until now it has not been possible to test this hypothesis directly, even in animal models, as existing therapeutic interventions are unable to specifically target dopamine neurons. Here we investigated directly the causal contributions of defined dopamine neurons to multidimensional depression-like phenotypes induced by chronic mild stress, by integrating behavioural, pharmacological, optogenetic and electrophysiological methods in freely moving rodents. We found that bidirectional control (inhibition or excitation) of specified midbrain dopamine neurons immediately and bidirectionally modulates (induces or relieves) multiple independent depression symptoms caused by chronic stress. By probing the circuit implementation of these effects, we observed that optogenetic recruitment of these dopamine neurons potently alters the neural encoding of depression-related behaviours in the downstream nucleus accumbens of freely moving rodents, suggesting that processes affecting depression symptoms may involve alterations in the neural encoding of action in limbic circuitry. PMID:23235822

  20. Improvement of Learning and Increase in Dopamine Level in the Frontal Cortex by Methylphenidate in Mice Lacking Dopamine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Y.; Hagino, Y.; Sato, A.; Takahashi, T.; Nagasawa, S.Y.; Kubo, Y.; Mizuguchi, M.; Uhl, G.R.; Sora, I.; Ikeda, K.

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. It is a common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists into adulthood. Improvements in ADHD symptoms using psychostimulants have been recognized as a paradoxical calming effect. The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is currently used as the first-line medication for the management of ADHD. Recent studies have drawn attention to altered dopamine-mediated neurotransmission in ADHD, particularly reuptake by the dopamine transporter (DAT). This hypothesis is supported by the observation that DAT knockout mice exhibit marked hyperactivity that is responsive to acute MPH treatment. However, other behaviors relevant to ADHD have not been fully clarified. In the present study, we observed learning impairment in shuttle-box avoidance behavior together with hyperactivity in a novel environment in DAT knockout mice. Methylphenidate normalized these behaviors and enhanced escape activity in the tail suspension test. Interestingly, the effective dose of MPH increased extracellular dopamine in the prefrontal cortex but not striatum, suggesting an important role for changes in prefrontal dopamine in ADHD. Research that uses rodent models such as DAT knockout mice may be useful for elucidating the pathophysiology of ADHD. PMID:25817856

  1. Chaotic behavior in dopamine neurodynamics.

    PubMed Central

    King, R; Barchas, J D; Huberman, B A

    1984-01-01

    We report the results of the dynamics of a model of the central dopaminergic neuronal system. In particular, for certain values of a parameter k, which monitors the efficacy of dopamine at the postsynaptic receptor, chaotic solutions of the dynamical equations appear--a prediction that correlates with the observed increased variability in behavior among schizophrenics, the rapid fluctuations in motor activity among Parkinsonian patients treated chronically with L-dopa, and the lability of mood in some patients with an affective disorder. Moreover our hypothesis offers specific results concerning the appearance or disappearance of erratic solutions as a function of k and the external input to the dopamine neuronal system. PMID:6583705

  2. Chaotic behavior in dopamine neurodynamics.

    PubMed

    King, R; Barchas, J D; Huberman, B A

    1984-02-01

    We report the results of the dynamics of a model of the central dopaminergic neuronal system. In particular, for certain values of a parameter k, which monitors the efficacy of dopamine at the postsynaptic receptor, chaotic solutions of the dynamical equations appear--a prediction that correlates with the observed increased variability in behavior among schizophrenics, the rapid fluctuations in motor activity among Parkinsonian patients treated chronically with L-dopa, and the lability of mood in some patients with an affective disorder. Moreover our hypothesis offers specific results concerning the appearance or disappearance of erratic solutions as a function of k and the external input to the dopamine neuronal system.

  3. Impaired Brain Dopamine and Serotonin Release and Uptake in Wistar Rats Following Treatment with Carboplatin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, known also as “chemobrain”, is a medical complication of cancer treatment that is characterized by a general decline in cognition affecting visual and verbal memory, attention, complex problem solving skills, and motor function. It is estimated that one-third of patients who undergo chemotherapy treatment will experience cognitive impairment. Alterations in the release and uptake of dopamine and serotonin, central nervous system neurotransmitters that play important roles in cognition, could potentially contribute to impaired intellectual performance in those impacted by chemobrain. To investigate how chemotherapy treatment affects these systems, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at carbon-fiber microelectrodes was used to measure dopamine and serotonin release and uptake in coronal brain slices containing the striatum and dorsal raphe nucleus, respectively. Measurements were taken from rats treated weekly with selected doses of carboplatin and from control rats treated with saline. Modeling the stimulated dopamine release plots revealed an impairment of dopamine release per stimulus pulse (80% of saline control at 5 mg/kg and 58% at 20 mg/kg) after 4 weeks of carboplatin treatment. Moreover, Vmax, the maximum uptake rate of dopamine, was also decreased (55% of saline control at 5 mg/kg and 57% at 20 mg/kg). Nevertheless, overall dopamine content, measured in striatal brain lysates by high performance liquid chromatography, and reserve pool dopamine, measured by FSCV after pharmacological manipulation, did not significantly change, suggesting that chemotherapy treatment selectively impairs the dopamine release and uptake processes. Similarly, serotonin release upon electrical stimulation was impaired (45% of saline control at 20 mg/kg). Measurements of spatial learning discrimination were taken throughout the treatment period and carboplatin was found to alter cognition. These studies support the need for additional

  4. Dopamine-dependent periadolescent maturation of corticostriatal functional connectivity in mouse.

    PubMed

    Galiñanes, Gregorio L; Taravini, Irene R E; Murer, M Gustavo

    2009-02-25

    Altered corticostriatal information processing associated with early dopamine systems dysfunction may contribute to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mice with neonatal dopamine-depleting lesions exhibit hyperactivity that wanes after puberty and is reduced by psychostimulants, reminiscent of some aspects of ADHD. To assess whether the maturation of corticostriatal functional connectivity is altered by early dopamine depletion, we examined preadolescent and postadolescent urethane-anesthetized mice with or without dopamine-depleting lesions. Specifically, we assessed (1) synchronization between striatal neuron discharges and oscillations in frontal cortex field potentials and (2) striatal neuron responses to frontal cortex stimulation. In adult control mice striatal neurons were less spontaneously active, less responsive to cortical stimulation, and more temporally tuned to cortical rhythms than in infants. Striatal neurons from hyperlocomotor mice required more current to respond to cortical input and were less phase locked to ongoing oscillations, resulting in fewer neurons responding to refined cortical commands. By adulthood some electrophysiological deficits waned together with hyperlocomotion, but striatal spontaneous activity remained substantially elevated. Moreover, dopamine-depleted animals showing normal locomotor scores exhibited normal corticostriatal synchronization, suggesting that the lesion allows, but is not sufficient, for the emergence of corticostriatal changes and hyperactivity. Although amphetamine normalized corticostriatal tuning in hyperlocomotor mice, it reduced horizontal activity in dopamine-depleted animals regardless of their locomotor phenotype, suggesting that amphetamine modified locomotion through a parallel mechanism, rather than that modified by dopamine depletion. In summary, functional maturation of striatal activity continues after infancy, and early dopamine depletion delays the maturation of core functional

  5. Impaired Brain Dopamine and Serotonin Release and Uptake in Wistar Rats Following Treatment with Carboplatin.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Sam V; Limbocker, Ryan A; Gehringer, Rachel C; Divis, Jenny L; Osterhaus, Gregory L; Newby, Maxwell D; Sofis, Michael J; Jarmolowicz, David P; Newman, Brooke D; Mathews, Tiffany A; Johnson, Michael A

    2016-06-15

    Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, known also as "chemobrain", is a medical complication of cancer treatment that is characterized by a general decline in cognition affecting visual and verbal memory, attention, complex problem solving skills, and motor function. It is estimated that one-third of patients who undergo chemotherapy treatment will experience cognitive impairment. Alterations in the release and uptake of dopamine and serotonin, central nervous system neurotransmitters that play important roles in cognition, could potentially contribute to impaired intellectual performance in those impacted by chemobrain. To investigate how chemotherapy treatment affects these systems, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at carbon-fiber microelectrodes was used to measure dopamine and serotonin release and uptake in coronal brain slices containing the striatum and dorsal raphe nucleus, respectively. Measurements were taken from rats treated weekly with selected doses of carboplatin and from control rats treated with saline. Modeling the stimulated dopamine release plots revealed an impairment of dopamine release per stimulus pulse (80% of saline control at 5 mg/kg and 58% at 20 mg/kg) after 4 weeks of carboplatin treatment. Moreover, Vmax, the maximum uptake rate of dopamine, was also decreased (55% of saline control at 5 mg/kg and 57% at 20 mg/kg). Nevertheless, overall dopamine content, measured in striatal brain lysates by high performance liquid chromatography, and reserve pool dopamine, measured by FSCV after pharmacological manipulation, did not significantly change, suggesting that chemotherapy treatment selectively impairs the dopamine release and uptake processes. Similarly, serotonin release upon electrical stimulation was impaired (45% of saline control at 20 mg/kg). Measurements of spatial learning discrimination were taken throughout the treatment period and carboplatin was found to alter cognition. These studies support the need for additional

  6. Mesolimbic dopamine D₂ receptor plasticity contributes to stress resilience in rats subjected to chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Zurawek, Dariusz; Faron-Górecka, Agata; Kuśmider, Maciej; Kolasa, Magdalena; Gruca, Piotr; Papp, Mariusz; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2013-06-01

    Few studies have investigated neurobiological and biochemical differences between stress-resilient and stress-vulnerable experimental animals. We investigated alterations in mesolimbic dopamine D2 receptor density and mRNA expression level in stressed rats at two time points, i.e. after 2 and 5 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS). We used the chronic mild stress paradigm because it is a well-established animal model of depression. Two groups of stressed rats were distinguished during CMS experiments: (1) stress reactive (70 %), which displayed a decrease in the drinking of a palatable sucrose solution during the stress regimen, and (2) stress resilient (30 %), which exhibited an unaltered drinking profile when compared with the unchallenged control group. [(3)H]Domperidone was used as a ligand to label dopamine D2 receptors, and a mixture of three specific oligonucleotides was used to evaluate dopamine D2 receptor mRNA changes in various regions of the rat brain. CMS strongly affected the mesolimbic dopamine circuit in stress-resilient group after 2 weeks and stress-reactive group of rats after 5 weeks which exhibited a decrease in the level of dopamine D2 receptor protein without alterations in D2 mRNA expression. Stress-resilient animals, but not stress-reactive animals, effectively adapted to the extended stress and coped with it. The increase in D2 mRNA expression returned the dopamine D2 receptor density to control levels in stress-resilient rats after 5 weeks of CMS, but not in stress-reactive animals. These results clearly demonstrate that, despite earlier blunting, the activation of dopamine receptor biosynthesis in the dopamine mesoaccumbens system in stress-resilient rats is involved in active coping with stressful experiences, and it exhibits a delay in time.

  7. Dopamine-dependent periadolescent maturation of corticostriatal functional connectivity in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Galiñanes, Gregorio L.; Taravini, Irene R.E.; Murer, M. Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Altered corticostriatal information processing associated with early dopamine systems dysfunction may contribute to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mice with neonatal dopamine-depleting lesions exhibit hyperactivity that wanes after puberty and is reduced by psychostimulants, reminiscent of some aspects of ADHD. To assess whether the maturation of corticostriatal functional connectivity is altered by early dopamine depletion, we examined pre- and post-adolescent urethane-anesthetized mice with or without dopamine-depleting lesions. Specifically, we assessed (1) synchronization between striatal neuron discharges and oscillations in frontal cortex field potentials and (2) striatal neuron responses to frontal cortex stimulation. In adult control mice striatal neurons were less spontaneously active, less responsive to cortical stimulation and more temporally tuned to cortical rhythms than in infants. Striatal neurons from hyperlocomotor mice required more current to respond to cortical input and were less phase-locked to ongoing oscillations, resulting in fewer neurons responding to refined cortical commands. By adulthood some electrophysiological deficits waned together with hyperlocomotion, but striatal spontaneous activity remained substantially elevated. Moreover, dopamine-depleted animals showing normal locomotor scores exhibited normal corticostriatal synchronization, suggesting that the lesion allows, but is not sufficient, for the emergence of corticostriatal changes and hyperactivity. Although amphetamine normalized corticostriatal tuning in hyperlocomotor mice, it reduced horizontal activity in dopamine-depleted animals irrespective of their locomotor phenotype, suggesting that amphetamine modified locomotion through a parallel mechanism, rather than that modified by dopamine depletion. In summary, functional maturation of striatal activity continues after infancy, and early dopamine depletion delays the maturation of core functional

  8. The Role of Genes, Stress, and Dopamine in the Development of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Robert; Owen, Michael J; Murray, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoetiologic theory of schizophrenia. Because it was initially based on indirect evidence and findings in patients with established schizophrenia, it was unclear what role dopamine played in the onset of the disorder. However, recent studies in people at risk of schizophrenia have found elevated striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and increased dopamine release to stress. Furthermore, striatal dopamine changes have been linked to altered cortical function during cognitive tasks, in line with preclinical evidence that a circuit involving cortical projections to the striatum and midbrain may underlie the striatal dopamine changes. Other studies have shown that a number of environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, such as social isolation and childhood trauma, also affect presynaptic dopaminergic function. Advances in preclinical work and genetics have begun to unravel the molecular architecture linking dopamine, psychosis, and psychosocial stress. Included among the many genes associated with risk of schizophrenia are the gene encoding the dopamine D2 receptor and those involved in the upstream regulation of dopaminergic synthesis, through glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic pathways. A number of these pathways are also linked to the stress response. We review these new lines of evidence and present a model of how genes and environmental factors may sensitize the dopamine system so that it is vulnerable to acute stress, leading to progressive dysregulation and the onset of psychosis. Finally, we consider the implications for rational drug development, in particular regionally selective dopaminergic modulation, and the potential of genetic factors to stratify patients. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mesocortical Dopamine Phenotypes in Mice Lacking the Sonic Hedgehog Receptor Cdon

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Alanna; Meti, Nicholas; Adye-White, Lauren; Rioux, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Motivated behaviors and many psychopathologies typically involve changes in dopamine release from the projections of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) specifies fates of midbrain dopamine neurons, but VTA-specific effects of Shh signaling are also being uncovered. In this study, we assessed the role of the Shh receptor Cdon in the development of VTA and SNc dopamine neurons. We find that Cdon is expressed in the proliferating progenitor zone of the embryonic ventral midbrain and that the number of proliferating cells in this region is increased in mouse Cdon−/− embryos. Consistent with a role of Shh in the regulation of neuronal proliferation in this region, we find that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons is increased in the VTA of Cdon−/− mice at birth and that this effect endures into adulthood. In contrast, the number of TH-positive neurons in the SNc is not altered in Cdon−/− mice at either age. Moreover, adult Cdon−/− mice have a greater number of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine presynaptic sites, and increased baseline concentrations of dopamine and dopamine metabolites selectively in this region. Finally, consistent with increased dopamine function in the mPFC, we find that adult Cdon−/− mice fail to exhibit behavioral plasticity upon repeated amphetamine treatment. Based on these data, we suggest that Cdon plays an important role encoding the diversity of dopamine neurons in the midbrain, influencing both the development of the mesocortical dopamine pathway and behavioral outputs that involve this neural circuitry. PMID:27419218

  10. Mesocortical Dopamine Phenotypes in Mice Lacking the Sonic Hedgehog Receptor Cdon.

    PubMed

    Verwey, Michael; Grant, Alanna; Meti, Nicholas; Adye-White, Lauren; Torres-Berrío, Angelica; Rioux, Veronique; Lévesque, Martin; Charron, Frederic; Flores, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Motivated behaviors and many psychopathologies typically involve changes in dopamine release from the projections of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) specifies fates of midbrain dopamine neurons, but VTA-specific effects of Shh signaling are also being uncovered. In this study, we assessed the role of the Shh receptor Cdon in the development of VTA and SNc dopamine neurons. We find that Cdon is expressed in the proliferating progenitor zone of the embryonic ventral midbrain and that the number of proliferating cells in this region is increased in mouse Cdon(-/-) embryos. Consistent with a role of Shh in the regulation of neuronal proliferation in this region, we find that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons is increased in the VTA of Cdon(-/-) mice at birth and that this effect endures into adulthood. In contrast, the number of TH-positive neurons in the SNc is not altered in Cdon(-/-) mice at either age. Moreover, adult Cdon(-/-) mice have a greater number of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine presynaptic sites, and increased baseline concentrations of dopamine and dopamine metabolites selectively in this region. Finally, consistent with increased dopamine function in the mPFC, we find that adult Cdon(-/-) mice fail to exhibit behavioral plasticity upon repeated amphetamine treatment. Based on these data, we suggest that Cdon plays an important role encoding the diversity of dopamine neurons in the midbrain, influencing both the development of the mesocortical dopamine pathway and behavioral outputs that involve this neural circuitry.

  11. Brain dopamine and amino acid concentrations in Lurcher mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Reader, T A; Strazielle, C; Botez, M I; Lalonde, R

    1998-03-15

    Lurcher mutant mice are characterized by massive degeneration of the cerebellum, including Purkinje cells and granule cells, as well as for the loss of neurons from the inferior olive. Concentrations of dopamine and two of its metabolites and of several amino acid neurotransmitters were determined in the cerebellum and in other brain regions of these mutants. By comparison to wild-type mice of the same background strain, glutamate and taurine concentrations were reduced in the Lurcher cerebellum. No decrease was found for aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, as well as dopamine and its metabolites. Moreover, no neurochemical alterations occurred in the brain stem, thalamus, or neostriatum of Lurcher mutants. A selective reduction of glutamate concentration was found in the hippocampus, while all amino acids measured were decreased in the entorhinal-piriform areas. These results indicate region-selective reductions of neurotransmitter concentrations in a mouse mutant with a defined cerebellar cortical pathology.

  12. Sensitized nucleus accumbens dopamine terminal responses to methylphenidate and dopamine transporter releasers after intermittent-access self-administration.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Jones, Sara R

    2014-07-01

    Long-access methylphenidate (MPH) self-administration has been shown to produce enhanced amphetamine potency at the dopamine transporter and concomitant changes in reinforcing efficacy, suggesting that MPH abuse may change the dopamine system in a way that promotes future drug abuse. While long-access self-administration paradigms have translational validity for cocaine, it may not be as relevant a model of MPH abuse, as it has been suggested that people often take MPH intermittently. Although previous work outlined the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of long-access MPH self-administration, it was not clear whether intermittent access (6 h session; 5 min access/30 min) would result in similar changes. For cocaine, long-access self-administration resulted in tolerance to cocaine's effects on dopamine and behavior while intermittent-access resulted in sensitization. Here we assessed the neurochemical consequences of intermittent-access MPH self-administration on dopamine terminal function. We found increased maximal rates of uptake, increased stimulated release, and subsensitive D2-like autoreceptors. Consistent with previous work using extended-access MPH paradigms, the potencies of amphetamine and MPH, but not cocaine, were increased, demonstrating that unlike cocaine, MPH effects were not altered by the pattern of intake. Although the potency results suggest that MPH may share properties with releasers, dopamine release was increased following acute application of MPH, similar to cocaine, and in contrast to the release decreasing effects of amphetamine. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MPH exhibits properties of both blockers and releasers, and that the compensatory changes produced by MPH self-administration may increase the abuse liability of amphetamines, independent of the pattern of administration.

  13. Sensitized Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Terminal Responses to Methylphenidate and Dopamine Transporter Releasers after Intermittent-Access Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Calipari, Erin S.; Jones, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    Long-access methylphenidate (MPH) self-administration has been shown to produce enhanced amphetamine potency at the dopamine transporter and concomitant changes in reinforcing efficacy, suggesting that MPH abuse may change the dopamine system in a way that promotes future drug abuse. While long-access self-administration paradigms have translational validity for cocaine, it may not be as relevant a model of MPH abuse, as it has been suggested that people often take MPH intermittently. Although previous work outlined the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of long-access MPH self-administration, it was not clear whether intermittent access (6 h session; 5min access/30min) would result in similar changes. For cocaine, long-access self-administration resulted in tolerance to cocaine’s effects on dopamine and behavior while intermittent-access resulted in sensitization. Here we assessed the neurochemical consequences of intermittent-access MPH self-administration on dopamine terminal function. We found increased maximal rates of uptake, increased stimulated release, and subsensitive D2-like autoreceptors. Consistent with previous work using extended-access MPH paradigms, the potencies of amphetamine and MPH, but not cocaine, were increased, demonstrating that unlike cocaine, MPH effects were not altered by the pattern of intake. Although the potency results suggest that MPH may share properties with releasers, dopamine release was increased following acute application of MPH, similar to cocaine, and in contrast to the release decreasing effects of amphetamine. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MPH exhibits properties of both blockers and releasers, and that the compensatory changes produced by MPH self-administration may increase the abuse liability of amphetamines, independent of the pattern of administration. PMID:24632529

  14. Ventral striatal dopamine reflects behavioral and neural signatures of model-based control during sequential decision making.

    PubMed

    Deserno, Lorenz; Huys, Quentin J M; Boehme, Rebecca; Buchert, Ralph; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Grace, Anthony A; Dolan, Raymond J; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2015-02-03

    Dual system theories suggest that behavioral control is parsed between a deliberative "model-based" and a more reflexive "model-free" system. A balance of control exerted by these systems is thought to be related to dopamine neurotransmission. However, in the absence of direct measures of human dopamine, it remains unknown whether this reflects a quantitative relation with dopamine either in the striatum or other brain areas. Using a sequential decision task performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging, combined with striatal measures of dopamine using [(18)F]DOPA positron emission tomography, we show that higher presynaptic ventral striatal dopamine levels were associated with a behavioral bias toward more model-based control. Higher presynaptic dopamine in ventral striatum was associated with greater coding of model-based signatures in lateral prefrontal cortex and diminished coding of model-free prediction errors in ventral striatum. Thus, interindividual variability in ventral striatal presynaptic dopamine reflects a balance in the behavioral expression and the neural signatures of model-free and model-based control. Our data provide a novel perspective on how alterations in presynaptic dopamine levels might be accompanied by a disruption of behavioral control as observed in aging or neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and addiction.

  15. Ventral striatal dopamine reflects behavioral and neural signatures of model-based control during sequential decision making

    PubMed Central

    Deserno, Lorenz; Huys, Quentin J. M.; Boehme, Rebecca; Buchert, Ralph; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Grace, Anthony A.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Dual system theories suggest that behavioral control is parsed between a deliberative “model-based” and a more reflexive “model-free” system. A balance of control exerted by these systems is thought to be related to dopamine neurotransmission. However, in the absence of direct measures of human dopamine, it remains unknown whether this reflects a quantitative relation with dopamine either in the striatum or other brain areas. Using a sequential decision task performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging, combined with striatal measures of dopamine using [18F]DOPA positron emission tomography, we show that higher presynaptic ventral striatal dopamine levels were associated with a behavioral bias toward more model-based control. Higher presynaptic dopamine in ventral striatum was associated with greater coding of model-based signatures in lateral prefrontal cortex and diminished coding of model-free prediction errors in ventral striatum. Thus, interindividual variability in ventral striatal presynaptic dopamine reflects a balance in the behavioral expression and the neural signatures of model-free and model-based control. Our data provide a novel perspective on how alterations in presynaptic dopamine levels might be accompanied by a disruption of behavioral control as observed in aging or neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and addiction. PMID:25605941

  16. De novo mutation in the dopamine transporter gene associates dopamine dysfunction with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Peter J.; Campbell, Nicholas G.; Sharma, Shruti; Erreger, Kevin; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Saunders, Christine; Belovich, Andrea N.; Sahai, Michelle A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Gether, Ulrik; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Matthies, Heinrich J.G.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Galli, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    De novo genetic variation is an important class of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, whole exome sequencing of ASD families has identified a novel de novo missense mutation in the human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT) gene, which results in a Thr to Met substitution at site 356 (hDAT T356M). The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a presynaptic membrane protein that regulates dopaminergic tone in the central nervous system by mediating the high-affinity re-uptake of synaptically released DA, making it a crucial regulator of DA homeostasis. Here, we report the first functional, structural, and behavioral characterization of an ASD-associated de novo mutation in the hDAT. We demonstrate that the hDAT T356M displays anomalous function, characterized as a persistent reverse transport of DA (substrate efflux). Importantly, in the bacterial homolog leucine transporter, substitution of A289 (the homologous site to T356) with a Met promotes an outward-facing conformation upon substrate binding. In the substrate-bound state, an outward-facing transporter conformation is a required for substrate efflux. In Drosophila melanogaster, expression of hDAT T356M in DA neurons lacking Drosophila DAT leads to hyperlocomotion, a trait associated with DA dysfunction and ASD. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that alterations in DA homeostasis, mediated by aberrant DAT function, may confer risk for ASD and related neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:23979605

  17. Rapid Adaptation to Food Availability by a Dopamine-Mediated Morphogenetic Response

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Diane K.; Sewell, Mary A.; Angerer, Robert C.; Angerer, Lynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Food can act as a powerful stimulus, eliciting metabolic, behavioral and developmental responses. These phenotypic changes can alter ecological and evolutionary processes; yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying many plastic phenotypic responses remain unknown. Here we show that dopamine signaling through a type-D2 receptor mediates developmental plasticity by regulating arm length in pre-feeding sea urchin larvae in response to food availability. While prey-induced traits are often thought to improve food acquisition, the mechanism underlying this plastic response acts to reduce feeding structure size and subsequent feeding rate. Consequently, the developmental program and/or maternal provisioning predetermine the maximum possible feeding rate, and food-induced dopamine signaling reduces food acquisition potential during periods of abundant resources to preserve maternal energetic reserves. Sea urchin larvae may have co-opted the widespread use of food-induced dopamine signaling from behavioral responses to instead alter their development. PMID:22186888

  18. Altering prolactin concentrations in sows.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C

    2016-07-01

    Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows. On the other hand, injections of dopamine antagonists can enhance circulating prolactin concentrations. Besides pharmacologic agents, many other factors can also alter prolactin concentrations in sows. The use of Chinese-derived breeds, for instance, leads to increased prolactin concentrations in lactating sows compared with standard European white breeds. Numerous husbandry and feeding practices also have a potential impact on prolactin concentrations in sows. Factors, such as provision of nest-building material prepartum, housing at farrowing, high ambient temperature, stress, transient weaning, exogenous thyrotropin-releasing factor, exogenous growth hormone-releasing factor, nursing frequency, prolonged photoperiod, fasting, increased protein and/or energy intake, altered energy sources, feeding high-fiber diets, sorghum ergot or plant extracts, were all studied with respect to their prolactinemic properties. Although some of these practices do indeed affect circulating prolactin concentrations, none leads to changes as drastic as those brought about by dopamine agonists or antagonists. It appears that the numerous factors regulating prolactin concentrations in sows are still not fully elucidated, and that studies to develop novel applicable ways of increasing prolactin concentrations in sows are warranted.

  19. Pathway-Specific Dopamine Abnormalities in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Jodi J; Chohan, Muhammad O; Slifstein, Mark; Kegeles, Lawrence S; Moore, Holly; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    In light of the clinical evidence implicating dopamine in schizophrenia and the prominent hypotheses put forth regarding alterations in dopaminergic transmission in this disease, molecular imaging has been used to examine multiple aspects of the dopaminergic system. We review the imaging methods used and compare the findings across the different molecular targets. Findings have converged to suggest early dysregulation in the striatum, especially in the rostral caudate, manifesting as excess synthesis and release. Recent data showed deficit extending to most cortical regions and even to other extrastriatal subcortical regions not previously considered to be "hypodopaminergic" in schizophrenia. These findings yield a new topography for the dopaminergic dysregulation in schizophrenia. We discuss the dopaminergic innervation within the individual projection fields to provide a topographical map of this dual dysregulation and explore potential cellular and circuit-based mechanisms for brain region-dependent alterations in dopaminergic parameters. This refined knowledge is essential to better guide translational studies and efforts in early drug development. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    approximately fifty miles north of Albany, NY underwent neuropsychological and neurological exams ; completed a comprehensive occupational, residential... Caffeinated beverages past year (drinks) Men 46 958±85 79 885±61 Women 39 730±102 73 943±67 Number of packs of cigarettes in the last 10 years Men 46 600±218 76...Income 83 −0.093 0.401 −0.012 0.916 Caffeinated drinks (past year) 78 0.084 0.467 0.016 0.892 Alcoholic drinks (past year) 85 −0.053 0.629 0.051 0.643

  1. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Disease , Neurological Function, Aging, Gender 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...Disorders in New Haven, CT under the supervision of Dr. Kenneth Marek . Results, obtained using β-CIT SPECT imaging, demonstrate a significant...by epidemiological data demonstrating increased Parkinson’s disease mortality, again only in women (Steenland et al., Epidemiology 17(1), 8-13, 2006

  2. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    fluorine, chlorine, asbestos, chalkdust bromine, iodine) Refrigerants, freons, coolantsOther Metals (including aluminum, tin, copper, nickel , zinc...bromine, iodine) Refrigerants, fi’eons, coolantsOther Metals (including aluminum, tin, copper, nickel , zinc, cadmium, iron) Welding fumes, molten...and Molho, Lyndsey , Brandon, Gwen, Susan, and I would once again like to The Connecticut study begins thank you for taking the time to participate One

  3. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Neurological Association 2002 Distinguished Leader Award, Central Ohio Chapter, Huntington Disease Society of America SERVICE 1997- Member, Editorial Board...persons near onset of Huntington disease , Neurol 57, 658-662, 2001 16. Higgins, DS, Chorea and it’s Disorders, Neurologic Clinics of North America, 19(3... Huntington Disease , Neurol 59 1325-1330, 2002 19. Wheelock, V.L., Tempkin, T., Marder, K., Nance, M, Myers, R., Zhao, H., Kayson, E., Orme, C., Shoulson, I

  4. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    subjects are elderly and must travel considerable distances to undergo testing at these two sites. We are nearing the end of the data collection...neurotoxicants in the etiology of parkinsonism (e.g., dioxins and furans) on human DA function, including Parkinson =s disease. Supported by grants from the

  5. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    in Albany, NY and in New Haven, CT. We are proud of this progress since many of our subjects are elderly and must travel considerable distances to...Thyroid meds Age Gender Education IQ Body Mass Index Marital status Smoking Drinking Physical activity level Hours of sleep per night

  6. Effects of Methylphenidate on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Pathways in Cocaine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2013-08-01

    Cocaine addiction is associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity among regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathways. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, an indirect dopamine agonist, normalizes task-related regional brain activity and associated behavior in cocaine users; however, the neural systems–level effects of methylphenidate in this population have not yet been described. To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine changes in mesocorticolimbic connectivity with methylphenidate and how connectivity of affected pathways relates to severity of cocaine addiction.

  7. Increased brain dopamine and dopamine receptors in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, A.V.; Iversen, L.L.; Rossor, M.; Spokes, E.; Bird, E.; Arregui, A.; Creese, I.; Synder, S.H.

    1982-09-01

    In postmortem samples of caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens from 48 schizophrenic patients, there were significant increases in both the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) and the apparent dissociation constant (KD) for tritiated spiperone. The increase in apparent KD probably reflects the presence of residual neuroleptic drugs, but changes in Bmax for tritiated spiperone reflect genuine changes in receptor numbers. The increases in receptors were seen only in patients in whom neuroleptic medication had been maintained until the time of death, indicating that they may be entirely iatrogenic. Dopamine measurements for a larger series of schizophrenic and control cases (n greater than 60) show significantly increased concentrations in both the nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus. The changes in dopamine were not obviously related to neuroleptic medication and, unlike the receptor changes, were most severe in younger patients.

  8. Antiferroptotic activity of non-oxidative dopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Peng, Yingpeng; Xie, Yangchun; Zhou, Borong; Sun, Xiaofang; Kang, Rui; Tang, Daolin

    2016-11-25

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has many functions in the nervous and immune systems. Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of regulated cell death that is involved in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of dopamine in ferroptosis remains unidentified. Here, we show that the non-oxidative form of dopamine is a strong inhibitor of ferroptotic cell death. Dopamine dose-dependently blocked ferroptosis in cancer (PANC1 and HEY) and non-cancer (MEF and HEK293) cells following treatment with erastin, a small molecule ferroptosis inducer. Notably, dopamine reduced erastin-induced ferrous iron accumulation, glutathione depletion, and malondialdehyde production. Mechanically, dopamine increased the protein stability of glutathione peroxidase 4, a phospholipid hydroperoxidase that protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation. Moreover, dopamine suppressed dopamine receptor D4 protein degradation and promoted dopamine receptor D5 gene expression. Thus, our findings uncover a novel function of dopamine in cell death and provide new insight into the regulation of iron metabolism and lipid peroxidation by neurotransmitters.

  9. Dopamine agonists for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Soares, B G; Lima, M S; Reisser, A A; Farrell, M

    2001-01-01

    Cocaine is a major drug of abuse. Cocaine dependence is a common and serious condition, which has become nowadays a substantial public health problem. There is a wide and well documented range of consequences associated to chronic use of this drug, such as medical, psychological and social problems, including the spread of infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS, hepatitis and tuberculosis), crime, violence and neonatal drug exposure. Therapeutic management of the cocaine addicts includes an initial period of abstinence from the drug. During this phase the subjects may experience, besides the intense craving for cocaine, symptoms such as depression, fatigue, irritability, anorexia, and sleep disturbances. It was demonstrated that the acute use of cocaine may enhance dopamine transmission and chronically it decreases dopamine concentrations in the brain. Pharmacological treatment that affects dopamine could theoretically reduce these symptoms and contribute to a more successful therapeutic approach. To evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of dopamine agonists for treating cocaine dependence. We searched: The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library, issue 4, 2000), MEDLINE (from 1966 - 2000), EMBASE (from 1980 - 2000), LILACS (from 1982 - 2000), PsycLIT (from 1974 - 2000), Biological Abstracts (1982 to 2000). Reference searching; personal communication; conference abstracts; unpublished trials from pharmaceutical industry; book chapters on treatment of cocaine dependence. The inclusion criteria for all randomised controlled trials were that they should focus on the use of dopamine agonists on the treatment of cocaine dependence. Trials including patients with additional diagnosis such as opiate dependence were also eligible. The reviewers extracted the data independently and Relative Risks, weighted mean difference and number needed to treat were estimated. The reviewers assumed that people who died or dropped out had no improvement and tested the sensitivity

  10. Dopamine agonists for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Soares, B G O; Lima, M S; Reisser, A A P; Farrell, M

    2003-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is a common and serious condition, which has become nowadays a substantial public health problem. There is a wide and well documented range of consequences associated to chronic use of this drug, such as medical, psychological and social problems, including the spread of infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS, hepatitis and tuberculosis), crime, violence and neonatal drug exposure. Therapeutic management of the cocaine addicts includes an initial period of abstinence from the drug. During this phase the subjects may experience, besides the intense craving for cocaine, symptoms such as depression, fatigue, irritability, anorexia, and sleep disturbances. It was demonstrated that the acute use of cocaine may enhance dopamine transmission and chronically it decreases dopamine concentrations in the brain. Pharmacological treatment that affects dopamine could theoretically reduce these symptoms and contribute to a more successful therapeutic approach. To evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of dopamine agonists for treating cocaine dependence. Electronic searches of Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycLIT, Biological Abstracts and LILACS; reference searching; personal communication; conference abstracts; unpublished trials from pharmaceutical industry; book chapters on treatment of cocaine dependence, was performed for the primary version of this review in 2001. Another search of the electronic databases was done in December of 2002 for this update. The specialised register of trials of the Cochrane Group on Drugs and Alcohol was searched until February 2003. The inclusion criteria for all randomised controlled trials were that they should focus on the use of dopamine agonists on the treatment of cocaine dependence. The reviewers extracted the data independently and Relative Risks, weighted mean difference and number needed to treat were estimated. The reviewers assumed that people who died or dropped out had no improvement and tested the sensitivity of

  11. mRNA expression of dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes of computer game addicts.

    PubMed

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Eghbali, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Excessive playing of computer games like some other behaviors could lead to addiction. Addictive behaviors may induce their reinforcing effects through stimulation of the brain dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. The status of dopamine receptors in the brain may be parallel to their homologous receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of dopamine D3, D4 and D5 receptors in PBLs of computer game addicts (n = 20) in comparison to normal subjects (n = 20), using a real-time PCR method. The results showed that the expression level of D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts were not statistically different from the control group. However, the expression of the mRNA of D5 dopamine receptor was significantly down-regulated in PBLs of computer game addicts and reached 0.42 the amount of the control group. It is concluded that unlike with drug addiction, the expression levels of the D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts are not altered compared to the control group. However, reduced level of the D5 dopamine receptor in computer game addicts may serve as a peripheral marker in studies where the confounding effects of abused drugs are unwanted.

  12. Establishing the dopamine dependency of human striatal signals during reward and punishment reversal learning.

    PubMed

    van der Schaaf, Marieke E; van Schouwenburg, Martine R; Geurts, Dirk E M; Schellekens, Arnt F A; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Cools, Roshan

    2014-03-01

    Drugs that alter dopamine transmission have opposite effects on reward and punishment learning. These opposite effects have been suggested to depend on dopamine in the striatum. Here, we establish for the first time the neurochemical specificity of such drug effects, during reward and punishment learning in humans, by adopting a coadministration design. Participants (N = 22) were scanned on 4 occasions using functional magnetic resonance imaging, following intake of placebo, bromocriptine (dopamine-receptor agonist), sulpiride (dopamine-receptor antagonist), or a combination of both drugs. A reversal-learning task was employed, in which both unexpected rewards and punishments signaled reversals. Drug effects were stratified with baseline working memory to take into account individual variations in drug response. Sulpiride induced parallel span-dependent changes on striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during unexpected rewards and punishments. These drug effects were found to be partially dopamine-dependent, as they were blocked by coadministration with bromocriptine. In contrast, sulpiride elicited opposite effects on behavioral measures of reward and punishment learning. Moreover, sulpiride-induced increases in striatal BOLD signal during both outcomes were associated with behavioral improvement in reward versus punishment learning. These results provide a strong support for current theories, suggesting that drug effects on reward and punishment learning are mediated via striatal dopamine.

  13. The effects of dopamine on root growth and enzyme activity in soybean seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, Bruno Boni; Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an allelochemical exuded from the velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens L DC. var utilis), on the growth and cell viability of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. We analyzed the effects of dopamine on superoxide dismutase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cell wall-bound peroxidase activities as well as its effects on lignin contents in the roots. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.25 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12L:12D photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. In general, the length, fresh weight and dry weight of roots, cell viability, PAL and POD activities decreased, while SOD activities increased after dopamine treatment. The content of lignin was not altered. The data demonstrate the susceptibility of soybean to dopamine and reinforce the role of this catecholamine as a strong allelochemical. The results also suggest that dopamine-induced inhibition in soybean roots is not related to the production of lignin, but may be related to damage caused by reactive oxygen species. PMID:23838960

  14. A genetic link between discriminative fear coding by the lateral amygdala, dopamine, and fear generalization

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Graham L; Soden, Marta E; Knakal, Cerise R; Lee, Heather; Chung, Amanda S; Merriam, Elliott B; Zweifel, Larry S

    2015-01-01

    The lateral amygdala (LA) acquires differential coding of predictive and non-predictive fear stimuli that is critical for proper fear memory assignment. The neurotransmitter dopamine is an important modulator of LA activity and facilitates fear memory formation, but whether dopamine neurons aid in the establishment of discriminative fear coding by the LA is unknown. NMDA-type glutamate receptors in dopamine neurons are critical for the prevention of generalized fear following an aversive experience, suggesting a potential link between a cell autonomous function of NMDAR in dopamine neurons and fear coding by the LA. Here, we utilized mice with a selective genetic inactivation functional NMDARs in dopamine neurons (DAT-NR1 KO mice) combined with behavior, in vivo electrophysiology, and ex vivo electrophysiology in LA neurons to demonstrate that plasticity underlying differential fear coding in the LA is regulated by NMDAR signaling in dopamine neurons and alterations in this plasticity is associated non-discriminative cued-fear responses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08969.001 PMID:26402461

  15. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-Related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J.; Randall, Patrick A.; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the "rewarding" impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding…

  16. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-Related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J.; Randall, Patrick A.; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the "rewarding" impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding…

  17. On the pH-dependent quenching of quantum dot photoluminescence by redox active dopamine.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xin; Palui, Goutam; Avellini, Tommaso; Na, Hyon Bin; Yi, Chongyue; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2012-04-04

    We investigated the charge transfer interactions between luminescent quantum dots (QDs) and redox active dopamine. For this, we used pH-insensitive ZnS-overcoated CdSe QDs rendered water-compatible using poly (ethylene glycol)-appended dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA-PEG), where a fraction of the ligands was amine-terminated to allow for controlled coupling of dopamine-isothiocyanate onto the nanocrystal. Using this sample configuration, we probed the effects of changing the density of dopamine and the buffer pH on the fluorescence properties of these conjugates. Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, we measured a pronounced pH-dependent photoluminescence (PL) quenching for all QD-dopamine assemblies. Several parameters affect the PL loss. First, the quenching efficiency strongly depends on the number of dopamines per QD-conjugate. Second, the quenching efficiency is substantially increased in alkaline buffers. Third, this pH-dependent PL loss can be completely eliminated when oxygen-depleted buffers are used, indicating that oxygen plays a crucial role in the redox activity of dopamine. We attribute these findings to charge transfer interactions between QDs and mainly two forms of dopamine: the reduced catechol and oxidized quinone. As the pH of the dispersions is changed from acidic to basic, oxygen-catalyzed transformation progressively reduces the dopamine potential for oxidation and shifts the equilibrium toward increased concentration of quinones. Thus, in a conjugate, a QD can simultaneously interact with quinones (electron acceptors) and catechols (electron donors), producing pH-dependent PL quenching combined with shortening of the exciton lifetime. This also alters the recombination kinetics of the electron and hole of photoexcited QDs. Transient absorption measurements that probed intraband transitions supported those findings where a simultaneous pronounced change in the electron and hole relaxation rates was measured when the pH was changed from

  18. Dopamine-deprived striatal GABAergic interneurons burst and generate repetitive gigantic IPSCs in medium spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Dehorter, Nathalie; Guigoni, Celine; Lopez, Catherine; Hirsch, June; Eusebio, Alexandre; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Hammond, Constance

    2009-06-17

    Striatal GABAergic microcircuits modulate cortical responses and movement execution in part by controlling the activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). How this is altered by chronic dopamine depletion, such as in Parkinson's disease, is not presently understood. We now report that, in dopamine-depleted slices of the striatum, MSNs generate giant spontaneous postsynaptic GABAergic currents (single or in bursts at 60 Hz) interspersed with silent episodes, rather than the continuous, low-frequency GABAergic drive (5 Hz) observed in control MSNs. This shift was observed in one-half of the MSN population, including both "D(1)-negative" and "D(1)-positive" MSNs. Single GABA and NMDA channel recordings revealed that the resting membrane potential and reversal potential of GABA were similar in control and dopamine-depleted MSNs, and depolarizing, but not excitatory, actions of GABA were observed. Glutamatergic and cholinergic antagonists did not block the GABAergic oscillations, suggesting that they were generated by GABAergic neurons. In support of this, cell-attached recordings revealed that a subpopulation of intrastriatal GABAergic interneurons generated bursts of spikes in dopamine-deprived conditions. This subpopulation included low-threshold spike interneurons but not fast-spiking interneurons, cholinergic interneurons, or MSNs. Therefore, a population of local GABAergic interneurons shifts from tonic to oscillatory mode when dopamine deprived and gives rise to spontaneous repetitive giant GABAergic currents in one-half the MSNs. We suggest that this may in turn alter integration of cortical signals by MSNs.

  19. Chronic morphine induces visible changes in the morphology of mesolimbic dopamine neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Sklair-Tavron, L; Shi, W X; Lane, S B; Harris, H W; Bunney, B S; Nestler, E J

    1996-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system, which arises in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is an important neural substrate for opiate reinforcement and addiction. Chronic exposure to opiates is known to produce biochemical adaptations in this brain region. We now show that these adaptations are associated with structural changes in VTA dopamine neurons. Individual VTA neurons in paraformaldehyde-fixed brain sections from control or morphine-treated rats were injected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow. The identity of the injected cells as dopaminergic or nondopaminergic was determined by immunohistochemical labeling of the sections for tyrosine hydroxylase. Chronic morphine treatment resulted in a mean approximately 25% reduction in the area and perimeter of VTA dopamine neurons. This reduction in cell size was prevented by concomitant treatment of rats with naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, as well as by intra-VTA infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. In contrast, chronic morphine treatment did not alter the size of nondopaminergic neurons in the VTA, nor did it affect the total number of dopaminergic neurons in this brain region. The results of these studies provide direct evidence for structural alterations in VTA dopamine neurons as a consequence of chronic opiate exposure, which could contribute to changes in mesolimbic dopamine function associated with addiction. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8855333

  20. PRESYNAPTIC DOPAMINE MODULATION BY STIMULANT SELF ADMINISTRATION

    PubMed Central

    España, Rodrigo A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system is an essential participant in the initiation and modulation of various forms of goal-directed behavior, including drug reinforcement and addiction processes. Dopamine neurotransmission is increased by acute administration of all drugs of abuse, including the stimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Chronic exposure to these drugs via voluntary self-administration provides a model of stimulant abuse that is useful in evaluating potential behavioral and neurochemical adaptations that occur during addiction. This review describes commonly used methodologies to measure dopamine and baseline parameters of presynaptic dopamine regulation, including exocytotic release and reuptake through the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens core, as well as dramatic adaptations in dopamine neurotransmission and drug sensitivity that occur with acute non-contingent and chronic, contingent self-administration of cocaine and amphetamine. PMID:23277050

  1. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-11-15

    -Right-Pointing-Pointer Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive dopaminergic amacrine cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gestational lead exposure selectively decreased dopaminergic, but not GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic, amacrine cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased retinal dopamine content, its metabolites and dopamine utilization Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A decrease in dopamine can alter ERG amplitudes, circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity.

  2. Presynaptic D2 dopamine receptors control long-term depression expression and memory processes in the temporal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rocchetti, Jill; Isingrini, Elsa; Dal Bo, Gregory; Sagheby, Sara; Menegaux, Aurore; Tronche, François; Levesque, Daniel; Moquin, Luc; Gratton, Alain; Wong, Tak Pan; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Giros, Bruno

    2015-03-15

    Dysfunctional mesocorticolimbic dopamine signaling has been linked to alterations in motor and reward-based functions associated with psychiatric disorders. Converging evidence from patients with psychiatric disorders and use of antipsychotics suggests that imbalance of dopamine signaling deeply alters hippocampal functions. However, given the lack of full characterization of a functional mesohippocampal pathway, the precise role of dopamine transmission in memory deficits associated with these disorders and their dedicated therapies is unknown. In particular, the positive outcome of antipsychotic treatments, commonly antagonizing D2 dopamine receptors (D2Rs), on cognitive deficits and memory impairments remains questionable. Following pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of dopamine transmission, we performed anatomic, neurochemical, electrophysiologic, and behavioral investigations to uncover the role of D2Rs in hippocampal-dependent plasticity and learning. Naïve mice (n = 4-21) were used in the different procedures. Dopamine modulated both long-term potentiation and long-term depression in the temporal hippocampus as well as spatial and recognition learning and memory in mice through D2Rs. Although genetic deletion or pharmacologic blockade of D2Rs led to the loss of long-term potentiation expression, the specific genetic removal of presynaptic D2Rs impaired long-term depression and performances on spatial memory tasks. Presynaptic D2Rs in dopamine fibers of the temporal hippocampus tightly modulate long-term depression expression and play a major role in the regulation of hippocampal learning and memory. This direct role of mesohippocampal dopamine input as uncovered here adds a new dimension to dopamine involvement in the physiology underlying deficits associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Methylphenidate elevates resting dopamine which lowers the impulse-triggered release of dopamine: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Philip; Madras, Bertha

    2002-03-10

    How do 'stimulants' reduce hyperactivity in children and adults? How can drugs which raise extracellular dopamine result in psychomotor slowing of hyperactive children when dopamine is known to enhance motor activity, such as in Parkinson's disease? In summary, the hypothesis for the anti-hyperactivity effects of the stimulants is as follows: during normal nerve activity, extracellular dopamine levels transiently rise 60-fold. At low therapeutic doses (0.2-0.5 mg/kg) to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine reduce locomotion in both humans and animals. The drugs raise resting extracellular levels of dopamine several-fold, but reduce the extent to which dopamine is released with nerve impulses, compared to the impulse-associated release in the absence of the drug. This relatively reduced amplitude of impulse-associated dopamine would result in less activation of post-synaptic dopamine receptors which drive psychomotor activity. At higher doses, stimulants produce generalized stimulation of the nervous system, as a result of the very high concentrations of extracellular dopamine at rest, and the markedly increased release of dopamine with nerve impulses. These high levels of resting and pulsatile dopamine cause widespread stimulation of post-synaptic dopamine receptors, overcoming any concomitant presynaptic inhibition of dopamine release.

  4. Dopamine Transporter Activity Is Modulated by α-Synuclein.

    PubMed

    Butler, Brittany; Saha, Kaustuv; Rana, Tanu; Becker, Jonas P; Sambo, Danielle; Davari, Paran; Goodwin, J Shawn; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2015-12-04

    The duration and strength of the dopaminergic signal are regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). Drug addiction and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases have all been associated with altered DAT activity. The membrane localization and the activity of DAT are regulated by a number of intracellular proteins. α-Synuclein, a protein partner of DAT, is implicated in neurodegenerative disease and drug addiction. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the interaction between DAT and α-synuclein, the cellular location of this interaction, and the functional consequences of this interaction on the basal, amphetamine-induced DAT-mediated dopamine efflux, and membrane microdomain distribution of the transporter. Here, we found that the majority of DAT·α-synuclein protein complexes are found at the plasma membrane of dopaminergic neurons or mammalian cells and that the amphetamine-mediated increase in DAT activity enhances the association of these proteins at the plasma membrane. Further examination of the interaction of DAT and α-synuclein revealed a transient interaction between these two proteins at the plasma membrane. Additionally, we found DAT-induced membrane depolarization enhances plasma membrane localization of α-synuclein, which in turn increases dopamine efflux and enhances DAT localization in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains.

  5. Dopamine signaling tunes spatial pattern selectivity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bicheng; Dong, Yongming; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yan; Rabinowitch, Ithai; Bai, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Animals with complex brains can discriminate the spatial arrangement of physical features in the environment. It is unknown whether such sensitivity to spatial patterns can be accomplished in simpler nervous systems that lack long-range sensory modalities such as vision and hearing. Here we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can discriminate spatial patterns in its surroundings, despite having a nervous system of only 302 neurons. This spatial pattern selectivity requires touch-dependent dopamine signaling, including the mechanosensory TRP-4 channel in dopaminergic neurons and the D2-like dopamine receptor DOP-3. We find that spatial pattern selectivity varies significantly among C. elegans wild isolates. Electrophysiological recordings show that natural variations in TRP-4 reduce the mechanosensitivity of dopaminergic neurons. Polymorphic substitutions in either TRP-4 or DOP-3 alter the selectivity of spatial patterns. Together, these results demonstrate an ancestral role for dopamine signaling in tuning spatial pattern preferences in a simple nervous system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22896.001 PMID:28349862

  6. Dopamine Transporter Activity Is Modulated by α-Synuclein*

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Brittany; Saha, Kaustuv; Rana, Tanu; Becker, Jonas P.; Sambo, Danielle; Davari, Paran; Goodwin, J. Shawn; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2015-01-01

    The duration and strength of the dopaminergic signal are regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). Drug addiction and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases have all been associated with altered DAT activity. The membrane localization and the activity of DAT are regulated by a number of intracellular proteins. α-Synuclein, a protein partner of DAT, is implicated in neurodegenerative disease and drug addiction. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the interaction between DAT and α-synuclein, the cellular location of this interaction, and the functional consequences of this interaction on the basal, amphetamine-induced DAT-mediated dopamine efflux, and membrane microdomain distribution of the transporter. Here, we found that the majority of DAT·α-synuclein protein complexes are found at the plasma membrane of dopaminergic neurons or mammalian cells and that the amphetamine-mediated increase in DAT activity enhances the association of these proteins at the plasma membrane. Further examination of the interaction of DAT and α-synuclein revealed a transient interaction between these two proteins at the plasma membrane. Additionally, we found DAT-induced membrane depolarization enhances plasma membrane localization of α-synuclein, which in turn increases dopamine efflux and enhances DAT localization in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. PMID:26442590

  7. Dopamine receptors – IUPHAR Review 13

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  8. Grafted dopamine neurons: Morphology, neurochemistry, and electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Ingrid; Bickford, Paula; Gerhardt, Greg A

    2010-02-09

    Grafting of dopamine-rich tissue to counteract the symptoms in Parkinson's disease became a promising tool for future treatment. This article discusses how to improve the functional outcome with respect to graft outgrowth and functions of dopamine release and electrophysiological responses to graft implantation in the host brain striatal target. It has been documented that a subpopulation of the dopamine neurons innervates the host brain in a target-specific manner, while some of the grafted dopamine neurons never project to the host striatum. Neurochemical studies have demonstrated that the graft-induced outgrowth synthesize, store, metabolize and release dopamine and possibly other neurotransmitters such as 5-HT. Furthermore, the released dopamine affects the dopamine-depleted brain in areas that are larger than the graft-derived nerve fibers reach. While stem cells will most likely be the future source of cells to be used in grafting, it is important to find the guiding cues for how to reinnervate the dopamine-depleted striatum in a proper way with respect to the dopamine subpopulations of A9 and A10 to efficiently treat the motor abnormalities seen in Parkinson's disease.

  9. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: an in vivo electrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Womersley, Jacqueline S; Hsieh, Jennifer H; Kellaway, Lauriston A; Gerhardt, Greg A; Russell, Vivienne A

    2011-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT) in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1) in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100) was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of maternal separation impaired the function of striatal

  10. Further evidence for inhibition of episodic luteinizing hormone release in ovariectomized rats by stimulation of dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Drouva, S V; Gallo, R V

    1977-03-01

    Stimulation of dopamine receptors by apomorphine inhibits episodic LH release in ovariectomized rats. The present study was designed to examine further the role of dopamine in this process. Unrestrained, unanesthetized rats with indwelling right atrial cannulae were bled continuously (30 or 50 microliters of whole blood/5 min for 3-6 h) and whole blood samples analyzed for LH by radioimmunoassay. Animals were treated with various compounds reported to stimulate or block dopamine receptors. ET 495, a long acting dopamine receptor stimulating agent, caused a marked inhibition of episodic LH release (2 1/2-4 h). Control injections of distilled water had no effect. d-Butaclamol, a blocker of dopamine receptors, did not itself alter episodic LH release but prevented the inhibitory effects seen following apomorphine or ET 495. I-butaclamol, a biologically inactive form of butaclamol, had no effect. Measurement of plasma corticosterone levels in these same animals indicated increased values following apomorphine or ET 495 alone (when LH release was inhibited), as well as after apomorphine or ET 495 administration to d-butaclamol-pretreated rats (when LH levels did not change). These data support our previous hypothesis that in ovariectomized adult rats, activation of dopamine receptors is capable of inhibiting episodic LH release, but that dopamine may not play an inhibitory role under normal physiological conditions in the modulation of LH secretion. In addition, the inhibitory action of apomorphine and ET 495 does not appear to be exerted via a stress-induced release of adrenal corticosterone.

  11. The Roles of Dopamine D1 Receptor on the Social Hierarchy of Rodents and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Kato, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although dopamine has been suggested to play a role in mediating social behaviors of individual animals, it is not clear whether such dopamine signaling contributes to attributes of social groups such as social hierarchy. Methods: In this study, the effects of the pharmacological manipulation of dopamine D1 receptor function on the social hierarchy and behavior of group-housed mice and macaques were investigated using a battery of behavioral tests. Results: D1 receptor blockade facilitated social dominance in mice at the middle, but not high or low, social rank in the groups without altering social preference among mates. In contrast, the administration of a D1 receptor antagonist in a macaque did not affect social dominance of the drug-treated animal; however, relative social dominance relationships between the drug-treated and nontreated subjects were altered indirectly through alterations of social affiliative relationships within the social group. Conclusions: These results suggest that dopamine D1 receptor signaling may be involved in social hierarchy and social relationships within a group, which may differ between rodents and primates. PMID:27927739

  12. The Roles of Dopamine D1 Receptor on the Social Hierarchy of Rodents and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Kato, Akemi; Goto, Yukiori

    2017-04-01

    Although dopamine has been suggested to play a role in mediating social behaviors of individual animals, it is not clear whether such dopamine signaling contributes to attributes of social groups such as social hierarchy. In this study, the effects of the pharmacological manipulation of dopamine D1 receptor function on the social hierarchy and behavior of group-housed mice and macaques were investigated using a battery of behavioral tests. D1 receptor blockade facilitated social dominance in mice at the middle, but not high or low, social rank in the groups without altering social preference among mates. In contrast, the administration of a D1 receptor antagonist in a macaque did not affect social dominance of the drug-treated animal; however, relative social dominance relationships between the drug-treated and nontreated subjects were altered indirectly through alterations of social affiliative relationships within the social group. These results suggest that dopamine D1 receptor signaling may be involved in social hierarchy and social relationships within a group, which may differ between rodents and primates.

  13. Prefrontal Dopamine in Associative Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Puig, M. Victoria; Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulate associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. PMID:25241063

  14. Decreased lymphocyte dopamine transporter in romantic lovers.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Piccinni, Armando; Mucci, Federico; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario; Rutigliano, Grazia; Massimetti, Gabriele; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-06-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) in romantic love is suggested by different evidence and is supported by the findings of some brain imaging studies. The DA transporter (DAT) is a key structure in regulating the concentration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Given the presence of DAT in blood cells, the present study aimed to explore it in resting lymphocytes of 30 healthy subjects of both sexes in the early stage of romantic love (no longer than 6 months), as compared with 30 subjects involved in a long-lasting relationship. All subjects had no physical or psychiatric illness. The DAT was measured by means of the [3H]-WIN 35,428 binding and the [3H]-DA reuptake to resting lymphocytes membranes. Romantic love was assessed by a specific questionnaire developed by us. The results showed that the subjects in the early phase of romantic love had a global alteration of the lymphocyte DAT involving both a decreased number of proteins (Bmax) and a reduced functionality (Vmax). Taken together, these findings would indicate the presence of increased levels of DA in romantic love that, if paralleled by similar concentrations in the brain, would explain some peculiar features of this human feeling.

  15. Serotonin-dopamine interaction: electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Di Matteo, Vincenzo; Pierucci, Massimo; Esposito, Ennio

    2008-01-01

    In this review, the most relevant data regarding serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)/dopamine (DA) interaction in the brain, as studied by both in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological methods, are reported and discussed. The bulk of neuroanatomical data available clearly indicate that DA-containing neurons in the brain receive a prominent innervation from 5-HT originating in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem. Furthermore, this modulation seems to be reciprocal; DA neurons innervate the raphe nuclei and exert a tonic excitatory effect on them. Compelling electrophysiological data show that 5-HT can exert complex effects on the electrical activity of midbrain DA neurons mediated by the various receptor subtypes. The main control seems to be inhibitory, this effect being more marked in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as compared to the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In spite of a direct effect of 5-HT by its receptors located on DA cells, 5-HT can modulate their activity indirectly, modifying gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA)-ergic and glutamatergic input to the VTA and SNc. Although 5-HT/DA interaction in the brain has been extensively studied, much work remains to be done to clarify this issue. The recent development of subtype-selective ligands for 5-HT receptors will not only allow a detailed understanding of this interaction but also lead to development of new treatment strategies, appropriate for those neuropsychiatric disorders in which an alteration of the 5-HT/DA balance is supposed.

  16. Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Puig, M V; Antzoulatos, E G; Miller, E K

    2014-12-12

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulates associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems.

  17. Molecular profiling of midbrain dopamine regions in cocaine overdose victims.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Xue; Fasulo, Wendy H; Mash, Deborah C; Hemby, Scott E

    2003-05-01

    Chronic cocaine use in humans and animal models is known to lead to pronounced alterations in neuronal function in brain regions associated with drug reinforcement. To evaluate whether the alterations in gene expression in cocaine overdose victims are associated with specific dopamine populations in the midbrain, cDNA arrays and western blotting were used to compare gene and protein expression patterns between cocaine overdose victims and age-matched controls in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and lateral substantia nigra (l-SN). Array analysis revealed significant up-regulation of numerous transcripts in the VTA, but not in the l-SN, of cocaine overdose victims including NMDAR1, GluR2, GluR5 and KA2 receptor mRNA (p < 0.05). No significant alterations between overdose victims and controls were observed for GluR1, R3 or R4 mRNA levels. Correspondingly, western blot analysis revealed VTA-selective up-regulation of CREB (p < 0.01), NMDAR1 (p < 0.01), GluR2 (p < 0.05), GluR5 (p < 0.01) and KA2 (p < 0.05) protein levels of cocaine overdose victims. The present results indicate that selective alterations of CREB and certain ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) subtypes appear to be associated with chronic cocaine use in humans in a region-specific manner. Moreover, as subunit composition determines the functional properties of iGluRs, the observed changes may indicate alterations in the excitability of dopamine transmission underlying long-term biochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine in humans.

  18. Synapsins Differentially Control Dopamine and Serotonin Release

    PubMed Central

    Kile, Brian M.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Venton, B. Jill; Wetsel, William C.; Augustine, George J.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knockout (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released. PMID:20660258

  19. Synapsins differentially control dopamine and serotonin release.

    PubMed

    Kile, Brian M; Guillot, Thomas S; Venton, B Jill; Wetsel, William C; Augustine, George J; Wightman, R Mark

    2010-07-21

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knock-out (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released.

  20. Metabolism of dopamine by the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chemuturi, Nagendra V; Donovan, Maureen D

    2006-11-01

    The nasal route of administration offers several advantages over oral and intravenous administration, including the ability to avoid hepatic first pass metabolism. Dopamine deficiency has been associated with several neurological disorders; it has been shown to have good systemic bioavailability and significant uptake into the CNS following intranasal administration. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the limiting role of mucosal metabolism of dopamine during nasal absorption. In vitro transport and initial rate studies were carried out using nasal mucosal explants to study dopamine permeability and metabolism. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was the only metabolite detected. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), the enzyme responsible for DOPAC formation, was localized to the submucosal region of the nasal explants. The amount of DOPAC formed during the transport studies was less than 0.5% of the initial amount of dopamine placed into the system. Iproniazid, an MAO inhibitor, blocked DOPAC formation but had no effect on dopamine transport. The limited extent of dopamine metabolism compared to its mucosal transport demonstrates that nasal dopamine transport is not significantly reduced by mucosal metabolism and suggests that the nasal route may be promising for the efficient delivery of dopamine to the CNS.

  1. Normative data of dopaminergic neurotransmission functions in substantia nigra measured with MRI and PET: Neuromelanin, dopamine synthesis, dopamine transporters, and dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Kodaka, Fumitoshi; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ikoma, Yoko; Shimada, Hitoshi; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Seki, Chie; Kubo, Hitoshi; Ishii, Shiro; Takano, Harumasa; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2017-09-01

    The central dopaminergic system is of major importance in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, the normative data of dopaminergic neurotransmission functions in the midbrain, consisting of neuromelanin, dopamine synthesis, dopamine transporters and dopamine D2 receptors, were constructed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET). PET studies with L-[β-(11)C]DOPA, [(18)F]FE-PE2I and [(11)C]FLB457 and MRI studies were performed on healthy young men. Neuromelanin accumulation measured by MRI was compared with dopaminergic functions, dopamine synthesis capacity, dopamine transporter binding and dopamine D2 receptor binding measured by PET in the substantia nigra. Although neuromelanin is synthesized from DOPA and dopamine in dopaminergic neurons, neuromelanin accumulation did not correlate with dopamine synthesis capacity in young healthy subjects. The role of dopamine transporters in the substantia nigra is considered to be the transport of dopamine into neurons, and therefore dopamine transporter binding might be related to neuromelanin accumulation; however, no significant correlation was observed between them. A positive correlation between dopamine D2 receptor binding and neuromelanin accumulation was observed, indicating a feedback mechanism by dopaminergic autoreceptors. Discrepancies in regional distribution between neuromelanin accumulation and dopamine synthesis capacity, dopamine transporter binding or dopamine D2 receptor binding were observed in the substantia nigra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sertraline induced parkinsonism. A case report and an in-vivo study of the effect of sertraline on dopamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, A; Brannan, T; Prikhojan, A; Yahr, M D

    1998-01-01

    We report a patient with a parkinsonian syndrome induced by sertraline (Zoloft), an SSRI antidepressant, whose symptoms resolved after the drug was discontinued. This case prompted us to investigate the effect of sertraline on dopamine metabolism in animals. Sertraline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or placebo (vehicle) was administered to two groups of six normal, anesthetized rats and using cerebral microdyalisis extracellular striatal levels of dopamine, the dopamine metabolites (HVA and DOPAC), as well as the serotonin metabolite 5-HIIA were monitored. In animals pre-treated with sertraline, DOPAC, HVA, and 5-HIAA levels were significantly decreased compared to control animals (p < 0.01). These data indicate that sertraline has an effect on dopamine metabolism, which may alter function in the striatum and induce a parkinsonian syndrome.

  3. THE MYSTERIOUS MOTIVATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

    2012-01-01

    Summary Nucleus accumbens dopamine is known to play a role in motivational processes, and dysfunctions of mesolimbic dopamine may contribute to motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders, as well as features of substance abuse. Although it has become traditional to label dopamine neurons as “reward” neurons, this is an over-generalization, and it is important to distinguish between aspects of motivation that are differentially affected by dopaminergic manipulations. For example, accumbens dopamine does not mediate primary food motivation or appetite, but is involved in appetitive and aversive motivational processes including behavioral activation, exertion of effort, approach behavior, sustained task engagement, Pavlovian processes and instrumental learning. In this review, we discuss the complex roles of dopamine in behavioral functions related to motivation. PMID:23141060

  4. Metabolic hormones, dopamine circuits, and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Guarnieri, Douglas J.; DiLeone, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence has emerged demonstrating that metabolic hormones such as ghrelin and leptin can act on ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons to influence feeding. The VTA is the origin of mesolimbic dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to influence behavior. While blockade of dopamine via systemic antagonists or targeted gene delete can impair food intake, local NAc dopamine manipulations have little effect on food intake. Notably, non-dopaminergic manipulations in the VTA and NAc produce more consistent effects on feeding and food choice. More recent genetic evidence supports a role for the substantia nigra-striatal dopamine pathways in food intake, while the VTA-NAc circuit is more likely involved in higher-order aspects of food acquisition, such as motivation and cue associations. This rich and complex literature should be considered in models of how peripheral hormones influence feeding behavior via action on the midbrain circuits. PMID:19836414

  5. [Protective effect of verapamil and dopamine against cyclosporine-induced vasoconstriction in isolated glomeruli in rats].

    PubMed

    L'Azou, B; Lagroye, I; Plande, J; Lakhdar, B; Cambar, J

    1992-12-02

    Cyclosporin A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity is characterized by dramatic changes in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow, largely limiting the clinical use of this drug. The vasoconstrictive response of CsA could explain, in part, these hemodynamic alterations. The present study compares the area changes in rat-isolated glomeruli incubated with CsA alone or after pre-treatment with verapamil and dopamine. In verapamil-pretreated CsA-intoxicated glomeruli, size decrease was reduced (-1.5 percent at T10, -3.1 percent at T20 and -4.8 percent at T30), when compared with CsA alone (-4.7 percent at T10, -10.1 percent at T20 and -12 percent at T30). The results obtained with dopamine were similar. In conclusion, verapamil and dopamine can be regarded as fair protective agents against CsA-induced vasoconstriction in rat-isolated glomeruli.

  6. Cannabinoids excite dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmentum and substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    French, E D; Dillon, K; Wu, X

    1997-02-10

    Extracellular recordings were used to determine the effects of cannabinoids on the activity of dopamine neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC). Systemic administration of the natural psychoactive cannabinoid delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) and the synthetic cannabimimetic aminoalkylindole WIN 55,212-2 produced dose-dependent increases in firing rate and burst firing in both neuronal populations. These effects appear to be specific as the non-psychoactive cannabidiol and the inactive enantiomer WIN 55,212-3 failed to alter either parameter of neuronal excitability. Furthermore, dopamine neurons in the VTA were more sensitive than those in the SNC to the stimulatory actions of delta 9-THC. These results may provide a mechanism by which psychoactive cannabinoids increase extracellular dopamine levels in mesolimbic and striatal tissues, and thereby contribute to the reinforcing effects of marijuana.

  7. Imaging addiction: D2 receptors and dopamine signaling in the striatum as biomarkers for impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Trifilieff, Pierre; Martinez, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Dependence to drugs of abuse is closely associated with impulsivity, or the propensity to choose a lower, but immediate, reward over a delayed, but more valuable outcome. Here, we review clinical and preclinical studies showing that striatal dopamine signaling and D2 receptor levels – which have been shown to be decreased in addiction - directly impact impulsivity, which is itself predictive of drug self-administration. Based on these studies, we propose that the alterations in D2 receptor binding and dopamine release seen in imaging studies of addiction constitute neurobiological markers of impulsivity. Recent studies in animals also show that higher striatal dopamine signaling at the D2 receptor is associated with a greater willingness to expend effort to reach goals, and we propose that this same relationship applies to humans, particularly with respect to recovery from addiction. PMID:23851257

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Dopamine graft compound N-methacryloyl 3,4-dihydroxyl-phenylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiong; Shu-xin, Qu; Yu-mei, Liu

    2013-03-01

    In order to obtain adhesive biomaterials inspired by mussels, the intermediate derivatives of dopamine, N-methacryloyl 3,4-dihydroxyl-phenylamine (dopamine methacryla-mide DMA), was synthesized by grafting methacrylate anhydride to dopamine. The structure of the compound was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The thermal stability of DMA was also characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimeters techniques. The surface morphology of DMA crystal was analysed by scanning electron microscope analyses. The present result showed that the synthesis of new monomers was successfully fulfilled and the new compounds retain the hydroxyl functional groups. The surface morphologies and thermal stability of DMA crystal were also altered by grafting reaction.

  9. Rats overexpressing the dopamine transporter display behavioral and neurobiological abnormalities with relevance to repetitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Ravit; Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Reinel, Claudia; Wieske, Franziska; Voget, Mareike; Popova, Elena; Sohr, Reinhard; Avchalumov, Yosef; Priller, Josef; van Riesen, Christoph; Puls, Imke; Bader, Michael; Winter, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a pivotal role in maintaining optimal dopamine signaling. DAT-overactivity has been linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders yet so far the direct pathological consequences of it has not been fully assessed. We here generated a transgenic rat model that via pronuclear microinjection overexpresses the DAT gene. Our results demonstrate that DAT-overexpression induces multiple neurobiological effects that exceeded the expected alterations in the corticostriatal dopamine system. Furthermore, transgenic rats specifically exhibited behavioral and pharmaco-therapeutic profiles phenotypic of repetitive disorders. Together our findings suggest that the DAT rat model will constitute a valuable tool for further investigations into the pathological influence of DAT overexpression on neural systems relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27974817

  10. Striatal dopamine and glutamate receptors modulate methamphetamine-induced cortical Fos expression

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Noah B.; Marshall, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine (mAMPH) is a psychostimulant drug that increases extracellular levels of monoamines throughout the brain. It has previously been observed that a single injection of mAMPH increases immediate early gene (IEG) expression in both the striatum and cerebral cortex. Moreover, this effect is modulated by dopamine and glutamate receptors since systemic administration of dopamine or glutamate antagonists has been found to alter mAMPH-induced striatal and cortical IEG expression. However, because dopamine and glutamate receptors are found in extra-striatal as well as striatal brain regions, studies employing systemic injection of dopamine or glutamate antagonists fail to localize the effects of mAMPH-induced activation. In the present experiments, the roles of striatal dopamine and glutamate receptors in mAMPH-induced gene expression in the striatum and cerebral cortex were examined. The nuclear expression of Fos, the protein product of the IEG c-fos, was quantified in both the striatum and the cortex of animals receiving intrastriatal dopamine or glutamate antagonist administration. Intrastriatal infusion of dopamine (D1 or D2) or glutamate [N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)] antagonists affected not only mAMPH-induced striatal, but also cortical, Fos expression. Overall, the effects of the antagonists occurred dose-dependently, in both the infused and non-infused hemispheres, with greater influences occurring in the infused hemisphere. Finally, unilateral intrastriatal infusion of dopamine or glutamate antagonists changed the behavior of the rats from characteristic mAMPH-induced stereotypy to rotation ipsilateral to the infusion. These results demonstrate that mAMPH’s actions on striatal dopamine and glutamate receptors modulate the widespread cortical activation induced by mAMPH. It is hypothesized that dopamine release from nigrostriatal terminals modulates activity within striatal

  11. Clinical and molecular characterisation of hereditary dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome: an observational cohort and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Manju A; Li, Yan; Zhen, Juan; Meyer, Esther; Hai, Nebula; Christen, Hans-Jürgen; Hoffmann, Georg F; Jardine, Philip; von Moers, Arpad; Mordekar, Santosh R; O'Callaghan, Finbar; Wassmer, Evangeline; Wraige, Elizabeth; Dietrich, Christa; Lewis, Timothy; Hyland, Keith; Heales, Simon; Sanger, Terence; Gissen, Paul; Assmann, Birgit E; Reith, Maarten E A; Maher, Eamonn R

    2011-01-01

    dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome is the first identified parkinsonian disorder caused by genetic alterations of the dopamine transporter. We describe a cohort of children with mutations in the gene encoding the dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) with the aim to improve clinical and molecular characterisation, reduce diagnostic delay and misdiagnosis, and provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms. 11 children with a biochemical profile suggestive of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome were enrolled from seven paediatric neurology centres in the UK, Germany, and the USA from February, 2009, and studied until June, 2010. The syndrome was characterised by detailed clinical phenotyping, biochemical and neuroradiological studies, and SLC6A3 mutation analysis. Mutant constructs of human dopamine transporter were used for in-vitro functional analysis of dopamine uptake and cocaine-analogue binding. children presented in infancy (median age 2·5 months, range 0·5-7) with either hyperkinesia (n=5), parkinsonism (n=4), or a mixed hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorder (n=2). Seven children had been initially misdiagnosed with cerebral palsy. During childhood, patients developed severe parkinsonism-dystonia associated with an eye movement disorder and pyramidal tract features. All children had raised ratios of homovanillic acid to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid, of range 5·0-13·2 (normal range 1·3-4·0). Homozygous or compound heterozygous SLC6A3 mutations were detected in all cases. Loss of function in all missense variants was recorded from in-vitro functional studies, and was supported by the findings of single photon emission CT DaTSCAN imaging in one patient, which showed complete loss of dopamine transporter activity in the basal nuclei. dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome is a newly recognised, autosomal recessive disorder related to impaired dopamine transporter function. Careful characterisation of patients

  12. Clinical and molecular characterisation of hereditary dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome: an observational cohort and experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Manju A; Li, Yan; Zhen, Juan; Meyer, Esther; Hai, Nebula; Christen, Hans-Jürgen; Hoffmann, Georg F; Jardine, Philip; von Moers, Arpad; Mordekar, Santosh R; O'Callaghan, Finbar; Wassmer, Evangeline; Wraige, Elizabeth; Dietrich, Christa; Lewis, Timothy; Hyland, Keith; Heales, Simon JR; Sanger, Terence; Gissen, Paul; Assmann, Birgit E; Reith, Maarten EA; Maher, Eamonn R

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome is the first identified parkinsonian disorder caused by genetic alterations of the dopamine transporter. We describe a cohort of children with mutations in the gene encoding the dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) with the aim to improve clinical and molecular characterisation, reduce diagnostic delay and misdiagnosis, and provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms. Methods 11 children with a biochemical profile suggestive of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome were enrolled from seven paediatric neurology centres in the UK, Germany, and the USA from February, 2009, and studied until June, 2010. The syndrome was characterised by detailed clinical phenotyping, biochemical and neuroradiological studies, and SLC6A3 mutation analysis. Mutant constructs of human dopamine transporter were used for in-vitro functional analysis of dopamine uptake and cocaine-analogue binding. Findings Children presented in infancy (median age 2·5 months, range 0·5–7) with either hyperkinesia (n=5), parkinsonism (n=4), or a mixed hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorder (n=2). Seven children had been initially misdiagnosed with cerebral palsy. During childhood, patients developed severe parkinsonism-dystonia associated with an eye movement disorder and pyramidal tract features. All children had raised ratios of homovanillic acid to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid, of range 5·0–13·2 (normal range 1·3–4·0). Homozygous or compound heterozygous SLC6A3 mutations were detected in all cases. Loss of function in all missense variants was recorded from in-vitro functional studies, and was supported by the findings of single photon emission CT DaTSCAN imaging in one patient, which showed complete loss of dopamine transporter activity in the basal nuclei. Interpretation Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome is a newly recognised, autosomal recessive disorder related to impaired dopamine

  13. Amphetamine and methamphetamine reduce striatal dopamine transporter function without concurrent dopamine transporter relocalization.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher L; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2012-10-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (METH) alter dopamine transporter (DAT) function. In vitro heterologous cell line and synaptosome studies demonstrate AMPH-induced DAT internalization, implicating relocalization in reduced DAT uptake following drug exposure. However, few studies have evaluated DAT localization following in vivo AMPH/METH administration. To determine DAT subcellular localization following drug administration, a centrifugation technique was developed to isolate striatal synaptosomal membrane and vesicle fractions. DAT was distributed between the synaptosomal membrane (60%) and endosomal vesicles (40%), and in vitro application of the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to striatal synaptosomes caused DAT internalization into the vesicle fractions. In contrast, neither single nor repeated in vivo AMPH and/or METH administrations altered DAT localization 5, 15, 30, or 60 min post-treatment, despite reduced DAT uptake. Importantly, repeated METH injections uniformly decreased total DAT immunoreactivity within all fractions 7 days post-treatment. These findings suggest that factors other than internalization can contribute to the observed acute and persistent DAT dysfunction and dopaminergic deficits following in vivo AMPH or METH administration. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Reduce Striatal Dopamine Transporter Function Without Concurrent Dopamine Transporter Relocalization

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (METH) alter dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) function. In vitro heterologous cell line and synaptosome studies demonstrate AMPH-induced DAT internalization, implicating relocalization in reduced DAT uptake following drug exposure. However, few studies have evaluated DAT localization following in vivo AMPH/METH administration. To determine DAT subcellular localization following drug administration, a centrifugation technique was developed to isolate striatal synaptosomal membrane and vesicle fractions. DAT was distributed between the synaptosomal membrane (60%) and endosomal vesicles (40%), and in vitro application of the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to striatal synaptosomes caused DAT internalization into the vesicle fractions. In contrast, neither single nor repeated in vivo AMPH and/or METH administrations altered DAT localization 5, 15, 30 or 60 min post-treatment, despite reduced DAT uptake. Importantly, repeated METH injections uniformly decreased total DAT immunoreactivity within all fractions 7 d post-treatment. These findings suggest factors other than internalization can contribute to the observed acute and persistent DAT dysfunction and dopaminergic deficits following in vivo AMPH or METH administration. PMID:22804716

  15. The nature of dopamine dysfunction in schizophrenia and what this means for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Oliver D; Kambeitz, Joseph; Kim, Euitae; Stahl, Daniel; Slifstein, Mark; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Kapur, Shitij

    2013-01-01

    Context Current drug treatments for schizophrenia are inadequate for many patients and, despite five decades of drug discovery, all use the same mechanism-dopamine D2 receptor blockade. Understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder is thus likely to be critical to the rational development of new treatments for schizophrenia. Objective To investigate the nature of the dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia using meta-analysis of in vivo studies. Data sources The MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies from January 1, 1960, to July 1, 2011. Study selection Forty-four studies were identified that compared in vivo striatal dopaminergic function in 618 patients with schizophrenia with 606 controls using positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography. Data extraction Demographic, clinical and imaging variables were extracted from each study and effect sizes determined for the measures of dopaminergic function. Studies were grouped into those of presynaptic function, and dopamine transporter and receptor availability. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the consistency of effects and the effect of clinical and imaging variables. Data synthesis There was a highly significant elevation (p<0.0001) in presynaptic dopaminergic function in schizophrenia with a large effect size (Cohen’s d=0.79). There was no evidence of alterations in dopamine transporter availability. There was a small elevation in D2/3 receptor availability (Cohen’s d=0.26), but this was not evident in drug-naïve patients and was influenced by the imaging approach used. Conclusions The locus of the largest dopaminergic abnormality in schizophrenia is presynaptic-affecting dopamine synthesis capacity, baseline synaptic dopamine levels and dopamine release. Current drug treatments - which primarily act at D2/3 receptors - fail to target these abnormalities. Future drug development should focus on the control of presynaptic dopamine

  16. Aberrant dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2012-11-01

    Based on the observation that antipsychotic medications display antagonist properties at dopamine D2-like receptors, aberrant dopamine signaling has been proposed to underlie psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, it is not surprising that considerable research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms involved in the antipsychotic action of these compounds. It is important to note that the majority of these studies have been performed in "normal" experimental animals. Given that these animals do not possess the aberrant neuronal information processing typically associated with schizophrenia, the aim of the current study was to examine the dopamine D2 receptor system in a rodent model of schizophrenia. Here, we demonstrate that methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-treated rats display an enhanced effect of quinpirole on dopamine neuron activity and an aberrant locomotor response to D2-like receptor activation, suggesting changes in postsynaptic D2-like receptor function. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the enhanced response to D2-like ligands in MAM-treated rats, we examined the expression of D2, D3, and dopamine transporter mRNA in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MAM-treated rats displayed a significant increase in dopamine D3 receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens with no significant changes in the expression of the D2 receptor. Taken together, these data demonstrate robust alterations in dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia and provide evidence that preclinical studies examining the mechanisms of antipsychotic drug action should be performed in animal models that mirror aspects of the abnormal neuronal transmission thought to underlie symptoms of schizophrenia.

  17. Dopamine agonist suppression of rapid-eye-movement sleep is secondary to sleep suppression mediated via limbic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Miletich, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pergolide, a direct dopamine receptor agonist, on sleep and wakefulness, motor behavior and /sup 3/H-spiperone specific binding in limbic structures and striatum in rats was studied. The results show that pergolide induced a biphasic dose effect, with high doses increasing wakefulness and suppressing sleep while low dose decreased wakefulness, but increased sleep. It was shown that pergolide-induced sleep suppression was blocked by ..cap alpha..-glupenthixol and pimozide, two dopamine receptor antagonists. It was further shown that pergolide merely delayed the rebound resulting from rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation, that dopamine receptors stimulation had no direct effect on the period, phase or amplitude of the circadian rhythm of REM sleep propensity and that there was no alteration in the coupling of REM sleep episodes with S/sub 2/ episodes. Rapid-eye-movement sleep deprivation resulted in increased sensitivity to the pergolide-induced wakefulness stimulation and sleep suppression and pergolide-induced motor behaviors of locomotion and head bobbing. /sup 3/H-spiperone specific binding to dopamine receptors was shown to be altered by REM sleep deprivation in the subcortical limbic structures. It is concluded that the REM sleep suppressing action of dopamine receptor stimulation is secondary to sleep suppression per se and not secondary to a unique effect on the REM sleep. Further, it is suggested that the wakefulness stimulating action of dopamine receptor agonists is mediated by activation of the dopamine receptors in the terminal areas of the mesolimbocortical dopamine projection system.

  18. Illumination controls differentiation of dopamine neurons regulating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dulcis, Davide; Spitzer, Nicholas C

    2008-11-13

    Specification of the appropriate neurotransmitter is a crucial step in neuronal differentiation because it enables signalling among populations of neurons. Experimental manipulations demonstrate that both autonomous and activity-dependent genetic programs contribute to this process during development, but whether natural environmental stimuli specify transmitter expression in a neuronal population is unknown. We investigated neurons of the ventral suprachiasmatic nucleus that regulate neuroendocrine pituitary function in response to light in teleosts, amphibia and primates. Here we show that altering light exposure, which changes the sensory input to the circuit controlling adaptation of skin pigmentation to background, changes the number of neurons expressing dopamine in larvae of the amphibian Xenopus laevis in a circuit-specific and activity-dependent manner. Neurons newly expressing dopamine then regulate changes in camouflage colouration in response to illumination. Thus, physiological activity alters the numbers of behaviourally relevant amine-transmitter-expressing neurons in the brain at postembryonic stages of development. The results may be pertinent to changes in cognitive states that are regulated by biogenic amines.

  19. The Role of Dopamine and Dopaminergic Pathways in Dystonia: Insights from Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Morvarid; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dystonia constitutes a heterogeneous group of movement abnormalities, characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal postures. Overwhelming data suggest involvement of basal ganglia and dopaminergic pathways in dystonia. In this review, we critically evaluate recent neuroimaging studies that investigate dopamine receptors, endogenous dopamine release, morphology of striatum, and structural or functional connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical and related cerebellar circuits in dystonia. Method A PubMed search was conducted in August 2014. Results Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging offers strong evidence for altered D2/D3 receptor binding and dopaminergic release in many forms of idiopathic dystonia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data reveal likely involvement of related cerebello-thalamo-cortical and sensory-motor networks in addition to basal ganglia. Discussion PET imaging of dopamine receptors or transmitter release remains an effective means to investigate dopaminergic pathways, yet may miss factors affecting dopamine homeostasis and related subcellular signaling cascades that could alter the function of these pathways. fMRI and DTI methods may reveal functional or anatomical changes associated with dysfunction of dopamine-mediated pathways. Each of these methods can be used to monitor target engagement for potential new treatments. PET imaging of striatal phosphodiesterase and development of new selective PET radiotracers for dopamine D3-specific receptors and Mechanistic target of rampamycin (mTOR) are crucial to further investigate dopaminergic pathways. A multimodal approach may have the greatest potential, using PET to identify the sites of molecular pathology and magnetic resonance methods to determine their downstream effects. PMID:25713747

  20. The Michelin red guide of the brain: role of dopamine in goal-oriented navigation

    PubMed Central

    Retailleau, Aude; Boraud, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Spatial learning has been recognized over the years to be under the control of the hippocampus and related temporal lobe structures. Hippocampal damage often causes severe impairments in the ability to learn and remember a location in space defined by distal visual cues. Such cognitive disabilities are found in Parkinsonian patients. We recently investigated the role of dopamine in navigation in the 6-Hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) rat, a model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) commonly used to investigate the pathophysiology of dopamine depletion (Retailleau et al., 2013). We demonstrated that dopamine (DA) is essential to spatial learning as its depletion results in spatial impairments. Our results showed that the behavioral effect of DA depletion is correlated with modification of the neural encoding of spatial features and decision making processes in hippocampus. However, the origin of these alterations in the neural processing of the spatial information needs to be clarified. It could result from a local effect: dopamine depletion disturbs directly the processing of relevant spatial information at hippocampal level. Alternatively, it could result from a more distributed network effect: dopamine depletion elsewhere in the brain (entorhinal cortex, striatum, etc.) modifies the way hippocampus processes spatial information. Recent experimental evidence in rodents, demonstrated indeed, that other brain areas are involved in the acquisition of spatial information. Amongst these, the cortex—basal ganglia (BG) loop is known to be involved in reinforcement learning and has been identified as an important contributor to spatial learning. In particular, it has been shown that altered activity of the BG striatal complex can impair the ability to perform spatial learning tasks. The present review provides a glimpse of the findings obtained over the past decade that support a dialog between these two structures during spatial learning under DA control. PMID:24672436

  1. The Michelin red guide of the brain: role of dopamine in goal-oriented navigation.

    PubMed

    Retailleau, Aude; Boraud, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Spatial learning has been recognized over the years to be under the control of the hippocampus and related temporal lobe structures. Hippocampal damage often causes severe impairments in the ability to learn and remember a location in space defined by distal visual cues. Such cognitive disabilities are found in Parkinsonian patients. We recently investigated the role of dopamine in navigation in the 6-Hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) rat, a model of Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly used to investigate the pathophysiology of dopamine depletion (Retailleau et al., 2013). We demonstrated that dopamine (DA) is essential to spatial learning as its depletion results in spatial impairments. Our results showed that the behavioral effect of DA depletion is correlated with modification of the neural encoding of spatial features and decision making processes in hippocampus. However, the origin of these alterations in the neural processing of the spatial information needs to be clarified. It could result from a local effect: dopamine depletion disturbs directly the processing of relevant spatial information at hippocampal level. Alternatively, it could result from a more distributed network effect: dopamine depletion elsewhere in the brain (entorhinal cortex, striatum, etc.) modifies the way hippocampus processes spatial information. Recent experimental evidence in rodents, demonstrated indeed, that other brain areas are involved in the acquisition of spatial information. Amongst these, the cortex-basal ganglia (BG) loop is known to be involved in reinforcement learning and has been identified as an important contributor to spatial learning. In particular, it has been shown that altered activity of the BG striatal complex can impair the ability to perform spatial learning tasks. The present review provides a glimpse of the findings obtained over the past decade that support a dialog between these two structures during spatial learning under DA control.

  2. HIV, Tat and dopamine transmission.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Peter J; Miller, Douglas R; Gamble-George, Joyonna; Yano, Hideaki; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2017-09-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a progressive infection that targets the immune system, affecting more than 37 million people around the world. While combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) has lowered mortality rates and improved quality of life in infected individuals, the prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders is increasing and HIV associated cognitive decline remains prevalent. Recent research has suggested that HIV accessory proteins may be involved in this decline, and several studies have indicated that the HIV protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) can disrupt normal neuronal and glial function. Specifically, data indicate that Tat may directly impact dopaminergic neurotransmission, by modulating the function of the dopamine transporter and specifically damaging dopamine-rich regions of the CNS. HIV infection of the CNS has long been associated with dopaminergic dysfunction, but the mechanisms remain undefined. The specific effect(s) of Tat on dopaminergic neurotransmission may be, at least partially, a mechanism by which HIV infection directly or indirectly induces dopaminergic dysfunction. Therefore, precisely defining the specific effects of Tat on the dopaminergic system will help to elucidate the mechanisms by which HIV infection of the CNS induces neuropsychiatric, neurocognitive and neurological disorders that involve dopaminergic neurotransmission. Further, this will provide a discussion of the experiments needed to further these investigations, and may help to identify or develop new therapeutic approaches for the prevention or treatment of these disorders in HIV-infected individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dopamine agonist therapy in hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Webster, J

    1999-12-01

    Introduction of the dopamine agonist bromocriptine heralded a major advance in the management of hyperprolactinemic disorders. Although its side effects of nausea, dizziness and headache and its short elimination half-life are limiting factors, its efficacy established it as a reference compound against the activity of which several dopamine agonists, like pergolide, lysuride, metergoline, terguride and dihydroergocristine, fell by the wayside. More recently, two new agents, cabergoline and quinagolide, have been introduced and appear to offer considerable advantages over bromocriptine. Cabergoline, an ergoline D2 agonist, has a long plasma half-life that enables once- or twice-weekly administration. Quinagolide, in contrast, is a nonergot D2 agonist with an elimination half-life intermediate between those of bromocriptine and cabergoline, allowing the drug to be administered once daily. Comparative studies indicate that cabergoline is clearly superior to bromocriptine in efficacy (prolactin suppression, restoration of gonadal function) and in tolerability. In similar studies, quinagolide appeared to have similar efficacy and superior tolerability to that of bromocriptine. Results of a small crossover study indicate that cabergoline is better tolerated, with a trend toward activity superior to that of quinagolide. In hyperprolactinemic men and in women not seeking to become pregnant, cabergoline may be regarded as the treatment of choice.

  4. Amphetamine in adolescence disrupts the development of medial prefrontal cortex dopamine connectivity in a DCC-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lauren M; Makowski, Carolina S; Yogendran, Sandra V; Kiessling, Silke; Cermakian, Nicolas; Flores, Cecilia

    2015-03-13

    Initiation of drug use during adolescence is a strong predictor of both the incidence and severity of addiction throughout the lifetime. Intriguingly, adolescence is a period of dynamic refinement in the organization of neuronal connectivity, in particular medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine circuitry. The guidance cue receptor, DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer), is highly expressed by dopamine neurons and orchestrates their innervation to the mPFC during adolescence. Furthermore, we have shown that amphetamine in adolescence regulates DCC expression in dopamine neurons. Drugs in adolescence may therefore induce their enduring behavioral effects via DCC-mediated disruption in mPFC dopamine development. In this study, we investigated the impact of repeated exposure to amphetamine during adolescence on both the development of mPFC dopamine connectivity and on salience attribution to drug context in adulthood. We compare these effects to those induced by adult exposure to an identical amphetamine regimen. Finally, we determine whether DCC signaling within dopamine neurons is necessary for these events. Exposure to amphetamine in adolescence, but not in adulthood, leads to an increase in the span of dopamine innervation to the mPFC, but a reduction of presynaptic sites present on these axons. Amphetamine treatment in adolescence, but not in adulthood, also produces an increase in salience attribution to a previously drug-paired context in adulthood. Remarkably, DCC signaling within dopamine neurons is required for both of these effects. Drugs of abuse in adolescence may therefore induce their detrimental behavioral consequences by disrupting mesocortical dopamine development through alterations in the DCC signaling cascade.

  5. Imaging analysis of clock neurons: light buffers the wake-promoting effect of dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuhua; Haynes, Paula; Pírez, Nicolás; Harrington, Kyle I.; Guo, Fang; Pollack, Jordan; Hong, Pengyu; Griffith, Leslie C.; Rosbash, Michael

    2012-01-01

    How animals maintain proper amounts of sleep yet still be flexible to changes in the environmental conditions remains unknown. Here we showed that environmental light suppresses the wake-promoting effects of dopamine in fly brains. A subset of clock neurons, the 10 large lateral-ventral neurons (l-LNvs), are wake-promoting and respond to dopamine, octopamine as well as light. Behavioral and imaging analyses suggested that dopamine is a stronger arousal signal than octopamine. Surprisingly, light exposure not only suppressed the l-LNv responses but also synchronized responses of neighboring l-LNvs. This regulation occured by distinct mechanisms: light-mediated suppression of octopamine responses is regulated by the circadian clock, whereas light regulation of dopamine responses occurs by upregulation of inhibitory dopamine receptors. Plasticity therefore alters the relative importance of diverse cues based on the environmental mix of stimuli. The regulatory mechanisms described here may contribute to the control of sleep stability while still allowing behavioral flexibility. PMID:21685918

  6. Dopamine efflux in response to ultraviolet radiation in addicted sunbed users.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Pamela M; Seibyl, John P; Price, Julianne L; Harris, Thomas S; Filbey, Francesca M; Jacobe, Heidi; Devous, Michael D; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-05-30

    Compulsive tanning despite awareness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) carcinogenicity may represent an "addictive" behavior. Many addictive disorders are associated with alterations in dopamine (D2/D3) receptor binding and dopamine reactivity in the brain's reward pathway. To determine if compulsive tanners exhibited neurobiologic responses similar to other addictive disorders, this study assessed basal striatal D2/D3 binding and UVR-induced striatal dopamine efflux in ten addicted and ten infrequent tanners. In a double-blind crossover trial, UVR or sham UVR was administered in separate sessions during brain imaging with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). Basal D2/D3 receptor density and UVR-induced dopamine efflux in the caudate were assessed using (123)I-iodobenzamide ((123)I-IBZM) binding potential non-displaceable (BPnd). Basal BPnd did not significantly differ between addicted and infrequent tanners. Whereas neither UVR nor sham UVR induced significant changes in bilateral caudate BPnd in either group, post-hoc analyses revealed left caudate BPnd significantly decreased (reflecting increased dopamine efflux) in the addicted tanners - but not the infrequent tanners - during the UVR session only. Bilateral ∆BPnd correlated with tanning severity only in the addicted tanners. These preliminary findings are consistent with a stronger neural rewarding response to UVR in addicted tanners, supporting a cutaneous-neural connection driving excessive sunbed use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Response contingency directs long-term cocaine-induced neuroplasticity in prefrontal and striatal dopamine terminals.

    PubMed

    Wiskerke, Joost; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; De Vries, Taco J

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to addictive substances such as cocaine is well-known to alter brain organisation. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations depend on several factors, including drug administration paradigm. To date, studies addressing the consequences of cocaine exposure on dopamine transmission have either not been designed to investigate the role of response contingency or focused only on short-term neuroplasticity. We demonstrate a key role of response contingency in directing long-term cocaine-induced neuroplasticity throughout projection areas of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. We found enhanced electrically-evoked [(3)H]dopamine release from superfused brain slices of nucleus accumbens shell and core, dorsal striatum and medial prefrontal cortex three weeks after cessation of cocaine self-administration. In yoked cocaine rats receiving the same amount of cocaine passively, sensitised dopamine terminal reactivity was only observed in the nucleus accumbens core. Control sucrose self-administration experiments demonstrated that the observed neuroadaptations were not the result of instrumental learning per se. Thus, long-term withdrawal from cocaine self-administration is associated with widespread sensitisation of dopamine terminals throughout frontostriatal circuitries.

  8. Ketamine does not decrease striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in man.

    PubMed

    Aalto, Sargo; Hirvonen, Jussi; Kajander, Jaana; Scheinin, Harry; Någren, Kjell; Vilkman, Harry; Gustafsson, Lars; Syvälahti, Erkka; Hietala, Jarmo

    2002-12-01

    A glutamate-dopamine interaction has been implicated in the psychosis-like effects of glutamate N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine and ketamine. However, recent imaging studies addressing striatal glutamate-dopamine interaction directly in vivo in man have been controversial. To examine whether the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine in high subanesthetic concentrations decreases striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding potential in man. To further evaluate whether changes in striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding are associated with ketamine-induced behavioral effects. The effect of computer-driven subanesthetic ketamine infusion on striatal dopamine release was studied in healthy male subjects using a controlled study design. Dopamine release was studied using positron emission tomography and the [(11)C]raclopride displacement paradigm. A conventional region of interest-based analysis and voxel-based analysis were applied to the positron emission tomography data. The average plasma ketamine concentration was 293+/-29 ng/ml. Ketamine did not alter striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding. Ketamine induced typical behavioral effects, such as hallucinations but there was no correlation between these effects and displacement of [(11)C]raclopride binding. This controlled study indicates that ketamine does not decrease striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding. Striatal dopamine release is of minor importance in the psychosis-like effects of ketamine.

  9. Abnormal adenosine and dopamine receptor expression in lymphocytes of Lesch-Nyhan patients.

    PubMed

    García, M G; Puig, J G; Torres, R J

    2009-11-01

    Self-injurious behavior is the most outstanding feature of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and has recently been ascribed to an obsessive-compulsive behavior. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome results from the complete enzyme deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) but the link between abnormal purine metabolism and its neurological and behavioral manifestations remains largely unknown. Previous studies led us to hypothesize that adenosine and dopamine receptor expression could be altered in HPRT-deficient cells. To test this hypothesis, we examined mRNA expressions of adenosine (ADORA2A and ADORA2B) and dopamine receptors (DRD1 and DRD2 like), and dopamine transporter (DAT1) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from Lesch-Nyhan patients. We also examined the influence of hypoxanthine in these expressions. As compared to normal PBLs, both ADORA2A and DRD5 expression were abnormal in PBLs from Lesch-Nyhan patients. In contrast, DAT1 expression was similar to control values in HPRT deficient PBLs. These results indicate an abnormal adenosine and dopamine receptor expression in HPRT-deficient cells and suggest disrupted adenosine and dopamine neurotransmission may have a significant role in the pathogenesis of the neurological manifestations of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

  10. α-synuclein and synapsin III cooperatively regulate synaptic function in dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Zaltieri, Michela; Grigoletto, Jessica; Longhena, Francesca; Navarria, Laura; Favero, Gaia; Castrezzati, Stefania; Colivicchi, Maria Alessandra; Della Corte, Laura; Rezzani, Rita; Pizzi, Marina; Benfenati, Fabio; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Missale, Cristina; Spano, PierFranco; Bellucci, Arianna

    2015-07-01

    The main neuropathological features of Parkinson's disease are dopaminergic nigrostriatal neuron degeneration, and intraneuronal and intraneuritic proteinaceous inclusions named Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, respectively, which mainly contain α-synuclein (α-syn, also known as SNCA). The neuronal phosphoprotein synapsin III (also known as SYN3), is a pivotal regulator of dopamine neuron synaptic function. Here, we show that α-syn interacts with and modulates synapsin III. The absence of α-syn causes a selective increase and redistribution of synapsin III, and changes the organization of synaptic vesicle pools in dopamine neurons. In α-syn-null mice, the alterations of synapsin III induce an increased locomotor response to the stimulation of synapsin-dependent dopamine overflow, despite this, these mice show decreased basal and depolarization-dependent striatal dopamine release. Of note, synapsin III seems to be involved in α-syn aggregation, which also coaxes its increase and redistribution. Furthermore, synapsin III accumulates in the caudate and putamen of individuals with Parkinson's disease. These findings support a reciprocal modulatory interaction of α-syn and synapsin III in the regulation of dopamine neuron synaptic function. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Interaction between effects of genes coding for dopamine and glutamate transmission on striatal and parahippocampal function.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Andreina; Prata, Diana P; Mechelli, Andrea; Picchioni, Marco; Fu, Cynthia H Y; Chaddock, Christopher A; Kane, Fergus; Kalidindi, Sridevi; McDonald, Colm; Kravariti, Eugenia; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Bramon, Elvira; Walshe, Muriel; Ehlert, Natascha; Georgiades, Anna; Murray, Robin; Collier, David A; McGuire, Philip

    2013-09-01

    The genes for the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the D-Amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA or G72) have been independently implicated in the risk for schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder and/or their related intermediate phenotypes. DAT and G72 respectively modulate central dopamine and glutamate transmission, the two systems most robustly implicated in these disorders. Contemporary studies have demonstrated that elevated dopamine function is associated with glutamatergic dysfunction in psychotic disorders. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we examined whether there was an interaction between the effects of genes that influence dopamine and glutamate transmission (DAT and G72) on regional brain activation during verbal fluency, which is known to be abnormal in psychosis, in 80 healthy volunteers. Significant interactions between the effects of G72 and DAT polymorphisms on activation were evident in the striatum, parahippocampal gyrus, and supramarginal/angular gyri bilaterally, the right insula, in the right pre-/postcentral and the left posterior cingulate/retrosplenial gyri (P < 0.05, FDR-corrected across the whole brain). This provides evidence that interactions between the dopamine and the glutamate system, thought to be altered in psychosis, have an impact in executive processing which can be modulated by common genetic variation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  12. Sources and physiological significance of plasma dopamine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D S; Swoboda, K J; Miles, J M; Coppack, S W; Aneman, A; Holmes, C; Lamensdorf, I; Eisenhofer, G

    1999-07-01

    Dopamine in the circulation occurs mainly as dopamine sulfate, the sources and physiological significance of which have been obscure. In this study, plasma concentrations of dopamine sulfate were measured after a meal, after fasting for 4 days, and during i.v. L-DOPA, nitroprusside, or trimethaphan infusion in volunteers; after dopamine infusion in patients with L-aromatic-amino-acid decarboxylase deficiency; in arterial and portal venous plasma of gastrointestinal surgery patients; and in patients with sympathetic neurocirculatory failure. Meal ingestion increased plasma dopamine sulfate by more than 50-fold; however, prolonged fasting decreased plasma dopamine sulfate only slightly. L-DOPA infusion produced much larger increments in dopamine sulfate than in dopamine; the other drugs were without effect. Patients with L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency had decreased dopamine sulfate levels, and patients with sympathetic neurocirculatory failure had normal levels. Decarboxylase-deficient patients undergoing dopamine infusion had a dopamine sulfate/dopamine ratio about 25 times less than that at baseline in volunteers. Surgery patients had large arterial-portal venous increments in plasma concentrations of dopamine sulfate, so that mesenteric dopamine sulfate production accounted for most of urinary dopamine sulfate excretion, a finding consistent with the localization of the dopamine sulfoconjugating enzyme to gastrointestinal tissues. The results indicate that plasma dopamine sulfate derives mainly from sulfoconjugation of dopamine synthesized from L-DOPA in the gastrointestinal tract. Both dietary and endogenous determinants affect plasma dopamine sulfate. The findings suggest an enzymatic gut-blood barrier for detoxifying exogenous dopamine and delimiting autocrine/paracrine effects of endogenous dopamine generated in a "third catecholamine system."

  13. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  14. Dopamine transporter: expression in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Uhl, G R; O'Hara, B; Shimada, S; Zaczek, R; DiGiorgianni, J; Nishimori, T

    1991-01-01

    Xenopus oocytes can express biologically relevant transport activity after injection of mRNAs encoding several carrier molecules. mRNA from PC12 cells, as well as transcripts from a rat ventral midbrain library, can be expressed in these oocytes and allow them to display pharmacologically specific dopamine uptake. mRNA-injected oocytes incubated with tritiated dopamine contain tritiated dopamine and metabolites; lower amounts of radiolabeled dopamine and more radiolabeled metabolites are found in oocytes co-incubated with cocaine or in water-injected oocytes. Tritiated dopamine uptake into mRNA-injected oocytes is time, sodium, and temperature dependent. It is blocked by cocaine and mazindol, but not by haloperidol. It is not found after injection of mRNA from other brain regions. A size-selected rat midbrain library constructed in the plasma vector pCDM8 yields mRNA transcripts whose injection into oocytes causes cocaine-blockable [3H]dopamine uptake. These findings provide an assay for purification of the dopamine transporter cDNA by sib selection techniques.

  15. Dopamine-Secreting Paraganglioma in the Retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yusuke; Kimura, Noriko; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Sekiguchi, Yoshihiro; Tomoishi, Junzo; Kasahara, Ichiro; Hara, Yoshihito; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, which exclusively produce dopamine, are very rare. Herein, we report for the first time a Japanese case of an exclusively dopamine-producing paraganglioma accompanied by detailed immunohistochemical analyses. A 70-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for functional examination of her left retroperitoneal mass. Her adrenal functions were normal, except for excessive dopamine secretion. After the tumorectomy, her dopamine level normalized. The histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was paraganglioma; this was confirmed by positive immunostaining of chromogranin A (CgA), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and succinate dehydrogenase gene subunit B (SDHB). However, the immunostaining of CgA in the tumor cells showed peculiar dot-like staining located corresponding to Golgi complex in the perinuclear area, rather than the diffuse cytoplasmic staining usually observed in epinephrine- or norepinephrine-producing functional pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. The immunohistochemical results suggested that the tumor cells had sparse neuroendocrine granules in the cytoplasm, resulting in inhibition of catecholamine synthesis from dopamine to norepinephrine in neurosecretory granules. This may be the mechanism responsible for exclusive dopamine secretion in the present case.

  16. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  17. Stereoselectivity of presynaptic autoreceptors modulating dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Arbilla, S; Langer, S Z

    1981-12-17

    The effects of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol were studied on the spontaneous and field stimulation-evoked release of total radioactivity from slices of rabbit caudate nucleus prelabelled with [3H]dopamine. (S)-Sulpiride in concentrations ranging from 0.01--1 microM enhanced the electrically evoked release of [3H]dopamine while (R)-sulpiride was 10 times less potent than (S)-sulpiride. Exposure to (S)-butaclamol (0.01--1 microM) but not to (R)-butaclamol (0.1--10 microM) enhanced the field-stimulated release of [3H]dopamine. The facilitatory effects of (S)- and (R)-sulpiride and (S)-butaclamol on the stimulated release of the labelled neurotransmitter were observed under conditions in which these drugs did not modify the spontaneous outflow of radioactivity. Only the active enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol antagonized the inhibition by apomorphine (1 microM) of the stimulated release of [3H]dopamine. Our results indicate that the presynaptic inhibitory dopamine autoreceptors modulating the stimulation-evoked release of [3H]dopamine in the caudate nucleus are, like the classical postsynaptic dopamine receptors, chemically stereoselective.

  18. Methamphetamine-induced dopamine terminal deficits in the nucleus accumbens are exacerbated by reward-associated cues and attenuated by CB1 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Loewinger, Gabriel C; Beckert, Michael V; Tejeda, Hugo A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2012-06-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) exposure is primarily associated with deleterious effects to dopaminergic neurons. While several studies have implicated the endocannabinoid system in METH's locomotor, rewarding and neurochemical effects, a role for this signaling system in METH's effects on dopamine terminal dynamics has not been elucidated. Given that CB1 receptor blockade reduces the acute potentiation of phasic extracellular dopamine release from other psychomotor stimulant drugs and that the degree of acute METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels is related to the severity of dopamine depletion, we predicted that pretreatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant would reduce METH-induced alterations at dopamine terminals. Furthermore, we hypothesized that administration of METH in environments where reward associated-cues were present would potentiate METH's acute effects on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and exacerbate changes in dopamine terminal activity. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to measure electrically-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and revealed markers of compromised dopamine terminal integrity nine days after a single dose of METH. These were exacerbated in animals that received METH in the presence of reward-associated cues, and attenuated in rimonabant-pretreated animals. While these deficits in dopamine dynamics were associated with reduced operant responding on days following METH administration in animals treated with only METH, rimonabant-pretreated animals exhibited levels of operant responding comparable to control. Moreover, dopamine release correlated significantly with changes in lever pressing behavior that occurred on days following METH administration. Together these data suggest that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the subsecond dopaminergic response to METH.

  19. METHAMPHETAMINE-INDUCED DOPAMINE TERMINAL DEFICITS IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS ARE EXACERBATED BY REWARD-ASSOCIATED CUES AND ATTENUATED BY CB1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM

    PubMed Central

    Loewinger, Gabriel C.; Beckert, Michael V.; Tejeda, Hugo A.; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) exposure is primarily associated with deleterious effects to dopaminergic neurons. While several studies have implicated the endocannabinoid system in METH’s locomotor, rewarding and neurochemical effects, a role for this signaling system in METH’s effects on dopamine terminal dynamics has not been elucidated. Given that CB1 receptor blockade reduces the acute potentiation of phasic extracellular dopamine release from other psychomotor stimulant drugs and that the degree of acute METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels is related to the severity of dopamine depletion, we predicted that pretreatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant would reduce METH-induced alterations at dopamine terminals. Furthermore, we hypothesized that administration of METH in environments where reward associated-cues were present would potentiate METH’s acute effects on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and exacerbate changes in dopamine terminal activity. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to measure electrically-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and revealed markers of compromised dopamine terminal integrity nine days after a single dose of METH. These were exacerbated in animals that received METH in the presence of reward-associated cues, and attenuated in rimonabant-pretreated animals. While these deficits in dopamine dynamics were associated with reduced operant responding on days following METH administration in animals treated with only METH, rimonabant-pretreated animals exhibited levels of operant responding comparable to control. Moreover, dopamine release correlated significantly with changes in lever pressing behavior that occurred on days following METH administration. Together these data suggest that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the subsecond dopaminergic response to METH. PMID:22306525

  20. Human dopamine receptor and its uses

    DOEpatents

    Civelli, Olivier; Van Tol, Hubert Henri-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward the isolation, characterization and pharmacological use of the human D4 dopamine receptor. The nucleotide sequence of the gene corresponding to this receptor and alleleic variant thereof are provided by the invention. The invention also includes recombinant eukaryotic expression constructs capable of expressing the human D4 dopamine receptor in cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells. The invention provides cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells which synthesize the human D4 dopamine receptor, and methods for characterizing novel psychotropic compounds using such cultures.

  1. Neuroimaging of the Dopamine/Reward System in Adolescent Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by heightened risk-taking, including substance misuse. These behavioral patterns are influenced by ontogenic changes in neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopamine system, which is fundamentally involved in the neural coding of reward and motivated approach behavior. During adolescence, this system evidences a peak in activity. At the same time, the dopamine system is neuroplastically altered by substance abuse, impacting subsequent function. Here, we describe properties of the dopamine system that change with typical adolescent development and that are altered with substance abuse. Much of this work has been gleaned from animal models due to limitations in measuring dopamine in pediatric samples. Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to examine structures that are heavily DA-innervated; they measure morphological and functional changes with age and with drug exposure. Presenting marijuana abuse as an exemplar, we consider recent findings that support an adolescent peak in DA-driven reward-seeking behavior and related deviations in motivational systems that are associated with marijuana abuse/dependence. Clinicians are advised that (1) chronic adolescent marijuana use may lead to deficiencies in incentive motivation, (2) that this state is due to marijuana’s interactions with the developing DA system, and (3) that treatment strategies should be directed to remediating resultant deficiencies in goal-directed activity. PMID:26095977

  2. Age-related gene expression changes in substantia nigra dopamine neurons of the rat.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Gemma M; Dayas, Christopher V; Smith, Doug W

    2015-07-01

    Ageing affects most, if not all, functional systems in the body. For example, the somatic motor nervous system, responsible for initiating and regulating motor output to skeletal musculature, is vulnerable to ageing. The nigrostriatal dopamine pathway is one component of this system, with deficits in dopamine signalling contributing to major motor dysfunction, as exemplified in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, while the dopamine deficit in PD is due to degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine (DA) neurons, it is unclear whether there is sufficient loss of SN DA neurons with ageing to explain observed motor impairments. Instead, evidence suggests that age-related loss of DA neuron function may be more important than frank cell loss. To further elucidate the mechanisms of functional decline, we have investigated age-related changes in gene expression specifically in laser microdissected SN DA neurons. There were significant age-related changes in the expression of genes associated with neurotrophic factor signalling and the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Furthermore, reduced expression of the DA neuron-associated transcription factor, Nurr1, may contribute to these changes. Together, these results suggest that altered neurotrophic signalling and tyrosine hydroxylase activity may contribute to altered DA neuron signalling and motor nervous system regulation in ageing.

  3. Phasic dopamine release in appetitive behaviors and drug abuse

    PubMed Central

    Wanat, Matthew J.; Willuhn, Ingo; Clark, Jeremy J.; Phillips, Paul E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Short phasic bursts of neuronal activity in dopamine neurons produce rapid and transient increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations throughout the mesocorticolimbic system, which are associated with the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. It is well established that acute exposure to many addictive drugs produce increases in tonic dopamine levels that occur on the order of minutes. However, recent studies suggest that abused drugs similarly enhance phasic dopamine release events that occur on a subsecond time scale. Furthermore, drug experience modulates the synaptic and intrinsic properties of dopamine neurons, which could affect dopamine burst firing and phasic dopamine release. This review will provide a general introduction to the mesolimbic dopamine system, as well as the primary methods used to detect dopamine neurons and dopamine release. We present the role of phasic dopamine release in appetitive behaviors in the context of contemporary theories regarding the function of dopamine. Next we discuss the known drug-induced changes to dopamine neurons and phasic release in both in vitro and in vivo preparations. Finally, we offer a simple model that chronic drug experience attenuates tonic/basal dopamine levels but promotes phasic dopamine release, which may result in aberrant goal-directed behaviors contributing to the development of addiction. PMID:19630749

  4. The dopamine-related polymorphisms BDNF, COMT, DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 are not linked with changes in CSF dopamine levels and frequency of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Horn, Anne; Scheller, C; du Plessis, S; Burger, R; Arendt, G; Joska, J; Sopper, S; Maschke, C M; Obermann, M; Husstedt, I W; Hain, J; Riederer, P; Koutsilieri, E

    2017-04-01

    We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection). We correlated the polymorphisms with CSF DA levels, HIV dementia score, CD4(+) T cell counts, and HIV viral load. None of the investigated DA-related polymorphisms was associated with altered CSF DA levels, CD4(+) T cell count, viral load, and HIV dementia score. The respective allele frequencies were equally distributed between HIV-infected patients and controls. Our findings do not show any influence of the studied genetic polymorphisms on CSF DA levels and HIV infection. This is in contrast to what we found previously for the DAT 3'UTR VNTR and highlights the specific role of the DAT VNTR in HIV infection and disease.

  5. Delusions, superstitious conditioning and chaotic dopamine neurodynamics.

    PubMed

    Shaner, A

    1999-02-01

    Excessive mesolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission is closely related to the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. A mathematical model of dopamine neuron firing rates, developed by King and others, suggests a mechanism by which excessive dopaminergic transmission could produce psychotic symptoms, especially delusions. In this model, firing rates varied chaotically when the efficacy of dopaminergic transmission was enhanced. Such non-contingent changes in firing rates in mesolimbic reward pathways could produce delusions by distorting thinking in the same way that non-contingent reinforcement produces superstitious conditioning. Though difficult to test in humans, the hypothesis is testable as an explanation for a common animal model of psychosis--amphetamine stereotypy in rats. The hypothesis predicts that: (1) amphetamine will cause chaotic firing rates in mesolimbic dopamine neurons; (2) non-contingent brain stimulation reward will produce stereotypy; (3) non-contingent microdialysis of dopamine into reward areas will produce stereotypy; and (4) dopamine antagonists will block all three effects.

  6. Purification of brain D2 dopamine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, R A; Worrall, S; Chazot, P L; Strange, P G

    1988-01-01

    D2 dopamine receptors have been extracted from bovine brain using the detergent cholate and purified approximately 20,000-fold by affinity chromatography on haloperidol-sepharose and wheat germ agglutinin-agarose columns. The purified preparation contains D2 dopamine receptors as judged by the pharmacological specificity of [3H]spiperone binding to the purified material. The sp. act. of [3H]spiperone binding in the purified preparation is 2.5 nmol/mg protein. The purified preparation shows a major diffuse band at Mr 95,000 upon SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and there is evidence for microheterogeneity either at the protein or glycosylation level. Photoaffinity labelling of D2 dopamine receptors also shows a species of Mr 95,000. The D2 dopamine receptor therefore is a glycoprotein of Mr 95,000. Images PMID:3243275

  7. Detection of Dopamine Dynamics in the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, R. Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explores neurochemical events in the extra cellular space of the brain by use of in vivo voltammetric microelectrodes. Reports dopamine concentrations and pathways, and discusses techniques used for analysis. Recognizes current problems and future directions for research. (ML)

  8. Repeated isolation stress in the neonatal rat: relation to brain dopamine systems in the 10-day-old rat.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, P; Shoemaker, W J; Arons, C; Triano, L; Suresh, G

    1998-12-01

    Isolation of the rat pup from the nest and dam for one hour per day from PN 2-9 is a useful paradigm for producing stress in the neonate. These previously isolated rats respond to an amphetamine challenge with alterations in activity at the juvenile stage or as adults. Furthermore, when dopamine release is measured in the nucleus accumbens, juveniles release 3 times more dopamine after amphetamine than do controls. This study describes changes in behavior and brain dopamine systems at PN 10. Experiment 1 determined an appropriate amphetamine dose that could be used for behavioral activation at PN 10. Experiment 2 produced significant evidence of enhanced behavioral activation after the isolation paradigm and indicated that brain regions innervated by the mesolimbic dopamine system, septum, and hypothalamus display increased dopamine turnover and that the nigrostriatal pathway is less active. Likewise, in Experiment 3, in vivo microdialysis of the nucleus accumbens indicated that previously isolated pups respond to an amphetamine challenge with a several-fold increase in dopamine release over a 4-hour session.

  9. Longitudinal imaging of the availability of dopamine transporter and D2 receptor in rat striatum following mild ischemia.

    PubMed

    Momosaki, Sotaro; Ito, Miwa; Yamato, Hiroko; Iimori, Hitoshi; Sumiyoshi, Hirokazu; Morimoto, Kenji; Imamoto, Natsumi; Watabe, Tadashi; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun; Abe, Kohji

    2017-02-01

    The changes in the availability of striatal dopamine transporter and dopamine D2 receptor after mild focal ischemia in rats were measured using a small animal positron emission tomography system. Mild focal ischemia was induced by 20-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion. [(11)C]PE2I binding to dopamine transporter was transiently increased on the ipsilateral side of the striatum at 2 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. On day 7 and 14 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, [(11)C]PE2I binding levels were decreased. In contrast, [(11)C]raclopride binding to dopamine D2 receptor in the ipsilateral striatum had not changed at 2 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. [(11)C]Raclopride binding was significantly decreased on the ischemic side of the striatum at 7 and 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Moreover, on day 1 and 2 after middle cerebral artery occlusion, significant circling behavior to the contralateral direction was induced by amphetamine challenge. This behavior disappeared at 7 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. At 14 days, circling behavior to the ipsilateral direction (middle cerebral artery occlusion side) was significantly increased, and that to the contralateral direction also appeared again. The present study suggested that amphetamine-induced circling behavior indicated striatal dopaminergic alterations and that dopamine transporter and dopamine D2 receptor binding could be key markers for predicting motor dysfunction after mild focal ischemia.

  10. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Amplifies the Incentive Value of Reward-Predictive Cues Through Potentiation of Phasic Dopamine Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Spoelder, Marcia; Tsutsui, Kimberly T; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Clark, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use remains a major public health concern due in part to well-established findings implicating the age of onset in alcohol use in the development of alcohol use disorders and persistent decision-making deficits in adults. We have previously demonstrated that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption in rats promotes suboptimal decision making and an associated perturbation in mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adulthood. Dopamine-dependent incentive learning processes are an integral component of value-based decision making and a fundamental element to many theoretical accounts of addiction. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adolescent alcohol use selectively alters incentive learning processes through perturbation of mesolimbic dopamine systems. To assess