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Sample records for hypotension clinical presentation

  1. Clinical implications of delayed orthostatic hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To define the long-term outcome of delayed orthostatic hypotension (OH). Hypothesis: Delayed OH is an early and milder form of OH that progresses over time. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 230 previously reported patients who completed autonomic testing at our center from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003. All available information on clinical diagnosis, mortality, medication use, and autonomic testing were extracted and included in the reported outcomes. Standard criteria were used to define OH and delayed OH. Results: Forty-eight individuals with delayed OH, 42 individuals with OH, and 75 controls had complete follow-up data. Fifty-four percent of individuals with delayed OH progressed to OH. Thirty-one percent of individuals with delayed OH developed an α-synucleinopathy. The 10-year mortality rate in individuals with delayed OH was 29%, in individuals with baseline OH was 64%, and in controls was 9%. The 10-year mortality of individuals who progressed to OH was 50%. Progression to OH was associated with developing an α-synucleinopathy, baseline diabetes, and abnormal baseline autonomic test results. Conclusion: Delayed OH frequently progresses to OH with a high associated mortality. PMID:26400576

  2. A rare presentation of an ancient disease: scurvy presenting as orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Zipursky, Jonathan Samuel; Alhashemi, Ahmad; Juurlink, David

    2014-05-23

    A 49-year-old man presented to hospital with severe orthostatic hypotension, gingival dysplasia and a purpuric rash involving his extremities. The orthostatic hypotension failed to respond to fluids and, on the basis of physical examination and dietary history, the patient was given a preliminary diagnosis of scurvy (ascorbic acid deficiency). Serum ascorbic acid levels were undetectable and the orthostasis was resolved within 24 h of ascorbic acid replacement. The pathogenesis of orthostatic hypotension in the setting of scurvy appears to involve impaired catecholamine synthesis and attenuated vasomotor response to α-adrenergic stimulation. We believe that this case describes a rare presentation of scurvy and highlights a previously under-reported connection between scurvy and vasomotor instability.

  3. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Presenting as a "Pseudo-Chiari 1

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Ali S; Sulhan, Suraj; Watson, Ian T; Leonard, Dean; Arrey, Eliel N; Nguyen, Phu; Layton, Kennith F

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is classified as a decrease in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure secondary to a CSF leakage and consequent descent of the brain into the foramen magnum. Diagnosing SIH can be difficult due to its overlapping findings with Arnold-Chiari type 1 Malformation (CM1) where the cerebellar tonsils herniate into the foramen magnum. The similarity of both conditions calls for a more reliable imaging technique to localize the CSF leak which could narrow the differential diagnosis and aid in choosing the correct treatment. Here, we present a case of a 28-year-old female, ten weeks post-partum with symptoms similar to SIH. MRI of the brain was remarkable for tonsillar herniation below the foramen magnum. Literature was reviewed for additional neuroradiology techniques that would aid in narrowing our differential diagnosis. Interestingly, computed tomography-, digital subtraction-, and magnetic resonance myelography with intrathecal gadolinium are the preferred techniques for diagnosis of high flow and low flow CSF leaks, respectively. These modalities further aid in choosing the correct treatment while avoiding complications. Literature suggests that treatment for CM1 involves posterior fossa decompression, whereas the mainstay of treatment for SIH involves an epidural blood patch (EBP). Thus, our patient was treated with an EBP and recovered without complication. PMID:28357166

  4. Recent advances in orthostatic hypotension presenting orthostatic dizziness or vertigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH), a proxy for sympathetic adrenergic failure, is the most incapacitating sign of autonomic failure. Orthostatic dizziness (OD) is known to be the most common symptom of OH. However, recent studies have demonstrated that 30-39 % of patients with OH experienced rotatory vertigo during upright posture (i.e., orthostatic vertigo, OV), which challenges the dogma that OH induces dizziness and not vertigo. A recent population-based study on spontaneously occurring OD across a wide age range showed that the one-year and lifetime prevalence of OD was 10.9 and 12.5 %, respectively. Approximately 83 % of patients with OD had at least one abnormal autonomic function test result. So far, 11 subtypes of OD have been proposed according to the pattern of autonomic dysfunction, and generalized autonomic failure of sympathetic adrenergic and parasympathetic cardiovagal functions was the most common type. Four different patterns of OH, such as classic, delayed, early, and transient type have been found in patients with OD. The head-up tilt test and Valsalva maneuver should be performed for a comprehensive evaluation of sympathetic adrenergic failure in patients with OD/OV. This review summarizes current advances in OH presenting OD/OV, with a particular focus on the autonomic dysfunction associated with OD.

  5. A retrospective study to correlate breech presentation and enhanced risk of postspinal hypotension during cesarean delivery

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Pandey, Shivali; Kumar, Roopesh; Sethi, Chavi; Sharma, Sanjya

    2015-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid blockade for cesarean section still poses a threat of profound hypotension and can result in unstable maternal and fetal hemodynamics. The correlation of fetal breech and vertex presentation with the occurrence of hypotension under spinal anesthesia is reviewed in this retrospective, double-blind study. Patients and methods The study was conducted on pregnant females scheduled for a lower segment cesarean section between January 2014 and December 2014. After applying inclusion criteria, 568 patients were recruited in the study out of which 363 had vertex and 184 patients had breech presentation. They were divided into two groups, Group I and Group II. The monitoring and therapeutic data (blood pressure, heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, and dose of vasopressor/atropine) recovered from automated data analysis were analyzed retrospectively for prevalence of hypotension, bradycardia, and hypotension with bradycardia and nausea ± vomiting. Results Among Group I, prevalence of hypotension, bradycardia, and hypotension together with bradycardia was 152 (41.83%) patients, eight (2.20%) patients, and seven (1.92%) patients, respectively. In Group II, the prevalence of hypotension, bradycardia, and hypotension with bradycardia was 93 (50.5%) patients, five (2.71%) patients, and six (3.2%) patients, respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant for hypotension. For Group I, 152 patients (41.87%) experienced one, 23 patients (6.33%) experienced two, and three patients (0.82%) experienced three episodes of hypotension. In Group II, 93 (50.5%), 19 (7.89%), and two (1.08%) patients experienced such episodes. The difference was significant with respect of one and two episodes. The prevalence of intraoperative nausea was 11.01% (40 patients) in Group I, whereas 11.41% (21 patients) in Group II. Intraoperative vomiting occurred in 19 patients (5.23%) of Group I and 14 patients (7.60%) of Group II. The height of the

  6. Effect of Focused Bedside Ultrasonography in Hypotensive Patients on the Clinical Decision of Emergency Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Gungor, Faruk; Guven, Ramazan; Akyol, K. Can; Kozaci, Nalan; Kesapli, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the effect of focused point of care ultrasound (POCUS) used for critical nontraumatic hypotensive patients presenting to the emergency department of our hospital on the clinical decisions of the physicians and whether it led to the modification of the treatment modality. This prospective clinical study was conducted at the Emergency Department of Antalya Training and Research Hospital. Nontraumatic patients aged 18 and older who presented to our emergency department and whose systolic blood pressure was <100 mmHg or shock index (heart rate/systolic blood pressure) was >1 were included in the study. While the most probable preliminary diagnosis established by the physician before POCUS was consistent with the definitive diagnosis in 60.6% (n = 109) of 180 patients included in the study, it was consistent with the definitive diagnosis in 85.0% (n = 153) of the patients after POCUS (p < 0.001). POCUS performed for critical hypotensive patients presenting to the emergency department is an appropriate diagnostic tool that can be used to enable the physicians to make the accurate preliminary diagnosis and start the appropriate treatment in a short time. PMID:28357139

  7. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: clinical and neuroimaging findings in six cases with literature review.

    PubMed

    Haritanti, A; Karacostas, D; Drevelengas, A; Kanellopoulos, V; Paraskevopoulou, E; Lefkopoulos, A; Economou, I; Dimitriadis, A S

    2009-02-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches.

  8. Orthostatic Hypotension (Postural Hypotension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... while you're standing and will compare the measurements. Your doctor will diagnose orthostatic hypotension if you ... breathing: You breathe in deeply and push the air out through your lips, as if you were ...

  9. Orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ninet, J.

    1981-01-01

    Basic orientation of the article, by the leader of a group of medical researchers associated with hospitals in Lyon, France, is toward definition and classification. A table divides OH (orthostatic hypotension) according to physiopathological classification into sympathicotonic and asympathicotonic types and then each of these into primary and secondary with subdivisions. The figure sketches organization and functioning of the baroreflex arc. Applications to clinical study of circulatory reflexes, listing measurement tests and the biological study of hormonal regulation listing the appropriate kinds of studies. Data are not given.

  10. Orthostatic Hypotension

    MedlinePlus

    ... lightheadedness, blurred vision, and syncope (temporary loss of consciousness). × Definition Orthostatic hypotension is a sudden fall in ... lightheadedness, blurred vision, and syncope (temporary loss of consciousness). View Full Definition Treatment When orthostatic hypotension is ...

  11. Living with Hypotension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Anemia Arrhythmia Cardiogenic Shock Heart Attack Heart Valve Disease Send a link ... about your blood pressure. Severe hypotension linked to shock is an emergency. Shock can lead to death ...

  12. Acne: clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Shalita, Alan R

    2004-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, the most common disease of the skin, can be manifested in a wide variety of clinical presentations. As a result of this clinical variation, there are almost as many classifications of acne as there are clinicians with particular interest in the disease. Thus acne has been classified as types I-IV, inflammatory versus noninflammatory, comedonal, comedopapular, papular, papulopustular, pustular, and "cystic" or nodular (even nodular-cystic). For those who are enamored of classification, there are subdivisions of the various categories, including "sandpaper comedones" and microcysts. There is even disagreement as to what constitutes a papule versus a nodule. The classic textbook definition of a nodule refers to lesions 1 cm or larger, but the early investigators of oral isotretinoin defined nodules as 4 mm or larger, and this definition has creeped into many texts, recently clarified by Bologna.(1)

  13. A Comparison of the Effects of Esmolol and Dexmedetomidine on the Clinical Course and Cost for Controlled Hypotensive Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Erbesler, Zeynel Abidin; Bakan, Nurten; Karaören, Gülşah Yılmaz; Erkmen, Muhammet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of esmolol (β-blocker) and dexmedetomidine (α-2-agonist) on patients’ clinical course and cost of application of controlled hypotension during middle-ear surgery. Methods Fifty ASA I–II patients scheduled for tympanomastoidectomy were enrolled in the study and were randomized into two groups. Bispectral Index (BIS) and neuromuscular monitoring (TOF GUARD-SX) were applied to all patients. In group E (n=25), 0.5 mg kg−1 min−1 esmolol was infused over 1 min before induction and titrated over a range of 10–200 μg kg−1 min−1; in group D (n=25), 0.5 μg kg−1 dexmedetomidine was infused over 10 minutes before induction, and then titrated over a range of 0.2–0.7 μg kg−1 hr−1 to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 55 and 65 mmHg and BIS 40–50 after induction. In both groups, 0.25 μg kg−1 min−1 remifentanil infusion was used for anaesthesia maintenance. Maintaining end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) at 35–40, using 1 MAC sevoflurane in 50% O2-air mixture, mechanical ventilation was started. The effects of both agents on hemodynamic conditions [(heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP)], neuromuscular blockage [onset of action (OA), duration of clinical action (DCA), recovery index (RI)], amount of bleeding, surgeon satisfaction, and total dexmedetomidine and esmolol doses used during the intervention were recorded and costs were compared between the groups. Results No significant difference was present in hemodynamic conditions, bleeding scores or surgeon satisfaction between groups. Although OA was similar in both groups, DCA and RI were significantly higher in group D. Cost was significantly higher with esmolol than dexmedetomidine. Conclusion We conclude that although both agents are feasible in inducing hypotensive anaesthesia, while neuromuscular block time prolonged by using dexmedetomidine, higher costs were observed with esmolol. PMID:27366361

  14. Orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Following a brief physiopathological review, orthostatic hypotension is classified into three groups: organic, functional and medication-dependent. The importance of etiological diagnosis, the use of objective tests and appropriate therapy, especially concerning the organic forms, is stressed.

  15. Different Clinical Presentations of Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Moulana, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is one of the important multi-organ zoonotic infectious diseases. The forms of the clinical course of brucellosis in humans are acute, sub-acute and chronic. Objectives The present study aimed to retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics and complications in the clinical forms of human brucellosis in Iran. Patients and Methods The population included 957 patients admitted in the infectious diseases clinic affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran, within the past two decades. Data for the patients were obtained and documented in questionnaires. Patients were divided into three groups according to their history, symptoms and clinical presentation time: acute (0 - 2 months), sub-acute (3 - 12 months), and chronic (> 1 year). Results Most of the patients (73.8%) were in the acute stages of brucellosis, 22.6% had sub-acute brucellosis and 3.7% had chronic brucellosis. The most frequently observed symptoms were arthralgia (71%), sweating (66.7%), fever (57.2%) and backache (39.3%). The most common complication was arthritis (13.2%) in this study. Conclusions This infection was observed with a diversity of clinical manifestations. Therefore, diagnostic difficulty because of the various clinical presentations and the way to find undiagnosed complications should be investigated in the differential diagnosis of other diseases. PMID:27284398

  16. Primary neurogenic orthostatic hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R. C.; Cartlidge, N. E. F.; Millac, P.

    1970-01-01

    Eight further cases of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension are described together with a necropsy study on one case. Three cases showed evidence of autonomic dysfunction in isolation, while in five cases this was accompanied by evidence of more diffuse central nervous system degeneration. (Parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, dementia, pyramidal signs, bulbar weakness, and muscular wasting were all seen in varying proportions.) The various clinical presentations, investigations, pathology, treatment, and prognosis are discussed. In the experience of the authors, when assessed, an abnormal Valsalva response is invariable, confirming the breakdown of the circulatory reflex. A normal vasopressor response is likewise invariable, eliminating an abnormality of blood vessels themselves, and confirming the lesion as neurogenic. The demonstration of loss of sweating to indirect body heating, which also is usual suggests that the defect is central or on the efferent side of the reflex and a normal pilo-erector response to acetylcholine confirms this as preganglionic. Emphasis is laid on the non-specificity of many accepted physiological tests in this disorder and on the delay in diagnosis consequent upon the variable presentation. PMID:5431725

  17. Clinical presentation of cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cianfoni, Alessandro; Pravatà, Emanuele; De Blasi, Roberto; Tschuor, Costa Silvia; Bonaldi, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Presentation of a cerebral aneurysm can be incidental, discovered at imaging obtained for unrelated causes, can occur in the occasion of imaging obtained for symptoms possibly or likely related to the presence of an unruptured aneurysm, or can occur with signs and symptoms at the time of aneurismal rupture. Most unruptured intracranial aneurysms are thought to be asymptomatic, or present with vague or non-specific symptoms like headache or dizziness. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsies, however, may typically indicate the presence of a posterior circulation aneurysm. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are by far the most common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and represent a neurological emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may be easily suspected in the presence of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, meningism signs, and/or altered mental status. However, failure to recognize milder and more ambiguous clinical pictures may result in a delayed or missed diagnosis. In this paper we will describe the clinical spectrum of unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysms by discussing both typical and uncommon clinical features emerging from the literature review. We will additionally provide the reader with descriptions of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, and main diagnostic pitfalls.

  18. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

  19. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome: contribution of radioisotope cisternography.

    PubMed

    Suárez, J P; Domínguez, M L; Gómez, M A; Muñoz, J L

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a clinical syndrome caused by a loss of cerebrospinal fluid volume, usually secondary to leaking through structural defects of the spinal dura mater. Radioisotope cisternography (RC) can confirm the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension, especially in doubtful or atypical case presentations. A retrospective study was conducted on 8 patients who underwent RC because spontaneous intracranial hypotension was suspected, and they presented with atypical clinical manifestations and/or inconclusive findings in other imaging techniques. RC detected paradural extravasation of cerebrospinal fluid in 7 patients. Moreover, there was indirect evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leaks in all 8 patients (early appearance of radioactivity in the bladder, soft tissue uptake of radioisotope and/or reduction in the amount of radiotracer in the brain at 24hours). RC had a significant impact on the diagnosis of 6 patients, and on the therapeutic management of 4 patients.

  20. Preliminary clinical trial with a new hypotensive, guanabenz, in a group of hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, J H; Marchandise, P

    1980-01-01

    In a small preliminary clinical trial of guanabenz in 16 hypertensives also under treatment with diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride), blood pressure was safely and completely controlled in 10 (64%), the criterion for "control" being a reduction to the strict level specified by the Society of Actuaries (130/85 m lambda Hg). The dosage of guanabenz was adjusted upward from 16 mg/day until blood pressure normalized or side effects intervened. The 16 patients accumulated 97 months of guanabenz treatment. The 6 unsuccessful cases included only 2 outright therapeutic failures; the other 4 patients discontinued treatment for various reasons: dry mouth and nausea (with good blood pressure reduction); aggravation of existing depression; or generalized urticaria. The fourth patient discontinued for reasons unknown.

  1. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  2. Clinical presentation of hepatitis E.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis E is a form of acute hepatitis, which is caused by infection with hepatitis E virus. The infection is transmitted primarily through fecal-oral route and the disease is highly endemic in several developing countries with opportunities for contamination of drinking water. In these areas with high endemicity, it occurs as outbreaks and as sporadic cases of acute hepatitis. The illness often resembles that associated with other hepatotropic viruses and is usually self-limiting; in some cases, the disease progresses to acute liver failure. The infection is particularly severe in pregnant women. Patients with chronic liver disease and superimposed HEV infection can present with severe liver injury, the so-called acute-on-chronic liver failure. In recent years, occasional sporadic cases with locally acquired hepatitis E have been reported from several developed countries in Europe, United States, and Asia. In these areas, in addition to acute hepatitis similar to that seen in highly endemic areas, chronic hepatitis E has been reported among immunosuppressed persons, in particular solid organ transplant recipients. HEV-infected mothers can transmit the infection to foetus, leading to premature birth, increased fetal loss and hypoglycaemia, hypothermia, and anicteric or icteric acute hepatitis in the newborns. Occasional cases with atypical non-hepatic manifestations, such as acute pancreatitis, hematological abnormalities, autoimmune phenomena, and neurological syndromes have been reported from both hyperendemic and non-endemic regions. The pathogenesis of these manifestations remains unclear.

  3. [Hypotension from endocrine origin].

    PubMed

    Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Douillard, Claire; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie

    2012-11-01

    Hypotension is defined by a low blood pressure either permanently or only in upright posture (orthostatic hypotension). In contrast to hypertension, there is no threshold defining hypotension. The occurrence of symptoms for systolic and diastolic measurements respectively below 90 and 60 mm Hg establishes the diagnosis. Every acute hypotensive event should suggest shock, adrenal failure or an iatrogenic cause. Chronic hypotension from endocrine origin may be linked to adrenal failure from adrenal or central origin, isolated hypoaldosteronism, pseudohypoaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, neuro-endocrine tumors (carcinoïd syndrome) or diabetic dysautonomia. Hypotension related to hypoaldosteronism associates low blood sodium and above all high blood potassium levels. They are generally classified according to their primary (hyperreninism) or secondary (hyporeninism) adrenal origin. Isolated primary hypoaldosteronisms are rare in adults (intensive care unit, selective injury of the glomerulosa area) and in children (aldosterone synthase deficiency). Isolated secondary hypoaldosteronism is related to mellitus diabetes complicated with dysautonomia, kidney failure, age, iatrogenic factors, and HIV infections. In both cases, they can be associated to glucocorticoid insufficiency from primary adrenal origin (adrenal failure of various origins with hyperreninism, among which congenital 21 hydroxylase deficiency with salt loss) or from central origin (hypopituitarism with hypo-reninism). Pseudohypoaldosteronisms are linked to congenital (type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism) or acquired states of resistance to aldosterone. Acquired salt losses from enteric (total colectomy with ileostomy) or renal (interstitial nephropathy, Bartter and Gitelman syndromes…) origin might be responsible for hypotension and are associated with hyperreninism-hyperaldosteronism. Hypotension is a rare manifestation of pheochromocytomas, especially during surgical removal when the patient has not been

  4. What Causes Hypotension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Topics Anemia Arrhythmia Cardiogenic Shock Heart Attack Heart Valve Disease Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... hypotension, including: Heart conditions, such as heart attack , heart valve disease , bradycardia (a very low heart rate), and heart ...

  5. Types of Hypotension

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults more often than people in other age groups. Children often outgrow NMH. Severe Hypotension Linked to Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition in which blood pressure drops so low that the brain, kidneys, and ...

  6. [Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gila, Teresa; Rízea, Cristian

    2013-03-16

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mmHg, or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mmHg within three minutes of standing. It results from an inadequate response to postural changes in blood pressure. Common symptoms include dizziness, light-headedness, blurred vision, weakness, fatigue, nausea, palpitations, sweating, head and neck ache, slow cognitive performance and transient loss of conscientiousness. OH is a common problem among elderly patients and its aetiology is diverse, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction, cardiac problems, medication side effects, ageing changes or transitory deregulation of blood volume. The instrumental diagnosis can be easily accomplished by the tilt-table test, with continuous monitoring of blood pressure and cardiac parameters. It is a non-invasive technique and needs minimal collaboration from the patient. In our experience, when reviewing 327 patients, aged over 40 years and examined because of clinical suspicion of OH, the prevalence thereof was 51% whereas if focused in subjects older than 70, OH was proven in 90% of the cases. The older the patients, the more frequently they presented general deterioration, neurological or cardiac problems as well as pharmacological side effects. Ruling out neurological or cardiac malfunction can drastically improve the prognosis with possible reversibility of symptoms. Some nonpharmacological and pharmacological approaches to improve management of OH and life quality are described for guidance.

  7. Hypotension based on office and ambulatory monitoring blood pressure. Prevalence and clinical profile among a cohort of 70,997 treated hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Divisón-Garrote, Juan A; Banegas, José R; De la Cruz, Juan J; Escobar-Cervantes, Carlos; De la Sierra, Alejandro; Gorostidi, Manuel; Vinyoles, Ernest; Abellán-Aleman, José; Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis M

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of hypotension and factors associated with the presence of this condition in treated hypertensive patients undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Data were taken from the Spanish ABPM Registry. Office blood pressure (BP) and ABPM were determined using validated devices under standardized conditions. Based on previous studies, hypotension was defined as office systolic/diastolic BP <110 and/or 70 mm Hg, daytime ABPM <105 and/or 65 mm Hg, nighttime ABPM <90 and/or 50 mm Hg, and 24-hour ABPM <100 and/or 60 mm Hg. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the variables associated with the presence of hypotension. A total of 70,997 hypertensive patients on treatment (mean age 61.8 years, 52.5% men) were included in the study. The prevalence of hypotension was 8.2% with office BP, 12.2% with daytime ABPM, 3.9% with nighttime ABPM, and 6.8% with 24-hour ABPM. Low diastolic BP values were responsible for the majority of cases of hypotension. Some 68% of the hypotension cases detected by daytime ABPM did not correspond to hypotension according to office BP. The variables independently and consistently associated with higher likelihood of office, daytime, and 24 hour-based hypotension were age, female gender, history of ischemic heart disease, and body mass index <30 kg/m(2) (P < .05). In conclusion, in this large cohort of patients in usual daily practice, one in eight treated hypertensive patients are at risk of hypotension according to daytime BP. Two-thirds of them are not adequately identified with office BP. ABPM could be especially helpful for identifying ambulatory hypotension, in particular in patients who are older, women, or with previous ischemic heart disease where antihypertensive treatment should be especially individualized and cautious.

  8. The clinical presentation of lysosomal storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Wraith, James E

    2004-09-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are present from conception and produce a clinical phenotype that evolves with time. The introduction of new therapies has made early diagnosis a priority. Clues to the clinical diagnosis of a LSD can be found in the tempo of the illness especially if the central nervous system is involved. Loss of a previously acquired skill (regression) is very characteristic of this group of disorders. Other clinical clues can include a dysmorphic appearance or the presence of characteristic skeletal involvement (dysostosis multiplex), but in some disorders such as Pompe disease or Krabbe disease, these do not occur. The approach to diagnosis has to involve "screening" as there can be considerable overlap in clinical presentation (e.g. Gaucher disease and Niemann-Pick B). Both urine and blood testing are necessary and the majority of diagnoses can now be confirmed at a molecular level. Prenatal diagnosis is possible for all.

  9. [Unusual clinical presentations of vestibular schwannomas].

    PubMed

    Coca Pelaz, Andrés; Rodrigo, Juan P; Llorente, José L; Gómez, Justo R; Suárez, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study is evaluate the unusual ways of initial presentation of the vestibular schwannomas. We performed a retrospective study of the patients who underwent resection of acoustic neuromas on our service, including for analysis only the cases which initial symptom was not the hearing loss. Tumor size, localization, clinical presentation, and age of the patients were considered. Nine patients present with atypical symptoms. The most common complain in this group were facial paresthesias (22,2 %). None of them complained about other otological symptoms. A significant group of patients did not present with the otological symptoms classically associated with vestibular schwannoma. Clinical knowledge of these kinds of symptoms may lead to earlier detection of these lesions.

  10. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  11. Clinical diaphanography--its present perspective.

    PubMed

    Girolamo, R F; Gaythorpe, J V

    1984-01-01

    The application of nonionizing radiations and magnetism in clinical medical diagnosis has been rapidly increasing. The incorporation of these techniques into the armamentarium of the diagnostic roentgenologist warrants a change in nonmenclature to diagnostic imageologists. This review of the clinical applications of diaphanography covers the period of simple light source examination of the 1930s to the present sophisticated imaging with infrared film or videcon T.V. computerized format. Light physics of the infrared spectrum is well known, however experimental data of the mechanism of transillumination or normal and abnormal breasts are being investigated. A short discussion of breast anatomy and pathology including benign and malignant is basic to the clinical evaluation technique. A realistic appraisal of the application, the limitations of the technique and the current ongoing investigative studies in the European and American literatures are reviewed. Other noninvasive breast diagnostic techniques of thermography, ultrasound, and NMR are included as well as mammography in the diagnosis of breast disease and cancer.

  12. Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment Elevation May Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-21

    induced shock, 30 swine were anesthetized and monitored and then intoxicated with a continuous cyanide infusion until severe hypotension (50 % of...TOXICOLOGY INVESTIGATION Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment ElevationMay Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity Tylan A...Toxicology 2012 Abstract Cyanide causes severe cardiac toxicity resulting in tachycardia, hypotension, and cardiac arrest; however, the clinical diagnosis can

  13. [Clinical presentation and diagnosis of epileptic auras].

    PubMed

    Barletova, E I; Kremenchugskaia, M R; Mukhin, K Iu; Glukhova, L Iu; Mironov, M B

    2012-01-01

    To define clinical presentations of visual auras and to reveal their clinical, encephalographic and neuroimaging correlates, we examined 23 patients, aged from 5 to 25 years (mean 14±6 years), with focal forms of epilepsy. Patients had visual auras regardless of the etiology of epilepsy which developed immediately before epileptic seizures or were isolated. Patients had simple or complex visual hallucinations, the former occurring more frequently, visual illusions and ictal amaurosis. Positive visual phenomena were noted more frequently than negative ones. In most of the patients, visual hallucinations were associated with the pathological activity in cortical occipital regions of the brain and, in some cases, in temporal and parietal regions. The different pathologies (developmental defects, post-ischemic, atrophic and other disturbances) identified by MRI were found in a half of patients.

  14. Giant intracranial aneurysms: morphology and clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marcio L Tostes; Spotti, Antonio Ronaldo; dos Santos, Rosangela M Tostes; Borges, Moacir Alves; Ferrari, Antonio Fernandes; Colli, Benedicto Oscar; Tognola, Waldir Antônio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the morphology of giant intracranial aneurysms (GIA) with their clinical presentation. Eighty patients with GIA, 14 males and 66 females, were studied. Univariate and multivariate analyses were made to test the associations between morphological and clinical features. The main locations of the unruptured GIA included the carotid cavernous segment, and for the ruptured GIA, the most frequent were the carotid supraclinoid and middle cerebral arteries. There was a significant association among communicating arteries (CA) of "bad" quality and presence of thrombus and calcification (TC). The risk of rupture is 8 times higher in patients with CA of "bad" quality and 11 times higher in patients without TC. GIA are more frequent in the cavernous segment. There is a high rupture risk in the middle cerebral artery. CA of "bad" quality are associated with TC. The rupture risk is significantly higher in patients without TC.

  15. Hyperprolactinemia due to spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed

    Schievink, Wouter I; Nuño, Miriam; Rozen, Todd D; Maya, M Marcel; Mamelak, Adam N; Carmichael, John; Bonert, Vivien S

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an increasingly recognized cause of headaches. Pituitary enlargement and brain sagging are common findings on MRI in patients with this disorder. The authors therefore investigated pituitary function in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. METHODS Pituitary hormones were measured in a group of 42 consecutive patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. For patients with hyperprolactinemia, prolactin levels also were measured following treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed prior to and following treatment. RESULTS The study group consisted of 27 women and 15 men with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 52.2 ± 10.7 years (mean ± SD; range 17-72 years). Hyperprolactinemia was detected in 10 patients (24%), ranging from 16 ng/ml to 96.6 ng/ml in men (normal range 3-14.7 ng/ml) and from 31.3 ng/ml to 102.5 ng/ml in women (normal range 3.8-23.2 ng/ml). In a multivariate analysis, only brain sagging on MRI was associated with hyperprolactinemia. Brain sagging was present in 60% of patients with hyperprolactinemia and in 19% of patients with normal prolactin levels (p = 0.02). Following successful treatment of the spontaneous intracranial hypotension, hyperprolactinemia resolved, along with normalization of brain MRI findings in all 10 patients. CONCLUSIONS Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a previously undescribed cause of hyperprolactinemia. Brain sagging causing distortion of the pituitary stalk (stalk effect) may be responsible for the hyperprolactinemia.

  16. Clinical presentations and diagnosis of brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Metan, Gökhan; Alp, Emine

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Brucella species. The disease remains a significant economic and public health problem particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are variable and often nonspecific, simulating infectious and noninfectious diseases. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common focal complication of brucellosis and morbidity. Mortality rate due to brucellosis is low, mostly secondary to endocarditis and central nerve involvement of disease. The diagnosis of brucellosis depends on the clinical presentations and laboratory tests. Detection of Brucella species by culture method is sometimes unsuccessful; therefore, serological tests are preferred. These tests are easy to perform, and results can be obtained within a short span of time. Several serologic tests have been developed for the diagnosis of human brucellosis, including the standard agglutination tube (SAT) test, anti-human globulin (Coombs) test, indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAT is the primary test used in many clinical laboratories. IFA and ELISA are simple and reliable for the detection of immunoglobulin classes especially in complicated cases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is highly sensitive and specific for the determination of Brucella spp. from peripheral blood and other tissues. Recent patents are especially based on molecular assays in the diagnosis of brucellosis. However, PCR is still expensive and may not be appropriate for daily practice.

  17. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Associated with Kinetic Tremor and Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a clinically variable syndrome caused by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure due to a non-traumatic CSF leak. Phenomenology Shown This case describes a 68-year-old gentleman who presents with chronic and slightly progressive kinetic tremor of bilateral hands associated with gait ataxia and gait start hesitation. Educational Value This case underscores the importance of having a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of SIH when encountering a patient presenting with late-onset progressive kinetic tremor and gait ataxia syndrome. PMID:27351232

  18. Clinical presentation and management of uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Abelardo; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Delgado-Pelayo, Sarai

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. The majority of the patients are Caucasian (97.8%) and aged 50–80 years. Choroidal melanoma is the predominant type (86.3%). The clinical presentation may range from no symptoms over various types of visual disturbances to visual loss. Examination includes slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy and diagnostic testing, such as B-scan ultrasonography. A number of patients with posterior UM are treated with plaque radiation therapy or enucleation. At present, targeted therapy includes inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathway. UM disseminates hematogenously, with a high propensity for metastasis to the liver, which the most common site (93% of the cases). While UM is uncommon, a significant proportion of affected patients succumb to this disease and new treatment options to improve patient survival are required. PMID:28101347

  19. Droxidopa in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Horacio; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is a fall in blood pressure on standing due to reduced norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve terminals. nOH is a feature of several neurological disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system, most notably Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure and other autonomic neuropathies. Droxidopa, an orally active synthetic amino acid that is converted to norepinephrine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (dopa-decarboxylase), was recently approved by the FDA for the short-term treatment of nOH. It is presumed to raise blood pressure by acting at the neurovascular junction to increase vascular tone. This review summarizes the pharmacological properties of droxidopa, its mechanism of action, and the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials. PMID:26092297

  20. Present Status of Radiotherapy in Clinical Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duehmke, Eckhart

    Aims of radiation oncology are cure from malignant diseases and - at the same time preservation of anatomy (e.g. female breast, uterus, prostate) and organ functions (e.g. brain, eye, voice, sphincter ani). At present, methods and results of clinical radiotherapy (RT) are based on experiences with natural history and radiobiology of malignant tumors in properly defined situations as well as on technical developments since World War II in geometrical and biological treatment planning in teletherapy and brachytherapy. Radiobiological research revealed tolerance limits of healthy tissues to be respected, effective total treatment doses of high cure probability depending on histology and tumor volume, and - more recently - altered fractionation schemes to be adapted to specific growth fractions and intrinsic radiosensitivities of clonogenic tumor cells. In addition, Biological Response Modifiers (BRM), such as cis-platinum, oxygen and hyperthermia may steepen cell survival curves of hypoxic tumor cells, others - such as tetrachiordekaoxid (TCDO) - may enhance repair of normal tissues. Computer assisted techniques in geometrical RT-planning based on individual healthy and pathologic anatomy (CT, MRT) provide high precision RT for well defined brain lesions by using dedicated linear accelerators (Stereotaxy). CT-based individual tissue compensators help with homogenization of distorted dose distributions in magna field irradiation for malignant lymphomas and with total body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, e.g. for leukemia. RT with fast neutrons, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), RT with protons and heavy ions need to be tested in randomized trials before implementation into clinical routine.

  1. The Management of Orthostatic Hypotension in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ferro, Álvaro; Benito-León, Julián; Gómez-Esteban, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common and disabling symptom affecting Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. We present the effect of the different therapies commonly used to manage PD on this clinical manifestation. For this purpose, we describe the relationship between OH and the current treatments employed in PD, such as L-DOPA, dopaminergic agonists, and continuous dopaminergic stimulation therapies. Additionally, we review the therapeutic measures that could be used to ameliorate OH. There are different approaches to deal with this manifestation, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, although none of them is specifically aimed for treating OH in PD. PMID:23772219

  2. Sheehan's syndrome presenting as psychosis: a rare clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Shoib, Sheikh; Dar, Mohamand Maqbool; Arif, Tasleem; Bashir, Haamid; Bhat, Mohammad Hayat; Ahmed, Javid

    2013-02-01

    Sheehan's syndrome (SS) refers to the occurrence of varying degree of hypopituitarism after parturition (1). It is a rare cause of hypopituitarism in developed countries owing to advances in obstetric care and its frequency is decreasing worldwide. However, it is still frequent in underdeveloped and developing countries. Sheehan's syndrome is often diagnosed late as it evolves slowly (2,3). Reports of psychoses in patients with Sheehan's syndrome are rare. Herein, a case report of psychosis in a 31 year old woman who developed Sheehan's syndrome preceded by postpartum haemorrhage is presented. Treatment with thyroxine and glucocorticoids resulted in complete remission after attaining euthyroid and eucortisolemic state.

  3. Intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Walavan; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cutler, Aaron; Couldwell, William T

    2014-06-01

    Although most patients with intracranial hypotension typically present with headaches, the rest of the clinical spectrum is characteristically non-specific and often quite variable. In a patient with concurrent pathologies that can produce a similar clinical picture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to achieve the correct diagnosis. The authors report a patient with intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 63-year-old woman with a family history of ruptured intracranial aneurysms presented after a sudden thunderclap headache and was found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging revealed anterior communicating and superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms. Following the uneventful clipping of both aneurysms, the patient experienced a delayed return to her neurological baseline. After it was noted that the patient had an improved neurological examination when she was placed supine, further investigation confirmed intracranial hypotension from perineural cyst rupture. The patient improved and returned to her neurological baseline after undergoing a high-volume blood patch and remained neurologically intact at postoperative follow-up. Although intracranial hypotension is known to be commonly associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak, its causal and temporal relationship with subarachnoid hemorrhage has yet to be elucidated.

  4. Clinical presentation and management of congenital ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Marenco, Marco; Macchi, Ilaria; Macchi, Iacopo; Galassi, Emilio; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Lambiase, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Congenital ptosis is a rare condition characterized by lower positioning of the upper eyelid that is present at birth and is a clinical condition that is persistent if not treated. It may be unilateral or bilateral and may be associated with other ocular disorders or systemic conditions, including Marcus Gunn, Horner, and Duane syndromes. It is a benign condition but causes functional, cosmetic, and psychological problems in children. However, not all patients need to undergo surgery, and usually only patients at risk of amblyopia need a prompt surgical correction, while in other cases, surgery can be postponed. The grade of ptosis, the eyelid function, and the amblyopic risk are the parameters that affect the ophthalmologist’s decision on timing of surgery and the surgical technique to be used. In fact, there are several types of surgical techniques to correct a congenital ptosis, although very often more than one is needed to obtain an acceptable result. This paper reviews the causes of congenital ptosis and associated diseases. Particular emphasis is given to surgical management and different procedures available to correct the upper eyelid anomaly and avoid permanent damage to visual function. PMID:28280295

  5. Causes of chronic orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Robertson, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of various causes of orthostatic hypotension. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: One hundred patients with moderate to severe orthostatic hypotension. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the patients had primary autonomic failure, 35% had secondary autonomic failure, and 38% had hypotension without evidence of generalized autonomic degeneration. CONCLUSIONS: In a tertiary referral center, only a minority of patients with severe orthostatic hypotension will have Shy-Drager syndrome or Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome as their primary disease. Occasional patients who initially appear to have Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome ultimately prove to have Shy-Drager syndrome or paraneoplastic autonomic failure. Antidepressant drugs, even in low doses, remain a major overlooked cause of orthostatic hypotension.

  6. Treatment of Post-SCI Hypotension

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-13

    Spinal Cord Injury; Autonomic Dysreflexia; Orthostatic Hypotension; Baroreceptor Integrity; Sympathetic Integrity; Vagal Integrity; Hypotension; Cerebral Blood Flow; Blood Pressure; Venous Occlusion Plethysmography

  7. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (CPT), the definitive and timely source for advances in human therapeutics, transcends the drug discovery, development, regulation, and utilization continuum to catalyze, evolve, and disseminate discipline-transformative knowledge. Prioritized themes and multidisciplinary content drive the science and practice of clinical pharmacology, offering a trusted point of reference. An authoritative herald across global communities, CPT is a timeless information vehicle at the vanguard of discovery, translation, and application ushering therapeutic innovation into modern healthcare.

  8. A rare clinical presentation of sarcoidosis; gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Aygül; Köksal, Nurhan; Aydın, Davut; Aslan, Kerim; Gören, Fikret; Karagöz, Filiz

    2013-10-01

    Gingivitis due to sarcoidosis is a relatively rare condition. Gingivitis or isolated gingival involvement may be the first sign of systemic sarcoidosis. We report the case of a 37 year-old woman with isolated gingivitis due to sarcoidosis confirmed by biopsy. Following treatment with a systemic corticosteroid (prednisolone 40 mg/day), all clinical and radiologic findings were completely improved. In cases of chronic and intractable gingivitis, systemic sarcoidosis should be suspected. It should be confirmed with a biopsy, and the patient should be referred to a chest disease clinic to exclude other organ involvement.

  9. NG-methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: implications for the involvement of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourn, R G; Gross, S S; Jubran, A; Adams, J; Griffith, O W; Levi, R; Lodato, R F

    1990-01-01

    Clinical assessment of the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) against human cancer has been limited by a dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicity, most frequently hypotension. TNF is also thought to mediate the vascular collapse resulting from bacterial endotoxin. The present studies address the mechanism by which TNF causes hypotension and provide evidence for elevated production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator initially characterized as endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nitric oxide is synthesized by several cell types, including endothelial cells and macrophages, from the guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine; the enzymatic pathway is competitively inhibited by NG-methyl-L-arginine. We found that hypotension induced in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs by TNF (10 micrograms/kg, i.v., resulting in a fall in mean systemic arterial pressure from 124.7 +/- 7 to 62.0 +/- 22.9 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa) was completely reversed within 2 min following administration of NG-methyl-L-arginine (4.4 mg/kg, i.v.). In contrast, NG-methyl-L-arginine failed to reverse the hypotensive response to an equivalent depressor dose of nitroglycerin, a compound that acts by forming nitric oxide by a nonenzymatic, arginine-independent mechanism. The effect of NG-methyl-L-arginine on TNF-induced hypotension was antagonized, and the hypotension restored, by administration of excess L-arginine (100 mg/kg, i.v.). Our findings suggest that excessive nitric oxide production mediates the hypotensive effect of TNF. PMID:2333306

  10. Extragingival Pyogenic Granuloma: an Unusual Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Suresh K.

    2015-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is thought to represent an exuberant tissue reaction to local irritation. It occurs in second decade of life in young females. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic growth, pedunculated or sessile, which usually bleeds on provocation. Oral pyogenic granuloma preferentially affects the gingiva. On rare occasion, it can be found extragingivally on lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate which may mimic more serious pathological conditions such as malignancies. This article reports an unusual case of extra gingival pyogenic granuloma occurring on the right buccal mucosa in a female patient and discusses the features that distinguish this lesion from other similar oral mucosal lesions. PMID:26535410

  11. Clinical Presentation and Management of Hallux Rigidus.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Kamran S; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-09-01

    Hallux rigidus is the most commonly occurring arthritic condition of the foot and is marked by pain, limited motion in the sagittal plane of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and varying degrees of functional impairment. In conjunction with clinical findings, radiographic grading helps guide therapeutic choices. Nonsurgical management with anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroid injections, or shoewear and activity modifications can be successful in appropriately selected patients. Patients with more severe disease or refractory to conservative management may benefit from surgical intervention. Operative options range from joint-preserving procedures (eg, cheilectomy with or without associated osteotomies) to joint-altering procedures (eg, arthroplasty or arthrodesis).

  12. Hypotensive Resuscitation among Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Matthew M.; Leonard, Jan; Slone, Denetta S.; Mains, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a principal cause of death among trauma patients within the first 24 hours after injury. Optimal fluid resuscitation strategies have been examined for nearly a century, more recently with several randomized controlled trials. Hypotensive resuscitation, also called permissive hypotension, is a resuscitation strategy that uses limited fluids and blood products during the early stages of treatment for hemorrhagic shock. A lower-than-normal blood pressure is maintained until operative control of the bleeding can occur. The randomized controlled trials examining restricted fluid resuscitation have demonstrated that aggressive fluid resuscitation in the prehospital and hospital setting leads to more complications than hypotensive resuscitation, with disparate findings on the survival benefit. Since the populations studied in each randomized controlled trial are slightly different, as is the timing of intervention and targeted vitals, there is still a need for a large, multicenter trial that can examine the benefit of hypotensive resuscitation in both blunt and penetrating trauma patients. PMID:27595109

  13. [Orthostatic hypotension; that great unknown].

    PubMed

    Velilla-Zancada, S M; Prieto-Díaz, M A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Manzano-Espinosa, L

    2016-11-16

    Orthostatic hypotension is an anomaly of growing interest in scientific research. Although certain neurogenic diseases are associated with this phenomenon, it can also be associated with non-neurological causes. Although orthostatic hypotension is defined by consensus as a decrease in the systolic blood pressure of at least 20mmHg, or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of at least 10mmHg, within 3min of standing, the studies differ on how to diagnose it. Orthostatic hypotension is associated with certain cardiovascular risk factors and with drug treatment, but the results are contradictory. The purpose of this review is to update the knowledge about orthostatic hypotension and its treatment, as well as to propose a method to standardise its diagnosis.

  14. Clinical oncology in Malaysia: 1914 to present

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in the University of Malaya is highlighted. Efforts taken to improve the various aspects of cancer control which includes prevention of cancer, early detection, treatment and palliative care are covered. It is vital to ensure that cancer care services must be accessible and affordable throughout the entire health system, from the primary care level up to the centres for tertiary care, throughout the whole country. PMID:21614216

  15. Arteriovenous malformations: epidemiology and clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Aki; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2012-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain are relatively rare congenital developmental vascular lesions. They may cause hemorrhagic stroke, epilepsy, chronic headache, or focal neurologic deficits, and the incidence of asymptomatic AVMs is increasing due to widespread availability of noninvasive imaging methods. Since the most severe complication of an AVM is hemorrhagic stroke, most epidemiologic studies have concentrated on the hemorrhage risk and its risk factors. In this article, the authors discuss the epidemiology, presenting symptoms, and hemorrhage risk associated with brain AVMs.

  16. Venlafaxine-Induced Orthostatic Hypotension in a Geriatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Chikkaramanjegowda, Vidyashree; de Leon, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Venlafaxine is not usually associated with risk of orthostatic hypotension. A 65-year-old US Caucasian female taking 225 mg/day of venlafaxine extended-release developed symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure dropped by 25 and 18 mm Hg, respectively, from supine position to standing position within 3 minutes. The patient was otherwise healthy and the orthostatic hypotension resolved with venlafaxine discontinuation. This was a probable venlafaxine adverse drug reaction according to the Naranjo scale. This case contributes to the scarce literature that indicates that clinicians need to be aware that occasionally venlafaxine can induce clinically significant orthostatic hypotension, particularly in geriatric patients. Our patient did not have orthostatic hypotension when she was taking venlafaxine at 60 years of age in higher venlafaxine doses (300 mg/day) but developed this adverse drug reaction when venlafaxine was restarted at the geriatric age. This case indicates that a history of prior tolerance to venlafaxine does not guarantee tolerance after 65 years of age. If a clinician decides to use venlafaxine in geriatric patients, the clinician should warn the patient about the risk of orthostatic hypotension and consider very slow titration and low doses. PMID:23984153

  17. Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders - Clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Functional or psychogenic movement disorders are common and disabling, and sometime difficult to diagnose. The history and physical exam can give positive features that will support the diagnosis, which should not be based solely on exclusion. Some clues in the history are sudden onset, intermittent time course, variability of manifestation over time, childhood trauma, history of other somatic symptom and secondary gain. Anxiety and depression are common, but not necessarily more than the general population. On examination, distraction and suggestibility may be present. There are specific signs that should be looked for with different types of movements. For example, with tremor, change in frequency over time and entrainment are common features. With myoclonus, the movements might be complex in type with long latencies to stimulus induced jerks. Gait disorders show good balance despite claims to the contrary. Functional dystonia still remains a challenging diagnosis in many circumstances, although fixed dystonia is one sign more likely to be functional.

  18. The use of vasopressin in the setting of recalcitrant hypotension due to calcium channel blocker overdose.

    PubMed

    Kanagarajan, Karthikeyan; Marraffa, Jeanna M; Bouchard, Nicole C; Krishnan, Padmanabhan; Hoffman, Robert S; Stork, Christine M

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of hypotension caused by calcium channel blocker overdose (CCB) remains a challenge. We describe the successful use of vasopressin in two patients with massive CCB overdoses in whom hypotension was unresponsive to calcium, glucagon, insulin, and conventional vasopressor therapies. While various modes of treatments have been used to treat the hypotension of CCB overdose, this is the first report to our knowledge of the successful use of vasopressin in this clinical setting.

  19. Lobomycosis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    PubMed Central

    Francesconi, Valeska Albuquerque; Klein, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana Paula Botelho Gualda; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Francesconi, Fábio

    2014-01-01

    Lobomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis of chronic evolution caused by the Lacazia loboi fungus. Its distribution is almost exclusive in the Americas, and it has a particularly high prevalence in the Amazon basin. Cases of lobomycosis have been reported only in dolphins and humans. Its prevalence is higher among men who are active in the forest, such as rubber tappers, bushmen, miners, and Indian men. It is recognized that the traumatic implantation of the fungus on the skin is the route by which humans acquire this infection. The lesions affect mainly exposed areas such as the auricles and upper and lower limbs and are typically presented as keloid-like lesions. Currently, surgical removal is the therapeutic procedure of choice in initial cases. Despite the existing data and studies to date, the active immune mechanisms in this infection and its involvement in the control or development of lacaziosis have not been fully clarified. In recent years, little progress has been made in the appraisal of the epidemiologic aspects of the disease. So far, we have neither a population-based study nor any evaluation directed to the forest workers. PMID:25328400

  20. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Secondary to Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is often idiopathic. We report on a patient presenting with symptomatic intracranial hypotension and pain radiating to the right leg caused by a transdural lumbar disc herniation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain revealed classic signs of intracranial hypotension, and an additional spinal MR confirmed a lumbar transdural herniated disc as the cause. The patient was treated with a partial hemilaminectomy and discectomy. We were able to find the source of cerebrospinal fluid leak, and packed it with epidural glue and gelfoam. Postoperatively, the patient's headache and log radiating pain resolved and there was no neurological deficit. Thus, in this case, lumbar disc herniation may have been a cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. PMID:20157378

  1. [Intermittent focal cerebral ischemia in hypotension due to pacemaker syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hagendorff, A; Pizzulli, L; Dettmers, C; Block, A; Omran, H; Hartmann, A; Manz, M; Lüderitz, B

    1994-12-01

    A pacemaker syndrome manifested as transient sensoric aphasia in a 68-year-old woman with a VVI-pace-maker implanted after SA-block. The attack occurred during long-term blood pressure recording and Holter monitoring. Borderline hypotension was documented during ventricular pacing which induced a retrograde excitation of the atrium. Clinical investigations excluded any intracranial abnormality, any source of embolism or stenosis of extra- and intracranial cerebral arteries. Cerebral blood flow measurements revealed a significant increase during pacing at elevated heart rate. Therefore, a device for AV-sequential pacing was implanted and basic pacing rate was elevated. The present case report indicates that focal and not only global cerebral ischemia can be produced by an impairment of systemic hemodynamics due to hypotension and a pacemaker syndrome. Improvement of cerebral blood flow during pacing is an unexpected finding contrasting with the concept of autoregulation. In addition, pacemaker implantation should be discussed in patients with transient cerebral perfusion deficits if an improvement of cerebral blood flow is documented along with rising heart rate.

  2. Cognitive performance in hypotensive persons with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Adejoke B.; Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Bauman, William A.; Cardozo, Christopher P.; Sano, Mary; Moyer, Jeremy M.; Brooks, Monifa; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2010-01-01

    Background Due to sympathetic de-centralization, individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially those with tetraplegia, often present with hypotension, worsened with upright posture. Several investigations in the non-SCI population have noted a relationship between chronic hypotension and deficits in memory, attention and processing speed and delayed reaction times. Objective To determine cognitive function in persons with SCI who were normotensive or hypotensive over a 24-h observation period while maintaining their routine activities. Methods Subjects included 20 individuals with chronic SCI (2–39 years), 13 with tetraplegia (C4–8) and 7 with paraplegia (T2–11). Individuals with hypotension were defined as having a mean 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) below 110 mmHg for males and 100 mmHg for females, and having spent ≥50% of the total time below these gender-specific thresholds. The cognitive battery used included assessment of memory (CVLT), attention and processing speed (Digit Span, Stroop word and color and Oral Trails A), language (COWAT) and executive function (Oral Trails B and Stroop color–word). Results Demographic parameters did not differ among the hypotensive and normotensive groups; the proportion of individuals with tetraplegia (82%) was higher in the hypotensive group. Memory was significantly impaired (P<0.05) and there was a trend toward slowed attention and processing speed (P<0.06) in the hypotensive compared to the normotensive group. Interpretation These preliminary data suggest that chronic hypotension in persons with SCI is associated with deficits in memory and possibly attention and processing speed, as previously reported in the non-SCI population. PMID:19842013

  3. Oral candidiasis: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Lalla, Rajesh V; Patton, Lauren L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Oral candidiasis is a clinical fungal infection that is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatmentstrategies for oral candidiasis.

  4. Comparison of effects of ephedrine, lidocaine and ketamine with placebo on injection pain, hypotension and bradycardia due to propofol injection: a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi, Vida; Behdad, Shekoufeh; Kargar, Saeed; Yavari, Tayebe

    2012-01-01

    Propofol is a widely used anesthetic drug because of its minor complication and also its fast effect. One of most popular complication in using this drug is pain during injection that is more sever in new generation of its components (lipid-free microemulsion). Other complications of propofol are bradycardia and hypotension. This study compares 3 drugs with placebo in control of these complications of propofol. In this double blinded randomized placebo controlled trial 140 patient who were candidates for elective surgery were divided in 4 groups (35 patients in each groups) and drugs (ephedrine, lidocaine, ketamine and NaCl solution (as placebo) were tried on each group by a blinded technician and responses to drugs were evaluated under supervision of a blinded anesthesiologist. Pain after injection, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured 5 times during anesthesia process of each patient. All gathered data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square under SPSS software. Our data shows that in pain management all tested drugs can decrease pain significantly comparing with placebo (P=0.017). In control of hemodynamic parameters ephedrine could efficiently control SBP, DBP, MAP at the time 1 min after intubation. Based on our study ephedrine can be an appropriate suggestion for control of both pain and hemodynamic changes induced by propofol, although because of inconsistent result in other studies it is recommended to design a systematic review to draw a broader view on this issue.

  5. Induced hypotension during anesthesia with special reference to orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, C.

    1995-01-01

    Since Gardner first used arteriotomy during anesthesia to improve visibility in the surgical field, various techniques and pharmacological agents have been tried for the same purpose. With reports documenting the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome through blood transfusions, prevention of homologous blood transfusions during surgery has also become a major concern. Induced hypotension has been used to reduce blood loss and thereby address both issues. In orthognathic surgery, induced hypotension during anesthesia has been used for similar reasons. It is recommended that hypotensive anesthesia be adjusted in relation to the patient's preoperative blood pressure rather than to a specific target pressure and be limited to that level necessary to reduce bleeding in the surgical field and in duration to that part of the surgical procedure deemed to benefit by it. A mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) 30% below a patient's usual MAP, with a minimum MAP of 50 mm Hg in ASA Class I patients and a MAP not less than 80 mm Hg in the elderly, is suggested to be clinically acceptable. Various pharmacological agents have been used for induced hypotension during orthognathic surgery. In addition, there are many drugs that have been used in other types of surgery that could be used in orthognathic surgery to induce hypotension. Recent reports using control groups do not show significant differences in morbidity and mortality attributable to induced hypotension during anesthesia. Appropriate patient evaluation and selection, proper positioning and monitoring, and adequate fluid therapy are stressed as important considerations in patients undergoing induced hypotension during orthognathic surgery. PMID:8934953

  6. What Is Hypotension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Anemia Arrhythmia Cardiogenic Shock Heart Attack Heart Valve Disease Send a link to NHLBI ...

  7. Pathogenesis and clinical presentation of acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A

    2015-04-01

    Acute heart failure constitutes a heterogeneous clinical syndrome, whose pathophysiology is complex and not completely understood. Given the diversity of clinical presentations, several different pathophysiological mechanisms along with factors triggering circulatory decompensation are involved. This article discusses the available evidence on the pathophysiological phenomena attributed or/and associated with episodes of acute heart failure and describes different clinical profiles, which, from a clinical perspective, constitute a key element for therapeutic decision-making.

  8. Hypotension Begins at 110 mm Hg: Redefining Hypotension With Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-19

    would have potentially spinal, cardiogenic , tension pneumothoraxes, causes of shock . So we did not specifically isolate or exclude that subset. So...appropriately powered studies of hemorrhagic shock . Key Words: Hypotension, Shock , Trauma, Base deficit, Systolic blood pres- sure, Mortality. J Trauma...LeDran in 1743 from his reflection of experiences treating gunshot wounds.1 In 1872, Gross defined the shock state as “a manifestation of the rude

  9. Refractory hypotension in a patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi; Hou, Xiaojun; Ding, Suju; Guan, Yangtai; Zhen, Huimin; Tu, Laihui; Qiu, Yiqing

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old male patient with gastric carcinoma underwent radical distal gastrectomy type II + Braun anastomosis, and received total parenteral nutrition for 10 days after surgery, followed by small amounts of semi-liquid nutrition for 3 days and liquid nutrition for 2 days. The patient developed refractory hypotension for more than 1 week in the early course of disease, and on Day 15 after surgery presented with characteristic signs of Wernicke's encephalopathy, including diplopia and mental confusion. The hypotension did not improve despite appropriate fluid replacement soon after admission. Treatment with moderate dose of thiamine for 3 months partly relieved ophthalmoplegia and confusion, but not Korsakoff syndrome. This extraordinary presentation with refractory hypotension and the unusual course of the disease encouraged us to present this case.

  10. Orthostatic hypotension in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension after even short space flights has affected a significant number of astronauts. Given the need for astronauts to function at a high level of efficiency during and after their return from space, the application of pharmacologic and other treatments is strongly indicated. This report addresses the clinical problem of orthostatic hypotension and its treatments to ascertain whether pharmacologic or physiologic treatment may be useful in the prevention of orthostatic hypotension associated with space flight. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension in patients now includes increasing intravascular volume with high sodium intake and mineralocorticoids, or increasing vascular resistance through the use of drugs to stimulate alpha or block beta vascular receptors. Earlier treatment used oral sympathomimetic ephedrine hydrochloride alone or with "head-up" bed rest. Then long-acting adrenocortical steroid desoxycorticosterone preparations with high-salt diets were used to expand volume. Fludrocortisone was shown to prevent the orthostatic drop in blood pressure. The combination of the sympathomimetic amine hydroxyamphetamine and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine has been used, as has indomethacin alone. Davies et al. used mineralocorticoids at low doses concomitantly with alpha-agonists to increase vasoconstrictor action. Schirger et al used tranylcypromine and methylphenidate with or without a Jobst elastic leotard garment or the alpha-adrenergic agonist midodrine (which stimulates both arterial and venous systems without direct central nervous system or cardiac effects). Vernikos et al established that the combination of fludrocortisone, dextroamphetamine, and atropine exhibited a beneficial effect on orthostatic hypotension induced by 7-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest (a model used to simulate the weightlessness of space flight). Thus, there are numerous drugs that, in combination with mechanical techniques, including lower body negative

  11. The varied clinical presentations of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Rush, A John

    2007-01-01

    DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) is a clinical syndrome notable for heterogeneity of its clinical presentation, genetics, neurobiology, clinical course, and treatment responsiveness. In an attempt to make sense of this heterogeneity, clinicians and researchers have proposed a number of MDD "subtypes" based on differences in characteristic symptoms (e.g., atypical, melancholic, psychotic), onset (e.g., early vs. late, post-partum, seasonal), course of illness (e.g., single vs. recurrent, chronic, double), and severity. This article provides a brief review of the status of several of the most common subtypes in terms of their clinical features, biological correlates, course of illness, and treatment implications.

  12. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prognosis of chronic laminitis.

    PubMed

    Herthel, D; Hood, D M

    1999-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial assessment of the horse affected with chronic laminitis. Variations in the clinical presentation and primary considerations in making a differential diagnosis are included. The elements of a clinical history essential to sound, therapeutic management, and prognosis are summarized. The physical and radiographic assessment of the digital lesions and diagnostic approaches to the common systemic aspects of the disease are presented and discussed.

  13. Intracranial hypotension: the nonspecific nature of MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Bruera, O C; Bonamico, L; Giglio, J A; Sinay, V; Leston, J A; Figuerola, M L

    2000-01-01

    We present three patients who complained of postural headache related to different types of intracranial hypotension: spontaneous or primary, and secondary, but presenting the same findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement supports the belief that the enhancement is a nonspecific meningeal reaction to low pressure.

  14. Postprandial and Orthostatic Hypotension Treated by Sitagliptin in a Patient with Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Joji; Harada, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 78 Final Diagnosis: Dementia with Lewy body Symptoms: Dizziness • sycope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Geriatrics Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: Postprandial hypotension, induced by an absorption of glucose from intestine, could be treated by acarbose; however, it was unclear whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor reduced postprandial hypotension. Case Report: A 78-year-old woman who had experienced episodes of dizziness and hypotension after eating was admitted to our hospital. During 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, there were repeated episodes of marked postprandial hypotension; i.e., a significant systolic blood pressure reduction within two hours after eating (from ‒58 to ‒64 mm Hg after meals). The patient was diagnosed with dementia with Lewy bodies. The patient exhibited postprandial hyperglycemia and hypotension after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. After the administration of 25 mg sitagliptin, the patient’s postprandial and orthostatic hypotension was reduced remarkably. Moreover, her Mini-Mental State Examination score subsequently increased (from 22 to 25 points). Conclusions: The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin can delay postprandial increases in glucose levels and hypotensive episodes, as well as sympathetic nervous system abnormalities and orthostatic hypotension. PMID:27885251

  15. EFFICACY OF ATOMOXETINE VERSUS MIDODRINE FOR THE TREATMENT OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION IN AUTONOMIC FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Claudia E.; Okamoto, Luis E.; Arnold, Amy C.; Gamboa, Alfredo; Diedrich, André; Choi, Leena; Raj, Satish R.; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Shibao, Cyndya A.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of autonomic failure is orthostatic hypotension. Severely affected patients require pharmacologic treatment to prevent pre-syncopal symptoms or frank syncope. We previously reported in a proof of concept study that pediatric doses of the norepinephrine transporter blockade, atomoxetine, increases blood pressure in autonomic failure patients with residual sympathetic activity compared with placebo. Given that the sympathetic nervous system is maximally activated in the upright position, we hypothesized that atomoxetine would be superior to midodrine, a direct vasoconstrictor, in improving upright blood pressure and orthostatic hypotension-related symptoms. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effect of acute atomoxetine versus midodrine on upright systolic blood pressure and orthostatic symptom scores in 65 patients with severe autonomic failure. There were no differences in seated systolic blood pressure (95% CI= −7.3 to 7.9, P=0.94) or seated diastolic blood pressure (95% CI= −3.4 to 4.2, P=0.83) between atomoxetine and midodrine. In contrast, atomoxetine produced a greater pressor response in upright systolic blood pressure (95% CI= 0.6 to 15, P=0.03) and upright diastolic blood pressure (95% CI=-0.05 to 8.3, P=0.05), compared with midodrine. Furthermore, atomoxetine (95% CI=0.1 to 0.8, P=0.02), but not midodrine (95% CI=-0.1 to 1.0, P=0.08), improved orthostatic hypotension-related symptoms as compared with placebo. The results of our study suggest that atomoxetine could be a superior therapeutic option than midodrine for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure. PMID:25185131

  16. [Atypical presentation of a clinical case of giant cell arteritis].

    PubMed

    Rosselló Aubach, L L; Torres Cortada, G; Cabau Rúbies, J; Aragón Sanz, M A; Oncins Torres, R

    2006-06-01

    We present a very unusual clinical case of giant cell arteritis with uterus involvement, in a women of 66 years old, that began clinical features of pain and functional limitation of shoulders and hip 3 mouth before been operated of uterus prolapse with hysterectomy. Biopsy of uterus found affected arterial vesels with wall sclerosis and granulomatous inflamation with giant cells, without necrosis, involving media and perivascular portions suggesting giant cell arteritis. In a previous reports review, we only found ten similar clinical cases. In that cases, clinical features were no suggestif of the disease. Although the well known tendency of arteritis to involve some specific vascular areas, the case we present is an example of the systemic course of the disease and his difficulty to diagnose.

  17. Varied clinical presentation of os odontoideum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chrobak, Karen; Larson, Ryan; Stern, Paula J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of an os odontoideum and to provide insight into the varied clinical presentations. Clinical Features: A 54 year old man presented with chronic neck pain without headache. A clinical examination was performed and the chiropractor viewed his AP and lateral radiographs. Previous flexion/ extension radiographs and MRI imaging from 2009 were requested for review. The patient was diagnosed with grade II mechanical neck pain. Treatment was rendered that day which included spinal manipulation/ mobilization. Several days later the requested imaging reports were received and described the presence of an os odontoideum. Conclusion: In the presence of os odontoideum, familiarity with the signs and symptoms of potential cervical instability is imperative. Health care providers must remain diligent in their patient histories, physical exams, and imaging. This case highlights the importance of following up on imaging studies to rule out diagnoses that would involve treatment contraindications thus ensuring safe and effective treatment. PMID:25202154

  18. [Mitochondrial diseases: molecular mechanisms, clinical presentations and diagnosis investigations].

    PubMed

    Auré, Karine; Jardel, Claude; Lombès, Anne

    2005-09-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are relatively common inherited metabolic diseases due to mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. Their clinical presentation is extremely diverse, multisystemic or confined to a single tissue, sporadic or transmitted, by maternal or mendelian inheritance. The diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders is difficult. It is based upon several types of clues both clinical (family history, type of symptoms but also their association in syndromic presentation,...) and biological (alteration of the lactate metabolism, brain imaging, morphological alterations especially of muscle tissue). The diagnosis relies upon the demonstration of a defect of the respiratory chain activities and/or upon the identification of the underlying genetic alteration. Molecular diagnosis remains quite difficult and up to-date concerns essentially mitochondrial DNA mutations. On one hand, clinical and biological presentations as well as enzymatic defects lack specificity. On the other hand, candidate genes are very numerous and part of them are probably still unknown.

  19. Rhinosporidiosis presenting as an oropharyngeal mass: A clinical predicament?

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Rachna; Baig, Shadab Ali; Debata, Tribikram

    2015-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis, is a chronic granulomatous disease presenting as a polypoidal mass in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi and is endemic in India and Sri Lanka. Diagnosis is mainly by clinical observations and is confirmed by histopathology. We report a case of atypical rhinosporidiosis that presented as an oropharyngeal mass and mimicked chronic tonsillitis. Hence possibility of this atypical rhinosporidiosis should be included in the clinical differential diagnosis of any posterior oral or oropharyngeal mass, particularly when managing patients from rural endemic areas. PMID:25810674

  20. Acute hepatitis E presenting with clinical feature of autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ishan; Companioni, Rafael Ching; Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Catalano, Carmine; Aron, Joshua; Walfish, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    A 32-year-old immigrant man presented with new onset jaundice. His past medical history was significant for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. His initial laboratory finding and liver biopsy were suggestive of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The plan was to start steroids pending negative results for viral serology, but it came back positive for hepatitis E virus. The patient's liver function test and clinical condition improved significantly on conservative management over a period of 1 month. Therefore, we suggest testing for hepatitis E especially in immigrants or recent travelers to endemic areas who presents with clinical features suggestive of AIH. PMID:27987286

  1. Clinical presentation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Sarawak Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tiong, T S; Selva, K S

    2005-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in Malaysia. The clinical presentation in Sarawak has not been well documented. A retrospective review of 213 selected NPC cases was undertaken on the clinical records in Sarawak General Hospital, Sarawak, from June 1999 to June 2003. There were 116 patients in Kuching and 97 in Serian. There were twice as many males as females. The youngest patient was 16 and the oldest 88 years old with a mean age of 51 years. The four most common symptoms in order of frequencies were cervical lymphadenopathy, epistaxis, hearing loss and diplopia. 80.8% of the patients presented with cervical lymphadenopathy and about 85% of the patients presented in the advanced stages. Very small percentages of the patients were found to have single presenting symptoms of epistaxis (2.4%) and hearing loss (0.5%).

  2. Content Validation of Athletic Therapy Clinical Presentations in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafave, Mark R.; Yeo, Michelle; Westbrook, Khatija; Valdez, Dennis; Eubank, Breda; McAllister, Jenelle

    2016-01-01

    Context: Competency-based education requires strong planning and a vehicle to deliver and track students' progress across their undergraduate programs. Clinical presentations (CPs) are proposed as 1 method to deliver a competency-based curriculum in a Canadian undergraduate athletic therapy program. Objective: Validation of 253 CPs. Setting:…

  3. Alternating Skew Deviation from Traumatic Intracranial Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Moster, Stephen J.; Moster, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A 56-year-old woman developed progressive headache, mental status changes, and diplopia after trauma. She was diagnosed with alternating skew deviation caused by intracranial hypotension. This is the first case of alternating skew deviation reported from intracranial hypotension and perhaps a differential pressure between intracranial and intraspinal spaces plays a role in the development of these findings. PMID:27928294

  4. Orthostatic hypotension: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Robertson, D.

    1995-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension is characterized by low upright blood pressure levels and symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion. Whereas orthostatic hypotension is heterogeneous, correct pathophysiologic diagnosis is important because of therapeutic and prognostic considerations. Although therapy is not usually curative, it can be extraordinarily beneficial if it is individually tailored. Management of the Shy-Drager syndrome (multiple-system atrophy) remains a formidable challenge.

  5. Early onset marfan syndrome: Atypical clinical presentation of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozyurt, A; Baykan, A; Argun, M; Pamukcu, O; Halis, H; Korkut, S; Yuksel, Z; Gunes, T; Narin, N

    2015-01-01

    Early onset Marfan Syndrome (eoMFS) is a rare, severe form of Marfan Syndrome (MFS). The disease has a poor prognosis and most patients present with resistance to heart failure treatment during the newborn period. This report presents two cases of eoMFS with similar clinical features diagnosed in the newborn period and who died at an early age due to the complications related to the involvement of the cardiovascular system. PMID:26929908

  6. Cultural variation in the clinical presentation of sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M

    2005-03-01

    Sleep paralysis is one of the lesser-known and more benign forms of parasomnias. The primary or idiopathic form, also called isolated sleep paralysis, is illustrated by showing how patients from different cultures weave the phenomenology of sleep paralysis into their clinical narratives. Clinical case examples are presented of patients from Guinea Bissau, the Netherlands, Morocco, and Surinam with different types of psychopathology, but all accompanied by sleep paralysis. Depending on the meaning given to and etiological interpretations of the sleep paralysis, which is largely culturally determined, patients react to the event in specific ways.

  7. The role of race in the clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M R; Moscou, S; Fulchon, C; Neuspiel, D R

    2001-06-01

    What role, if any, should race play in clinical presentations? While race is widely used as a way of identifying patients, this practice has been challenged as conceptually flawed, potentially misleading, and possibly prejudicial to the patient. There are, however; important reasons for not excluding information about race. This article includes a set of guidelines for the inclusion of racial data in presentations: (1) Race is a social construct and, if used, should be recorded in the social history, not the opening sentence of the presentation. (2) Patients should self-identity their race or races. (3) Race should not be used as a proxy for genetic variation, social class, or other elements of the social history. (4) Clinicians should be mindful of the potential influence of racism in the clinical encounter.

  8. Clinical Presentation and Magnetic Resonance Findings in Sellar Tuberculomas

    PubMed Central

    Bonifacio-Delgadillo, Dulce; Aburto-Murrieta, Yolanda; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Sotelo, Julio; Montes-Mojarro, Ivonne; Garcia-Marquez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance. Sellar tuberculomas are extremely rare lesions with nonspecific clinical manifestations. The tuberculous infection of the pituitary gland and sellar region is characterized by the presence of an acute or chronic inflammatory reaction and may occur in the absence of systemic tuberculosis. The diagnosis is difficult prior to the surgery. An adequate diagnostic and antituberculous drugs usually result in a good outcome. Clinical Presentation. We report four cases of sellar tuberculoma, 3/1 female/male, age range: 50–57 years. All patients had visual disturbances and low levels of cortisol. Conclusion. The clinical diagnosis of sellar tuberculoma is a challenge and should be suspected when a sellar lesion shows abnormal enhancement pattern and stalk involvement, and absence of signal suppression in FLAIR. PMID:25114688

  9. Clinical results of Perftoran application: present and future.

    PubMed

    Maevsky, Eugene; Ivanitsky, Genrih; Bogdanova, Ludmila; Axenova, Olga; Karmen, Natalia; Zhiburt, Eugene; Senina, Raisa; Pushkin, Sergey; Maslennikov, Igor; Orlov, Andrey; Marinicheva, Irina

    2005-01-01

    Clinical experience of Perftoran (commercial drug of low concentrated perfluorocheminal emulsion) applications is presented in some statistical data and in brief analysis of clinical trials and following clinical studies described in the Russian scientific literature. Observed data allow us to suppose that Perftoran facilitates oxygen delivery together with remaining red blood cells at blood replacements and will have more wider area for application than just a blood substitute. Its infusion alleviates symptoms of ischemia at different types of occlusion vessels disease, improves grafting in plastic surgery, diminishes inflammation and prevents rejection of transplants, activates detoxication functions of liver, inhibits retro-virus infection development. Local PF applications is able to accelerate wounds and ulcers healing.

  10. Unusual clinical presentation of a partial tibialis anterior rupture.

    PubMed

    Jellad, A; Salah, S; Bouaziz, M A; Bouzaouache, H; Ben Salah, Z

    2012-02-01

    Subcutaneous rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon is rare. Diagnosis is usually clear. The essential clinical symptoms are progressively: footdrop gait, loss of ankle flexion strength, ankle foot pain and claw toes. But the occurrence of an asymptomatic time period between the injury and the onset of clinical signs can make the diagnosis more difficult. MRI is the gold standard examination for tendons injuries and associated bone and joints damages. Surgical exploration confirms MRI findings. It constitutes the treatment of choice for tibialis anterior tendon rupture. Surgical or functional techniques used have an impact on the design of the rehabilitation program, essential step in the care management of these injuries. It avoids postoperative tendon adhesions and their functional consequences. We report here a case of a man presenting with footdrop gait as the only clinical symptom.

  11. Treatment of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypotension With Tea: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Petramfar, Peyman; Mohammadi, S. Saeed; Hosseinzadeh, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The syndrome of spontaneous intracranial hypotension has been increasingly diagnosed since its discovery through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a rare syndrome that is due to the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a tear in the dura and can occur at any age, even among adolescents, but is most frequently seen among females in late middle age. Case Presentation Here, we describe a 32-year-old woman with a two-month history of headaches and occasional nausea and vomiting (N/V). MRI without gadolinium was normal, but meningeal enhancement was seen in MRI with gadolinium. The lumbar puncture revealed a low opening pressure. Computed tomography myelography (CT myelography) showed no leakage; Therefore, idiopathic intracranial hypotension was diagnosed. Treatment was started using tea, and the patient’s headache got significantly better in about a day. Conclusions Conservative therapy, such as bed rest and caffeine treatment with eight cups of tea daily, yielded a significant improvement in our patient. Effectively, the patient constitutes a case of idiopathic intracranial hypotension due to undetectable CSF leakage or hyper-absorption, with good response to conservative management through tea-drinking. Further investigations with an appropriate sample size are needed in order to confirm this intervention in the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypotension. PMID:27621920

  12. Colobronchial fistula: the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinbo; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Zhengwei; Lei, Jie; Lu, Qiang; Tian, Feng; Zhou, Yongan

    2017-01-01

    Background Colobronchial fistula (CBF) is rare and easy to be delayed in clinic. There is no systemic study about this disease. The pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatment of CBF were analyzed in this study. Methods The clinical data from 37 cases of CBF, which included one case in our institute and the other 36 cases in literature from January 1960 to August 2016, were reviewed and analyzed. The etiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and outcomes were summarized. Results The causes of CBF included Crohn’s disease, postoperative intraperitoneal adhesion, diaphragmatic hernia, pulmonary infection or abscess, colonic malignancy, colonic interposition, radiation, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), diaphragmatic mesh repair, pulmonary tuberculosis and pyonephrosis. Based on the anatomical location and the causes of fistula, CBF were divided into four types: type I, CBF secondary to the adhesion among colon, diaphragm and lung; type II, CBF secondary to diaphragmatic hernia; type III, CBF secondary to sub diaphragmatic abscess or emphysema; type VI, CBF secondary to colon interposition. The characteristic clinical presentations of CBF was productive cough with foul smelling sputum (78.38%), most of the patients were finally confirmed the diagnosis by barium enema or water-soluble contrast enema study (67.57%) and computer tomography (CT) scan/with multiplanar reconstruction (16.22%); 35 cases (94.59%) accepted the surgical treatment. Among 31 patients with recorded follow-up data, 26 patients recovered unevenly, but 5 patients died in 1 month after treatment. Conclusions CBF is a rare but can not be ignored disease. Anything which may induce the direct or indirect connection between colon and lung tissue may result in CBF. Productive cough with foul smelling sputum is the characteristic symptom. Radiological investigations such as barium enema and/or CT scan with multiplanar reconstruction are

  13. Oral manifestations of psoriasis. Clinical presentation and management.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Lois N; Brown, Gwen Cohen

    2012-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease of unknown etiology that affects the skin and mucous membranes. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), approximately five million Americans, 3% of the population, have been diagnosed with psoriasis. Oral manifestations of psoriasis are less well recognized than skin lesions, and treatment for oral lesions is not standardized. This article will review the clinical presentation of skin and mucous membrane psoriasis, along with the therapeutic modalities available to oral health-care providers.

  14. Iatrogenic Percutaneous Vascular Injuries: Clinical Presentation, Imaging, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Benjamin H.; Copelan, Alexander; Scola, Dominic; Watts, Micah M.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular interventional radiology procedures are relatively safe compared with analogous surgical procedures, with overall major complication rates of less than 1%. However, major vascular injuries resulting from these procedures may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. This review will discuss the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of vascular complications related to percutaneous vascular interventions. Early recognition of these complications and familiarity with treatment options are essential skills for the interventional radiologist. PMID:26038619

  15. Postsurgical aortic false aneurysm: pathogenesis, clinical presentation and surgical strategy.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Giuseppe M; Malvindi, Pietro G; Ornaghi, Diego; Basciu, Alessio; Barbone, Alessandro; Tarelli, Giuseppe; Settepani, Fabrizio

    2013-08-01

    Postsurgical aortic false aneurysm occurs in less than 0.5% of all cardiac surgical cases and its management is a challenge in terms of preoperative evaluation and surgical approach. Although infections are well recognized as risk factors, technical aspects of a previous operation may have a role in pseudoaneurysm formation. The risk factors and clinical presentation of pseudoaneurysms and the surgical strategy are revisited in this article.

  16. Persistent orthostatic headache without intracranial hypotension: which treatment?

    PubMed

    Curone, M; Cecchini, A Proietti; Chiapparini, L; D'Amico, D

    2015-05-01

    Orthostatic headache can be the leading symptom of intracranial hypotension, however, not all orthostatic headaches are due to cerebrospinal fluid leaks and these forms can be a clinical problem, especially for treatment. Aim of this study was to review patients with persistent orthostatic headache in whom a detailed head and spinal MRI follow-up did not reveal any sign of intracranial hypotension and to evaluate which treatment can be considered the first choice. Patients admitted to our headache center for evaluation of persistent orthostatic headache and followed after first admission with clinical and neuroradiological controls were systematically reviewed. 11 patients (7 M, 4 F) followed in a period lasted from 10 months up to 2 years were studied. Six patients (54, 5 %) reported a MRI performed previously elsewhere with a suspect diagnosis of intracranial hypotension which was not confirmed at MRI at our hospital such as during the radiological follow-up. Three patients (27.2 %) had developed orthostatic headache short after a neck or head trauma with no evidence of neuroradiological pathological signs and two patients (18 %) had a previous history of psychiatric disorder. We administrated antidepressants in five patients, atypical neuroleptic in three patients, association of antidepressant and antipsychotic in one patient and muscle relaxants in two cases. All patients showed a certain improvement of headache in the weeks after introduction of the pharmacological treatment; six (54, 5 %) had pain relief during the follow-up and five (45, 5 %) were pain free at the last clinical control. We found out that patients with the best outcome were the ones treated with antidepressants. Persistent orthostatic headache without any neuroradiological sign of intracranial hypotension is a challenging problem for clinicians. Although the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta version) criteria suggests the possibility of epidural blood patch in

  17. Clinical presentation and outcome of venous thromboembolism in COPD.

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, L; Quenet, S; Mismetti, P; Hernández, L; Martín-Villasclaras, J J; Tolosa, C; Valdés, M; Barrón, M; Todolí, J A; Monreal, M

    2012-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a moderate risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), but neither the clinical presentation nor the outcome of VTE in COPD patients is well known. The clinical presentation of VTE, namely pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and the outcome at 3 months (death, recurrent VTE or bleeding) were compared between 2,984 COPD patients and 25,936 non-COPD patients included in the RIETE (Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) registry. This ongoing international, multi-centre registry includes patients with proven symptomatic PE or DVT. PE was the more frequent VTE presentation in COPD patients (n = 1,761, 59%). PE presentation was more significantly associated with COPD patients than non-COPD patients (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.49-1.80). During the 3-month follow-up, mortality (10.8% versus 7.6%), minor bleeding (4.5% versus 2.3%) or first VTE recurrences as PE (1.5% versus 1.1%) were significantly higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD patients. PE was the most common cause of death. COPD patients presented more frequently with PE than DVT. It may explain the worse prognosis of COPD patients, with a higher risk of death, bleeding or VTE recurrences as PE compared with non-COPD patients. Further therapeutic options are needed.

  18. Clinical disease presentation and ECG characteristics of LMNA mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Ollila, Laura; Nikus, Kjell; Holmström, Miia; Jalanko, Mikko; Jurkko, Raija; Kaartinen, Maija; Koskenvuo, Juha; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kärkkäinen, Satu; Palojoki, Eeva; Reissell, Eeva; Piirilä, Päivi; Heliö, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Objective Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C of the nuclear lamina are a frequent cause of cardiomyopathy accounting for 5–8% of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Our aim was to study disease onset, presentation and progression among LMNA mutation carriers. Methods Clinical follow-up data from 27 LMNA mutation carriers and 78 patients with idiopathic DCM without an LMNA mutation were collected. In addition, ECG data were collected and analysed systematically from 20 healthy controls. Results Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no difference in event-free survival (death, heart transplant, resuscitation and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy included as events) between LMNA mutation carriers and DCM controls (p=0.5). LMNA mutation carriers presented with atrial fibrillation at a younger age than the DCM controls (47 vs 57 years, p=0.003). Male LMNA mutation carriers presented with clinical manifestations roughly a decade earlier than females. In close follow-up non-sustained ventricular tachycardia was detected in 78% of LMNA mutation carriers. ECG signs of septal remodelling were present in 81% of the LMNA mutation carriers, 21% of the DCM controls and none of the healthy controls giving a high sensitivity and specificity for the standard ECG in distinguishing LMNA mutation carriers from patients with DCM and healthy controls. Conclusions Male LMNA mutation carriers present clinical manifestations at a younger age than females. ECG septal remodelling appears to distinguish LMNA mutation carriers from healthy controls and patients with DCM without LMNA mutations. PMID:28123761

  19. Clinical presentation of depression among Malaysian women in Penang Island.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A; Tahir, Humera

    2011-09-01

    Objectives To identify the aetiology and clinical presentation of depression among Malaysian women.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Psychiatry Clinic, Public Hospital, Pulau Penang, Malaysia. Retrospective evaluations of records were conducted between January 2002 and December 2007. The data were analysed using the statistical software, SPSS v. 131®.Results Ninety-six (56.8%) of the patients were Chinese, the mean (± SD) age of the patients was 45 ± 17.8 years, with a majority (72; 42.6%) aged over 50 years. The incidence of depression with comorbid hypertension and comorbid diabetes mellitus was significant among women aged over 50 (P < 0.001 (hypertension) P < 0.015 (diabetes mellitus)). Marital and relationship problems were found to significantly affect Chinese women aged 15-30 years (P = 0.019). In terms of the clinical presentation of depression among Malaysian women, suicidal ideation and somatic symptoms like reduced energy/being easily fatigued were more frequent among Chinese.Conclusion Symptoms of being short-tempered, crying, restless and doubtful/distracted should not be neglected in primary care because of the possibility of mental health disorders. The timely evaluation of diabetic and hypertensive patients is an ideal strategy to prevent mental health disorders.

  20. Congenital Hemifacial Hyperplasia: Clinical Presentation and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Karpagavalli; Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Ganapathy, Sivadas; Sathish, Sivan; Satti, Parvathi

    2016-01-01

    Hemifacial hyperplasia is a rare congenital malformation characterized by noticeable unilateral excess development of hard and soft tissues of the face. Asymmetry in Congenital Hemifacial Hyperplasia (CHH) is usually evident at birth and accentuated at the age of puberty. The affected side grows exponentially as compared to the unaffected side. Multiple tissue involvement has resulted due to etiological heterogeneity like heredity, chromosomal abnormalities, altered intrauterine environment, and endocrine dysfunctions. As this lesion is rarely seen in our routine clinical practice, we present a case of hemifacial hyperplasia with reported orofacial features that supplement existing clinical knowledge. This paper also adds knowledge to the readers regarding detailed investigation procedures which has complemented our diagnosis. Further emphasis has been placed on periodic approach to its diagnosis and multidisciplinary management following correct diagnosis.

  1. Acute Psychosis as Major Clinical Presentation of Legionnaires' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva-dos-Santos, Amílcar; Talina, Miguel Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with acute psychosis as a major manifestation of Legionnaires' disease in the absence of other neuropsychiatric symptoms. Clinical history revealed dry cough and nausea. Observation showed fever and auscultation crackles in the lower lobe of the right lung. Laboratory testing demonstrated elevated C-reactive protein and lung chest radiograph showed patchy peribronchial and right lower lobe consolidation. Soon after admission, she started producing purulent sputum. Epidemiological data suggested Legionella pneumophila as possible cause of the clinical picture that was confirmed by urinary antigen detection and polymerase chain reaction of the sputum. She was treated with levofloxacin 750 mg/day for 10 days with complete remission of pulmonary and psychiatric symptoms. She has not had further psychotic symptoms. PMID:27547478

  2. Congenital Hemifacial Hyperplasia: Clinical Presentation and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, Karpagavalli; Ganapathy, Sivadas; Sathish, Sivan; Satti, Parvathi

    2016-01-01

    Hemifacial hyperplasia is a rare congenital malformation characterized by noticeable unilateral excess development of hard and soft tissues of the face. Asymmetry in Congenital Hemifacial Hyperplasia (CHH) is usually evident at birth and accentuated at the age of puberty. The affected side grows exponentially as compared to the unaffected side. Multiple tissue involvement has resulted due to etiological heterogeneity like heredity, chromosomal abnormalities, altered intrauterine environment, and endocrine dysfunctions. As this lesion is rarely seen in our routine clinical practice, we present a case of hemifacial hyperplasia with reported orofacial features that supplement existing clinical knowledge. This paper also adds knowledge to the readers regarding detailed investigation procedures which has complemented our diagnosis. Further emphasis has been placed on periodic approach to its diagnosis and multidisciplinary management following correct diagnosis. PMID:27843653

  3. Congenital Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation Presenting as Postcoital bleeding: A Rare Presentation of a Rare Clinical Condition

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Neha; Chopra, Seema; Aggarwal, Neelam; Gorsi, Ujjwal

    2017-01-01

    Congenital uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an extremely rare condition with <100 cases documented in literature. We report multiparous women presenting to us with a history of postcoital bleed. Initial Doppler ultrasonography was consistent with features suggestive of AVM. Subsequently, computed tomography (CT) angiography confirmed the diagnosis. Embolization was chosen as the treatment because of the large extension of AVM and the risk of hemorrhage during hysterectomy. The patient was discharged in a stable condition with a plan of repeat embolization in the next setting. At 6 and 12 weeks of follow-up, she did not experience any further episodes of bleed. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the salient clinical features, diagnosis, and the management options available for this rare clinical condition.

  4. Clinical Presentation of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gichuhi, Stephen; Macharia, Ephantus; Kabiru, Joy; Zindamoyen, Alain M’bongo; Rono, Hilary; Ollando, Ernest; Wanyonyi, Leonard; Wachira, Joseph; Munene, Rhoda; Onyuma, Timothy; Sagoo, Mandeep S.; Weiss, Helen A.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Importance There is a trend towards treating conjunctival lesions suspected to be ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) based on the clinical impression. Objectives To describe the presentation of OSSN and identify clinical features which distinguish it from benign lesions and subsequently evaluate their recognisability. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective multi-centre study in Kenya from July 2012 through July 2014 of 496 adults presenting with conjunctival lesions. Exposures Comprehensive history, slit lamp examination and photography before excision biopsy. Frequency of clinical features in OSSN and benign lesions recorded. One histopathologist examined all specimens. Six additional masked ophthalmologists independently examined photographs from 100 participants and assessed clinical features. Main Outcomes and Measures Proportions and means were compared using Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test or t-test as appropriate. Inter-observer agreement was estimated using Kappa statistic. Examiners’ assessments were compared to a reference. Results Among 496 participants, OSSN was the most common (38%) histological diagnosis, followed by pterygium (36%) and actinic keratosis (19%). OSSN cases were slightly older and tended to have lower levels of education than benign ones. Females predominated (67% of OSSN vs 64% of benign lesions; P = .65). HIV-infection was common among OSSN cases (74%). The commonest location was the nasal limbus (61% OSSN vs 78% benign lesions; P < .001). Signs more frequent in OSSN included; feeder vessels, odds ratio [OR], 5.8 [95%CI, 3.2-10.5]; moderate inflammation, OR, 3.5 [95%CI,1.8-6.8]; corneal involvement, OR, 2.7 [95%CI,1.8-4.0]; leukoplakia, OR, 2.6 [95%CI,1.7-3.9]; papilliform surface, OR, 2.1 [95%CI,1.3-3.5]; pigmentation, OR, 1.5 [95%CI, 1.0-2.2]; temporal location, OR, 2.0 [95%cI, 1.2-3.2]; circumlimbal location, (7.0% vs 0.3%; P<.001); severe inflammation (6.0% vs 0.3%; P <.001) and larger mean [SD] diameter (6.8 [3

  5. Clinical presentation and metabolic features of overt and occult urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Polito, Cesare; Apicella, Andrea; Marte, Antonio; Signoriello, Giuseppe; La Manna, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Although pediatricians are frequently confronted with patients presenting urolithiasis symptoms without obvious stones, the syndrome of occult urolithiasis may be still viewed with some skepticism. We have compared the clinical and metabolic features of 197 children with obvious calculi, 189 with microcalculi (diameter ≤ 3 mm based on renal sonography), and 114 with symptoms of urolithiasis and normal renal sonography findings. Only microcalculi and normal sonography subjects with a urinary abnormality potentially leading to urolithiasis were included in the study. Age at presentation increased significantly (p = 0.0001) in the groups in the order normal sonography to microcalculi to calculi groups. There was no significant difference among the three groups in terms of family history of urolithiasis, gender distribution, and degree of hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, or hypocitraturia. The average frequency of pain attacks of patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) ranged from 3.6 to 4.6 days of pain per month among the three groups, which is four to ninefold lower than that reported for children with functional or organic gastrointestinal RAP. The consistency of many clinical and urinary metabolic characteristics indicates a common underlying disorder in overt and occult urolithiasis. The increase of age at presentation from the normal sonography to microcalculi and calculi groups may reflect progressive crystal accretion leading ultimately to overt stone formation.

  6. Progranulin gene mutation with an unusual clinical and neuropathologic presentation.

    PubMed

    Wider, Christian; Uitti, Ryan J; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Fang, John Y; Josephs, Keith A; Baker, Matthew C; Rademakers, Rosa; Hutton, Michael L; Dickson, Dennis W

    2008-06-15

    Progranulin gene (PGRN) mutations cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). Patients usually present with a frontotemporal dementia syndrome and have prominent atrophy and neuronal loss in frontal and temporal cortices and the striatum, with neuronal intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions. Clinical, neuropathological, and genetic studies are reported on an individual with PGRN mutation and her family members. We describe a patient with a PGRN c.26C>A mutation who presented with progressive stuttering dysarthria, oculomotor abnormalities, choreic buccolingual movements, and mild parkinsonism. Two other family members were affected, one with a behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia syndrome, the other with a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease. At autopsy there was no neuronal loss in the cortex or medial temporal lobe structures, but there was striatal gliosis. Immunohistochemistry for ubiquitin and TDP-43 revealed neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions as well as neurites. This study further expands the clinical and pathological spectrum of PGRN mutations, and suggests the diagnosis could be missed in some individuals with atypical presentations.

  7. Review of Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksz, C.J.; Harmatz, P.; Beck, M.; Jones, S.; Wood, T.; Lachman, R.; Gravance, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) was described in 1929 by Luis Morquio from Uruguay and James Brailsford from England, and was later found as an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. MPS IVA is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme, N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Reduced GALNS activity results in impaired catabolism of two glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS). Clinical presentations of MPS IVA reflect a spectrum of progression from a severe ”classical” phenotype to a mild “attenuated” phenotype. More than 180 different mutations have been identified in the GALNS gene, which likely explains the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder. Accumulation of C6S and KS manifests predominantly as short stature and skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex), including atlantoaxial instability and cervical cord compression. However, abnormalities in the visual, auditory, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems can also affect individuals with MPS IVA. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical examination, skeletal radiographs, urinary GAG, and enzymatic activity of GALNS in blood cells or fibroblasts. Deficiency of GALNS activity is a common assessment for the laboratory diagnosis of MPS IVA; however, with recently increased availability, gene sequencing for MPS IVA is often used to confirm enzyme results. As multiple clinical presentations are observed, diagnosis of MPS IVA may require multi-system considerations. This review provides a history of defining MPS IVA and how the understanding of the disease manifestations has changed over time. A summary of the accumulated knowledge is presented, including information from the International Morquio Registry. The classical phenotype is contrasted with attenuated cases, which are now being recognized and diagnosed more frequently. Laboratory based diagnoses of MPS IVA are also discussed. PMID:23665161

  8. Review of clinical presentation and diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    PubMed

    Hendriksz, C J; Harmatz, P; Beck, M; Jones, S; Wood, T; Lachman, R; Gravance, C G; Orii, T; Tomatsu, S

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) was described in 1929 by Luis Morquio from Uruguay and James Brailsford from England, and was later found as an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. MPS IVA is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme, N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Reduced GALNS activity results in impaired catabolism of two glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS). Clinical presentations of MPS IVA reflect a spectrum of progression from a severe "classical" phenotype to a mild "attenuated" phenotype. More than 180 different mutations have been identified in the GALNS gene, which likely explains the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder. Accumulation of C6S and KS manifests predominantly as short stature and skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex), including atlantoaxial instability and cervical cord compression. However, abnormalities in the visual, auditory, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems can also affect individuals with MPS IVA. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical examination, skeletal radiographs, urinary GAG, and enzymatic activity of GALNS in blood cells or fibroblasts. Deficiency of GALNS activity is a common assessment for the laboratory diagnosis of MPS IVA; however, with recently increased availability, gene sequencing for MPS IVA is often used to confirm enzyme results. As multiple clinical presentations are observed, diagnosis of MPS IVA may require multi-system considerations. This review provides a history of defining MPS IVA and how the understanding of the disease manifestations has changed over time. A summary of the accumulated knowledge is presented, including information from the International Morquio Registry. The classical phenotype is contrasted with attenuated cases, which are now being recognized and diagnosed more frequently. Laboratory based diagnoses of MPS IVA are also discussed.

  9. Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy: Physiology, Clinical Presentation, and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy is a common condition associated with decreased estrogenization of the vaginal tissue. Symptoms include vaginal dryness, irritation, itching, soreness, burning, dyspareunia, discharge, urinary frequency, and urgency. It can occur at any time in a woman's life cycle, although more commonly in the postmenopausal phase, during which the prevalence is approximately 50%. Despite the high prevalence and the substantial effect on quality of life, vulvovaginal atrophy often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the physiology, clinical presentation, assessment, and current recommendations for treatment, including aspects of effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies.

  10. Sympathoinhibition and hypotension in carotid sinus hypersensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity is a known cause of syncope in humans. The condition is characterized by cardioinhibition and vasodepression, each to varying degrees. The extent and importance of sympathoinhibition has not been determined in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. This study reports on the extent of sympathoinhibition measured directly directly during carotid massage with and without atrioventricular sequential pacing, in a patient with symptomatic carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity. Carotid massage elicited asystole, hypotension and complete inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Carotid massage during atrioventricular pacing produced similar sympathoinhibition, but with minimal hypotension. Therefore, sympathoinhibition did not contribute importantly to the hypotension during carotid massage in the supine position in this patient. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relation of sympathoinhibition to hypotension in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity in the upright position.

  11. Orthostatic Hypotension: Mechanisms, Causes, Management

    PubMed Central

    Tomalia, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) occurs when mechanisms for the regulation of orthostatic BP control fails. Such regulation depends on the baroreflexes, normal blood volume, and defenses against excessive venous pooling. OH is common in the elderly and is associated with an increase in mortality rate. There are many causes of OH. Aging coupled with diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease results in a prevalence of 10-30% in the elderly. These conditions cause baroreflex failure with resulting combination of OH, supine hypertension, and loss of diurnal variation of BP. The treatment of OH is imperfect since it is impossible to normalize standing BP without generating excessive supine hypertension. The practical goal is to improve standing BP so as to minimize symptoms and to improve standing time in order to be able to undertake orthostatic activities of daily living, without excessive supine hypertension. It is possible to achieve these goals with a combination of fludrocortisone, a pressor agent (midodrine or droxidopa), supplemented with procedures to improve orthostatic defenses during periods of increased orthostatic stress. Such procedures include water bolus treatment and physical countermaneuvers. We provide a pragmatic guide on patient education and the patient-orientated approach to the moment to moment management of OH. PMID:26174784

  12. Rhinitis in children: common clinical presentations and differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Rotiroti, G; Roberts, G; Scadding, G K

    2015-03-01

    Rhinitis is a common presentation in childhood. Acute virally induced rhinitis is generally self-limiting and usually does not require medical attention. Whilst allergic rhinitis is the focus of the paediatric allergist, the presentation of other diseases or comorbidities that can complicate or mimic allergic rhinitis needs to be considered. Effects on the child's quality of life also need to be addressed. Rhinitis can be associated with asthma and other significant comorbidities: importantly, non-allergic rhinitis can sometimes be a consequence of systemic immune impairment. The diagnosis of rhinitis is based on clinical findings with directed investigations. Nasal nitric oxide measurement is an emerging diagnostic tool and helpful particularly in relation to evaluating the differential diagnosis in more difficult rhinitis. Successfully identifying the cause of rhinitis in childhood and associated comorbidities can ensure that the patient is successfully treated as described in the recently published EAACI Pediatric Rhinitis Position Paper.

  13. X linked adrenoleukodystrophy: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapy

    PubMed Central

    van Geel, B. M; Assies, J.; Wanders, R.; Barth, P.

    1997-01-01

    X linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disorder of peroxisomal metabolism, biochemically characterised by accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids. Accumulation of these fatty acids is associated with cerebral demyelination, peripheral nerve abnormalities, and adrenocortical and testicular insufficiency. The lowest estimated birth incidence is one per 100 000. At least six phenotypes can be distinguished, of which the two most frequent are childhood cerebral ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The X-ALD gene has been identified, but thus far no relation between genotype and phenotype has been found. Diagnosis is relatively easy and can be confirmed reliably, and prenatal testing is possible in affected families. Several therapeutic options, some with promising perspectives, are available. Neurologists and other physicians seem not to be familiar with the many facets of X-ALD. In this review, the clinical presentation, the relative frequencies of the different phenotypes, and the diagnostic and therapeutic options are presented.

 PMID:9221959

  14. Scrotal calcinosis: a very rare multiple clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Chiummariello, S; Figus, A; Menichini, G; Bellezza, G; Alfano, C

    2009-12-01

    Scrotal calcinosis (SC) is a rare benign disease that affects patients in childhood or early adulthood. It is characterized by slow-growing yellowish-white nodules consisting of deposits of calcium and phosphates, within the scrotal skin. The nodules vary in number, and can be solitary or grouped. Owing to the age of onset and anatomical location, SC may be a source of embarrassment and lead to social isolation. Because of its rarity, the aetiology of SC is still controversial. We report a very rare case of an SC in a 59-year-old white man who presented with multiple nodules with different clinical patterns in the scrotum, which had been present for > 42 years. Despite the rarity and the multiple long-lasting lesions, surgical excision of the scrotal nodules can offer a very good aesthetic outcome in a single procedure even under local anaesthesia.

  15. Multiple Uric Acid Bladder Stones: Clinical Presentation and Endoscopic Management

    PubMed Central

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Shen, Shujane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Bladder urinary calculi occur in 3%–8% of men with bladder outlet obstruction, and although most of them are composed of calcium, in a few cases uric acid bladder stones are diagnosed. Case Presentation: We present clinical images and therapeutic management of a 65-year-old diabetic man with significant prostate enlargement and >30 bladder stones, the largest being 17 mm. Despite the large stone burden, the patient was managed by cystolithotripsy. Remarkably, stone composition analysis revealed 100% uric acid stone. Intraoperative and postoperative course were uneventfully. Conclusion: Uric acid bladder stone pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial with local and systemic factors contributing in different manners and even large stone burdens may be cystoscopically managed. PMID:28265592

  16. Patients presenting to an outpatient sport medicine clinic with concussion

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Jérôme; Boisvert, Leslie; Fischer, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the characteristics of patients who presented to outpatient sport and exercise medicine clinics with concussion. Design Retrospective chart review of electronic medical records. Setting Three specialized sport and exercise medicine clinics in London, Ont. Participants A total of 283 patients presenting with concussion. Main outcome measures Data collected included demographic variables (age and sex), sport participation at the time of injury, previous medical history (including history of concussion), Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scores, and return-to-play (RTP) variables (delay and outcome). Results The mean age of patients presenting for care was 17.6 years; 70.9% of patients were younger than 18 years of age (considered pediatric patients); 58.8% of patients were male; and 31.7% of patients had a previous history of concussion. The main sports associated with injury were hockey (40.0%), soccer (12.6%), and football (11.7%). Return to play was granted to 50.9% of patients before the 3-week mark and 80.2% of patients before 8 weeks. Total PCSS scores (maximum score was 132) and neck scores (part of the PCSS, maximum score was 6) were significantly higher in adults compared with pediatric patients (36.2 vs 27.6, P = .02, and 1.8 vs 1.2, P = .02, respectively). A significant difference was seen in RTP, with pediatric patients returning earlier than adults did (P = .04). This difference was not seen when comparing males with females (P = .07). Longer duration of follow-up did not influence RTP outcomes. Previous history of concussion was associated with restriction from contact or collision sports (P < .001). Conclusion Given the age and sex variability found in this study, as well as in previous published reports, it is important to manage each patient individually using current best available practice strategies to optimize long-term outcomes.

  17. Unusual clinical presentation in two cases of multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Aguirre, M E; Kofman-Alfaro, S H; Rivera-Vega, M R; Medina, C; Valdes-Flores, M; Rizzo, W B; Cuevas-Covarrubias, S A

    2001-01-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is an inborn error of metabolism that combines the clinical features of late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis. The characteristic biochemical abnormality is a reduction in the activities of several sulfatases, with consequent tissue accumulation of sulfatides, sulfated glycosaminoglycans, sphingolipids, and steroid sulfates. In this study we present two unusual cases of MSD with variable enzymatic deficiency of arylsulfatases A, B, and C. Both patients had ichthyosis, broad thumbs and index fingers, an unusually slow progression of the neurologic symptoms, and lacked the hepatosplenomegaly that is typical of MSD. Olivopontocerebellar atrophy was present and one patient had a large retrocerebellar cyst. Mucopolysaccharides were not detected in the urine from either subject. Leukocyte arylsulfatase A activity in patient 1 was 0.46 nmol/mg protein/hr and in patient 2 was 0.0 nmol/mg protein/hr (normal 0.7-5.0 nmol/mg protein/hr). Leukocyte arylsulfatase B activity in patient 1 was 24 nmol/mg protein/hr and in patient 2 was 22 nmol/mg protein/hr (normal 115-226 nmol/mg protein/hr). Leukocyte arylsulfatase C in patient 1 was 0.30 pmol/mg protein/hr and in patient 2 was 0.28 pmol/mg protein/hr (normal 0.84 pmol/mg protein/hr). In conclusion, these two patients with MSD had mild clinical presentations not previously reported and variable enzymatic deficiency of arylsulfatases A, B, and C.

  18. Effects of Inspiratory Impedance on Hemodynamic Responses to a Squat-stand Test in Human Volunteers: Implications for Treatment of Orthostatic Hypotension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-28

    impedance on hemodynamic responses to a squat–stand test in human volunteers: implications for treatment of orthostatic hypotension Accepted: 14...Convertino et al. 1998; Fig. 3 ). In the present study, we used the beat-to-beat measurements of hemodynamic responses during the initial 10-s time interval of...to maintaining adequate cerebral blood perfusion as indicated by the significant amelio- ration of subjective symptoms. Clinical implications Breathing

  19. Graded Compression Stockings Prevent Post-spaceflight Orthostatic Hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, S. H.; Brown, A. K.; Locke, J.; Stenger, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance is characterized by hypotension and presyncope in 20-30% of returning astronauts. Previous data from our laboratory suggests that this is largely a result of decreased venous return. Currently, NASA astronauts wear an anti-gravity suit (AGS) which consists of inflatable air bladders over the calves, thighs and abdomen, which are typically pressurized from 0.5 to 1.5 PSI (27 to 78 mmHg). ISS crew members sometimes wear Russian Kentavr suits which consist of laced compression shorts and gaiters, providing 30 mmHg nominally. While these garments are effective during reentry, there are a number of drawbacks that make them impractical for postflight use. We studied the ability of commercially available, custom fit, graded compression stockings (Jobst, 55 mmHg at ankle to 6 mmHg at top of thigh, 25 mmHg mean compression) to prevent postflight orthostatic intolerance, hypothesizing that these garments would prevent orthostatic intolerance following short duration space flight. Crew members from a single Space Shuttle flight were tilted to 80 degrees for 10 min while wearing the stockings (n=5 males) upon arrival at the clinic (2 hrs after landing). Hemodynamic data were compared to data from all crewmembers tilted (without countermeasures) since return to flight (n=9). Two-way, repeated measures ANOVA, using the entire tilt time curve (0-10 min) show that systolic blood pressure (SBP, group effect p=0.008), stroke volume (SV, group effect p=0.003), and cardiac output (CO, group effect p=0.004) were higher in crewmembers who wore the Jobst stockings. A one-way ANOVA comparing the last minute standing also showed that SV (p=0.001) and CO (p less than 0.001) were higher and SBP tended to be higher (p=0.06) in Jobst subjects compared to controls. Control subjects had a higher rate of presyncope than Jobst subjects (3/9 vs 0/5) during the tilt on landing day. Orthostatic hypotension continues to present following spaceflight, despite

  20. Stress fractures: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Matcuk, George R; Mahanty, Scott R; Skalski, Matthew R; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Stress fracture, in its most inclusive description, includes both fatigue and insufficiency fracture. Fatigue fractures, sometimes equated with the term "stress fractures," are most common in runners and other athletes and typically occur in the lower extremities. These fractures are the result of abnormal, cyclical loading on normal bone leading to local cortical resorption and fracture. Insufficiency fractures are common in elderly populations, secondary to osteoporosis, and are typically located in and around the pelvis. They are a result of normal or traumatic loading on abnormal bone. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the hip or knee may cause acute pain that may present in the emergency setting. Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of stress injury of the tibia related to activity and is a clinical syndrome encompassing a range of injuries from stress edema to frank-displaced fracture. Atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy is also a recently discovered entity that needs early recognition to prevent progression to a complete fracture. Imaging recommendations for evaluation of stress fractures include initial plain radiographs followed, if necessary, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is preferred over computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. Radiographs are the first-line modality and may reveal linear sclerosis and periosteal reaction prior to the development of a frank fracture. MRI is highly sensitive with findings ranging from periosteal edema to bone marrow and intracortical signal abnormality. Additionally, a brief description of relevant clinical management of stress fractures is included.

  1. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo Part I: Background and clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Gabrielle M

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To review recent theories regarding the aetiology and pathophysiology of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), including its epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis. Data sources: Relevant studies were identified by searching MEDLINE from 1966 - March, 1997. Study selection: A total of 35 studies were selected on the basis of their relevance to Part I of this review. Data extraction: The findings and results of relevant studies and their subsequent theories and conclusions are discussed and compiled into a general overview of BPPV. Results of data synthesis: BPPV is considered the most common cause of vertigo of peripheral origin. A potential causal association has been observed with numerous apparent aetiological factors, all of which may lead to peripheral vestibular trauma. Findings of densities within the posterior semi-circular canal have given rise to the most recent theories regarding the pathophysiology for BPPV, canalithiasis and cupulolithiasis. Conclusions: BPPV is a multiaetiological peripheral vestibular disease whose underlying cause remains an enigma. The existing evidence supports two recent pathophysiological theories, cupulolithiasis and canalithiasis. Two conditions of special concern to the chiropractor, vertebrobasilar insufficiency and cervicogenic vertigo, closely ressemble BPPV, and can be differentiated by certain identifying features. BPPV may be diagnosed clinically, after ruling out conditions in which vertigo is a central feature. A review of the treatment for BPPV, focusing on recent physical treatments will be discussed in Part II of this paper.

  2. Five common clinical presentations in the elderly: An anatomical review.

    PubMed

    Collin, Peter G; Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; D'Antoni, Anthony V; Shane Tubbs, R

    2017-03-01

    Elderly patients face distinct health challenges and have an increased demand for specific medical procedures. As the aging population continues to increase, age-associated conditions such as congestive heart failure, hip fractures, spine degeneration, dementia, and airway compromise will increase in prevalence and procedures to correct these conditions will be increasingly performed. A clear understanding of the clinical anatomy of these diseases and procedures is imperative for anatomists and clinicians alike in order to best treat patients and continue to advance aging research and better teach future medical practitioners about the specific anatomy often involved in this group. The aging process mirrors in a variety of ways the common pathologies of the elderly, but it is key to draw the distinction between normal aging and pathology, particularly for congestive heart failure and dementia, in the clinical setting. This article aims to review the common presentations or procedures of the elderly and how the normal aging process is associated with the anatomy of these conditions or complications. Clin. Anat. 30:168-174, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Acquired haemophilia: Epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mingot-Castellano, Maria Eva; Núñez, Ramiro; Rodríguez-Martorell, Francisco Javier

    2017-04-07

    The development of circulating autoantibodies able to inhibit some coagulation proteins induces severe or even life-threatening bleeding. This disorder is called acquired haemophilia. This is a rare disease, although its impact may be underestimated because of the lack of records, the lack of knowledge by many specialists, the complexity of the laboratory diagnosis and, finally, because of the fulminant clinical presentation that often precludes diagnosis. Several studies established that mortality ranges between 9 and 33%. Not only haematologists but all physicians should be trained to follow the right steps to diagnose these patients as soon as possible in order to reduce such mortality rates. This review approaches the basic concepts dealing with the diagnosis and management of these patients and intends to assist physicians in identifying patients under suspicion of acquired haemophilia to correctly manage them and refer them to the appropriate Haemostasis Unit.

  4. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH): clinical presentation, aetiology and management.

    PubMed

    Weerheijm, K L

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the current knowledge about Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is presented. MIH is defined as hypomineralization of systemic origin of one to four permanent first molars frequently associated with affected incisors and these molars are related to major clinical problems in severe cases. At the moment, only limited data are available to describe the magnitude of the phenomenon. The prevalence of MIH in the different studies ranges from 3.6-25% and seems to differ in certain regions and birth cohorts. Several aetiological factors (for example, frequent childhood diseases) are mentioned as the cause of the defect. Children at risk should be monitored very carefully during the period of eruption of their first permanent molars. Treatment planning should consider the long-term prognosis of these teeth.

  5. Mosaic Trisomy 17: Variable Clinical and Cytogenetic Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Daber, Robert D.; Chapman, Kimberly A.; Ruchelli, Eduardo; Kasperski, Stefanie; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Thiel, Brian D.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Zackai, Elaine H.; Conlin, Laura K.; Spinner, Nancy B.

    2011-01-01

    Mosaic trisomy 17 is rare with only 28 cases reported and the clinical presentation is highly variable. The diagnosis is most commonly made by prenatal karyotype and in most cases is followed by a normal postnatal karyotype on blood lymphocytes. We present two cases of mosaic trisomy 17 diagnosed prenatally, with follow up in multiple tissues at birth. In the first case, trisomy 17 was identified in all amniocytes, and at birth standard results of chromosome analysis in peripheral blood were normal, but mosaic trisomy 17 was identified (50–75%) in skin fibroblasts by genome-wide SNP array analysis. This patient presented with minor anomalies, congenital heart disease, asymmetry, intestinal malrotation and died on day 9 of life. In the second patient amniocentesis after ultrasound finding of tetralogy of Fallot showed mosaic trisomy 17. Postnatally, results of a SNP array were normal in blood, buccal mucosa and skin. It is possible that the cardiac defect is related to trisomy 17 in key tissues during heart development, although at birth the aneuploidy could not be identified in tissues that are routinely analyzed for diagnosis. These cases add to our understanding of mosaic trisomy 17, highlighting the failure to diagnose this aneuploidy in peripheral blood. PMID:21998853

  6. On the mechanism of L-DOPA-induced postural hypotension in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Dhasmana, K. M.; Spilker, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    1. The effects of L-DOPA on postural hypotension and carotid occlusion pressor effect were studied, mainly in cats; the recovery of the blood pressure upon tilting was used as a measure of postural hypotension. 2. L-DOPA (30 mg/kg) partially depressed the carotid occlusion pressor effect and caused some degree of postural hypotension, L-DOPA (100 mg/kg) had more marked effects; the responses returned to control after 90 to 150 minutes. L-DOPA itself caused a pressor response in all cats. 3. The dopa decarboxylase inhibitor N1-(DL-seryl)-N2-(2,3,4-trihydroxybenzyl) hydrazine (RO4-4602, 50 and 10 mg/kg) had no effect itself on the tilt response but completely prevented the effects of L-DOPA on the carotid occlusion pressor effect and postural hypotension. 4. After RO4-4602 (3 and 1 mg/kg), L-DOPA (100 mg/kg) caused a brief rise of blood pressure followed by a longer lasting fall in horizontally-orientated cats (i.e. `supine' hypotension). No postural hypotension was observed after L-DOPA under these conditions. 5. Noradrenaline elicited only small and transient effects on postural hypotension, but dopamine's effects were more marked and longer lasting. Pressor dose-response relationships for noradrenaline were the same before and after L-DOPA, as well as in cats pretreated with L-DOPA for 4 days. 6. In cats with kidneys and intestines removed, the tilt reflex was still present. Dose-response curves to L-DOPA were the same as in normal animals. RO4-4602 (3 mg/kg) prevented postural hypotension and block of the carotid occlusion pressor effect; supine hypotension was also observed after L-DOPA. 7. The recovery response to tilting in spinal cats was markedly depressed or absent unless the blood pressure was elevated by angiotensin, in which experiments L-DOPA depressed the recovery upon tilting (i.e. induced postural hypotension). 8. Blood pressure responses to tyramine were increased after 10 mg/kg of L-DOPA, but depressed after 100 mg/kg. The response to tyramine was

  7. Memory Impairment at Initial Clinical Presentation in Posterior Cortical Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Husain, Masud; Thompson, Sian; Kipps, Christopher; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-04-23

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by core visuospatial and visuoperceptual deficits, and predominant atrophy in the parieto-occipital cortex. The most common underlying pathology is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Existing diagnostic criteria suggest that episodic memory is relatively preserved. The aim of this study was to examine memory performance at initial clinical presentation in PCA, compared to early-onset AD patients (EOAD). 15 PCA patients and 32 EOAD patients, and 34 healthy controls were entered into the study. Patients were tested on the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), consisting of subscales in memory and visuospatial skills. PCA and EOAD patients were significantly impaired compared to controls on the ACE total score (p < 0.001), visuospatial skills (p < 0.001), and memory (p < 0.001). Consistent with the salient diagnostic deficits, PCA patients were significantly more impaired on visuospatial skills compared to EOAD patients (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between patient groups in memory. Further analysis of learning, recall, and recognition components of the memory subscale showed that EOAD and PCA patients were significantly impaired compared to controls on all three components (p < 0.001), however, there was no significant difference between EOAD and PCA patients. The results of this study show that memory is impaired in the majority of PCA patients at clinical presentation. The findings suggest that memory impairment must be considered in assessment and management of PCA. Further study into memory in PCA is warranted, since the ACE-R is a brief screening tool and is likely to underestimate the presence of memory impairment.

  8. Progressively invalidating orthostatic hypotension: A common symptom for a challenging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pelusi, Serena; Lombardi, Rosa; Airaghi, Lorena; Burdick, Larry; Rango, Mario; Penatti, Alessandra; Fargion, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    We discuss here an uncommon condition of neurogenic hypotension in the context of immunoglobulin light chain (amyloid light-chain) amyloidosis. The most serious feature was autonomic nervous system impairment, mainly characterized by severe refractory orthostatic hypotension, which became progressively invalidating, forcing the patient to bed. Moreover, since the systemic involvement of the disease, the patient presented also diarrhea, dysphagia, asthenia, peripheral edema because of gastrointestinal, and kidney dysfunction. Eventually, the massive myocardial depression and infiltration led to a fatal outcome. PMID:28255325

  9. New optimized piperamide analogues with potent in vivo hypotensive properties.

    PubMed

    de Mattos Duarte, Carolina; Verli, Hugo; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Medeiros, Isac Almeida; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Fraga, Carlos Alberto Manssour

    2004-12-01

    We describe herein the structural optimization of new piperamide analogues, designed from two natural prototypes, piperine 1 and piperdardine 2, obtained from Piper tuberculatum Jacq. (Piperaceae). Molecular modeling studies using semiempirical AM1 method were made in order to establish rational modifications to optimize them by molecular simplification. The targeted compounds (10) and (11) were respectively obtained using benzaldehyde (12) and para-anisaldehyde (13) as starting materials. 1H NMR spectra showed that the target compounds were diastereoselectively obtained as the (E)-isomer, the same geometry of the natural prototypes. These new synthetic amides presented significant hypotensive effects in cardiovascular essays using in vivo methodologies. Compound 11 (N-[5-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-2(E)-pentenoyl]thiomorpholine) showed a potency 10,000 times greater than its prototype 5, evidencing an optimization of the molecular architecture for this class of hypotensive drug candidates.

  10. Clinical Presentation, Surgical Treatment, and Outcome in Radial Polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, R R; van Nieuwenhoven, C A; Hovius, S E R; Hülsemann, W

    2016-02-01

    Radial polydactyly or 'thumb duplication' is the most common congenital upper limb anomaly ('CULA') affecting the thumb. The clinical presentation is highly diverse, ranging from an extra thumb floating on a skin bridge to complicated thumb triplications with triphalangeal, deviating, and hypoplastic components. Radial polydactyly can be classified into one of 7 osseous presentations using the Wassel classification, with type IV (45%), type II (20%), and type VII (15%) occurring most frequently. When faced with a radial polydactyly case, hand surgeons specialised in congenital anomalies must weigh the preoperative functional potential and degree of hypoplasia of both thumbs in order to decide whether to resect one thumb and reconstruct the other ('resection and reconstruction'), excise a central part of both thumbs and unite the lateral tissues into one thumb ('the Bilhaut procedure'), transfer the better-developed distal tissues of one thumb onto the better-developed proximal tissues of the other ('on-top plasty'), or discard both severely hypoplastic thumbs and pollicise the index finger. Mere excision of the hypoplastic thumb is rarely indicated since it often requires subsequent revision surgery. Even after being treated by experienced surgeons, about 15% of patients with polydactyly will need additional procedures to correct residual and/or new problems such as deviation from the longitudinal axis and joint instability. Nevertheless, radial polydactyly patients usually achieve unimpaired everyday hand function postoperatively.

  11. Zika virus: History, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Song, Byung-Hak; Yun, Sang-Im; Woolley, Michael; Lee, Young-Min

    2017-03-03

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is now causing an unprecedented large-scale outbreak in the Americas. Historically, ZIKV spread eastward from equatorial Africa and Asia to the Pacific Islands during the late 2000s to early 2010s, invaded the Caribbean and Central and South America in 2015, and reached North America in 2016. Although ZIKV infection generally causes no symptoms or only a mild self-limiting illness, it has recently been linked to a rising number of severe neurological diseases, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because of the continuous geographic expansion of both the virus and its mosquito vectors, ZIKV poses a serious threat to public health around the globe. However, there are no vaccines or antiviral therapies available against this pathogen. This review summarizes a fast-growing body of literature on the history, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical presentation of ZIKV and highlights the urgent need for the development of efficient control strategies for this emerging pathogen.

  12. Clinical presentation of tuberculoid leprosy in an epidermodysplasia verruciformis patient.

    PubMed

    Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; Silva, Márcia G; Cristofano, Carlos; Crivelin, Luciana Leite; Calabreta, Carmela Beatriz Ramos; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Morgado de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez

    2012-06-15

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is triggered by a variety of mechanisms that at least partly include genetic background. We present a Brazilian man with a 30-year history of flat, wart-like lesions with clinical, histopathological, and evolutive aspects consistent with papillomavirus (HPV)-associated EV. Histological analysis of the wart lesions showed epidermis with hyperkeratosis, regular acanthosis, hypergranulosis, and cells with abundant basophilic cytoplasm. Moreover, a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate was found in the superficial dermis, consistent with a viral wart. Type-2-HPV DNA was detected in various fragments of skin-wart lesions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two years after the EV diagnosis, the patient presented with an anesthetic well-demarcated, erythematous and mildly scaly plaque on his right forearm. A histopathological analysis of this lesion demonstrated the presence of a compact tuberculoid granuloma. Ziehl-Neelsen staining demonstrated the presence of rare acid-fast bacilli and confirmed the tuberculoid leprosy diagnosis. The patient's Mitsuda Intradermal Reaction was positive. To elucidate the possible mechanism involved in this case of EV, we genotyped the HLA genes of this patient. DQB genotyping showed the polymorphic HLA alleles DQB1*0301 and 0501. The patient was treated with a paucibacillary multi-drug therapy scheme, and the disease was cured in six months. This report describes an EV patient with an M. leprae infection, confirming that tuberculoid leprosy patients possess a relatively specific and efficient cell-mediated immunity against the bacillus and, therefore, localized forms of the disease. Moreover, we show the possible involvement of the polymorphic HLA alleles DQB1*0301 and 0501 in EV induction mechanisms.

  13. Clinical Presentation of Klinefelter's Syndrome: Differences According to Age

    PubMed Central

    Pacenza, Néstor; Pasqualini, Titania; Gottlieb, Silvia; Knoblovits, Pablo; Costanzo, Pablo R.; Stewart Usher, Jorge; Rey, Rodolfo A.; Martínez, María P.; Aszpis, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the characteristics of presentation of 94 patients with Kinelfelter's syndrome (KS) referred to the endocrinologist at different ages. The diagnosis of KS was more frequent in the age group between 11 and 20 years (46.8%). Most of the patients (83.7%) showed the classic 47,XXY karyotype and 7.1% showed a 47,XXY/46,XY mosaicism. Half of the patients younger than 18 years presented mild neurodevelopmental disorders. The most frequent clinical findings were cryptorchidism in prepubertal patients, and small testes, cryptorchidism, and gynecomastia in pubertal patients. FSH, LH, AMH, and inhibin B levels were normal in prepubertal patients and became abnormal from midpuberty. Most adults were referred for small testes, infertility, and gynecomastia; 43.6% had sexual dysfunction. Testosterone levels were low in 45%. Mean stature was above the 50th percentile, and 62.5% had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2. In conclusion, the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome seems to be made earlier nowadays probably because pediatricians are more aware that boys and adolescents with neuro-developmental disorders and cryptorchidism are at increased risk. The increasing use of prenatal diagnosis has also decreased the mean age at diagnosis and allowed to get insight into the evolution of previously undiagnosed cases, which probably represent the mildest forms. In adults average height and weight are slightly higher than those in the normal population. Bone mineral density is mildly affected, more at the spine than at the femoral neck level, in less than half of cases. PMID:22291701

  14. Reversible coma and Duret hemorrhage after intracranial hypotension from remote lumbar spine surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Robert H; Bales, James W; Morton, Ryan P; Levitt, Michael R; Zhang, Fangyi

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial hypotension is a rare condition caused by spontaneous or iatrogenic CSF leaks that alter normal CSF dynamics. Symptoms range from mild headaches to transtentorial herniation, coma, and death. Duret hemorrhages have been reported to occur in some patients with this condition and are traditionally believed to be associated with a poor neurological outcome. A 73-year-old man with a remote history of spinal fusion presented with syncope and was found to have small subdural hematomas on head CT studies. He was managed nonoperatively and discharged with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15, only to return 3 days later with obtundation, fixed downward gaze, anisocoria, and absent cranial nerve reflexes. A CT scan showed Duret hemorrhages and subtle enlargement of the subdural hematomas, though the hematomas remained too small to account for his poor clinical condition. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a large lumbar pseudomeningocele in the area of prior fusion. His condition dramatically improved when he was placed in the Trendelenburg position and underwent repair of the pseudomeningocele. He was kept flat for 7 days and was ultimately discharged in good condition. On long-term follow-up, his only identifiable deficit was diplopia due to an internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Intracranial hypotension is a rare condition that can cause profound morbidity, including tonsillar herniation and brainstem hemorrhage. With proper identification and treatment of the CSF leak, patients can make functional recoveries.

  15. The clinical role of nurse lecturers: Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Barrett, David

    2007-07-01

    The clinical role of nurse lecturers has been the subject of much debate since the transfer of nurse education into Higher Education Institutions within the United Kingdom. This article provides a critical evaluation of the clinical role of nurse lecturers in terms of policy drivers and strategies for implementing national guidelines. Policies from the initiation of Project 2000, through to recent consultation documents on the support of students in practice, are evaluated. Formal aspects of the nurse lecturer remit, such as link tutor and personal supervisor roles, are discussed in terms of their impact on clinical practice. There is also a brief review of the development of the lecturer practitioner role as a bridge between education and practice. The fundamental arguments in support of nurse lecturers maintaining a clinical role in practice are analysed. This analysis includes consideration of the concept of 'clinical credibility' in terms of the impact on teaching and the closure of the theory-practice gap. The article concludes with suggestions for strategies to resolve the ongoing debate surrounding the clinical role of nurse lecturers. These recommendations include a review of staff:student ratios in nurse education, re-evaluation of the need for a clinical role, and the use of innovative recruitment and development strategies by higher education institutions.

  16. The clinical and hemodynamic presentation of the shock patient.

    PubMed

    Summers, G

    1990-06-01

    It is the nurse's responsibility to assess the critically ill patient and to interpret data so that therapy can be directed to optimally treat that individual. Shock is a complex progressive syndrome that includes specific types, such as cardiogenic, septic, anaphylactic, and hypovolemic. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters provide clues to the specific type of shock and its clinical progress. The progression of the shock state must be monitored by critical care nurses who are knowledgeable of and proficient in clinical assessment skills and the acquisition and interpretation of significant hemodynamic data.

  17. Genetics and molecular biology of hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Major strides in the molecular biology of essential hypertension are currently underway. This has tended to obscure the fact that a number of inherited disorders associated with low blood pressure exist and that these diseases may have milder and underrecognized phenotypes that contribute importantly to blood pressure variation in the general population. This review highlights some of the gene products that, if abnormal, could cause hypotension in some individuals. Diseases due to abnormalities in the catecholamine enzymes are discussed in detail. It is likely that genetic abnormalities with hypotensive phenotypes will be as interesting and diverse as those that give rise to hypertensive disorders.

  18. University Clinic of Toxicology--historical note and present work.

    PubMed

    Bozinovska, C

    2013-01-01

    The University Clinic of Toxicology (UCT) in Skopje was founded as the Clinic for Toxicology and Emergency Internal Medicine on January 15th 1976. Today UCT has a modern building with office space of 1,300 m2 on 4 floors, 40 hospital beds and 72 employees including 18 doctors. UCT works in accordance with the public healthcare services in the Republic of Macedonia through the use of specialist/consultative and hospital healthcare for people over the age of 14 years. The Clinic also provides services in the field of emergency internal medicine, acute poisoning with medications, pesticides, corrosives, poisonous gases and mushrooms, heavy metals and other chemicals. The Clinic takes an active part in the detoxification programme for users of opiates and psychotropic substances, protocols for enteral and parenteral nutrition and guides for home treatment. Yearly there are more than 14,000 ambulance admissions, over 1,400 hospitalized patients, over 4,000 urgent EHO checks, more than 1,000 urgent upper endoscopies and over 700 other toxicological analyses and other interventions. The educational services and activities are realized through the chair for internal medicine. The Clinic offers undergraduate and graduate level education for medical students and dentists, for medical nurses, radiology technicians, speech therapists and physiotherapists. Over 300 papers and reports have been published to date by the medical staff at the UCT in the form of abstracts and integrated projects in the Republic of Macedonia and aboard. 8 doctorates have been successfully completed by employees from the Clinic as well as 4 master's theses and 1 in-depth project. UCT employees are the authors of some textbooks and monographs. UCT have undertaken some scientific projects. Employees from the Clinic of Toxicology are members taking an active part in many domestic and international associations.

  19. [Presentation of the Department and Clinic of Dermatology and Venereology].

    PubMed

    Poljacki, Mirjana; Duran, Verica; Jovanović, Marina; Stojanović, Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    THE DEPARTMENT OF DERMATOVENEROLOGY: The Department of Dermatovenereology was established in 1963, as part of the Department of Internal Medicine with Professor Dimitrije Stanulović as its head. Since 1983, it has been an independent department of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad. DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES: The Department participates in undergraduate education of medical and dentistry students (serbian and english language), advanced training of graduate students specializing in dermatovenereology, general medicine, urgent and occupational medicine, pediatrics and subspecialists of oncology. During the period 1969-1999, the Department was included in work of the Department of Dermatovenereology of the Faculty of Medicine in Banja Luka. THE DEPARTMENT HISTORY: The Department of Dermatovenereology of the City Hospital in Novi Sad was founded in the 5th decade of the 20th century, and it was situated in Kisacka street, near the railway station. It became an independent institution: Dermatovenereology Clinic in 1963, part of the Clinical Center of Vojvodina in Novi Sad. THE DERMATOVENEREOLOGY CLINIC TODAY: The Dermatovenereology Clinic is a teaching facility, but also an institution for prevention, diagnosis and therapy of skin diseases of adnexal structures (sebaceous and sweat glands, hair, nails) and sexually transmitted diseases. The Clinic works both as an outpatient and an inpatient facility with male and female wings.

  20. Orthostatic Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) and Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Impulsive Behaviors Orthostatic Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) Pain Skeleton and Bone Health: Orthopedics and Parkinson’s Skin Changes ... Impulsive Behaviors Orthostatic Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) Pain Skeleton and Bone Health: Orthopedics and Parkinson’s Skin Changes ...

  1. Black raspberries in cancer clinical trials: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Kresty, Laura A.; Mallery, Susan R.; Stoner, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Black raspberries (BRB) inhibit a broad range of cancers in preclinical models, including in vivo models of oral, esophageal, colon, breast and skin cancer. Promising preclinical results have led to clinical evaluations in cancer patients or patients at increased risk for cancer development. OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical investigations targeting cancer or precancerous lesions with BRB and discuss future directions. METHODS A thorough literature search was conducted through December 1, 2015 to identify all published studies evaluating BRB in cancer focused clinical trials. RESULTS Research investigating BRB in clinical settings report positive effects on preneoplastic lesions or cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus and colon. BRB treatment resulted in: histologic regression of oral intraepithelial neoplasia associated with improved histologic grade and significantly reduced loss of heterozygosity at tumor suppressor gene loci, modulated genes linked to RNA processing and growth factor recycling; in the colon, BRB inhibited FAP-associated polyp progression, demethylated tumor suppressor genes and improved plasma cytokine profiles; in Barrett’s patients, BRB consumption increased tissue levels of GST-pi and decreased 8-isoprostane, a marker of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS The precise dose, duration and optimum mode of BRB delivery for cancer inhibition remains to be fully elucidated. Common themes across studies support that BRB are anti-proliferative, anti- inflammatory, reduce oxidative stress and restore tumor suppressive activity. Future directions are included in the conclusions section. PMID:27594930

  2. [MRI evaluation of cervicothoracic CSF hypotension].

    PubMed

    Maraval, A; Brugieres, P; Combes, C; Thomas, P; Blanc, R; Gaston, A

    2006-06-01

    We propose studying signs of cervicothoracic CSF hypotension by MRI. Axial T1-weighted GRE sequence with and without saturation bands positioned above and below the selected image plane, MR venography and MR Angiography with contrast administration are helpful to confirm the venous nature of the epidural thickening and to make the differential diagnosis with infectious or neoplastic epiduritis.

  3. Hypotension and hypovolemia during hemodialysis: is the usual suspect innocent?

    PubMed

    Berger, David; Takala, Jukka

    2016-06-09

    Hypotension during intermittent hemodialysis is common, and has been attributed to acute volume shifts, shifts in osmolarity, electrolyte imbalance, temperature changes, altered vasoregulation, and sheer hypovolemia. Although hypovolemia may intuitively seem a likely cause for hypotension in intensive care patients, its role in the pathogenesis of intradialytic hypotension may be overestimated.

  4. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Clinical presentation, epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention

    PubMed Central

    van Zuylen, Wendy J; Hamilton, Stuart T; Naing, Zin; Hall, Beverly; Shand, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common congenital infection causing serious disease in infants. It is the leading infectious cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental disability in developed countries. Despite the clinical importance of congenital cytomegalovirus, surveys show there is limited awareness and knowledge in the medical and general community about congenital cytomegalovirus infection. This article reviews the clinical features, global epidemiology, transmission and risk factors for cytomegalovirus infections. It also highlights several major advances made in recent years in the diagnosis and prevention of cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy. Although research is ongoing, no therapy is currently proven to prevent or treat maternal, fetal or neonatal cytomegalovirus infection. Education of women regarding hygiene measures can help prevent cytomegalovirus infection and are currently the best strategy to prevent congenital cytomegalovirus disease. PMID:27512442

  5. Multiple contributions to clinical presentation of flat affect in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mayer, M; Alpert, M; Stastny, P; Perlick, D; Empfield, M

    1985-01-01

    Flat affect has long been recognized as a central manifestation of schizophrenia, and has more recently been appreciated as a stable and prognostically important attribute of this disorder. Yet, because it is thought to be difficult to evaluate, flat affect has been deemphasized in criterion-based diagnostic systems. Results of this study suggest that the clinical evaluation of flat affect may be contaminated by a number of behaviorally similar processes. The components we identified included right hemisphere dysfunction, retardation and extrapyramidal effects, as well as the sequelae of hospitalization. Thus, in the clinical evaluation of flat affect, a multivariate approach in which these different components are considered separately might improve the reliability of evaluation and make this important sign more useful.

  6. Applications of PET CT in clinical practice: Present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Durval Campos

    2007-02-01

    Radionuclide imaging and specially positron emission tomography (PET) has already demonstrated its benefits in three major medical subjects, i.e. neurology, cardiology and particularly clinical oncology. More recently the combination of PET and X-ray computed tomography (CT) as PET-CT led to a significant increment of the already large number of clinical applications of this imaging modality. This "anatomy-metabolic fusion" also known as Metabolic Imaging has its future assured if we can: (1) improve resolution reducing partial volume effect, (2) achieve very fast whole body imaging, (3) obtain accurate quantification of specific functions with higher contrast resolution and, if possible, (4) reduce exposure rates due to the unavoidable use of ionizing radiation.

  7. Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, and Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Birmaher, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the past 20 years, the evidence regarding pediatric bipolar disorder (BP) has increased substantially. As a result, recent concerns have focused primarily on prevalence and differential diagnosis. Method Selective review of the literature. Results BP as defined by rigorously applying diagnostic criteria has been observed among children and especially adolescents in numerous countries. In contrast to increasing diagnoses in clinical settings, prevalence in epidemiologic studies has not recently changed. BP-spectrum conditions among youth are highly impairing and confer high risk for conversion to BP-I and BP-II. Compared to adults, youth with BP have more mixed symptoms, more changes in mood polarity, are more often symptomatic and seem to have worse prognosis. The course, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities of BP among children and adolescents are in many ways otherwise similar to those of adults with BP. Nonetheless, many youth with BP receive no treatment and most do not receive BP-specific treatment. Conclusion Despite increased evidence supporting the validity of pediatric BP, discrepancies between clinical and epidemiologic findings suggest that diagnostic misapplication may be common. Simultaneously, low rates of treatment of youth with BP suggest that withholding of BP diagnoses may also be common. Clinicians should apply diagnostic criteria rigorously in order to optimize diagnostic accuracy and ensure appropriate treatment. PMID:22652925

  8. Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: underestimated cause of hypotension and hemodynamic instability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, which is typically associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, is the third most frequent cause of unexplained hypotension. This underestimated problem may temporarily accompany various diseases (it is found in even <1% of patients with no tangible cardiac disease) and clinical situations (hypovolemia, general anesthesia). It is currently assumed that left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is a dynamic phenomenon, the occurrence of which requires the coexistence of predisposing anatomic factors and a physiological condition that induces it. The diagnosis of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction should entail immediate implementation of the therapy to eliminate the factors that can potentially intensify the obstruction. Echocardiography is the basic modality in the diagnosis and treatment of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. This paper presents four patients in whom the immediate implementation of bedside echocardiography enabled a rapid diagnosis of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and implementation of proper treatment. PMID:26674265

  9. Neurofibromatosis clinical presentations: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Robert G; Waddell, Brad M; Willson, Robert D

    1987-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NFT) is an autosomal dominant disorder. Several distinctive clinical features may be discovered in the presence of the disease, including ècafé au laité spots, cutaneous neurofibromas, axillary freckling, Lisch nodules, and a positive familial history. Chiropractic management of this condition should include early recognition, appropriate supportive referral and symptomatic treatment of accompanying biomechanical dysfunctions. Early diagnosis will not only permit appropriate assessment, but will allow for vital genetic counselling. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

  10. Ebola virus disease - pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management.

    PubMed

    Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Piatek, Anna; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    On March 2014 the WHO notified the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea, and infection quickly spread to another West African countries including Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. Current outbreak is the largest in the history, since discovery of the virus in 1976. Imported cases and infection among healthcare workers in Europe and United States have elucidated necessity of better education of medical staff. Clinicians must be familiar with clinical picture of EVD, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, as rapid diagnosis and prompt introduction of supportive therapy can have a significant impact on the survival.

  11. [Past, Present, and Future of National Clinical Database].

    PubMed

    Iwanaka, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    The National Clinical Database of Japan( NCD) was established in April 2010 in the collaboration of 9 surgical subspecialty societies on the platform of the Japan Surgical Society(JSS). Registrations began in 2011, and because NCD is strongly linked to the board certification system by JSS, the ratio of registration of surgical procedures is very high, over than 97%. To date, more than 4,000 facilities have enrolled and over 7 million cases were registered over a 5-year period. The analyses of NCD are compared to the foreign database, such as American College of Surgeon National Surgical Quality Improvement Program in the gastrointestinal (GI) surgical field, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Adult Cardiac Database in the cardiovascular surgical field, with a goal of creating a standardized surgery database for quality improvement. Also, from 2014, NCD has started to send feedback reports of mortality and morbidity to participants in the 8 GI procedures, namely esophagectomy, gastrectomy, hepatectomy and so on. Furthermore, NCD supports many clinical researches for providing high-quality healthcare to patients and the general public. NCD's activities are conducted lawfully and ethically with due consideration of its effects on society. NCD will continue to ensure the reliability of collected data, to guarantee the scientific analysis, and to discuss the future evolution.

  12. Clinical presentation of intoxication due to synthetic cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joanna; Morrison, Sephora; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Saidinejad, Mohsen

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are relatively novel substances of abuse. The use of these compounds among adolescents and young adults has been increasing, making it important for pediatric providers to be familiar with the presenting signs and symptoms of intoxication. We describe three case presentations of reported synthetic cannabinoid intoxication and provide a brief discussion of these compounds.

  13. MUSCLE INJURY – PHYSIOPATHOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND CLINICAL PRESENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Pedrinelli, André; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue has the largest mass in the human body, accounting for 45% of the total weight. Muscle injuries can be caused by bruising, stretching or laceration. The current classification divides such injuries into mild, moderate and severe. The signs and symptoms of grade I lesions are edema and discomfort; grade II, loss of function, gaps and possible ecchymosis; and grade III, complete rupture, severe pain and extensive hematoma. The diagnosis can be confirmed by: ultrasound, which is dynamic and cheap, but examiner dependent; and tomography or magnetic resonance, which gives better anatomical definition, but is static. Initial phase of the treatment can be summarized as the “PRICE” protocol. NSAIDs, ultrasound therapy, strengthening and stretching after the initial phase and range of motion without pain are used in clinical treatment. On the other hand, surgery has precise indications: hematoma drainage and muscle-tendon reinsertion and reinforcement. PMID:27047816

  14. Paraneoplastic polymyositis presenting as a clinically occult breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Merali, N; Yousuff, M; Pronisceva, V; Poddar, A

    2017-02-01

    Paraneoplastic syndrome affects less than 1% of cancer patients. Diagnosis of paraneoplastic syndrome with neurological presentation requires screening for an underlying malignancy, including a complete history, physical examination and imaging studies. Treatment often results in symptom stability, rather than improvement. Paraneoplastic polymyositis can precede or instantaneously occur at diagnosis or treatment of a primary tumour, while neurological symptoms can persist even following cancer treatment. We report a rare case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an unusual presentation of paraneoplastic polymyositis.

  15. Clinical presentation and diagnostic approach in cases of genitourinary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Rakesh; Ansari, M. S.; Mandhani, Anil; Gulia, Anil

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We herein describe the various modes of presentation in genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) and a simple diagnostic approach to it. Materials and Methods: We made a literature search through Medline database and various other peer-reviewed online journals to study the various modes of presentation in GUTB. We reviewed over 100 articles published in the last 10 years (1998 -- 2007), which were tracked through the key words like GUTB and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Results: GUTB has varied presentation and the most common way of presentation is in the form of irritative voiding symptoms, which are found in more than 50% of the patients. The usual frequency of organ involvement is: kidney, bladder, fallopian tube, and scrotum. The usual tests used to diagnose GUTB are the demonstration of mycobacterium in urine or body fluid and radiographic examination. Intravenous urography (IVU) has been considered to be one of the most useful tests for the anatomical as well as the functional details of kidneys and ureters. In cases of renal failure, MRI can be used. Newer examinations such as radiometric liquid culture systems (i.e., BACTEC®, Becton Dickinson, USA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) give rapid results and are highly sensitive in the identification of mycobacterium. Conclusion: GUTB can involve any part of the genitourinary system and presentation may vary from vague urinary symptoms to chronic kidney disease. Newer tests like radiometric liquid culture systems and polymerase chain reaction give rapid results and carry high diagnostic value. PMID:19468477

  16. Pathophysiological basis of orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, A. A.; Halliwill, J. R.; Low, P. A.; Wieling, W.

    1999-01-01

    In patients with autonomic failure orthostatic hypotension results from an impaired capacity to increase vascular resistance during standing. This fundamental defect leads to increased downward pooling of venous blood and a consequent reduction in stroke volume and cardiac output that exaggerates the orthostatic fall in blood pressure. The location of excessive venous blood pooling has not been established so far, but present data suggest that the abdominal compartment and perhaps leg skin vasculature are the most likely candidates. To improve the orthostatic tolerance in patients with autonomic failure, protective measures that reduce excessive orthostatic blood pooling have been developed and evaluated. These measures include physical counter-manoeuvres and abdominal compression.

  17. Clinical presentation and operative repair of hernia of Morgagni

    PubMed Central

    Loong, T; Kocher, H

    2005-01-01

    A 77 year old woman who presented with an incarcerated hernia of Morgagni was successfully treated without complications. A Medline search (1996 to date) along with cross referencing was done to quantify the number of acute presentations in adults compared to children. Different investigating modalities—for example, lateral chest and abdominal radiography, contrast studies or, in difficult cases, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging—can be used to diagnose hernia of Morgagni. The favoured method of repair—laparotomy or laparoscopy—is also discussed. A total of 47 case reports on children and 93 case reports on adults were found. Fourteen percent of children (seven out of 47) presented acutely compared with 12% of adults (12 out of 93). Repair at laparotomy was the method of choice but if uncertain, laparoscopy would be a useful diagnostic tool before attempted repair. Laparoscopic repair was favoured in adults especially in non-acute cases. PMID:15640427

  18. Extreme clinical presentations of venous stasis: coronary sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Amit; Sideras, Panagiotis; Javaid, Mian; Muralidharan, Sethu; Stevens-Cohen, Pilar

    2013-11-01

    Sixty six year old male with history of heart failure was admitted for dysphagia, weight loss. CT scan chest revealed diffuse oesophageal wall thickening. Upper endoscopy, oesophagogram confirmed diagnosis of achalasia. TTE revealed severely reduced biventricular systolic function with LVEF 10%; PASP 75-80 mmHg. Parasternal long views showed dilated coronary sinus with a visible, mobile 2.0 cm thrombus. Pro-thrombotic workup was negative. Coronary sinus thrombosis has been identified as a rare complication to invasive cardiac procedures causing damage to coronary sinus endothelium and in hypercoagulable states.Typically acute thrombosis presents with chest pain, dynamic ECG changes, but chronic development does not present with ischaemic signs due to formation of efficient collateral circulation. We present a case report of stable primary coronary sinus thrombus incidentally diagnosed, secondary to chronic venous stasis in coronary circulation. Currently, there are no guidelines to assist physicians in long term management of such patients and thus warrants further investigations.

  19. Impact of malnutrition on clinical presentation, clinical course, and mortality in MDR-TB patients.

    PubMed

    Podewils, L J; Holtz, T; Riekstina, V; Skripconoka, V; Zarovska, E; Kirvelaite, G; Kreigere, E; Leimane, V

    2011-01-01

    Despite the adoption of strategies to prevent and treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) over the past decade, Latvia continues to have one of the highest rates of MDR-TB in the world. It is important to identify modifiable factors that may impact on MDR-TB patient outcomes. A study was conducted to elucidate the association between nutritional status and clinical presentation, clinical course, and mortality in 995 adult patients treated for MDR-TB from 2000 to 2004. Twenty percent of patients were underweight, defined as a body mass index <18·5, at the time of diagnosis. These patients were significantly more likely to have clinical evidence of advanced disease, and had a greater risk of experiencing ≥3 side-effects [adjusted odds ratio 1·5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1-2·1] and death (adjusted hazard ratio 1·9, 95% CI 1·1-3·5) compared to patients who were normal or overweight. Interventions aimed at these high-risk patients, including nutritional supplementation as an adjunct to anti-TB therapy, should be considered and evaluated by TB programmes.

  20. Clinical presentation and diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Naoya; Maeda, Takuya; Mikita, Kei; Kato, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Suganuma, Akihiko; Imamura, Akifumi; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohnishi, Kenji; Ajisawa, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    Distinguishing life-threatening toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) from brain lymphoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be difficult. Empiric anti-toxoplasmosis treatment is often initiated because of the reluctance in performing brain biopsies, which may delay the diagnosis and treatment of brain lymphoma in Japan. In this study, we retrospectively examined the clinical characteristics of 13 AIDS patients with TE in Japan, including magnetic resonance imaging and thallium 201 (201TI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings, cerebral spinal fluid analysis, serology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. All patients improved on anti-toxoplasmosis treatment. Of the 11 patients who underwent serological testing, 6 (55%) had a positive serological result. Of the 7 patients who underwent PCR testing, 3 (42.9%) had a positive PCR result. Nine of 11 patients with TE (81.8%) had multiple lesions. Analysis of the sites of TE lesions did not reveal a difference in site predilection between TE and brain lymphoma. Uptake was negative in all 9 patients who underwent 201Tl SPECT. The study findings suggest that toxoplasma serostatus and PCR may be used to discriminate TE from brain lymphoma. No focal accumulation of 201TI is strongly suggestive of TE in patients with AIDS in Japan.

  1. Horner Syndrome Following Thyroid Surgery: The Clinical and Pharmacological Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Gizzi, Corrado; Fresina, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical and pharmacological findings of a patient with iatrogenic Horner syndrome (HS) which occurred after thyroid surgery. Case Report: A 29-year-old man was referred to our emergency ward due to anisocoria and unilateral eyelid ptosis reported by the patient immediately after a recent thyroidectomy for a papillary carcinoma. Ophthalmologic examination revealed 3 mm ptosis of the right eyelid. In dim illumination, the right and left pupil size was measured 3 and 6 mm, respectively. In bright illumination, the amount of anisocoria decreased; the near pupillary reaction was intact. Brain and neck magnetic resonance imaging and chest radiography were normal. Pharmacological tests with 10% cocaine, 1% hydroxyamphetamine and 1% phenylephrine localized the interruption of the oculosympathetic pathway with postganglionic third-order neuron involvement. After 6 months of follow-up, no sign of recovery was recorded. Conclusion: Despite HS could appear to be a rare complication of thyroid surgery, it is of importance for the neck surgeons to be aware that oculosympathetic pathway (OSP) is a potentially vulnerable structure with close anatomical relationship with the thyroid gland, and for the ophthalmologists that HS may occur secondary to neck surgery and taking an accurate history is mandatory. PMID:27994816

  2. [Hepato-splenic hemangiosarcoma: presentation of a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Antoniello, L; Cohen, H; Rondán, M; Rodríguez, J; Fosman, E

    1989-09-01

    A 65-year-old farmer who had used arsenic as a plaguicide for many years developed a hepatosplenic hemangiosarcoma with metastasis in the colonic serosa, mesentery and omental. The tumor was complicated with intraabdominal hemorrhage originated by spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture. The echographic and post-mortem findings are presented. This is the first case of hepatic hemangiosarcoma reported in Uruguay.

  3. Unusual Clinical Presentations of Cervical or Lumbar Dorsal Ramus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Jae; Ko, Myeong Jin; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Young Baeg; Chung, Chan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with cervical (CDRS) or lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome (LDRS) are characterized by neck or low back pain with referred pain to upper or lower extremities. However, we experienced some CDRS or LDRS patients with unusual motor or bladder symptoms. We analyzed and reviewed literatures on the unusual symptoms identified in patients with CDRS or LDRS. Methods This study included patients with unusual symptoms and no disorders of spine and central nervous system, a total of 206 CDRS/LDRS patients over the past 3 years. We diagnosed by using double diagnostic blocks for medial branches of dorsal rami of cervical or lumbar spine with 1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine for each block with an interval of more than 1 week between the blocks. Greater than 80% reduction of the symptoms, including unusual symptoms, was considered as a positive response. The patients with a positive response were treated with radiofrequencyneurotomy. Results The number of patients diagnosed with CDRS and LDRS was 86 and 120, respectively. Nine patients (10.5%) in the CDRS group had unusual symptoms, including 4 patients with motor weakness of the arm, 3 patients with tremors, and rotatory torticollis in 2 patients. Ten patients (8.3%) in the LDRS group showed unusual symptoms, including 7 patients with motor weakness of leg, 2 patients with leg tremor, and urinary incontinence in 1 patient. All the unusual symptoms combined with CDRS or LDRS were resolved after treatment. Conclusion It seems that the clinical presentationssuch as motor weakness, tremor, urinary incontinence without any other etiologic origin need to be checked for unusual symptoms of CDRS or LDRS. PMID:25110484

  4. Appendiceal Crohn’s disease clinically presenting as acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hulin; Kim, Hyunsung; Rehman, Abdul; Jang, Se Min; Paik, Seung Sam

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the incidence of appendiceal Crohn’s disease (CD) and to summarize the characteristic histologic features of appendiceal CD. METHODS: We reviewed the pathology files of 2179 appendectomy specimens from January 2007 to May 2013. The computer-assisted retrieval search facility was utilized to collect specimens. We selected those cases that were diagnosed as CD or chronic granulomatous inflammation and defined the final diagnosis according to the histologic findings of CD, including transmural lymphocytic inflammation, non-caseating epithelioid granulomas, thickening of the appendiceal wall secondary to hypertrophy of muscularis mucosa, mucosal ulceration with crypt abscesses, mucosal fissures, and fistula formation. RESULTS: We found 12 cases (7 male and 5 female patients, with an average age of 29.8 years) of appendiceal CD. The incidence of appendiceal CD was 0.55%. The chief complaints were right lower quadrant pain, abdominal pain, lower abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The duration of symptom varied from 2 d to 5 mo. The histologic review revealed appendiceal wall thickening in 11 cases (92%), transmural inflammation in all cases (100%), lymphoid aggregates in all cases (100%), epithelioid granulomas in all cases (100%), mucosal ulceration in 11 cases (92%), crypt abscesses in 5 cases (42%), perforation in 2 cases (17%), muscular hypertrophy in 1 case (8%), neural hyperplasia in 5 cases (42%), and perpendicular serosal fibrosis in 8 cases (67%). CONCLUSION: A typical and protracted clinical course, unusual gross features of the appendix and the characteristic histologic features are a clue in the diagnosis of appendiceal CD. PMID:25516865

  5. Dental extraction for patients presenting at oral surgery student clinic.

    PubMed

    Baqain, Zaid H; Khraisat, Ameen; Sawair, Faleh; Ghanam, Sana; Shaini, Firas J; Rajab, Lamis D

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reasons for dental extraction and to determine the pattern of tooth loss in patients seeking care at the oral surgery teaching clinics in the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, over a 3-year period. Data pertaining to the dental extractions of 2435 patients were analyzed. The results showed that 63.8% of the teeth included in this study were extracted because of dental caries, 22.9% because of periodontal disease, and 11.0% for prosthetic reasons. Pericoronitis, orthodontic treatment, trauma, and eruption problems accounted for 2.4% of the reported extractions. The upper premolars were the teeth most commonly extracted, and the lower first and second molars were the teeth most commonly extracted because of dental caries. The logistic regression test revealed that extraction because of dental caries occurred mostly in the group aged 21 to 30 years (P < .001). Periodontal disease was not likely the cause of extraction in patients younger than 40 years. Mandibular incisors were the teeth least likely extracted because of dental caries (P < .001), but they were the teeth most commonly extracted because of periodontal disease (P < .001). Extraction for orthodontic reasons mostly involved the premolars (P < .05) and occurred in patients 20 years of age or younger (P < .001). Men were less likely to lose teeth because of caries and periodontal disease (P < .05 and P < .001, respectively) and were more likely to lose teeth for prosthetic reasons and trauma. The information gained from this study is useful to shift oral health planning toward emphasizing the importance of maintaining natural dentition and preventing dental disease.

  6. Primary biliary cirrhosis: Pathophysiology, clinical presentation and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Treta; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune, slowly progressive, cholestatic, liver disease characterized by a triad of chronic cholestasis, circulating anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), and characteristic liver biopsy findings of nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis and interlobular bile duct destruction. About 10% of PBC patients, however, lack AMA. A variant, called PBC-autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) overlap, is characterized by the above findings of PBC together with findings of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, elevated serum immunoglobulin G, and circulating anti-smooth muscle antibodies, with liver biopsy demonstrating periportal or periseptal, lymphocytic, piecemeal necrosis. PBC is hypothesized to be related to environmental exposure in genetically vulnerable individuals. It typically occurs in middle-aged females. Prominent clinical features include fatigue, pruritis, jaundice, xanthomas, osteoporosis, and dyslipidemia. The Mayo Risk score is the most widely used and best prognostic system. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the primary therapy. It works partly by reducing the concentration and injury from relatively toxic bile acids. PBC-AIH overlap syndrome is treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and corticosteroids, especially budesonide. Obeticholic acid and fibrate are promising new, but incompletely tested, therapies. Liver transplantation is the definitive therapy for advanced disease, with about 70% 10-year survival after transplantation. Management of pruritis includes local skin care, dermatologist referral, avoiding potential pruritogens, cholestyramine, and possibly opioid antagonists, sertraline, or rifaximin. Management of osteoporosis includes life-style modifications, administration of calcium and vitamin D, and alendronate. Statins are relatively safe to treat the osteopenia associated with PBC. Associated Sjogren’s syndrome is treated by artificial tears, cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion to stimulate tear production; and saliva

  7. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: clinical presentation with varied forms of lesions.

    PubMed

    Sá, Naiana Bittencourt de; Guerini, Marina Besen; Barbato, Mariana Tremel; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen

    2011-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare inherited skin disorder spread by HPV, with cases linked to chromosome X. It is characterized by hypo- or hyper-pigmented macular lesions, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and an early tendency to develop skin malignancies. We present a case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis with a variety of lesions such as multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma on the face.

  8. [Orthostatic hypotension: an unusual manifestation of pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Rodrigo; Acosta, Pamela; Valdés, Gloria

    2003-12-01

    Pheochromocytoma, though an uncommon cause of hypertension, can be a lethal condition. Because of this it is mandatory to diagnose it or rule it out in presence of suggestive symptoms. Typical symptoms are palpitations, sweating, severe headaches and hypertension. However, there are other suggestive symptoms of this dangerous endocrine entity, one of which is the orthostatic hypotension. We report the case of a 65 years old female patient with long standing hypertension in whom the pheochromocytoma was suspected after episodes of orthostatic hypotension. Although this manifestation was described almost fifty years ago, its frequency and pathophysiology has not yet been well established and fully elucidated. Moreover, it has meaningful implications in relation to preoperatory management and the timing of surgery.

  9. Atrial Fibrillation and Ventricular Arrhythmias: Sex Differences in Electrophysiology, Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Anne M

    2017-02-07

    Sex-specific differences in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, clinical treatment, and clinical outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF), sustained ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death are recognized. Sex hormones cause differences in cardiac electrophysiological parameters between men and women that may affect the risk for arrhythmias. The incidence and prevalence of AF is lower in women than in men. However, because women live longer and AF prevalence increases with age, the absolute number of women with AF exceeds that of men. Women with AF are more symptomatic, present with more atypical symptoms, and report worse quality of life in comparison with men. Female sex is an independent risk factor for death or stroke attributable to AF. Oral anticoagulation therapy for stroke prevention has similar efficacy for men and women, but older women treated with warfarin have a higher residual risk of stroke in comparison with men. Women with AF are less likely to receive rhythm control antiarrhythmic drug therapy, electric cardioversion, or catheter ablation in comparison with men. The incidence and prevalence of sustained ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death are lower in women than in men. Women receiving implantable cardioverter defibrillators for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death are less likely to experience sustained ventricular arrhythmias in comparison with men. In contrast, women receiving a cardiac resynchronization therapy implantable cardioverter defibrillator for the treatment of heart failure are more likely to benefit than men. Women are less likely to be referred for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy despite current guideline recommendations. Women are more likely to experience a significant complication related to implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in comparison with men. Whether sex differences in treatment decisions reflect patient preferences or treatment biases requires

  10. Neurogenic Hyperadrenergic Orthostatic Hypotension – A Newly-recognized Variant of Orthostatic Hypotension in Older Adults with Elevated Norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Philip L; Shibao, Cyndya A.; Garland, Emily M; Black, Bonnie K; Biaggioni, Italo; Diedrich, André; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Robertson, David; Raj, Satish R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (OH) typically have impaired sympathetic nervous system tone and therefore low levels of upright plasma norepinephrine. We report a subset of patients who clinically have typical neurogenic OH but who paradoxically have elevated upright levels of plasma norepinephrine. We retrospectively studied 83 OH patients evaluated at the Vanderbilt Autonomic Dysfunction Center between August 2007 and May 2013. Based upon standing norepinephrine, patients were dichotomized into a hyperadrenergic orthostatic hypotension group (hyperOH: upright NE ≥3.55 nmol/L [600 pg/mL], n=19) or a non-hyperadrenergic orthostatic hypotension group (nOH: upright NE < 3.55 nmol/L [600 pg/mL], n=64). Medical history and data from autonomic testing, including the Valsalva maneuver (VM), were analyzed. HyperOH patients had profound orthostatic falls in blood pressure, but less severe than in nOH (change in SBP: −53±31 mmHg vs. −68±33 mmHg, P=0.050; change in DBP: −18±23 mmHg vs. −30±17 mmHg, P=0.01). The expected compensatory increase in standing heart rate was similarly blunted in both hyperOH and nOH groups (84±15 bpm vs. 82±14 bpm; P=0.6). HyperOH patients had less severe sympathetic failure as evidenced by smaller falls in DBP during phase 2 of VM, and a shorter VM phase 4 blood pressure recovery time (16.5±8.9 sec vs. 31.6±16.6 sec; P<0.001) than nOH patients. Neurogenic hyperOH patients have severe neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, but have less severe adrenergic dysfunction than nOH patients. Further work is required to understand if hyperOH patients will progress to nOH or if this represents a different disorder. PMID:25706983

  11. Digital Device in Postextraction Implantology: A Clinical Case Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Borgonovo, A. E.; Rigaldo, F.; Battaglia, D.; Giannì, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this work is to describe a case of immediate implant placement after extraction of the upper right first premolar, with the use of CAD/CAM technology, which allows an early digital impression of the implant site with an intraoral scanner (MHT 3D Progress, Verona, Italy). Case Report. A 46-year-old female was referred with a disorder caused by continuous debonding of the prosthetic crown on the upper right first premolar. Clinically, there were no signs, and the evaluation of the periapical radiograph showed a fracture of the root, with a mesial well-defined lesion of the hard tissue of the upper right first premolar, as the radiolucent area affected the root surface of the tooth. It was decided, in accordance with the patient, that the tooth would be extracted and the implant (Primer, Edierre implant system, Genoa, Italy) with diameter of 4.2 mm and length of 13 mm would be inserted. After the insertion of the implant, it was screwed to the scan abutment, and a scan was taken using an intraoral scanner (MHT 3D Progress, Verona, Italy). The scanned images were processed with CAD/CAM software (Exocad DentalCAD, Darmstadt, Germany) and the temporary crown was digitally drawn (Dental Knowledge, Milan, Italy) and then sent to the milling machine for production with a composite monoblock. After 4 months, when the implant was osteointegrated, it was not necessary to take another dental impression, and the definitive crown could be screwed in. Conclusion. The CAD/CAM technology is especially helpful in postextraction implant for aesthetic rehabilitation, as it is possible to immediately fix a provisional crown with an anatomic shape that allows an optimal healing process of the tissues. Moreover, the removal of healing abutments, and the use of impression copings, impression materials, and dental stone became unnecessary, enabling the reduction of the chair time, component cost, and patient's discomfort. However, it is still necessary for scientific

  12. Clinical presentation, assessment and management of pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lavallee, Layla

    2015-07-08

    Pre-eclampsia is a complex and unpredictable disorder that may occur during pregnancy. Its presentation ranges from mild to severe, and the condition may lead to the death of the mother and/or the baby in extreme cases. The earlier the disorder is detected and managed, the better the outcome. This article provides an outline of the disorder and its management, within the framework of UK and international guidelines. A series of suggested activities encourages the reader to reflect on the information provided within the context of their practice.

  13. Adenoid cystic carcinoma - Clinical presentation and cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, N N; Baruah, R; Das, L

    2002-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a tumor arising from the minor salivary glands, the palate being the commonest site. It accounts for about 1% of all head and neck malignancies. We report a case with the typical presentation of a palatal growth with extensive intra-cranial invasion. The diagnosis of this case and a brief review of literature is discussed. Final diagnosis of this case was made from cytological reports. The dry smears stained with MGG were found to be definitely superior to the alcohol fixed slides stained with papanicolaou. The aim here is to highlight the importance of cytology in the diagnosis of such tumors.

  14. [Eosinophilic esophagitis--pathogenesis, clinical presentation and therapeutic management].

    PubMed

    von Arnim, U; Mönkemüller, K; Malfertheiner, P; Straumann, A

    2007-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a relatively new, chronic, TH 2-type allergic inflammation of the esophagus. EE occurs more frequently in men. Allergic diseases such as asthma or atopic dermatitis are present in 50-70 % of patients or their relatives. In adults, the most common presenting symptom of EE is dysphagia, with or without food bolus impaction. Endoscopic findings of EE include mucosal furrows, corrugated or concentric rings or ridges in the esophagus ("feline esophagus"), with or without tiny whitish exudates. The diagnosis is confirmed by the observation of high counts of eosinophils in the esophageal epithelium (at least 24 /HPF). The cornerstones of medical therapy are either topical or systemic corticosteroids. Additional therapies included leukotriene receptor antagonists (montelukast) and IL-5 blockers (Mepolizumab). Complications of EE such as esophageal strictures should be carefully dilated using either bougies or a balloon. Currently it is still not known whether the late complications of EE can be prevented by the use of anti-inflammatory agents and this can only be demonstrated through further long-term follow-up studies.

  15. Paroxysmal hemicrania as the clinical presentation of giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Beams, Jennifer L; Rozen, Todd D

    2011-09-28

    Head pain is the most common complaint in patients with giant cell arteritis but the headache has no distinct diagnostic features. There have been no published reports of giant cell arteritis presenting as a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. We describe a patient who developed a new onset headache in her fifties, which fit the diagnostic criteria for paroxysmal hemicrania and was completely responsive to corticosteroids. Removal of the steroid therapy brought a reemergence of her headaches. Giant cell arteritis should be considered in the evaluation of secondary causes of paroxysmal hemicrania; in addition giant cell arteritis needs to be ruled out in patients who are over the age of 50 years with a new onset trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia.

  16. Paroxysmal hemicrania as the clinical presentation of giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Beams, Jennifer L.; Rozen, Todd D.

    2011-01-01

    Head pain is the most common complaint in patients with giant cell arteritis but the headache has no distinct diagnostic features. There have been no published reports of giant cell arteritis presenting as a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. We describe a patient who developed a new onset headache in her fifties, which fit the diagnostic criteria for paroxysmal hemicrania and was completely responsive to corticosteroids. Removal of the steroid therapy brought a reemergence of her headaches. Giant cell arteritis should be considered in the evaluation of secondary causes of paroxysmal hemicrania; in addition giant cell arteritis needs to be ruled out in patients who are over the age of 50 years with a new onset trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. PMID:24765352

  17. Clinical presentations of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, F M; Narcisi, P; Nicholls, A C; Liberman, M; Oorthuys, J W

    1988-01-01

    Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV is an often lethal disease caused by various mutations of type III collagen genes. It presents in infancy and childhood in several ways, and the symptoms and signs include low birth weight, prematurity, congenital dislocation of the hips, easy inappropriate bruising (sometimes suspected as child battering), and a diagnostic facial phenotype. These features predict a lethal adult disease often complicated by fatal arterial rupture in early or middle adult life. Most affected patients can be diagnosed from radiolabelled collagen protein profiles by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Prenatal diagnosis by specific type III collagen restriction fragment length polymorphisms is possible in some families, and will become increasingly important. Prenatal diagnosis and prevention of the disease in selected families is already possible and will be widely available in the future. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 PMID:3178263

  18. Clinical presentation of rheumatic fever in an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Cann, Megan P; Sive, Alan A; Norton, Robert E; McBride, William J H; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2010-06-01

    This study documented whether patients diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in North Queensland, Australia, conformed to the 1992 Revised Jones Criteria (RJC). The authors aimed to determine whether inclusion of subclinical carditis (SCC) and monarthritis as major manifestations and a low-grade temperature as a minor manifestation in the RJC are justified in this population. A retrospective review of patients in whom the diagnosis of ARF relied on the experience of clinicians and who were admitted to the Townsville and Cairns Base Hospitals between 1997 and 2007 was undertaken. Of the 98 cases reviewed, 71.4% satisfied the RJC. Modification of the RJC increased the rate of criteria satisfaction to 91.8%. On presentation, 27 patients had SCC. Of the patients with SCC followed up, 70.5% had long-term valvular consequences. In populations endemic for ARF, monarthritis, SCC and a low-grade temperature should be included in the RJC.

  19. Hypotension induced by the concomitant use of a calcium-channel blocker and clarithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Sayako; Tsujimoto, Toshihide

    2017-01-01

    In the elderly, calcium-channel blockers are the first-line treatment for hypertension, and macrolides are commonly prescribed antibiotics. Here we report a 78-year-old man taking nifedipine, diltiazem and carvedilol who presented with persistent hypotension and bradycardia after clarithromycin was prescribed. He was diagnosed with drug-induced hypotension and treated with fluid resuscitation and vasoactive agents. His symptoms gradually improved. He was transferred out of the intensive care unit 3 days after hospitalisation. Combining calcium-channel blockers and clarithromycin can cause vasodilatory hypotension. The concomitant use of calcium-channel blockers and macrolide antibiotics increases the levels of calcium-channel blockers in the blood as they are metabolised by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), which is inhibited by macrolide antibiotics. Moreover, the addition of another calcium-channel blocker and a β blocker can lower cardiac output due to bradycardia and worsen hypotension. Therefore, it is important to consider drug interactions when the cause of hypotension is unknown. PMID:28069789

  20. Masses of the pineal region: clinical presentation and radiographic features.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Frank; Jones, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    The pineal gland is important in structure, function and in the pathology that can affect it. The significance of the pathology of the gland and its adjacent structures is twofold: anatomical location, and biological behaviour of many of the lesions. The gland is in a critical anatomic location, and as the dorsal portions of the midbrain are compressed, patients may present with obstructive hydrocephalus, and/or with focal neurology. Masses and tumours of the pineal region range widely in behaviour, from the completely benign (eg, pineal cyst) to highly malignant (eg, pineoblastoma). Masses in the pineal region may be benign cysts (most common mass), tumours of various sources as well as rare vascular malformations that result in mass effect. Tumours of the pineal region represent a variety of histologies. Germ cell tumours are the most common: germinomas (50%), teratoma (15%), and choricocarcinoma (5%). Primary tumours of the pineal region make up 15% of all pineal tumours and represent a spectrum of aggressiveness. Other less common tumours also occur in the pineal region including metastatic spread and direct invasion from tumours arising in adjacent structures. Accurate diagnosis is essential to plan appropriate management, and early referral for medical imaging is a necessary first step. Although there is significant overlap in the imaging characteristics of some pineal masses, a distinction between aggressive and benign lesions is usually possible, and invaluable preoperative information is obtained in patients who require histological diagnosis.

  1. [Lung eosinophilic syndrome: clinical presentation and cases report].

    PubMed

    Egea, N; Merlo, A; Esponda, L; Cazaux, A; Cambursano, V H; Cortés, J R

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de eosinofilia pulmonar se caracteriza por un grupo de patologías que presentan afección clínico – radiológica pulmonar con eosinofilia periférica o en parénquima pulmonar en su evolución. Materiales y métodos: Se describen las características de presentaciones clínico-radiológicas y evolutivas de pacientes atendidos entre 2007 y 2010 en Hospital Rawson. Resultados: Sobre 8 casos, se observó mayor número de casos en mujeres. Los signos y síntomas principales fueron tos, disnea, fiebre y sibilancias. Los hallazgos radiológicos más prevalentes fueron patrón alveolar y alveolointersticial. En la TAC el más frecuente fue el patrón en vidrio esmerilado. La eosinofilia periférica presentó valores entre 550 y 10.000 cel/mm3. Los pacientes fueron abdordados inicialmente como neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en el 62% de los casos. Los diagnósticos principales realizados fueron neumonía eosinofílica aguda y crónica, ambas con respuesta a esteroides. Conclusiones: El síndrome de eosinofilias pulmonares comparte características clínico-radiológicas comunes con entidades de mayor prevalencia, particularmente NAC.

  2. Metastatic Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer Presenting Clinically with Esophageal Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Cuison, Reuben

    2017-01-01

    Background. Intra-abdominal metastases of invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC) may be insidious. We report a case of metastatic ILBC that presented with dysphagia within weeks of a negative mammogram and before the development of intra-abdominal symptoms. Case. A 70-year-old female developed esophageal dysphagia. She underwent EGD which showed a short segment of stricture of the distal esophagus without significant mucosal changes. Biopsy was unremarkable and patient underwent lower esophageal sphincter (LES) dilation. Severe progressive dysphagia led to esophageal impaction and three LES dilatations. CT scan showed bilateral pleural effusions, more prominent on right side, and ascites. The pleural effusions were transudative. Repeat EGD with biopsy showed lymphocytic esophagitis, and she was started on swallowed fluticasone. Abdominal ultrasound with Doppler showed that the main portal vein had atypical turbulent flow that was felt to possibly be due to retroperitoneal process. The patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy which revealed diffuse punctate lesions on the peritoneum. Pathology was consistent with metastatic ILBC. Conclusion. Dysphagia in the setting of peritoneal carcinomatosis from metastatic ILBC is a rare finding. The case highlights the importance of metastatic ILBC as a differential diagnosis for female patients with progressive dysphagia and associated ascites or pleural effusions. PMID:28191357

  3. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of adrenal: clinical presentation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Deep; Shivaprasad, K S; Das, Ram Narayan; Ghosh, Sujoy; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2013-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of adrenal is an extremely rare tumor of neural crest origin. A nonfunctional left adrenal mass (14.6 × 10.5 × 10.0 cm) on computed tomography (CT) was detected in a 40-year-old lady with abdominal pain, swelling, and left pleural effusion. She underwent left adrenalectomy and left nephrectomy with retroperitoneal resection. Histopathology revealed sheets and nest of oval tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, scanty cytoplasm, brisk mitotic activity, necrosis, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and extension to the surrounding muscles; staining positive for Mic-2 (CD-99 antigen), vimentin, synaptophysin, and Melan-A. Thoracocentesis, pleural fluid study, and pleural biopsy did not show metastasis. She responded well to vincristine, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide followed by ifosfamide and etoposide (IE). This is the first report of adrenal peripheral PNET (pPNET) from India. This report intends to highlight that pPNET should be suspected in a patient presenting with huge nonfunctional adrenal mass which may be confused with adrenocortical carcinoma.

  4. Effect of sertraline hydrochloride on dialysis hypotension.

    PubMed

    Dheenan, S; Venkatesan, J; Grubb, B P; Henrich, W L

    1998-04-01

    Hemodialysis hypotension (HH) is a very common disorder and has a multifactorial etiology. Autonomic dysfunction occurs in up to 50% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and plays a key role in HH in some patients. Sertraline hydrochloride, a central nervous system serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to be an effective treatment of hypotension caused by autonomic dysfunction in disorders such as neurocardiogenic syncope and idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. This study sought to determine whether sertraline was effective in ameliorating HH. A retrospective chart analysis was performed that included nine consecutive patients (aged > or = 54 years, time on hemodialysis > or = 2.2 years) placed on sertraline (50 to 100 mg/d) for depression who also had HH (defined as prehemodialysis systolic blood pressure [SBP] < or = 100 mm Hg, > or = 40 mm Hg decrease in SBP during hemodialysis, SBP <90 mm Hg, any diastolic blood pressure <40 mm Hg, or a decrease in blood pressure-causing symptoms) before treatment with sertraline. The data from a 6-week pre-sertraline period were compared with the data from a 6-week sertraline period (defined as 6 weeks after drug begun). Blood pressure medications were unchanged during the trial period of sertraline. However, nadir mean arterial pressure recorded during a given dialysis session in the pre-sertraline period (55+/-4 mm Hg) was significantly lower than that recorded in the sertraline period (68+/-5 mm Hg; P < 0.05). In addition, the number of hypotensive episodes (same definition as HH) per dialysis session during the sertraline period was significantly lower than that during the pre-sertraline period (mean, 0.6+/-0.2 episodes per session v 1.4+/-0.3 episodes per session; P < 0.005). The number of therapeutic interventions required for hypotension during the sertraline period was also significantly less than that during the pre-sertraline period (mean, 1.7+/-0.8 interventions v 11.0+/-3.0 interventions; P < 0

  5. Correlation between clinical presentation and urodynamic findings in women attending urogynecology clinic

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Deeksha; Anna, Gasser; Hana, Ottenschlaeger; Christian, Fuenfgeld

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Urodynamic studies objectively observe lower urinary tract function and dysfunction so that an appropriate treatment can be planned. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the role of urodynamic studies in the final diagnosis and management plan in patients attending an urogynecology clinic. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in an urogynecology clinic. 202 women were included. After detailed history, pelvic examination and introital sonography these women were subjected to urodynamic study. During the filling cystometry detrusor activity, first desire to void and bladder capacity was recorded. This was followed by urethral pressure measurements, when functional urethral length, maximum urethral closure pressure and stress urethral pressure profile was recorded. Results: Most prevalent complaint was mixed urinary incontinence (33.17%), followed by stress incontinence (31.68%) and urge incontinence (13.37%). According to the standard urodynamic definition 66.33% were normal in the population studied. None of the urodynamic parameters individually or in combination were found to be very useful for establishing a diagnosis. Conclusion: Establishment of the final diagnosis of urinary incontinence and planning of management should be based on detailed history, physical examination, bladder diaries, and careful interpretation of urodynamic data. Urodynamic study; however, doesn’t seem to be imperative to establish a diagnosis in uncomplicated cases where symptoms and signs are reliable and correlating. PMID:24672187

  6. Blood Pressure Drop Prediction by using HRV Measurements in Orthostatic Hypotension.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Giovanna; Melillo, Paolo; Stranges, Saverio; De Pietro, Giuseppe; Pecchia, Leandro

    2015-11-01

    Orthostatic Hypotension is defined as a reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure within 3 minutes of standing, and may cause dizziness and loss of balance. Orthostatic Hypotension has been considered an important risk factor for falls since 1960. This paper presents a model to predict the systolic blood pressure drop due to orthostatic hypotension, relying on heart rate variability measurements extracted from 5 minute ECGs recorded before standing. This model was developed and validated with the leave-one-out cross-validation technique involving 10 healthy subjects, and finally tested with an additional 5 healthy subjects, whose data were not used during the training and cross-validation process. The results show that the model predicts correctly the systolic blood pressure drop in 80 % of all experiments, with an error rate below the measurement error of a sphygmomanometer digital device.

  7. [Clinical types of FTLD: progressive nonfluent aphasia; comparative discussions on the associated clinical presentations].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Toshiya

    2009-11-01

    Progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) is one of the 3 clinical presentations of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the other 2 being frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia (SD). PNFA and SD, both representing relentlessly progressive language impairment in the realm of FTLD, may share a large part with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). A salient distinction between PPA and PNFA or SD is that PPA includes another clinical type, namely, logopenic/phonemic aphasia (LPA), which is not represented in FTLD. This is primarily because LPA is usually caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the brunt of the lesion is localized at the left temporo-parietal region of the brain. Further, PNFA/SD should be limited to the clinical consequencies of FTLD while PPA is more generous with regard to its causal pathology. By definition, PNFA is an expressive language impairment which is characterized by effortful speech, phonemic errors, grammatical impairment, and word-finding difficulties. Reading and writing may be comparatively impaired. Comprehension of single word meaning is normal, while comprehension of sentencies may sometimes be impaired. PNFA should be differentiated from SD, LPA, and pure progressive apraxia of speech (AOS or alternatively referred to as aphemia or anarthria). SD may be distinguished from PNFA by virtue of its fluency, characteristic loss of word meaning and absence of agrammatism. LPA is similar to PNFA, yet differs in that there is preservation of grammatical skills and speech motor function that is devoid of AOS and/or dysarthria. AOS is an impairment at the level of speech motor programming without language impairment. Thus, there may be a double dissociation between AOS and PNFA i. e., PNFA may or may not accompany AOS and vice versa. PNFA is associated with a localized lesion in the left frontotemporal area of the brain. Immunohistochemical investigations have revealed that ubiquitin/TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDA-43) positive and tau

  8. Hypotension During Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure Is Independently Associated With 30-Day Mortality: Findings from ASCEND-HF

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyesh A.; Heizer, Gretchen; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Schulte, Phillip J.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Hasselblad, Vic; Mills, Roger M.; McMurray, John J.; Starling, Randall C.; Wilson Tang, W. H.; Califf, Robert M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Outcomes associated with episodes of hypotension while hospitalized are not well understood. Methods and Results Using data from ASCEND-HF, we assessed factors associated with inhospital hypotension and subsequent 30-day outcomes. Patients were classified as having symptomatic or asymptomatic hypotension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with in-hospital hypotension, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between hypotension and 30-day outcomes. We also tested for treatment interaction with nesiritide on 30-day outcomes and the association between inhospital hypotension and renal function at hospital discharge. Overall, 1555/7141 (21.8%) patients had an episode of hypotension, of which 73.1% were asymptomatic and 26.9% were symptomatic. Factors strongly associated with in-hospital hypotension included randomization to nesiritide (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76–2.23; p<0.001), chronic metolazone therapy (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.60; p<0.001), and baseline orthopnea (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13–1.52; p=0.001) or S3 gallop (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06–1.40; p=0.006). In-hospital hypotension was associated with increased hazards of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% CI 1.57–2.61; p<0.001), 30-day heart failure (HF) hospitalization or mortality (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.34–1.86; p<0.001), and 30-day all-cause hospitalization or mortality (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.22–1.61; p<0.001). Nesiritide had no interaction on the relationship between hypotension and 30-day outcomes (interaction p=0.874 for death, p=0.908 for death/HF hospitalization, p=0.238 death/all-cause hospitalization). Conclusions Hypotension while hospitalized for acute decompensated HF is an independent risk factor for adverse 30-day outcomes, and its occurrence highlights the need for modified treatment strategies. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT

  9. Therapy and clinical trials in frontotemporal dementia: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Richard M.; Boxer, Adam L.

    2017-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common form of dementia with heterogeneous clinical presentations and distinct clinical syndromes. This article will review currently available therapies for FTD, its related disorders and their clinical evidence. It will also discuss recent advancements in FTD pathophysiology, treatment development, biomarker advancement and their relation to recently completed or currently ongoing clinical trials as well as future implications. PMID:27306957

  10. Dopamine-resistant hypotension and severe retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Melissa; Miyagi, Shogo; Wickremasinghe, Andrea C.; Lucas, Sarah Scarpace; de Alba Campomanes, Alejandra G.; Good, William V.; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the cause or severity of hypotension and the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity (sROP) (≥ stage 3 or stage 2 with plus disease in Zone I or II).. Study design Infants (<28 weeks’ gestation, n=242) were observed for hypotension and treated with a standardized hypotension-treatment protocol. Hypotension was classified as resulting from one of the following causes: (a) culture-positive infection and/or necrotizing enterocolitis, (b) PDA ligation, or (c) “idiopathic” (no cause identified other than prematurity), and as being either dopamine-responsive or dopamine-resistant. Cortisol levels were measured for infants with dopamine-resistant hypotension. Eye examinations were performed until the ROP resolved or the vasculature matured. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the cause/severity of hypotension and sROP. Results Overall, 66% of infants developed hypotension (41% were dopamine-responsive and 25% were dopamine-resistant). sROP developed in 19% of infants. “Idiopathic” dopamine-resistant hypotension was the only cause significantly related to sROP. 66% of infants with dopamine-resistant hypotension had low serum cortisol (≤10 μg/dL). Low cortisol, in the presence of dopamine-resistant hypotension, was significantly associated with sROP and accounted for the relationship between “idiopathic” hypotension and sROP. When low cortisol was included in statistical models, other known risk factors, such as immature gestation, were no longer significantly related to sROP. Conclusion Low cortisol, in the presence of dopamine-resistant hypotension, has the greatest magnitude of association with sROP. PMID:23465406

  11. Alanine increases blood pressure during hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of L-alanine administration on blood pressure (BP) during haemorrhagic shock was investigated using anesthetized rats whose left carotid arteries were cannulated for BP measurement, blood removal, and drug administration. It was found that L-alanine, in doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, increased the systolic BP of hypotensive rats by 38 to 80 percent (while 100 mg/kg pyruvate increased BP by only 9.4 mmhg, not significantly different from saline). The results suggest that L-alanine might influence cardiovascular function.

  12. Orthostatic hypotension. Causes, evaluation, and management.

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, A S

    1992-01-01

    Chronic orthostatic hypotension is caused by a variety of disorders. Frequently patients withdraw from social interactions, are prone to adverse drug reactions and inappropriate diagnoses, and are bed-bound by the time of diagnosis. Applying basic principles of cardiovascular physiology and pharmacology usually permits these patients to lead active lives and to live longer. Much of the management is based on common sense and knowledge of the basic pathophysiology of the disorder and depends on thorough patient education and close monitoring of blood pressure in many of the activities of daily living. PMID:1475949

  13. Optimizing the respiratory pump: harnessing inspiratory resistance to treat systemic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Convertino, Victor A; Ryan, Kathy L; Rickards, Caroline A; Glorsky, Steven L; Idris, Ahamed H; Yannopoulos, Demetris; Metzger, Anja; Lurie, Keith G

    2011-06-01

    We review the physiology and affects of inspiration through a low level of added resistance for the treatment of hypotension. Recent animal and clinical studies demonstrated that one of the body's natural response mechanisms to hypotension is to harness the respiratory pump to increase circulation. That finding is consistent with observations, in the 1960s, about the effect of lowering intrathoracic pressure on key physiological and hemodynamic variables. We describe studies that focused on the fundamental relationship between the generation of negative intrathoracic pressure during inspiration through a low level of resistance created by an impedance threshold device and the physiologic sequelae of a respiratory pump. A decrease in intrathoracic pressure during inspiration through a fixed resistance resulting in a pressure difference of 7 cm H(2)O has multiple physiological benefits, including: enhanced venous return and cardiac stroke volume, lower intracranial pressure, resetting of the cardiac baroreflex, elevated cerebral blood flow oscillations, increased tissue blood flow/pressure gradient, and maintenance of the integrity of the baroreflex-mediated coherence between arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. While breathing has traditionally been thought primarily to provide gas exchange, studies of the mechanisms involved in animals and humans provide the physiological underpinnings for "the other side of breathing": to increase circulation to the heart and brain, especially in the setting of physiological stress. The existing results support the use of the intrathoracic pump to treat clinical conditions associated with hypotension, including orthostatic hypotension, hypotension during and after hemodialysis, hemorrhagic shock, heat stroke, septic shock, and cardiac arrest. Harnessing these fundamental mechanisms that control cardiopulmonary physiology provides new opportunities for respiratory therapists and others who have traditionally focused on

  14. Essential Hypotension Is Accompanied by Deficits in Attention and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duschek, Stefan; Matthias, Ellen; Schandry, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the relationship between low blood pressure (BP) and attentional performance through the application of a multidimensional diagnostic approach. The authors compared 40 subjects with essential hypotension (mean systolic BP = 97.6 mmHg) with 40 normotensive controls (mean systolic BP = 124.1 mmHg) using…

  15. Noninvasive diagnosis and management of spontaneous intracranial hypotension in patients with marfan syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Luigi; Graffeo, Christopher S.; Behrooz, Navid; Tyagi, Vineet; Wilson, Taylor; Penaranda, Saul; Zagzag, David; Rifkin, Daniel B; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Fatterpekar, Girish; Placantonakis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an uncommon clinical entity. Heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTD), such as Marfan syndrome, are frequently implicated as an underlying cause, due to dural structural weaknesses that predispose patients to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Due to the high prevalence of multi-system disease in HCTD, diagnosis and treatment are often complicated. Case Description: We present a 58-year-old female with Marfan syndrome on anticoagulation for a mechanical aortic valve replacement who came to medical attention with severe, acute-onset headache following a straining episode. Noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) myelography confirmed thoracic CSF extravasations and multiple lumbar diverticula. The patient was treated conservatively and her symptoms resolved. Conclusion: We discuss the common presentation, diagnostic tools, and treatment options for spontaneous CSF leaks in patients with Marfan syndrome or related HCTD with an emphasis on noninvasive modalities and a review of the major radiographic criteria used to diagnose dural abnormalities, such as dural ectasia. PMID:24575323

  16. Pathophysiology of the Cardiovascular System and Neonatal Hypotension.

    PubMed

    Shead, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    Hypotension is common in low birth weight neonates and less common in term newborns and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Determining an adequate blood pressure in neonates remains challenging for the neonatal nurse because of the lack of agreed-upon norms. Values for determining norms for blood pressure at varying gestational and postnatal ages are based on empirical data. Understanding cardiovascular pathophysiology, potential causes of hypotension, and assessment of adequate perfusion in the neonatal population is important and can assist the neonatal nurse in the evaluation of effective blood pressure. This article reviews cardiovascular pathophysiology as it relates to blood pressure and discusses potential causes of hypotension in the term and preterm neonate. Variation in management of hypotension across centers is discussed. Underlying causes and pathophysiology of hypotension in the neonate are described.

  17. Opportunities for Web-based Drug Repositioning: Searching for Potential Antihypertensive Agents with Hypotension Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kejian; Wan, Mei; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug repositioning refers to the process of developing new indications for existing drugs. As a phenotypic indicator of drug response in humans, clinical side effects may provide straightforward signals and unique opportunities for drug repositioning. Objective We aimed to identify drugs frequently associated with hypotension adverse reactions (ie, the opposite condition of hypertension), which could be potential candidates as antihypertensive agents. Methods We systematically searched the electronic records of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) through the openFDA platform to assess the association between hypotension incidence and antihypertensive therapeutic effect regarding a list of 683 drugs. Results Statistical analysis of FAERS data demonstrated that those drugs frequently co-occurring with hypotension events were more likely to have antihypertensive activity. Ranked by the statistical significance of frequent hypotension reporting, the well-known antihypertensive drugs were effectively distinguished from others (with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > 0.80 and a normalized discounted cumulative gain of 0.77). In addition, we found a series of antihypertensive agents (particularly drugs originally developed for treating nervous system diseases) among the drugs with top significant reporting, suggesting the good potential of Web-based and data-driven drug repositioning. Conclusions We found several candidate agents among the hypotension-related drugs on our list that may be redirected for lowering blood pressure. More important, we showed that a pharmacovigilance system could alternatively be used to identify antihypertensive agents and sustainably create opportunities for drug repositioning. PMID:27036325

  18. Analyzing Clinical Presentation, Service Utilization, and Clinical Outcome of Female Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Heather C.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examining clinically-relevant trends for sexual minority women have found evidence of psychological distress and greater utilization of mental health services compared to heterosexually-identified women. However, the results of many research studies with this population have methodological limitations surrounding recruitment of…

  19. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension resulting from a thoracic osteophyte.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ling-Chien; Hsu, Yung-Chu

    2015-06-01

    We report a 34-year-old woman who presented with progressive postural headache and neck tightness over 1week. We confirmed the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) and spinal images showed a thoracic osteophyte caused the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. SIH caused by spinal CSF leak is generally thought to be a consequence of deficiency of the spinal meninges in conjunction with trivial trauma. Less commonly, spinal bony pathology can lead to SIH. We reviewed 13 reported patients with bony structural pathology related SIH. After two to three epidural blood patches, eight patients underwent surgery. They generally had good outcomes. In conclusion, even though surgical repair confers specific risks, it should be considered after repetitive failures of epidural blood patches. The long-term prognoses of surgical versus non-surgical patients warrants further investigation.

  20. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension – management update and role of droxidopa

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Joy; Sharma, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is defined as a significant decrease in blood pressure (BP) during the first 3 minutes of standing or a head up on a tilt table. Symptoms of OH are highly variable, ranging from mild light-headedness to recurrent syncope. OH occurs due to dysfunction of one or more components of various complex mechanisms that interplay closely to maintain BP in a normal range during various physiological and associated disease states. Various biochemical and electrophysiological studies are often undertaken to assess the severity and etiology of OH. In addition to the lifestyle modifications, various medications that stimulate the adrenergic receptors or increase central blood volume are used in patients with OH. Droxidopa is a newer agent that increases the levels of norepinephrine in postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Management strategies for OH are presented, including the mechanism of action of droxidopa and various studies performed to assess its efficacy. PMID:26089676

  1. Pathophysiology and management of spontaneous intracranial hypotension--a review.

    PubMed

    Syed, Nadir Ali; Mirza, Farhan Arshad; Pabaney, Aqueel Hussain; Rameez-ul-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome involving reduced intracranial pressure secondary to a dural tear which occurs mostly due to connective tissue disorders such as Marfans Syndrome, and Ehler Danlos Syndrome. Patients with dural ectasias leading to CSF leakage into the subdural or epidural space classically present with orthostatic headaches and cranial nerve deficits mostly seen in cranial nerves V-VIII. Diagnosis of SIH is confirmed with the aid of neuroimaging modalities of which Cranial MR imaging is most widely used. SIH can be treated conservatively or with epidural blood patches which are now widely being used to repair dural tears, and their effectiveness is being recognized. Recently epidural injection of fibrin glue has also been used which has been found to be effective in certain patients.

  2. Effects of propranolol in a case of orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed Central

    Brevetti, G; Chiariello, M; Lavecchia, G; Rengo, F

    1979-01-01

    In a hypertensive patient with orthostatic hypotension, the changes in several haemodynamic indices with respect to posture were evaluated. In the upright position, systemic blood pressure was reduced as compared with the supine position, and peripheral vasodilation was present, as shown by an increase in Jantsch's index of the impedance plethysmographic tracings. Systolic time intervals remained unchanged with changes in posture. Propranolol 10 mg intravenously brought the response to normal. In fact, after beta-blockade in the standing position the blood pressure remained unchanged and normal peripheral vasoconstriction was observed. Similar results were seen during atrial pacing at a constant heart rate of 130 beats/minute. In this patient, propranolol appears to normalise the response to the posture change, by restoring normal vasoconstriction in the upright position. PMID:426969

  3. Regional redistribution of blood flow in the external and internal carotid arteries during acute hypotension.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Lericollais, Romain; Hirasawa, Ai; Sakai, Sadayoshi; Normand, Hervé; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-05-15

    The present study examined to what extent an acute bout of hypotension influences blood flow in the external carotid artery (ECA) and the corresponding implications for blood flow regulation in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Nine healthy male participants were subjected to an abrupt decrease in arterial pressure via the thigh-cuff inflation-deflation technique. Duplex ultrasound was employed to measure beat-to-beat ECA and ICA blood flow. Compared with the baseline normotensive control, acute hypotension resulted in a heterogeneous blood flow response. ICA blood flow initially decreased following cuff release and then returned quickly to baseline levels. In contrast, the reduction in ECA blood flow persisted for 30 s following cuff release. Thus, the contribution of common carotid artery blood flow to the ECA circulation decreased during acute hypotension (-10 ± 4%, P < 0.001). This finding suggests that a preserved reduction in ECA blood flow, as well as dynamic cerebral autoregulation likely prevent a further decrease in intracranial blood flow during acute hypotension. The peripheral vasculature of the ECA may, thus, be considered an important vascular bed for intracranial cerebral blood flow regulation.

  4. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 4. Clinical presentation of the shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Spiessberger, Alex; Hothorn, Torsten; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae have been classified into high- and low-risk lesions mainly based on the pattern of venous drainage. Those with leptomeningeal venous drainage carry a higher risk of an aggressive clinical presentation. Recently, it has been proposed that the clinical presentation should be considered as an additional independent factor determining the clinical course of these lesions. However, dural shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage include a very wide spectrum of inhomogeneous lesions. In the current study, we correlated the clinical presentation of 107 consecutive patients harboring cranial dural arteriovenous shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage, with their distinct anatomic and angiographic features categorized into eight groups based on the "DES" (Directness and Exclusivity of leptomeningeal venous drainage and features of venous Strain) concept. We found that among these groups, there are significant angioarchitectural differences, which are reflected by considerable differences in clinical presentation. Leptomeningeal venous drainage of dural sinus shunts that is neither direct nor exclusive and without venous strain manifested only benign symptoms (aggressive presentation 0%). On the other end of the spectrum, the bridging vein shunts with direct and exclusive leptomeningeal venous drainage and venous strain are expected to present aggressive symptoms almost always and most likely with bleeding (aggressive presentation 91.5%). Important aspects of the above correlations are discussed. Therefore, the consideration of leptomeningeal venous drainage alone, for prediction of the clinical presentation of these shunts appears insufficient. Angiographic analysis based on the above concept, offers the possibility to distinguish the higher- from the lower-risk types of leptomeningeal venous drainage. In this context, consideration of the clinical presentation as an additional independent factor for the prediction of their clinical

  5. The Impact of Hypotensive Epidural Anesthesia on Distal and Proximal Tissue Perfusion in Patients Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Danninger, Thomas; Stundner, Ottokar; Ma, Yan; Bae, James J; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

    2013-11-29

    Little data exists to detail the effect of hypotensive epidural anesthesia on differential tissue oxygenation changes above and below the level of neuraxial blockade. This study was designed to investigate tissue oxygenation in a clinical setting, using non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy.

  6. Guillain-Barré Syndrome Presenting with Sinus Node Dysfunction and Refractory Shock

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Le Dung; Abbas, Farrukh; Rao, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 76 Final Diagnosis: Guillain-Barré syndrome Symptoms: Bradycardia • refractory hypotension Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy that is usually associated with preceding respiratory or gastrointestinal infection and has the hallmark manifestation of ascending flaccid paralysis. We report an atypical presentation of GBS. Case Report: A 76-year-old male presented with acute onset of diaphoresis and altered mental status. He subsequently developed severe bradycardia and refractory hypotension, which initially responded to dopamine infusion. A temporary pacemaker wire was placed to stabilize the heart rate but hypotension persisted. Acute autonomic dysfunction was suspected. Head and chest imaging was unrevealing. Lumbar puncture revealed albuminocytologic dissociation that was consistent with a diagnosis of GBS. Hospital course was complicated with acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis. Plasmapharesis was initiated. The patient eventually died of multi-organ failure. Conclusions: Autonomic dysfunction is a known but rare presentation of GBS. In patients presenting with refractory bradycardia and hypotension, GBS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:28283677

  7. Bed Rest and Orthostatic-Hypotensive Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance may be defined as the ability of humans to maintain cerebral perfusion and consciousness upon movement from a supine or sitting position to the upright posture; for example, subjects can stand suddenly or be tilted to the head-up body position. Similar but not identical physiological responses can be induced by positive G(sub Z) (head to foot) acceleration or exposure to lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The objective is to suddenly shift blood to the lower body to determine how effectively cardiovascular and neural-hormonal compensatory responses react to maintain blood pressure. In the most precise method for measuring tolerance, individuals would be stressed until they faint (syncope). However, the potential consequences and discomforts of such a test usually prohibit such a procedure so that few investigators actually induce syncope. In a more common approach, subjects are exposed to a given level of stress, for example, head-up tilt for 15 min, and any increases in heart rate or decreases in blood pressure are interpreted as indicators of progress toward syncope. Presumably, the greater the perturbation of heart rate and blood pressure, the closer to "tolerance," i.e., point of unconsciousness. Another more appropriate approach is to induce a progressively increasing hypotensive stress until pre-determined physiological responses or pre-syncopal symptoms appear. The physiological criteria may include a sudden drop in systolic blood pressure (greater than 25 mm/min), a sudden drop in heart rate (greater than 15 beats/min), or a systolic blood pressure less than 70 mmHg. The most common pre-syncopal symptoms include lightheadedness, stomach awareness or distress, feelings of warmth, tingly skin, and light to profuse sweating. Usually a combination of physiological responses and symptoms occurs such that, on different days, the tolerance time to the same orthostatic protocol is reproducible for a given individual. The assumption is that

  8. Investigating common clinical presentations in first opinion small animal consultations using direct observation

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, N. J.; Dean, R. S.; Cobb, M.; Brennan, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding more about the clinical presentations encountered in veterinary practice is vital in directing research towards areas relevant to practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe all problems discussed during a convenience sample of consultations using a direct observation method. A data collection tool was used to gather data by direct observation during small animal consultations at eight sentinel practices. Data were recorded for all presenting and non-presenting specific health problems discussed. A total of 1901 patients were presented with 3206 specific health problems discussed. Clinical presentation varied widely between species and between presenting and non-presenting problems. Skin lump, vomiting and inappetence were the most common clinical signs reported by the owner while overweight/obese, dental tartar and skin lump were the most common clinical examination findings. Skin was the most frequently affected body system overall followed by non-specific problems then the gastrointestinal system. Consultations are complex, with a diverse range of different clinical presentations seen. Considering the presenting problem only may give an inaccurate view of the veterinary caseload, as some common problems are rarely the reason for presentation. Understanding the common diagnoses made is the next step and will help to further focus questions for future research. PMID:25564472

  9. Investigating common clinical presentations in first opinion small animal consultations using direct observation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N J; Dean, R S; Cobb, M; Brennan, M L

    2015-05-02

    Understanding more about the clinical presentations encountered in veterinary practice is vital in directing research towards areas relevant to practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe all problems discussed during a convenience sample of consultations using a direct observation method. A data collection tool was used to gather data by direct observation during small animal consultations at eight sentinel practices. Data were recorded for all presenting and non-presenting specific health problems discussed. A total of 1901 patients were presented with 3206 specific health problems discussed. Clinical presentation varied widely between species and between presenting and non-presenting problems. Skin lump, vomiting and inappetence were the most common clinical signs reported by the owner while overweight/obese, dental tartar and skin lump were the most common clinical examination findings. Skin was the most frequently affected body system overall followed by non-specific problems then the gastrointestinal system. Consultations are complex, with a diverse range of different clinical presentations seen. Considering the presenting problem only may give an inaccurate view of the veterinary caseload, as some common problems are rarely the reason for presentation. Understanding the common diagnoses made is the next step and will help to further focus questions for future research.

  10. Profiling the clinical presentation of diagnostic characteristics of a sample of symptomatic TMD patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients might present a number of concurrent clinical diagnoses that may be clustered according to their similarity. Profiling patients’ clinical presentations can be useful for better understanding the behavior of TMD and for providing appropriate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to simultaneously classify symptomatic patients diagnosed with a variety of subtypes of TMD into homogenous groups based on their clinical presentation and occurrence of comorbidities. Methods Clinical records of 357 consecutive TMD patients seeking treatment in a private specialized clinic were included in the study sample. Patients presenting multiple subtypes of TMD diagnosed simultaneously were categorized according to the AAOP criteria. Descriptive statistics and two-step cluster analysis were used to characterize the clinical presentation of these patients based on the primary and secondary clinical diagnoses. Results The most common diagnoses were localized masticatory muscle pain (n = 125) and disc displacement without reduction (n = 104). Comorbidity was identified in 288 patients. The automatic selection of an optimal number of clusters included 100% of cases, generating an initial 6-cluster solution and a final 4-cluster solution. The interpretation of within-group ranking of the importance of variables in the clustering solutions resulted in the following characterization of clusters: chronic facial pain (n = 36), acute muscle pain (n = 125), acute articular pain (n = 75) and chronic articular impairment (n = 121). Conclusion Subgroups of acute and chronic TMD patients seeking treatment can be identified using clustering methods to provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of TMD when multiple diagnosis are present. Classifying patients into identifiable symptomatic profiles would help clinicians to estimate how common a disorder is within a population of TMD patients and

  11. Sleep • 3: Clinical presentation and diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schlosshan, D; Elliott, M

    2004-01-01

    Patients with OSAHS may present to a sleep clinic or to other specialists with symptoms that are not immediately attributable to the condition. The diagnostic methods available are reviewed. PMID:15047962

  12. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Hypotension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... away after sitting down. Severe Hypotension Linked to Shock In shock , not enough blood and oxygen flow to the ... sleepiness, and confusion. In the earliest stages of shock, it may be hard to detect any signs ...

  13. An Unusual Case of Post-Traumatic Headache Complicated by Intracranial Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Siavoshi, Sara; Dougherty, Carrie; Ailani, Jessica; Yadwadkar, Kaustubh; Berkowitz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of post-traumatic headache complicated by intracranial hypotension resulting in an acquired Chiari malformation and myelopathy with syringomyelia. This constellation of findings suggest a possible series of events that started with a traumatic cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leak, followed by descent of the cerebellar tonsils and disruption of CSF circulation that caused spinal cord swelling and syrinx. This unusual presentation of post-traumatic headache highlights the varying presentations and the potential sequelae of intracranial hypotension. In addition, the delayed onset of upper motor neuron symptoms along with initially normal head computerized tomography scan (CT) findings, beg the question of whether or not a post-traumatic headache warrants earlier magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:28036062

  14. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: review of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Helen; Byrne, Susan; Barrett, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kieran C.; Cotter, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a form of encephalitis occurring primarily in women and associated with antibodies against NR1 or NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. As a potentially treatable differential for symptoms and signs seen in neurology and psychiatric clinics, clinicians practising across the lifespan should be aware of this form of encephalitis. Common clinical features include auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, behavioural change (frequently with agitation), impaired consciousness, motor disturbance (ranging from dyskinesia to catatonia), seizures, and autonomic dysfunction. We present a review of the literature on the disorder, including its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis. PMID:26191419

  15. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: review of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Barry, Helen; Byrne, Susan; Barrett, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kieran C; Cotter, David R

    2015-02-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a form of encephalitis occurring primarily in women and associated with antibodies against NR1 or NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. As a potentially treatable differential for symptoms and signs seen in neurology and psychiatric clinics, clinicians practising across the lifespan should be aware of this form of encephalitis. Common clinical features include auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, behavioural change (frequently with agitation), impaired consciousness, motor disturbance (ranging from dyskinesia to catatonia), seizures, and autonomic dysfunction. We present a review of the literature on the disorder, including its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis.

  16. Orthostatic hypotension as a manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ganjehei, Leila; Massumi, Ali; Razavi, Mehdi; Wilson, James M

    2012-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman with orthostatic hypotension and near-syncope was found to have a low-normal level of vitamin B(12) and no other medical findings that could explain her orthostasis. Her symptoms responded to vitamin B(12) replacement therapy. This case shows that vitamin B(12) deficiency can induce orthostatic hypotension and syncope that are correctable by vitamin B(12) replacement.

  17. Risk Factors for Hypotension in Urgently Intubated Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    fold increase in the odds of death. The use of propofol for the induction of anesthesia for endotracheal intubation in critically ill burned patients...did not increase the odds of hypotension or death. In burn patients requiring emergent endotracheal intubation in the BICU, the care team should...01 DEC 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Risk factors for hypotension in urgently intubated burn patients 5a

  18. [The historical background and present development of evidence-based healthcare and clinical nursing].

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jung-Mei

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based healthcare (EBHC) emphasizes the integration of the best research evidence with patient values, specialist suggestions, and clinical circumstances during the process of clinical decision-making. EBHC is a recognized core competency in modern healthcare. Nursing is a professional discipline of empirical science that thrives in an environment marked by advances in knowledge and technology in medicine as well as in nursing. Clinical nurses must elevate their skills and professional qualifications, provide efficient and quality health services, and promote their proficiency in EBHC. The Institute of Medicine in the United States indicates that evidence-based research results often fail to disseminate efficiently to clinical decision makers. This problem highlights the importance of better promoting the evidence-based healthcare fundamentals and competencies to frontline clinical nurses. This article describes the historical background and present development of evidence-based healthcare from the perspective of modern clinical nursing in light of the importance of evidence-based healthcare in clinical nursing; describes the factors associated with evidence-based healthcare promotion; and suggests strategies and policies that may improve the promotion and application of EBHC in clinical settings. The authors hope that this paper provides a reference for efforts to improve clinical nursing in the realms of EBHC training, promotion, and application.

  19. Low pre-operative heart rate variability and complexity are associated with hypotension after anesthesia induction in major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Padley, James R; Ben-Menachem, Erez

    2017-03-14

    Significant hypotension after induction of general anesthesia is common and has the potential for serious complications. This study aimed to determine if pre-operative heart rate variability (HRV) was associated with post-induction hypotension in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Patients undergoing semi-elective major abdominal surgery were consecutively recruited during pre-admission clinic assessment. Exclusion criteria included cardiac conduction disease, arrhythmias or severe liver or renal disease. Ten minutes of electrocardiogram at 1024 Hz were recorded a median of 3 days pre-operatively. Pre-operative HRV parameters were compared in patients who experienced significant hypotension (fall in systolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP) >30% baseline and MAP ≤60 mmHg) versus those who remained haemodynamically stable after induction of general anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl. Patients who experienced hypotension after general anesthesia induction had significantly lower pre-operative HRV (SDNN 16 vs. 37 ms, p < 0.001), reduced spectral power (total power 262 vs. 1236 ms(2), p = 0.002) and reduced correlation dimension, a measure of signal complexity (0.11 vs. 2.13, p < 0.001). Hypotension occurred relatively frequently in our cohort and was associated with a higher ASA grade (36 vs. 6% ASA 3, p = 0.036), hence post-induction hypotension and lower HRV may be associated with severity of illness or poor physiological reserve. Pre-operative HRV was a useful screening tool in identifying patients undergoing major abdominal surgery who were at risk of haemodynamic instability after anesthesia induction.

  20. Orthostatic hypotension and subjective sleep quality in older people.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Joanna E; Fan, Chie W; Kenny, Rose Ann; Lawlor, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Poor sleep quality and orthostatic hypotension are common complaints in an older population, and both are related to factors such as polypharmacy and depression. However, it is not known whether there is a direct association between the two. Our objective is to investigate a potential association between orthostatic blood pressure response and subjective sleep quality in older people. A within-subjects, cross-sectional design embedded in a larger longitudinal study design. Participants were recruited from the community to visit the TRIL clinic at St James's Hospital, where they underwent a structured medical and psychosocial assessment. A total of 505 community dwelling adults aged 60+ (321 females, mean age 72.44) were participated in this study. Orthostatic blood pressure responses were recorded during an active stand using Finometer equipment, and health-related factors such as pain ratings, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, timed up and go, Mini-Mental State Examination score, body mass index, as well as depression, anxiety, age and gender, were also recorded. Self-reported sleep quality was also assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The results showed that timed up and go, polypharmacy, depression, anxiety, gender and delayed recovery of blood pressure at orthostasis were associated with subjective poor sleep quality. There is an association between subjective sleep quality and delayed recovery of blood pressure at orthostasis, independent of mental health or polypharmacy effects, in older adults. This link may have implications for the management of sleep disorders in older people.

  1. Morbidity and mortality of orthostatic hypotension: implications for management of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Benvenuto, Luke J; Krakoff, Lawrence R

    2011-02-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is the failure of cardiovascular reflexes to maintain blood pressure on standing from a supine or sitting position. Although OH may cause symptoms of dizziness or syncope, asymptomatic OH (AOH) is far more common and is an independent risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prevalence of AOH increases with age, the presence of hypertension or diabetes and the use of antihypertensive or other medications. The implications of AOH for the treatment of CVD and hypertension are not well defined. This review provides an overview of the current information on this topic and recommends the more frequent assessment of OH in clinical practice and in future clinical trials.

  2. Multimedia platform for authoring and presentation of clinical rounds in cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Allada, Vivekanand; Dahlbom, Magdalena; Lapstra, Lorelle

    2003-05-01

    We developed a multimedia presentation platform that allows retrieving data from any digital and analog modalities and to prepare a script of a clinical presentation in an XML format. This system was designed for cardiac multi-disciplinary conferences involving different cardiology specialists as well as cardiovascular surgeons. A typical presentation requires preparation of summary reports of data obtained from the different investigations and imaging techniques. An XML-based scripting methodology was developed to allow for preparation of clinical presentations. The image display program uses the generated script for the sequential presentation of different images that are displayed on pre-determined presentation settings. The ability to prepare and present clinical conferences electronically is more efficient and less time consuming than conventional settings using analog and digital documents, films and videotapes. The script of a given presentation can further be saved as part of the patient record for subsequent review of the documents and images that supported a given medical or therapeutic decision. This also constitutes a perfect documentation method for surgeons and physicians responsible of therapeutic procedures that were decided upon during the clinical conference. It allows them to review the relevant data that supported a given therapeutic decision.

  3. [Hemolytic anemia as the first clinical presentation of Wilson disease: a pediatric case].

    PubMed

    Henao C, José A; Valverde Muñoz, Kathia; Ávila A, María L

    2016-12-01

    Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of the copper's hepatic metabolism; it results in toxicity due to accumulation of the mineral. The hemolytic anemia is present in 17% at some point of the disease, although it is a rare initial clinical presentation.

  4. Diagnoses and Presenting Symptoms in an Infant Psychiatry Clinic: Comparison of Two Diagnostic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Karen A.; Boyum, Lisa A.; Harmon, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present data from a general infant psychiatry clinic, including range and frequency of presenting symptoms, relationship between symptoms and diagnoses, and comparison of two diagnostic systems, DSM-IV and Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC: 0-3). Method: A…

  5. Variability in Clinical Presentation of Neonatal Stroke: Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sonia; Bennett, Robert; Kola, Bhargavi; Hughes, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal stroke can be a cause of long term neurodevelopmental disability, seizures, and impaired cognitive function. We present four cases of neonatal stroke, associated with different risk factors and clinical presentations. Two of these newborns were born to mothers with no prenatal care. PMID:28194288

  6. 21 CFR 50.54 - Clinical investigations not otherwise approvable that present an opportunity to understand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... that present an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health... opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children... clinical investigation presents a reasonable opportunity to further the understanding, prevention,...

  7. Comparing prophylactic effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on hypotension during spinal anesthesia for hip fracture surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abbasivash, Rahman; Sane, Shahryar; Golmohammadi, Mitra; Shokuhi, Shahram; Toosi, Fereshteh Danaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spinal anesthesia is an accepted technique in hip fracture surgery and prevention of this complication by sympathomimetic agents is of potential clinical significance. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of prophylactic phenylephrine versus ephedrine in the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia in hip fracture surgery. Materials and Methods: Ninety-two patients undergoing hip fracture surgery with the American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II were randomized to receive prophylaxis with ephedrine or phenylephrine immediately before the spinal anesthesia. Patients in the ephedrine group received an intravenous (IV) bolus of 10 mg ephedrine, and patients in the phenylephrine group received an IV bolus of 50 μg phenylephrine. We recorded mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate every 3 min in the first 10 min and then every 5 min until 30 min after spinal anesthesia, nausea and vomiting, additional vasopressor, and atropine administration. Results: The frequency of hypotension was significantly lower in MAP, systolic and diastolic pressure in group phenylephrine in 3, 6, and 9 min after spinal anesthesia (P = 0.002, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences between two groups in heart rate at different time of study. In the phenylephrine group, lower additional vasopressor was used (8.7% and 23.9%) (P = 0.04). There were no significant differences between two groups in the use of atropine (P = 0.24), nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: At the doses of ephedrine and phenylephrine administered in this trial, phenylephrine was better to prevent hypotension during hip fracture surgery with spinal anesthesia. Higher frequency of hypotension was observed in the ephedrine group. PMID:27995106

  8. Microsatellite typing of Aspergillus flavus in patients with various clinical presentations of aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Hadrich, Inès; Neji, Sourour; Drira, Inès; Trabelsi, Houwaida; Mahfoud, Nedia; Ranque, Stéphane; Makni, Fattouma; Ayadi, Ali

    2013-08-01

    Aspergillus flavus is the second most important Aspergillus species associated with aspergillosis and the incidence of infections caused by it are increasing in the immunocompromised population. This species is of major epidemiological importance in regions with a dry and hot climate. Despite the growing clinical significance of A. flavus, data on its molecular epidemiology are scarce. This study was aimed at examining whether isolates from distinct genotypes were involved in distinct clinical forms of aspergillosis. Sixty-three clinical isolates of A. flavus recovered from 35 patients with various clinical presentations of aspergillosis were characterized by microsatellite typing. The highest discriminatory power for a single locus was obtained with the AFLA1 marker, which had 14 distinct alleles and a 0.903 D value. The combination of all six markers yielded 48 different genotypes with a 0.994 D value. There was a considerable genetic diversity in the isolates and patients with invasive aspergillosis were usually colonized by multiples genotypes. There was no evidence that a given genotype was associated with a particular clinical presentation of A. flavus aspergillosis. The occurrence of more than one genotype in clinical samples indicates that a patient may be infected by multiple genotypes and that any particular isolate from a clinical specimen may not necessarily be the one causing aspergillosis.

  9. Clinical pictures of unknown origin in neurology: past, present and future usefulness of artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Conti, Andrea A; Conti, Antonio; Masoni, Marco; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2005-01-01

    Although, in the course of the last 50 years, the achievements in the medical field have been astonishing, at the beginning of the third millennium a number of clinical pictures are still left without a precise nosographic origin. In the past, the delay in scientific communication was the main explanation presented for the lack of understanding of clinical pictures of unknown nosographic origin. The history of medicine provides excellent examples of this dispersion of human capital, even if the history of clinical neurology presents "exceptions" (the pictures that we now call de la Tourette's syndrome and Parkinson's disease) that indicate that major clinical syndromes could be clearly detected and relatively rapidly diffused even in the 19th century. Contrary to the past, the delay in scientific communication no longer seems an obstacle to the sharing of medical knowledge. Nevertheless, the problem of the in-depth comprehension of clinical pictures of unknown nosographic origin still remains dominant, mainly because of the limited spread of ample and flexible online accessible databases of unknown nosographic origin clinical syndromes. The need for interactive electronic archives and other artificial intelligence resources in order to promote progress in clinical knowledge is discussed in this paper.

  10. Lichen sclerosus: a potpourri of misdiagnosed cases based on atypical clinical presentations

    PubMed Central

    Ventolini, Gary; Patel, Ravi; Vasquez, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory autoimmune-induced disease that primarily affects the epidermis and dermis of the external genital-anal region. Intense and recalcitrant pruritus is the hallmark of LS. Physical exam reveals thinning, hyperkeratosis, and parchment-like appearance. However, the classic symptom and signs of LS may not always be present and patients may be asymptomatic for pruritus. Hence, we describe 15 misdiagnosed cases with atypical clinical presentations. We believe that the absence of pruritus contributed to their initial misdiagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of atypical presentations of LS. Methods Data base review of de-identified clinical case pictures was performed. All patients had histopathology-confirmed diagnoses of LS. The data base file contains 800 cases of vulvovaginal disorders. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) considered that searching a de-identified data base of pictures did not require IRB approval. Results We identified 15 different atypical clinical cases. Patient ages were 18–75 years old. These patients were asymptomatic for pruritus and were misdiagnosed before they presented to the vulvovaginal specialized clinic. Conclusion Fifteen patients asymptomatic for pruritus with histopathology-confirmed diagnosis of LS were identified. They illustrate atypical clinical presentations that LS may have. PMID:26056492

  11. Presentation and analysis of radiographic data in clinical trials and observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Landewe, R; van der Heijde, D

    2005-01-01

    Despite the advent of sophisticated imaging systems, plain radiography continues to be a valuable outcome variable in clinical trials of inflammatory disorders for a number of reasons. This paper discusses the pros and cons of the different ways in which radiographic data in trials is presented; the minimum time needed to demonstrate radiographic progression in the context of a clinical trial; and the best ways to statistically analyse radiographic data. PMID:16239387

  12. Methamphetamine abuse and dentistry: a review of the literature and presentation of a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Goodchild, Jason H; Donaldson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine is not a new drug. It has a long and storied history of legitimate clinical use and recreational abuse. Unfortunately, abuse of methamphetamine is increasing with alarming frequency in the United States and leads to appalling destruction of dentition. The pathognomonic effects of methamphetamine abuse on teeth have led to the term "meth mouth." This term, while descriptive of the clinical appearance of patients, is a misnomer. A review of available information on methamphetamine abuse is presented and discussed. A clinical case is documented to help clinicians recognize and manage patients who may be abusing methamphetamines.

  13. [Mucosecretor adenocarcinoma of the lung with pleural involvement presenting as a pneumothorax. Presentation of a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Hermida Pérez, J A; Hernández Guerra, J S; Bermejo Hernandez, Á; Sobenes Gutierrez, R J

    2013-10-01

    The combination of a pneumothorax and lung cancer is rare and diagnosis is complex. Clinical suspicion of cancer must be based on radiological findings and the existence of risk factors. We discuss the mechanisms involved in the development of pneumothorax in patients with lung cancer, as well as the clinical significance, the recommended diagnostic approach, and therapeutic guidelines.

  14. A case of asymptomatic pancytopenia with clinical features of hemolysis as a presentation of pernicious anemia

    PubMed Central

    Kollipara, Venkateswara K.; Brine, Patrick L.; Gemmel, David; Ingnam, Sisham

    2016-01-01

    Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease with a variety of clinical presentations. We describe a case of pernicious anemia presenting with pancytopenia with hemolytic features. Further workup revealed very low vitamin B12 levels and elevated methylmalonic acid. It is important for a general internist to identify pernicious anemia as one of the cause of pancytopenia and hemolytic anemia to avoid extensive workup. Pernicious anemia can present strictly with hematological abnormalities without neurological problems or vice versa as in our case. PMID:27609735

  15. Different clinical presentation of appendicolithiasis. The report of three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Bulent; Eris, Cengiz

    2011-03-30

    An appendicolith is composed of firm feces and some mineral deposits. After increased use of abdominal computed tomography, appendicoliths are more frequently detected. Most of the patients with appendicolith are asymptomatic. However, an appendicolith may be associated with complicated appendicitis with serious outcomes. We reported three patients who exhibited different clinical symptoms due to appendicolithiasis. While one of the patients was confused with urolithiasis, the other two patients presented with phlegmenous and perforated appendicitis. We submit that appendicoliths may present different clinical findings and can mimic several pathologies including urinary disorders.

  16. Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI) as a Predictor of Intradialytic Hypotension (IDH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesheuvel, J. D.; Vervloet, M. G.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Meijer, J. H.

    2013-04-01

    In haemodialysis treatment the clearance and volume control by the kidneys of a patient are partially replaced by intermittent haemodialysis. Because this artificial process is performed on a limited time scale, unphysiological imbalances in the fluid compartments of the body occur, that can lead to intradialytic hypotensions (IDH). An IDH endangers the efficacy of the haemodialysis session and is associated with dismal clinical endpoints, including mortality. A diagnostic method that predicts the occurrence of these drops in blood pressure could facilitate timely measures for the prevention of IDH. The present study investigates whether the Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI) can provide such a diagnostic method. The ISTI is defined as the time difference between the R-peak in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the C-wave in the impedance cardiogram (ICG) and is considered to be a non-invasive assessment of the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This time delay has previously been found to depend on autonomic nervous function as well as preload of the heart. Therefore, it can be expected that ISTI may predict an imminent IDH caused by a low circulating blood volume. This ongoing observational clinical study investigates the relationship between changes in ISTI and subsequent drops in blood pressure during haemodialysis. A registration of a complicated dialysis showed a significant correlation between a drop in blood pressure, a decrease in relative blood volume and a substantial increase in ISTI. An uncomplicated dialysis, in which also a considerable amount of fluid was removed, showed no correlations. Both, blood pressure and ISTI remained stable. In conclusion, the preliminary results of the present study show a substantial response of ISTI to haemodynamic instability, indicating an application in optimization and individualisation of the dialysis process.

  17. Sebaceous adenitis in Havanese dogs: a retrospective study of the clinical presentation and incidence.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Megan M; Schick, Anthea E; Lewis, Thomas P; Jazic, Edward

    2011-06-01

    Sebaceous adenitis is a suspected immune-mediated disease that targets and destroys sebaceous glands. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical presentation and incidence of sebaceous adenitis in Havanese dogs. Sebaceous adenitis was diagnosed in 35% (12 of 34) of Havanese dogs presented over a 5-year period. Onset of clinical signs occurred during young adulthood. Follicular casts were present in 92% (11 of 12) of affected dogs. Other common clinical signs included alopecia and hypotrichosis. The trunk, head and ears were commonly affected, with 67% (8 of 12) of cases having pinnal and/or external ear canal involvement. Secondary pyoderma was seen in 42% (5 of 12) of dogs. Histopathology revealed absent sebaceous glands in 83% (10 of 12) and a lymphoplasmacytic periadnexal infiltrate in 92% (11 of 12) of samples. Treatment included multiple modalities. Cyclosporin was prescribed in 83% (10 of 12) of cases. Other systemic therapies included vitamin A and fatty acid supplementation. Topical therapies included antiseborrhoeic shampoos and sprays, and oil soaks. Follow-up ranging from 2 months to 3 years was obtained in 67% (8 of 12) of dogs. Improvement ranged from minimal to marked, with better clinical response associated with longer duration of treatment. Owners with follow-up of more than 1 year commonly reported occasional flares of the clinical signs. This study found that sebaceous adenitis was a common diagnosis in Havanese dogs, that the ears were commonly affected and that a lymphoplasmacytic periadnexal infiltrate associated with absent sebaceous glands was frequently seen on dermatohistopathological examination.

  18. Cultural Intersection of Asian Indian Ethnicity and Presenting Problem: Adapting Multicultural Competence for Clinical Accessibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Titus, Gayatri

    2009-01-01

    A more accessible approach to using multicultural counseling competence is presented to bridge the researcher-practitioner gap and increase the likelihood of quality clinical services. The focus of the approach is on counselor awareness, knowledge, and skills as they relate to the most important contextualizing factors: ethnic culture and the…

  19. Abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as clinical presentation of acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Valle Feijóo, M L; Bermúdez Sanjurjo, J R; González Vázquez, L; Rey Martínez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH.

  20. Age-related differences in the clinical presentation of food-induced anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Rudders, Susan A.; Banerji, Aleena; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Food-induced anaphylaxis may be more difficult to recognize in younger children. We describe age-related patterns in the clinical presentation of children with anaphylaxis, which may facilitate the early recognition and treatment of this potentially life-threatening condition. PMID:21094954

  1. Small Cell Lung Cancer Doubling Time and its Effect on Clinical Presentation: A Concise Review

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kassem; Khachaturova, Inga; Azab, Basem; Maniatis, Theodore; Murukutla, Srujitha; Chalhoub, Michel; Hatoum, Hassan; Kilkenny, Thomas; Elsayegh, Dany; Maroun, Rabih; Alkaied, Homam

    2012-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of many types rapidly growing malignant diseases, such as Burkitt’s lymphoma and testicular germ cell cancers. At present, there is no reliable way to screen for SCLC, and imaging modalities tend to be delayed in detecting this type of cancer. The clinical presentation of acutely and rapidly growing SCLC can mimic those of pulmonary inflammatory or infectious disorders, and in some instances, this delays appropriate management and negatively affects patient outcome. PMID:22619563

  2. Clinical Presentation, Imaging, and Management of Complications due to Neurointerventional Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew C.; Deveikis, John P.; Harrigan, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Neurointervention is a rapidly evolving and complex field practiced by clinicians with backgrounds ranging from neurosurgery to radiology, neurology, cardiology, and vascular surgery. New devices, techniques, and clinical applications create exciting opportunities for impacting patient care, but also carry the potential for new iatrogenic injuries. Every step of every neurointerventional procedure carries risk, and a thorough appreciation of potential complications is fundamental to maximizing safety. This article presents the most frequent and dangerous iatrogenic injuries, their presentation, identification, prevention, and management. PMID:26038618

  3. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis Is Associated with Atypical Clinical Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n = 45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n = 5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:25233227

  4. Centrally injected histamine increases posterior hypothalamic acetylcholine release in hemorrhage-hypotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Savci, Vahide; Jochem, Jerzy; Yalcin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Histamine, acting centrally as a neurotransmitter, evokes a reversal of hemorrhagic hypotension in rats due to the activation of the sympathetic and the renin-angiotensin systems as well as the release of arginine vasopressin and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides. We demonstrated previously that central nicotinic cholinergic receptors are involved in the pressor effect of histamine. The aim of the present study was to examine influences of centrally administrated histamine on acetylcholine (ACh) release at the posterior hypothalamus-a region characterized by location of histaminergic and cholinergic neurons involved in the regulation of the sympathetic activity in the cardiovascular system-in hemorrhage-hypotensive anesthetized rats. Hemodynamic and microdialysis studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Hemorrhagic hypotension was induced by withdrawal of a volume of 1.5 ml blood/100 g body weight over a period of 10 min. Acute hemorrhage led to a severe and long-lasting decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and an increase in extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and choline (Ch) levels by 56% and 59%, respectively. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered histamine (50, 100, and 200 nmol) dose- and time-dependently increased MAP and HR and caused an additional rise in extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and Ch levels at the most by 102%, as compared to the control saline-treated group. Histamine H1 receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (50 nmol; i.c.v.) completely blocked histamine-evoked hemodynamic and extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and Ch changes, whereas H2 and H3/H4 receptor blockers ranitidine (50 nmol; i.c.v.) and thioperamide (50 nmol; i.c.v.) had no effect. In conclusion, centrally administered histamine, acting via H1 receptors, increases ACh release at the posterior hypothalamus and causes a pressor and tachycardic response in hemorrhage-hypotensive anesthetized rats.

  5. Medial prefrontal cortex acetylcholine injection-induced hypotension: the role of hindlimb vasodilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippa, G. E.; Lewis, S. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Correa, F. M.

    2000-01-01

    The injection of acetylcholine (ACh) into the cingulate region of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) causes a marked fall in arterial blood pressure which is not accompanied by changes in heart rate. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic basis for this stimulus-induced hypotension in Sprague-Dawley rats. The study was designed to determine whether a change in the vascular resistance of hindlimb, renal or mesenteric vascular beds contributes to the fall in arterial pressure in response to ACh injection into the cingulate cortex. Miniature pulsed-Doppler flow probes were used to measure changes in regional blood flow and vascular resistance. The results indicated that the hypotensive response was largely due to a consistent and marked vasodilation in the hindlimb vascular bed. On this basis, an additional experiment was then undertaken to determine the mechanisms that contribute to hindlimb vasodilation. The effect of interrupting the autonomic innervation of one leg on the hindlimb vasodilator response was tested. Unilateral transection of the lumbar sympathetic chain attenuated the cingulate ACh-induced vasodilation in the ipsilateral, but not in the contralateral hindlimb. These results suggest that the hypotensive response to cingulate cortex-ACh injection is caused by skeletal muscle vasodilation mediated by a sympathetic chain-related vasodilator system.

  6. Hypotensive effect of angiotensin II after AT1-receptor blockade with losartan.

    PubMed

    Matys, T; Pawlak, R; Kucharewicz, I; Chabielska, E; Buczko, W

    2000-03-01

    Recent data suggest that hypotensive effect of losartan may not be attributed solely to AT1-receptor blockade, but also to excessive AT2 or other receptors stimulation by elevated angiotensin II and its derivative peptides. Therefore in the present study we examined the effect of angiotensin II on mean blood pressure after AT -receptor blockade with losartan. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetised and received injection of either losartan (30 mg/kg, 1 ml/kg, i.v.) or saline (the same volume and route) followed by bolus injection of angiotensin II (100, 300 or 1,000 ng/kg; 1 ml/kg, i.v.) or 1-hour infusion of angiotensin II (200 ng/kg/min; 2.5 ml/kg/h, i.v.). Control animals received saline instead. Angiotensin II, given either as the injection or the infusion, caused an evident increase in mean blood pressure (p ranged from 0.05 to 0.001 depending on the experimental group). Losartan caused a rapid drop in mean blood pressure and blunted the hypertensive effect of angiotensin II (p < 0.01). Moreover, in the losartan-pretreated animals the hypotensive phase was enhanced by the infusion, but not single injection of angiotensin II, which was most evident from the 30 th minute of observation (p < 0.05 vs control). In conclusion, hypotensive effect of losartan may be amplified by simultaneous increase in angiotensin II level, the situation observed during chronic AT1-receptor blockade.

  7. Design, in vitro stability, and ocular hypotensive activity of t-butalone chemical delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Reddy, I K; Vaithiyalingam, S R; Khan, M A; Bodor, N S

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this work was to synthesize two bioreversible diacyl derivatives of t-butalone (chemical delivery systems), determine their chemical and in vitro stability, and investigate their potential use as topical antiglaucoma agents. The stability of these compounds was determined in isotonic phosphate buffers (pH range 5-8) and in selected biological media, including human whole blood, rabbit and rat blood, and the anterior segment tissues of rabbit. The ocular hypotensive activity of these compounds in unrestrained, normotensive albino rabbits was determined with a pneumatonometer. The two compounds were stable at lower pH. The stability decreased as the pH increased, suggesting their lability to base-catalyzed hydrolysis. These compounds exhibited significant differences in the hydrolytic rates in the whole blood among species examined (rat > rabbit > human). The observed rates of disappearance in different ocular tissues were indicative of relative enzyme activity in these media (iris-ciliary body > cornea > aqueous humor). The two compounds exhibited a significant ocular hypotensive activity (P < 0.01) at 2% dose level. The peak activity was found between 2 and 4 h, and the activity was maintained for 4.5 to 7 h. The dipivalyl derivative of t-butalone exhibited more pronounced decrease in intraocular pressure than that of diisovaleryl derivative. The present study suggests the possible use of diacyl derivatives of t-butalone as ocular hypotensive agents.

  8. Similar hypotensive responses to resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moriggi, R; Mauro, HS Di; Dias, SC; Matos, JM; Camarço, NF; Neto, IV Sousa; Nascimento, DC; Tibana, RA; Assumpção, CO; Prestes, J; Urtado, CB

    2015-01-01

    Low intensity resistance exercise (RE) with blood flow restriction (BFR) has gained attention in the literature due to the beneficial effects on functional and morphological variables, similar to those observed during traditional RE without BFR, while the effects of BFR on post-exercise hypotension remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare the blood pressure (BP) response of trained normotensive individuals to RE with and without BFR. In this cross-over randomized trial, eight male subjects (23.8 ± 4 years, 74 ± 3 kg, 174 ± 4 cm) completed two exercise protocols: traditional RE (3 x 10 repetitions at 70% one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) and low intensity RE (3 x 15 repetitions at 20% 1-RM) with BFR. Blood pressure measurements were performed after 15 min of seated rest (0), immediately after and 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 40 min, 50 min and 60 min after the experimental sessions. Similar hypotensive effects for systolic BP (SBP) were observed for both protocols (P < 0.05) after exercise, with no differences between groups (P > 0.05) and no statistically significant difference for diastolic BP (P > 0.05). These results suggest that in normotensive trained individuals, both traditional RE and RE with BFR induce hypotension for SBP, which is important to prevent cardiovascular disturbances. PMID:26681830

  9. 2-bromoethylamine, a suicide inhibitor of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, increases hydralazine hypotension in rats.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, Horacio; Medina, Martha

    2005-09-01

    Previous work has shown that inhibitors of the predominantly vascular enzyme semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) potentiate the hypotensive response to hydralazine, itself a SSAO inhibitor, in anesthetized rats. The present study was carried out to determine whether the recently described suicide SSAO inhibitor 2-bromoethylamine shares this effect. Hypotensive responses to hydralazine, 0.1 mg/kg IV, were obtained in chloralose-urethane-anesthetized rats, either unpretreated or receiving bromoethylamine at different doses and pretreatment intervals. Parallel experiments were run with semicarbazide, the prototypical hydrazine SSAO inhibitor. Both inhibitors potentiated hydralazine hypotension, bromoethylamine having a longer latency and a shorter duration of action than semicarbazide. High doses of bromoethylamine did not produce potentiation, a phenomenon attributed to SSAO inactivation by excess substrate and decreased formation by the enzyme of the inhibitor product. Experiments with combined administration of both inhibitors were also carried out. When semicarbazide was administered before bromoethylamine, potentiaton was prevented, apparently by a mechanism similar to the above; when it was given after the amine, potentiation was increased. This was attributed to enzyme inhibition by interaction with 2 different active sites. The charactertistics of hydralazine potentiation by bromoethylamine were considered compatible with the mechanism of SSAO inhibition by the amine.

  10. Contribution of Transjugular Liver Biopsy in Patients with the Clinical Presentation of Acute Liver Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto Luca, Angelo; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Minervini, Marta Ida; Vizzini, Giovanni; Arcadipane, Antonio; Gridelli, Bruno

    2006-12-15

    Purpose. Acute liver failure (ALF) treated with conservative therapy has a poor prognosis, although individual survival varies greatly. In these patients, the eligibility for liver transplantation must be quickly decided. The aim of this study was to assess the role of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) in the management of patients with the clinical presentation of ALF. Methods. Seventeen patients with the clinical presentation of ALF were referred to our institution during a 52 month period. A TJLB was performed using the Cook Quick-Core needle biopsy. Clinical data, procedural complications, and histologic findings were evaluated. Results. Causes of ALF were virus hepatitis B infection in 7 patients, drug toxicity in 4, mushroom in 1, Wilson's disease in 1, and unknown origin in 4. TJLB was technically successful in all patients without procedure-related complications. Tissue specimens were satisfactory for diagnosis in all cases. In 14 of 17 patients the initial clinical diagnosis was confirmed by TJLB; in 3 patients the initial diagnosis was altered by the presence of unknown cirrhosis. Seven patients with necrosis <60% were successfully treated with medical therapy; 6 patients with submassive or massive necrosis ({>=}85%) were treated with liver transplantation. Four patients died, 3 had cirrhosis, and 1 had submassive necrosis. There was a strict statistical correlation (r = 0.972, p < 0.0001) between the amount of necrosis at the frozen section examination and the necrosis found at routine histologic examination. The average time for TJLB and frozen section examination was 80 min. Conclusion. In patients with the clinical presentation of ALF, submassive or massive liver necrosis and cirrhosis are predictors of poor prognosis. TLJB using an automated device and frozen section examination can be a quick and effective tool in clinical decision-making, especially in deciding patient selection and the best timing for liver transplantation.

  11. [Prevention and treatment of hypotension during Caesarean delivery].

    PubMed

    Erler, Ines; Gogarten, Wiebke

    2007-03-01

    Regional anesthesia for Caesarean delivery is often accompanied by a reduction in maternal blood pressure. Maternal hypotension may lead to a reduction in uteroplacental blood flow with consecutive fetal acidosis. In order to avoid reductions in uteroplacental blood flow, tremendous research has been performed, showing that the avoidance of aortocaval compression, compression of the lower extremities, and prehydration with colloids are effective in reducing maternal hypotension. Further means include the recent introduction of low dose spinal anesthesia with a combination of small amounts of local anesthetics and opioids. Nevertheless, maternal hypotension is not always preventable and the use of vasopressors is still frequently required. Although ephedrine has been considered the vasopressor of choice over the last decades, current studies show that fetal acidosis is less frequently encountered with the use of phenylephrine, which should thus be considered as a first-line agent.

  12. Bumblefoot: a comparison of clinical presentation and treatment of pododermatitis in rabbits, rodents, and birds.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Pododermatitis, also known as bumblefoot, is a common condition encountered in birds, rabbits, and rodents in clinical practice. This article compares the anatomy and physiology of the foot and the predisposing factors for pododermatitis in each of the species discussed. Clinical presentation, diagnostics, and treatment options, including medical and surgical therapies, are provided. In addition, alternative therapies, including natural remedies, therapeutic laser, and acupuncture, are explored. This article is intended to encourage practitioners to use a multimodal approach for successful management of this disease in all species.

  13. Hereditary factor VII deficiency in two siblings: two different clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Yasin; Aydın, Derya

    2004-12-05

    Factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with a highly variable hemorrhagic predisposition. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive and plays an important role in the initiation of blood coagulation forming a complex with tissue factor which activates FIX, FX and FVII zymogen. Prolonged prothrombin time with normal partial thromboplastin time indicates FVII deficiency. For the definitive diagnosis, the specific plasma FVII level should be investigated. FVII deficiency is expressed in different ways and leads to various clinical pictures. I reported two siblings with hereditary factor VII deficiency whose clinical presentations were different.

  14. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax presenting to a chiropractic clinic as undifferentiated thoracic spine pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of primary spontaneous pneumothorax presenting to a chiropractic clinic as undifferentiated thoracic spine pain. Clinical Features: A tall thin 25-year-old male anxiously presented to a chiropractic clinic with six days of sudden unexplained left thorax pain. His breathing was laboured and his dry cough aggravating. After assessment a high clinical suspicion of primary spontaneous pneumothorax prevailed. Intervention and Outcome: The patient was referred to hospital for further investigation and primary spontaneous pneumothorax was confirmed on chest radiograph. He underwent immediate tube thoracostomy to drain the air from his pleural space and to re-inflate his lung. After three days the tube was removed. By two weeks the lung had returned to full size. No recurrences have occurred to date. Conclusions: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is a medical emergency in the presence of shortness of breath. The focus of treatment is to drain air from the pleural linings and to prevent recurrences. In less severe cases, patients may believe they have thoracic spine pain and seek manual therapy care. This case highlights the important role chiropractors have as primary contact health care providers. PMID:27069268

  15. Clinical Presentation Resembling Mucosal Disease Associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a Field Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Weber, M N; Mósena, A C S; Simões, S V D; Almeida, L L; Pessoa, C R M; Budaszewski, R F; Silva, T R; Ridpath, J F; Riet-Correa, F; Driemeier, D; Canal, C W

    2016-02-01

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle.

  16. ABCDE in Clinical Encounters: Presentations of Self in Doctor-Patient Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ventres, William

    2015-01-01

    Professional discussions about communication in medical settings often ignore the various personal identities that doctors and patients bring to their clinical encounters. From my 26 years as a family physician, and informed by literature from other professional disciplines, I propose an alternate understanding: to think of doctors and patients as a collection of individual identities, each formed by a discrete presentation of self. I describe how at least 5 important presentations of self arise in clinical encounters, including those relating to meaning, community, agency, anxiety, and organism. I frame these presentations of self with the mnemonic ABCDE, briefly review key dimensions of each, and suggest how physicians can reflect on these dimensions in order to find equilibrium in their interactions with patients. Lastly, I submit that finding this balance can reduce relational challenges with patients and enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of doctor-patient communication. PMID:25964409

  17. Myelodysplastic Syndrome Clinically Presenting with the “Classic TTP Pentad”

    PubMed Central

    Polanco Jácome, Evelyn Carolina; Guevara, Elizabeth; Mattoo, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    The clinical presentation of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is not specific. Many patients can be asymptomatic and can be detected only due to an abnormal complete blood cell count (CBC) on routine exam or for other reasons while others can be symptomatic as a consequence of underlying cytopenias. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) usually is suspected under the evidence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and thrombocytopenia and because it is a life-threatening condition (medical emergency) immediate initiation of plasmapheresis could be life-saving. The following case illustrates an unusual presentation of MDS in a patient who came in to the emergency room with the classic TTP “pentad” of fever, renal involvement, MAHA, mental status changes, and thrombocytopenia. We will focus our discussion in the clinical presentation of this case. PMID:28255478

  18. Endobronchial Enigma: A Clinically Rare Presentation of Nocardia beijingensis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Nader; Izhakain, Shimon; Wasser, Walter G.; Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the Gram-positive weakly acid-fast, filamentous aerobic Actinomycetes. The lungs are the primary site of infection mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. In rare circumstances even immunocompetent hosts may also develop infection. Diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is usually delayed due to nonspecific clinical and radiological presentations which mimic fungal, tuberculous, or neoplastic processes. The present report describes a rare bronchoscopic presentation of an endobronchial nocardial mass in a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman without underlying lung disease. The patient exhibited signs and symptoms of unresolving community-acquired pneumonia with a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed a space-occupying lesion and enlarged paratracheal lymph node. This patient represents the unusual presentation of pulmonary Nocardia beijingensis as an endobronchial mass. Pathology obtained during bronchoscopy demonstrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of nocardiosis. Symptoms and clinical findings improved with antibiotic treatment. This patient emphasizes the challenge in making the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis, especially in a low risk host. A literature review presents the difficulties and pitfalls in the clinical assessment of such an individual. PMID:26819795

  19. Midodrine as a Countermeasure for Post-Spaceflight Orthostatic Hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Stein, Sydney P.; Meck, Janice V.; Platts, Steven H.

    2008-01-01

    One possible mechanism for post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension, which affects approximately 30% of astronauts after short duration shuttle missions, is inadequate norepinephrine release during upright posture. We performed a two phased study to determine the effectiveness of an alpha1-adrenergic agonist, midodrine, as a countermeasure to post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension. The first phase of the study examined the landing day orthostatic responses of six veteran astronauts after oral midodrine (10 mg) administered on the ground within approximately two hours of wheel stop. One female crewmember exhibited orthostatic hypotension in a previous flight but not after midodrine. Five male crewmembers, who did not exhibit orthostatic hypotension during previous flights, also did not show signs of orthostatic hypotension after midodrine. Additionally, phase one showed that midodrine did not cause hypertension in these crewmembers. In the second phase of this study, midodrine is ingested inflight (near time of ignition, TIG) and orthostatic responses are determined immediately upon landing via an 80 degree head-up tilt test performed on the crew transport vehicle (CTV). Four of ten crewmembers have completed phase two of this study. Two crewmembers completed the landing day tilt tests, while two tests were ended early due to presyncopal symptoms. All subjects had decreased landing day stroke volumes and increased heart rates compared to preflight. Midodrine appears to have increased total peripheral resistance in one crewmember who was able to complete the landing day tilt test. The effectiveness of midodrine as a countermeasure to immediate post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension has yet to be determined; interpretation is made more difficult due to low subject number and the lack of control subjects on the CTV.

  20. Clinical presentation and outcomes in type IV dual left anterior descending artery anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Çanga, Yiğit; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Karataş, Mehmet Baran; Güngör, Bariş; Çetin, Rengin; Bolca, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Type IV dual left anterior descending artery (LAD) anomaly constitutes a rare subset of coronary anomalies in which the anterior and anterolateral wall of the left ventricle is supplied by a short LAD originating from the left coronary artery along with a long LAD that originates from the right sinus of Valsalva. Albeit rare, the angiographic presentation is challenging since the appearance of the short LAD is similar to a total occlusion beyond first few diagonal or septal branches. Here, we present a series of four cases with type IV dual LAD anomaly with different clinical and angiographic presentations. PMID:28250981

  1. Cytomorphologic Attributes of Epithelial Myoepithelial Carcinoma of Nasal Cavity - A Rare Tumor with Unusual Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Vijayshankar, Shivshankar; Abhishek, MG; Kumari, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma (EMC) is a rare low grade epithelial malignancy of major Salivary Glands (SG). Though the histomorphology of this tumor is distinct, unusual location and clinical presentation may pose diagnostic difficulties especially when this lesion is first encountered at cytology. We report a case of 60-year-old female presenting with nasal obstruction of three months duration. At FNAC the diagnosis of EMC was suggested and it was confirmed on histopathology. We present this case highlighting the cytomorphologic attributes of this rare tumor occurring at an extremely uncommon location – Nasal cavity. PMID:27790447

  2. Adult Xanthogranulomatous Disease of the Orbit: Clinical Presentations, Evaluation, and Management.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Salvador, J M; Subiabre Ferrer, D; Pérez Ferriols, A

    2017-03-02

    Adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit refers to a heterogeneous group of clinical syndromes with differing degrees of systemic involvement and distinct prognoses. The different syndromes all present clinically with progressively enlarging, yellowish lesions of the orbit. Histologically, the lesions are characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate of foam cells and Touton-type multinucleated giant cells. The xanthomatized histiocytes are CD68(+), S100(-), and CD1a(-). There are 4 clinical forms of xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit: adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit, adult onset asthma and periocular xanthogranuloma, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, and Erdheim-Chester disease. The treatment of local lesions are treated with systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressors. Vemurafenib, tocilizumab, and sirolimus have shown promising results in systemic disease.

  3. New insights into the diagnosis of hidradenitis suppurativa: Clinical presentations and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Hessel H; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-11-01

    Current classifications for hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), such as the Hurley staging system, are not very specific. The absence of rigorous classifications is incongruous with the clinical variability of the condition. There is no pathognomonic sign for HS that leads to a diagnosis that is unquestionable. Consequently, diagnosis is made largely through clinical presentation of the condition. The use of several validated tools assists in confirming the diagnosis and the severity of the disease. In future investigations, the identification of phenotypes and clinical subtypes--taking into account genetic variants--will serve to identify subpopulations of patients who are responsive to particular therapies, thereby improving the overall therapeutic picture for patients with HS. There is a potential for personalized, tailored delivery of therapy in the HS setting.

  4. Pharmacologic options available to treat symptomatic intradialytic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Perazella, M A

    2001-10-01

    Treatment of symptomatic intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a difficult task for the practicing nephrologist. Minimizing patient factors that precipitate IDH as well as dialysis procedure-related components that lower blood pressure are the initial approaches to this problem. However, despite these maneuvers, hypotension often persists in a group of high-risk patients. Pharmacologic interventions are often used to reduce IDH. Unfortunately, many of the available therapies are marginally effective and/or poorly tolerated. A few therapies appear to be efficacious and well tolerated-carnitine, sertraline, and midodrine. This article reviews the various pharmacologic therapies used for IDH and makes recommendations for treatment of this difficult problem.

  5. Recent advances in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Davis, T. L.

    1995-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension is a fall in blood pressure on standing that causes symptoms of dizziness, visual changes, and discomfort in the head and neck. The goal of treatment is the improvement of the patient's functional capacity, rather than a target blood pressure. For treatment to be successful, it must be individualized. Non-pharmalogic interventions include carefully managed exercise, scheduled activities, and monitoring of the environmental temperature. Agents such as fludrocortisone, midodrine, and epoetin alfa offer successful pharmacologic interventions. Although these measures ease the symptoms of orthostatic hypotension, current approaches neither reverse nor stabilize the disease process in autonomic disorders.

  6. Correlation between clinical presentation, peroperative finding and histopathological report in acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Khan, S A; Gafur, M A; Islam, A; Rahman, M S

    2011-10-01

    Acute appendicitis is usually encountered clinically as acute abdomen. Typical cases are easy to diagnose, but sometimes it is very difficult to make a diagnosis in atypical cases. The objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy in patient of clinically diagnosed acute appendicitis. This prospective study conducted in Mymensingh medical college hospital on 1136 patients presented with acute abdomen and clinically diagnosed as acute appendicitis from July 2004 to June 2010. Emergency appendicectomy was done in all consecutive patients after relevant investigation. Intraoperative findings along with histopathological reports were compared with clinical diagnosis. On the basis of histopathological report, 85.65% were found to have acute appendicitis with misdiagnosis in rest of the subjects requiring unnecessary explorations. Negative exploration was more in emergency than office hour. This may be due to diagnostic inaccuracy and decision-making in the management of the acute appendicitis. Management errors can be significantly reduced by accurate preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis by improving clinical skill and appropriate investigations.

  7. Cutaneous angiosarcoma clinically presenting as progressive solid facial edema in a 43-year-old male.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Tak; Stetsenko, Galina Y; Zhang, Jiong; Olerud, John E; Argenyi, Zsolt B; George, Evan

    2013-11-15

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the head and neck is a rare, highly malignant neoplasm; prognosis is heavily influenced by tumor size, resectability, and stage at initial diagnosis. Most patients present with one to several erythematous to violaceous patches, plaques, or nodules. However, the clinical presentation is highly variable and leads to delayed diagnosis. We report cutaneous angiosarcoma in a 43-year-old man who presented with an 11-month history of progressive solid (non-pitting) edema involving his entire face, scalp, eyelids, and neck without characteristic clinical features of cutaneous angiosarcoma. A skin biopsy had shown non-specific findings consistent with solid facial edema or rosacea. Various etiologies were considered but there was no significant improvement after directed medical therapy. Repeat skin biopsies revealed angiosarcoma involving the dermis and sub-cutis. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed multiple lung nodules bilaterally and a lytic lesion in the T6 vertebra consistent with metastases. He was treated with single agent chemotherapy (paclitaxel), and had a partial response that restored his ability to open both eyes spontaneously; However, his edema has recently progressed 7 months after diagnosis. This is a rare example of cutaneous angiosarcoma presenting as progressive solid facial edema, which underscores the diverse range of clinical manifestations associated with this neoplasm.

  8. Clinical presentations of X-linked retinoschisis in Taiwanese patients confirmed with genetic sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Laura; Chen, Ho-Min; Tsai, Shawn; Chang, Tsong-Chi; Tsai, Tzu-Hsun; Yang, Chung-May; Chao, An-Ning; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Kao, Ling-Yuh; Yeung, Ling; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Wu, Wei-Chi; Lai, Chi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical characteristics of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) and identify genetic mutations in Taiwanese patients with XLRS. Methods This study included 23 affected males from 16 families with XLRS. Fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherent tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed. The coding regions of the RS1 gene that encodes retinoschisin were sequenced. Results The median age at diagnosis was 18 years (range 4–58 years). The best-corrected visual acuity ranged from no light perception to 20/25. The typical spoke-wheel pattern in the macula was present in 61% of the patients (14/23) while peripheral retinoschisis was present in 43% of the patients (10/23). Four eyes presented with vitreous hemorrhage, and two eyes presented with leukocoria that mimics Coats’ disease. Macular schisis was identified with SD-OCT in 82% of the eyes (31/38) while foveal atrophy was present in 18% of the eyes (7/38). Concentric area of high intensity was the most common FAF abnormality observed. Seven out of 12 patients (58%) showed electronegative ERG findings. Sequencing of the RS1 gene identified nine mutations, six of which were novel. The mutations are all located in exons 4–6, including six missense mutations, two nonsense mutations, and one deletion-caused frameshift mutation. Conclusions XLRS is a clinically heterogeneous disease with profound phenotypic inter- and intrafamiliar variability. Genetic sequencing is valuable as it allows a definite diagnosis of XLRS to be made without the classical clinical features and ERG findings. This study showed the variety of clinical features of XLRS and reported novel mutations. PMID:25999676

  9. Severe Rift Valley Fever May Present with a Characteristic Clinical Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kahlon, Summerpal S.; Peters, Clarence J.; LeDuc, James; Muchiri, Eric M.; Muiruri, Samuel; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Breiman, Robert F.; Clinton White, A.; King, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an emerging pathogen that is transmitted in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Egypt, and the Arabian peninsula. Outbreaks of RVF, like other diseases caused by hemorrhagic fever viruses, typically present in locations with very limited health resources, where initial diagnosis must be based only on history and physical examination. Although general signs and symptoms of human RVF have been documented, a specific clinical syndrome has not been described. In 2007, a Kenyan outbreak of RVF provided opportunity to assess acutely ill RVF patients and better delineate its presentation and clinical course. Our data reveal an identifiable clinical syndrome suggestive of severe RVF, characterized by fever, large-joint arthralgia, and gastrointestinal complaints and later followed by jaundice, right upper-quadrant pain, and delirium, often coinciding with hemorrhagic manifestations. Further characterization of a distinct RVF clinical syndrome will aid earlier detection of RVF outbreaks and should allow more rapid implementation of control. PMID:20207858

  10. From Incidentaloma to Suspicion of Malignancy: The Diverse Clinical Presentation of Gonadal Schistosomiasis mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Laiana do Carmo; de Oliveira, Marbele Guimarães; Castro Pereira, Fábio Meira; de Bessa Júnior, José

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most widespread parasitic disease in the world, second only to malaria. The usual places the Schistosoma mansoni can be found in are the rectal and sigmoidal venules, as well as other segments of the large intestine of men. It may also be present in other ectopic topographies. Gonadal schistosomiasis is an unusual presentation of Schistosomiasis mansoni and its different clinical signs and symptoms disrupt correct diagnosis and culminate in surgical treatment that is, in most cases, unnecessary. In this study, we report four cases of gonadal Schistosomiasis mansoni, two in the ovary and two in the testicles. These cases were clinically investigated as a bacterial infection, a benign neoplasm, and a suspected cancer, whilst one of them was an incidentaloma. PMID:24392230

  11. Presentation of Coronary Artery Disease in a Chiropractic Clinic: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this report is to describe 2 patients with coronary artery disease presenting with musculoskeletal symptoms to a chiropractic clinic. Clinical Features A 48-year-old male new patient had thoracic spine pain aggravated by physical exertion. A 61-year-old man under routine care for low back pain experienced a secondary complaint of acute chest pain during a reevaluation. Intervention and Outcome In both cases, the patients were strongly encouraged to consult their medical physician and were subsequently diagnosed with coronary artery disease. Following their diagnoses, each patient underwent surgical angioplasty procedures with stenting. Conclusion Patients may present for chiropractic care with what appears to be musculoskeletal chest pain when the pain may be generating from coronary artery disease necessitating medical and possibly emergency care. PMID:27069435

  12. NMOSD triggered by yellow fever vaccination - An unusual clinical presentation with segmental painful erythema.

    PubMed

    Schöberl, F; Csanadi, E; Eren, O; Dieterich, M; Kümpfel, T

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system with the presence of aquaporin 4-antibodies (AQP4-abs) in most cases. We describe a patient who developed NMOSD after a yellow fever vaccination. He presented to us with an unusual painful erythema Th7-9 triggered by touch in the respective skin area due to a cervical spinal cord lesion affecting the dorsolateral parts of C6/7. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NMOSD with such a clinical presentation expanding the clinical spectrum of NMOSD. It is important to be aware of that a yellow fever vaccination can trigger NMOSD.

  13. Aetiology and clinical presentations of auditory processing disorders—a review

    PubMed Central

    Bamiou, D; Musiek, F; Luxon, L

    2001-01-01

    Auditory processing disorders may have detrimental consequences on a child's life, if undiagnosed and untreated. We review causes of auditory processing disorders in order to raise clinical awareness. Auditory processing disorders may present against a background of neurological disease or developmental disorders, as well as in isolation. Clinicians need to be aware of potential causes and implications of auditory processing disorders.

 PMID:11668093

  14. The 'present state' examination and the structured clinical interview in Zulu.

    PubMed

    Buntting, B G; Wessels, W H

    1991-01-19

    The language, cultural and reality factors found to be important in the Zulu translation of the 'present state' examination (PSE) and the structured clinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID) are discussed and compared with a previous translation of the PSE in Xhosa. The psychopathological items of the PSE and SCID apply to Zulu-speaking patients and the instruments are valid in this setting.

  15. [Acute cerebral ischemia: an unusual clinical presentation of isolated left ventricular noncompaction in an adult patient].

    PubMed

    Fiorencis, Andrea; Quadretti, Laura; Bacich, Daniela; Chiodi, Elisabetta; Mele, Donato; Fiorencis, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction in adults is uncommon. The most frequent clinical manifestations are heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction and supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, which may be sustained and associated with sudden death. Thromboembolic complications are also possible. We report the case of an adult patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction who came to our observation because of acute cerebral ischemia, an initial presentation of the disease only rarely described.

  16. Pulmonary embolism in the elderly: a review on clinical, instrumental and laboratory presentation

    PubMed Central

    Masotti, Luca; Ray, Patrick; Righini, Marc; Le Gal, Gregoire; Antonelli, Fabio; Landini, Giancarlo; Cappelli, Roberto; Prisco, Domenico; Rottoli, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Objective Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) remains difficult and is often missed in the elderly due to nonspecific and atypical presentation. Diagnostic algorithms able to rule out PE and validated in young adult patients may have reduced applicability in elderly patients, which increases the number of diagnostic tools use and costs. The aim of the present study was to analyze the reported clinical presentation of PE in patients aged 65 and more. Materials and Methods Prospective and retrospective English language studies dealing with the clinical, instrumental and laboratory aspects of PE in patients more than 65 and published after January 1987 and indexed in MEDLINE using keywords as pulmonary embolism, elderly, old, venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the title, abstract or text, were reviewed. Results Dyspnea (range 59%–91.5%), tachypnea (46%–74%), tachycardia (29%–76%), and chest pain (26%–57%) represented the most common clinical symptoms and signs. Bed rest was the most frequent risk factor for VTE (15%–67%); deep vein thrombosis was detected in 15%–50% of cases. Sinus tachycardia, right bundle branch block, and ST-T abnormalities were the most frequent ECG findings. Abnormalities of chest X-ray varied (less than 50% in one-half of the studies and more than 70% in the other one-half). Arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe hypoxemia and mild hypocapnia as the main findings. D-Dimer was higher than cut-off in 100% of patients in 75% of studies. Clinical usefulness of D-Dimer measurement decreases with age, although the strategies based on D-Dimer seem to be cost-effective at least until 80 years. Conclusion Despite limitations due to pooling data of heterogeneous studies, our review could contribute to the knowledge of the presentation of PE in the elderly with its diagnostic difficulties. A diagnostic strategy based on reviewed data is proposed. PMID:18827912

  17. Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome with stroke-like imaging presentation: clinical, biochemical and molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Rashed, Mohamed S; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Patay, Zoltan; Rahbeeni, Zuhair; Abu-Amero, Khaled K

    2008-01-15

    Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in ORNT1 gene that encodes a mitochondrial ornithine transporter. It has variable clinical presentations with episodic hyperammonemia, liver dysfunction, and chronic neurological manifestations. In this work, we report the findings of HHH syndrome in 3 Saudi siblings. The 4-year-old proband presented with recurrent Reye-like episodes, hypotonia, and multiple stroke-like lesions on brain MRI. Biochemical and molecular analysis confirmed that she had HHH syndrome. She significantly improved on protein restriction and sodium benzoate. Her two older siblings have milder phenotypes with protein intolerance and learning problems. In comparison to their sister, their homocitrulline and orotic acid were only mildly elevated even before treatment. The three patients were homozygous for a novel mutation in ORNT1 with a Gly220Arg change. In view of the CNS lesions, which initially were felt to be suggestive of MELAS, we sequenced the entire mtDNA genome and no potential pathogenic mutations were detected. Analysis of ORNT2 did not provide explanation of the clinical and biochemical variability. This work presents a yet unreported CNS involvement pattern, notably multiple supratentorial stroke-like lesions in association with HHH syndrome. Moreover, it illustrates considerable clinical/biochemical correlation, and describes a novel mutation. We suggest including HHH syndrome in the differential diagnosis of patients found to have stroke-like lesions on brain MRI.

  18. Clinical presentation and physiotherapy treatment of 4 patients with low back pain and isthmic spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvano; Vanti, Carla; O'Reilly, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective Spondylolisthesis is a pathological condition characterized by the slipping of a vertebral body, compared with the underlying one, following structural and/or degenerative changes of the spine. The purpose of this case series is to describe clinical presentations and the conservative physiotherapy management of 4 patients with low back pain and lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis. Clinical Features Four patients aged 25, 43, 36, and 50 years presented with low back pain of various duration. Radiographs confirmed the presence of lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis. Outcome measures included numerical rating scale, disability outcome measure (Oswestry Disability Index), spinal instability tests (Prone Instability Test, Passive Lumbar Extension test), and muscle function tests (Aberrant Movement Patterns, Active Straight Leg Raising, Prone and Supine Bridge Tests). Intervention and Outcomes Treatment consisted of postural reeducation, stretching, and strengthening exercises. Over the course of individualized treatment, ranging from 8 to 10 treatment visits, outcomes improved for all 4 patients. Conclusion This report describes varying clinical presentations and treatment of 4 patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis, suggesting that different pain generators could be managed by different conservative approaches. PMID:23204952

  19. Cancer-related secondary lymphoedema due to cutaneous lymphangitis carcinomatosa: clinical presentations and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Damstra, R J; Jagtman, E A; Steijlen, P M

    2010-09-01

    Lymphoedema is a clinical condition caused by impairment of the lymphatic system, leading to swelling of subcutaneous soft tissues. As a result, accumulation of protein-rich interstitial fluid and lymphostasis often causes additional swelling, fibrosis and adipose tissue hypertrophy leading to progressive morbidity and loss of quality of life for the patient. Lymphoedema can be distinguished as primary or secondary. Lymphoedema is a complication frequently encountered in patients treated for cancer, especially after lymphadenoectomy and/or radiotherapy based on destruction of lymphatics. However, although lymphatic impairment is sometimes caused by obstructive solid metastasis, we present three cases of secondary lymphoedema with minor dermatological features without detectable solid metastasis. Sometimes this type of lymphoedema is mistakenly called malignant lymphoedema. All patients were previously treated for cancer without clinical signs of recurrence, presented with progressive lymphoedema and minor dermatological features of unknown origin. Clinical and histopathological examination of the skin revealed diffuse lymphangitis carcinomatosa, leading to secondary lymphoedema and adjustment of the therapeutic approach and prognosis. We reviewed literature on these rare presentations of cancer recurrence and recommend, where appropriate, consulting a dermatologist when discrete skin abnormalities are seen in patients with a history of cancer and developing lymphoedema.

  20. Evaluation of Asperger Syndrome in Youth Presenting to a Gender Dysphoria Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Edwards-Leeper, Laura; Tishelman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: There is evolving evidence that children and adolescents with gender dysphoria have higher-than-expected rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet clinical data on ASD among youth with gender dysphoria remain limited, particularly in North America. This report aims to fill this gap. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patient chart data from 39 consecutive youth ages 8 to 20 years (mean age 15.8 years, natal male: n = 22, natal female: n = 17) presenting for evaluation at a multidisciplinary gender clinic in a large U.S. pediatric hospital from 2007 to 2011 to evaluate the prevalence of ASD in this patient population. Results: Overall, 23.1% of patients (9/39) presenting with gender dysphoria had possible, likely, or very likely Asperger syndrome as measured by the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS). Conclusion: These findings are consistent with growing evidence supporting increased prevalence of ASD in gender dysphoric children. To guide provision of optimal clinical care and therapeutic intervention, routine assessment of ASD is recommended in youth presenting for gender dysphoria. PMID:26651183

  1. Cannabis use and violence in three remote Aboriginal Australian communities: Analysis of clinic presentations.

    PubMed

    Kylie Lee, K S; Sukavatvibul, Krisakorn; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal reports have linked cannabis use to violence in some remote Australian Aboriginal communities. We examine the relationship between cannabis use and presentations to local clinics for violence-related trauma at a population level. As part of a larger study, estimates of cannabis and alcohol use status were obtained for 264 randomly selected individuals aged 14-42. These estimates were collected from Aboriginal health workers and respected community informants using a previously validated approach. Clinic records for the sample were audited for physical trauma presentations between January 2004 and June 2006. One in 3 individuals (n = 88/264) presented to the clinic with physical trauma. Of these, the majority (65.9%, n = 58/88) had at least one presentation that was violence-related. Nearly 2 in every 3 of the total presentations for trauma following violence (n = 40/63) involved the use of a weapon. Hunting tools were most often used, followed by wooden or rock implements. Individuals who reported any current cannabis use were nearly 4 times more likely than nonusers to present at least once for violent trauma after adjusting for current alcohol use, age, and sex (OR = 3.8, 95% CI [1.5, 9.8]). Aboriginal individuals in these remote communities experience high rates of physical trauma and violence, often involving weapons. A comprehensive study is needed to explore the association between cannabis and violence. At the same time, an investment in local programmes is needed to address cannabis use and underlying risk factors for substance use and for violence.

  2. [Visual presentation of psychiatric clinical decision-making by "graphic assessment sheet for diagnoses and treatments"].

    PubMed

    Ota, Toshio; Yoshida, Sumiko; Tsunashima, Sousuke; Totsuka, Takao; Watanabe, Takafumi; Toyoshima, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatrists often have to treat patients even when the clinical information is insufficient to make a definite diagnosis. This is the case especially when we are treating first-visit outpatients or inpatients who have just been admitted. One of the causes of information insufficiency is a delay in obtaining clinical information on the patient, and another is a lack of characteristic manifestations of the disease because of an immature developmental stage. Even in such situations, however, clinicians have to make reasonable judgements using the information that is available at that time. The framework for making judgements on such occasions, or "the framework of decision-making under imperfect-information conditions", is becoming more and more important in psychiatric clinical practice in Japan for the following reasons. First, team members in charge of a patient became very heterogeneous in terms of their career and motivation after the start of the new post-graduate clinical training system in Japan several years ago, resulting in a higher risk of miscommunication. Secondly, the need for precise explanation to patients and their families has become crucial in recent years as the result of various social changes. Ota T, one of the authors, once put forward the framework of decision-making under imperfect-information conditions on the basis of Bayesian statistics. In the present paper, in consideration of the above background, we devised a sheet for visualizing the above framework so that relevant staff could share the clinical decision-making process. Specifically, we visually arranged on a sheet of paper the components and variables of the framework, so that the staff could communicate with each other explicitly and precisely about the estimated probability of each possible disease, merits and demerits of each treatment option, etc. We employed the sheet on treating patients in our acute psychiatric ward, 2 of whom are presented in the paper. Discussions were

  3. Polyarteritis nodosa presenting with clinical and radiologic features suggestive of polymyositis.

    PubMed

    Haroon, Muhammad; Bermingham, Niamh; Keohane, Catherine; Harney, Sinead

    2012-04-01

    We report a patient who presented with clinical and MRI findings suggestive of polymyositis but, in whom, muscle biopsy disclosed a strikingly different diagnosis. A 65-year-old woman presented with 3-week history of bilateral proximal muscle pain and weakness. Laboratory investigations showed markedly elevated inflammatory markers and mildly elevated muscle enzymes. MRI scans of lower limbs showed features suggestive of polymyositis. However, muscle biopsy showed features of a polyarteritis-type vasculitis affecting an intramuscular blood vessel. Our reports highlight the critical role of muscle biopsy in establishing the correct diagnosis in patients with suspected myositis.

  4. Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome: clinical presentation and management options

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramulu, Basapogu; Shyam, Naragani DVN; Ajay, Pilla; Suman, Pathipaka

    2015-01-01

    Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma and precocious aggressive periodontitis, leading to premature loss of deciduous and permanent dentition at a very young age. Various etiopathogenic factors are associated with the syndrome, like immunologic alterations, genetic mutations, and the role of bacteria. Dentists play a significant role in the diagnosis and management of PLS as there are characteristic manifestations like periodontal destruction at an early age and an early eruption of permanent teeth. Here, we are presenting an elaborate review of PLS, its etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management options. PMID:26203280

  5. Tuberculous meningitis presenting with unusual clinical features in Nigerians: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Komolafe, Morenikeji A; Sunmonu, Taofiki A; Esan, Olufunmi A

    2008-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis is common in developing countries and accounts for about 7.8% to 14% of all cases of tuberculosis in Nigeria. Case presentation Case 1 was a 17-year-old woman who presented with a 3-week history of weakness of the right upper and lower limbs, a 6-hour history of inability to speak and irrational behaviour. She had no remarkable past medical history. Physical examination revealed pyrexia (temperature of 38.2°C) and altered level of consciousness (Glasgow coma score = 7/15). The signs of meningeal irritation were present and she had anisocoria and right spastic hemiparesis. Other aspects of physical examination were normal. Laboratory investigations showed an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, normal cerebrospinal fluid protein and reduced glucose. The brain computed tomography scan showed features in keeping with obstructive hydrocephalus and she was immediately commenced on antituberculous drugs, intravenous steroids and mannitol. She made a remarkable clinical recovery and was discharged home 6 weeks after admission. Case 2 was a 40-year-old man who presented with a 6-week history of headache and fever and a 2-week history of alteration in level of consciousness. There was no history of neck pain and/or stiffness, nausea or vomiting. He had no other remarkable past medical history. He had been placed on various intravenous antibiotics in private hospitals before presentation, with no clinical improvement. Physical examination showed a young man in a coma (Glasgow coma score = 4/15) and febrile (temperature of 38.5°C) with signs of meningeal irritation. The brain stem reflexes were impaired and he had spastic quadriparesis. Further physical examination was essentially normal. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed features in keeping with meningeal inflammation and he had a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The brain computed tomography scan showed features in keeping with obstructive hydrocephalus. He was placed on

  6. Pharmacological Evidence of α2-Adrenergic Receptors in the Hypotensive Effect of Platonia insignis Mart.

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Marcelo Bezerra; da Silva-Filho, José Couras; Sabino, Carla Kelly Barroso; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Sousa, Cleyton Marcos Melo; Costa, Isabella Cristhina Gonçalves; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Amazon region. The present study evaluated the biological potential of the ethanol extract (Pi-EtOH) and ethyl acetate fraction (Pi-EtOAc) of the P. insignis fruit shells on the cardiovascular system of rats. Pi-EtOH or Pi-EtOAc (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously in normotensive rats (260–300 g), and the mean arterial pressure and the heart rate were monitored. The Pi-EtOH induced hypotension (−11.56±0.89, −7.43±0.85, and −17.56±1.97 mmHg) followed by bradycardia in two highest doses (−8.89±3.62 and −15.79±1.83 beats/min) and Pi-EtOAc, at the same doses, induced hypotension (−11.2±1.03, −14.48±1.13, −29.89±2.67 mmHg) more intensively, followed by tachycardia at the dose 12.5 and 25 mg/kg (15.64±2.06, 19.31±1.92 beats/min) and bradycardia at a dose of 50 mg/kg (−9.98±7.33 beats/min). The hypotensive response from Pi-EtOAc was not attenuated when used in the pretreatment with L-NAME, verapamil, propranolol, and hexamethonium. However, when using yohimbine, the hypotensive effect was inhibited (−4.42±1.28 (P<.05), −3.29±0.99 (P<.05), 2.06±1.18 mmHg (P<.05); Student's t-test). Hence, the Pi-EtOAc seems to act similarly to the α2-adrenergic agonist in this hypotensive effect. PMID:25055183

  7. Clinical presentation of retinoblastoma in Malaysia: a review of 64 patients

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S C; Anusya, S

    2010-01-01

    AIM To analyze the demography, presenting clinical features, spread of the disease of retinoblastoma in patients who were treated in two tertiary hospitals in Malaysia. METHODS In this retrospective study, information of gender, age, race, presenting clinical features, findings of CT scan orbits and brain, lumbar puncture and bone marrow aspiration results were collected from the medical records of retinoblastoma patients diagnosed in Hospital of Universiti Sains Malaysia and General Hospital of Kuala Lumpur over a period of ten years. The data were collected in the same type of proforma from both hospitals. RESULTS A total of 64 patients were treated in both hospitals together, of whom boys and girls were almost equally affected. The mean age of children at presentation was 24.2 (range 3-84) months, 53 (82.8%) children were under 36 months old. The disease was unilateral in 39 (60.9%) patients. The most common presenting signs were leukocoria in 46 (71.8%), followed by proptosis in 21 (32.8%) patients. Routine screening of the siblings of affected children revealed retinoblastoma in 2 patients. There was intracranial extension in 8 (12.5%) and metastasis in bone marrow in 6 (9.3%) patients. CONCLUSION Leukocoria is the most common presentation of retinoblastoma in Malaysia. However, the disease was intraocular in 40 (62.5%) and extraocular (orbital involvement, intracranial and distant metastasis) in 24 (37.5%) patients. PMID:22553520

  8. Multiple system atrophy presenting as parkinsonism: clinical features and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, A; Colosimo, C; Bentivoglio, A R; Fenici, R; Melillo, G; Colosimo, C; Tonali, P

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility that parkinsonian signs may be the only presenting feature of multiple system atrophy (MSA), parkinsonian patients were studied who had no atypical clinical signs and had no symptoms of autonomic dysfunction, but who reported that they had not experienced the anticipated good response to dopaminergic treatment. These stringent criteria identified 20 patients from a series of 298 consecutive parkinsonian outpatients. The following clinical pointers were analysed: (a) rate of disease progression; (b) symmetry of parkinsonian symptoms and signs; (c) occurrence of resting tremor during the first three years from onset. In addition, all patients underwent (d) acute and chronic challenge with dopaminergic drugs; (e) cardiovascular reflex autonomic function tests; (f) high field MRI. Rapid progression of disease was seen in 45% of patients, onset was symmetric in 25%, tremor was absent at onset in 70%, response to dopaminergic drug challenges was inadequate in 40%, abnormal cardiovascular reflexes occurred in 50%, and some abnormal MRI finding occurred in 35% of cases. Each of these features was equally weighted by giving to each patient a 0 to 6 point score corresponding to the number of abnormal findings. Fifteen patients scoring higher than 1 were considered at risk for having MSA: five of them were classified as clinically possible (score 2), six as clinically probable (score 3-4), and four patients were classified as clinically definite multiple system atrophy (score 5). The six pointers considered were variably combined in each patient, none of them being universally abnormal in patients with high scores. The patients were followed up for a mean 2.1 (SEM 0.65) years. All but one of the 10 patients prospectively classified as probable or definite MSA developed unequivocal clinical signs of fully symptomatic MSA. A receiver operator characteristic cure was plotted for the prospective score based on follow up diagnosis. The best compromise

  9. Clinical Utility of Amyloid Imaging in a Complex Case of Corticobasal Syndrome Presenting with Psychiatric Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bensaïdane, MR; M-P, Fortin; Damasse, G; Chenard, M; Dionne, C; Duclos, M; Bouchard, RW; Laforce, R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical indications of amyloid imaging in atypical dementia remain unclear. We report a 68-year-old female without past psychiatric history who was hospitalized for auditory hallucinations and persecutory delusions associated with cognitive and motor deficits. Although psychotic symptoms resolved with antipsychotic treatment, cognitive and motor impairments remained. She further showed severe visuoconstructive and executive deficits, ideomotor apraxia, elements of Gerstmann’s syndrome, bilateral agraphesthesia and discrete asymmetric motor deficits. Blood tests were unremarkable. Structural brain imaging revealed diffuse fronto-temporo-parietal atrophy, which was most severe in the parietal regions. Meanwhile, FDG-PET suggested asymmetrical fronto-temporo-parietal hypometabolism, with sparing of the posterior cingulate gyrus. A diagnosis of possible corticobasal syndrome (CBS) was made. Amyloid-PET using the novel tracer NAV4694 was ordered, and revealed significant deposition of fibrillar amyloid (SUVR 2.05). The primary diagnosis was CBS with underlying Alzheimer pathology and treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor was initiated. Determination of underlying pathological CBS subtype is not simple even when based on extensive investigation including clinical presentation, atrophy patterns on MRI, and regional hypometabolism on FDG-PET. By contrast, amyloid imaging quickly confirmed Alzheimer pathology, and allowed rapid initiation of treatment in this complex case with early psychiatric symptoms. This case study illustrates the clinical utility of amyloid imaging in the setting of atypical cases seen in a tertiary memory clinic. PMID:26225355

  10. Clinical Utility of Amyloid Imaging in a Complex Case of Corticobasal Syndrome Presenting with Psychiatric Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bensaïdane, M R; M-P, Fortin; Damasse, G; Chenard, M; Dionne, C; Duclos, M; Bouchard, R W; Laforce, R

    2014-11-26

    Clinical indications of amyloid imaging in atypical dementia remain unclear. We report a 68-year-old female without past psychiatric history who was hospitalized for auditory hallucinations and persecutory delusions associated with cognitive and motor deficits. Although psychotic symptoms resolved with antipsychotic treatment, cognitive and motor impairments remained. She further showed severe visuoconstructive and executive deficits, ideomotor apraxia, elements of Gerstmann's syndrome, bilateral agraphesthesia and discrete asymmetric motor deficits. Blood tests were unremarkable. Structural brain imaging revealed diffuse fronto-temporo-parietal atrophy, which was most severe in the parietal regions. Meanwhile, FDG-PET suggested asymmetrical fronto-temporo-parietal hypometabolism, with sparing of the posterior cingulate gyrus. A diagnosis of possible corticobasal syndrome (CBS) was made. Amyloid-PET using the novel tracer NAV4694 was ordered, and revealed significant deposition of fibrillar amyloid (SUVR 2.05). The primary diagnosis was CBS with underlying Alzheimer pathology and treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor was initiated. Determination of underlying pathological CBS subtype is not simple even when based on extensive investigation including clinical presentation, atrophy patterns on MRI, and regional hypometabolism on FDG-PET. By contrast, amyloid imaging quickly confirmed Alzheimer pathology, and allowed rapid initiation of treatment in this complex case with early psychiatric symptoms. This case study illustrates the clinical utility of amyloid imaging in the setting of atypical cases seen in a tertiary memory clinic.

  11. Fast full-field OCT assessment of clinical tissue specimens (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Brossolet, Charles; Benoit, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) offers a non-invasive method of obtaining images of biological tissues at ultrahigh resolution (1µm in all 3 directions) approaching traditional histological sections. Previous clinical studies have shown the high efficiency of this imaging technique for the detection of cancer on various organs. This promises great potential of the technique for an ex-vivo quick analysis of surgical resections or biopsy specimens, in the aim to help the surgeon/radiologist decide on the course of action. Here we will present some of the latest technical developments on a FFOCT system which can produce 1cm2 images with 1 µm resolution in 1 minute. Larger samples, up to 50mm diameter, can also be imaged. Details on the large sample handling, high-speed image acquisition, optimized scanning, and accelerated GPU tiles stitching will be given. Results on the clinical applications for breast, urology, and digestive tissues will also be given. They highlight the relevance of the system characteristics for the detection of cancer on ex-vivo specimens. FFOCT now appears clearly as a very fast and non-destructive imaging technique that provides a quick assessment of the tissue morphology. With the benefit of both new technical developments and clinical validation, it turned into a mature technique to be implemented in the clinical environment. In particular, the technique holds potential for the fast ex-vivo analysis of excision margins or biopsies in the operating room.

  12. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of Cryptococcus gattii cases: Lessons learned from British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Eleni; Hoang, Linda; Kibsey, Pamela; Morshed, Muhammad; Phillips, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The environmental fungus Cryptococcus gattii emerged on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC), in 1999. By the end of 2006, it led to 176 cases and eight deaths – one of the highest burdens of C gattii disease worldwide. The present paper describes three cases, and the BC experience in the diagnosis and management of this infection. All three cases presented with pulmonary findings, including cryptococcomas and infiltrates. One also presented with brain cryptococcomas. Cases were diagnosed by chest and brain imaging, and laboratory evidence including serum or cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen detection and culture of respiratory or cerebrospinal fluid specimens. Genotyping of fungal isolates confirmed infection with C gattii VGIIa. Pulmonary cases were treated with fluconazole. One patient with central nervous system disease was treated with amphotericin B followed by fluconazole. Although this infection remains rare, clinicians should be aware of it in patients with a compatible clinical presentation who are either living in or returning from a trip to BC. PMID:20190892

  13. High blood pressure and syncope: orthostatic hypotension as a link.

    PubMed

    Rafanelli, Martina; Ungar, Andrea

    2016-06-22

    The prevalence of hypertension increases with the age. Diagnostic criteria are the same as for the young, but in older adults isolated systolic hypertension is more frequent, due to loss of vascular compliance. Blood pressure should be measured on both sides in the seated position, moreover in the supine and upright position to detect orthostatic hypotension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is useful to detect white coat hypertension and masked hypertension, to tailor the treatment and search for diurnal and nocturnal blood pressure pattern abnormalities. Given that frailty can affect the relationship between blood pressure and mortality, the clinician should properly evaluate and monitor physical performance and cognitive status, throughout specific tools, as the Fried Frailty Phenotype, aiming at a systolic blood pressure target between 130 and 150 mmHg. Before starting hypotensive drugs, a careful risk and benefits' evaluation should be performed given the high risk of hypertension and hypotension consequences and the frequent coexistence of orthostatic hypotension, which predisposes to syncope and falls.

  14. Central Methysergide Prevents Renal Sympathoinhibition and Bradycardia during Hypotensive Hemorrhage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veelken, Roland; Johnson, Kim; Scrogin, Karie E.

    1998-01-01

    Central methysergide prevents renal sympathoinhibition and bradycardia during hypotensive hemorrhage. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were measured in conscious rats during either hemorrhage or cardiopulmonary receptor stimulation with phenylbiguanide (PBG) after intracerebroventricular injection of the 5-HT1/5-HT2-receptor antagonist, methysergide (40 microg). Progressive hemorrhage caused an initial rise (109 +/- 33%) followed by a fall in RSNA (-60 +/- 7%) and a fall in HR (-126 +/- 7 beats/min). Methysergide delayed the hypotension and prevented both the sympathoinhibitory and bradycardic responses to hemorrhage. Systemic 5-HT3-receptor blockade did not influence responses to hemorrhage. The PBG infusion caused transient depressor(-25 +/- 6 mmHg), bradycardic (-176 +/- 40 beats/min), and renal sympathostimulatory (182 +/-47% baseline) responses that were not affected by central methysergide (-20 +/- 6 mmHg, -162 +/- 18 beats/min, 227 +/- 46% baseline). These data indicate that a central serotonergic receptor-mediated component contributes to the sympathoinhibitory and bradycardic responses to hypotensive hemorrhage in conscious rats. Furthermore, the same central 5-HT-receptor populations involved in reflex responses to hypotensive hemorrhage probably do not mediate the sympathoinhibitory response to cardiopulmonary chemosensitive 5-HT3 receptors.

  15. Midodrine as a Countermeasure for Post-spaceflight Orthostatic Hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Waters, Wendy W.; Meck, Janice V.

    2007-01-01

    Up to 30 % of astronauts exhibit post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension due to inadequate norepinephrine release during upright posture following short duration spaceflight. We hypothesize that the (alpha)1-adrenergic agonist midodrine will be an effective countermeasure. This study is being conducted in 2 phases. The first phase is complete and consisted testing six short duration crew members. All of these subjects participated in preflight and postflight tilt testing on a control flight as well as on the test flights, where midodrine was administered after landing, 1 hour before testing. Hemodynamic variables were compared between the 2 flights. Midodrine improved stroke volume, cardiac output, systolic pressure and heart rate, without increasing vascular resistance. None of these subjects experienced orthostatic hypotension on landing day. Phase II is similar to phase I, except that midodrine is ingested in flight (near TIG) and the tilt test is performed immediately after landing on the CTV. One crewmember has completed phase II testing. This crewmember had no evidence of orthostatic hypotension or presyncope, four additional crewmembers have volunteered for this study. To date, midodrine has been shown to be a safe and effective countermeasure to post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension.

  16. Hypotension does not alter the antinociceptive effect of nifedipine.

    PubMed

    Wong, C H; Wu, W H; Zbuzek, V K

    1998-01-01

    We explored the relationship between antinociceptive and hypotensive effects of nifedipine (NIF) injected intraperitoneally ( ip, 15 mg/kg) and epidurally (epi, 20 microM), as compared to verapamil (VER, 10 mg/kg ip) and nitroglycerin (NTG, 0.1 and 0.15 mg/kg ip). The systolic blood pressure (BP) and tail-flick (TF) latencies were measured simultaneously every 10 min for 2 hours and individual values of both measurements were correlated. The highest antinociceptive as well as hypotensive effects were both measured in the group receiving NIF epi., with the correlation coefficient r2=0.2878. Injected ip., NIF revealed similar antinociceptive effect, whereas the other studied drugs were not effective. As to the degree of hypotensive activity, NIF epi was followed by VER, NTG 0.1, NIF ip. and NTG 0.15. No significant correlation was found between BP and TF latencies in any group receiving the drugs. We concluded that the antinociceptive response, measured by the tail-flick technique, is independent of the hypotensive activity of the studied drugs, including NIF.

  17. Clinical presentation and imaging results of patients with symptomatic gluteus medius tears

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Dror; Shohat, Noam; Botser, Itamar; Agar, Gabriel; Domb, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a common complaint. Recently, it has become well recognized that tendinopathy and tears of the gluteus medius (GM) are a cause of recalcitrant GTPS. Nevertheless, the clinical syndrome associated with GM tears is not fully characterized. We characterize the clinical history, findings on physical examination, imaging and intraoperative findings associated with symptomatic GM tears. Forty-five patients (47 hips) who underwent GM repair for the diagnosis of tear were evaluated. Pain was estimated on the visual analog scale (VAS) and hip-specific scores were administered to assess functional status. The imaging modalities were reviewed and intra operative findings were recorded. The average patient age was 54 years (17–76), 93% were females. Symptom onset was commonly insidious (75%) and the average time to diagnosis was 28 months (2–240). The most common pain location was the lateral hip (75%). The average pre-surgery VAS and modified Harris Hip Score were 6.65 (0–10) and 55.5 (12–90), respectively. All patients had pathological findings on magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) ranging from tendinosis to complete tears of the GM tendon. There was a discrepancy between MRA interpretation by a radiologist and findings during surgery. Hip abductor tears are an under-recognized cause of hip pain and hip symptomatology. In this study, we further characterize the clinical presentation of this entity. The data we present here may facilitate early diagnosis, early orthopedic care and avoid unnecessary prolonged patient sufferings. PMID:27011854

  18. Prevention of supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women treated with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah Rubin; Wang, Eileen

    2014-08-15

    In our studies of transcranial magnetic stimulation in pregnant women with major depressive disorder, two subjects had an episode of supine hypotensive syndrome and one subject had an episode of dizziness without hypotension. Prevention of the supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women receiving transcranial magnetic stimulation is described.

  19. Cancer, Warts, or Asymptomatic Infections: Clinical Presentation Matches Codon Usage Preferences in Human Papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2015-07-01

    Viruses rely completely on the hosts' machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response.

  20. Association between DNA Methylation of the BDNF Promoter Region and Clinical Presentation in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Jumpei; Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Ritsuko; Shibata, Nobuto; Kuerban, Bolati; Ohnuma, Tohru; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Arai, Heii; Yamada, Hisashi; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims In the present study, we examined whether DNA methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoter is associated with the manifestation and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Of 20 patients with AD and 20 age-matched normal controls (NCs), the DNA methylation of the BDNF promoter (measured using peripheral blood samples) was completely analyzed in 12 patients with AD and 6 NCs. The resulting methylation levels were compared statistically. Next, we investigated the correlation between the DNA methylation levels and the clinical presentation of AD. Results The total methylation ratio (in %) of the 20 CpG sites was significantly higher in the AD patients (5.08 ± 5.52%) than in the NCs (2.09 ± 0.81%; p < 0.05). Of the 20 CpG sites, the methylation level at the CpG4 site was significantly higher in the AD subjects than in the NCs (p < 0.05). Moreover, the methylation level was significantly and negatively correlated with some neuropsychological test subscores (registration, recall, and prehension behavior scores; p < 0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that the DNA methylation of the BDNF promoter may significantly influence the manifestation of AD and might be associated with its neurocognitive presentation. PMID:25873928

  1. Cancer, Warts, or Asymptomatic Infections: Clinical Presentation Matches Codon Usage Preferences in Human Papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses rely completely on the hosts’ machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response. PMID:26139833

  2. Atypical presentation of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: Clinical and radiological characteristics in eclamptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Aracki-Trenkić, Aleksandra; Stojanov, Dragan; Trenkić, Milan; Radovanović, Zoran; Ignjatović, Jelena; Ristić, Saša; Trenkić-Bozinović, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an obstetric emergency frequently occurring in a pregnant or puerperal woman, manifested with an acute headache, consciousness impairment, seizures, and visual deficits and is associated with white matter changes predominantly affecting the posterior parietal and occipital lobes of the brain. Apart from the above-described typical location of the changes, the most common atypical location involves the brain stem and basal ganglia. Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive and specific imaging technique compared to computerized tomography, establishing the diagnosis and follow-up in patients with PRES is based mainly on MRI findings. It is particularly important not to exclude PRES as a possible diagnosis when we have the appropriate clinical presentation accompanied by the atypical radiological findings, since this clinical-radiological syndrome can often be manifested with an atypical MRI image. PMID:27322924

  3. Isolated brachydactyly type E and idiopathic pancreatitis in a patient presenting to a lipid disorders clinic.

    PubMed

    Page, Michael M; Hooper, Amanda J; Glendenning, Paul; Burnett, John R

    2017-04-06

    An 18-year-old female tertiary student was referred to a lipid clinic with hypertriglyceridaemia discovered after presentation with acute pancreatitis. The patient's only medication was l-thyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism. She was overweight, normotensive, with unremarkable facies. However, she had hypermobile hand joints and brachydactyly resulting in loss of left 3-5 and right 4 and 5 knuckle definitions. Radiography revealed shortening of metacarpals 3-5 on the left and 4 and 5 on the right. Her mother had similar skeletal changes, consistent with a dominant mode of inheritance. Abnormally short digits involving the metacarpals, classified as brachydactyly type E, can be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. Turner syndrome, Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, hypertension with brachydactyly, chromosome 2q37 microdeletion and PTHLH mutations were excluded following clinical, biochemical and genetic testing. No specific treatment was required. Genetic testing for isolated and syndromic forms of brachydactyly facilitates family screening and prepregnancy counselling.

  4. [Diabetes mellitus: clinical presentation and differential diagnosis of hyperglycemia in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Rubio Cabezas, O; Argente, J

    2012-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood. Despite being a clinical and etiopathogenically heterogeneous disorder, type 1 autoimmune diabetes accounts for more than 95% of cases in children. Recent advances have meant that a growing number of patients have been assigned to other subtypes of diabetes. In such cases, the correct diagnosis is facilitated by the fact that many of these rare causes of diabetes are associated with specific clinical syndromes or may present at a certain age. Many of them are also subsidiaries of molecular diagnosis. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge in this field of pediatric diabetes, in an attempt to determine the most accurate diagnosis and its implications on appropriate treatment and prognosis.

  5. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy systematic review: Pathophysiologic process, clinical presentation and diagnostic approach to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ono, Ryohei; Falcão, L Menezes

    2016-04-15

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning with the absence of coronary occlusion, which typically occurs in older women after emotional or physical stress. The pathophysiology of TTC is not well established, though several possible causes such as catecholamine cardiotoxicity, metabolic disturbance, coronary microvascular impairment and multivessel epicardial coronary artery spasm have been proposed. A number of diagnostic criteria have been suggested in the world and not unified as single, but the most common accepted one is Mayo Clinic proposed criteria. Since the clinical presentation of TTC is usually similar to acute coronary syndrome, differential diagnosis is essential to exclude other diseases and also for its treatment. Imaging modality including echocardiogram, angio CT and cardiac MRI, and lab tests for catecholamine, troponin T, creatine kinase MB and B-type natriuretic peptide can be useful to differentiate TTC from other diseases. Prognosis is generally favorable and in-hospital mortality is from 0% to within 10%.

  6. Health-related quality of life among children presenting to a pediatric sleep disorders clinic.

    PubMed

    Hart, Chantelle N; Palermo, Tonya M; Rosen, Carol L

    2005-01-01

    The present study is a retrospective review of a clinical database that assessed the association between childhood sleep disturbances and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The sample consists of 80 caretakers of children ages 5 to 18 years referred to a pediatric sleep disorders clinic. Caretakers completed the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form (CHQ-PF50) and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Compared to a normative sample, caretakers of children with a sleep disorder reported poorer scores on the CHQ-PF50. Caretaker reports of HRQOL did not differ across sleep diagnostic groups, and scores on the CSHQ were not associated with scores on the CHQ-PF50. Results suggest that children with sleep disturbances experience a variety of HRQOL decrements that may benefit from intervention.

  7. Larval therapy from antiquity to the present day: mechanisms of action, clinical applications and future potential

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Iain S; Twine, Christopher; Whitaker, Michael J; Welck, Mathew; Brown, Charles S; Shandall, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    When modern medicine fails, it is often useful to draw ideas from ancient treatments. The therapeutic use of fly larvae to debride necrotic tissue, also known as larval therapy, maggot debridement therapy or biosurgery, dates back to the beginnings of civilisation. Despite repeatedly falling out of favour largely because of patient intolerance to the treatment, the practice of larval therapy is increasing around the world because of its efficacy, safety and simplicity. Clinical indications for larval treatment are varied, but, in particular, are wounds infected with multidrug‐resistant bacteria and the presence of significant co‐morbidities precluding surgical intervention. The flies most often used in larval therapy are the facultative calliphorids, with the greenbottle blowfly (Lucilia sericata) being the most widely used species. This review summarises the fascinating and turbulent history of larval therapy from its origin to the present day, including mechanisms of action and evidence for its clinical applications. It also explores future research directions. PMID:17551073

  8. Burkitt's lymphoma: a child's case presenting in the maxilla. Clinical and radiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Salas, Borja; Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco-Jesús

    2010-05-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a neoplasm which, despite its very aggressive behaviour is potentially curable. It typically affects the paediatric population. BL belongs to the non-Hodgkin lymphomas group, and is the first human tumour undoubtedly related to a viral origin (Epstein-Barr virus). Two main clinical subtypes are recognized: endemic or African type, and sporadic type; HIV associated BL constitutes a third type. Although common in endemic BL, maxillary involvement is rare in sporadic cases. This, together with the clinical lack of specificity associated to this location, makes diagnosis difficult. New chemotherapeutic protocols achieve a high survival rate. Most important prognostic factors are location and tumour stage. We report a paediatric case of BL presenting in the maxilla, with a review and a description of the characteristics of the disease.

  9. Hypotensive effects of resistance exercises with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Costa, Pablo B; Salles, Belmiro F; Novaes, Giovanni S; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2015-04-01

    The effects of low-intensity resistance exercise (RE) combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on blood pressure (BP) are an important factor to be considered because of the acute responses imposed by training. The aim of this study was to compare the hypotensive effect of RE performed with and without BFR in normotensive young subjects. After 1 repetition maximum (1RM) tests, 24 men (21.79 ± 3.21 years; 1.72 ± 0.06 m; 69.49 ± 9.80 kg) performed the following 4 experimental protocols in a randomized order: (a) high-intensity RE at 80% of 1RM (HI), (b) low-intensity RE at 20% of 1RM (LI), (c) low-intensity RE at 20% of 1RM combined with partial BFR (LI + BFR), and (d) control. Analysis of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was conducted over a 60-minute period. The 3 RE protocols resulted in hypotensive SBP (HI = -3.8%, LI = -3.3%, LI + BFR = -5.5%) responses during the 60 minutes (p ≤ 0.05). The LI + BFR protocol promoted hypotensive (-11.5%) responses in DBP during the 60 minutes (p ≤ 0.05), and both the HI and LI + BFR protocols resulted in mean blood pressure (MBP) hypotension between 30 (-7.0%, -7.7%) and 60 minutes (-3.6%, -8.8%), respectively. In conclusion, postexercise hypotension may occur after all 3 exercise protocols with greater reductions in SBP after HI and LI + BFR, in DBP after LI + BFR, and in MBP after HI and LI + BFR protocols.

  10. Clinical Presentation and Course of Persistent Delusional Disorder: Data From a Tertiary Care Center in India

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Karishma R.; Arasappa, Rashmi; Prasad, Krishna M.; Zutshi, Amit; Chand, Prabhat K.; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Murthy, Pratima

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite its long history as a psychiatric diagnosis, little is known about the sociodemographic and clinical profile of persistent delusional disorder (PDD) or its subtypes, treatment response, and outcomes, particularly in India. We examined the clinical characteristics and course of PDD in patients presenting to a tertiary neuropsychiatry center in India. Method: A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with PDD (ICD-10) between January 2000 and May 2014 was conducted. Sociodemographic and clinical data including age at onset, total duration of the illness, clinical symptoms and treatment, hospitalizations, occupational functioning, and follow-up were extracted from the files. The study was approved by the institute ethics committee. Results: The sample (N = 455) consisted of 236 men and 219 women. The mean age at onset was 32.36 ± 10.47 years. The most common delusion was infidelity (n = 203, 44.6%) followed by persecution (n = 149, 32.7%). Hallucinations were present in 78 (17.1%), depressive symptoms in 187 (41.1%), and comorbid substance dependence in 61 (13.4%) subjects; 141 subjects (31.0%) had a family history of mental illness. Follow-up data were available for 308 subjects, of whom 285 (92.5%) reported good compliance with medication. Of the subjects, 163 (52.9%) showed a good response to treatment. The diagnosis of PDD remained unchanged in 274 of 308 subjects (88.9%). Conclusion: In our center, PDD appears to be uncommon and has a near-equal gender representation. Infidelity was the most common delusion, which is in contrast to the reported literature. The diagnosis of PDD appears to be stable with good response to atypical antipsychotics if compliance can be ensured. PMID:27247844

  11. Comorbidity and high viral load linked to clinical presentation of respiratory human bocavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Ghietto, Lucía María; Majul, Diego; Ferreyra Soaje, Patricia; Baumeister, Elsa; Avaro, Martín; Insfrán, Constanza; Mosca, Liliana; Cámara, Alicia; Moreno, Laura Beatriz; Adamo, Maria Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a new parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). In order to evaluate HBoV significance as an agent of acute respiratory disease, we screened 1,135 respiratory samples from children and adults with and without symptoms during two complete calendar years. HBoV1 prevalence in patients with ARTI was 6.33 % in 2011 and 11.64 % in 2012, including neonatal and adult patients. HBoV1 was also detected in 3.77 % of asymptomatic individuals. The co-detection rate was 78.1 %. Among children, 87 % were clinically diagnosed with lower respiratory infection (no significant differences between patients with and without coinfection), and 31 % exhibited comorbidities. Pediatric patients with comorbidities were significantly older than patients without comorbidities. Patients with ARTI had either high or low viral load, while controls had only low viral load, but there were no clinical differences between patients with high or low viral load. In conclusion, we present evidence of the pathogenic potential of HBoV1 in young children with ARTI. Since patients with HBoV1-single infection are not significantly different from those with coinfection with respect to clinical features, the virus can be as pathogenic by itself as other respiratory agents are. Furthermore, an association between high HBoV1 load and disease could not be demonstrated in this study, but all asymptomatic individuals had low viral loads. Also, children with comorbidities are susceptible to HBoV1 infection at older ages than previously healthy children. Thus, the clinical presentation of infection may occur depending on both viral load and the particular interaction between the HBoV1 and the host.

  12. An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Eccrine Poroma Occurring on the Auricle.

    PubMed

    Bae, Myong Il; Cho, Tae Ho; Shin, Min Kyung; Jeong, Ki Heon

    2015-01-01

    Eccrine poromas are benign, slow-growing, solitary tumors originating from the intraepidermal portion of eccrine sweat ducts. Approximately 65% of these tumors occur on the soles of the feet, while 10% occur on the hands where a high concentration of eccrine sweat glands exists. Less frequently it occurs in other sites such as neck, chest, forehead, nose, and scalp with sporadic occurrences. A 43-year-old Korean female presented with a mass on her right auricle, which had been present for 5 years. The mass increased gradually in size with pain, oozing, and bleeding. A biopsy of the mass revealed monomorphic basaloid cells, which may extend into the underlying dermis, in a richly vascularized stroma, with a variable number of cystic or ductal structures. The patient was diagnosed as having eccrine poroma. In this case, the eccrine poroma showed unusual clinical presentation.

  13. Clinical presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents: Is there an age effect?

    PubMed

    Ribolsi, Michele; Lin, Ashleigh; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Pontillo, Maria; Mazzone, Luigi; Vicari, Stefano; Armando, Marco

    2017-03-01

    There is limited research on clinical features related to age of presentation of the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents (CAD). Based on findings in CAD with psychosis, we hypothesized that an older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome would be associated with less severe symptoms and better psychosocial functioning than presentation in childhood or younger adolescence. Ninety-four CAD (age 9-18) meeting Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome criteria participated in the study. The sample was divided and compared according to the age of presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (9-14 vs 15-18 years). The predictive value of age of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome presentation was investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curve calculations. The two Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome groups were homogeneous in terms of gender distribution, IQ scores and comorbid diagnoses. Older Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome patients showed better functioning and lower depressive scores. ROC curves revealed that severity of functional impairment was best predicted using an age of presentation cut-off of 14.9 years for social functioning and 15.9 years for role functioning. This study partially confirmed our hypothesis; older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome was associated with less functional impairment, but age was not associated with psychotic symptoms.

  14. Temazepam, but not zolpidem, causes orthostatic hypotension in astronauts after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Shang-Jin; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Meck, Janice V.

    2003-01-01

    Insomnia is a common symptom, not only in the adult population but also in many astronauts. Hypnotics, such as temazepam (a benzodiazepine) and zolpidem (an imidazopyridine), are often taken to relieve insomnia. Temazepam has been shown clinically to have hemodynamic side effects, particularly in the elderly; however, the mechanism is not clear. Zolpidem does not cause hemodynamic side effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of different hypnotics during spaceflight might contribute significantly to the high incidence of postflight orthostatic hypotension, and to compare the findings in astronauts with clinical research. Astronauts were separated into three groups: control (n = 40), temazepam (15 or 30 mg; n = 9), and zolpidem (5 or 10 mg; n = 8). In this study, temazepam and zolpidem were only taken the night before landing. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates of the astronauts were measured during stand tests before spaceflight and on landing day. On landing day, systolic pressure decreased significantly and heart rate increased significantly in the temazepam group, but not in the control group or in the zolpidem group. Temazepam may aggravate orthostatic hypotension after spaceflight when astronauts are hemodynamically compromised. Temazepam should not be the initial choice as a sleeping aid for astronauts. These results in astronauts may help to explain the hemodynamic side effects in the elderly who are also compromised. Zolpidem may be a better choice as a sleeping aid in these populations.

  15. Temazepam, but not zolpidem, causes orthostatic hypotension in astronauts after spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shang-Jin; Garcia, Kathleen M; Meck, Janice V

    2003-01-01

    Insomnia is a common symptom, not only in the adult population but also in many astronauts. Hypnotics, such as temazepam (a benzodiazepine) and zolpidem (an imidazopyridine), are often taken to relieve insomnia. Temazepam has been shown clinically to have hemodynamic side effects, particularly in the elderly; however, the mechanism is not clear. Zolpidem does not cause hemodynamic side effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of different hypnotics during spaceflight might contribute significantly to the high incidence of postflight orthostatic hypotension, and to compare the findings in astronauts with clinical research. Astronauts were separated into three groups: control (n = 40), temazepam (15 or 30 mg; n = 9), and zolpidem (5 or 10 mg; n = 8). In this study, temazepam and zolpidem were only taken the night before landing. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates of the astronauts were measured during stand tests before spaceflight and on landing day. On landing day, systolic pressure decreased significantly and heart rate increased significantly in the temazepam group, but not in the control group or in the zolpidem group. Temazepam may aggravate orthostatic hypotension after spaceflight when astronauts are hemodynamically compromised. Temazepam should not be the initial choice as a sleeping aid for astronauts. These results in astronauts may help to explain the hemodynamic side effects in the elderly who are also compromised. Zolpidem may be a better choice as a sleeping aid in these populations.

  16. Unusual Clinical Presentation of Thoracic Tuberculosis: The Need for a Better Knowledge of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Manca, Sandra; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Santoru, Luigi; Trisolini, Rocco; Polo, Maria Francesca; Ostera, Salvatore; Patelli, Marco; Pirina, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 73 Final Diagnosis: Bronchoesophageal fistula in endobronchial tuberculosis and mediastinal lymphadenopathy Symptoms: Nonproductive cough • weight loss Medication: Isoniazid • rifampin • pyrazinamide • ethambutol Clinical Procedure: Laser treatment Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), a highly contagious infectious disease, is a significant public health problem all over the world and remains an important cause of preventable death in the adult population. Endobronchial TB is an unusual form of thoracic TB that may be complicated by tracheobronchial stenosis, and bronchoesophageal fistula formation is a very rare complication. Tubercular lymphadenitis can also lead to fistula formation through a process of caseum necrosis and opening of a fistula between the bronchus and oesophagus. Case Report: We report an uncommon case of thoracic TB in an immunocompetent 73-year-old Caucasian man who presented several problems: bronchoesophageal fistula, endobronchial TB, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy in the absence of contemporary parenchymal consolidation. Furthermore, he presented a normal chest radiograph and mostly unclear and non-specific symptoms at onset. Conclusions: We emphasize the need for a better knowledge of this illness and awareness that it may have an unusual presentation. In these cases, diagnosis and proper treatment can be delayed, with severe complications for the patient. Pulmonary TB remains a real diagnostic challenge: a normal chest radiograph and nonspecific symptoms do not allow us to exclude this persistent infectious disease. PMID:25907152

  17. An unusual clinical presentation of merkel cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Deba P; Heagley, Dawn E; Chalupa, Julianne; Cox, Meredith; Shehan, James M

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine cell carcinoma arising in the sun-exposed skin of elderly patients. Most of these tumors are located in the dermis. An unusual clinical presentation of such a tumor in the subcutis, if not biopsied, may be easily mistaken as a benign lesion. Case Presentation. An 83-year-old white woman presented with a several-month history of a painless 7 mm subcutaneous mass that was initially thought to be a lipoma. A conservative follow-up was planned. At the insistence of the patient, an excisional biopsy of the mass was performed revealing a subcutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma. The tumor cells stained positively for CK 20, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. No other primary or metastatic tumors found after a thorough work-up. The patient was treated with local irradiation. She remains disease free at her six-month follow-up visit. Conclusion. When a new growth is encountered in the sun-exposed skin of elderly patients, a biopsy is warranted even if the lesion clinically appears benign.

  18. An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Deba P.; Heagley, Dawn E.; Chalupa, Julianne; Cox, Meredith; Shehan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine cell carcinoma arising in the sun-exposed skin of elderly patients. Most of these tumors are located in the dermis. An unusual clinical presentation of such a tumor in the subcutis, if not biopsied, may be easily mistaken as a benign lesion. Case Presentation. An 83-year-old white woman presented with a several-month history of a painless 7 mm subcutaneous mass that was initially thought to be a lipoma. A conservative follow-up was planned. At the insistence of the patient, an excisional biopsy of the mass was performed revealing a subcutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma. The tumor cells stained positively for CK 20, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. No other primary or metastatic tumors found after a thorough work-up. The patient was treated with local irradiation. She remains disease free at her six-month follow-up visit. Conclusion. When a new growth is encountered in the sun-exposed skin of elderly patients, a biopsy is warranted even if the lesion clinically appears benign. PMID:20300432

  19. Association between tuberculin skin test result and clinical presentation of tuberculosis disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The tuberculin skin test (TST) is used to test for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and support the diagnosis of active TB. However, little is known about the relationship between the TST result and the clinical presentation of TB disease. Methods We analyzed US TB surveillance data, 1993–2010, and used multinomial logistic regression to calculate the association between TST result (0–4 mm [negative], 5–9 mm, 10–14 mm, and ≥ 15 mm) and clinical presentation of disease (miliary, combined pulmonary and extrapulmonary, extrapulmonary only, non-cavitary pulmonary, and cavitary pulmonary). For persons with pulmonary disease, multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of having acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive sputum. Results There were 64,238 persons with culture-confirmed TB included in the analysis, which was stratified by HIV status and birthplace (US- vs. foreign-born). Persons with a TST ≥ 15 mm were less likely to have miliary or combined pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease, but more likely to have cavitary pulmonary disease than non-cavitary pulmonary disease. Persons with non-cavitary pulmonary disease with a negative TST were significantly more likely to have AFB positive sputum. Conclusions Clinical presentation of TB disease differed according to TST result and persons with a negative TST were more likely to have disseminated disease (i.e., miliary or combined pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Further study of the TST result may improve our understanding of the host-pathogen relationship in TB disease. PMID:24093965

  20. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of retinoblastoma in children of South Western China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jingge; Zeng, Jihong; Guo, Bo; He, Weimin; Chen, Jun; Lu, Fang; Chen, Danian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome among children in South Western China with retinoblastoma (RB) and to determine factors predictive of poor outcome. A retrospective review of children diagnosed with RB from 2006 to 2015 at West China Hospital was undertaken. Demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were studied. A total of 253 patients (unilateral 80.2%, bilateral 19.8%) were studied. Twenty six patients (10.3%) were from minority ethnic groups of China. The median onset age was 21 months. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (71%). Tumors were intraocular in 91.3% cases, extraocular in 8.7% cases. Extraocular RB patients had a longer median lag period than intraocular patients (9 months vs 2 months, P < 0.0001). In the intraocular group, 89.5% were advanced group D or E diseases. Enucleation was the major treatment for intraocular RB. However, over 10 years, the enucleation rate decreased constantly while more patients received chemotherapy. The Kaplan–Meier survival probability was 87.8%, 81.4%, and 74.8% at 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years, respectively. On Cox regression analysis, extraocular RB (P = 0.0008) and treatment abandonment (P < 0.0001) were associated with poor outcome; bilateral RB (P = 0.0116) and advanced pathological grade pT4 (P = 0.0011) were associated with poor outcome of intraocular RB. Most RB patients from South Western China were diagnosed at advanced clinical stage. Delayed presentation is related to extraocular RB which is a risk factor for poor outcome. Chemotherapy increased the eye salvage but had no effects to overall survival. Education for parents and general physicians for the early signs of RB (such as leukocoria), therapeutic strategy and treatment outcomes of RB may promote early diagnosis, improve the compliance, and outcome. PMID:27759657

  1. Gender Differences in Clinical Presentations of Cystic Fibrosis Patients in Azeri Turkish Population

    PubMed Central

    Vahedi, Leila; Jabarpoor-Bonyadi, Morteza; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Vahedi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder with several clinical presentations. This study was undertaken in the Azeri Turkish population in Iran, to investigate gender differences in the age at onset and diagnosis, age of death, and duration of illness of CF. Methods The data of 331 CF patients from 2001 to 2015 was surveyed. Parameters including age, sex, ΔF508 mutation, age at onset, age at diagnosis, age of death and clinical presentations were evaluated for both sexes, using descriptive analysis. The association of gender with these variables was studied using logistic regression, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test by SPSS version 18. Odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95% and p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The study included 191 males (57.7%) and 140 females (42.3%), all showing statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Age duration differed between genders. Male and female patients were further under 9 and 4 years, respectively. The occurrence of ΔF508 mutation was 0.51 times more in females than in males. Age, diagnosis and sex were closely associated: males were diagnosed at a significantly later age than females (p=0.05). While this compression performed based on clinical presentations, males with respiratory disease had a later median age at diagnosis than females at lifespan (p=0.001). The risk of infertility in males was approximately two times greater than in females (p=0.02). Conclusion These findings indicate gender differences in CF patients. Future studies are needed to establish other differences and evaluate the causes for the gender variations. PMID:27790278

  2. Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder with tic symptoms: clinical presentation and treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Højgaard, Davíð R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Nissen, Judith Becker; Hybel, Katja A; Ivarsson, Tord; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2016-12-28

    Some studies have shown that children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and co-morbid tics differ from those without co-morbid tics in terms of several demographic and clinical characteristics. However, not all studies have confirmed these differences. This study examined children and adolescents with OCD and with possible or definite tic specifiers according to the DSM-5 in order to see whether they differ from patients without any tic symptoms regarding clinical presentation and outcome of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The full sample included 269 patients (aged 7-17) with primary DSM-IV OCD who had participated in the Nordic Long-term Treatment Study (NordLOTS). Symptoms of tics were assessed using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL). One or more tic symptoms were found in 29.9% of participants. Those with OCD and co-morbid tic symptoms were more likely male, more likely to have onset of OCD at an earlier age, and differed in terms of OCD symptom presentation. More specifically, such participants also showed more symptoms of OCD-related impairment, externalization, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), social anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the two groups showed no difference in terms of OCD severity or outcome of CBT. Children and adolescents with OCD and co-morbid tic symptoms differ from those without tic symptoms in several aspects of clinical presentation, but not in their response to CBT. Our results underscore the effectiveness of CBT for tic-related OCD.

  3. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of retinoblastoma in children of South Western China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingge; Zeng, Jihong; Guo, Bo; He, Weimin; Chen, Jun; Lu, Fang; Chen, Danian

    2016-10-01

    To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome among children in South Western China with retinoblastoma (RB) and to determine factors predictive of poor outcome.A retrospective review of children diagnosed with RB from 2006 to 2015 at West China Hospital was undertaken. Demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were studied.A total of 253 patients (unilateral 80.2%, bilateral 19.8%) were studied. Twenty six patients (10.3%) were from minority ethnic groups of China. The median onset age was 21 months. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (71%). Tumors were intraocular in 91.3% cases, extraocular in 8.7% cases. Extraocular RB patients had a longer median lag period than intraocular patients (9 months vs 2 months, P < 0.0001). In the intraocular group, 89.5% were advanced group D or E diseases. Enucleation was the major treatment for intraocular RB. However, over 10 years, the enucleation rate decreased constantly while more patients received chemotherapy. The Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 87.8%, 81.4%, and 74.8% at 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years, respectively. On Cox regression analysis, extraocular RB (P = 0.0008) and treatment abandonment (P < 0.0001) were associated with poor outcome; bilateral RB (P = 0.0116) and advanced pathological grade pT4 (P = 0.0011) were associated with poor outcome of intraocular RB.Most RB patients from South Western China were diagnosed at advanced clinical stage. Delayed presentation is related to extraocular RB which is a risk factor for poor outcome. Chemotherapy increased the eye salvage but had no effects to overall survival. Education for parents and general physicians for the early signs of RB (such as leukocoria), therapeutic strategy and treatment outcomes of RB may promote early diagnosis, improve the compliance, and outcome.

  4. Syringoma of vulva: an unusual presentation. Clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Troconis, José; Viloria de Alvarado, María Elena

    2015-03-01

    The case of a 34-year-old woman, who consulted because she observed the appearance of numerous yellow-white asymptomatic papules on the vulva, is presented. Clinical diagnosis of syringoma of vulva was established. The pathological and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis. Vulvar syringoma usually occurs as a multiple flesh-colored or brownish papules on both sides of labia majora of women in their third decade. Its diagnosis should be considered when the patient complaints of vulvar pruritus and/or sweating.

  5. Management of Low-Flow Vascular Malformations: Clinical Presentation, Classification, Patient Selection, Imaging and Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, Ian

    2015-10-15

    This review article aims to give an overview of the current state of imaging, patient selection, agents and techniques used in the management of low-flow vascular malformations. The review includes the current classifications for low-flow vascular malformations including the 2014 updates. Clinical presentation and assessment is covered with a detailed section on the common sclerosant agents used to treat low-flow vascular malformations, including dosing and common complications. Imaging is described with a guide to a simple stratification of the use of imaging for diagnosis and interventional techniques.

  6. Multidirectional instability of the shoulder: biomechanics, clinical presentation, and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Merolla, Giovanni; Cerciello, Simone; Chillemi, Claudio; Paladini, Paolo; De Santis, Elisa; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder is a condition where the dislocation occurs in more than one direction with minimal or no causative trauma. Its pathoanatomy is complex and characterized by a redundant capsule, resulting in increased glenohumeral joint volume. The fact that several further factors may contribute to symptom onset complicates the diagnosis and hampers the identification of a therapeutic approach suitable for all cases. There is general agreement that the initial treatment should be conservative and that surgery should be reserved for patients who have not responded to an ad hoc rehabilitation program. We review the biomechanics, clinical presentation, and treatment strategies of shoulder MDI.

  7. An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Deborah Gondim Lambert; Oliveira, Viviane Alves De; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Germano, Adriano Rocha; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin that usually affects the pleura. This rarity becomes more relevant in the oral cavity since the clinical features are nonspecific. A 66-year-old female patient presented with a 3-month history of a swelling in the floor of the mouth, measuring 2 cm in greatest diameter, and pain symptomatology. Occlusal and panoramic radiographs showed no bone involvement. Ultrasonography of the submandibular and parotid salivary glands revealed normal morphology, dimensions, and echogenicity. During this exam, a nodular image of low echogenicity measuring about 2.7 × 1.8 cm was detected. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological analysis revealed a well-defined tumor-like lesion with alternation between hypercellular areas without a defined pattern and hypocellular areas. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for CD34 and CD99 and negative for α-SMA, S-100, and bcl-2. Combining the histopathological and immunohistochemical features, the diagnosis was solitary fibrous tumor. The patient is under periodical clinical follow-up and shows no signs of recurrence 7 months after surgical excision of the tumor. The combination of clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical features is necessary for the diagnosis. PMID:28326216

  8. Terrestrial Snakebites in the South East of the Arabian Peninsula: Patient Characteristics, Clinical Presentations, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Alkaabi, Juma M.; Al Neyadi, Mariam; Al Darei, Fakhra; Al Mazrooei, Mariam; Al Yazedi, Jawaher; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.

    2011-01-01

    Background To describe the characteristics, clinical presentations, management and complications of snakebites in the border region between Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Buraimi, Sultanate of Oman. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a retrospective review of medical records to study snakebite cases over four-year duration at three tertiary hospitals. Overall, 64 snakebite cases were studied with median hospitalization of 2 (interquartile range [IQR] 1–4) days. The majority of cases were male (87.5%), and most (61%) of the incidents occurred during summer months. The bite sites were predominantly (95%) to the feet and hands. Main clinical features included pain, local swelling, and coagulopathy, blistering and skin peeling. Overall, there were no deaths, but few major complications occurred; extensive skin peeling (n = 5, 8%), multi-organ failure (n = 1, 1.5%), and compartment syndrome (n = 1, 1.5%). Polyvalent anti snake venom (ASV), analgesia, tetanus toxoid, intravenous fluids, and antibiotics such as ampicillin, cloxacillin, and cephalosporins were commonly instituted as part of treatment protocols in the three hospitals. Conclusion The overwhelming majority of bites occurred during summer months, and envenomations were more common in, relatively, young male farmers, but with no serious clinical complications. Prevention and treatment strategies should include increasing public awareness, developing management guidelines, and manufacturing specific ASV for a wide spectrum of the local venomous snakes. PMID:21931788

  9. Clinical presentations and outcomes of bile duct loss caused by drugs and herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Kleiner, David E; Gu, Jiezhun; Odin, Joseph A; Russo, Mark W; Navarro, Victor M; Fontana, Robert J; Ghabril, Marwan S; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-04-01

    Bile duct loss during the course of drug-induced liver injury is uncommon, but can be an indication of vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS). In this work, we assess the frequency, causes, clinical features, and outcomes of cases of drug-induced liver injury with histologically proven bile duct loss. All cases of drug-induced liver injury enrolled into a prospective database over a 10-year period that had undergone liver biopsies (n = 363) were scored for the presence of bile duct loss and assessed for clinical and laboratory features, causes, and outcomes. Twenty-six of the 363 patients (7%) with drug-, herbal-, or dietary-supplement-associated liver injury had bile duct loss on liver biopsy, which was moderate to severe (<50% of portal areas with bile ducts) in 14 and mild (50%-75%) in 12. The presenting clinical features of the 26 cases varied, but the most common clinical pattern was a severe cholestatic hepatitis. The implicated agents included amoxicillin/clavulanate (n = 3), temozolomide (n = 3), various herbal products (n = 3), azithromycin (n = 2), and 15 other medications or dietary supplements. Compared to those without, those with bile duct loss were more likely to develop chronic liver injury (94% vs. 47%), which was usually cholestatic and sometimes severe. Five patients died and 2 others underwent liver transplantation for progressive cholestasis despite treatment with corticosteroids and ursodiol. The most predictive factor of poor outcome was the degree of bile duct loss on liver biopsy.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia and hypotension are associated with inflammatory signaling that is triggered outside the brain.

    PubMed

    Al-Saffar, Hiba; Lewis, Kevin; Liu, Elaine; Schober, Alexandra; Corrigan, Joshua J; Shibata, Keita; Steiner, Alexandre A

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the neuroimmune mechanisms responsible for the switch from fever to hypothermia observed in severe forms of systemic inflammation. We evaluated whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) acting directly on the brain could promote a fever-hypothermia switch as well as the hypotension that is often associated with hypothermia in models of systemic inflammation. At an ambient temperature of 22°C, freely moving rats received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of LPS at doses ranging from 0.5 to 25μg. Despite the use of such high doses, the prevailing thermal response was fever. To investigate if a hypothermic response could be hidden within the prevailing febrile response, rats were pretreated with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (SC-236, 3.5mg/kg i.v.) known to block fever, but this strategy also failed to reveal any consistent hypothermic response following i.c.v. LPS. At the doses tested, i.c.v. LPS was similarly ineffective at inducing hypotension. Additional doses of LPS did not need to be tested because the 25-μg dose was already sufficient to induce both hypothermia and hypotension when administered peripherally (intra-arterially). An empirical 3D model of the interplay among body temperature, arterial pressure and heart rate following intra-arterial LPS reinforced the strong association of hypothermia with hypotension and, at the same time, exposed a bell-shaped relationship between heart rate and body temperature. In summary, the present study demonstrates that hypothermia and hypotension are triggered exclusively by LPS acting outside the brain and provides an integrated model of the thermal and cardiovascular responses to peripheral LPS.

  11. Viremia and Clinical Presentation in Nicaraguan Patients Infected With Zika Virus, Chikungunya Virus, and Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Vargas, Maria Jose; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Tellez, Yolanda; Soda, K. James; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Nuñez, Andrea; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and dengue virus (DENV) cocirculate in Nicaragua. In this study, we sought to compare the quantified viremia and clinical presentation of patients infected with 1 or more of these viruses. Methods. Acute-phase serum samples from 346 patients with a suspected arboviral illness were tested using a multiplex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV. Viremia was quantitated for each detected virus, and clinical information from request forms submitted with each sample was recorded. Results. A total of 263 patients tested positive for 1 or more viruses: 192 patients tested positive for a single virus (monoinfections) and 71 patients tested positive for 2 or all 3 viruses (coinfections). Quantifiable viremia was lower in ZIKV infections compared with CHIKV or DENV (mean 4.70 vs 6.42 and 5.84 log10 copies/mL serum, respectively; P < .001 for both comparisons), and for each virus, mean viremia was significantly lower in coinfections than in monoinfections. Compared with patients with CHIKV or DENV, ZIKV patients were more likely to have a rash (P < .001) and less likely to be febrile (P < .05) or require hospitalization (P < .001). Among all patients, hospitalized cases had higher viremia than those who did not require hospitalization (7.1 vs 4.1 log10 copies/mL serum, respectively; P < .001). Conclusions. ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV result in similar clinical presentations, and coinfections may be relatively common. Our findings illustrate the need for accurate, multiplex diagnostics for patient care and epidemiologic surveillance. PMID:27578819

  12. Review of Clinical Presentations in Thai Patients With Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2004-01-01

    Context: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a very rare but deadly infection of the central nervous system. Since the disease was first identified in 1965, fewer than 200 cases have been observed worldwide. Objective: The author performed a literature review of the reports of PAM in Thailand in order to study the clinical summary of PAM among Thai patients. Design: This study was designed as a descriptive retrospective study. A literature review of the papers concerning PAM in Thailand was performed. Results: According to this study, there have been at least 12 reports of PAM in Thailand, of which 2 cases were nonlethal. The mean age was 15.2 ± 16.1 years with a male:female ratio of about 2:1. History of risk behaviors such as suffocation of surface water during swimming was demonstrated in 6 cases. Also, 2 interesting cases involved possible water contact according to the Thai tradition and culture. Concerning the patients' clinical features, fever, headache, impaired consciousness, and stiff neck were seen in all cases. However, some unusual presentations such as intermittent abdominal pain and convulsion were also seen in this series. Similar to worldwide findings, most cases occurred during the summer months. Most of the cases involved young males from rural provinces in various regions of Thailand. Concerning the laboratory investigation, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile presented the polymorphonuclear (PMN) pleomorphic with hypoglycorhachia pattern. Trophozoite could be identified in all but 2 cases in this series. Conclusion: PAM is sporadically reported in Thailand but remains a public health issue. The clinical diagnosis of PAM is usually difficult as many clinicians are unfamiliar with the disease. The prognosis outcome is usually grave although broad medications are prescribed. PMID:15208515

  13. Twenty-four cases of the EEC syndrome: clinical presentation and management.

    PubMed Central

    Buss, P W; Hughes, H E; Clarke, A

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four cases of EEC syndrome were identified as part of a nationwide study. Ectodermal dysplasia, by study definition, was present in all cases and hair and teeth were universally affected. Nail dysplasia was present in 19 subjects (79%) and the skin was affected in 21 (87%). The presence of hypohidrosis was not noted as a predominant feature in the syndrome and its occurrence appeared to depend on the presence of all other features. Distal limb defects from simple syndactyly to tetramelic cleft hand and foot were identified, including preaxial anomalies. Orofacial clefting was identified in 14 cases (58%) and lacrimal duct anomaly in 21 (87%). Significant clinical problems encountered were chiefly cosmetic or ophthalmological, but conductive deafness and genitourinary problems in some cases required surgical intervention. Altered self-image was also noted in some cases. Multidisciplinary management is necessary with the early involvement of the clinical geneticist. Developmentally, the EEC syndrome and related disorders represent disorders of ectodermal/mesodermal interaction. Candidate regions include 7q21.3, the "ectrodactyly" locus; other candidates include developmental genes implicated in the ectodermal/mesodermal interactive process. Images PMID:8544192

  14. Multiple sclerosis presented as clinically isolated syndrome: the need for early diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pelidou, Sigliti-Henrietta; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Tzavidi, Sotiria; Lagos, Georgios; Kyritsis, Athanassios P

    2008-01-01

    Objective To aid in the timely diagnosis of patients who present with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Patients and methods We studied 25 patients (18 women, 7 men), originally presented in our clinic with a CIS suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). All patients underwent the full investigation procedure including routine tests, serology, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations, evoked potentials (EPs), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain and cervical spinal cord. Patients were imaged at baseline, and every three months thereafter up to a year. Results The CIS was consisted of optic neuritis in 12 cases, incomplete transverse myelitis (ITM) in 7 cases, Lhermitte sign in 2 cases, internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) in 2 cases, mild brainstem syndrome in 1 case, and tonic-clonic seizures in 1 case. Using the baseline and three-month scans 18/25 (72%) patients developed definite MS in one year of follow up while 7 (28%) had no further findings during this observation period. Immunomodulatory treatments were applied to all definite MS patients. Conclusion In light of new treatments available, MRIs at 3 month intervals are helpful to obtain the definite diagnosis of MS as early as possible. PMID:18827858

  15. Clinical presentations and diagnostic work-up in sarcoidosis: a series of Turkish cases (clinics and diagnosis of sarcoidosis).

    PubMed

    Kıter, Göksel; Müsellim, Benan; Cetinkaya, Erdoğan; Türker, Hatice; Kunt Uzaslan, A Esra; Yentürk, Esin; Uzun, Oğuz; Sağlam, Leyla; Özdemir Kumbasar, Özlem; Celik, Gökhan; Okumuş, Gülfer; Arbak, Peri Meram; Altıay, Gündeniz; Tabak, Levent; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşın; Erturan, Serdar; Türktaş, Haluk; Yalnız, Enver; Akkoçlu, Atilla; Öğüş, Candan; Doğan, Ömer Tamer; Özkan, Metin; Özkan, Serir; Uzel, Fatma Işıl; Öngen, Gül

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic granulomatous disease. It usually affects the lung. The diagnosis may be problematic since the known causes of granulomatous inflammation must be excluded. This multicenter study aimed to evaluate the clinical presentations and diagnostic approaches of sarcoidosis. The study protocol was sent via internet, and the participants were asked to send the information (clinical, radiological and diagnostic) on newly diagnosed sarcoidosis cases. 293 patients were enrolled within two years. Pulmonary symptoms were found in 73.3% of the patients, and cough was the most common one (53.2%), followed by dyspnea (40.3%). Constitutional symptoms were occured in half of the patients. The most common one was fatigue (38.6%). The most common physical sign was eritema nodosum (17.1%). The most common chest radiograhical sign was bilateral hilar lymphadenomegaly (78.8%). Staging according to chest X-ray has revealed that most of the patients were in Stage I and Stage II (51.9% and 31.7%, respectively). Sarcoidosis was confirmed histopathologically in 265 (90.4%) patients. Although one-third of the bronchoscopy was revealed normal, mucosal hyperemi (19.8%) and external compression of the bronchial wall (16.8%) were common abnormal findings. The 100% success rate was obtained in mediastinoscopy among the frequently used sampling methods. Transbronchial biopsy was the most frequently used method with 48.8% success rate. Considering sarcoidosis with its most common and also rare findings in the differential diagnosis, organizing the related procedures according to the possibly effected areas, and the expertise of the team would favour multimodality diagnosis.

  16. Clinical presentation and course of long QT syndrome in Thai children

    PubMed Central

    Saprungruang, Ankavipar; Vithessonthi, Kanyalak; La-orkhun, Vidhavas; Lertsapcharoen, Pornthep; Khongphatthanayothin, Apichai

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetically transmitted cardiac channelopathy that can lead to lethal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death in healthy young people. The clinical characteristics of LQTS are variable and depend on the subtype of long QT syndrome, which differ among populations. This single hospital-based case review study examined the clinical presentation of long QT syndrome and the outcomes of its treatment in 20 Thai children at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods Inpatient and outpatient records of children (aged 0–14 years) diagnosed with long QT syndrome from January 1, 1998, to September 30, 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Presentation at diagnosis, treatments, and clinical courses were collected and analyzed. In the 20 subjects, total Schwartz scores totaled 5.2±0.9 points, and mean age at diagnosis was 7.6±4.4 years (range, 1 day–13.8 years). The patients were assigned to one of 3 groups based on trigger events: 50% of patients had events at rest (sleep or at rest), 35% experienced adrenergic-mediated events (e.g., stress, exercise, startle), and 15% were asymptomatic. Excluding the 3 patients who died at first presentation, 100% of patients received a beta blocker, and 47.1% were treated with an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD). Results At follow-up (median=959 days; range, 1–4170 days), 4 patients (20%) were known to have died, 3 of whom died shortly after the diagnosis. Among patients who survived the initial event, 52.9% (9 of 17) experienced cardiac events (appropriate AICD shock, death, and/or syncope) during the follow-up period. The mean duration from diagnosis to cardiac event was 1420±759 days (range, 497–2499 days). Conclusions All 20 patients with LQTS were mostly symptomatic at presentation. Owing to the geographical region and ethnicity of the Thai population, we conclude that the ratio of patients who develop cardiac symptoms at rest or

  17. Clinical perception: a study of intimate partner violence versus methamphetamine use as presenting problems.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Holly; Haaken, Janice; Lewy, Colleen S; McFarland, Bentson H

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on theory by Solomon Asch (1946, 1952) to examine how presenting with intimate partner violence versus methamphetamine use shapes characteristics of substance abuse assessment interviews. When responding to an initial open-ended question from a substance abuse counselor, the methamphetamine user and intimate partner violence survivor may elicit very different reactions from the counselor. We predicted that these differing presenting problems would initiate different trajectories for overall impression formation. To test this hypothesis, 18 substance abuse practitioners interviewed one standardized patient (an actor portraying a substance abuse client) who alternated her presenting problem between a) violence in a domestic setting and b) methamphetamine use. The remainder of her story was identical for counselors in either presenting problem group. Results included differences between the two groups in median length of the interviews and failure of both groups to explore domestic violence as a cooccurring problem. Clinical practices related to substance abuse counseling and intimate partner violence are discussed in light of these findings.

  18. The Clinical Presentation and Outcome of the Institutionalized Wandering Mentally Ill in India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilima; Mehta, Ritambhara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are estimated 400,000 wandering mentally ill persons in India, found in poor physical state wandering on streets and railway stations; mainly treated either by government run Hospitals for Mental Health (HMH) or Psychiatry units of a Government Medical College (GMC). They require psychosocial rehabilitation along with treatment. Aim To study the presentation, clinical profile and rehabilitative outcome of wandering mentally ill admitted in government psychiatric care facilities. The objective was to establish them as a distinct psychiatric inpatient population requiring special attention. Materials and Methods The study was a chart review of all wandering mentally ill patients institutionalized during a period of two years in two distinct government facilities. Additionally, clinical staff was interviewed for cross checking the data and for eliciting problems faced in management. The discharged patients were contacted to assess the present status. Results Forty seven patients in HMH and 35 patients in GMC were studied. Wandering mentally ill patients were brought to mental health facility by helping person (30) and police (23). Majority of them (61) were picked up from streets and railway station. Most of them (56) belonged to <40 years age group and communication with them was difficult due to language barrier in 51. Diagnosed as Psychosis NOS (45) initially, they presented with poor physical condition, with positive viral markers (25) and pregnancy in females (4). Most common final diagnosis was schizophrenia (45) along with prominent negative symptoms and poor cognitive abilities. Forty three of them showed good improvement on treatment. Forty five gave their address; Relatives were found in 39 through police, post cards and social workers and were rehabilitated back to family. Conclusion Wandering mentally ill constitutes a unique patient population with specific challenges different from other inpatients in management and rehabilitation

  19. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity: biochemical, metabolic and clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Milić, Sandra; Lulić, Davorka; Štimac, Davor

    2014-07-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world. Presentation of the disease ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that includes central abdominal obesity along with other components. Up to 80% of patients with NAFLD are obese, defined as a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2). However, the distribution of fat tissue plays a greater role in insulin resistance than the BMI. The large amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) individuals contributes to a high prevalence of NAFLD. Free fatty acids derived from VAT tissue, as well as from dietary sources and de novo lipogenesis, are released to the portal venous system. Excess free fatty acids and chronic low-grade inflammation from VAT are considered to be two of the most important factors contributing to liver injury progression in NAFLD. In addition, secretion of adipokines from VAT as well as lipid accumulation in the liver further promotes inflammation through nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways, which are also activated by free fatty acids, and contribute to insulin resistance. Most NAFLD patients are asymptomatic on clinical presentation, even though some may present with fatigue, dyspepsia, dull pain in the liver and hepatosplenomegaly. Treatment for NAFLD and NASH involves weight reduction through lifestyle modifications, anti-obesity medication and bariatric surgery. This article reviews the available information on the biochemical and metabolic phenotypes associated with obesity and fatty liver disease. The relative contribution of visceral and liver fat to insulin resistance is discussed, and recommendations for clinical evaluation of affected individuals is provided.

  20. An Endotoxin Tolerance Signature Predicts Sepsis and Organ Dysfunction at Initial Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Olga M.; Hancock, David G.; Lyle, Ngan H.; Linder, Adam; Russell, James A.; Xia, Jianguo; Fjell, Christopher D.; Boyd, John H.; Hancock, Robert E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sepsis involves aberrant immune responses to infection, but the exact nature of this immune dysfunction remains poorly defined. Bacterial endotoxins like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are potent inducers of inflammation, which has been associated with the pathophysiology of sepsis, but repeated exposure can also induce a suppressive effect known as endotoxin tolerance or cellular reprogramming. It has been proposed that endotoxin tolerance might be associated with the immunosuppressive state that was primarily observed during late-stage sepsis. However, this relationship remains poorly characterised. Here we clarify the underlying mechanisms and timing of immune dysfunction in sepsis. Methods We defined a gene expression signature characteristic of endotoxin tolerance. Gene-set test approaches were used to correlate this signature with early sepsis, both newly and retrospectively analysing microarrays from 593 patients in 11 cohorts. Then we recruited a unique cohort of possible sepsis patients at first clinical presentation in an independent blinded controlled observational study to determine whether this signature was associated with the development of confirmed sepsis and organ dysfunction. Findings All sepsis patients presented an expression profile strongly associated with the endotoxin tolerance signature (p < 0.01; AUC 96.1%). Importantly, this signature further differentiated between suspected sepsis patients who did, or did not, go on to develop confirmed sepsis, and predicted the development of organ dysfunction. Interpretation Our data support an updated model of sepsis pathogenesis in which endotoxin tolerance-mediated immune dysfunction (cellular reprogramming) is present throughout the clinical course of disease and related to disease severity. Thus endotoxin tolerance might offer new insights guiding the development of new therapies and diagnostics for early sepsis. PMID:25685830

  1. Cannabis use and mood disorders: patterns of clinical presentations among adolescents in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Konings, M; Maharajh, Hari D

    2006-01-01

    Notwithstanding the increase use of cannabis among adolescents in both developing and developed countries, few studies have looked at cannabis use and mood disorders. In a series of case studies, this research project seeks to investigate patterns of clinical presentations seen among cannabis users in psychiatric outpatients in Trinidad. Five clinical patterns of presentations are identified among cannabis users and abusers based on variables of dosing, age of initial use, duration of use, tolerance and reverse tolerance and poly-drug abuse. All patients in these case studies were standardized for method of use and potency of cannabis used. Patients were screened by urine tests to determine co-morbid use of other substances. Other variables such as environmental factors and genetic vulnerability were reviewed as far as possible from historical accounts of family members. The five patterns described are low, controlled use with mild euphoria and heightened awareness, moderate use with mixed depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour, heavy, short term use with manic symptoms, long term incremental use with psychotic symptoms due to the trumping of depressive symptoms and cannabis mixed with other substances resulting in florid psychosis. Mood disorders appear to be a common finding among adolescents using cannabis. Sensitization to symptomatic presentation and early detection of cannabis use in young adolescents are necessary. Further research is needed on the effect of cannabinoids on emotions, behaviour and thinking and its relationship to mental disorders. This study is useful as a guideline for the implementation of public health strategies and legislation concerning the use of cannabis in youths.

  2. Foot Small Muscle Atrophy is present before the detection of Clinical Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Greenman, Robert L; Khaodhiar, Lalita; Lima, Christina; Dinh, Thanh; Giurini, John M; Veves, Aristidis

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize structural changes and the metabolic profile in the foot muscles and correlate them with diabetic neuropathy measurements using a phosphorus-31 (31P) rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) MRI method. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve control subjects, nine non-neuropathic and 12 neuropathic diabetic patients were studied using 31P RARE and proton (1H) MRI at 3 Tesla. The ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the foot to that of the muscle tissue was calculated from trans-axial 1H and 31P images. The average 31P concentration across the metatarsal head region was measured from the 31P images. RESULTS The muscle/total-area ratio was different among all three groups: 0.55 ± 0.04 (means ± SD); 0.44 ± 0.05; and 0.06 ± 0.06 for controls, non-neuropathic and neuropathic subjects respectively, (p <0.0001). The average 31P concentration was also different among all groups: 27.7 ± 3.8 mM; 21.7 ± 4.8; and 7.9 ± 8.8 for controls, non-neuropathic and neuropathic subjects respectively, (p <0.0001). The muscle/total-area ratios strongly correlated with clinical measurements: Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS) (r = −0.83, p <0.0001), Vibration Perception Threshold (VPT) (r= −0.79, p <0.0001) and Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments (SWM) (r = −0.87, p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Small muscle atrophy is present in diabetes before clinical peripheral neuropathy can be detected using standard techniques available in clinical practice. The 31P RARE MRI method evaluates the severity of muscle atrophy, even in the early stages when neuropathy is absent. This technique may prove a useful diagnostic tool that can identify early stage diabetic foot problems. PMID:15920063

  3. Annual Research Review: Attachment disorders in early childhood – clinical presentation, causes, correlates and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Though noted in the clinical literature for more than 50 years, attachment disorders have been studied systematically only recently. In part because of the ubiquity of attachments in humans, determining when aberrant behavior is best explained as an attachment disorder as opposed to insecure attachment has led to some confusion. In this selective review, we consider the literature on reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder and describe an emerging consensus about a number of issues, while also noting some areas of controversy and others where we lack clear answers. We include a brief history of the classification of the disorders, as well as measurement issues. We describe their clinical presentation, causes and vulnerability factors, and clinical correlates, including the relation of disorders to secure and insecure attachment classifications. We also review what little is known and what more we need to learn about interventions. Methods We conducted a literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases, using search terms “reactive attachment disorder,” “attachment disorder,” “indiscriminate behavior,” “indiscriminate friendliness,” “indiscriminate socially disinhibited reactive attachment disorder,” “disinhibited social engagement disorder,” and “disinhibited social behavior.” We also contacted investigators who have published on these topics. Findings A growing literature has assessed behaviors in children who have experienced various types of adverse caregiving environments reflecting signs of putative attachment disorders, though fewer studies have investigated categorically defined attachment disorders. The evidence for two separate disorders is considerable, with reactive attachment disorder indicating children who lack attachments despite the developmental capacity to form them, and disinhibited social engagement disorder indicating children who lack

  4. THE CLINICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRESENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIP ABDUCTOR TENDON TEARS

    PubMed Central

    Retheesh, Theertha; Mutreja, Rinky; Janes, Gregory C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip abductor tendon (HAT) tearing is commonly implicated in greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), though limited information exists on the disability associated with this condition and specific presentation of these patients. Purpose To describe the clinical, functional and biomechanical presentation of patients with symptomatic HAT tears. Secondary purposes were to investigate the association between these clinical and functional measures, and to compare the pain and disability reported by HAT tear patients to those with end-stage hip osteoarthritis (OA). Study Design Prospective case series. Methods One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with symptomatic HAT tears were evaluated using the Harris (HHS) and Oxford (OHS) Hip Scores, SF-12, an additional series of 10 questions more pertinent to those with lateral hip pain, active hip range of motion (ROM), maximal isometric hip abduction strength, six-minute walk capacity and 30-second single limb stance (SLS) test. The presence of a Trendelenburg sign and pelvis-on-femur (POF) angle were determined via 2D video analysis. An age matched comparative sample of patients with end-stage hip OA was recruited for comparison of all patient-reported outcome scores. Independent t-tests investigated group and limb differences, while analysis of variance evaluated pain changes during the functional tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients investigated the correlation between clinical measures in the HAT tear group. Results No differences existed in patient demographics and patient-reported outcome scores between HAT tear and hip OA cohorts, apart from significantly worse SF-12 mental subscale scores (p = 0.032) in the HAT tear group. Patients with HAT tears demonstrated significantly lower (p < 0.05) hip abduction strength and active ROM in all planes of motion on their affected limb. Pain significantly increased throughout the 30-second SLS test for the HAT tear group, with 57% of HAT tear patients

  5. [View of a Laboratory Physician on the Present and Future of Clinical Laboratories].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Shuji

    2014-10-01

    It is meaningful to discuss the "present and future of laboratories" for the development of laboratories and education of medical technologists. Laboratory staff must be able to perform urgent high-quality tests and take part in so-called team-based medicine and should be proud of devising systems that efficiently provide laboratory data for all medical staff. On the other hand, there may be staff with a poor sense of professionalism who work no more than is expected and too readily ask firms and commercial laboratories to solve problems. Overwork caused by providing team-based medicine and a decrease in numbers of clinical chemists are concerns. The following are hoped for in the future. Firstly, laboratory staff will become conscious of their own high-level abilities and expand their areas of work, for example, bioscience, proteomics, and reproductive medicine. Secondly, a consultation system for medical staff and patients will be established. Thirdly, clinical research will be advanced, such as investigating unknown pathophysiologies using laboratory data and samples, and developing new methods of measurement. Lastly, it is of overriding importance that staff of laboratory and educational facilities will cooperate with each other to train the next generation. In conclusion, each laboratory should be appreciated, attractive, positive regarding its contribution to society, and show individuality.

  6. [A case of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 presenting with a clinical course similar to spastic paraparesis].

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Yosuke; Doi, Hiroshi; Koyano, Shigeru; Baba, Yasuhisa; Suzuki, Yume; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki

    2010-09-01

    We report a 50-year-old woman with an unremarkable birth and developmental history, and with no family history of neurological disorders. The patient had a 6-year history of progressive cervical dystonia, oral dyskinesia, and hyperreflexia. She was initially considered to have spastic paraparesis of unknown cause. Because brain MRI showed mild atrophy of the cerebellar vermis, genetic analysis for spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 12, and 17, and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy was performed. The results revealed an abnormal expansion of CAG repeats (38 repeats) in one allele of ATXN2, and the patient was diagnosed with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). She had no major clinical features of SCA2 such as cerebellar ataxia, slow saccade, or hyporeflexia. Recent reports have shown the CAG repeat expansion in ATXN2 to be detected in patients with familial L-dopa-responsive parkinsonism. The present case suggests that CAG repeat expansion in ATXN2 may be detected in some patients with spastic paraparesis, and that wide variations of clinical manifestations exist in SCA2.

  7. Childhood disintegrative disorder with seasonal total mutism: A rare clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Elham; Hosseinpoor, Sara; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare autistic-like clinical condition with unknown etiology, in that previously acquired age-appropriate language, social and adaptive abilities deteriorate significantly in 2-10-year-old healthy children, although physical and neurological evaluations display no observable abnormality. Our case is a 22-year-old female born of a consanguineous marriage, with the appearance of CDD symptoms in her fifth year of age following normal mental and physical development during her initial four years of life. Without any precipitating factor, she gradually lost her language abilities, social relational skills, affectionate behavior, adaptive capacities, peer play and meaningful interest in her surrounding, friends and family members over a period of 4 years, reaching a plateau in her ninth year of age. The unique special clinical symptom in this case is a seasonal total mutism, which after the beginning of her CDD symptoms is revealing every year covering the spring. As no additional physical or psychological change accompanies her total seasonal speech loss, it cannot be attributed to any mental condition known as having a seasonal pattern. Because in the literature CDD is presented mostly as case reports with lacking of advanced research data, describing any new case is recommended to improve the knowledge about this rare condition, especially if it displays some new unusual signs, not reported till now. PMID:27069898

  8. Clinical presentations for influenza and influenza-like illness in young, immunized soldiers.

    PubMed

    McNeill, K Mills; Vaughn, Beverly L; Brundage, Mary B; Li, Yuanzhang; Poropatich, Ron K; Gaydos, Joel C

    2005-01-01

    Concern about respiratory diseases in soldiers increased in the late 1990s as production of the successful adenovirus vaccines stopped and the possibilities of an emergent pandemic influenza strain and use of bioweapons by terrorists were seriously considered. Current information on the causes and severity of influenza-like illness (ILI) was lacking. Viral agents and clinical presentations were described in a population of soldiers highly immunized for influenza. Using standard virus isolation techniques, 10 agents were identified in 164 (48.2%) of 340 soldiers hospitalized for ILI. Influenza isolates (29) and adenoviruses (98) occurred most frequently. Most influenza cases were caused by influenza A and probably resulted from a mismatch between circulating and vaccine viruses. Most (58.5%) patients with an adenovirus had a chest radiograph; 31.3% of these had an infiltrate. Clinical findings did not differentiate ILI caused by the various agents. Only 29 cases of influenza occurred in approximately 7,200 person-years of observation, supporting the use of influenza vaccine.

  9. Phenobarbitone-induced haematological abnormalities in idiopathic epileptic dogs: prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome.

    PubMed

    Bersan, E; Volk, H A; Ros, C; De Risio, L

    2014-09-13

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome of phenobarbitone induced haematological abnormalities (PBIHA) in dogs. The medical records of two veterinary referral institutions were searched for dogs diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy and treated with PB as monotherapy or polytherapy between March 2003 and September 2010. Sixteen dogs had PBIHA; the median age at diagnosis was 69.5 months. Phenobarbitone was administered at a median dose of 3 mg/kg twice a day for a median period of 100.5 days and the median serum phenobarbitone level was 19 μg/ml. Two dogs had neutropenia, three had anaemia and thrombocytopenia, two had anaemia and neutropenia; the remaining nine had pancytopenia. All dogs were referred for non-specific clinical signs. Phenobarbitone was discontinued after diagnosis, and the median time to resolution of PBIHA was 17 days. The prevalence and risk factors for PBIHA were evaluated from a questionnaire survey of referring practices to obtain more detailed follow-up on cases diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The prevalence rate of PBIHA was 4.2%, and the condition occurred in dogs treated with standard therapeutic doses often within the first three months after starting treatment. Serial haematological evaluations should be therefore considered from the beginning of phenobarbitone therapy to allow early diagnosis and treatment of PBIHA.

  10. Clinical picture of primary HIV infection presenting as a glandular-fever-like illness.

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, H.; von Sydow, M.; Pehrson, P. O.; Lundbegh, P.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical symptoms and signs were assessed in 20 consecutive patients developing infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All were male homosexuals and all presented with a glandular-fever-like illness. Changes in laboratory values were compared with findings in 40 HIV negative male homosexual controls. In the 10 patients for whom date of exposure to the virus could be established the incubation period was 11-28 days (median 14). One or two days after the sudden onset of fever patients developed sore throat, lymphadenopathy, rash, lethargy, coated tongue, tonsillar hypertrophy, dry cough, headache, myalgia, conjunctivitis, vomiting, night sweats, nausea, diarrhoea, and palatal enanthema. Twelve patients had painful, shallow ulcers in the mouth or on the genitals or anus or as manifested by oesophageal symptoms; these ulcers may have been the site of entry of the virus. During the first week after the onset of symptoms mild leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased numbers of banded neutrophils were detected (p less than 0.0005). The mean duration of acute illness was 12.7 days (range 5-44). All patients remained healthy during a mean follow up period of 2.5 years. Heightened awareness of the typical clinical picture in patients developing primary HIV infection will alert the physician at an early stage and so aid prompt diagnosis and help contain the epidemic spread of AIDS. PMID:3146367

  11. Patellar Tendinopathy: Clinical Diagnosis, Load Management, and Advice for Challenging Case Presentations.

    PubMed

    Malliaras, Peter; Cook, Jill; Purdam, Craig; Rio, Ebonie

    2015-11-01

    Synopsis The hallmark features of patellar tendinopathy are (1) pain localized to the inferior pole of the patella and (2) load-related pain that increases with the demand on the knee extensors, notably in activities that store and release energy in the patellar tendon. While imaging may assist in differential diagnosis, the diagnosis of patellar tendinopathy remains clinical, as asymptomatic tendon pathology may exist in people who have pain from other anterior knee sources. A thorough examination is required to diagnose patellar tendinopathy and contributing factors. Management of patellar tendinopathy should focus on progressively developing load tolerance of the tendon, the musculoskeletal unit, and the kinetic chain, as well as addressing key biomechanical and other risk factors. Rehabilitation can be slow and sometimes frustrating. This review aims to assist clinicians with key concepts related to examination, diagnosis, and management of patellar tendinopathy. Difficult clinical presentations (eg, highly irritable tendon, systemic comorbidities) as well as common pitfalls, such as unrealistic rehabilitation time frames and overreliance on passive treatments, are also discussed. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):887-898. Epub 21 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5987.

  12. Atypical Huntington's disease with the clinical presentation of behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Sutovsky, Stanislav; Smolek, Tomas; Alafuzoff, Irina; Blaho, Andrej; Parrak, Vojtech; Turcani, Peter; Palkovic, Michal; Petrovic, Robert; Novak, Michal; Zilka, Norbert

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease is an incurable, adult-onset, autosomal dominant inherited disorder caused by an expanded trinucleotide repeat (CAG). In this study, we describe a Huntington's disease patient displaying clinical symptoms of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia in the absence of tremor and ataxia. The clinical onset was at the age of 36 years and the disease progressed slowly (18 years). Genetic testing revealed expanded trinucleotide CAG repeats in the Huntingtin gene, together with a Glu318Gly polymorphism in presenilin 1. Neuropathological assessment revealed extensive amyloid β (Aβ) aggregates in all cortical regions. No inclusions displaying hyperphosphorylated tau or phosphorylated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43) were found. A high number of p62 (sequestosome 1) immunopositive intranuclear inclusions were seen mainly in the cortex, while subcortical areas were affected to a lesser extent. Confocal microscopy revealed that the majority of p62 intranuclear lesions co-localised with the fused-in-sarcoma protein (FUS) immunostaining. The morphology of the inclusions resembled intranuclear aggregates in Huntington's disease. The presented proband suffered from Huntington's disease showed atypical distribution of FUS positive intranuclear aggregates in the cortical areas with concomitant Alzheimer's disease pathology.

  13. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma Diagnosed in an HIV-Positive Patient by an Unusual Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo Moraes, Paulo; Thomaz, Luiz Alexandre; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; Junqueira, José Luiz Cintra; Ribeiro, Camila Maria Beder

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a case report of EMP in an HIV-positive patient. A 44-year-old, dark-skinned HIV-infected woman was referred to the Oral Diseases Treatment Center with a swelling at palate and left gingival fornix in the maxilla. Biopsy was taken and the oral lesion was diagnosed as EMP with well-differentiated plasma cells and restriction of the lambda light-chain. Skeletal survey was performed and no radiograph alterations were observed, thus supporting the diagnosis of EMP. Patient was referred to treatment and after two months of chemo and radiotherapy, an expanding lesion was observed in L5/S1 patient's vertebrae. Biopsy of the spinal lesion was consistent with lymphoma with plasmocitary differentiation, supporting the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM). Regarding the medical history, the final diagnostic was an oral extramedullary plasmacytoma with rapid progression into multiple myeloma. It is crucial to emphasize the relevance of HIV infection as a risk factor for both aggressive clinical behavior and unusual clinical presentation of extramedullary plasmacytoma cases. PMID:27980867

  14. Seasonal trend and clinical presentation of Bacillus cereus bloodstream infection: association with summer and indwelling catheter.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Matsumura, Y; Yamamoto, M; Nagao, M; Ito, Y; Takakura, S; Ichiyama, S

    2014-08-01

    Bacillus cereus, an opportunistic pathogen, can cause fatal infection. However, B. cereus bloodstream infections (BSIs) have not been well characterised. From 2008 to 2013, B. cereus isolates from all of the specimens and patients with B. cereus BSIs were identified. Environmental samples were collected to detect B. cereus contamination. We also characterised the clinical presentation of B. cereus BSI through analyses of risk factors for BSI and mortality. A total of 217 clinical B. cereus isolates was detected. Fifty-one patients with nosocomial infections were diagnosed as B. cereus BSI, and 37 had contaminated blood cultures. The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI patients was significantly greater from June to September than from January to April (4.9 vs. 1.5 per month and 1.2 vs. 0.2, respectively). All BSIs were nosocomial and related to central or peripheral vascular catheter. Urinary catheter [odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-20.0] was the independent risk factor associated with BSI patients when compared to patients regarded as contaminated. In-hospital mortality among BSI patients was 20% and was associated with urinary catheter (OR 34.7, 95 % CI 1.89-63.6) and higher Charlson index (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.26-3.12). The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI increased during summer. Inpatients with indwelling vascular or urinary catheters should be carefully monitored for potential B. cereus BSIs.

  15. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson’s disease: evaluation, management, and emerging role of droxidopa

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, Stuart H; Skettini, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is due to failure of the autonomic nervous system to regulate blood pressure in response to postural changes due to an inadequate release of norepinephrine, leading to orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. nOH is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Prevalence varies throughout the course of PD, ranging from 40% to 60%, and resulting in symptomatic nOH in approximately half. Symptomatic nOH, including lightheadedness, can limit daily activities and lead to falls. Symptomatic nOH can also limit therapeutic options for treating PD motor symptoms. Clinical evaluation should routinely include symptom assessment and blood pressure measurement of supine, sitting, and 3-minute standing; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can also be helpful. Non-pharmacological management of symptomatic nOH involves education, physical maneuvers, and adequate hydration. Current pharmacological treatment of symptomatic nOH includes salt supplement, fludrocortisone, midodrine, pyridostigmine, and other empiric medications. Despite these options, treatment of symptomatic nOH remains suboptimal, often limited by severe increases in supine blood pressure. Droxidopa, an oral prodrug converted by decarboxylation to norepinephrine, is a promising therapeutic option for symptomatic nOH in PD, improving symptoms of nOH, daily activities, falls, and standing systolic blood pressure in several recent trials. These trials demonstrated short-term efficacy and tolerability, with comparable increases in standing and supine blood pressures. Longer-term studies are ongoing to confirm durability of treatment effect. PMID:24729712

  16. Evaluation of intravenous lipid emulsion on haloperidol-induced hypotension in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    There are many reports on the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) as an antidote in drug toxicity. Haloperidol (HAL) is a butyrophenone antipsychotic agent which is highly lipophilic. Hypotension is an important adverse effect of HAL administration and overdose. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial hemodynamic effects of ILE on acute HAL poisoning. We used six groups of five male rabbits. Two groups received aseptic distilled water intravenously followed by infusion of 18.6 ml/kg normal saline, as negative control group, or ILE 20% after 0.5 h. The third group received 18.6 ml/kg normal saline after HAL infusion (2.6 mg/kg). The other three groups received ILE 20% solution (6, 12, and 18.6 ml/kg) following HAL (2.6 mg/kg) administration. We measured blood pressure at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 24 h after starting HAL administration, from left forelimb using a noninvasive method that was carried out automatically with a neonatal intensive care unit bedside monitor. ILE 20% at the dose of 18 ml/kg could return the reduced mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure sooner than the other doses and normal saline. In conclusion, ILE could reverse HAL-induced hypotension same as the other lipophilic drugs. However, the clinical use of ILE for this purpose needs more evaluation to determine its exact indication and safety.

  17. An Abdominal CT may be Safe in Selected Hypotensive Trauma Patients with Positive FAST Exam

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mackenzie R.; Holcomb, John B.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Alarcon, Louis H.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Brasel, Karen J.; Schreiber, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) and hypotension often indicates urgent surgery. An abdomen/pelvis CT (apCT) may allow less invasive management but the delay may be associated with adverse outcomes. Methods Patients in the Prospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion study with hypotension and a positive FAST (HF+) who underwent a CT (apCT+) were compared to those who did not. Results Of the 92 HF+ identified, 32(35%) underwent apCT during initial evaluation and apCT was associated with decreased odds of an emergency operation, OR 0.11 95% CI (0.001–0.116) and increased odds of angiographic intervention, OR 14.3 95% CI (1.5–135). There was no significant difference in 30 day mortality or need for dialysis. Conclusion An apCt in HF+ patients is associated with reduced odds of emergency surgery, but not mortality. Select HF+ patients can safely undergo apCT to obtain clinically useful information. PMID:25805456

  18. Characteristics of adult smokers presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Luberto, Christina M; Chad-Friedman, Emma; Dossett, Michelle L; Perez, Giselle K; Park, Elyse R

    2016-09-29

    Mind-body interventions can improve vulnerabilities that underlie smoking behavior. The characteristics of smokers who use mind-body medicine have not been explored, preventing the development of targeted interventions. Patients (N = 593) presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic completed self-report measures. Patients were 67 percent never smokers, 27 percent former smokers, and 6 percent current smokers. Current smokers were younger; more likely to be single, unemployed, or on disability; and report greater depression symptoms, greater pain, and lower social support (ps < .05).Current smokers who use mind-body medicine have unique psychosocial needs that should be targeted in mind-body smoking cessation interventions.

  19. Atypical case of oral lichen planus in a pediatric patient: clinical presentation and management.

    PubMed

    De Moraes, Paulo Camargo; Teixeira, Rubens Gonçalves; Tacchelli, Daniela Prata; Bönecker, Marcelo; Junqueira, José Luiz Cintra; Oliveira, Luciana Butini

    2011-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous disease of unknown etiology that is relatively common in adults but rarely present in childhood. LP has been documented in dental and medical literature; however, there are few cases with oral involvement in children. The purpose of this paper was to report an unusual case of oral lichen planus involving the upper lip in a 7-year-old girl. A diagnosis was made based on clinical examination and histopathology features. The treatment consisted of topical corticosteroid and intralesional injection. After treatment with an intralesional corticosteroid, a complete re- mission of lesions involving the lip was observed. The 3-year follow-up, however, revealed asymptomatic lichenoid bilaterally affecting the buccal mucosa. The patient is currently under regular review.

  20. Ebola virus disease: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

    PubMed

    Dulaurier, Marlie; Moyer, Katherine; Wallihan, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe multisystem disease. Prehospital personnel, hospitals, and clinicians must be prepared to provide care for patients with EVD, with special attention to rigorous infection control in order to limit the spread of infection. Children with EVD are an especially challenging population, as the initial symptoms are nonspecific and difficult to differentiate from several common infections. For children presenting with a syndrome consistent with EVD, it is extremely important that healthcare workers identify epidemiologic risk factors, such as recent travel to an affected country or exposure to a patient with suspected or known EVD. Given the high morbidity and mortality of this disease, clinical efforts should focus on early diagnosis, appropriate infection control, and supportive care.

  1. Fatal Outcome of Multiple Clinical Presentations of Human Herpesvirus 8-related Disease After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Wyss, Caroline; Meylan, Pascal; Bisig, Bettina; Letovanec, Igor; Manuel, Oriol; Pascual, Manuel; de Leval, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is the most common human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)-related disease described after solid organ transplantation. Multicentric Castleman disease and hemophagocytic syndrome are other potential HHV-8-induced entities but are less frequently reported. We describe the case of a liver transplant recipient who presented with an acute febrile illness 1 year after transplantation with a rapidly fatal outcome. Autopsy revealed 3 distinct HHV-8-related entities: Kaposi sarcoma, HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman disease with microlymphomas and a severe hemophagocytic syndrome. Retrospective serologic tests suggested that HHV-8 was likely transmitted by the seropositive donor at the time of transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of copresentation of 3 clinical presentations of HHV-8-mediated human disease in the post-transplant setting. Considering the absence of systematic screening of organ donors/recipients for HHV-8 infection, HHV-8-related illness should be suspected in transplant recipients who present with acute febrile illness, systemic symptoms, lymphadenopathies, and/or multiorgan failure to rapidly document the diagnosis and provide timely an adequate treatment.

  2. Non-suicidal self-injury: clinical presentation, assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Katie; Ali, Parveen

    2016-09-28

    Non-suicidal self-injury is a common behaviour in adolescents and young adults, and may be associated with mental health disorders, risk of suicidal behaviour (ideation and attempts), and a need for clinical services. Nurses, in particular those working in emergency departments and mental health settings, have a crucial role in the assessment, treatment and care of individuals who have self-injured. It is essential for nurses to assess an individual's risk of more serious harm or accidental death, regardless of intent. It is also important to understand the variations in non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour in terms of its presentation, features and functions, to provide appropriate person-centred care. Nurses should assist individuals in identifying the triggers or cues for their behaviour, exploring treatment options, and monitoring their behaviour and risk in the long term. This article describes the profile of people who self-injure, and the issues related to assessment and management of such patients presenting in emergency departments. A description of who self-injures and why, and how people self-injure; developmental aspects of these behaviours, including short and long-term outcomes; and the available treatments is presented.

  3. Subungual Bowen disease in a patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis presenting clinically as longitudinal melanonychia.

    PubMed

    Stetsenko, Galina Y; McFarlane, Rob J; Chien, Andy J; Fleckman, Philip; Swanson, Paul; George, Evan; Argenyi, Zsolt B

    2008-12-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare autosomal-recessive condition associated with a predisposition to infection with specific types of human papillomaviruses. A spectrum of wart-like lesions on the face, dorsa of the hands, and legs are characteristic clinical findings. Lesions usually develop in early childhood, persist, and may eventuate in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, usually in sun-exposed areas. These lesions are locally destructive and sometimes metastasize. We present a case of a 34-year-old African American woman with EV with a 9-month history of a right index finger ungual longitudinal pigmented band and nail splitting. Biopsy showed hyperkeratotic and parakeratotic subungual epithelium with verrucous hyperplasia. The superficial keratinocytes showed koilocytic changes. In addition, there was extensive, focally full-thickness keratinocyte dysmaturation with variable nuclear atypia and numerous mitotic figures, without apparent invasion. An associated melanocytic hyperplasia (confirmed by Melan-A stain), composed of large, pigment-laden dendritic melanocytes, was present without appreciable atypia or pagetoid spread. The findings are of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ arising in association with EV with incidental melanocytic hyperplasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report of a subungual presentation of this condition with associated melanonychia.

  4. Guancydine, a new hypotensive agent with complex action.

    PubMed

    Hărăgus, S T; Uza, G; Duncea, C

    1977-01-01

    Guancydine (1-cyano-3-tert-amylguanidine) lowered within normal limits the tensional values in an interval of four hours after its administration in eight out of nine hypertensive patients under experiment. The hypotensive effect of a single oral dose of 500-750 mg persists for about 6-7 hours after its administration. Guancydine does not impair the vasopressor response to angiotensin II but reduces the action of this peptide on the excretion of water, Na, K and Ca through urine. The hypotensive effect of Guancydine is associated with a decrease of platelet adhesiveness and an activation of fibrinolysis. In view of this fact, Guancydine might play a role in the prophylaxis of complications of arterial hypertension - atherosclerosis and trombosis. The increase of venous blood oxygenation after Guancydine could be attributed to the opening of arterio-venous shunts or to the reduction of tissular extraction of oxygen. Guancydine does not seem to be toxic. It produced, in some patients, slight headache and orthostatic hypotension, especially during the first hours after administration.

  5. Hemofiltration and Hemodiafiltration Reduce Intradialytic Hypotension in ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Paolo; Andrulli, Simeone; Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Sau, Giovanna; Pedrini, Luciano A.; Basile, Carlo; David, Salvatore; Feriani, Mariano; Montagna, Giovanni; Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Memoli, Bruno; Cravero, Raffaella; Battaglia, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

    2010-01-01

    Symptomatic intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of hemodialysis (HD). The application of convective therapies to the outpatient setting may improve outcomes, including intradialytic hypotension. In this multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled study, we randomly assigned 146 long-term dialysis patients to HD (n = 70), online predilution hemofiltration (HF; n = 36), or online predilution hemodiafiltration (HDF; n = 40). The primary end point was the frequency of intradialytic symptomatic hypotension (ISH). Compared with the run-in period, the frequency of sessions with ISH during the evaluation period increased for HD (7.1 to 7.9%) and decreased for both HF (9.8 to 8.0%) and HDF (10.6 to 5.2%) (P < 0.001). Mean predialysis systolic BP increased by 4.2 mmHg among those who were assigned to HDF compared with decreases of 0.6 and 1.8 mmHg among those who were assigned to HD and HF, respectively (P = 0.038). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated significant risk reductions in ISH for both HF (odds ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.92) and HDF (odds ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.63). There was a trend toward higher dropout for those who were assigned to HF (P = 0.107). In conclusion, compared with conventional HD, convective therapies (HDF and HF) reduce ISH in long-term dialysis patients. PMID:20813866

  6. Interaction with pyridoxal as a possible mechanism of hydralazine hypotension.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, H

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism by which the antihypertensive vasodilator hydralazine relaxes vascular smooth muscle is unknown. The drug interacts with pyridoxal and can produce B6 deficiency; it also inhibits a number of enzymes requiring pyridoxal as a cofactor, but there is no apparent relation between its enzymatic and blood pressure effects. To explore the possibility of a hydralazine-pyridoxal interaction at a nonenzymatic site, the acute hypotensive response to hydralazine was determined by tail cuff blood pressure (BP) measurements in conscious normotensive rats pretreated or not pretreated with pyridoxine. Other animals were pretreated with isoniazid, a drug also capable of reacting with pyridoxal. Responses to hydralazine were diminished by pyridoxine and enhanced by isoniazid; those to the vasodilator diazoxide or to the alpha-adrenergic blocker zolertine were unaffected by such pretreatments. The inhibitory effect of pyridoxine was absent when rats were pretreated with the calcium antagonists verapamil or cinnarizine. Hydralazine hypotension in anesthetized rats was also reduced by pyridoxal pretreatment. These results suggest that at least part of hydralazine-induced hypotension may be related to interaction with pyridoxal, possibly through interference with an effect of the vitamer on calcium and/or sodium transport into vascular smooth muscle.

  7. Modulation of cardiac autonomic tone in non-hypotensive hypovolemia during blood donation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Singh, Akanksha; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Coshic, Poonam; Chatterjee, Kabita; Deepak, K K

    2016-08-02

    Non-hypotensive hypovolemia, observed during mild haemorrhage or blood donation leads to reflex readjustment of the cardiac autonomic tone. In the present study, the cardiac autonomic tone was quantified using heart rate and blood pressure variability during and after non-hypotensive hypovolemia of blood donation. 86 voluntary healthy male blood donors were recruited for the study (age 35 ± 9 years; weight 78 ± 12 kg; height 174 ± 6 cms). Continuous lead II ECG and beat-to-beat blood pressure was recorded before, during and after blood donation followed by offline time and frequency domain analysis of HRV and BPV. The overall heart rate variability (SDNN and total power) did not change during or after blood donation. However, there was a decrease in indices that represent the parasympathetic component (pNN50 %, SDSD and HF) while an increase was observed in sympathetic component (LF) along with an increase in sympathovagal balance (LF:HF ratio) during blood donation. These changes were sustained for the period immediately following blood donation. No fall of blood pressure was observed during the period of study. The blood pressure variability showed an increase in the SDNN, CoV and RMSSD time domain measures in the post donation period. These results suggest that mild hypovolemia produced by blood donation is non-hypotensive but is associated with significant changes in the autonomic tone. The increased blood pressure variability and heart rate changes that are seen only in the later part of donation period could be because of the progressive hypovolemia associated parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation that manifest during the course of blood donation.

  8. Cardiac arrest due to intracranial hypotension following pseudohypoxic brain swelling induced by negative suction drainage in a cranioplasty patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Ryun; Kim, Seon Ju

    2016-01-01

    Pseudohypoxic brain swelling (PHBS) is known to be an uncommon event that may occur during and following an uneventful brain surgery, when negative suction drainage is used. The cerebrospinal fluid loss related to suction drainage can evoke intracranial hypotension that progress to PHBS. The main presentations of PHBS are sudden unexpected circulatory collapses, such as severe bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac arrest, consciousness deterioration and diffuse brain swelling as seen with brain computerized tomography (CT). We present a stuporous 22-year-old patient who underwent cranioplasty under general anesthesia. The entire course of the general anesthesia and operation progressed favorably. However, the time of scalp suture completion, sudden bradycardia and hypotension occurred, followed by cardiac arrest immediately after initiation of subgaleal and epidural suction drainage. After successful resuscitation, the comatose patient was transferred to the neurosurgical intensive care unit and PHBS was confirmed using brain CT. PMID:27274378

  9. Menstrual disorders in a Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic: patient presentations and longitudinal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chung, P W; Chan, Symphorosa S C; Yiu, K W; Lao, Terence T H; Chung, Tony K H

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. To study the presentations, diagnoses, and outcomes in adolescents with menstrual disorders. DESIGN. Prospective cohort study. SETTING. Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. A total of 577 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The presentations and diagnoses of adolescents with menstrual disorders were reviewed and their menstrual outcomes determined by a telephone survey. RESULTS. In all, 47% presented with menorrhagia, prolonged menstruation, and short menstrual cycles; 27% had secondary amenorrhoea, 12% had dysmenorrhoea, 11% had oligomenorrhoea, and 3% had primary amenorrhoea. Significant diagnoses included congenital genital tract anomalies, premature ovarian failure, anorexia nervosa, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Polycystic ovarian syndrome was diagnosed in 16% of the cohort. In all, 24% of these 577 patients had abnormal menstrual cycles 4 years later. Direct logistic regression analysis indicated a cycle length of more than 35 days at presentation (adjusted odds ratio=2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.5), previous diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (adjusted odds ratio=2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4), and current body mass index of 23 kg/m(2) or higher (adjusted odds ratio=1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.0) were risk factors for persistently long menstrual cycle exceeding 35 days. Adolescents who were screened out with a definitive diagnosis after initial assessment were at low risk of persistently long menstrual cycles at follow-up (adjusted odds ratio=0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.8). CONCLUSIONS. Adolescent menstrual disorders should not be ignored. Long cycle, diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome at first consultation, and a current body mass index of 23 kg/m(2) or higher were statistically associated with persistent problems.

  10. Presentation of SLE in UK primary care using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Alison L; Davidson, Julie E; Molta, Charles T; Kan, Hong J; McHugh, Neil J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe the presenting symptoms of SLE in primary care using the Clinical Practice Research Database (CPRD) and to calculate the time from symptom presentation to SLE diagnosis. Methods Incident cases of SLE were identified from the CPRD between 2000 and 2012. Presenting symptoms were identified from the medical records of cases in the 5 years before diagnosis and grouped using the British Isles Lupus Activity Group (BILAG) symptom domains. The time from the accumulation of one, two and three BILAG domains to SLE diagnosis was investigated, stratified by age at diagnosis (<30, 30–49 and ≥50 years). Results We identified 1426 incident cases (170 males and 1256 females) of SLE. The most frequently recorded symptoms and signs prior to diagnosis were musculoskeletal, mucocutaneous and neurological. The median time from first musculoskeletal symptom to SLE diagnosis was 26.4 months (IQR 9.3–43.6). There was a significant difference in the time to diagnosis (log rank p<0.01) when stratified by age and disease severity at baseline, with younger patients <30 years and those with severe disease having the shortest times and patients aged ≥50 years and those with mild disease having the longest (6.4 years (IQR 5.8–6.8)). Conclusions The time from symptom onset to SLE diagnosis is long, especially in older patients. SLE should be considered in patients presenting with flaring or chronic musculoskeletal, mucocutaneous and neurological symptoms. PMID:28243454

  11. Profile of the patients who present to immunology outpatient clinics because of frequent infections

    PubMed Central

    Aldırmaz, Sonay; Yücel, Esra; Kıykım, Ayça; Çokuğraş, Haluk; Akçakaya, Necla; Camcıoğlu, Yıldız

    2014-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to determine the rate of primary immune deficiency (PID) among children presenting to our immunology outpatient clinic with a history of frequent infections and with warning signs of primary immune deficiency. Material and Methods: The files of 232 children aged between 1 and 18 years with warning signs of primary immune deficiency who were referred to our pediatric immunology outpatient clinic with a complaint of frequent infections were selected and evaluated retrospectively. Results: Thirty-six percent of the subjects were female (n=84) and 64% were male (n=148). PID was found in 72.4% (n=164). The most common diagnosis was selective IgA deficiency (26.3%, n=61). The most common diseases other than primary immune deficiency included reactive airway disease and/or atopy (34.4%, n=22), adenoid vegetation (12.3%, n=8), chronic disease (6.3%, n=4) and periodic fever, aphtous stomatitis and adenopathy (4.6%, n=3). The majortiy of the subjects (90.5%, n=210) presented with a complaint of recurrent upper respiratory tract infection. PID was found in all subjects who had bronchiectasis. The rates of the diagnoses of variable immune deficiency and Bruton agammaglubulinemia (XLA) were found to be significantly higher in the subjects who had lower respiratory tract infection, who were hospitalized because of infection and who had a history of severe infection compared to the subjects who did not have these properties (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Growth and developmental failure was found with a significantly higher rate in the patients who had a diagnosis of severe combined immune deficiency or hyper IgM compared to the other subjects (p<0.01). No difference was found in the rates of PID between the age groups, but the diagnosis of XLA increased as the age of presentation increased and this was considered an indicator which showed that patients with XLA were being diagnosed in a late period. Conclusions: It was found that the rate of diagnosis was

  12. Small Bowel Perforations by Metallic Grill Brush Bristles: Clinical Presentations and Opportunity for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Salvador; Holloway, Travis L; Woodard, Russell L; Conway, Bruce E; Liao, Lillian F; Eastridge, Brian J; Myers, John G; Stewart, Ronald M; Dent, Daniel L

    2016-05-01

    Increasing reports on the incidental ingestion of metallic bristles from barbeque grill cleaning brushes have been reported. We sought to describe the clinical presentation and grilling habits of patients presenting after ingesting metallic bristles in an attempt to identify risk factors. We performed a chart review of six patients with documented enteric injury from metallic bristles. Subjects were contacted and administered a survey focused on the events surrounding the bristle ingestion. We arranged for in-home visits to inspect the grill and grill brush whenever possible. Of the six subjects identified, three (50%) were male, five (83%) were white, and they ranged in age from 18 to 65 years (mean 42.5). All complained of abdominal pain. All bristles were identified by CT scan. Three patients underwent laparoscopic enterorrhaphy, and two underwent laparotomy. The remaining patients did not require intervention. None had replaced their grill brush in at least two years. Surgeon's awareness of this unusual injury is important to identify and manage this problem. Alternative methods to clean the grill should be sought and grill brushes should be replaced at least every two years.

  13. Additional diverse findings expand the clinical presentation of DOCK8 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Ozden; Jing, Huie; Ozgur, Tuba; Ayvaz, Deniz; Strauss-Albee, Dara M; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Tezcan, Ilhan; Turkkani, Gulten; Matthews, Helen F; Haliloglu, Goknur; Yuce, Aysel; Yalcin, Bilgehan; Gokoz, Ozay; Oguz, Kader K; Su, Helen C

    2012-08-01

    We describe seven Turkish children with DOCK8 deficiency who have not been previously reported. Three patients presented with typical features of recurrent or severe cutaneous viral infections, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections. However, four patients presented with other features. Patient 1-1 featured sclerosing cholangitis and colitis; patient 2-1, granulomatous soft tissue lesion and central nervous system involvement, with primary central nervous system lymphoma found on follow-up; patient 3-1, a fatal metastatic leiomyosarcoma; and patient 4-2 showed no other symptoms initially besides atopic dermatitis. Similar to other previously reported Turkish patients, but in contrast to patients of non-Turkish ethnicity, the patients' lymphopenia was primarily restricted to CD4(+) T cells. Patients had homozygous mutations in DOCK8 that altered splicing, introduced premature terminations, destabilized protein, or involved large deletions within the gene. Genotyping of remaining family members showed that DOCK8 deficiency is a fully penetrant, autosomal recessive disease. In our patients, bone marrow transplantation resulted in rapid improvement followed by disappearance of viral skin lesions, including lesions resembling epidermodysplasia verruciformis, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent infections. Particularly for patients who feature unusual clinical manifestations, immunological testing, in conjunction with genetic testing, can prove invaluable in diagnosing DOCK8 deficiency and providing potentially curative treatment.

  14. Deep Orbital Dermoid Cyst Bulging into the Superior Orbital Fissure: Clinical Presentation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravinder; Vyas, Kapil; Jaiswal, Gagan; Bhargava, Abhishek; Kundu, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To present a case of deep orbital dermoid cyst with emphasis on clinical presentation, imaging spectrum, differential diagnosis and management. Case Report: A 28-year-old female was referred to our hospital with chief complaint of drooping of right eyelid and progressive headache. Ocular motility, visual acuity and fundus examination were normal. computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-defined, intraosseous deep orbital dermoid cyst (5.9 mm × 12.5 mm) located near the apex of right orbit, extending from greater wing of sphenoid into the superior orbital fissure. Due to occulomotor nerve (superior and inferior divisions) compression which passes through the superior orbital fissure, ipsilateral headache and ptosis occurred. Complete surgical excision of cyst was performed using noninvasive extracranial lateral orbitotomy approach. After removal of the cyst, curette and cutting drill were used to thoroughly remove any residual cystic content. Histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis. The healing was uneventful postoperatively. Conclusion: CT and MRI are easy, reliable, safe and effective imaging methods for establishing the diagnosis of orbital dermoid cyst. Size, location and manifestations are the most important determinants of the disease management. Complete surgical excision without rupture of the cyst is the treatment of choice. PMID:28299014

  15. Self esteem and self agency in first episode psychosis: Ethnic variation and relationship with clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Ciufolini, Simone; Morgan, Craig; Morgan, Kevin; Fearon, Paul; Boydell, Jane; Hutchinson, Gerard; Demjaha, Arsjme; Girardi, Paolo; Doody, Gill A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin; Dazzan, Paola

    2015-06-30

    The impact of self esteem and Locus of Control (LoC) on clinical presentation across different ethnic groups of patients at their first psychotic episode (FEP) remains unknown. We explored these constructs in 257 FEP patients (Black n=95; White British n=119) and 341 controls (Black n=70; White British n=226), and examined their relationship with symptom dimensions and pathways to care. FEP patients presented lower self-esteem and a more external LoC than controls. Lower self esteem was associated with a specific symptoms profile (more manic and less negative symptoms), and with factors predictive of poorer outcome (longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and compulsory mode of admission). A more external LoC was associated with more negative symptoms and an insidious onset. When we explored these constructs across different ethnic groups, we found that Black patients had significantly higher self esteem than White British. This was again associated with specific symptom profiles. While British patients with lower self esteem were more likely to report delusions, hallucinations and negative symptoms, Black patients with a lower self esteem showed less disorganization symptoms. These findings suggest that self esteem and LoC may represent one way in which social experiences and contexts differentially influence vulnerable individuals along the pathway to psychosis.

  16. Feline sporotrichosis: histopathological profile of cutaneous lesions and their correlation with clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Luisa H M; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Quintella, Leonardo P; Kuraiem, Bianca P; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2013-07-01

    Cutaneous lesions of feline sporotrichosis show high fungal load and are associated with severe disease and elevated zoonotic potential. The present study describes the histopathology and fungal load of the lesions in different clinical presentations of feline sporotrichosis. Cats with sporotrichosis were separated into groups L1, L2 and L3 (lesions in one, two and three or more locations, respectively) and subjected to skin biopsies for histopathology. Eighty-six cats were included in the study. Lesions were suppurative granulomatous in 84 cases and poorly formed granulomas were predominant. The well-formed granulomas were associated with group L1. The high fungal load was predominant in group L3 and in poorly formed granuloma cases and did not occur in well-formed granulomas cases. The good general condition was associated with low fungal load. These findings suggest that the fungal load control in animals with more localized lesions and well-organized response is linked with the improvement in the outcome of infected cats.

  17. Dental Erosion and Its Growing Importance in Clinical Practice: From Past to Present

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Omar, Ridwaan; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Johansson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, the focus of studies on tooth wear has steadily shifted from the general condition towards the more specific area of dental erosion; equally, a shift has occurred from studies in adults to those in children and adolescents. During this time, understanding of the condition has increased greatly. This paper attempts to provide a critical overview of the development of this body of knowledge, from earlier perceptions to the present. It is accepted that dental erosion has a multifactorial background, in which individual and lifestyle factors have great significance. Notwithstanding methodological differences across studies, data from many countries confirm that dental erosion is common in children and young people, and that, when present, it progresses rapidly. That the condition, and its ramifications, warrants serious consideration in clinical dentistry, is clear. It is important for the oral healthcare team to be able to recognize its early signs and symptoms and to understand its pathogenesis. Preventive strategies are essential ingredients in the management of patients with dental erosion. When necessary, treatment aimed at correcting or improving its effects might best be of a minimally invasive nature. Still, there remains a need for further research to forge better understanding of the subject. PMID:22505907

  18. Tuberculosis of the head and neck – epidemiological and clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bruzgielewicz, Antoni; Osuch-Wójcikewicz, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Chmielewski, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of our retrospective study was to review the clinical and epidemiological presentation of head and neck tuberculosis. Material and methods We analyzed the history of 73 patients with head and neck tuberculosis hospitalized in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, between 1983 and 2009. Results We found that 26 (35.6%) patients presented with lymph node tuberculosis, 20 (27.4%) with laryngeal tuberculosis, 10 (13.7%) with oropharyngeal tuberculosis, 9 (12.3%) with salivary gland tuberculosis, 3 (4.1%) with tuberculosis of paranasal sinuses, 3 (4.1%) with aural tuberculosis, and 2 (2.7%) with skin tuberculosis in the head and neck region. Within the group of patients with lymph node tuberculosis in 15 cases there were infected lymph nodes of the 2nd and 3rd cervical region and in 11 infected lymph nodes of the 1st cervical region. In 5 cases of laryngeal tuberculosis there was detected coexistence of cancer. Oropharyngeal tuberculosis in 7 cases was localized in tonsils, where in 1 case coexisting cancer was diagnosed. Chest X-ray was performed in all cases and pulmonary tuberculosis was identified in 26 (35.6%) cases. Conclusions We conclude that tuberculosis still remains a problem and must be taken into consideration in the diagnostic process. The coincidence of tuberculosis and cancer is remarkable in the head and neck region. PMID:25624854

  19. Two syringe spinal anesthesia technique for cesarean section: A controlled randomized study of a simple way to achieve more satisfactory block and less hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Keera, Amr Aly Ismail; Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple trials have been tried to prevent hypotension during spinal anesthesia. However, the drug choice and mode of administration is still a matter of debate. Objectives: To compare the outcome of spinal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine and fentanyl separately to standard injection of mixed fentanyl with hyperbaric bupivacaine. Settings and Design: A randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients and Methods: One hundred twenty-four parturient scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated into two groups, each 62 parturient: Group M received spinal anesthesia using 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% premixed with 25 μg fentanyl in the same syringe and Group S received 25 μg fentanyl in one syringe and 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% without barbotage in a second syringe. Results: Patients with intraoperative pain that was controllable without the need for a shift to general anesthesia was significantly lower in Group S (3.2%) than in Group M (16.1%). The frequency of hypotension was significantly lower in Group S compared to Group M (P < 0.05). Time till the onset of sensory block was nonsignificantly shorter with nonsignificantly higher mean level of maximal sensory block in Group S compared to Group M (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the time till occurrence of hypotension, duration of hypotension, mean dose of ephedrine used for the treatment of hypotension and frequency of patients developed itching between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Separate intrathecal injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine provided a significant improvement in the quality of sensory block and significant reduction of the frequency of hypotension compared to injection of mixed medications. PMID:27212767

  20. Clinical presentation and imaging characteristics of occult lung cancer associated ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mai, Hui; Xia, Jun; Wu, Yongjun; Ke, Junlong; Li, Junliang; Pan, Jiangang; Chen, Wubiao; Shao, Yiming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Saihua; Sun, Yonghua; Zhao, Bin; Li, Longxuan

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the clinical and imaging characteristics of initial and recurrent strokes in patients with occult lung cancer associated ischemic stroke (OLCA-stroke). A retrospective review of all ischemic stroke patients with occult lung cancer in the absence of conventional stroke etiologies between 2005 and 2013 was conducted. We compared the initial and recurrent lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with OLCA-stroke, with respect to vascular territory involved, number and size of lesions, clinical presentation, cancer subtypes, recurrences and fatalities, and outcome of survivors. Thirteen patients with confirmed OLCA-stroke were identified. All had elevated D-dimer levels, six had central lung cancer and seven had peripheral lung cancer. Eight (62%) had adenocarcinoma, and nine (69%) had metastasis. Ten (77%) patients had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories. Twelve (92%) patients suffered recurrent strokes. Multiple small and large disseminated lesions in multiple vascular territories were more frequent in recurrent strokes in comparison with initial strokes. The middle cerebral artery was most frequently involved in recurrent strokes, followed by the posterior circulation territory and anterior cerebral artery, which were of similar frequency as initial strokes. Overall, 58% of patients had their first recurrent stroke within the first month, and 69% had a poor outcome, especially for those with multiple recurrent strokes and metastases. Occult cancer should be considered in the setting of multiple and recurrent embolic strokes within the short term in the absence of conventional stroke etiologies. The severity of malignancy and cancer treatments and stroke influenced the recurrences and outcome.

  1. Corneal tissue water content mapping with THz imaging: preliminary clinical results (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Deng, Sophie X.; Taylor, Zachary; Grundfest, Warren

    2016-03-01

    Well-regulated corneal water content is critical for ocular health and function and can be adversely affected by a number of diseases and injuries. Current clinical practice limits detection of unhealthy corneal water content levels to central corneal thickness measurements performed by ultrasound or optical coherence tomography. Trends revealing increasing or decreasing corneal thickness are fair indicators of corneal water content by individual measurements are highly inaccurate due to the poorly understood relationship between corneal thickness and natural physiologic variation. Recently the utility of THz imaging to accuarately measure corneal water content has been explored on with rabbit models. Preliminary experiments revealed that contact with dielectric windows confounded imaging data and made it nearly impossible to deconvolve thickness variations due to contact from thickness variations due to water content variation. A follow up study with a new optical design allowed the acquisition of rabbit data and the results suggest that the observed, time varying contrast was due entirely to the water dynamics of the cornea. This paper presents the first ever in vivo images of human cornea. Five volunteers with healthy cornea were recruited and their eyes were imaged three times over the course of a few minutes with our novel imaging system. Noticeable changes in corneal reflectivity were observed and attributed to the drying of the tear film. The results suggest that clinically compatible, non-contact corneal imaging is feasible and indicate that signal acquired from non-contact imaging of the cornea is a complicated coupling of stromal water content and tear film.

  2. Moyamoya disease in adults: characteristics of clinical presentation and outcome after encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis.

    PubMed

    Han, D H; Nam, D H; Oh, C W

    1997-10-01

    To determine the clinical characteristics and the effectiveness of encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) in adulthood-onset Moyamoya disease (MMD), the authors retrospectively reviewed 26 patients suffering from MMD who were admitted to Seoul National University Hospital between 1987 and 1995. When they showed major symptoms, all were more than 16 years-old. The most common presenting symptom was intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH), found in 12 patients or 46% of the total; the second was infarction and transient ischemic attack, each found in seven or 27% of them. Only one patient was found to have seizures, which were associated with a cerebral infarction. The Suzuki angiographic stage 3 and less than stage 3 accounted for 73% of all 52 hemispheres. A total of 15 patients underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) preoperatively. When the derangement of cerebral perfusion was estimated with four SPECT grades (SG), 70% of their hemispheres revealed normal (SG1) or localized decreased-perfusion (SG2). The other 30% had extensive decreased-perfusion or localized perfusion defects (SG3). There was no case who had extensive perfusion defects (SG4). A total of 17 patients underwent EDAS operations (EDAS group) and nine did not undergo any operation (no-op group). The EDAS group had significantly better clinical outcomes than the no-op group after a 12-month median follow-up period (P < 0.05). The angiographic and SPECT follow-up studies comprised six and seven cases, respectively. There was also satisfactory angiographic revascularization in all follow-up cases and improvement in cerebral perfusion at SPECT follow-up in six of seven cases. It is concluded that the involvement of posterior circulation of MMD is not frequent and cerebral perfusion is preserved in adulthood-onset MMD patients. These findings may explain the reason why hemorrhages are frequent and the late onset of symptoms in adulthood-onset MMD. Surgical treatment with EDAS seems to be

  3. A Review of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Its Presentation in Different Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Mufaddel, Amir; Osman, Ossama T.; Almugaddam, Fadwa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common psychiatric disorder characterized by preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance. This review aimed to explore epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidities, and treatment options for BDD in different clinical settings. Data Source and Study Selection: A search of the literature from 1970 to 2011 was performed using the MEDLINE search engine. English-language articles, with no restriction regarding the type of articles, were identified using the search terms body dysmorphic disorder, body dysmorphic disorder clinical settings, body dysmorphic disorder treatment, and body dysmorphic disorder & psychodermatology. Results: BDD occurs in 0.7% to 2.4% of community samples and 13% of psychiatric inpatients. Etiology is multifactorial, with recent findings indicating deficits in visual information processing. There is considerable overlap between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in symptom etiology and response to treatment, which has led to suggestions that BDD can be classified with anxiety disorders and OCD. A recent finding indicated genetic overlap between BDD and OCD. Over 60% of patients with BDD had a lifetime anxiety disorder, and 38% had social phobia, which tends to predate the onset of BDD. Studies reported a high level of comorbidity with depression and social phobia occurring in > 70% of patients with BDD. Individuals with BDD present frequently to dermatologists (about 9%–14% of dermatologic patients have BDD). BDD co-occurs with pathological skin picking in 26%–45% of cases. BDD currently has 2 variants: delusional and nondelusional, and both variants respond similarly to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), which may have effect on obsessive thoughts and rituals. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has the best established treatment results. Conclusions: A considerable overlap exists between BDD and other psychiatric disorders such as OCD, anxiety, and delusional

  4. Clinical Presentation of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in Hospitalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Gholamreza; Akbarpour, Marzieh

    2011-01-01

    Objective Human pandemic influenza H1N1 virus as the cause of febrile respiratory infection ranging from self-limited to severe illness has spread globally during 2009. Signs and symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract involvement, fever, sore throat, rhinitis, myalgia, malaise, headache, chills and fatigue are common. In this article we report the clinical presentation of Influenza A (H1N1) in our hospitalized children. Methods Between September and October 2009, all children requiring hospitalization for suspected H1N1 infection were transferred to Pediatric Infectious Diseases ward. For all patients the throat swab was taken for PCR testing to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of H1N1 Influenza A. Case patients consisted of H1N1-positive patients. Age, sex, symptoms, signs, laboratory data, CXR changes, details of therapy, duration of admission and patient outcome were documented. Findings Twenty patients were H1N1 positive. Mean age of the patients was 65.50±9.8 months. Fever and coughs were with 55% the most commonly reported symptoms. Other presentations included vomiting (55%), abdominal pain (25%), cyanosis and dyspnea (5%), body ache (40%), rhinorrhea (80%), sore throat (35%), head stiffness (5%) and loss of conciousness (5%). The median temperature of the patients was 38.5°C. Chest X-Ray changes were noted in 13 out of 20 patients (65%). Mean leukocyte and platelet was 6475 and 169000 respectively. Seventeen (85%) patients were treated with Oseltamivir, 3 patients received adjuvant antibiotics. The mean duration of admission was 3 days. Three patients required intensive care support and all of them expired due to superinfection. Conclusion Our data confirm that the presentation of influenza in children is variable and 2009 H1N1 influenza may cause leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. PMID:23056790

  5. Investigators' viewpoint of clinical trials in India: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Mallath, Mohandas K; Chawla, Tanuj

    2017-01-01

    India's success in producing food and milk for its population (Green Revolution and White Revolution) happened because of scientific research and field trials. Likewise improving the health of Indians needs clinical research and clinical trials. A Large proportion of the sick Indians are poor, illiterate with no access to good health care. They are highly vulnerable to inducement and exploitation in clinical trials. The past two decades saw the rise and fall of clinical trials in India. The rise happened when our regulators created a favorable environment, and Indian investigators were invited to participate in global clinical trials. The gap between the demand and supply resulted in inadequate protection of the trial participants. Reports of abuses of the vulnerable trial participants followed by public interest litigations led to strengthening of regulations by the regulators. The stringent new regulations made the conduct of clinical trials more laborious and increased the cost of clinical trials in India. There was a loss of interest in sponsored clinical trials resulting in the fall in global clinical trials in India. Following repeated appeals by the investigators, the Indian regulators have recently relaxed some of the stringent regulations, while continuing to ensure the adequate patient protection. Clinical trials that are relevant to our population and conducted by well-trained investigators and monitored by trained and registered Ethics Committees will increase in the future. We must remain vigilant, avoid previous mistakes, and strive hard to protect the trial participants in the future trials.

  6. Investigators' viewpoint of clinical trials in India: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Mallath, Mohandas K.; Chawla, Tanuj

    2017-01-01

    India's success in producing food and milk for its population (Green Revolution and White Revolution) happened because of scientific research and field trials. Likewise improving the health of Indians needs clinical research and clinical trials. A Large proportion of the sick Indians are poor, illiterate with no access to good health care. They are highly vulnerable to inducement and exploitation in clinical trials. The past two decades saw the rise and fall of clinical trials in India. The rise happened when our regulators created a favorable environment, and Indian investigators were invited to participate in global clinical trials. The gap between the demand and supply resulted in inadequate protection of the trial participants. Reports of abuses of the vulnerable trial participants followed by public interest litigations led to strengthening of regulations by the regulators. The stringent new regulations made the conduct of clinical trials more laborious and increased the cost of clinical trials in India. There was a loss of interest in sponsored clinical trials resulting in the fall in global clinical trials in India. Following repeated appeals by the investigators, the Indian regulators have recently relaxed some of the stringent regulations, while continuing to ensure the adequate patient protection. Clinical trials that are relevant to our population and conducted by well-trained investigators and monitored by trained and registered Ethics Committees will increase in the future. We must remain vigilant, avoid previous mistakes, and strive hard to protect the trial participants in the future trials. PMID:28194335

  7. Transient A-V dissociation and severe hypotension due to consumption of Ayurvedic medicine--Vatsanabha (aconitum ferox).

    PubMed

    Laddhad, Deepak; Sancheti, Saurabh R; Dinde, Yogita

    2014-05-01

    A 24 year old married, well educated, female patient presented with complaints of giddiness and blackouts. On evaluation, patient had hypotension and bradycardia. ECG findings were suggestive of complete A-V dissociation. On detailed history patient revealed consumption. of Ayurvedic medicine Vatsanabha for arthritis. This study impresses upon the need for complete history talking and generating awareness regarding the correct and observed use of any drug including alternative medicines.

  8. A Hypotensive/Bradycardic Episode Leading to Asystole in a Patient Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy in the Sitting Position With Interscalene Block and Intravenous Sedation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Harper, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Anesthesia for shoulder surgery is often accomplished by means of an interscalene block and intravenous sedation, with the patient subsequently placed in the sitting position for surgical access. Despite the advantages of this popular technique, sudden unheralded and severe hypotensive/bradycardic episodes have been reported in this population, with an incidence of 13% to 24%. Although these episodes are usually transient and resolve spontaneously, there are case reports of progression to asystolic cardiac arrest following hypotensive/bradycardic episodes. To raise awareness of the catastrophic potential of these episodes and discuss possible causes and preventive measures, the author presents the case of an ASA class 1 patient undergoing shoulder arthroscopy in the sitting position with an interscalene block and intravenous sedation, who experienced a hypotensive/bradycardic episode that rapidly progressed to intraoperative asystole.

  9. Markedly Elevated Cardiac Bio-Markers at Presentation With Normal Ventricular Function: A Novel Clinical Subset of Myocarditis Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Palla, Amruth R; Sontineni, Siva; Mani, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a 19-year-old woman with myocarditis who had significantly elevated cardiac markers at presentation even before any myocardial damage ensued. The patient had complicated clinical course with ventricular arrhythmia and cardiac arrest requiring resuscitation but eventually recovered completely. Though there is limited information available regarding such cases, the significantly elevated initial cardiac markers in the absence of left ventricular decompensation may probably represent a clinical subset of myocarditis and may portend an impending complicated clinical course. Further systematic research is required to define the clinical phenotype and elucidate underlying mechanisms.

  10. Endogenous central histamine-induced reversal of critical hemorrhagic hypotension in rats: studies with L-histidine.

    PubMed

    Jochem, Jerzy

    2003-10-01

    Activation of the histaminergic system is characteristic of response to the action of adverse or potentially dangerous stimuli that disturb circulatory homeostasis, such as dehydration and changes in blood pressure. Previous study demonstrates that inhibition of histamine N-methyltransferase, which catabolizes histamine released from neurons, leads to the increase in endogenous central histamine concentrations and to the reversal of critical hemorrhagic hypotension. In the present study, the influence of intraperitoneal loading with histamine precursor L-histidine on central cardiovascular regulation was studied in a model of irreversible pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock. Experiments were carried out in male Wistar rats anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine subjected to critical hemorrhagic hypotension of 20 to 25 mmHg, which resulted in the death of all control saline-treated animals within 30 min. L-histidine administered in 5 min of critical hypotension produced dose-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate (100-500 mg/kg), and a 100% survival rate of 2 h (500 mg/kg), whereas in normotensive animals, it did not influence cardiovascular parameters. The resuscitating effect of L-histidine (500 mg/kg) was associated with increases in histamine concentrations in the cerebral cortex (0.97 +/- 0.11 nmol/g of wet tissue vs. 0.67 +/- 0.22 nmol/g of wet tissue; P<0.05), hypothalamus (4.78 +/- 0.58 nmol/g of wet tissue vs. 4.08 +/- 0.43 nmol/g of wet tissue; P<0.01), and medulla oblongata (0.55 +/- 0.18 nmol/g of wet tissue vs. 0.34 +/- 0.09 nmol/g of wet tissue; P<0.05), as well as with no changes in plasma histamine concentrations in comparison with the saline-treated group 20 min after injection. Pretreatment with (S)-alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (alpha-FMH, 0.5 mg intracerebroventricularly), an irreversible inhibitor of L-histidine decarboxylase, produced a decrease in central histamine concentrations and diminished volumes of blood required to

  11. Clinical Presentation and Genetic Paradigm of Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Traine, Peter G.; Schedler, Katharina J.; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common childhood cancer. Thanks to modern technology and good medical access, mortality in Europe has decreased to about 5%. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a very rare subtype of this neoplasm and is characterized by its atypical growth pattern. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may mimic other more innocuous diseases and may therefore be misdiagnosed. The purpose of this paper was to provide a short review of the main symptoms of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma presenting to the ophthalmologist and give a comparison to typical retinoblastoma. The second purpose was to set up a discussion of the genetic paradigm of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. It has often been described to occur sporadically; however, in the last years, it has been shown that it might be heritable. A literature search concerning diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma considering English, German and Spanish cases and case series identified 77 patients. Moreover, an overview of general data, main symptoms, clinical findings and initial working diagnoses or referral diagnoses is given. Males were significantly more often affected than females. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can be heritable. Genetic analysis should be offered to the patient and relatives. Interdisciplinary medical follow-up care is needed to detect associated cancers. PMID:27239450

  12. Immune-mediated and autoimmune myocarditis: clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Caforio, Alida L P; Marcolongo, Renzo; Jahns, Roland; Fu, Michael; Felix, Stephan B; Iliceto, S

    2013-11-01

    According to the current WHO classification of cardiomyopathies, myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium and is diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy using established histological, immunological and immunohistochemical criteria; it may be idiopathic, infectious or autoimmune and may heal or lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). DCM is characterized by dilatation and impaired contraction of the left or both ventricles; it may be idiopathic, familial/genetic, viral and/or immune. The diagnosis of DCM requires exclusion of known, specific causes of heart failure, including coronary artery disease. On endomyocardial biopsy, there is myocyte loss, compensatory hypertrophy, fibrous tissue and immunohistochemical findings consistent with chronic inflammation (myocarditis) in 30-40 % of cases. In a patient subset, myocarditis and DCM represent the acute and chronic stages of an inflammatory disease of the myocardium, which can be viral, post-infectious immune or primarily organ-specific autoimmune. Here, we review the clinical presentation, etiopathogenetic diagnostic criteria, and management of immune-mediated and autoimmune myocarditis.

  13. Evaluation of knee extensor mechanism disorders: clinical presentation of 1 12 patients*.

    PubMed

    Antich, T J; Randall, C C; Westbrook, R A; Morrissey, M C; Brewster, C E

    1986-01-01

    Results of physical therapy evaluation of 112 patients with extensor mechanism disorders (chondromalacia patella, infrapatellar tendinitis, and peripatellar pain) are presented. An equal number of male and female patients were evaluated and of the 73 patients with unilateral involvement (65%) there were equal numbers of right and left involved knees. Running was the activity most commonly associated with pain, followed by basketball and tennis. Stairclimbing was painful in 79% of the patients, with ascending being more painful than descending in patients reporting a clear-cut difference. Hamstring and quadriceps tightness was statistically significant relative to the uninvolved limb although clinically, negligible differences were measured. The inferior pole of the patella was the most tender site to palpation, followed by medial peripatellar structures, then lateral sites. Biomechanical malalignment was not detected by the attending therapist in the majority of patients. The authors emphasize careful assessment of flexibility, quadriceps (VMOIVL) imbalance, and biomechanical alignment in performing a thorough evaluation of patients with extensor mechanism disorders. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(5):248-254.

  14. Clinical Presentation and Microarray Analysis of Peruvian Children with Atypical Development and/or Aberrant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Usrey, Kelly; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience with high resolution microarray analysis in infants and young children with developmental disability and/or aberrant behavior enrolled at the Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru in Lima, Peru, a low income country. Buccal cells were collected with cotton swabs from 233 participants for later DNA isolation and identification of copy number variation (deletions/duplications) and regions of homozygosity (ROH) for estimating consanguinity status in 15 infants and young children (12 males, 3 females; mean age ± SD = 28.1 m ±  7.9 m; age range 14 m–41 m) randomly selected for microarray analysis. An adequate DNA yield was found in about one-half of the enrolled participants. Ten participants showed deletions or duplications containing candidate genes reported to impact behavior or cognitive development. Five children had ROHs which could have harbored recessive gene alleles contributing to their clinical presentation. The coefficient of inbreeding was calculated and three participants showed first-second cousin relationships, indicating consanguinity. Our preliminary study showed that DNA isolated from buccal cells using cotton swabs was suboptimal, but yet in a subset of participants the yield was adequate for high resolution microarray analysis and several genes were found that impact development and behavior and ROHs identified to determine consanguinity status. PMID:25400949

  15. Gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas. An update in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Zenteno, José F; Serrano-Almeida, Cesar; Moien-Afshari, Farzad

    2008-12-01

    Gelastic seizures are epileptic events characterized by bouts of laughter. Laughter-like vocalization is usually combined with facial contraction in the form of a smile. Autonomic features such as flushing, tachycardia, and altered respiration are widely recognized. Conscious state may not be impaired, although this is often difficult to asses particularly in young children. Gelastic seizures have been associated classically to hypothalamic hamartomas, although different extrahypothalamic localizations have been described. Hypothalamic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions presenting with the classic triad of gelastic epilepsy, precocious puberty and developmental delay. The clinical course of patients with gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas is progressive, commencing with gelastic seizures in infancy, deteriorating into more complex seizure disorder resulting in intractable epilepsy. Electrophysiological, radiological, and pathophysiological studies have confirmed the intrinsic epileptogenicity of the hypothalamic hamartoma. Currently the most effective surgical approach is the trancallosal anterior interforniceal approach, however newer approaches including the endoscopic and other treatment such as radiosurgery and gamma knife have been used with success. This review focuses on the syndrome of gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas, but it also reviews other concepts such as status gelasticus and some aspects of gelastic seizures in other locations.

  16. Actual concepts in rhinosinusitis: a review of clinical presentations, inflammatory pathways, cytokine profiles, remodeling, and management.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Philippe; Poirrier, Anne Lise; De Dorlodot, Clotilde; Van Zele, Thibaut; Watelet, Jean Baptiste; Bertrand, Bernard

    2011-04-01

    Rhinosinusitis (RS) is a heterogeneous group of diseases. It is a significant and increasing health problem that affects about 15% of the population in Western countries. It has a substantial impact on patients' health-related quality of life and daily functioning and represents a huge financial burden to society and the health care system as a result of the direct and indirect costs. In addition, RS is not well-understood, and little is known about the etiology and pathophysiology. In the past decade, many papers have been published that have changed our understanding of RS. RS is commonly classified into acute and chronic RS based on symptom duration. In acute RS, an inflammatory reaction initiated by a viral infection characterizes most uncomplicated, mild to moderate cases. Therefore, the first line of treatment for these cases are intranasal steroids and not antibiotics. In severe and complicated cases, antibiotics combined with topical steroids remain the treatment of choice. On the other hand, chronic RS is actually subdivided into two distinct entities (chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps), as growing evidence indicates that these entities have specific inflammatory pathways and cytokine profiles. The authors review recent data regarding the clinical presentations, cytokine profiles, tissue remodeling, and modalities of treatment for each form of RS.

  17. Comparison between clinical, ultrasound, CT, MRI, and pathology findings in dogs presented for suspected thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taeymans, Olivier; Penninck, Dominique G; Peters, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    This study compares clinical, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and pathology findings in 16 prospectively, and seven retrospectively recruited dogs presented for suspected thyroid carcinoma. Of these, 17 were confirmed thyroid carcinoma, while six were initially misdiagnosed. These included four carotid body tumors, one para-esophageal abscess, and one undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thyroid carcinomas occurred in older dogs without evidence of sex predilection, and were more often unilateral. All were large, heterogeneous, moderately to strongly vascularized, and most commonly contained areas of dystrophic mineralization and/or fluid accumulations. On MRI, thyroid carcinomas appeared hyperintense compared to surrounding musculature in all imaging sequences used, while on CT they had a lower attenuation value than normal thyroid gland tissue. Histologically confirmed tumor capsule disruption with invasion of the surrounding structures was most commonly detected with MRI. Palpation was not an accurate predictor of locally invasive vs. well-encapsulated masses. Computed tomography had the highest specificity (100%) and MRI had the highest sensitivity (93%) in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma, while ultrasound had considerably lower results. We conclude that ultrasound is adequate for use as a screening tool for dogs with suspected thyroid carcinoma, but recommend either CT or MRI for preoperative diagnosis and staging.

  18. [Human plague and pneumonic plague : pathogenicity, epidemiology, clinical presentations and therapy].

    PubMed

    Riehm, Julia M; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Yersinia pestis is a highly pathogenic gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of human plague. In the last 1500 years and during three dreaded pandemics, millions of people became victims of Justinian's plague, the Black Death, or modern plague. Today, Y. pestis is endemic in natural foci of Asian, African and American countries. Due to its broad dissemination in mammal species and fleas, eradication of the pathogen will not be possible in the near future. In fact, plague is currently classified as a "re-emerging disease". Infection may occur after the bite of an infected flea, but also after oral ingestion or inhalation of the pathogen. The clinical presentations comprise the bubonic and pneumonic form, septicemia, rarely pharyngitis, and meningitis. Most human cases can successfully be treated with antibiotics. However, the high transmission rate and lethality of pneumonic plague require international and mandatory case notification and quarantine of patients. Rapid diagnosis, therapy and barrier nursing are not only crucial for the individual patient but also for the prevention of further spread of the pathogen or of epidemics. Therefore, WHO emergency schedules demand the isolation of cases, identification and surveillance of contacts as well as control of zoonotic reservoir animals and vectors. These sanctions and effective antibiotic treatment usually allow a rapid containment of outbreaks. However, multiple antibiotic resistant strains of Y. pestis have been isolated from patients in the past. So far, no outbreaks with such strains have been reported.

  19. Seasonal variations in the clinical presentation of pulmonary and extrapulmonary blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bruce Light, R; Kralt, Doug; Embil, John M; Trepman, Elly; Wiebe, Lyle; Limerick, Bill; Sarsfield, Pete; Hammond, Greg; Macdonald, Kerry

    2008-12-01

    Blastomycosis is a granulomatous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, for which seasonal variation has been proposed. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 324 patients with blastomycosis in Manitoba and northwestern Ontario. The average age of patients at the time of diagnosis was 39+/-20 (range, 0-85) years. Symptoms referable to blastomycosis were first noted in the autumn and winter (September to February) by 63% of the patients. The seasonal distribution of cases was different for localized pulmonary infection than the disseminated disease (P<0.0001). For localized lung disease, the peak incidence of symptom onset occurred in the autumn, and lowest incidence in the spring; one half (50%) of the patients with diffuse lung disease had onset of symptoms in the spring months and a few (11%) cases occurred during the summer. We noted a distinct seasonal variation in the clinical presentation of blastomycosis. The observed pattern suggests that summer environmental exposure and acquisition of the infection results in an early (1-6 months) localized pneumonia in the majority of cases, followed by later (4-9 months) reactivation or slow progression of asymptomatic infection resulting in isolated extrapulmonary or disseminated hematogenous disease in the minority.

  20. The present mercury contents of scalp hair and clinical symptoms in inhabitants of the Minamata area.

    PubMed

    Harada, M; Nakanishi, J; Konuma, S; Ohno, K; Kimura, T; Yamaguchi, H; Tsuruta, K; Kizaki, T; Ookawara, T; Ohno, H

    1998-05-01

    A total of 191 fishermen and their family (32-82 years) living in some mercury-polluted areas along the Shiranui Sea volunteered for the present study. They made a living by fishery and had formerly eaten the methyl mercury-contaminated fish and shellfish caught there. The questionnaire on subjective symptoms, fish eating habits, and past living history was conducted on the subjects. In addition, they were clinically examined in detail by several neurologists and scalp hair was collected. With six exceptions, all the 185 subjects showed a normal total mercury level in hair (<10 ppm). The ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury was 79-94% on the average for each group examined, suggesting indirect contamination (perhaps through the food chain). Despite their low mercury level in scalp hair, however, the subjects showed various neurological symptoms, particularly, sensory disturbance (such as the glove and stocking type), at a very high rate. Thus, it seems fair to state that, in addition to officially recognized Minamata disease patients, there still exist many people with atypical, slight Minamata disease on the coast of the Shiranui Sea. The current hair mercury level is not necessarily useful as a criterion for diagnosing chronic Minamata disease because of the long lapse of time.

  1. Malignant mesothelioma in a cohort of asbestos insulation workers: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and causes of death.

    PubMed Central

    Ribak, J; Lilis, R; Suzuki, Y; Penner, L; Selikoff, I J

    1988-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma has been rare in the general population. In recent decades its incidence has risen dramatically, parallel to the increasing use of asbestos in industry since 1930. Altogether 17,800 asbestos insulation workers, members of the International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Asbestos Workers (AFL-CIO-CLC) in the United States and Canada, were enrolled for prospective study on 1 January 1967 and followed up to the present. Every death that occurs is investigated by our laboratory. One hundred and seventy five deaths from mesothelioma occurred among the 2221 men who died in 1967-76 and 181 more such deaths in the next eight years. Altogether, 356 workers had died of malignant mesothelioma (pleural or peritoneal) by 1984. Diagnosis of mesothelioma was accepted only after all available clinical, radiological, and pathological material was reviewed by our laboratory and histopathological confirmation by the pathology unit made in each case. One hundred and thirty four workers died of pleural and 222 of peritoneal mesothelioma. Age at onset of exposure, age at onset of the disease, and age at death were similar in both groups of patients. Significant difference was noted only in the time elapsed from onset of exposure to the development of first symptoms, which was longer in the group with peritoneal mesothelioma. Shortness of breath, either new or recently increased, and chest pain were the most frequent presenting symptoms in the group with pleural mesothelioma; abdominal pain and distension were frequent in the patients with peritoneal mesothelioma. Pleural effusion or ascites were found in most patients. The most effective approach to the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma in these cases was by open lung biopsy; exploratory laparotomy was best for diagnosing peritoneal mesothelioma. Patients with pleural mesothelioma died principally from pulmonary insufficiency whereas those with peritoneal mesothelioma succumbed after a

  2. Portal hypertensive gastropathy: A systematic review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history, and therapy of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) based on a systematic literature review. METHODS: Computerized search of the literature was performed via PubMed using the following medical subject headings or keywords: “portal” and “gastropathy”; or “portal” and “hypertensive”; or “congestive” and “gastropathy”; or “congestive” and “gastroenteropathy”. The following criteria were applied for study inclusion: Publication in peer-reviewed journals, and publication since 1980. Articles were independently evaluated by each author and selected for inclusion by consensus after discussion based on the following criteria: Well-designed, prospective trials; recent studies; large study populations; and study emphasis on PHG. RESULTS: PHG is diagnosed by characteristic endoscopic findings of small polygonal areas of variable erythema surrounded by a pale, reticular border in a mosaic pattern in the gastric fundus/body in a patient with cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Histologic findings include capillary and venule dilatation, congestion, and tortuosity, without vascular fibrin thrombi or inflammatory cells in gastric submucosa. PHG is differentiated from gastric antral vascular ectasia by a different endoscopic appearance. The etiology of PHG is inadequately understood. Portal hypertension is necessary but insufficient to develop PHG because many patients have portal hypertension without PHG. PHG increases in frequency with more severe portal hypertension, advanced liver disease, longer liver disease duration, presence of esophageal varices, and endoscopic variceal obliteration. PHG pathogenesis is related to a hyperdynamic circulation, induced by portal hypertension, characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance to flow, increased splanchnic flow, increased total gastric flow, and most likely decreased gastric mucosal flow. Gastric mucosa

  3. Epidemiology and clinical presentations of human coronavirus NL63 infections in hong kong children.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ting Fan; Li, Chung Yi; Lam, Wai Yip; Wong, Gary W K; Cheuk, Edmund; Ip, Margaret; Ng, Pak Cheung; Chan, Paul K S

    2009-11-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has been found in children presenting with respiratory tract infections (RTIs). However, the epidemiology and clinical course of this newly identified virus have not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the epidemiology, seasonality, and clinical features of HCoV-NL63 in Hong Kong children. This study consisted of two cohorts of children hospitalized in a university-affiliated teaching hospital. In the 12-month retrospective part of the study, reverse transcription-PCR was used to detect HCoVs in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs). Positive samples were sequenced to confirm the identity of the virus and to determine its phylogenetic relationship with the HCoV-NL63 strains found elsewhere. The second part covered a subsequent 12-month period in which patients were prospectively recruited. Altogether, 1,981 and 1,001 NPA specimens were studied in 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, respectively. Seventy-four (2.5%) HCoV isolates were identified and consisted of 17 (0.6%) HCoV-NL63 isolates, 37 (1.2%) HCoV-OC43 isolates, 14 (0.5%) HCoV-HKU1 isolates, and 6 (0.2%) HCoV-229E isolates. HCoV-NL63 infection was more common in 2006-2007 than 2005-2006 (1.2% and 0.3%, respectively; P = 0.006). From 2005 to 2007, the peak season for HCoV-NL63 infection was in September-October, which was earlier than the peak for HCoV-OC43 infections (December-January). HCoV-NL63-infected patients were younger and more likely to have croup, febrile convulsions, and acute gastroenteritis. The majority of local HCoV-NL63 isolates were phylogenetically closely related to those found in Belgium and The Netherlands. In conclusion, HCoV-NL63 is an important yet uncommon virus among our hospitalized children with acute RTIs.

  4. Clinical Trials in Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy-Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Weydt, Patrick; Sagnelli, Anna; Rosenbohm, Angela; Fratta, Pietro; Pradat, Pierre-François; Ludolph, Albert C; Pareyson, Davide

    2016-03-01

    Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy (SBMA), also known as Kennedy's disease, is a rare adult-onset lower motor neuron disorder with a classic X-linked inheritance pattern. It is caused by the abnormal expansion of the CAG-repeat tract in the androgen receptor gene. Despite important progress in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis and the availability of a broad set of model organisms, successful translation of these insights into clinical interventions remains elusive. Here we review the available information on clinical trials in SBMA and discuss the challenges and pitfalls that impede therapy development. Two important factors are the variability of the complex neuro-endocrinological phenotype and the comparatively low incidence of the disease that renders recruitment for clinical trials demanding. We propose that these challenges can be and need to be overcome by fostering closer collaborations between clinical research centers, the patient communities and the industry and non-industry sponsors of clinical trials.

  5. Evolution of the clinical presentation of men undergoing radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Han, Misop; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the outcomes and potential effect of improved longitudinal screening in men presenting with high-risk (advanced clinical stage [> T2b], Gleason score 8–10 or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level > 20 ng/mL) prostate cancer (PC). Patients and methods The Institutional Review Board approved, Institutional Radical Prostatectomy Database (1992–2010) was queried for men with high-risk PC based on D’Amico criteria. Year of surgery was divided into two cohorts: the Early PSA Era (EPE, 1992–2000) and the Contemporary PSA Era (CPE, 2001–2010). PC features and outcomes were evaluated using appropriate comparative tests. Results In total, 667 men had high-risk PC in the EPE and 764 in the CPE. In the EPE, 598 (89.7%) men presented with one high-risk feature; 173 (29.0%) men had a Gleason score of 8–10 on biopsy. In the CPE, 717 (93.9%) men presented with one high-risk feature (P = 0.004) and 494 (68.9%) men had a Gleason score of 8–10. At 10 years, biochemical-free survival (BFS) was 44.1% and 36.4% in the EPE and CPE, respectively (P = 0.04); metastases-free survival (MFS) was 77.1% and 85.1% (P = 0.6); and PC-specific survival (CSS) was 83.3% and 96.2% (P = 0.5). BFS, MFS and CSS were worse for men with more than one high-risk feature in both eras. Conclusions Over the PSA era, an increasing percentage of men with high-risk PC were categorized by a biopsy Gleason score of 8–10. The accumulation of multiple high-risk features increases the risk of biochemical recurrence, the development of metastases and death from PC. BFS, MFS and CSS are stable over the PSA era for these men. The balance between a greater proportion of men having high Gleason disease and a greater proportion with small, less advanced tumours may explain the stability in MFS and CSS over time. PMID:21880104

  6. Refractory hypotension and edema caused by right atrial compression in a woman with polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lasic, Lada Beara; DeVita, Maria V; Spiegel, Paul J; Marino, Nino D; Mellow, Ellen; Michelis, Michael F

    2004-03-01

    We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and long-standing hypertension who developed persistent hypotension. While in the hospital for the treatment of bacteriemia, the patient had low systolic blood pressures (90 to 100 mm Hg), which was thought to be the consequence of infection. After the infection was adequately controlled and the blood pressure did not improve, an echocardiogram was done to further elucidate her hypotension. It was nondiagnostic and revealed an ejection fraction of 70% with left ventricular hypertrophy. Shortly after discharge, she developed significant lower extremity edema and her blood pressure remained low. Due to the low blood pressure it was not possible to mobilize the fluid with her dialysis treatments. A repeat transthoracic echocardiogram at that time revealed that the right atrium was partially compressed throughout the cardiac cycle by polycystic hepatic tissue. This tissue invaginated up through the right hemidiaphragm. A partial liver resection was considered for the patient. Instead, right nephrectomy was performed and the blood pressure improved.

  7. Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension: Recent data (eleven cases) and review of the literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ninet, J.; Annat, G.; Boisson, D.; Holzhapfel, L.; Vincent, M.; Peyrin, L.; Michel, D.; Schott, B.; Devic, M.; Levrat, R.

    1981-01-01

    Eight cases of Shy-Drager syndrome and three of Bradbury-Eggleston idiopathic orthostatic hypotension were examined. In all cases, examination of circulatory reflexes showed major dysfunction of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor system. Anomalies in the vagal cardiomoderator system were less constant. Normal urinary elimination of catecholamines was recorded daily. Characteristically, no elevation of blood or urine norepinephrine levels were found in orthostatism. Insulin hypoglycemia normally raised urinary adrenalin elimination in three of ten patients. Plasma dopa-beta-hydroxylase activity was normal. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system showed variable activity at basal state but usually rose during orthostatism. On the average, very low homovanillic acid levels were found in cerebrospinal fluid before and after probenecid; hydroxyindolacetic acid was normal. Cerebral autoregulation had deteriorated in two of four cases. Physiopathologically the two clinical types are indistinguishable with or without central neurological signs.

  8. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nagendra Nath

    2015-10-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner's lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion-starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation.

  9. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: clinical presentation, molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Magaña, J J; Velázquez-Pérez, L; Cisneros, B

    2013-02-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by cerebellar dysfunction associated with slow saccades, early hyporeflexia, severe tremor of postural or action type, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive disorders, and other multisystemic features. SCA2, one of the most common ataxias worldwide, is caused by the expansion of a CAG triplet repeat located in the N-terminal coding region of the ATXN2 gene, which results in the incorporation of a segment of polyglutamines in the mutant protein, being longer expansions associated with earlier onset and more sever disease in subsequent generations. In this review, we offer a detailed description of the clinical manifestations of SCA2 and compile the experimental evidence showing the participation of ataxin-2 in crucial cellular processes, including messenger RNA maturation and translation, and endocytosis. In addition, we discuss in the light of present data the potential molecular mechanisms underlying SCA2 pathogenesis. The mutant protein exhibits a toxic gain of function that is mainly attributed to the generation of neuronal inclusions of phosphorylated and/or proteolytic cleaved mutant ataxin-2, which might alter normal ataxin-2 function, leading to cell dysfunction and death of target cells. In the final part of this review, we discuss the perspectives of development of therapeutic strategies for SCA2. Based on previous experience with other polyglutamine disorders and considering the molecular basis of SCA2 pathogenesis, a nuclei-acid-based strategy focused on the specific silencing of the dominant disease allele that preserves the expression of the wild-type allele is highly desirable and might prevent toxic neurodegenerative sequelae.

  10. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner’s lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion—starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation. PMID:26816851

  11. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-01-01

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a “Mayo Model” of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings. PMID:27175350

  12. [Carriers of fragile X syndrome can present with a broad spectrum of clinical disorders].

    PubMed

    Jønch, Aia Elise; Grønskov, Karen; Carlsen Lunding, Jytte Merete; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen

    2014-06-23

    Fragile X syndrome, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) are three clinically distinct disorders caused by expansions of a CGG repeat sequence in the non-coding part of the FMR1. FXTAS and FXPOI are seen in carriers of smaller repeat expansions (55-200). Carriers were for many years thought to be clinically unaffected, but along with the discovery of FXPOI and FXTAS a growing number of additional clinical manifestations have been identified. We wish to make Danish physicians more aware of these conditions which we review in this paper.

  13. [The Moral Deliberation: The Clinical Ethics Method. Presentation of a Paediatric Case].

    PubMed

    Atuesta, Juana; Vásquez, Pablo; Roa, Juan David; Acuña, Hilda

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making is one of the most difficult tasks of medical judgment, especially when cases involve paediatric patients with different cultural characteristics. It is the obligation of clinical ethics, taking the interdisciplinary approach as a tool to comprehensively analyse the clinical, social, cultural and legal aspects, among other topics, when choosing the treatment options that will be more beneficial for the patient. A clinical case, should enable this process of analysis and teamwork to be understood in practical way in order to address difficult medical problems.

  14. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension: An Etiology for Consciousness Disorder and Coma.

    PubMed

    Collange, Olivier; Wolff, Valérie; Cebula, Hélène; Pradignac, Alain; Meyer, Alain; Kindo, Michel; Diemunsch, Pierre; Proust, François; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Kremer, Stéphane

    2016-11-15

    We report 3 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) associated with consciousness disorder and coma. In patients, SIH was suspected on a computed tomography scan and diagnosed by cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Spinal MRI confirmed cerebrospinal fluid leakage. SIH should be seen as an underestimated cause of consciousness disorder and coma, especially in patients with a history of orthostatic headache, spinal injury, or oculomotor signs. Computed tomography scans should be examined for signs of SIH before operating on patients with a spontaneous subdural hematoma. Brain and spine MRI should be performed when SIH is suspected. Our 3 patients have shown good recovery without any neurological sequelae.

  15. Early experiences of vasodilators and hypotensive anesthesia in children.

    PubMed

    Brown, T C K

    2012-07-01

    The physiological application of OHMS LAW explains the basis of hypotensive anesthesia. V = IR translates into: Pressure = Flow × Resistance or Blood pressure = Cardiac Output × Peripheral Resistance. If peripheral resistance is reduced by a vasodilator such as sodium nitroprusside (a short acting, vascular smooth muscle relaxant) or phenoxybenzamine (a long acting α adrenoreceptor antagonist), blood pressure will fall and vasoconstriction and bleeding will be reduced. A less desirable alternative to lowering blood pressure could be to reduce cardiac output by suppressing myocardial contractility using a ß(1) adrenoceptor antagonist or an inhalational agent such as isoflurane.

  16. [Case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension associated with depressed consciousness].

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Itsuo; Hidaka, Shozo; Okada, Yasunori; Kubo, Takashi; Okamura, Kenta

    2007-04-01

    We experienced a case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) complicated with depressed consciousness after its treatment. A 56-year-old woman developed postural headache, and her MRI revealed bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (CSH). After treatment with epidural autolongous blood patch, her headache resolved completely. However, two days after, the patient developed depressed conciousness, and MRI showed brain sagging and downward brain displacement. After management with conservative treatment, including second epidural blood patch and hematoma drainage, the patient became alert and other symptoms resolved gradually. We demonstrated that caution should be taken for the management of SIH, especially in the case associated with CSH.

  17. Variceal hemorrhage: Saudi tertiary center experience of clinical presentations, complications and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Hind I; Al Nahdi, Haifaa; Al Khatabi, Maan; Akbar, Hisham O; Qari, Yousif A; Sibiani, Abdul Rahman; Bazaraa, Salim

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the clinical presentation, underlying etiology and short- and long-term outcomes of acute variceal bleeding (AVB). METHODS: A retrospective descriptive cohort study of cirrhotic patients with AVB who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz University Hospital between January 2005 and December 2009. We obtained demographic data for all patients. For each patient we also obtained the clinical data at presentation; cause of liver cirrhosis, bleeding presentation (hematemesis and/or melena), presence of ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and renal impairment (RI) or hepatorenal syndrome. We carried out complete blood count, prothrombin time evaluation, and liver function tests. We also report all episodes of re-bleeding after the first episode of AVB, both during the initial admission and after discharge. We recorded the length of stay for each patient and thereby calculated the mean duration of stay for all patients. The length of follow-up after the first AVB and the outcome for each patient at the end of the study period were recorded. Causes of mortality either related to liver disease or non-liver disease cause were determined. RESULTS: A 125 patients were enrolled in the study. The number of episodes of AVB for each patients varied between 1 and 10. Survival from the first attack of AVB to death was 20.38 mo (SD 30.86), while the length of follow-up for the living patients was 53.58 mo (SD 24.94). Total number of AVB admissions was 241. Chronic hepatitis C, the commonest underlying etiology for liver disease, was present in 46 (36.8%) patients. Only 35 (28%) patients had received a primary prophylactic β-blocker before the first bleeding episode. The mean hemoglobin level at the time of admission was 8.59 g/dL (SD 2.53). Most patients had Child-Pugh Class C 41 (32.8%) or Class B 72 (57.6%) disease. Hematemesis was the predominant symptom and was found in 119 (95.2%) patients, followed by melena in 75 (60.0%) patients. Ascites of variable extent was

  18. View and present status of personnel involved in clinical trials: a survey of participants from the First Symposium of the Shikoku Collaborative Group for Promotion of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Hiroaki; Irahara, Minoru; Houchi, Hitoshi; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Moritoyo, Takashi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Shuin, Taro

    2011-02-01

    Clinical trials leading to drug approval (registration trials) play a central role in the drug development process. Since the introduction of the Good Clinical Practice (GCP) standard in 1997, the Japanese infrastructure for registration trials has improved. The contribution of support staff, including clinical research coordinators (CRCs), to clinical trials is now widely recognized in Japan. Quality issues and career development for these support staff are being increasingly emphasized. The Shikoku Collaborative Group for Promotion of Clinical Trials was organized in 2008 to address these issues through communication with the personnel involved in clinical trials in regional areas of Japan. To understand the views and present status of personnel involved in clinical trials, we used questionnaires to survey the participants of the First Symposium of the Shikoku Collaborative Group for Promotion of Clinical Trials held in August 2009. Group discussions and special lectures occurred at the symposium. The questionnaire began with questions about basic patient characteristics, followed by practical questions. Of 110 participants, there were 68 respondents (62%), including clinical trial support staff (clinical research coordinators [n=36, 53%], administrative officers [n=9, 13%]), and medical staff [n=23, 34%]). Among the support staff, 36 (80%) had more than 5 years of experience. The most common questionnaire answer selected for participation in the symposium was "willing to contact staff from other medical institutions or organizations" for support staff and "to obtain further knowledge concerning clinical trials" for medical staff. The overall view of the discussion ("Was the discussion satisfactory?") was favorable for 36 (53%) respondents. This survey revealed that the group discussion in the present symposium appears to be valuable for participants, using overall satisfaction as a surrogate. Based on the information obtained in the present study, further

  19. Colloids versus crystalloids in the prevention of hypotension induced by spinal anesthesia in elective cesarean section. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ripollés Melchor, J; Espinosa, Á; Martínez Hurtado, E; Casans Francés, R; Navarro Pérez, R; Abad Gurumeta, A; Calvo Vecino, J M

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of hypotension associated to spinal anesthesia in elective cesarean section is high. To determine the effects of colloids and crystalloids in the incidence of hypotension induced by spinal anesthesia in elective cesarean section, an attempt was made to define which type of fluid and what total volume should be administered. Following the PRISMA methodology a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. A systematic Medline/PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library search was made to identify trials where women were scheduled for elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia and volume loading (preload or co-load). The primary outcome was the incidence of hypotension. Stratification into subgroups was made for the primary outcome according to the type of colloid administered, differentiating those studies employing new generation colloids (HES 6% 130/0.4) from those not using such colloids, based on the volume of colloid administered and the combination of a vasopressor. The secondary outcome was the incidence of intraoperative nausea and vomiting. Two-hundred and twenty-seven controlled clinical trials were analyzed; eleven randomized clinical trials including 990 patients were included. A significative decrease of incidence of hypotension associated to spinal anesthesia was observed with the use of colloids compared to crystalloids (RR [95% CI] 0.70 [0.53-0.92], P=0.01). However, there was no difference between crystalloid and colloid in the risk of intraoperative nausea and vomiting (RR [95% CI] 0.75 [0.41-1.38]; P=0.33). This meta-analysis shows colloid administration to significantly reduce the incidence of hypotension associated to spinal anesthesia in elective cesarean section compared with of crystalloid use.

  20. Rapid full-field OCT assessment of clinical tissue specimens (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Brossollet, Charles; Benoit, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude A.

    2016-03-01

    FFOCT (Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography) is a novel optical technology that gives access to very high resolution tomography images of biological tissues within minutes, non-invasively. This makes it an attractive tool to bridge the gap between medical imaging modalities (MRI, ultrasound, CT) used for cancer lesion identification or targeting and histological diagnosis. Clinical tissue specimens, such as surgical cancer margins or biopsies, can potentially be assessed rapidly, by the clinician, in the aim to help him decide on the course of action. A fast FFOCT prototype was built, that provides 1cm2 images with 1 µm resolution in 1 minute, and can accommodate samples up to 50mm diameter. Specific work was carried out to implement a large sample holder, high-speed image acquisition system, optimized scanning, and accelerated GPU tiles stitching. Results obtained on breast, urology, and digestive tissues show the efficiency of the technique for the detection of cancer on clinical tissue specimens, and reinforce the clinical relevance of the technique. The technical and clinical results show that the fast FFOCT system can successfully be used for a fast assessment of cancer excision margins or biopsies providing a very valuable tool in the clinical environment.

  1. Patient characteristics upon initial presentation to chiropractic teaching clinics: A descriptive study conducted at one university

    PubMed Central

    Kaeser, Martha A.; Hawk, Cheryl; Anderson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare demographics and chief complaints of the new patient population at our institution's fee-for-service clinics to the patient population of practicing chiropractors in the United States. We also compared the prevalence of obesity and hypertension to reference standards for the adult population. Methods Patient data were obtained from the electronic health records. All records identified as new patients during October 2013 were included. Variables of interest were clinic site, patient demographics, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), chief complaint, and ICD-9 codes. Descriptive statistics were computed and compared to reference standards from previous reports. Results During October 2013, there were 224 new patients that entered the clinics. The average patient was a 31- to 50-year-old white male. Our clinic patients differed from those seen by US chiropractors in the distribution of all demographic variables. For adult patients, 31.4% were overweight, 29% were obese, and 8% stage 1 or 2 hypertension. Conclusion New patients in the fee-for-service teaching clinics appear to be dissimilar to those of US practicing chiropractors in several important demographics, characteristics, and types of complaints. The new patients had lower levels of overweight, obesity, and hypertension compared to US reference standards. PMID:25162982

  2. Advances in brain metastases presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 Annual Meeting: Part II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lucy F; Patel, Jyoti D; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-12-01

    American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, USA, 3-7 June 2016 The American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting took place in Chicago, IL, USA, from 3 to 7 June 2016. Over 30,000 oncologists, researchers, related professionals and advocates participated in the conference, which covered all aspects of oncology. An overview of the key studies in brain metastases presented at the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting is highlighted here. Key data presented on radiotherapy, and systemic therapy for brain metastases are reviewed.

  3. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, S T; Mathur, S P; Akyel, Y; Lee, J C

    The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m, 180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6 min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect.

  4. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, S T; Mathur, S P; Akyel, Y; Lee, J C

    1999-09-01

    The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m, 180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6 min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect.

  5. Clinical experience with array CGH: case presentations from nine months of practice.

    PubMed

    Poss, Alexis F; Goldenberg, Paula C; Rehder, Catherine W; Kearney, Hutton M; Melvin, Elizabeth C; Koeberl, Dwight D; McDonald, Marie T

    2006-10-01

    A total of 124 individuals were tested in the initial 9 months that array CGH technology was offered to clinical genetics patients. In 11 of these patients array CGH identified a previously unsuspected diagnosis. A suspected diagnosis was confirmed in three patients. A single case in this series proved to be a polymorphic copy number variant. This paper describes five of the patients with previously unsuspected diagnoses in detail. We suggest that array CGH is an improved tool ready for routine use in clinical genetics.

  6. Clinical Presentation of Inadvertent Intrathecal Vincristine Masquerading Guillain-Barre Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saha, Agni Sekhar; Islam, Md Fekarul; Bhattacharya, Sukanta; Giri, Prabhas Prasun

    2016-06-01

    Vincristine, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, is highly neurotoxic. If given intrathecally by accident it is almost always fatal. We are reporting a 6 year old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in complete remission, who was given inadvertent intrathecal Vincristine instead of Methotrexate. She developed gradually progressive quadriplegia and respiratory paralysis requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation, initially mimicking Guillain-Barre Syndrome, both clinically and electro-physiologically. She also developed progressive encephalopathy. The clinical deterioration subsequently plateaued without any significant improvement and after more than 5 months, she finally expired.

  7. Chronic graft-versus-host disease: clinical presentation of multiple lesions of lichenoid and atrophic pattern*

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Luiza; Vieira, Érica Cristina; Minicucci, Eliana Maria; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; de Souza, Mair Pedro; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2013-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease is observed mainly in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation and is expressed by cutaneous or systemic signals and symptoms. Graft-versus-host disease is clinically classified as acute or chronic. Chronic Graft-versus-host disease occurs in up to 70% of hematopoietic cell transplanted patients and its clinical manifestations have important impact on morbidity and quality of life. The authors report an expressive cutaneous, oral and adnexal involvement in a patient with chronic Graft-versus-host disease with multiple lesions of lichenoid and atrophic pattern. PMID:24173188

  8. Clinical skin imaging using color spatial frequency domain imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Moy, Austin J.; Reichenberg, Jason; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-02-01

    Skin diseases are typically associated with underlying biochemical and structural changes compared with normal tissues, which alter the optical properties of the skin lesions, such as tissue absorption and scattering. Although widely used in dermatology clinics, conventional dermatoscopes don't have the ability to selectively image tissue absorption and scattering, which may limit its diagnostic power. Here we report a novel clinical skin imaging technique called color spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI) which enhances contrast by rendering color spatial frequency domain (SFD) image at high spatial frequency. Moreover, by tuning spatial frequency, we can obtain both absorption weighted and scattering weighted images. We developed a handheld imaging system specifically for clinical skin imaging. The flexible configuration of the system allows for better access to skin lesions in hard-to-reach regions. A total of 48 lesions from 31 patients were imaged under 470nm, 530nm and 655nm illumination at a spatial frequency of 0.6mm^(-1). The SFD reflectance images at 470nm, 530nm and 655nm were assigned to blue (B), green (G) and red (R) channels to render a color SFD image. Our results indicated that color SFD images at f=0.6mm-1 revealed properties that were not seen in standard color images. Structural features were enhanced and absorption features were reduced, which helped to identify the sources of the contrast. This imaging technique provides additional insights into skin lesions and may better assist clinical diagnosis.

  9. Annual Research Review: Attachment Disorders in Early Childhood--Clinical Presentation, Causes, Correlates, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background: Though noted in the clinical literature for more than 50 years, attachment disorders have been studied systematically only recently. In part because of the ubiquity of attachments in humans, determining when aberrant behavior is best explained as an attachment disorder as opposed to insecure attachment has led to some confusion. In…

  10. Dysarthria in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: Clinical Presentation and Impacts on Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schölderle, Theresa; Staiger, Anja; Lampe, Renée; Strecker, Katrin; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although dysarthria affects the large majority of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) and can substantially complicate everyday communication, previous research has provided an incomplete picture of its clinical features. We aimed to comprehensively describe characteristics of dysarthria in adults with CP and to elucidate the impact of…

  11. 21 CFR 50.54 - Clinical investigations not otherwise approvable that present an opportunity to understand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clinical investigations not otherwise approvable... or welfare of children. 50.54 Section 50.54 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; and (b) The Commissioner of Food and...

  12. Clinical Profile of Childhood Onset Depression Presenting to Child Adolescent and Family Services in Northampton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumder, Pallab; Hammad, Hala

    2006-01-01

    Background: The clinical profile of depressive disorder in children and young people in Child Adolescent and Family Services (CAFS), Northampton was studied. Methods: Twenty-five patients who had attended the CAFS over a period of 2 years were analysed retrospectively. Results: The age range of subjects was 8 to 19 years. Majority of patients were…

  13. Critical dosimetry measures and surrogate tools that can facilitate clinical success in PDT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Davis, Scott C.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward V.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Palanisami, Akilan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy can be a highly complex treatment with more than one parameter to control, or in some cases it is easily implemented with little control other than prescribed drug and light values. The role of measured dosimetry as related to clinical adoption has not been as successful as it could have been, and part of this may be from the conflicting goals of advocating for as many measurements as possible for accurate control, versus companies and clinical adopters advocating for as few measurements as possible, to keep it simple. An organized approach to dosimetry selection is required, which shifts from mechanistic measurements in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards just those essential dose limiting measurements and a focus on possible surrogate measures in phase II/III trials. This essential and surrogate approach to dosimetry should help successful adoption of clinical PDT if successful. The examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools which might be implemented in phase II and higher trials are discussed for solid tissue PDT with verteporfin and skin lesion treatment with aminolevulinc acid.

  14. A Learner-Centered Technique and Clinical Reasoning, Reflection, and Case Presentation Attributes in Athletic Training Students

    PubMed Central

    Heinerichs, Scott; Vela, Luzita I.; Drouin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Providing opportunities to develop clinical decision-making skills, including clinical reasoning, is an important aspect of clinical education. The learner-centered technique of summarizing the history and findings, narrowing the differential, analyzing the differential, probing the instructor about uncertainties, plan management, and selecting an issue for self-directed study (SNAPPS) is used in medicine to express clinical reasoning. Objective: To investigate the effects of SNAPPS on the clinical reasoning, reflection, and 4 case presentation attributes (length, conciseness, case summary, and expression of clinical reasoning) in athletic training students. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Three undergraduate programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants: We randomly assigned 38 athletic training students (17 men, 21 women; age = 21.53 ± 1.18 years, grade point average = 3.25 ± 0.31) who had completed at least 1 year of clinical education and all orthopaedic evaluation coursework to the SNAPPS group or the usual and customary group using a stratification scheme. Intervention(s): The SNAPPS group completed four 45-minute clinical reasoning and case presentation learning modules led by an investigator to learn the SNAPPS technique, whereas the usual and customary group received no formal instruction. Both groups audio recorded all injury evaluations performed over a 2-week period. Main Outcome Measures: Participants completed the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory and Reflection in Learning Scale twice. Case presentations were analyzed for 4 attributes: length, conciseness, case summary, and expression of clinical reasoning. Results: Case presentations were longer (t18.806 = −5.862, P < .001) but were more concise (t32 = 11.297, P < .001) for the SNAPPS group than for the usual and customary group. The SNAPPS group performed better on both the case summary subscale

  15. Creating an optical spectroscopy system for use in a primary care clinical setting (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshein, Adam; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Gould, Bradley; Wu, Wenli; Konda, Vani; Yang, Leslie W.; Koons, Ann; Feder, Seth; Valuckaite, Vesta; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-03-01

    While there are a plethora of in-vivo spectroscopic techniques that have demonstrated the ability to detect a number of diseases in research trials, very few techniques have successfully become a fully realized clinical technology. This is primarily due to the stringent demands on a clinical device for widespread implementation. Some of these demands include: simple operation requiring minimal or no training, safe for in-vivo patient use, no disruption to normal clinic workflow, tracking of system performance, warning for measurement abnormality, and meeting all FDA guidelines for medical use. Previously, our group developed a fiber optic probe-based optical sensing technique known as low-coherence enhanced backscattering spectroscopy (LEBS) to quantify tissue ultrastructure in-vivo. Now we have developed this technique for the application of prescreening patients for colonoscopy in a primary care (PC) clinical setting. To meet the stringent requirements for a viable medical device used in a PC clinical setting, we developed several novel components including an automated calibration tool, optical contact sensor for signal acquisition, and a contamination sensor to identify measurements which have been affected by debris. The end result is a state-of-the-art medical device that can be realistically used by a PC physician to assess a person's risk for harboring colorectal precancerous lesions. The pilot study of this system shows great promise with excellent stability and accuracy in identifying high-risk patients. While this system has been designed and optimized for our specific application, the system and design concepts are universal to most in-vivo fiber optic based spectroscopic techniques.

  16. Cortical blood flow in controlled hypotension as measured by thermal diffusion 1

    PubMed Central

    Carter, L. Philip; Atkinson, James R.

    1973-01-01

    A thermal diffusion flow probe which gave a continuous, dynamic, quantitative record of cortical blood flow (CBF) was used to assess CBF in experimental animals with controlled hypotension. Acute hypotension was produced by trimethaphan camsylate, halothane, and sodium nitroprusside. Halothane produced less reduction in CBF per drop in blood pressure than the other two agents. Images PMID:4772724

  17. Surgical treatment of cervical disc protrusion causing intracranial hypotension following chiropractic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David; Steel, Timothy; Sutton, Ian

    2015-09-01

    We describe a woman with intracranial hypotension provoked by a combination of calcified disc protrusion and chiropractic manipulation who required surgical intervention for definitive treatment. Intracranial hypotension is a rare but increasingly well recognized cause of orthostatic headache that arises due to spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakage from meningeal diverticula or dural perforations.

  18. Definition of hypotension and assessment of hemodynamics in the preterm neonate.

    PubMed

    Cayabyab, R; McLean, C W; Seri, I

    2009-05-01

    The complexity of postnatal cardiovascular transition has only recently been better appreciated in the very low birth weight neonate. As blood pressure in itself poorly represents systemic blood flow, especially when the fetal channels are open and the developmentally regulated vital organ assignment may not have been completed, efforts to measure systemic blood flow have resulted in a novel, yet incomplete, understanding of the principles and clinical relevance of cardiovascular adaptation during postnatal transition in this patient population. This article describes the definition of hypotension based on the principles of cardiovascular physiology, and reviews the tools available to the clinician and researcher at the bedside to examine the complex relationship among blood pressure, systemic and organ blood flow, and tissue oxygen delivery and oxygen demand in vital and non-vital organs in the very low birth weight neonate. Only after gaining an insight into these complex relationships and processes will we be able to design clinical trials of selected treatment modalities targeting relevant patient sub-populations for the management of neonatal cardiovascular compromise. Only clinical trials based on a solid understanding of developmental cardiovascular physiology tailored to the appropriate patient sub-population hold the promise of being effective and practical, and can lead to improvements in both hemodynamic parameters and clinically relevant outcome measures.

  19. Clinical presentation and management of mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcio Augusto; Martins E Martins, Fabiana; Wang, Qian; Sonis, Stephen; Demetri, George; George, Suzanne; Butrynski, James; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2011-10-01

    Anti-cancer agents that inhibit the mTOR pathway are associated with a number of unique toxicities, with one of the most significant and potentially dose-limiting being stomatitis. The objective of this study was to report the clinical features and management outcomes of a series of cancer patients who developed painful mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS). Seventeen cancer patients developed mIAS while being treated with everolimus- or ridaforolimus-containing protocols at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and were referred to the oral medicine clinic for evaluation and management. Clinical characteristics, toxicity management, and outcomes were summarized. In addition, the frequency and rationale for dose reductions and therapy discontinuation were assessed. The median duration of mTOR inhibitor therapy was 80 days (range 9-187 days). The median time to development of mouth ulcers was 10 days (range 4-25 days). Five patients required protocol-directed dose reductions due to grades 2 and 3 stomatitis and one patient discontinued cancer treatment due to mouth ulcers. Clinical improvement and pain relief was reported in 86.6% of patients following topical, intralesional, or systemic corticosteroid therapy, with side effects limited to secondary candidiasis (n=2). Mouth ulcers are a common and potentially dose limiting toxicity associated with the use of mTOR inhibitors in cancer treatment. This case series demonstrates that local and systemic corticosteroid therapy is an effective approach to managing patients with symptomatic mIAS. Prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and prevention strategies with the ultimate goal of improving overall cancer treatment outcomes.

  20. Association of Histologic Variants in FSGS Clinical Trial with Presenting Features and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alster, Joan M.; Jennette, J. Charles; Thomas, David B.; Pullman, James; Savino, Daniel A.; Cohen, Arthur H.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Radeva, Milena K.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.; Friedman, Aaron L.; Kaskel, Frederick J.; Trachtman, Howard; Alpers, Charles E.; Fogo, Agnes B.; Greene, Tom H.; Nast, Cynthia C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives FSGS histologic variants have correlated with outcomes in retrospective studies. The FSGS Clinical Trial provided a unique opportunity to study the clinical impact of histologic variants in a well defined prospective cohort with steroid-resistant primary FSGS. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Renal biopsies of 138 FSGS Clinical Trial participants aged 2–38 years enrolled from 2004 to 2008 were analyzed using the Columbia classification by core pathologists. This study assessed the distribution of histologic variants and examined their clinical and biopsy characteristics and relationships to patient outcomes. Results The distribution of histologic variants was 68% (n=94) FSGS not otherwise specified, 12% (n=16) collapsing, 10% (n=14) tip, 7% (n=10) perihilar, and 3% (n=4) cellular. Individuals with not otherwise specified FSGS were more likely to have subnephrotic proteinuria (P=0.01); 33% of teenagers and adults had tip or collapsing variants compared with 10% of children, and subjects with these variants had greater proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia than not otherwise specified patients. Tip variant had the strongest association with white race (86%) and the lowest pathologic injury scores, baseline creatinine, and rate of progression. Collapsing variant had the strongest association with black race (63%, P=0.03) and the highest pathologic injury scores (P=0.003), baseline serum creatinine (P=0.003), and rate of progression. At 3 years, 47% of collapsing, 20% of not otherwise specified, and 7% of tip variant patients reached ESRD (P=0.005). Conclusions This is the first prospective study with protocol-defined immunomodulating therapies confirming poor renal survival in collapsing variant and showing better renal survival in tip variant among steroid-resistant patients. PMID:23220425

  1. Clinical use of a portable dual microscope system for smartphone (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurachi, Cristina; Brognara, Gabriel; Gómez-García, Pablo A.; Carbinatto, Fernanda; Silva, Eduardo V.; Lombardi, Wellington; Inada, Natália M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is still one of the most relevant women cancer types, since the 5-year survival rate is of only around 68%. Prevention and early diagnosis are the best strategies to improve cervical cancer prognosis. Conventional diagnosis procedure in Gynecology is mainly based on the macroscopic clinical evaluation, Pap smear cytology, and biopsy, if needed. A portable microscope with dual configuration and its use for diagnosis in Gynecology is investigated. The microscope has interchangeable parts that allow its use for cytopathology smear samples or in situ endoscopic tissue interrogation, both using acriflavine as a nuclei marker. Patients of the Women Ambulatory of the School of Medicine (UNIARA, Araraquara, Brazil) were interrogated during the colposcopy examination. The cervix was initially cleaned using an acetic acid solution, and a 0.05% (wt/vol) acriflavine in saline solution was topically applied at the tissue surface using a cotton swab. Microendoscopy images were taken from clinically normal cervix mucosa and from detected lesions. An image processing is performed to evaluate the cell nuclei morphology and the cytoplasm/nuclei ratio. The Pap smear results and the histology analyses are taken as gold standard for the diagnosis. Preliminary results in 5 patients demonstrated the potential use of our microscope at the clinical setting.

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia in a Multiethnic Urban Outpatient Clinic: Initial Presentation and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Steven; Braunstein, Jeffrey W.; Halpern, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Few studies examine the effectiveness of panic control treatment across diverse ethnic groups. In this paper we present data on 40 patients (African American, n = 24; Caucasian, n = 16) with panic disorder and comorbid agoraphobia who presented at an anxiety disorder clinic in an inner-city area. On initial assessment both groups were similar on…

  3. Effective case presentations--an important clinical skill for nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Coralli, Connie H

    2006-05-01

    Effective case presentations are an important component of the nurse practitioner's skills, yet very little literature exists to guide the development of this skill, and frequently little priority is given to teaching this skill during the education of the nurse practitioner. This report discusses the importance of effective case presentations, describes the organization of the presentation, and outlines the appropriate information to be included. The main components of a case presentation-introduction, history of the present illness, physical examination, diagnostic studies, differential diagnosis, management, and summary of the case-are discussed in detail. Examples of a formal and an informal case presentation are presented and used to illustrate key points in the text.

  4. Advances in brain metastases presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 Annual Meeting: Part I.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lucy F; Patel, Jyoti D; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-11-01

    American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, USA, 3-7 June 2016 The American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting took place in Chicago, IL, USA from 3 to 7 June 2016. Over 30,000 oncologists, researchers, related professionals and advocates participated in the conference which covered all aspects of oncology. An overview of the key studies in brain metastases presented at the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting is highlighted here. This report highlights biology, epidemiology, prognosis and treatment sequelae of brain metastases.

  5. Articulated dual modality photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography probe for preclinical and clinical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengyang; Zabihian, Behrooz; Weingast, Jessika; Hermann, Boris; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.; Pehamberger, Hubert; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The combination of photoacoustic tomography (PAT) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has seen steady progress over the past few years. With the benchtop and semi-benchtop configurations, preclinical and clinical results have been demonstrated, paving the way for wider applications using dual modality PAT/OCT systems. However, as for the most updated semi-benchtop PAT/OCT system which employs a Fabry-Perot polymer film sensor, it is restricted to only human palm imaging due to the limited flexibility of the probe. The passband limit of the polymer film sensor further restricts the OCT source selection and reduces the sensitivity of the combined OCT system. To tackle these issues, we developed an articulated PAT/OCT probe for both preclinical and clinical applications. In the probe design, the sample arm of OCT sub-system and the interrogation part of the PAT sub-system are integrated into one compact unit. The polymer film sensor has a quick release function so that before each OCT scan, the sensor can be taken off to avoid the sensitivity drop and artefacts in OCT. The holding mechanism of the sensor is also more compact compared to previous designs, permitting access to uneven surfaces of the subjects. With the help of the articulated probe and a patient chair, we are able to perform co-registered imaging on human subjects on both upper and lower extremities while they are at rest positions. An increase in performance characteristics is also achieved. Patients with skin diseases are currently being recruited to test its clinical feasibility.

  6. Clinical reasoning assessment through medical expertise theories: past, present and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Boushehri, Elham; Soltani Arabshahi, Kamran; Monajemi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Exploration into the concept of "medical expert" dates back to more than 50 years ago, yet yielding three leading theories in the area of clinical reasoning, namely, knowledge structure, hypotheticdeductive, and dual process. Each theory defines "medical expert" in a dissimilar way. Therefore, the methods of assessment through which the experts are identified have been changed during the time. In this paper, we tried to categorize and introduce some widely used tests for identification of experts within the framework of existing main theories. Implementation of the proposed categorization for providing future assessment tools is discussed. PMID:26478880

  7. Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Autoimmune Hepatitis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    DeFilippis, Ersilia M; Kumar, Sonal

    2015-10-01

    Nearly one-third of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have abnormal liver tests, which can be indicative of underlying hepatic disease. Primary sclerosing cholangitis has a clear association with ulcerative colitis, but other autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) have also been associated with IBD. AIH may also occur in the setting of an overlap syndrome or in the setting of medications, particularly tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. Importantly, some studies have shown that IBD patients with AIH fail treatment more frequently than IBD patients without AIH. This review will focus on the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management of autoimmune hepatitis in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

  8. Lipoedema: from clinical presentation to therapy. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Langendoen, S I; Habbema, L; Nijsten, T E C; Neumann, H A M

    2009-11-01

    Lipoedema is an infrequently recognized disorder in women. Lipoedema is characterized by bilateral enlargement of the legs due to abnormal depositions of subcutaneous fat associated with often mild oedema. There is substantial variability in disease severity. The diagnosis should be made as early as possible to prevent complications of the disorder, which is associated with increasing functional and cosmetic morbidity. This review describes clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, technical investigations, management and therapies of lipoedema, with the aim of optimizing management and care of patients with lipoedema.

  9. Development of statistics as a discipline for clinical research: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Lele, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    This article traces the history and evolution of statistics in the era of evidence based medicine, and focuses on the Indian perspective of this growth of statistics as a discipline for clinical research. Statistics will assume a more inter disciplinary form. Use of software other than SAS likely to grow further. In India, innovative statistical methods will help propel the development of biosimilars. The future is exciting with statistics being used for real world evidence, development of biosimilars, mining of adverse event data and becoming a core function in medicinal product development and lifecycle maintenance.

  10. Development of statistics as a discipline for clinical research: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Lele, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    This article traces the history and evolution of statistics in the era of evidence based medicine, and focuses on the Indian perspective of this growth of statistics as a discipline for clinical research. Statistics will assume a more inter disciplinary form. Use of software other than SAS likely to grow further. In India, innovative statistical methods will help propel the development of biosimilars. The future is exciting with statistics being used for real world evidence, development of biosimilars, mining of adverse event data and becoming a core function in medicinal product development and lifecycle maintenance. PMID:28194337

  11. First clinical pilot study with intravascular polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villiger, Martin; Karanasos, Antonios; Ren, Jian; Lippok, Norman; Shishkov, Milen; Daemen, Joost; Van Mieghem, Nicolas; Diletti, Roberto; Valgimigli, Marco; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; de Jaegere, Peter; Zijlstra, Felix; van Soest, Gijs; Nadkarni, Seemantini; Regar, Evelyn; Bouma, Brett E.

    2016-02-01

    Polarization sensitive (PS) OCT measures the polarization states of the light backscattered by tissue and provides measures of tissue birefringence and depolarization in addition to the structural OCT signal. Ex vivo studies have demonstrated that birefringence is increased in tissue rich in collagen and with elevated smooth muscle cell content. Preliminary data further suggests that depolarization can identify regions of macrophage infiltration, lipid, and irregularly arranged collagen fibers. These are important aspects of the mechanical integrity and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. To evaluate the potential of PS-OCT in the clinical setting, we combined our custom PS-OCT system with commercially available OCT catheters (Fastview, Terumo Corporation) and performed a pilot study in 30 patients, scheduled to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the grounds of stable or unstable angina. A total of 82 pullbacks in 39 vessels were performed, either in the native coronary arteries or post procedure. Comparing consecutive pullbacks of the same coronary artery, we found excellent agreement between the polarization features in the repeat pullbacks, validating the repeatability and robustness of PS-OCT in the clinical in vivo setting. In addition we observed that the birefringence and depolarization features vary significantly across lesions with identical structural OCT appearance, suggesting morphological subtypes. This first human pilot study proved the feasibility and robustness of intravascular PS-OCT. PS-OCT achieves improved tissue characterization and may help in identifying high-risk plaques, with the potential to ultimately improve risk stratification and help guiding PCI.

  12. Medical treatment in neurofibromatosis type 2. Review of the literature and presentation of clinical reports.

    PubMed

    Goutagny, S; Kalamarides, M

    2017-02-02

    The understanding of the molecular pathways underlying tumor development in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is increasing. Thus, repositioning drugs, drug therapies that are already clinically available for various cancers, appear potentially promising for NF2 patients. Based on preclinical data from in vitro or animal models, five different treatments have been proposed for selected NF2 cases. Evaluation of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF has mainly been reported in retrospective studies; it has been reported to induce hearing improvement and tumor shrinkage in more than 50% of progressive vestibular schwannomas (VS). In our experience with 16 patients, bevacizumab is associated with an increase of median time to tumor progression of VS from 5.6 months before bevacizumab onset, to more than 29.3 months. The need for intravenous injections and long term adverse events (hypertension, proteinuria, hemorrhage) are the main drawbacks. Lapatinib seemed promising in a single phase II trial with a volumetric response observed in 4/17 patients and a hearing response in 4/13, but is not currently used in clinical practice. Erlotinib has not been associated with radiographic or hearing responses in a phase II trial. Everolimus has been evaluated in 3 phase II trials. Everolimus did not induced tumor shrinkage, but seems to be able to increase time to tumor progression in selected cases. Currently, bevacizumab is the only drug proposed to selected NF2 patients.

  13. Genomic diversity of EPEC associated with clinical presentations of differing severity

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Tracy H.; Donnenberg, Michael S.; Panchalingam, Sandra; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, Anowar; Mandomando, Inacio; Ochieng, John Benjamin; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Tamboura, Boubou; Qureshi, Shahida; Quadri, Farheen; Zaidi, Anita; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.; Barry, Eileen M.; Kaper, James B.; Rasko, David A.; Nataro, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are diarrhoeagenic E. coli, and are a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness among young children in developing countries. Typical EPEC are identified by the presence of the bundle-forming pilus encoded by a virulence plasmid, which has been linked to an increased severity of illness, while atypical EPEC lack this feature. Comparative genomics of 70 total EPEC from lethal (LI), non-lethal symptomatic (NSI) or asymptomatic (AI) cases of diarrhoeal illness in children enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study was used to investigate the genomic differences in EPEC isolates obtained from individuals with various clinical outcomes. A comparison of the genomes of isolates from different clinical outcomes identified genes that were significantly more prevalent in EPEC isolates of symptomatic and lethal outcomes than in EPEC isolates of asymptomatic outcomes. These EPEC isolates exhibited previously unappreciated phylogenomic diversity and combinations of virulence factors. These comparative results highlight the diversity of the pathogen, as well as the complexity of the EPEC virulence factor repertoire. PMID:27571975

  14. Colorectal adenomatous polyposis syndromes: Genetic determinism, clinical presentation and recommendations for care.

    PubMed

    Buecher, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal adenomatous polyposis constitutes a diverse group of disorders with different modes of inheritance. Molecular diagnosis of this condition has become more complex. In fact, somatic mosaicism for APC mutations now appears to be more frequent than previously thought and rare germline alterations of this gene may be implicated in patients tested negative for "classical" APC mutations (point mutations and large genomic rearrangements). Moreover, the knowledge concerning several aspects of the MUTYH-associated polyposis has improved since its first description in 2002 and germline mutations in new genes have recently been implicated in some cases of unexplained adenomatous polyposis. Genetic testing in probands and their relatives should be conducted in the context of pre- and post-test genetic counseling. The recent advent of New Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques affords the opportunity to rapidly screen patients for a comprehensive panel of colorectal cancer susceptibility genes in a cost-effective fashion. This type of approach will probably replace the classical sequential approach based on clinical presumptive diagnoses in the near future. The risk of colorectal cancer is very high in affected patients in the absence of appropriate care. Clinical management is complex and should be provided in centers with special expertise in these diseases. This review focuses on the various colorectal adenomatous polyposis syndromes with special attention to more innovative and important aspects.

  15. Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption--a review of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and response to treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A J; Merrick, M V; Eastwood, M A

    1991-01-01

    Between 1982 and 1989, the seven day retention of 75SeHCAT was measured in 181 patients with chronic diarrhoea that remained unexplained after full investigation. Altogether 121 of the 181 had a seven day 75SeHCAT retention greater than or equal to 15% and thus had no evidence of abnormal bile acid turnover. Twenty one had a seven day 75SeHCAT retention greater than or equal to 10% but less than 15%. Their clinical features were typical of the irritable bowel syndrome, and none of eight treated with cholestyramine showed symptomatic improvement. Sixteen patients had a seven day retention greater than or equal to 5% and less than 10%, six of whom had improved symptoms after treatment with bile acid chelating agents. The remaining 23 patients had a 75SeHCAT retention of less than 5% at seven days and responded to bile acid chelators. This group had a characteristic illness with intermittent watery diarrhoea, but no constitutional upset. It was not possible to distinguish the patients with bile acid malabsorption exclusively on the basis of the clinical symptoms and investigations, other than 75SeHCAT retention. We conclude that the measurement of 75SeHCAT retention is useful, appropriate, and necessary in patients with unexplained chronic diarrhoea. PMID:1916479

  16. Does Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder Impact the Clinical Presentation of Principal Major Depressive Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background Although previous research has examined comorbidity in principal Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), few studies have examined the disorders for which those with comorbid SAD seek treatment. Further, studies have shown that depressive disorders often are associated with SAD, but few have examined the clinical characteristics of patients with this particular comorbidity. Method The current study examined the prevalence of various principal Axis I disorders in 577 individuals diagnosed with comorbid SAD. Results Consistent with previous research, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) was the most frequent principal diagnosis in patients with comorbid SAD. Those with principal MDD and comorbid SAD (MDD-SAD) were compared to those with MDD without SAD (MDD) on demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients with MDD-SAD versus those with MDD were more severe in terms of social functioning, duration of depressive episode, suicidal ideation, time out of work, presence of current alcohol abuse/dependence, and age of onset of MDD. Social functioning, duration of episode, suicidal ideation, and age of onset of MDD remained significant even after controlling for additional comorbid disorders. Conclusions Findings suggest the need for future research to determine how treatments could be adapted for this commonly occurring comorbidity. PMID:17188365

  17. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, S Breanndan

    2006-05-01

    The term transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was coined in 1983 to describe a constellation of clinical and laboratory features seen within 6 hrs of the transfusion of plasma-containing blood products. These products contain antibodies directed to human leukocyte antigens (and subsequently described to nonhuman leukocyte antigens) found on white blood cells. In the intervening 2 decades, other cases not associated with antibodies have been reported as TRALI and an association with passive infusion of lipids accumulated in stored cellular blood products has been made in those cases. This has led to confusion as to what should be considered to constitute TRALI. Therefore, the true incidence of this pulmonary reaction to blood products is currently conjectural at best. Recent consensus development conferences have been held to develop and standardize definitions of TRALI so that epidemiologic and research aspects of this condition can be explored in a scientific manner. These conferences have set out criteria by which TRALI is distinguished from other causes of acute lung injury. This review outlines the widely accepted clinical (mainly pulmonary) features of TRALI, the treatment options, and the excellent long-term prognosis for patients who survive the initial pulmonary insult.

  18. Exome sequencing and directed clinical phenotyping diagnose cholesterol ester storage disease presenting as autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Stitziel, Nathan O.; Fouchier, Sigrid W.; Sjouke, Barbara; Peloso, Gina M.; Moscoso, Alessa M.; Auer, Paul L.; Goel, Anuj; Gigante, Bruna; Barnes, Timothy A.; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Duga, Stefano; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Nikpay, Majid; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kooperberg, Charles; Lange, Leslie A.; Ardissino, Diego; McPherson, Ruth; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.; de Faire, Ulf; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J.; Charnas, Lawrence; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kastelein, John J.P.; Defesche, Joep C.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hovingh, G. Kees

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by extremely high total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels that has been previously linked to mutations in LDLRAP1. We identified a family with ARH not explained by mutations in LDLRAP1 or other genes known to cause monogenic hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular etiology of ARH in this family. Approach and Results We used exome sequencing to assess all protein coding regions of the genome in three family members and identified a homozygous exon 8 splice junction mutation (c.894G>A, also known as E8SJM) in LIPA that segregated with the diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Since homozygosity for mutations in LIPA is known to cause cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD), we performed directed follow-up phenotyping by non-invasively measuring hepatic cholesterol content. We observed abnormal hepatic accumulation of cholesterol in the homozygote individuals, supporting the diagnosis of CESD. Given previous suggestions of cardiovascular disease risk in heterozygous LIPA mutation carriers, we genotyped E8SJM in >27,000 individuals and found no association with plasma lipid levels or risk of myocardial infarction, confirming a true recessive mode of inheritance. Conclusions By integrating observations from Mendelian and population genetics along with directed clinical phenotyping, we diagnosed clinically unapparent CESD in the affected individuals from this kindred and addressed an outstanding question regarding risk of cardiovascular disease in LIPA E8SJM heterozygous carriers. PMID:24072694

  19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Milić, Sandra; Stimac, Davor

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic hepatic disorder in Western countries, with a prevalence of 20-30%. NAFLD comprises 'silent liver disease', in which simple steatosis is the only histological finding and which is benign in course, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is characterized by hepatocellular injury and inflammation with or without fibrosis. NAFLD is clinically important, because even benign fatty liver can progress to steatohepatitis in many patients, which can lead to liver cirrhosis and its complications and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome; it is closely related to other clinical features of metabolic syndrome, and thus to cardiovascular morbidity. There are several different noninvasive techniques for formal diagnosis and follow-up, but liver biopsy remains the gold standard. The most important therapeutic strategies include lifestyle changes, including changes in dietary habits aimed at weight loss and blood pressure regulation, with a consequent decrease in insulin resistance. For some patients with NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, pharmacological treatment is the best option, although further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and tolerability.

  20. Cerebral neuroschistosomiasis: a rare clinical presentation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Llenas-García, Jara; Guerra-Vales, Juan-Manuel; Alcalá-Galiano, Andrea; Domínguez, Cristina; Pérez-Nuñez, Angel; Lizasoaín, Manuel; Díaz-Pedroche, Carmen; Montes, Santiago; Martínez, Josefina; Sierra, Fernando; Salto, Efren

    2009-01-01

    The symptomatic presentation of cerebral schistosomiasis is uncommon. The case of a 25-year-old woman from Equatorial Guinea with headache and seizures secondary to cerebral neuroschistosomiasis, as confirmed by histopathological examination and microbiological study, is presented. A review of the literature on this subject is also provided.

  1. 21 CFR 50.54 - Clinical investigations not otherwise approvable that present an opportunity to understand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... that present an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health... opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children... investigation presents a reasonable opportunity to further the understanding, prevention, or alleviation of...

  2. [A clinical case of progressive supranuclear palsy with long-term frontal presentation preceding the onset of gaze palsy].

    PubMed

    Yoshiike, Takuya; Ueda, Satoshi; Takahashi, Masahiko; Suda, Kiyoko; Furuta, Ko; Koyama, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disorder with diverse clinical phenotypes characterized by supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism with postural instability, and frontal dementia. The early and accurate diagnosis of PSP remains difficult because of the variable combination of symptoms and frequent lack of gaze abnormalities early in the disease course. Moreover, a subset of PSP shows behavioral changes as the initial presentation, which considerably overlaps with the clinical picture of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Thus, this subgroup possibly needs psychiatric assessments. Here, we describe a clinical case of PSP difficult to differentiate from FTD because the frontal presentation persisted without gaze palsy until the late stage of the clinical course. A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for the reconsideration of a diagnosis of FTD. Disinhibited and gambling behaviors inconsistent with his previous personality first appeared at around the age of 45, with gradual progression, followed by memory deficits, executive dysfunction, and a slowing of mental processes. Recurrent sexual disinhibition led him to undergo psychiatric consultation at the age of 57. Downward gaze palsy and postural instability with recurrent falls emerged 8 months after the first psychiatric examination, and he was clinically diagnosed with PSP 13 years after the initial frontal presentation. PSP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with frontal lobe symptoms, even in psychiatric practice.

  3. Early metabolic effects of hypotension on rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Freeman, D M; Chan, L; Yahaya, H; Holloway, P; Ross, B D

    1989-01-01

    Saturation-transfer phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (STNMR) has been applied to the rat kidney in vivo. The rate of renal metabolism determined by this method compares favorably with the renal oxygen consumption, assuming an ATP:oxygen ratio of 2. Hemorrhagic hypotension resulted in a 20% fall in renal blood flow and a significant fall in oxygen consumption. The rate of renal metabolism fell by 50%. This rate of ATP synthesis was below that required to maintain a normal [ATP], but renal [Pi] was not increased. When renal perfusion was reduced by 60%, intrarenal [Pi] rose. When [P1] was elevated, the method os STNMR no longer gave a reliable measure of the rate ATP synthesis, indicating that this new Pi pool was not in rapid chemical exchange with ATP. STNMR represents a useful noninvasive means of monitoring renal metabolic rate, with limitations due to insensitivity and the existence of multiple pools of intrarenal Pi.

  4. A Clinical Case Presentation: Understanding and Interpreting Dreams while Working Through Developmental Trauma.

    PubMed

    Levy, Joshua; Finnegan, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the unique place of understanding and interpreting dreams in the psychoanalytic process while working through developmental trauma. This psychoanalytic process extended over six years and is presented in four phases: establishing the therapeutic alliance, a crisis, working through, and termination. Dreams from each of these four phases of the analysis are presented, and the collaborative work of understanding and interpreting these dreams is highlighted. Evidence is presented that from this analytic work there ensued an amelioration of the impact of developmental trauma and a furtherance of the development of internal psychic structure.

  5. Pharmacognosy and hypotensive evaluation of Ficus exasperata Vahl (Moraceae) leaf.

    PubMed

    Ayinde, Buniyamin A; Omogbai, Eric K I; Amaechina, Fabian C

    2007-01-01

    There is already a literature report on the anti-ulcer effect of water extract of Ficus exasperata. Some communities in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria use the decoction of the leaf as hypotensive crude drug. Verification of this claim and also the microscopy and other pharmacognostic parameters which can be used to establish the identity of the leaf were carried out. The microscopy of the leaf powder revealed the presence of straight walled epidermal cells, cone or nail shaped trichomes or epidermal hairs, clustered or prismatic calcium oxalate crystals of varying dimensions. The percentage weight loss on drying was 9.84 +/- 0.08 whereas water and alcohol extractive values were 5.29 +/- 0.07 and 2.21 +/- 0.11, respectively. The ash value was 30.68 +/- 0.44 whereas the acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash values were 17.87 +/- 0.37 and 16.73 +/- 0.13, respectively. Preliminary phytochemistry of leaf showed that it contains tannins, flavonoids and saponins with no traces of alkaloids or anthraquinones. The water extract showed a dose related reduction in mean arterial blood pressure. At 10 mg/kg, a reduction of 16.6 +/- 1.1 mmHg was observed, whereas at 30 mg/kg, a fall in mean arterial pressure of 38.3 +/- 0.6 mmHg was obtained. The hypotensive effect of the extract was significantly reduced with a prior administration of 2.5 mg of either atropine or chlorpheniramine. This suggests the probable stimulation of muscarinic receptors in the heart or release of histamine into the circulatory system thereby causing the initial fall in blood pressure.

  6. Infectious disease following travel to developed regions: a snapshot of presentations to an Australian travel medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Drewett, George; Leder, Karin

    2016-06-01

    Much of the travel medicine literature focuses on travel to 'developing' regions by travellers from 'developed' regions; however literature about travel to developed regions is scarce. This article examines presentations to a travel medicine clinic over a 17-year period with illnesses resulting from travel to developed regions. From a cohort of general presentations to the clinic of 1077 patients, 85 patients acquired infections due to travel to developed regions, with a total of 99 infectious diagnoses made. This serves to highlight the risk of infectious disease even among travel to only developed regions, and the importance of travel advice in these situations.

  7. EBM metadata based on Dublin Core better presenting validity of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Okada, Mihoko

    2007-10-01

    To help clinicians find better evidence, a metadata schema for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is developed. Dublin Core metadata standard (DC) was adopted to help build a metadata schema. An experimental system was developed to test the validity of the metadata and full text papers of clinical therapy on stomach ulcer extracted using PubMed. An EBM metadata schema was developed. Citations were created from original papers using the metadata schema. Three clinicians evaluated papers by utilizing metadata and full texts respectively. Agreement of evaluation was analyzed, and the result on weighted kappa was 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42-0.67). It reveals that there is moderate agreement between evaluation of metadata citations and full texts. It is possible to use the metadata to select papers before reading the full texts. A further study should be made to prove the applicability of the metadata in the real world setting.

  8. Catatonia in DSM 5: controversies regarding its psychopathology, clinical presentation and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Ungvari, Gabor S

    2014-12-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been an upsurge of interest in catatonia, which is reflected in the attention it received in DSM 5, where it appears as a separate subsection of the Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders (APA, 2013). This commentary argues that due to the lack of solid scientific evidence, the extended coverage of catatonia in DSM 5 was a premature, and consequently, a necessarily ambiguous decision. The psychopathological foundations of the modern catatonia concept are lacking therefore its boundaries are fuzzy. There are only a few, methodologically sound clinical, treatment response and small-scale neurobiological studies. The widely recommended use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of catatonia is based on case reports and open-label studies instead of placebo-controlled, randomized trials. In conclusion, the catatonic concept espoused by DSM 5 is necessarily vague reflecting the current state of knowledge.

  9. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prognosis of chronic laminitis in North America.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Robert J; Wharton, Robin E

    2010-04-01

    Chronic laminitis involves laminar morphologic changes resulting in digital collapse and can vary greatly in its clinical manifestation depending on duration, severity of lameness, and stability of the distal phalanx/hoof wall interface. Accurate assessment of the whole patient is mandatory and consideration must be given to signalment, occupation, and owner expectations, as well as history and etiology, which often predict the broad course of the disease. Diagnosis is made via physical examination with adjunctive serial radiographic evaluation and possibly venography. Eventual functionality of the foot is determined by structural integrity, which is dictated by the degree of morphologic damage of the soft tissue and bone architecture of the foot. Structures involved include the digital vasculature, the laminar/hoof wall interface, and the distal phalanx. Patient outcome is largely determined by the degree of instability between the distal phalanx and hoof wall, and the ultimate prognosis is further influenced by owner expectation.

  10. Melioidosis in animals: a review on epizootiology, diagnosis and clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Sprague, L D; Neubauer, H

    2004-09-01

    Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei is an emerging disease with high impact on animals and man. In different animal species, the clinical course varies and delayed diagnosis poses risks for the dissemination of the agent in non-endemic areas. Not only migration and transport of animals around the world but also tourism increases the risk that melioidosis can leave its endemic boundaries and establish itself elsewhere. Detection of the agent is a major challenge, as the agent has to be handled in laboratories of biosafety level 3 and test kits are not yet commercially available. Veterinarians and doctors should be aware of melioidosis not only as an agent of public interest but also in terms of a bioterrorist attack. The aim of this review is to describe the agent, its aetiology, the manifestation in a variety of animal species as well as to describe diagnostic procedures, typing techniques and countermeasures.

  11. Specific CD4+ T-Cell Reactivity and Cytokine Release in Different Clinical Presentations of Leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Moos, Verena; Allers, Kristina; Luge, Enno; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Nöckler, Karsten; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Jansen, Andreas; Schneider, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Clinical manifestations of leptospirosis are highly variable: from asymptomatic to severe and potentially fatal. The outcome of the disease is usually determined in the immunological phase, beginning in the second week of symptoms. The underlying mechanisms, predictive factors, and individual immune responses that contribute to clinical variations are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specifics of CD4(+) T-cell reactivity and cytokine release after stimulation with leptospiral antigens in patients with leptospirosis of different disease severities (patients with mild and severe symptoms) and in control subjects (with and without proven exposure to Leptospira). Whole-blood specimens were stimulated with Leptospira antigens in vitro. Subsequently, intracellular staining of cytokines was performed, and flow cytometry was used to assess the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and the production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by CD4(+) T cells. The production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α by CD4(+) T cells after stimulation with leptospiral antigens was highest in patients with severe disease. In contrast, the ratio of IL-10 production to TNF-α production was higher in exposed subjects than in patients with mild and severe disease. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α may be useful markers of the severity of the immunological phase of leptospirosis. IL-10 production by T cells after antigen-specific stimulation may indicate a more successful downregulation of the inflammatory response and may contribute to an asymptomatic course of the disease.

  12. Reward-Related Decision Making in Older Adults: Relationship to Clinical Presentation of Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Amanda R.; Alexopoulos, George S.; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Gunning, Faith M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Impairment in reward processes has been found in individuals with depression and in the aging population. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1. To use an affective neuroscience probe to identify abnormalities in reward-related decision making in late-life depression. 2. To examine the relationship of reward-related decision making abnormalities in depressed, older adults to the clinical expression of apathy in depression. We hypothesized that relative to elderly, healthy subjects, depressed, elderly patients would exhibit impaired decision making and that apathetic, depressed patients would show greater impairment in decision making than non-apathetic, depressed patients. Methods We used the Iowa Gambling Task to examine reward-related decision making in 60 non-demented, elderly patients with non-psychotic major depression and 36 elderly, psychiatrically healthy participants. Apathy was quantified using the Apathy Evaluation Scale. Of those with major depression, 18 individuals reported clinically significant apathy whereas 42 participants did not have apathy. Results Older adults with depression and healthy comparison participants did not differ in their performance on the IGT. However, apathetic, depressed older adults adopted an advantageous strategy and selected cards from the conservative decks compared to non-apathetic, depressed older adults. Non-apathetic, depressed patients showed a failure to adopt a conservative strategy and persisted in making risky decisions throughout the task. Conclusions This study indicates that apathy in older, depressed adults is associated with a conservative response style on a behavioral probe of the systems involved in reward-related decision making. This conservative response style may be the result of reduced sensitivity to rewards in apathetic individuals. PMID:25306937

  13. [Pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment options for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Noël, Natacha; Rieu, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the leading genetic cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Its prevalence is evaluated according to studies and population between 1/1000 and 1/4000 live births and it accounts for 6 to 8% of incident ESRD patients in developed countries. ADPKD is characterized by numerous cysts in both kidneys and various extrarenal manifestations that are detailed in this review. Clinico-radiological and genetic diagnosis are also discussed. Mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 codifying for polycystin-1 (PC-1) and polycystin-2 (PC-2) are responsible for the 85 and 15% of ADPKD cases, respectively. In primary cilia of normal kidney epithelial cells, PC-1 and PC-2 interact forming a complex involved in flow- and cilia-dependant signalling pathways where intracellular calcium and cAMP play a central role. Alteration of these multiple signal transduction pathways leads to cystogenesis accompanied by dysregulated planar cell polarity, excessive cell proliferation and fluid secretion, and pathogenic interactions of epithelial cells with an abnormal extracellular matrix. The mass effect of expanding cyst is responsible for the decline in glomerular filtration rate that occurs late in the course of the disease. For many decades, the treatment for ADPKD aims to lessen the condition's symptoms, limit kidney damage, and prevent complications. Recently, the development of promising specific treatment raises the hope to slow the growth of cysts and delay the disease. Treatment strategies targeting cAMP signalling such as vasopressin receptor antagonists or somatostatin analogs have been tested successfully in clinical trials with relative safety. Newer treatments supported by preclinical trials will become available in the next future. Recognizing early markers of renal progression (clinical, imaging, and genetic markers) to identify high-risk patients and multidrug approaches with synergistic effects may provide new opportunities

  14. Digoxin intoxication: the relationship of clinical presentation to serum digoxin concentration

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas W.; Haber, Edgar

    1970-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum digoxin concentration has been used to study the interrelationships of circulating levels of the drug and various factors in the clinical setting in 48 hospitalized patients with cardiac rhythm disturbances due to digoxin intoxication. 131 patients on maintenance doses of digoxin without toxicity and 48 patients with equivocal evidence of digoxin excess were also studied and compared with the toxic group. Patients with cardiac rhythm disturbances due to digoxin intoxication tended to be older and to have diminished renal function compared with the nontoxic group; body weight, serum potassium concentration, underlying cardiac rhythm, and nature of cardiac disease were not significantly different for the groups as a whole. Despite comparable mean daily digoxin dosages, digoxin intoxicated patients had a mean serum digoxin concentration of 3.7 ±1.0 (SD) ng/ml, while nontoxic patients had a mean level of 1.4 ±0.7 ng/ml (P < 0.001), 90% of patients without evidence of toxicity had serum digoxin concentrations of 2.0 ng/ml or less, while 87% of the toxic group had levels above 2.0; the range of overlap between the two groups extended from 1.6 to 3.0 ng/ml. Patients with atrioventricular block as their principal toxic manifestation had a significantly lower mean serum digoxin concentration than those in whom ectopic impulse formation was the chief rhythm disturbance. Patients with equivocal evidence of digoxin excess had received comparable daily maintenance doses of digoxin but had a mean serum concentration of 1.9 ±0.8 ng/ml, intermediate between those of the nontoxic (P < 0.005) and toxic (P < 0.001) groups. Renal function as judged by mean blood urea nitrogen concentration was also intermediate. The data indicate that knowledge of the serum digoxin concentration, weighed in the clinical context, is useful in the management of patients receiving this drug. PMID:5480861

  15. Stromal prostatic sarcoma: a rare tumor with rare clinical and imaging presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Jiménez, Anamaría; Otero-Garcia, Milagros; Mateos-Martin, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Adult prostatic stromal sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor. The main presenting symptom is urinary retention secondary to bladder outlet obstruction. Prostatic Specific Antigen level can be normal. Imaging features show a prostate mass with or without pelvic organ invasion depending on the aggressiveness of the tumor. We present a patient with prostatic stromal sarcoma who debuted with urinary obstruction, leukocytosis and neutrophilia, prostate enlargement, and hypodense prostate areas on CT images, simulating prostatitis with abscess formation. PMID:24421945

  16. Estrogen-dependent enhancement of NO production in the nucleus tractus solitarius contributes to ethanol-induced hypotension in conscious female rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guichu; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Our previous pharmacological and cellular studies showed that peripheral (cardiac and vascular) NOS-derived NO is implicated in the estrogen-dependent hypotensive action of ethanol in female rats. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that enhanced NO production in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is implicated in the estrogen-dependent hypotensive action of ethanol. Methods To achieve this goal, we utilized in vivo electrochemistry to measure real time changes in neuronal NO to investigate the acute effects of intragastric ethanol (0, 0.5 or 1 g/kg) on NO in NTS neurons, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in conscious female rats in the absence (ovariectomized, OVX, rats) or presence of estrogen. Results In sham operated (SO) rats, ethanol elicited dose-related increase in NTS NO and reduction in BP. These neurochemical and blood pressure effects of ethanol were absent in OVX rats. Whether the neurochemical effect of ethanol and the associated hypotension are dependent on rapid estrogen signaling was investigated. In OVX rats pretreated, 30 min earlier, with estrogen (E2, 1µg/kg), intragastric ethanol (1 g/kg) increased NTS NO and reduced BP and these responses were comparable to those obtained in SO rats. Conclusions The present findings suggest that increased production of NO in NTS neurons contributes to ethanol-evoked hypotension in female rats. Further, ethanol enhancement of neuronal NO production in the brainstem is dependent on rapid estrogen signaling. PMID:19076118

  17. Metastatic Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis: Clinical Presentation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Han, Min; Figenshau, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are present in both juvenile and adult subtypes. While most adult GCTs are benign, those that present with distant metastases manifest a grave prognosis. Treatments for aggressive GCTs are not well established. Options that have been employed in previous cases include retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination thereof. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a painless left testicular mass and painful gynecomastia. Serum tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase) and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen were negative. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was consistent with a testicular GCT. He underwent a left-template laparoscopic RPLND which revealed 2/19 positive lymph nodes. Final pathological stage was IIA. He remains free of disease 32 months after surgery. PMID:27293952

  18. Pedunculated intraventricular subependymoma: Review of the literature and illustration of classical presentation through a clinical case

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Durán, Silvia; Yeh-Hsieh, Tze-Yu; Salazar-Araya, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subependymomas are rare benign, noninvasive tumors, classified by the World Health Organization as low grade neoplasms. International data estimate their frequency between 0.2% and 0.7% of the intracranial tumors, and they usually are an incidental finding in autopsies. Preferably located in the fourth ventricle, these tumors tend to become symptomatic when they cause hydrocephalous by obstructing cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Case Presentation: We present the case of a morbidly obese, hypertense, and diabetic patient, who presented with symptoms of gait ataxia, sphincter incontinence, and dysartria in relation to a pedunculated subependymoma in the left lateral ventricle. He underwent a biparietal craniotomy with a microscopic microsurgical approach, through which gross total resection was achieved. No perioperative complications ensued. Conclusions: Given their benign behavior and their excellent response to surgical treatment, subependymomas should be promptly diagnosed and surgically treated to avoid possible neurological damage when they become symptomatic. PMID:25101212

  19. Fibromyalgia syndrome: review of clinical presentation, pathogenesis, outcome measures, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mease, Philip

    2005-08-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a common chronic pain condition that affects at least 2% of the adult population in the USA and other regions in the world where FM is studied. Prevalence rates in some regions have not been ascertained and may be influenced by differences in cultural norms regarding the definition and attribution of chronic pain states. Chronic, widespread pain is the defining feature of FM, but patients may also exhibit a range of other symptoms, including sleep disturbance, fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, headache, and mood disorders. Although the etiology of FM is not completely understood, the syndrome is thought to arise from influencing factors such as stress, medical illness, and a variety of pain conditions in some, but not all patients, in conjunction with a variety of neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine disturbances. These include reduced levels of biogenic amines, increased concentrations of excitatory neurotransmitters, including substance P, and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A unifying hypothesis is that FM results from sensitization of the central nervous system. Establishing diagnosis and evaluating effects of therapy in patients with FM may be difficult because of the multifaceted nature of the syndrome and overlap with other chronically painful conditions. Diagnostic criteria, originally developed for research purposes, have aided our understanding of this patient population in both research and clinical settings, but need further refinement as our knowledge about chronic widespread pain evolves. Outcome measures, borrowed from clinical research in pain, rheumatology, neurology, and psychiatry, are able to distinguish treatment response in specific symptom domains. Further work is necessary to validate these measures in FM. In addition, work is under way to develop composite response criteria, intended to address the multidimensional nature of this syndrome. A range of medical treatments, including

  20. Masked polycythaemia vera: presenting features, response to treatment and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Angona, Anna; Ancochea, Agueda; García-Pallarols, Francesc; Fernández, Concepción; Longarón, Raquel; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Masked polycythaemia vera (PV) has been proposed as a new entity with poorer outcome than overt PV. In this study, the initial clinical and laboratory characteristics, response to treatment and outcome of masked and overt PV were compared using red cell mass and haemoglobin or haematocrit levels for the distinction between both entities. Sixty-eight of 151 PV patients (45%) were classified as masked PV according to World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria, whereas 16 (11%) were classified as masked PV using the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). In comparison with overt PV, a higher platelet count and a lower JAK2V617F allele burden at diagnosis were observed in masked PV. Patients with masked PV needed lower phlebotomies and responded faster to hydroxcarbamide than those with overt PV. Complete haematological response was more frequently achieved in masked than in overt PV (79% vs. 58%, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in the duration of haematological response, the rate of resistance or intolerance to hydroxycarbamide and the probability of molecular response according to type of PV (masked vs. overt). Overall survival, rate of thrombosis and major bleeding, and probability of transformation was superimposable among patients with masked and overt PV.

  1. [Celiac disease. Recent findings on its pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical presentation].

    PubMed

    Volta, U

    1999-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy which results in a permanent malabsorption of nutrients in that portion of the small intestine (the jejunum) that is damaged. A genetic, inheritable disease, it is directly related to ingestion of certain wheat proteins especially found in rye secalins, barley hordeins and, in a much lower amount, oat avenins. A fundamental role in the pathological response is played by grain prolamins (gliadins). The actual damage to intestinal mucosa is almost certainly mediated by the immune system but its mechanism has not been so far clarified. Coeliac disease incidence rate is ever increasing among children and adolescents and it is rather frequently reported as relapsing in the third and fourth decade. The most distressing problems of malabsorption syndrome are diarrhea, weight loss, meteorism, abdominal pain, vomiting and asthenia; nonetheless, not all patients report symptoms. Both diagnosis and differential diagnosis--intestinal lymphoma, refractory sprue--prove difficult: a diagnosis of gluten intolerance can be made through careful consideration of a series of laboratory findings which are being improved by researchers in order to avoid delays for patients with probable gluten-sensitive enteropathy with non-specific symptoms. Although there may be many clinical signs and laboratory tests indicating probable malabsorption, the likely gold standard of diagnosing coeliac disease remains to be the jejunal biopsy.

  2. Update Review and Clinical Presentation in Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-López, L. M.; Cabrera-González, M.; Gutiérrez-de la Iglesia, D.; Ricart, S.; Knörr-Giménez, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis (CIPA) or hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV is an extremely rare syndrome. Three clinical findings define the syndrome: insensitivity to pain, impossibility to sweat, and mental retardation. This pathology is caused by a genetic mutation in the NTRK1 gene, which encodes a tyrosine receptor (TrkA) for nerve growth factor (NGF). Methods. The consultation of a child female in our center with CIPA and a tibia fracture in pseudoarthrosis encouraged us to carefully review literature and examine the therapeutic possibilities. A thorough review of literature published in Pubmed was done about CIPA and other connected medical issues mentioned in the paper. Conclusions. The therapeutic approach of CIPA remains unclear. The preventive approach remains the only possible treatment of CIPA. We propose two new important concepts in the therapeutic approach for these patients: (1) early surgical treatment for long bone fractures to prevent pseudoarthrosis and to allow early weight bearing, decreasing the risk of further osteopenia, and (2) bisphosphonates to avoid the progression of osteopenia and to reduce the number of consecutive fractures. PMID:26579324

  3. HIV-Associated Nephropathy: Clinical Presentation, Pathology, and Epidemiology in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Christina M.; Klotman, Paul E.; D’Agati, Vivette D.

    2008-01-01

    The classic kidney disease of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, HIV-associated nephropathy, is characterized by progressive acute renal failure, often accompanied by proteinuria and ultrasound findings of enlarged, echogenic kidneys. Definitive diagnosis requires kidney biopsy, which demonstrates collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with associated microcystic tubular dilatation and interstitial inflammation. Podocyte proliferation is a hallmark of HIV-associated nephropathy, although this classic pathology is observed less frequently in antiretroviral-treated patients. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy involves direct HIV infection of renal epithelial cells, and the widespread introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has had a significant impact on the natural history and epidemiology of this unique disease. These observations have established antiretroviral therapy as the cornerstone of treatment for HIV-associated nephropathy, in the absence of prospective clinical trials. Adjunctive therapy for HIV-associated nephropathy includes ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, as well as corticosteroids in selected patients with significant interstitial inflammation or rapid progression. PMID:19013322

  4. Quality assurance in radiation therapy: European experience - present and future clinical efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Dische, S.

    1984-06-01

    A high standard of radiotherapeutic practice must be sought in all phases of management of a patient with malignant disease. Radiation therapy must be appropriately chosen and integrated with surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and all other modes of treatment. The most suitable technique with a dose, fractionation and time regime must devised and executed with technical and personal care. Follow-up to truly assess tumor control and morbidity is essential so as to guide the management of future patients. To achieve this in Europe great reliance is placed upon the training and qualification of the therapist and staff. High standards are applied to the professional qualifications for radiation physicists, nurses and technical staff. In the countries belonging to the European economic union, a new Diploma in Radiation Therapy has been established to be a standard for consultant practice through all the countries included. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer has recently initiated a quality control study in some of the centers included in the Radiotherapy Group. A preliminary report has just appeared on the results of the clinical and dosimetric studies in 8 centers placed in 5 European countries.

  5. Myometrial hyperplasia mimics the clinical presentation of uterine fibroids: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Patricia M; Cramer, Stewart F; Leppert, Phyllis C

    2013-11-01

    The clinical diagnosis of fibroid uterus is based on physical examination findings and/or ultrasound. However, it is not uncommon for routine pathology examination to report no significant fibroids in such cases. Myometrial hyperplasia (MMH) is a structural variation with irregular zones of hypercellularity and increased nucleus/cell ratio that appears in adolescence, can progress during the childbearing years, and can sometimes cause grossly detectable bulges on pathologic examination. MMH can be inframucosal, intramural (microscopic), or subserosal. Three premenopausal women with a preoperative diagnosis of fibroids on pelvic examination, and/or sonograms, underwent hysterectomies. In all the 3 cases, the Myoma Index (number of fibroids×size of largest fibroid) indicated insignificant fibroids. The pathology simulating fibroids was firm, bulging inframucosal MMH. Firm, bulging MMH can mimic uterine fibroids on ultrasound and physical examination. In hysterectomies for fibroid uterus with a Myoma Index <3.7, it is recommended that pathologists evaluate for MMH as the possible explanation for the findings on physical examination and/or ultrasound.

  6. Update Review and Clinical Presentation in Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, L M; Cabrera-González, M; Gutiérrez-de la Iglesia, D; Ricart, S; Knörr-Giménez, G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis (CIPA) or hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV is an extremely rare syndrome. Three clinical findings define the syndrome: insensitivity to pain, impossibility to sweat, and mental retardation. This pathology is caused by a genetic mutation in the NTRK1 gene, which encodes a tyrosine receptor (TrkA) for nerve growth factor (NGF). Methods. The consultation of a child female in our center with CIPA and a tibia fracture in pseudoarthrosis encouraged us to carefully review literature and examine the therapeutic possibilities. A thorough review of literature published in Pubmed was done about CIPA and other connected medical issues mentioned in the paper. Conclusions. The therapeutic approach of CIPA remains unclear. The preventive approach remains the only possible treatment of CIPA. We propose two new important concepts in the therapeutic approach for these patients: (1) early surgical treatment for long bone fractures to prevent pseudoarthrosis and to allow early weight bearing, decreasing the risk of further osteopenia, and (2) bisphosphonates to avoid the progression of osteopenia and to reduce the number of consecutive fractures.

  7. Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Laboratory Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Antimicrobial Management of Invasive Salmonella Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Gordon, Melita A.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in low-resource areas, where they may be difficult to distinguish from other febrile illnesses and may be associated with a high case fatality ratio. Microbiologic culture of blood or bone marrow remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in Salmonella enterica, initially to the traditional first-line drugs chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and then fluoroquinolone resistance have developed in association with chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and also by plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has occurred more often in nontyphoidal than in typhoidal Salmonella strains. Azithromycin is effective for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever and may serve as an alternative oral drug in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is common. In 2013, CLSI lowered the ciprofloxacin susceptibility breakpoints to account for accumulating clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data suggesting that revision was needed for contemporary invasive Salmonella infections. Newly established CLSI guidelines for azithromycin and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published in CLSI document M100 in 2015. PMID:26180063

  8. Clinical and research measurement techniques of the pulmonary circulation: the present and the future.

    PubMed

    Naeije, Robert; D'Alto, Michele; Forfia, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    There has been a lot of progress in measurement techniques of the pulmonary circulation in recent years, and this has required updating of basic physiological knowledge. Pulmonary artery pressures (PAP) are normally low and dependent on left atrial pressure (LAP) and cardiac output (CO). Therefore, defining the functional state of the pulmonary circulation for the detection of pulmonary vascular disease or evaluation of disease progression requires measurements of PAP, LAP and CO. Invasive measurements have lately improved by a better definition of zero leveling and of the effects of intrathoracic pressure changes, and understanding of the inherent limitations of fluid-filled thermodilution catheters. The effects of LAP and pulmonary flow on PAP in health and disease are now integrated in the hemodynamic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Development of alternative noninvasive approaches is critically dependent on their potential to quantify pulmonary vascular pressures and CO. Doppler echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are coming close. Both approaches are performant for flow measurements, but pressures remain indirectly assessed from flow velocities and/or structural changes. Doppler echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to be accurate, allowing for valid population studies, but with insufficient precision for single number-derived clinical decision making.

  9. Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Laboratory Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Antimicrobial Management of Invasive Salmonella Infections.

    PubMed

    Crump, John A; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Gordon, Melita A; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in low-resource areas, where they may be difficult to distinguish from other febrile illnesses and may be associated with a high case fatality ratio. Microbiologic culture of blood or bone marrow remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in Salmonella enterica, initially to the traditional first-line drugs chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and then fluoroquinolone resistance have developed in association with chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and also by plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has occurred more often in nontyphoidal than in typhoidal Salmonella strains. Azithromycin is effective for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever and may serve as an alternative oral drug in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is common. In 2013, CLSI lowered the ciprofloxacin susceptibility breakpoints to account for accumulating clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data suggesting that revision was needed for contemporary invasive Salmonella infections. Newly established CLSI guidelines for azithromycin and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published in CLSI document M100 in 2015.

  10. Clinical presentation and pharmacotherapy response in social anxiety disorder: The effect of etiological beliefs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonah N; Potter, Carrie M; Drabick, Deborah A G; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R; Heimberg, Richard G

    2015-07-30

    Therapies for social anxiety disorder (SAD) leave many patients symptomatic at the end of treatment and little is known about predictors of treatment response. This study investigated the predictive relationship of patients' etiological attributions to initial clinical features and response to pharmacotherapy. One hundred thirty-seven individuals seeking treatment for SAD received 12 weeks of open treatment with paroxetine. Participants completed the Attributions for the Etiology of Social Anxiety Scale at baseline in addition to measures of social anxiety and depression at baseline and over the course of treatment. A latent class analysis suggested four profiles of etiological beliefs about one's SAD that may be characterized as: Familial Factors, Need to be Liked, Bad Social Experiences, and Diffuse Beliefs. Patients in the more psychosocially-driven classes, Need to be Liked and Bad Social Experiences, had the most severe social anxiety and depression at baseline. Patients in the Familial Factors class, who attributed their SAD to genetic, biological, and early life experiences, had the most rapid response to paroxetine.These results highlight the effect of biological and genetically-oriented etiological beliefs on pharmacological intervention, have implications for person-specific treatment selection, and identify potential points of intervention to augment treatment response.

  11. Streptococcus pyogenes Pneumonia in Adults: Clinical Presentation and Molecular Characterization of Isolates 2006-2015

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Esther; Montes, Milagrosa; Vicente, Diego; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the preantibiotic era Streptococcus pyogenes was a common cause of severe pneumonia but currently, except for postinfluenza complications, it is not considered a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Aim and Material and Methods This study aimed to identify current clinical episodes of S. pyogenes pneumonia, its relationship with influenza virus circulation and the genotypes of the involved isolates during a decade in a Southern European region (Gipuzkoa, northern Spain). Molecular analysis of isolates included emm, multilocus-sequence typing, and superantigen profile determination. Results Forty episodes were detected (annual incidence 1.1 x 100,000 inhabitants, range 0.29–2.29). Thirty-seven episodes were community-acquired, 21 involved an invasive infection and 10 developed STSS. The associated mortality rate was 20%, with half of the patients dying within 24 hours after admission. Influenza coinfection was confirmed in four patients and suspected in another. The 52.5% of episodes occurred outside the influenza seasonal epidemic. The 67.5% of affected persons were elderly individuals and adults with severe comorbidities, although 13 patients had no comorbidities, 2 of them had a fatal outcome. Eleven clones were identified, the most prevalent being emm1/ST28 (43.6%) causing the most severe cases. Conclusions S. pyogenes pneumonia had a continuous presence frequently unrelated to influenza infection, being rapidly fatal even in previously healthy individuals. PMID:27027618

  12. Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Diffuse Skin Thickening as Kaposi Sarcoma Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Querido, Sara; Sousa, Henrique Silva; Pereira, Tiago Assis; Birne, Rita; Matias, Patrícia; Jorge, Cristina; Weigert, André; Adragão, Teresa; Bruges, Margarida; Machado, Domingos

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old African patient received a kidney from a deceased donor with 4 HLA mismatches in April 2013. He received immunosuppression with basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Immediate diuresis and a good allograft function were soon observed. Six months later, the serum creatinine level increased to 2.6 mg/dL. A renal allograft biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy grade II. Toxicity of calcineurin inhibitor was assumed and, after a switch for everolimus, renal function improved. However, since March 2014, renal function progressively deteriorated. A second allograft biopsy showed no new lesions. Two months later, the patient was admitted due to anuria, haematochezia with anaemia, requiring 5 units of packed red blood cells, and diffuse skin thickening. Colonoscopy showed haemorrhagic patches in the colon and the rectum; histology diagnosis was Kaposi sarcoma (KS). A skin biopsy revealed cutaneous involvement of KS. Rapid clinical deterioration culminated in death in June 2014. This case is unusual as less than 20 cases of KS with gross gastrointestinal bleeding have been reported and only 6 cases had the referred bleeding originating in the lower gastrointestinal tract. So, KS should be considered in differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding in some kidney transplant patients. PMID:26783491

  13. Atypical Clinical Presentation of Sporotrichosis Caused by Sporothrix globosa Resistant to Itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Fischman Gompertz, Olga; Rodrigues, Anderson M; Fernandes, Geisa F; Bentubo, Henri D L; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Petri, Valéria

    2016-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of humans and animals, which is acquired via traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules into cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue. The etiological agents are in a clinical complex, which includes Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Sporothrix globosa, and Sporothrix luriei, each of which has specific epidemiological and virulence characteristics. Classical manifestation in humans includes a fixed localized lesion at the site of trauma plus lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis with fungal spreading along the lymphatic channels. Atypical sporotrichosis is a challenge to diagnosis because it can mimic many other dermatological diseases. We report an unusual, itraconazole-resistant cutaneous lesion of sporotrichosis in a 66-year-old Brazilian man. Histopathological examination of the skin revealed vascular and fibroblastic proliferation with chronic granulomatous infiltrate composed of multinucleated giant cells. Sporothrix were isolated from the skin lesion, and phylogenetic analyses confirmed it to be sporotrichosis due to S. globosa, a widespread pathogen. Immunoblotting analysis showed several IgG-reactive molecules in autochthonous preparations of the whole cellular proteins (160, 80, 60, 55, 46, 38, 35, and 30 kDa) and exoantigen (35 and 33 kDa). The patient was first unsuccessfully treated with daily itraconazole, and then successfully treated with potassium iodide.

  14. Past, Present, and Future Trends in Teaching Clinical Skills through Web-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe Regan, Jo Ann R.; Youn, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Distance education in social work has grown significantly due to the use of interactive television and computer networks. Given the recent developments in delivering distance education utilizing Web-based technology, this article presents a literature review focused on identifying generational trends in the development of Web-based learning…

  15. Early Motor Unit Disease Masquerading as Psychogenic Breathy Dysphonia: A Clinical Case Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Arnold E.

    1971-01-01

    Presented is a study of a 20-year-old girl with mild, breathy dysphonia, previously diagnosed as psychogenic. In actuality, her voice change was a sign of early myasthenia gravis. It is pointed out that voice changes can be a first and only sign of early neurologic disease. (Author/KW)

  16. Intuitive presentation of clinical forensic data using anonymous and person-specific 3D reference manikins.

    PubMed

    Urschler, Martin; Höller, Johannes; Bornik, Alexander; Paul, Tobias; Giretzlehner, Michael; Bischof, Horst; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of CT/MR devices in forensic analysis motivates the need to present forensic findings from different sources in an intuitive reference visualization, with the aim of combining 3D volumetric images along with digital photographs of external findings into a 3D computer graphics model. This model allows a comprehensive presentation of forensic findings in court and enables comparative evaluation studies correlating data sources. The goal of this work was to investigate different methods to generate anonymous and patient-specific 3D models which may be used as reference visualizations. The issue of registering 3D volumetric as well as 2D photographic data to such 3D models is addressed to provide an intuitive context for injury documentation from arbitrary modalities. We present an image processing and visualization work-flow, discuss the major parts of this work-flow, compare the different investigated reference models, and show a number of cases studies that underline the suitability of the proposed work-flow for presenting forensically relevant information in 3D visualizations.

  17. Impact of gender, work, and clinical presentation on diagnostic delay in Italian patients with primary ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Bandinelli, F; Salvadorini, G; Delle Sedie, A; Riente, L; Bombardieri, S; Matucci-Cerinic, M

    2016-02-01

    The variability of demographic, social, genetic, and clinical factors might influence the time between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis [diagnostic delay (DD)] of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in different geographic areas. Different clinical manifestations in men and women affected by AS might indicate a possible role of gender in DD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of demographic, social, genetic, and clinical factors on DD and the differences of DD between men and women related to the presence of different demographic, social, clinical, and genetic parameters in an Italian cohort of primary AS patients. A total of 135 Italian primary AS patients (45 female and 90 male, 27.9 ± 0.89 years old at onset) were studied. The DD, gender, education and work (manual or non-manual) levels, and type of first clinical presentation (inflammatory back pain, arthritis, enthesitis) at onset, family history of AS, and HLA B27 presence were analyzed. The DD (8.744 mean ±0.6869) was significantly higher in men (p = 0.0023), in axial presentation (p = 0.0021), and in manual work (even if with low significance, p = 0.047). The lower DD in women in comparison to that in men was likely related to higher education (p = 0.0045) and work (p = 0.0186) levels, peripheral involvement (p = 0.0009), and HLA B27 positivity (p = 0.0231). DD was higher in AS patients: male, employed in manual jobs, and with axial symptoms at onset. In men, DD seemed to be negatively influenced by lower level of education and work, axial clinical presentation, and HLA B27.

  18. Cantharidin Poisoning due to Blister Beetle Ingestion in Children: Two case reports and a review of clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Al-Binali, Ali M; Shabana, Medhat; Al-Fifi, Suliman; Dawood, Sami; Shehri, Amer A; Al-Barki, Ahmed

    2010-08-01

    Cantharidin is an intoxicant found in beetles in the Meloidae (Coleoptera) family. Ingestion may result in haematemesis, impaired level of consciousness, electrolyte disturbance, haematurea and renal impairment. Here, we report two paediatric cases of meloid beetle ingestion resulting in cantharidin poisoning and the clinical presentation of the ensuing intoxication.

  19. Comparative evaluation between two methods of induced hypotension with infusion of Remifentanil and Labetalol during sinus endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sajedi, Parvin; Rahimian, Ali; Khalili, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare two methods of controlled hypotension using labetalol and remifentanil in terms of capability to create controlled hypotension and to investigate the obtained complications, and satisfaction rate of surgeon and patient during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods: In this prospective clinical trial, 62 patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery in Al-Zahra and Ayatollah Kashani Hospitals of Isfahan were divided into two groups: in the first group, 20 mg bolus dose of labetalol and then infusion of it, at a rate of 0.5–2.0 mg/min and in the second group, remifentanil with dose of 0.5–1 μg/kg started and then 0.25–0.5 μg/kg/min were prescribed. Hemodynamic parameters during anesthesia and recovery time, surgeon and patient satisfaction, and recovery time were measured and recorded. Findings: Hemodynamics variable were comparable between two groups at different times of the study. The mean of bleeding and the frequency of side effects were higher in labetalol group (P = 0.033 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The median of surgeon satisfaction score in remifentanil group was statistically higher in labetalol group (P < 0.0001). Recovery time, fluid requirement, and pain score in labetalol group reported significantly more than remifentanil group. Richmond Agitation–Sedation Scale status at time points in the postanesthetic care unit showed differences between groups. Conclusion: With infusion of labetalol and remifentanil after a bolus dose we can induce effective controlled hypotension under general anesthesia. Remifentanil is a short-acting narcotic drug; then, patient satisfaction was better and recovery time was shorter. From the economic aspect, labetalol prefers to remifentanil. PMID:27843963

  20. Hypotensive Response Magnitude and Duration in Hypertensives: Continuous and Interval Exercise

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Raphael Santos Teodoro; Pires, Cássio Mascarenhas Robert; Junqueira, Gustavo Cardoso; Freitas, Dayana; Marchi-Alves, Leila Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exercise training is known to promote post-exercise hypotension, there is currently no consistent argument about the effects of manipulating its various components (intensity, duration, rest periods, types of exercise, training methods) on the magnitude and duration of hypotensive response. Objective To compare the effect of continuous and interval exercises on hypotensive response magnitude and duration in hypertensive patients by using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Methods The sample consisted of 20 elderly hypertensives. Each participant underwent three ABPM sessions: one control ABPM, without exercise; one ABPM after continuous exercise; and one ABPM after interval exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and double product (DP) were monitored to check post-exercise hypotension and for comparison between each ABPM. Results ABPM after continuous exercise and after interval exercise showed post-exercise hypotension and a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in SBP, DBP, MAP and DP for 20 hours as compared with control ABPM. Comparing ABPM after continuous and ABPM after interval exercise, a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in SBP, DBP, MAP and DP was observed in the latter. Conclusion Continuous and interval exercise trainings promote post-exercise hypotension with reduction in SBP, DBP, MAP and DP in the 20 hours following exercise. Interval exercise training causes greater post-exercise hypotension and lower cardiovascular overload as compared with continuous exercise. PMID:25517389