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  1. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  2. Recurrent thyrotoxicosis after I-131 induced hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Borowski, G.D.; Shtasel, P.; Rose, L.I.

    1984-01-01

    The first clinically and biochemically documented case of recurrent thyrotoxicosis after I-131 induced hypothyroidism in a patient with Graves' disease is reported. Two months after the administration of 9.2 mCi of I-131, the subject developed hypothyroidism. One month later, the patient became euthyroid. Then, nine months following ablation, the patient again developed thyrotoxicosis. A second dose of I-131 of 12.5 mCi was required to finally produce permanent hypothyroidism. This case illustrates the recurrence of hypothyroidism after what had seemed to have been adequate I-131 radiation.

  3. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug combination, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Get the Facts About Exposure to I-131 Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... grasses. Depending on the location, grazing cows and goats sometimes consumed contaminated grasses resulting in I-131 ... Fresh milk from backyard or farm cows and goats usually contained more I-131 than store-bought ...

  5. Scintigraphic imaging of neuroblastoma with I-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (I-131-MIBG)

    SciTech Connect

    Feine, U.; Treuner, J.; Schauenburg, W.M.; Niethammer, D.; Meinke, J.; Elbach, E.; Dopfer, R.; Klingebiel, T.

    1984-01-01

    I-131MIBG is commonly used for the scintigraphic localization of phaeochromocytoma. The authors present data which indicate that the neuroblastoma may show a similar or even higher accumulation of I-131-MIBG. Four children were examined quantitatively by 8'' crystal dual head whole body scanner interfaced to a computer. Scans were performed 4 h, to 21 dp.i. of 1-4 MBq (25-100 ..mu..Ci) I-131-MIBG. Three of the four children aged 2 months to 2.8 years had large tumor masses in the abdomen or diffuse infiltration of the enlarged liver and high catecholamine levels in 24 h urine samples. They showed high tumor uptake of the tracer already in the 4 h scans. The uptake level correlated well with the catecholamine excretion. The biological half live was in all three cases for about 4 days. In the following days contrast between tumor and non tumor tissues became excellent. The fourth child was clinically free of tumor one year after cytostatic treatment and had normal catecholamine levels. The MIBG-scans did not show any tumor uptake but the myocardium and the salivary glands show pronounced tracer uptake according to the results of a previous study. The authors conclude that MIBG may not be only a diagnostic-tracer for neuroblastoma but may perhaps permit therapy.

  6. Scintigraphic depiction of an insulinoma by I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Geatti, O.; Shapiro, B.; Barillari, B. )

    1989-12-01

    Scintigraphy with I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) was effective in depicting a pancreatic insulinoma in a patient suffering from intermittent hypoglycemia. This observation widens the range of neuroendocrine tumors that take up to I-131 MIBG and supports the concept that many tumors of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation system may be imaged in this way.

  7. Scintigraphy of a neuroblastoma with I-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmig, B.; Brandeis, W.E.; Eisenhut, M.; Bubeck, B.; Hermann, H.J.; zum Winkel, K.

    1984-07-01

    Radioiodinated m-iodobenzylguanidine has been applied mainly for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and blastoma. In this paper the author shows that an ontogenetically related tumor, the neuroblastoma, is also scintigraphically visualized by its high uptake of I-131 MIBG. Because of the kinetic findings and the high uptake of more than 30% of the injected activity, it is likely that the neuroblastoma, by analogy with pheochromocytoma, is susceptible to specific radionuclide therapy.

  8. Scintigraphy of a neuroblastoma with I-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmig, B.; Brandeis, W.E.; Eisenhut, M.; Bubeck, B.; Hermann, H.J.; Zum Winkel, K.

    1984-07-01

    Radioiodinated m-iodobenzylguanidine has been applied mainly for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and blastoma. In this paper the authors show that an ontogenetically related tumor, the neuroblastoma, is also scintigraphically visualized by its high uptake of I-131 MIBG. Because of the kinetic findings and the high uptake of more than 30% of the injected activity, it is likely that the neuroblastoma, by analogy with pheochromocytoma, is susceptible to specific radionuclide therapy.

  9. Microwave assistance of labeling hippuric acid by I-131.

    PubMed

    Sherlock Huang, Lin-Chiang; Wu, Kou-Hung; Ko, Pi-Wen; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Pao, Kuan-Chuan; Chou, Shih-Ching; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Sureshbabu, Radhakrishnan; Hsu, Ming-Hua

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a novel approach for labeling hippuric acid with I-131 using microwaves. It utilizes copper(II) acetate as a catalyst of the labeling. The process involves the use of this catalytic copper(II) acetate at low dilutions that were nevertheless sufficient to produce labeled hippuric acid with high radiochemical purity in a short time. Therefore, the novel technique overcomes the limitations of previously reported conventional methods that involve heating.

  10. The detection of thrombosis using I-131 labeled thrombospondin

    SciTech Connect

    Perlman, S.B.; Folts, J.D.; Hammes, R.J.; Besozzi, M.C.; Mosher, D.F.

    1985-05-01

    There are methods available for detecting intravascular thrombosis (IVT) but none are noninvasive, rapid and accurate. Iodine-131 labeled thrombospondin (I-TSP) is being evaluated as a method of detecting IVT. Thrombospondin is obtained from human platelet concentrate and labeled with I-131 using the chloramine-T technique. Anesthetized dogs are known to develop thrombi in stenosed arteries and veins with or without moderate initial damage. IVT is detected by blood flow declines as measured with an electromagnetic flow meter (EMF) probe on the vessel being studied. Undamaged comparable vessels were used as controls. After IVT is initiated, I-TSP is given IV. Vessels with thrombi are harvested at various times, weighed and counted in a gamma counter to determine if the thrombi accumulated labeled I-TSP. Vessels with thrombi harvested at 30, 45 or 60 minutes after injection of I-TSP did not accumulate I-TSP whereas vessels obtained at 90 and 150 minutes after injection did accumulate I-TSP when compared to their control vessels or whole blood. The ratios of I-TSP in the stenosed vessels with thrombi, compared to whole blood or the control undamaged vessels ranged from 2.33/1 to 6.92/1. The ratio of counts for vessels with intimal damage alone ranged from 0.88/1 to 1.05/1 while the ratio of counts from control vessels was 0.98/1 to 1.09/1.

  11. 76 FR 81517 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-131, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... the Form/Collection: Application for Travel Document. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-131... Collection Under Review: Form I- 131, Application for Travel Document. The Department of Homeland Security,...

  12. 77 FR 15787 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-131, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... the Form/Collection: Application for Travel Document. (3) Agency Form Number, if any, and the... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-131... Collection Under Review: Form I- 131, Application for Travel Document. The Department of Homeland Security,...

  13. Impact of reconstruction parameters on quantitative I-131 SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gils, C. A. J.; Beijst, C.; van Rooij, R.; de Jong, H. W. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Radioiodine therapy using I-131 is widely used for treatment of thyroid disease or neuroendocrine tumors. Monitoring treatment by accurate dosimetry requires quantitative imaging. The high energy photons however render quantitative SPECT reconstruction challenging, potentially requiring accurate correction for scatter and collimator effects. The goal of this work is to assess the effectiveness of various correction methods on these effects using phantom studies. A SPECT/CT acquisition of the NEMA IEC body phantom was performed. Images were reconstructed using the following parameters: (1) without scatter correction, (2) with triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction and (3) with Monte Carlo-based scatter correction. For modelling the collimator-detector response (CDR), both (a) geometric Gaussian CDRs as well as (b) Monte Carlo simulated CDRs were compared. Quantitative accuracy, contrast to noise ratios and recovery coefficients were calculated, as well as the background variability and the residual count error in the lung insert. The Monte Carlo scatter corrected reconstruction method was shown to be intrinsically quantitative, requiring no experimentally acquired calibration factor. It resulted in a more accurate quantification of the background compartment activity density compared with TEW or no scatter correction. The quantification error relative to a dose calibrator derived measurement was found to be  <1%,-26% and 33%, respectively. The adverse effects of partial volume were significantly smaller with the Monte Carlo simulated CDR correction compared with geometric Gaussian or no CDR modelling. Scatter correction showed a small effect on quantification of small volumes. When using a weighting factor, TEW correction was comparable to Monte Carlo reconstruction in all measured parameters, although this approach is clinically impractical since this factor may be patient dependent. Monte Carlo based scatter correction including accurately simulated CDR

  14. Pregnancy Outcome After I-131 Therapy for Patients With Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kuan-Yin; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Cheng, Mei-Fang; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of I-131 therapy on pregnancy outcome in patients that received therapeutic I-131 doses for thyroid cancer in Taiwan. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 11,708 women with thyroid cancer (≥15 and ≤50 years of age) by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts: I-131 therapy cohort and non-I-131 therapy cohort. The mean follow-up period was 6.08 years for the I-131 cohort and 6.87 years for the non-I-131 cohort. The case cohort and the control cohort comprised 775 and 716 pregnant patients, respectively. The overall incidence of pregnancy was significantly lower in the I-131 cohort (adjusted HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.70–0.86) and it was also observed when the patients were stratified according to age (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.64–0.83 in 25–34 years; HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.49–0.82 in 35–44 years). Patients in the I-131 cohort had a lower successful delivery rate, particularly among patients in 25 to 34 years (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45–0.80). No significant difference was observed for adverse pregnancy conditions between 2 cohorts. I-131 therapy is associated with decreased pregnancy and successful delivery rates. The underlying mechanism likely involves physician recommendation, patient's psychological issue, and potential impact of I-131 treatment on reproductive health. Further investigation is needed. PMID:26844507

  15. Clinical comparison of I-131 orthoiodohippurate and the kit formulation of Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Ziffer, J.A.; Steves, A.; Eshima, D.; Delaney, V.B.; Welchel, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have shown that technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) purified by high-performance liquid chromatography is a renal tubular agent with characteristics similar to those of iodine-131 orthoiodohippurate (OIH). A kit formulation for Tc-99m MAG3 has been developed and compared with I-131 OIH in 17 patients with suspected renal dysfunction and three potential kidney donors. There were no adverse reactions. Tc-99m MAG3 images were of good quality and consistently better than I-131 OIH images. There was no significant difference in the relative renal uptake of Tc-99m MAG3 and I-131 OIH. The 30-minute urinary excretion of Tc-99m MAG3 was 36.4%, versus 40.4% for I-131 OIH. The average plasma clearance of Tc-99m MAG3 (138 mL/min +/- 117) was less than that of I-131 OIH (272 mL/min +/- 205) (P less than .001); however, there was good correlation between the Tc-99m MAG3 and I-131 OIH clearances (r = .87). The volume of distribution of Tc-99m MAG3 (5.96 L +/- 1.94) was less than that of I-131 OIH (9.41 L +/- 3.73) (P less than .001). These characteristics and the advantages of a simple kit formulation should lead to widespread clinical use.

  16. Normal and abnormal distribution of the adrenomedullary imaging agent m-(I-131)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) in man; evaluation by scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajo, M.; Shapiro, B.; Copp, J.; Kalff, V.; Gross, M.D.; Sisson, J.C.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1983-08-01

    The scintigraphic distribution of m-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG), an adrenal medullary imaging agent, was studied to determine the patterns of uptake of this agent in man. The normal distribution of I-131 MIBG includes clear portrayal of the salivary glands, liver, spleen, and urinary bladder. The heart, middle and lower lung zones, and colon were less frequently or less clearly seen. The upper lung zones and kidneys were seldom visualized. The thyroid appeared only in cases of inadequate thyroidal blockade. The normal adrenal glands were seldom seen and faintly imaged in 2% at 24 h after injection and in 16% at 48 h, in patients shown not to have pheochromocytomas, whereas intra-adrenal, extra-adrenal, and malignant pheochromocytomas usually appeared as intense focal areas of I-131 MIBG uptake at 24 through 72 h.

  17. Cystic thyroid mass following I-131 treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma: An unusual complication

    SciTech Connect

    Morrish, D.W.; Jackson, F.I.; Lalani, Z.H.; Catz, Z.; Sloboda, R. )

    1989-12-01

    Several unusual complications of I-131 therapy for thyroid carcinoma are known. Two patients who developed a further unusual event that consisted of a palpable mass and cystic degeneration are described.

  18. Late presentation of metastatic pheochromocytoma: A problem case solved by I-131 MIBG scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Geatti, O.; Shapiro, B.; Virgolini, L. )

    1990-02-01

    A patient presented with recurrent pheochromocytoma 10 years following the apparently successful surgical cure of a right adrenal pheochromocytoma. Conventional medical imaging techniques, (chest radiograph, abdominal ultrasound, and abdominal CT) suggested local recurrence for which surgery was planned. I-131 MIBG scintigraphy revealed disseminated metastatic disease that rendered attempts at surgical cure futile. The patient was treated with three therapeutic doses of I-131 MIBG with good symptomatic palliation and improvement of some biochemical parameters.

  19. Role of gambogic acid and NaI131 in A549/DDP cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Zhu, Xiaoli; Wang, Huan; Han, Shuhua; Liu, Lu; Xie, Yan; Chen, Daozhen; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to platinum in tumor tissue is a considerable barrier against effective lung cancer treatment. Radionuclide therapy is the primary adjuvant treatment, however, the toxic side effects limit its dosage in the clinical setting. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether an NaI131 radiosensitizer could help reduce the toxic side effects of radionuclide therapy. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine whether NaI131 can inhibit platinum resistance in A549/DDP cells, which are cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells, and whether gambogic acid (GA) is an effective NaI131 radiosensitizer. Cell proliferation following drug intervention was analyzed using MTT and isobolographic analysis. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, the mechanisms of drug intervention were analyzed by measuring the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gP), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) and P53 using western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. According to isobolographic analysis, a low concentration of NaI131 combined with GA had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of A549/DDP cell proliferation, which was consistent with an increased rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, the overexpression of Bax, and the downregulation of P-gP, P53 and Bcl-2 observed demonstrated the potential mechanism(s) of NaI131 and GA intervention. NaI131 may induce apoptosis in A549/DDP cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins. A low concentration combination of NaI131 and GA was able to significantly inhibit A549/DDP cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. Thus, the two drugs appear to have a synergistic effect on apoptosis of A549/DDP cells. PMID:28123519

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of the RBE of I-131 radiation using DNA damage as biomarker.

    PubMed

    Ezzati, Ahad Ollah; Mahmoud-Pashazadeh, Ali; Studenski, Matthew T

    2017-04-10

    In general, a weighting factor of one is applied for low linear energy transfer radiations. However, several studies indicate that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low energy photons and electrons is greater than one. The aim of this current study was calculating the RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 gamma photons in 100 μm spheroid cells using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. These calculations were compared to experimentally measured results. MCNPX2.6 was used to simulate the I-131 and Co-60 irradiation setups and calculate the secondary electron spectra at energies higher than 1 keV with varying oxygen concentrations. The electron spectra at energies lower than 1 keV were obtained by extrapolation (down to 10 eV). The calculated electron spectra were input into the MCDS micro-dosimetric Monte Carlo code to calculate the DSB induction and related RBE. The calculated RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 photons, as the reference radiation recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), was 1.06, 1.03 and 1.02 for oxygen concentrations of 0, 5 and 100%, respectively. Results of MC simulations indicate the RBE of I-131 is greater than one. This finding, despite a 10% discrepancy with the findings of the previous in vitro study of one of the authors of this paper, reemphasizes that I-131 radiation induces more severe biological damage than current ICRP recommendations.

  1. Is thyroid scintigraphy necessary before I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism. Concise Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Ripley, S.D.; Freitas, J.E.; Nagle, C.E.

    1984-06-01

    To assess the value of routine thyroid scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and as a guide to I-131 therapy, the authors prospectively examined 100 consecutive hyperthyroid patients referred for a 24-hr radioiodine uptake and I-131 therapy. The nuclear medicine physician recorded his preimaging diagnostic impression and therapeutic plan for each patient. After the (/sup 99m/Tc) pertechnetate image, the patient was reassessed to determine whether the image induced any change in the diagnosis or therapeutic plan. Seventy-nine of 80 patients with diffuse goiter to palpation, had scintigrams demonstrating no discrete focal defects and were diagnosed as Graves' disease; thus the scintigram did not contribute useful information. In 17 of 20 patients with uninodular or multinodular goiters, the image was necessary to clarify the final diagnosis and therapeutic plan. Thus, selective use of thyroid scintigraphy should decrease the number of scintigrams performed before I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism, without compromising diagnostic accuracy or therapeutic success.

  2. False positive I-131 MIBG due to dilated renal pelvis: a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Bahar, R.H.; Mahmoud, S.; Ibrahim, A.; al-Gazzar, A.H.

    1988-12-01

    A case of false positive I-131 MIBG imaging for detection of pheochromocytoma is presented. There was an area of increased tracer uptake in the left renal region that showed steadily reducing activity over a period of three days. This raised the suspicion of a dilated renal pelvis, which was later confirmed by Tc-99m DTPA imaging. It is advisable in cases of ambiguous I-131 MIBG imaging to use Tc-99m DTPA rather than Tc-99m DMSA for localizing the kidneys and renal pelvis.

  3. Pheochromocytoma in the organ of Zukerkandl: I-131 MIBG scintigraphic localization

    SciTech Connect

    el-Desouki, M.; al-Nuaim, A.; Mofti, A.; Shanna, A.

    1989-06-01

    Scintigraphic localization of an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma in a 27 year-old female with clinical and biochemical evidence of the disease is presented. While both ultrasonography and computed tomography were negative, I-131 MIBG scintigraphy successfully localized the extra-adrenal lesion in the organ of Zukerkandl.

  4. The therapeutic efficacy of I131-PSCA-mAb in orthotopic mouse models of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is upregulated in prostate cancer tissues. Here we aimed to study the therapeutic efficacy of a monoclonal antibody of PSCA-labeled I131 (I131-PSCA-mAb) in orthotopic mouse models of prostate cancer. Methods The proliferation, apoptosis and invasion abilities of PC-3 and LNCaP cells treated with I131-PSCA-mAb were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, flow cytometry and transwell culture, respectively. The human prostate cancer models were established by orthotopic implantation of PC-3 and LNCaP cells in nude mice. I131-PSCA-mAb distribution and tumor cell apoptosis in the tumor-bearing nude mice were measured. Results The inhibitory and apoptosis rates of PC-3 and LNCaP cells treated with I131-PSCA-mAb reached a maximum of 84%, 80% and 50%, 46%, respectively, which were obviously higher than in the cells treated with I131-IgG or PSCA-mAb. The invaded number of PC-3 and LNCaP cells treated with I131-PSCA-mAbe was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) compared with the control group. The ratios of I131-PSCA-mAb in tumor to intramuscular I131-PSCA-mAb (T/NT) in tumor-bearing nude mice were increased with time and reached the highest level after 8 h. T/NT stayed above 3.0 after 12 h, and the tumor could still be developed after 24 h. The number of apoptotic cells in tumor tissue of nude mice treated with I131-PSCA-mAb was larger than that in the control group. Conclusion I131-PSCA-mAb has the potential to become a new targeted therapy drug for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:24330823

  5. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively 3 mm FWHM and 10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  6. Comparison of image quality of different iodine isotopes (I-123, I-124, and I-131).

    PubMed

    Rault, Erwann; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Holen, Roel; De Beenhouwer, Jan; Staelens, Steven; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2007-06-01

    I-131 is a frequently used isotope for radionuclide therapy. This technique for cancer treatment requires a pre-therapeutic dosimetric study. The latter is usually performed (for this radionuclide) by directly imaging the uptake of the therapeutic radionuclide in the body or by replacing it by one of its isotopes, which are more suitable for imaging. This study aimed to compare the image quality that can be achieved by three iodine isotopes: I-131 and I-123 for single-photon emission computed tomography imaging, and I-124 for positron emission tomography imaging. The imaging characteristics of each isotope were investigated by simulated data. Their spectrums, point-spread functions, and contrast-recovery curves were drawn and compared. I-131 was imaged with a high-energy all-purpose (HEAP) collimator, whereas two collimators were compared for I-123: low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) and medium energy (ME). No mechanical collimation was used for I-124. The influence of small high-energy peaks (>0.1%) on the main energy window contamination were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of a scattering medium was investigated and the triple energy window (TEW) correction was used for spectral-based scatter correction. Results showed that I-123 gave the best results with a LEHR collimator when the scatter correction was applied. Without correction, the ME collimator reduced the effects of high-energy contamination. I-131 offered the worst results. This can be explained by the large amount of septal penetration from the photopeak and by the collimator, which gave a low spatial resolution. I-124 gave the best imaging properties owing to its electronic collimation (high sensitivity) and a short coincidence time window.

  7. Loss of immunoreactivity of I-131 labeled monoclonal antibody with storage is related to radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.; Fejka, R.; Rotman, M.; Farkas, R.; Larson, S.

    1985-05-01

    In order to use a single preparation of I-131 monoclonal antibody on more than one day, it is important to determine the shelf life of these compounds. Fifteen I-131 (.128 to 15 mCi/ml) preparations of IgG or Fab fragments of antimelanoma antibody (96.5 or 48.7) were stored at 0-4/sup 0/C in pharmaceutical vials. Daily aliquots were tested for total immunoreactivity (IR) (JNM 24:123,1983), TCA precipitability and fractions using size exclusion HPLC. Loss of IR ranges from 0-54% during the first 24 hours to 0-92% over 6 days. Loss of IR occurred with both Fab and IgG. The rate of loss of IR correlated with the initial specific concentration (r = .8,p < .01) and specific activity (r = .78,p < .01) but dilution of the concentrated solution by 1000x or more stopped the deterioration process (p < .01) suggesting specific concentration to be the important variable. When mM cysteamine or cystamine were added to the concentrated solutions the loss of IR with time was inhibited (X/sup 2/,p < .001). TCA precipitation and HPLC analysis showed loss of antibody associated radioactivity but not to the extent of the change in IR. There can be significant loss of IR of I-131 monoclonal antibody during storage at 0-4/sup 0/C. and high concentration solutions (>5 mCi/ml.) must be used within 24 hours of labeling to assure an active preparation. The inhibition of IR loss by dilution or by addition of radioprotectors suggests that the process is due to radiation effects on the antibody.

  8. Treatment of metastatic para-aortic paraganglioma by surgery, radiotherapy and I-131 mIBG.

    PubMed

    Ball, A B; Tait, D M; Fisher, C; Sinnett, H D; Harmer, C L

    1991-10-01

    A patient with a malignant, functioning, aortico-sympathetic paraganglioma and a solitary bone metastasis causing paraplegia was treated by spinal decompression, irradiation of the metastasis, surgical excision of the primary tumour and systemic I-131 meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine (mIBG). Sixteen months after treatment there was no clinical, radiological or biochemical evidence of residual disease and neurological function was restored. The case supports the use of combined treatment incorporating mIBG in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours which demonstrate mIBG uptake.

  9. Severe hyponatremia in association with I(131) therapy in a patient with metastatic thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Yoshida, Yuri; Ohira, Masumi; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2011-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a common clinical problem that results from various causes. Hypothyroidism is known to be one of the causes of this disorder. We report a case of metastatic thyroid cancer presenting with severe hyponatremia in association with hypothyroidism induced by pretreatment of I(131) therapy, such as a low-iodine diet and withdrawal of thyroid hormone. Serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) was elevated and urine osmolality was higher than that of serum. Saline infusion and thyroid hormone replacement normalized serum sodium and AVP. Inappropriate secretion of AVP in hypothyroid state was thought to be one of the causes of this hyponatremia.

  10. Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for I-131 Thyroid Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Orval R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the March 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for I-131 thyroid counting. The source used for the calibration was an Analytics mixed gamma source 82834-121 distributed in an epoxy matrix in a Wheaton Liquid Scintillation Vial with energies from 88.0 keV to 1836.1 keV. The center of the detectors was position 64-feet from the vault floor. This position places the approximate center line of the detectors at the center line of the source in the thyroid tube. The calibration was performed using an RMC II phantom (Appendix J). Validation testing was performed using a Ba-133 source and an ANSI N44.3 Phantom (Appendix I). This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibrations including verification counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for counting the thyroid for I-131 and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  11. Neuroblastoma: Imaging evaluation by sequential Tc-99m MDP, I-131 MIBG, and Ga-67 citrate studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Friedman, A.; Sandler, M.P.; Kedar, A. )

    1989-07-01

    Fourteen children with histopathologically confirmed neuroblastoma underwent sequential correlative imaging studies using I-131 MIBG, Tc-99m MDP, and Ga-67 citrate during various stages of the disease. Of the patients 86% showed I-131 MIBG accumulation in the primary tumoral site, whereas 71% showed Tc-99m MDP and 79% Ga-67 citrate uptake. In 86% at least one of the two latter radiopharmaceuticals concentrated in the primary tumor. The use of all three radiopharmaceuticals raised the detection rate to 93%. Of the osseous or extraosseous metastases 100% were detected by Tc-99m MDP studies. The I-131 MIBG studies were positive in 71% of the osseous metastases and in 70% of the extraosseous metastases. No Ga-67 citrate uptake was demonstrated in osseous metastases, although one extraosseous lung metastasis concentrated this radiopharmaceutical. Tc-99m MDP bone imaging was the best method for diagnosing metastatic spread of the disease and for monitoring the results of treatment. Primary tumor uptake was best indicated by I-131 MIBG. Both Ga-67 citrate and I-131 MIBG were superior to Tc-99m MDP with regard to accurately demonstrating the extent of primary tumors. Only Tc-99m MDP indicated the relationship of these tumors to the kidneys and neighboring osseous structures, providing early screening of kidney compression. Ga-67 citrate study was mainly indicated in tumors with catecholamine depletion, which failed to concentrate the other two radiopharmaceuticals. I-131 MIBG proved especially useful in detecting neuroblastoma with negative Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate studies and also proved to be helpful with those cases in which I-131 MIBG was planned for therapy. The following strategy is suggested for evaluating neuroblastoma.

  12. Fetal radiation dose estimates for I-131 sodium iodide in cases where conception occurs after administration

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, R.B.; Stabin, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    After administration of I-131 to the female patient, the possibility of radiation exposure of the embryo/fetus exists if the patient becomes pregnant while radioiodine remains in the body. Fetal radiation dose estimates for such cases were calculated. Doses were calculated for various maternal thyroid uptakes and time intervals between administration and conception, including euthyroid and hyperthyroid cases. The maximum fetal dose calculating was about 9.8E-03 mGy/MBq, which occurred with 100% maternal thyroid uptake and a 1 week interval between administration and conception. Placental crossover of the small amount of radioiodine remaining 90 days after conception was also considered. Such crossover could result in an additional fetal dose of 9.8E-05 mGy/MBq and a maximum fetal thyroid self dose of 3.5E-04 mGy/MBq.

  13. Use of fusion images of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine, SPECT, and magnetic resonance studies to identify a malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Hyodoh, H; Kawamura, Y; Kanegae, K; Furuse, M; Kanazawa, K

    2000-06-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a chromaffin tumor in which 10% are extra-adrenal and 10% are malignant. I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy has an important role in the identification of these tumors and investigation of metastatic lesions. The authors describe a 36-year-old woman who underwent resection of a malignant left adrenal pheochromocytoma who was thought to have metastases in the liver and para-aortic lymph nodes. Fusion images of I-131 MIBG SPECT and magnetic resonance studies were obtained to properly identify the metastatic lesions. These fusion images helped greatly in subsequent surgery.

  14. Medically-derived I-131: a potential tool for understanding the fate of wastewater nitrogen in aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. S.; Smith, J. P.; Aller, R. C.; Cochran, J. K.; Swanson, R. L.; Murthy, S. N.; Coffin, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Iodine-131(t1/2 = 8 days) has been measured in Potomac River water and sediments in the vicinity of the Blue Plains Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), Washington, DC. The source of I-131 is medical, where it is commonly used to treat thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. Iodine is metabolized by patients and eliminated primarily in urine. While other medical radioisotopes may enter the environment via sewage effluent, the nature and quantity of treatments using I-131 cause it to account for much of the radioactivity in sewage effluent. Natural iodine in aquatic systems is biologically cycled similar to other nutrients, such as nitrogen. Iodine-131 concentrations measured in sewage effluent from Blue Plains WPCP and in the Potomac River suggest a relatively continuous discharge of this isotope. Dissolved I-131 shows a strong, positive correlation with δ15N values of nitrate in the river. The range of I-131 concentrations detected in surface waters is 0.18 ± 0.01 to 0.68 ± 0.02 Bq/L. Surface water δ15NO3 values ranged from 8.7 ± 0.3 to 33.4 ± 7.3 ‰ with NO3+NO2 concentrations between 0.38 ± 0.02 and 2.79 ± 0.13 mgN/L. Sediment profiles of particulate I-131 and δ15N indicate rapid mixing or sedimentation and in many cases remineralization of a heavy nitrogen source consistent with wastewater nitrogen. Iodine-131 concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.31 ± 0.8 to 117 ± 2 Bq/kg dry weight. Values of δ15N in sediments ranged from 4.7 ± 0.1 ‰ to 9.3 ± 0.1 ‰. We propose that I-131 coupled with δ15N can be an excellent tracer for the short-term fate of wastewater nitrogen in this system. However, the utility of I-131 as a tracer is not limited to use in the Potomac River. Other studies have documented the presence of I-131 in several aquatic systems and continuous discharges of this radioisotope in sewage effluent are likely to be widespread in urban environments.

  15. Sialadenitis following low dose I-131 diagnostic thyroid scan with Thyrogen® (recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone - thyrotropin alfa)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Marta E; Muttikkal, Thomas Jose Eluvathingal; Rehm, Patrice K

    2015-01-01

    Salivary dysfunction and sialadenitis are well known complications of radioiodine treatment for thyroid cancer. The parotid gland is more frequently affected and the salivary gland injury is dose related. The symptoms may develop shortly after therapeutic Iodine 131(I-131) administration or months later and progress with time. The development of unilateral parotiditis following a low dose, diagnostic I-131 scan performed following Thyrogen stimulation in a patient without prior history of sialadenitis is rare in our experience, and has not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:26622936

  16. Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) diagnosis and therapy of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current problems, critical issues and presentation of a sample case.

    PubMed

    Castellani, M R; Aktolun, C; Buzzoni, R; Seregni, E; Chiesa, C; Maccauro, M; Aliberti, G L; Vellani, C; Lorenzoni, A; Bombardieri, E

    2013-06-01

    Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been used for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas (PHEO) and paragangliomas (PGL) since 1980's. Despite increasing amount of experience with iodine-131 (I-131) MIBG therapy, many important questions still exist. In this article, we will discuss the current problems learned from clinical experience in diagnosis and therapy of PHEO/PGL with I-131 MIBG, and present a sample case to emphasize the critical aspects for an optimal treatment strategy.

  17. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  18. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2–36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10–11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1–1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  19. Empirical shielding design data for facilities administering I131 for thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Groth, M J

    1998-12-01

    Retrospective review of the records for 434 post thyroidectomy patients receiving I131 therapy for thyroid carcinoma revealed approximately 75% of the patients were discharged within 48 hours and 90% within 72 hours. Criterion for discharge was an external radiation dose below 25 muSv/hr, measured at one metre anterior to the patient's neck. The time-averaged average dose rate one metre anterior to the neck of a typical patient during the isolation period was 72 muSv/hr, with 90% of the patients below 82 muSv/hr. After correcting for the effects of patient size and scatter, the effective design dose rate from a patient in an isolation room treating two or three patients/week is 105 muSv.m2.hr-1, or 75 muSv.m.hr-1 where only one patient is treated each week. Concrete is the most economical shielding material, with 190 mm filled concrete block walls and 150 mm concrete floors as the minimum recommended shielding for a radioiodine therapy suite. Additional shielding will be required if the suite adjoins (including areas immediately above and below) areas with a high occupancy factor.

  20. Use of radioactive iodine I-131 and monitoring of radioactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; García-López, Fernando; Escalada, Carmen; Ortiz, Juan J; Cardona, Jorge; Medina, Amparo; Portolés, José

    2014-05-21

    Thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasia with a higher incidence in patients with chronic kidney disease. In recent years advances have been made in diagnostic and therapeutic trials. Dialysis patients are a particular group, their cancer being detected indirectly in the study of secondary hyperparathyroidism and during the study prior to renal transplantation. Thyroidectomy is the definitive treatment, but in patients with risk of recurrence, ablative therapy is required using radioactive iodine I-131, which is predominantly eliminated by renal excretion, therefore its use in patients on dialysis poses a problem in terms of dosage. Two cases are presented of patients on haemodialysis undergoing radioablation with radioactive iodine I-131, which with multidisciplinary treatment had the expected results in the patients.

  1. Three-dimensional cellular dosimetry of I-131 mIBG in neuroblastoma with EGS4 Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Gouriou, J.; Ricard, M.; Lumbroso, J.; Aubert, B. |

    1995-05-01

    The adequate distribution of radiation dose to tumor cells is the most important factor for the outcome of internal (metabolic) radiotherapy. This study investigates the dosimetry of I-131 meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine at the cellular level in neuroblastoma. We developed a program based on the EGS4 Monte Carlo code allowing the computation of basic dosimetric parameters such as absorbed and cumulated fractions, scaled dose point kernels and dose rates, especially for radionuclides with therapeutic potential. It can be applied to various types of 3-D radionuclide tumor distributions. Geometrical parameters and mIBG uptake in xenografted tumors (nude mice, SK-N-SH) were obtained from micro-autoradiographies and SIMS microscopy images. The tumor could be simulated by a spheroid (500 {mu}m in radius) made up of spherical cells (9 {mu}m in radius) with a 1 {mu}m cytoplasm. Among this cell population, only 3% bound mIBG with local maximal rates of up to 16%. The radiation doses were calculated for I-131, since this radionuclide is the most widely used for labelling mIBG for a therapeutic potential. It can be applied to various types of 3-D radionuclide tumor distributions. Geometrical parameters and mIBG uptake in xenografted tumors (nude mice, SK-N-SH) were obtained from micro-autoradiographies and SIMS microscopy images.

  2. Marrow Ablative and Immunosuppressive Effects of I-131-anti-CD45 Antibody in Congenic and H2-Mismatched Murine Transplant Models

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D. C.; Martin, P J.; Nourigat, C.; Appelbaum, F. R.; Fisher, Darrell R. ); Bernstein, I. D.

    1998-12-01

    Targeted hematopoietic irradiation delivered by I-131-anti-CD45 antibody has been combined with conventional marrow transplant preparative regimens in an effort to decrease relapse. Before increasing the proportion of therapy delivered by radiolabeled antibody, the myeloablative and immunosuppressive effects of such low dose rate irradiation must be quantitated. We have examined the ability of I-131-anti-CD45 antibody to facilitate engraftment in Ly5-congenic and H2-mismatched murine marrow transplant models. Recipient B6-Ly5-a mice were treated with 30F11 antibody labeled with 0.1 to 1.5 mCi I-131 and/or total body irradiation (TBI), followed by T-cell-depleted marrow from Ly5-b-congenic (C57BL/6) or H2-mismatched (BALB/c) donors. Engraftment was achieved readily in the Ly5-congenic setting, with greater than 80% donor granulocytes and T cells after 0.5 mCi I-131 (estimated 17 Gy to marrow) or 8 Gy TBI. A higher TBI dose (14 Gy) was required to achieve engraftment of H2-mismatched mar row, and engraftment occurred in only 3 of 11 mice receiving 1.5 mCi I-131 delivered by anti-CD45 antibody. Engraftment of H2-mismatched marrow was achieved in 22 of 23 animals receiving 0.75 mCi I-131 delivered by anti-CD45 antibody combined with 8 Gy TBI. Thus, targeted radiation delivered via I-131-anti-CD45 antibody can enable engraftment of congenic marrow and can partially replace TBI when transplanting T-cell-depleted H2-mismatched marrow.

  3. RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ chromosomal rearrangements in post-Chernobyl thyroid cancer and their association with I-131 radiation dose and other characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Leeman-Neill, Rebecca J.; Brenner, Alina V.; Little, Mark P.; Bogdanova, Tetiana I.; Hatch, Maureen; Zurnadzy, Liudmyla Y.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Tronko, Mykola D.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood exposure to I-131 from the 1986 Chernobyl accident led to a sharp increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence in regions surrounding the reactor. Data concerning the association between genetic mutations in PTCs and individual radiation doses are limited. Methods We performed mutational analysis of 62 PTCs diagnosed in a Ukrainian cohort of patients who were <18 y.o. in 1986 and received 0.008-8.6 Gy of I-131 to the thyroid and explored associations between mutation types and I-131 dose and other characteristics. Results RET/PTC rearrangements were most common (35%), followed by BRAF (15%) and RAS (8%) point mutations. Two tumors carrying PAX8/PPARγ rearrangement were identified. We found a significant negative association with I-131 dose for BRAF and RAS point mutations and a significant concave association with I-131 dose, with an inflection point at 1.6 Gy and odds ratio 2.1, based on a linear-quadratic model for RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements. The trends with dose were significantly different between tumors with point mutations and rearrangements. Compared to point mutations, rearrangements were associated with residence in the relatively iodine deficient Zhytomyr region, younger age at exposure or surgery, and male gender. Conclusions Our results provide the first demonstration of PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements in post-Chernobyl tumors and show different associations for point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements with I-131 dose and other factors. These data support the relationship between chromosomal rearrangements, but not point mutations, and I-131 exposure and point to a possible role of iodine deficiency in generation of RET/PTC rearrangements in these patients. PMID:23436219

  4. Second malignancies in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with low and medium activities of radioactive I-131

    PubMed Central

    PICIU, DOINA; PESTEAN, CLAUDIU; BARBUS, ELENA; LARG, MARIA IULIA; PICIU, ANDRA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim This study aimed at determining whether there is a risk regarding the development of second primary malignancies after patient exposure to the low and medium radioiodine activity used during the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). Methods Second primary malignancies that occurred after DTC were detected in 1,990 patients treated between 1970 and 2003. The mean long-term follow-up period was 182 months. Results Radioiodine I-131was administrated at a mean dose of 63.2 mCi. There were 93 patients with at least one second primary malignancy. The relative risk of development of second malignancy in DTC patients was increased (p<0.0001) for breast, uterine and ovarian cancers compared with the general population. Conclusions The overall risk concerning the development of second primary malignancies was related to the presence of DTC, but not to exposure to the low and medium activities of radioiodine administered as adjuvant therapy. PMID:27547058

  5. Comparison of internal dosimetry factors for three classes of adult computational phantoms with emphasis on I-131 in the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Lamart, Stephanie; Bouville, Andre; Simon, Steven L; Eckerman, Keith F; Melo, Dunstana; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-11-21

    The S values for 11 major target organs for I-131 in the thyroid were compared for three classes of adult computational human phantoms: stylized, voxel and hybrid phantoms. In addition, we compared specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) with the thyroid as a source region over a broader photon energy range than the x- and gamma-rays of I-131. The S and SAF values were calculated for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms and the University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms by using the Monte Carlo transport method, while the S and SAF values for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) stylized phantoms were obtained from earlier publications. Phantoms in our calculations were for adults of both genders. The 11 target organs and tissues that were selected for the comparison of S values are brain, breast, stomach wall, small intestine wall, colon wall, heart wall, pancreas, salivary glands, thyroid, lungs and active marrow for I-131 and thyroid as a source region. The comparisons showed, in general, an underestimation of S values reported for the stylized phantoms compared to the values based on the ICRP voxel and UF hybrid phantoms and relatively good agreement between the S values obtained for the ICRP and UF phantoms. Substantial differences were observed for some organs between the three types of phantoms. For example, the small intestine wall of ICRP male phantom and heart wall of ICRP female phantom showed up to eightfold and fourfold greater S values, respectively, compared to the reported values for the ORNL phantoms. UF male and female phantoms also showed significant differences compared to the ORNL phantom, 4.0-fold greater for the small intestine wall and 3.3-fold greater for the heart wall. In our method, we directly calculated the S values without using the SAFs as commonly done. Hence, we sought to confirm the differences observed in our S values by comparing the SAFs among the phantoms with the thyroid as a

  6. Comparison of internal dosimetry factors for three classes of adult computational phantoms with emphasis on I-131 in the thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Bouville, Andre; Simon, Steven L.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Melo, Dunstana; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-11-01

    The S values for 11 major target organs for I-131 in the thyroid were compared for three classes of adult computational human phantoms: stylized, voxel and hybrid phantoms. In addition, we compared specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) with the thyroid as a source region over a broader photon energy range than the x- and gamma-rays of I-131. The S and SAF values were calculated for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms and the University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms by using the Monte Carlo transport method, while the S and SAF values for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) stylized phantoms were obtained from earlier publications. Phantoms in our calculations were for adults of both genders. The 11 target organs and tissues that were selected for the comparison of S values are brain, breast, stomach wall, small intestine wall, colon wall, heart wall, pancreas, salivary glands, thyroid, lungs and active marrow for I-131 and thyroid as a source region. The comparisons showed, in general, an underestimation of S values reported for the stylized phantoms compared to the values based on the ICRP voxel and UF hybrid phantoms and relatively good agreement between the S values obtained for the ICRP and UF phantoms. Substantial differences were observed for some organs between the three types of phantoms. For example, the small intestine wall of ICRP male phantom and heart wall of ICRP female phantom showed up to eightfold and fourfold greater S values, respectively, compared to the reported values for the ORNL phantoms. UF male and female phantoms also showed significant differences compared to the ORNL phantom, 4.0-fold greater for the small intestine wall and 3.3-fold greater for the heart wall. In our method, we directly calculated the S values without using the SAFs as commonly done. Hence, we sought to confirm the differences observed in our S values by comparing the SAFs among the phantoms with the thyroid as a

  7. Radionuclide I-131 Labeled Albumin-Paclitaxel Nanoparticles for Synergistic Combined Chemo-radioisotope Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Longlong; Chen, Qian; Yi, Xuan; Wang, Guanglin; Chen, Jie; Ning, Ping; Yang, Kai; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Development of biocompatible/biodegradable materials with multiple functionalities via simple methods for cancer combination therapy has attracted great attention in recent years. Herein, paclitaxel (PTX), a popular anti-tumor chemotherapeutic drug, is used to induce the self-assembly of human serum albumin (HSA) pre-labeled with radionuclide I-131, obtaining 131I-HSA-PTX nanoparticles for combined chemotherapy and radioisotope therapy (RIT) of cancer. Such 131I-HSA-PTX nanoparticles show prolonged blood circulation time, high tumor specific uptake and excellent intra-tumor penetration ability. Interestingly, as revealed by in vivo photoacoustic imaging and ex vivo immunofluorescence staining, PTX delivered into the tumor by HSA-nanoparticle transportation can remarkably enhance the tumor local oxygen level and suppress the expression of HIF-1α, leading to greatly relieved tumor hypoxia. As the results, the combined in vivo chemotherapy & RIT with 131I-HSA-PTX nanoparticles in the animal tumor model offers excellent synergistic therapeutic efficacy, likely owing to the greatly modulated tumor microenvironment associated with PTX-based chemotherapy. Therefore, in this work, a simple yet effective therapeutic agent is developed for synergistic chemo-RIT of cancer, promising for future clinic translations in cancer treatment. PMID:28255354

  8. False Positive Findings on I-131 WBS and SPECT/CT in Patients with History of Thyroid Cancer: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hannoush, Zeina C.; Palacios, Juan D.; Kuker, Russ A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Although whole body scan (WBS) with I-131 is a highly sensitive tool for detecting normal thyroid tissue and metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), it is not specific. Additional information, provided by single photon emission computed tomography combined with X-ray computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and by the serum thyroglobulin level, is extremely useful for the interpretation of findings. Case Presentation. We report four cases of false positive WBS in patients with DTC: ovarian uptake corresponding to an endometrioma, scrotal uptake due to a spermatocele, rib-cage uptake due to an old fracture, and hepatic and renal uptake secondary to a granuloma and simple cyst, respectively. Conclusions. Trapping, organification, and storage of iodine are more prominent in thyroid tissue but not specific. Physiologic sodium-iodine symporter expression in other tissues explains some, but not all, of the WBS false positive cases. Other proposed etiologies are accumulation of radioiodine in inflamed organs, metabolism of radiodinated thyroid hormone, presence of radioiodine in body fluids, and contamination. In our cases nonthyroidal pathologies were suspected since the imaging findings were not corroborated by an elevated thyroglobulin level, which is considered a reliable tumor marker for most well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Clinicians should be aware of the potential pitfalls of WBS in DTC to avoid incorrect management. PMID:28246564

  9. Comparison of I-131 radioimmunotherapy tumor dosimetry: unit density sphere model versus patient-specific Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Howard, David M; Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Wilderman, Scott J; Dewaraja, Yuni K

    2011-10-01

    High computational requirements restrict the use of Monte Carlo algorithms for dose estimation in a clinical setting, despite the fact that they are considered more accurate than traditional methods. The goal of this study was to compare mean tumor absorbed dose estimates using the unit density sphere model incorporated in OLINDA with previously reported dose estimates from Monte Carlo simulations using the dose planning method (DPMMC) particle transport algorithm. The dataset (57 tumors, 19 lymphoma patients who underwent SPECT/CT imaging during I-131 radioimmunotherapy) included tumors of varying size, shape, and contrast. OLINDA calculations were first carried out using the baseline tumor volume and residence time from SPECT/CT imaging during 6 days post-tracer and 8 days post-therapy. Next, the OLINDA calculation was split over multiple time periods and summed to get the total dose, which accounted for the changes in tumor size. Results from the second calculation were compared with results determined by coupling SPECT/CT images with DPM Monte Carlo algorithms. Results from the OLINDA calculation accounting for changes in tumor size were almost always higher (median 22%, range -1%-68%) than the results from OLINDA using the baseline tumor volume because of tumor shrinkage. There was good agreement (median -5%, range -13%-2%) between the OLINDA results and the self-dose component from Monte Carlo calculations, indicating that tumor shape effects are a minor source of error when using the sphere model. However, because the sphere model ignores cross-irradiation, the OLINDA calculation significantly underestimated (median 14%, range 2%-31%) the total tumor absorbed dose compared with Monte Carlo. These results show that when the quantity of interest is the mean tumor absorbed dose, the unit density sphere model is a practical alternative to Monte Carlo for some applications. For applications requiring higher accuracy, computer-intensive Monte Carlo calculation is

  10. Immunoscintigraphy of human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice with I-131-F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments of monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Senekowitsch, R.; Maul, F.D.; Wenisch, H.J.C.; Kriegel, H.; Hor, G.

    1985-05-01

    In the present study radioiodinated F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments of CA19-9 and antibody that reacts specifically with human gastrointestinal cancer were examined for their ability to detect human pancreatic carcinoma hosted in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice received 80..mu..Ci of I-131-F(ab')/sub 2/ with a specific activity of 1.8..mu..Ci/..mu..g. All mice were imaged after the injection and every 24hr up to 6 days. The retained radioactivity was also registered with a whole-body counter immediately after imaging. As a control F(ab's)/sub 2/ of a nonspecific antibody were administered in parallel to another group of animals bearing the same tumor. Three animals of each group were killed at 1,2,4 and 8 days for determination of the distribution of both labeled antibody-fragments. On scintigraphic images obtained with the CA19-9-F(ab')/sub 2/ the tumors could be visualized 24hr after injection, the best dilineation however was achieved 96hr p.i.. The biodistribution data exhibited a more rapid blood clearance for the specific fragments compared to that for the unspecific ones. Tumors showed an increase in uptake up to 48hr reaching 1.7% of the injected dose per gram, declining to values of 0.08%/g at day 6 p.i.. The highest tumor-to-blood ratios were found after 96h. They were 7 for the CA19-9-fragments compared to 1.5 for the unspecific fragments. The whole body counting revealed a more rapid excretion for the fragments of the specific monoclonal antibodies than for the unspecific ones. In summary the authors were able to show that CA19-9-F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments can be used for immunodetection of human pancreatic carcinoma hosted in nude mice.

  11. Tumor dosimetry for I-131 trastuzumab therapy in a Her2+ NCI N87 xenograft mouse model using the Siemens SYMBIA E gamma camera with a pinhole collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Sub; Kim, Jin Su; Deuk Cho, Kyung; Kang, Joo Hyun; Moo Lim, Sang

    2015-07-01

    We performed imaging and therapy using I-131 trastuzumab and a pinhole collimator attached to a conventional gamma camera for human use in a mouse model. The conventional clinical gamma camera with a 2-mm radius-sized pinhole collimator was used for monitoring the animal model after administration of I-131 trastuzumab The highest and lowest radiation-received organs were osteogenic cells (0.349 mSv/MBq) and skin (0.137 mSv/MBq), respectively. The mean coefficients of variation (%CV) of the effective dose equivalent and effective dose were 0.091 and 0.093 mSv/MBq respectively. We showed the feasibility of the pinholeattached conventional gamma camera for human use for the assessment of dosimetry. Mouse dosimetry and prediction of human dosimetry could be used to provide data for the safety and efficacy of newly developed therapeutic schemes.

  12. A simple low-cost of liquid I-131 dispenser for routine radiopharmaceutical dispensing at nuclear medicine department, Institut Kanser Negara

    SciTech Connect

    Said, M. A.; Suhaimi, N. E. F.; Ashhar, Z. N.; Zainon, R.

    2016-01-22

    In routine radiopharmaceutical Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) dispensing, the amount of radiation dose received by the personnel depends on the distance between the personnel and the source, the time spent manipulating the source and the amount of shielding used to reduce the dose rate from the source. The novel iRAD-I131 dispenser using recycle {sup 131}I liquid lead pot will lead into low cost production, less maintenance and low dose received by the personnel that prepared the {sup 131}I. The new fabricated of low cost {sup 131}I dispenser was tested and the dose received by personnel were evaluated. The body of lead material is made from 2.5 cm lead shielded coated with epoxy paint to absorb the radiation dose up to 7.4 GBq of {sup 131} I. The lead pot was supported with two stainless steel rod. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) nanodot was used in this study to measure the dose rate at both extremities for every personnel who prepared the {sup 131}I. Each OSL nanodot was attached at the fingertip. Three different personnel (experienced between one to ten years above in preparing the radiopharmaceuticals) were participated in this study. The average equivalent dose at right and left hand were 122.694 ± 121.637 µSv/GBq and 77.281 ± 62.146 µSv/GBq respectively. This study found that the dose exposure received using iRAD-I131 was less up to seven times compared to the conventional method. The comparison of experimental data using iRAD-I131 and established radiopharmaceutical dispenser was also discussed. The innovation of {sup 131}I dispenser is highly recommended in a small radiopharmaceutical facility with limited budget. The novel iRAD-I131 enables implementation of higher output liquid dispensing with low radiation dose to the personnel.

  13. A simple low-cost of liquid I-131 dispenser for routine radiopharmaceutical dispensing at nuclear medicine department, Institut Kanser Negara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, M. A.; Ashhar, Z. N.; Suhaimi, N. E. F.; Zainon, R.

    2016-01-01

    In routine radiopharmaceutical Iodine-131 (131I) dispensing, the amount of radiation dose received by the personnel depends on the distance between the personnel and the source, the time spent manipulating the source and the amount of shielding used to reduce the dose rate from the source. The novel iRAD-I131 dispenser using recycle 131I liquid lead pot will lead into low cost production, less maintenance and low dose received by the personnel that prepared the 131I. The new fabricated of low cost 131I dispenser was tested and the dose received by personnel were evaluated. The body of lead material is made from 2.5 cm lead shielded coated with epoxy paint to absorb the radiation dose up to 7.4 GBq of 131 I. The lead pot was supported with two stainless steel rod. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) nanodot was used in this study to measure the dose rate at both extremities for every personnel who prepared the 131I. Each OSL nanodot was attached at the fingertip. Three different personnel (experienced between one to ten years above in preparing the radiopharmaceuticals) were participated in this study. The average equivalent dose at right and left hand were 122.694 ± 121.637 µSv/GBq and 77.281 ± 62.146 µSv/GBq respectively. This study found that the dose exposure received using iRAD-I131 was less up to seven times compared to the conventional method. The comparison of experimental data using iRAD-I131 and established radiopharmaceutical dispenser was also discussed. The innovation of 131I dispenser is highly recommended in a small radiopharmaceutical facility with limited budget. The novel iRAD-I131 enables implementation of higher output liquid dispensing with low radiation dose to the personnel.

  14. In Thyroidectomized Thyroid Cancer Patients, False-Positive I-131 Whole Body Scans Are Often Caused by Inflammation Rather Than Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garger, Yana Basis; Winfeld, Mathew; Friedman, Kent; Blum, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To show that I-131 false-positive results on whole-body scans (WBSs) after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer may be a result of inflammation unassociated with the cancer. Methods. We performed a retrospective image analysis of our database of thyroid cancer patients who underwent WBS from January 2008 to January 2012 to identify and stratify false positives. Results. A total of 564 patients underwent WBS during the study period; 96 patients were referred for 99 I-131 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) scans to better interpret cryptic findings. Among them, 73 scans were shown to be falsely positive; 40/73 or 54.7% of false-positive findings were a result of inflammation. Of the findings, 17 were in the head, 1 in the neck, 4 in the chest, 3 in the abdomen, and 14 in the pelvis; 1 had a knee abscess. Conclusions. In our series, inflammation caused the majority of false-positive WBSs. I-131 SPECT/CT is powerful in the differentiation of inflammation from thyroid cancer. By excluding metastatic disease, one can properly prognosticate outcome and avoid unnecessary, potentially harmful treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. PMID:26977418

  15. Long-Term Quality of Life and Pregnancy Outcomes of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Survivors Treated by Total Thyroidectomy and I131 during Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Metallo, Melanie; Groza, Lelia; Brunaud, Laurent; Klein, Marc; Weryha, Georges; Feigerlova, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is rare and confers good prognosis. Long-term health related quality of life (HRQoL) and pregnancy outcomes are not well known in subjects treated during adolescence and young adulthood. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis of HRQoL and global self-esteem, using SF-36 and ISP-25 surveys, and of pregnancy outcomes in female survivors of DTC treated by total thyroidectomy and I131 before age of 25 years. Results. Forty-five of 61 patients (74%) responded to the survey. Cumulative I131 activity was ≤3.85 GBq in 18 subjects and >3.85 GBq in 27 subjects. Mean time from diagnosis was 7.6 ± 5.2 years for the group ≤ 3.85 GBq versus 16.9 ± 11.6 years for the group > 3.85 GBq (P < 0.05). No significant alteration in long-term HRQoL and global self-esteem was observed. Thirty pregnancies after I131 were noted in patients from the group > 3.85 GBq and 10 in patients from the group ≤ 3.85 GBq. Frequency of miscarriages was of 17% (group > 3.85 GBq) and 10% (group ≤ 3.85 GBq) with 9 and 24 live births, respectively. No congenital malformations or first year mortality was noted. Conclusion. Long-term HRQoL, global self-esteem, and pregnancy outcomes are not affected in young female survivors of DTC. PMID:26977147

  16. Doses to the hand during the administration of radiolabeled antibodies containing Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W.

    1997-02-01

    Exposure of the hands of medical personnel administering radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) was evaluated on the basis of (a) observing and photo-documenting administration techniques, and (b) experimental data on doses to thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) on fingers of phantom hands holding syringes, and on syringes, with radionuclides in the syringes in each case. Actual exposure data for I-131 and Lu-177 were obtained in field studies. Variations in handling and administration techniques were identified. Dose rates measured using TLDs on the surface of loaded syringes were adjusted for differences in electronic stopping power, absorption coefficients, and attenuation between dosimeters and tissue to estimate dose-to-skin averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 7 mg cm{sup {minus}2} depth for Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177. Dose rate coefficients to the skin, if in contact with the syringe wall, were 89, 1.9, 3.8, and 0.41 {micro}Sv s{sup {minus}1} per 37 MBq (1 mCi) for Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177, respectively. For dose reduction, when using Y-90 the importance was clearly indicated of (a) avoiding direct contact with syringes containing RABs, if practical, and (b) using a beta-particle shield on the syringe. In using a syringe for injection, doses can best be approximated for the geometry studied by (a) wearing a finger dosimeter on the middle finger, toward the outside of the hand, on the hand operating the plunger, and (b) wearing finger dosimeters on the inner (palm) side of the finger on the hand that supports the syringe for energetic beta-particle emitters, such as Y-90 and Re-188.

  17. Utility of SPECT/CT as an adjunct to planar whole body I-131 imaging: liver metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Agriantonis, Demetrios J; Hall, Lance; Wilson, Michael A

    2009-04-01

    One of the major limitations of planar I-131 imaging is its lack of anatomic precision. SPECT/CT offers the benefit of precise anatomic localization that planar imaging lacks. Whether for confirmation of physiologic uptake or true pathology, SPECT/CT has an important role to play in clarifying equivocal findings. We present a case of papillary thyroid cancer metastatic to the liver, a relatively rare scenario. SPECT/CT allowed definitive lesion characterization at the time of the patient's visit to the nuclear medicine department.

  18. Effects of bone marrow cell transplant on thyroid function in an I131-induced low T4 and elevated TSH rat model

    PubMed Central

    Guajardo-Salinas, Gustavo E; Carvajal, Juan A; Gaytan-Ramos, Ángel A; Arroyo, Luis; López-Reyes, Alberto G; Islas, José F; Cano, Beiman G; Arroyo-Currás, Netzahualcoyótl; Dávalos, Alfredo; Madrid, Gloria; Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E

    2007-01-01

    Background We developed a study using low dose radioactive iodine creating an animal model of transient elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Male derived bone marrow cells were transplanted to asses their effect on thyroid function and their capability to repair the thyroid parenchyma. Results At 40 an 80 days after I131 treatment, the study groups TSH and T4 serum values both increased and decreased significantly respectively compared to the negative control group. Eight weeks after cell transplantation, neither TSH nor T4 showed a significant difference in any group. The mean number of SRY gene copies found in group I (Left Intracardiac Transplant) was 523.3 and those in group II (Intrathyroid Transplant) were only 73. Group III (No Transplant) and IV had no copies. Group I presented a partial restore of the histological pattern of rat thyroid with approximately 20% – 30% of normal-sized follicles. Group II did not show any histological differences compared to group III (Positive control). Conclusion Both a significant increase of TSH and decrease of T4 can be induced as early as day 40 after a low dose of I131 in rats. Restore of normal thyroid function can be spontaneously achieved after using a low dose RAI in a rat model. The use of BM derived cells did not affect the re-establishment of thyroid function and might help restore the normal architecture after treatment with RAI. PMID:17233913

  19. Organ S values and effective doses for family members exposed to adult patients following I-131 treatment: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Mcguire, Lynn; Brown, Tracy L. Y.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To calculate organ S values (mGy/Bq-s) and effective doses per time-integrated activity (mSv/Bq-s) for pediatric and adult family members exposed to an adult male or female patient treated with I-131 using a series of hybrid computational phantoms coupled with a Monte Carlo radiation transport technique.Methods: A series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantoms were employed in the study. Three different exposure scenarios were considered: (1) standing face-to-face exposures between an adult patient and pediatric or adult family phantoms at five different separation distances; (2) an adult female patient holding her newborn child, and (3) a 1-yr-old child standing on the lap of an adult female patient. For the adult patient model, two different thyroid-related diseases were considered: hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with corresponding internal distributions of {sup 131}I. A general purpose Monte Carlo code, MCNPX v2.7, was used to perform the Monte Carlo radiation transport.Results: The S values show a strong dependency on age and organ location within the family phantoms at short distances. The S values and effective dose per time-integrated activity from the adult female patient phantom are relatively high at shorter distances and to younger family phantoms. At a distance of 1 m, effective doses per time-integrated activity are lower than those values based on the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) by a factor of 2 for both adult male and female patient phantoms. The S values to target organs from the hyperthyroid-patient source distribution strongly depend on the height of the exposed family phantom, so that their values rapidly decrease with decreasing height of the family phantom. Active marrow of the 10-yr-old phantom shows the highest S values among family phantoms for the DTC-patient source distribution. In the exposure scenario of mother and baby, S values and effective doses per time-integrated activity to

  20. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with I-131-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M.; Gooley, T. A.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Wilson, Wendy A.; Sandmaier, B. M.; Matthews, D. C.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, P. J.; Storb, R.; Press, Oliver W.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.

    2009-12-24

    We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of I-131-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of I-131-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177.

  1. [Radioactivity for 137Cs, 125I, 131I, 59Fe, y 57Co windows from foods included in the basic alimentary basket and in the water, consumed in the state of Carabobo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Torres, Annabell; Tovar, María; Malpica, Oscar; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    One of the input ways of radionucleids into the organism is through food intake. The aim of the present study is to measure the radioactivity levels in food and water samples within energy windows corresponding to 137Cs, 125I, 131I, 59Fe, and 57Co. Samples were taken from local and imported food belonging to the venezuelan basic alimentary basket and included: beef meat, hen egg, chicken bone, tomato, black bean, rice, powder milk from local dealers or imported from Italy and New Zeeland, potable water from the Valencia city aqueduct and bottled water from local sources or imported from Portugal. Radioactivity was measured with a well type Nal (TI) scintillation counter. Analyzed foods and water presented levels lower than the minimal detectable activity for 137Cs, 131I, 59Fe, 57Co, but it was detected in the Valencia city aqueduct water and in bottled water imported from Portugal, levels greater than the minimal detectable activity for the 125I energy window. These results strongly suggest the need of repeated multienergy windows monitoring of radioactivity of basic alimentary basket foods and potable water.

  2. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your treatment team. top of page What equipment is used? There is no equipment used during ... iodine therapy. top of page Who operates the equipment? There is no equipment used during radioactive iodine ...

  3. I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine: diagnostic use in neuroblastoma patients in relapse

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, S.; Evans, A.E.; D'Angio, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used for the detection and treatment of neuroectodermal tumors, including neuroblastoma. We report our experience with /sup 131/I-MIBG used diagnostically in neuroblastoma patients with relapse. Thirty-eight studies were performed in 26 patients. There were 24 children (range 3 months-14 years) and two adults. While the study was found to be both sensitive and specific for the presence of disease, there are instances of discordance. False-negative studies were found with a markedly anaplastic tumor and with two mature ganglioneuromas. A bone lesion was negative with /sup 131/I-MIBG, but positive on bone scan. A biopsy confirmed the presence of neuroblastoma. Caution should be exercised when scanning pretreated patients, and perhaps with newly diagnosed patients as well.

  4. Treatment of advanced neuroblastoma with I-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Garaventa, A.; Guerra, P.; Arrighini, A.; Bertolazzi, L.; Bestagno, M.; De Bernardi, B.; Lanino, E.; Villavecchia, G.P.; Claudiani, F. )

    1991-02-15

    From February 1986 to December 1988, 31 children with advanced pretreated neuroblastoma were treated with 131-I meta-Iodobenzylguanidine (131-MIBG). Thirteen children had been resistant to first-line therapy, three had suffered a local relapse, and fourteen had suffered a disseminated relapse without over bone marrow infiltration. One child was treated initially because of resistance to first-line therapy, and subsequently for a local relapse. A total of 72 courses of 131-MIBG was administered, with doses ranging from 2.8 to 6.0 GBq (median, 3.7 GBq). One child received five courses, two four courses, 13 three courses, four two courses, and 12 one course of 131-MIBG. The most common toxic effect was thrombocytopenia, with a platelet level of less than 50,000/cmm occurring after 19 of 60 evaluable courses. A leukocyte count less than 1000/cmm was seen only once. There were six major responses (two complete) lasting 4 to 9 months, and two minor responses lasting longer than 38 and 44 months. Responses were seen more commonly in children whose only lesion was a residual primary tumor and in children who had not been pretreated who experienced disseminated relapse. Further studies of the role of 131-I meta-Iodobenzylguanidine in treatment of neuroblastoma are needed.

  5. Description of and link to the I-131 dose/risk calculator

    Cancer.gov

    This calculator estimates radiation dose received by the thyroid from radionuclides in fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and sites outside of the United States (global fallout); estimates risk of developing thyroid cancer from that exposure; and provides an estimate of probability of causation, sometimes called assigned share (PC/AS), for individuals who have been diagnosed with thyroid cancer.

  6. 77 FR 71432 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Travel Document, Form Number I-131...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... need to travel outside of the United States based on humanitarian, employment or education reasons will... humanitarian, educational and employment reasons. (5) An estimate of the total number of respondents and...

  7. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-15

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  8. Gonadal damage due to radioactive iodine (I131) treatment for thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S. R.; Shalet, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is the most common type of thyroid cancer and is associated with a good prognosis. Complications of treatment with surgery and radioiodine are uncommon. We report the case of a 13 year old boy who developed testicular damage following treatment with radioactive iodine 350 mCi for a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Four years after radioiodine treatment there has been no suggestion of recovery of spermatogenesis. Detailed follow-up studies of similarly treated young patients are required to define the incidence of this complication and to determine its reversibility. PMID:4022871

  9. Severe hyponatremia: a comorbidity with I131 therapy in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaewput, Chalermrat; Pusuwan, Pawana

    2014-08-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients, especially in elderly patients, in which morbidity varies widely in severity. A 64-year-old Thai woman with papillary thyroid cancer who developed hypothyroid state after thyroid hormone withdrawal for preparation of 1-131 treatment, had severe hyponatremia within the day of 1-131 administration. It is possible that the combination of old age, hypothyroidism, severe nausea and vomiting, and inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) may all have precipitated the severe hyponatremia in the presented case.

  10. Thyrotoxicosis due to functioning metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma after twelve I-131 therapies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; Xu, Wengui; Meng, Zhaowei; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Fuhai; Jia, Qiang; Liu, Xuehui

    2009-09-01

    We present a case of functioning metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) causing severe thyrotoxicosis despite four years 12 iodine-131 therapies (1.461 Ci cumulatively). Initially, the patient had ostalgia and fracture in the right femur. Surgery-confirmed metastatic bone FTC and thyroidectomy-confirmed FTC. One month later, iodine-131 treatment commenced. During the follow-up, different metastatic sites showed different outcomes. Lung metastases disappeared, a thigh metastasis persisted, a new metastasis in the head occurred and pelvic metastases deteriorated into a huge mass elevating thyroglobulin and causing thyrotoxicosis within 3 months. Presurgical PET/CT also demonstrated the massiveness of the pelvic metastases. Thyrotoxicosis disappeared after surgical removal of the pelvic lesion.

  11. Iodine I 131 and Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer Previously Treated With Iodine I 131 That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-04

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  12. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  13. 10 CFR 35.392 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requiring a written directive. The training must include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection; (iii) Mathematics pertaining to the use and measurement of radioactivity; (iv) Chemistry of byproduct material for medical use; and (v) Radiation biology; and (2) Has work...

  14. 10 CFR 35.394 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection; (iii) Mathematics...; and (v) Radiation biology; and (2) Has work experience, under the supervision of an authorized user..., receiving, and unpacking radioactive materials safely and performing the related radiation surveys;...

  15. 10 CFR 35.394 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....394 Section 35.394 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Unsealed... include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection; (iii) Mathematics...; and (v) Radiation biology; and (2) Has work experience, under the supervision of an authorized...

  16. 10 CFR 35.394 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....394 Section 35.394 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Unsealed... include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection; (iii) Mathematics...; and (v) Radiation biology; and (2) Has work experience, under the supervision of an authorized...

  17. 10 CFR 35.394 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....394 Section 35.394 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Unsealed... include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection; (iii) Mathematics...; and (v) Radiation biology; and (2) Has work experience, under the supervision of an authorized...

  18. 10 CFR 35.392 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... millicuries). 35.392 Section 35.392 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL... requiring a written directive. The training must include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection; (iii) Mathematics pertaining to the use and measurement of radioactivity;...

  19. 10 CFR 35.392 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... millicuries). 35.392 Section 35.392 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL... requiring a written directive. The training must include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection; (iii) Mathematics pertaining to the use and measurement of radioactivity;...

  20. 10 CFR 35.392 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... millicuries). 35.392 Section 35.392 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL... requiring a written directive. The training must include— (i) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (ii) Radiation protection; (iii) Mathematics pertaining to the use and measurement of radioactivity;...

  1. Potassium iodide (KI) to block the thyroid from exposure to I-131: current questions and answers to be discussed.

    PubMed

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita

    2013-05-01

    Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents has to be considered as the most severe health consequence of a nuclear reactor emergency with release of radioiodine into the atmosphere. High doses of potassium iodide are effective to block radioiodine thyroid uptake and to prevent development of thyroid cancer years later. However, there are controversies concerning thyroid cancer risk induced by radioiodine exposure in adults. Further, the interaction of nutritional supply of potassium iodide and radioiodine uptake as well as the interaction of radioiodine with certain drugs has not been addressed properly in existing guidelines and recommendations. How to proceed in case of repeated release of radioiodine is an open, very important question which came up again recently during the Fukushima accident. Lastly, the side effects of iodine thyroid blocking and alternatives of this procedure have not been addressed systematically up to now in guidelines and recommendations. These questions can be answered as follows: in adults, the risk to develop thyroid cancer is negligible. In countries, where nutritional iodine deficiency is still an issue, the risk to develop thyroid cancer after a nuclear reactor emergency has to be considered higher because the thyroid takes up more radioiodine as in the replete condition. Similarly, in patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism or endemic goitre not being adequately treated radioiodine uptake is higher than in healthy people. In case of repeated or continued radioiodine release, more than one dose of potassium iodide may be necessary and be taken up to 1 week. Repeated iodine thyroid blocking obviously is not harmful. Side effects of iodine thyroid blocking should not be overestimated; there is little evidence for adverse effects in adults. Newborns and babies, however, may be more sensitive to side effects. In the rare case of iodine hypersensitivity, potassium perchlorate may be applied as an alternative to iodine for thyroid blocking.

  2. 10 CFR 35.394 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; and (v) Radiation biology; and (2) Has work experience, under the supervision of an authorized user... has achieved a level of competency sufficient to function independently as an authorized user...

  3. 10 CFR 35.392 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Chemistry of byproduct material for medical use; and (v) Radiation biology; and (2) Has work experience... has achieved a level of competency sufficient to function independently as an authorized user...

  4. Iodine I 131 Monoclonal Antibody BC8 Before Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-10

    Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  5. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Iodine I 131 and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  6. Improved targeting of 5-[125I/131I]iodo-2‧-deoxyuridine to rat hepatoma by using lipiodol emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hung-Man; Yeh, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Tien-Kui; Huang, Kuang-Liang; Chuang, Kuo-Tang; Liu, Ren-Shen; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Chen, Fu-Du; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Chen, Chin-Hsiung; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2006-12-01

    This study aims to assess whether emulsion of [ 125/131I]IUdR and lipiodol (IUdR/LP) can improve delivery of IUdR into hepatoma. MethodsIn vitro release profile of IUdR from IUdR/LP to serum was performed. IUdR/LP was injected into N1-S1 hepatoma-bearing SD rat via hepatic artery and IUdR/normal saline (IUdR/NS) was used for comparison. Biodistribution, autoradiography, imaging and tumor DNA incorporation assay were performed. The radioactive metabolites in plasma and urine were analyzed. Radiation doses to tumor and organs were estimated. ResultsIUdR released from lipiodol into serum was fast. There were longer retention, more DNA incorporation and higher radiation dose of IUdR in the tumor by using IUdR/LP. IUdR/LP deposited deep in the hepatomas. Only free iodide was found in the plasma and urine after injection of IUdR/LP. ConclusionsHepatic artery injection of IUdR/LP emulsion could definitely enhance the tumor cell uptake and incorporation to DNA of *IUdR, prolong the tumor retention time and increase radiation dose to tumor. IUdR/LP may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatic tumors.

  7. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-03: Dosimetric Comparison of the Hypoxia Agent Iodoazomycin Arabinoside (IAZA) Labeled with the Radioisotopes I-123, I-131 and I-124

    SciTech Connect

    Jans, H-S; Stypinski, D; Mcquarrie, S; Kumar, P; Mercer, J; McEwan, S; Wiebe, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the radiation dose to normal organs from the radio-iodinated, hypoxia-binding radiosensitizer iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) for three different isotopes of iodine. Methods: Dosimety studies with normal volunteers had been carried out with [{sup 123}I]IAZA, a drug binding selectively to hypoxic sites. Two other isotopes of iodine, {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, offer the opportunity to use IAZA as an agent for radioisotope therapy and as an imaging tracer for Positron Emission Tomography. Radioisotope dosimetry for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I was performed by first deriving from the [{sup 123}I]IAZA studies biological uptake and excretion data. The cumulated activities for {sup 131}I or {sup 124}I where obtained by including their half-lives when integrating the biological data and then extrapolating to infinite time points considering a) physical decay only or b) physical and biological excretion. Doses were calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema (OLINDA1.1 code, Vanderbilt 2007). Results: Compared to {sup 123}I, organ doses were elevated on average by a factor 6 and 9 for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, respectively, if both physical decay and biological excretion were modeled. If only physical decay is considered, doses increase by a factor 18 ({sup 131}I) and 19 ({sup 124}I). Highest organ doses were observed in intestinal walls, urinary bladder and thyroid. Effective doses increased by a factor 11 and 14 for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, respectively, if biological and physical decay are present. Purely physical decay yields a 23-fold increase over {sup 123}I for both, {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I. Conclusion: Owing to the significant dose increase, caused by their longer half life and the approximately 10 times larger electronic dose deposited in tissue per nuclear decay, normal tissue doses of IAZA labeled with {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I need to be carefully considered when designing imaging and therapy protocols for clinical trials. Effective blocking of iodine uptake in the thyroid is essential. Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions (AIHS) and Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)

  8. Iodine I 131 Tositumomab, Etoposide and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-02

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  9. The Development of Strategies for the Assignment of Semantic Information to Unknown Lexemes in Text. Lenguas para Objetivos Especificas (Languages for Special Purposes), No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Charles; Alvarez, Guadalupe

    An English for Special Purposes (ESP) course being developed aims to give the students a series of techniques to help them handle vocabulary in a text, and teach them strategies for identifying meaning in context. Traditional strategies, such as the study of morphology, use of grammatical information, and exercises in dictionary usage, are…

  10. Iodine I 131 Monoclonal Antibody BC8, Fludarabine Phosphate, Total Body Irradiation, and Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Treating Patients With Advanced Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  11. Iodine I 131 Tositumomab and Fludarabine Phosphate in Treating Older Patients Who Are Undergoing an Autologous or Syngeneic Stem Cell Transplant for Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-04

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  12. Iodine I 131 Monoclonal Antibody BC8, Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, Total-Body Irradiation and Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With Advanced Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-06

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; CD45-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ring Sideroblasts

  13. General Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the tumor. In I-131MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma, the radiotracer is administered by injection into the ... is delivered through injection. I-131MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma is administered by injection into the blood stream. ...

  14. 78 FR 63226 - GlaxoSmithKline LLC; Withdrawal of Approval of the Indication for Treatment of Patients With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... (tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab) Injection held by GlaxoSmithKline LLP, P.O. Box 5089, 1250 South... and iodine I 131 tositumomab) Injection because the postmarketing study intended to verify clinical... rituximab-na ve indication for BEXXAR (tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab) Injection from the...

  15. Follow-up study using iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in a patient with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikekubo, K.; Habuchi, Y.; Jeong, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Saiki, Y.; Ito, H.; Hino, M.; Higa, T.

    1986-11-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) was used to determine the location and to follow-up tumors in a 13-month-old girl with neuroblastoma. I-131 MIBG imaging revealed both a primary abdominal tumor and a distant metastatic orbital tumor. Follow-up study with I-131 MIBG imaging demonstrated significant resolution of tumors after external radiotherapy and chemotherapy. I-131 MIBG imaging is a simple, safe, and specific method of determining the location of tumors and also is clinically useful in the evaluation and management of patients with neuroblastoma.

  16. Salivary gland accumulation of meta-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajo, M.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Intense uptake of m-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been observed in the salivary glands of patients undergoing scintigraphy for the location of suspected pheochromocytomas. This uptake of radioativity was not due to free I-131 derived from the I-131 MIBG but rather to uptake of I-131 MIBG by sympathetic neuronal elements in the salivary glands. In keeping with this, administration of tricycle antidepressants reversibly blocked salivary uptake of I-131 MIBG. Furthermore, I-131 MIBG uptake was markedly diminished by the ipsilateral salivary glands in a patient with Horner's syndrome, and was bilaterally diminished in a patient with severe idiopathic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The salivary gland uptake of I-131 MIBG may provide a means for the study of sympathetic innervation of these organs, and thus for the study of generalized disorders of autonomic innervation.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of a carcinoid tumor using iodine-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Den Hartog Jager, F.C.; Van Gennip, A.H.; Marcuse, H.R.; Taal, B.G.

    1986-03-01

    Scintigraphy using I-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine has been introduced as an effective method to detect pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas, and the radiopharmaceutical also is applied in therapy of these tumors. The authors present a case of a metastatic gastric carcinoid tumor, another neural crest tumor, concentrating I-131 MIBG, which was documented by conventional scintigraphy and SPECT in correlation with CT scans and colloid scintigrams of the liver. Two therapeutic attempts in this patient, using I-131 MIBG, are described. The metabolic basis of this phenomenon is discussed, and the importance of I-131 MIBG imaging in the detection of neural crest tumors is underlined.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of neuroblastoma using metaiodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Edeling, C.J.; Frederiksen, P.B.; Kamper, J.; Jeppesen, P.

    1987-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is a lethal and not uncommon tumor in childhood. Early detection and display of the spread of the tumor is highly desirable for proper treatment. Nine children suspected of having neuroblastomas were examined by I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) imaging. In two recent studies I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-123 MIBG) was used. A primary adrenal neuroblastoma was correctly identified in three cases. In two patients additional tumor sites were found. In one patient, who was in complete remission, no pathologic accumulation of I-131 MIBG was found. I-131 MIBG images were also normal in four patients with other types of neoplastic diseases. A boy with multiple metastases was treated with 100 mCi of I-131 MIBG. He developed transient gastrointestinal illness and there was no regression of the tumor deposits. In one girl with a large adrenal neuroblastoma high uptake of I-131 MIBG was observed. She received two therapy doses of I-131 MIBG (35 mCi and 75 mCi) with curative intention giving a total absorbed dose in the tumor of approximately 76 Gy. In spite of high retention of radioactivity in the tumor, regression did not occur, but her general condition was improved. In the present study, images of superior quality were obtained with I-123 MIBG imaging. It is concluded that imaging using I-131 MIBG or I-123 MIBG should be used in both the initial evaluation and the follow-up of children with neuroblastoma.

  19. Radioactive Iodine Therapy Decreases Recurrence in Thyroid Papillary Microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Creach, Kimberly M.; Siegel, Barry A.; Nussenbaum, Brian; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The most appropriate therapy for papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) is controversial. Methods. We reviewed the therapy and outcome of 407 patients with PMC. Results. Three hundred-eighty patients underwent total thyroidectomy, and 349 patients received I-131 therapy. The median followup was 5.3 years. Forty patients developed recurrent disease. On univariate analysis, development of disease recurrence was correlated with histological tumor size > 0.8 cm (P = 0.0104), age < 45 years (P = 0.043), and no I-131 therapy (P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, histological tumor size > 0.8 cm, positive lymph nodes, and no I-131 therapy were significant. The 5-year RFS for patients treated with I-131 was 95.0% versus 78.6% (P < 0.0001) for patients not treated with I-131. Patients with lymph node metastasis who did not receive I-131 had a 5-year RFS of 42.9% versus 93.2% (P < 0.0001) for patients who received I-131. Conclusions. Recommend I-131 remnant ablation for patients with PMC, particularly patients with lymph node metastasis. PMID:22462017

  20. Iodine-131 uptake in a patient with thyroid cancer and rheumatoid arthritis during acupuncture treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, N.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Nagai, K.; Katagiri, M.; Harada, T.; Morita, R. )

    1990-01-01

    A patient with thyroid carcinoma had abnormal accumulation of I-131 in the areas of both feet and hands on whole body scan. The sites of abnormal accumulation of I-131 were similar to those on bone scintigraphy. The radiographic examination of the lesions showed characteristic findings of rheumatoid arthritis, and the presence of small gold needles for acupuncture treatment was demonstrated. There were no findings of bone metastases. Although the mechanism of accumulation of I-131 in this patient is unknown, interpreters of I-131 whole body scintigraphs should keep this case in mind when acupuncture treatment has been done. The authors can only speculate on a common blood flow mechanism for enhanced HMDP and I-131 uptake in this arthritic patient who had been treated by acupuncture.

  1. Plant iodine-131 uptake in relation to root concentration as measured in minirhizotron by video camera:

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    Glass viewing tubes (minirhizotrons) were placed in the soil beneath native perennial bunchgrass (Agropyron spicatum). The tubes provided access for observing and quantifying plant roots with a miniature video camera and soil moisture estimates by neutron hydroprobe. The radiotracer I-131 was delivered to the root zone at three depths with differing root concentrations. The plant was subsequently sampled and analyzed for I-131. Plant uptake was greater when I-131 was applied at soil depths with higher root concentrations. When I-131 was applied at soil depths with lower root concentrations, plant uptake was less. However, the relationship between root concentration and plant uptake was not a direct one. When I-131 was delivered to deeper soil depths with low root concentrations, the quantity of roots there appeared to be less effective in uptake than the same quantity of roots at shallow soil depths with high root concentration. 29 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Radioiodine-induced hypothyroidism in Graves' disease: factors associated with the increasing incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnien, A.J.; Hy, I.D.; Gorman, C.A.; Offord, K.P.; Scanlon, P.W.

    1982-11-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of the records of 454 patients who received their first I-131 treatment for Graves' disease during six periods covering 1951 to 1978. In the earliest group, 3% of patients were hypothyroid 3 mo after I-131 use, and 40% were hypothyroid at 1 yr. In the most recent group, 36% of patients were hypothyroid at 3 mo and 91% were myxedematous at 1 yr. Although no obvious trends were noted, whether in the number of patients pretreated with thionamide drugs, in the mean 24-hr I-131 uptake, or in the calculated dose of I-131 (..mu..Ci/estimated gram of thyroid tissue) during the years of the study, the initial mean dose of I-131 administered increased from 8.1 mCi in the earliest group to 13.8 mCi in the latest group. Concurrently, estimates of gland size increased from a mean of 26 g in the first group to 43 g in the last. If, in patients with Graves' disease, the thyroid gland size did not truly increase during the years of the study, the increasing occurrence of early hypothyroidism seen after I-131 use may reflect the conscious or unconscious decision to use larger doses of I-131 calculated on the basis of inflated estimates of thyroid gland weight.

  3. Incidence of hypothyroidism occurring long after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E.; Lundell, G.; Israelsson, A.; Dahlqvist, I.

    1982-02-01

    We have studied the long-term incidence of hypothyroidism in 4,473 formerly hyperthyroid patients given I-131 therapy between 1951 and 1975. The mean age at the first I-131 treatment was 56 yr. Six percent developed hypothyroidism within one year of therapy, and 72% within 26 yr. Prior antithyroid medication did not affect the incidence of hypothyroidism. Patients cured with one dose of I-131 had a lower cumulative long-term incidence of hypothyroidism than those requiring more than one dose.

  4. Portrayal of pheochromocytoma and normal human adrenal medulla by m-(123I)iodobenzylguanidine: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Mangner, T.J.; Wieland, D.M.; Meyers, L.J.; Glowniak, J.V.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-04-01

    The radiopharmaceutical m-(131I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG), which is readily taken up by adrenergic vesicles, produces scintigraphic images of pheochromocytomas in man but rarely visualizes normal adrenal glands. Iodine-123 has many potential advantages over I-131 as a radiolabel for MIBG, including shorter half-life, freedom from beta emissions, and increased gamma-camera efficiency. In this study, diagnostic doses of MIBG labeled with I-131 and I-123, with nearly equivalent radiation dosimetry, were compared as imaging agents in eight patients with known or suspected pheochromocytoma. Images of superior quality were obtained with I-123 MIBG, and lesions not visualized using I-131 MIBG were portrayed. In addition, the normal adrenal medullae were visualized on the I-123 MIBG scintigrams in six out of eight patients.

  5. How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Because medullary thyroid cancer cells do not absorb iodine, radioiodine scans are not used for this cancer. For this test, a small amount of radioactive iodine (called I-131 ) is swallowed (usually as a ...

  6. 8 CFR 223.2 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., AND ADVANCE PAROLE DOCUMENTS § 223.2 Processing. (a) General. An application for a reentry permit, refugee travel document, or advance parole document must be filed on Form I-131, with the fee required...

  7. Treatment of neuroblastoma with /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine: experience of the Muenster/Kassel Group

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M.; Wehinger, H.; Kraus, C.; Ritter, J.; Schroeter, W.

    1987-01-01

    I-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine was used for treatment of neuroblastoma stage IV in three children after surgery and or chemotherapy had failed to be effective. In two of the children with multilocular lesions, after an impressive improvement of clinical symptoms tumor progression was observed. Because in about 25% of children with relapsing neuroblastoma complete remission may be achieved by combining surgery, chemotherapy, and I-131-MIBG treatment, this therapeutic modality should be included in the therapeutic strategy of stage III and IV neuroblastoma.

  8. False-positive iodine-131 body scan caused by a large renal cyst

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Rothman, B.J.; Ramanna, L.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Adelberg, H.; Waxman, A.D.

    1988-06-01

    Focal I-131 accumulation is generally a reliable indicator of functioning thyroid tissue or a differentiated thyroid cancer metastasis. Normal accumulation of activity may be seen in areas such as the intestinal tract, liver, and salivary glands. This report describes a patient with significant accumulation of I-131 in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The abnormality, first thought to represent metastatic thyroid carcinoma, was subsequently proven to be accumulation within a large renal cyst.

  9. Adjuvant Iodine131 Lipiodol after Resection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Ruelan V.; Ha, Leo; Clarke, Stephen; Sandroussi, Charbel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Survival after liver resection for HCC is compromised by a high rate of intrahepatic recurrence. Adjuvant treatment with a single, postoperative dose of intra-arterial I131 lipiodol has shown promise, as a means of prolonging disease-free survival (DFS). Methodology. DFS and overall survival (OS) after a single dose of postoperative I131 lipiodol were compared to liver resection alone, for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Data were collected retrospectively for patients who had a curative resection for HCC between December 1993 and September 2011. Seventy-two patients were given I131 lipiodol after surgery and 70 patients had surgery alone. Results. The DFS at 1, 3, and 5 years was 72%, 43%, and 26% in the surgery group and 70%, 39%, and 29% in the adjuvant I131 lipiodol group (p = 0.75). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS was 83%, 64%, and 52% in the surgery group and 96%, 72%, and 61% in the adjuvant I131 lipiodol group (p = 0.16). Conclusion. This retrospective study has found no significant benefit to survival, after adjuvant treatment with I131 lipiodol. PMID:26713092

  10. Thyroglobulin levels to follow-up patients with treated differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, E.; Braun, S.; Bueell, U.; Kirsch, C.M.; Tosch, U.; Wendt, T.

    1984-01-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (hTg) measurements by commercial radioimmunoassay were performed in the follow-up of 118 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma undergoing I-131 local and whole-body scans following surgery and I-131 therapy. Patients with positive anti-hTg antibodies (23% of cases) were excluded. In all remaining I-131 accumulating residual, recurrent, or metastatic tumors, hTg levels were elevated (greater than 6.25 ng/ml, minimum detectable value). Twelve patients with neither recurrence nor metastases had elevate hTg levels. Sensitivity and specificity depended on the threshold used for elevate hTg levels. At an hTg-threshold of 6.25 ng/ml sensitivity has 100%, specificity has 82%. As hTg levels were reported to depend on endogenous TSH stimulation, it is not yet advisable to replace I-131 scans totally by hTg determination. After having determined an hTg ''baseline'' below detectable values (less than 6.25 ng/ml), we reduced the number of I-131 scans by half. However, elevated hTg levels were an indication for an I-131 scan. Therefore, on the basis of 23% of our patients who had anti-hTg antibodies the need exists to develop a commercial assay which is independent from antibodies.

  11. Retrospective reconstruction of Ioidne-131 distribution at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by analysis of Ioidne-129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi; Kusuno, Haruka; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki

    2014-05-01

    Among various radioactive nuclides emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, Iodine-131 displayed high radioactivity just after the accident. Moreover if taken into human body, Iodine-131 concentrates in the thyroid and may cause the thyroid cancer. The recognition about the risk of Iodine-131 dose originated from the experience of the Chernobyl accident based on the epidemiological study [1]. It is thus important to investigate the detailed deposition distribution of I-131 to evaluate the radiation dose due to I-131 and watch the influence on the human health. However I-131 decays so rapidly (half life = 8.02 d) that it cannot be detected several months after the accident. At the recognition of the risk of I-131 on the Chernobyl occasion, it had gone several years after the accident. The reconstruction of I-131 distribution from Cs-137 distribution was not successful because the behavior of iodine and cesium was different because they have different chemical properties. Long lived radioactive isotope I-129 (half life = 1.57E+7 yr,), which is also a fission product as well as I-131, is ideal proxy for I-131 because they are chemically identical. Several studies had tried to quantify I-129 in 1990's but the analytical technique, especially AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), had not been developed well and available AMS facility was limited. Moreover because of the lack of enough data on I-131 just after the accident, the isotopic ratio I-129/I-131 of the Chernobyl derived iodine could not been estimated precisely [2]. Calculated estimation of the isotopic ratio showed scattered results. On the other hand, at the FDNPP accident detailed I-131 distribution is going to be successfully reconstructed by the systematical I-129 measurements by our group. We measured soil samples selected from a series of soil collection taken from every 2 km (or 5km, in the distant area) meshed region around FDNPP conducted by the Japanese Ministry of

  12. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment.

    PubMed

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C

    2011-03-01

    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn.

  13. Iodine-131 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy for Neuroblastoma: Reports So Far and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kayano, Daiki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, which derives from neural crest, is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood. The tumors express the norepinephrine (NE) transporters on their cell membrane and take in metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) via a NE transporter. Since iodine-131 (I-131) MIBG therapy was firstly reported, many trails of MIBG therapy in patients with neuroblastoma were performed. Though monotherapy with a low dose of I-131 MIBG could achieve high-probability pain reduction, the objective response was poor. In contrast, more than 12 mCi/kg I-131 MIBG administrations with or without hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) obtain relatively good responses in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. The combination therapy with I-131 MIBG and other modalities such as nonmyeloablative chemotherapy and myeloablative chemotherapy with HCT improved the therapeutic response in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. In addition, I-131 MIBG therapy incorporated in the induction therapy was proved to be feasible in patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. To expand more the use of MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma, further studies will be needed especially in the use at an earlier stage from diagnosis, in the use with other radionuclide formations of MIBG, and in combined use with other therapeutic agents. PMID:25874239

  14. Portrayal of pheochromocytoma and normal human adrenal medulla by m-(/sup 123/I)iodobenzylguanidine: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Mangner, T.J.; Wieland, D.M.; Meyers, L.J.; Glowniak, J.V.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-04-01

    The radiopharmaceutical m-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG), which is readily taken up by adrenergic vesicles, produces scintigraphic images of pheochromocytomas in man but rarely visualizes normal adrenal glands. Iodine-123 has many potential advantages over I-131 as a radiolabel for MIBG, including shorter half-life, freedom from beta emissions, and increased gamma-camera efficiency. In this study, diagnostic doses of MIBG labeled with I-131 and I-123, with nearly equivalent radiation dosimetry, were compared as imaging agents in eight patients with known or suspected pheochromocytoma. Images of superior quality were obtained with I-123 MIBG. In addition, the normal adrenal medullae were visualized on the I-123 MIBG scintigrams in six out of eight patients.

  15. Effect of reserpine on salivary gland radioiodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, H.A.; Park, C.H.

    1987-04-01

    Nine patients with thyroid cancer were treated with reserpine in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure to the salivary glands from 100-150 mCi doses of I-131 therapy to thyroid remnants or metastases. Three control patients were not treated with reserpine but did receive 100-150 mCi of I-131. Parotid/background ratios of activity after radioablative doses of I-131 in patients not treated with reserpine were significantly higher than the patients treated with reserpine, and this was also true seven days after the radioablative dose. Combined therapy with reserpine, chewing gum, lemon candies, and hydration is suggested for the prevention of sialadenitis and xerostomia due to large doses of radioiodine.

  16. Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can

  17. Unusual locations of localized myxedema in Graves disease. Report of three cases

    SciTech Connect

    Noppakun, N.; Bancheun, K.; Chandraprasert, S.

    1986-01-01

    Three patients with Graves disease had very unusual locations of localized myxedema. One patient had localized myxedema on the pretibial and shoulder areas after sodium iodide I 131 therapy. The second patient had localized myxedema on his neck, shoulders, and upper part of the back as well as on the pretibial area. The third patient had localized myxedema on the pinnae, also following sodium iodide I 131 therapy. After surgical removal followed by intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injections, the first patient's lesions recurred. The lesions in the second case did not respond to topical steroid cream. The third patient had a partial response to intralesional steroid injections.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... + Removable) 2,3 U-nat, U-235, U-238, and associated decay products 7 1,000 7 5,000 Transuranics, Ra-226, Ra..., I-126, I-131, I-133 200 1,000 Beta-gamma emitters (nuclides with decay modes other than alpha... to radioactive contamination deposited on, but not incorporated into the interior or matrix of,...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... + Removable) 2,3 U-nat, U-235, U-238, and associated decay products 7 1,000 7 5,000 Transuranics, Ra-226, Ra..., I-126, I-131, I-133 200 1,000 Beta-gamma emitters (nuclides with decay modes other than alpha... to radioactive contamination deposited on, but not incorporated into the interior or matrix of,...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... + Removable) 2 3 U-nat, U-235, U-238, and associated decay products 7 1,000 7 5,000 Transuranics, Ra-226, Ra..., I-126, I-131, I-133 200 1,000 Beta-gamma emitters (nuclides with decay modes other than alpha... to radioactive contamination deposited on, but not incorporated into the interior or matrix of,...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... + Removable) 2,3 U-nat, U-235, U-238, and associated decay products 7 1,000 7 5,000 Transuranics, Ra-226, Ra..., I-126, I-131, I-133 200 1,000 Beta-gamma emitters (nuclides with decay modes other than alpha... to radioactive contamination deposited on, but not incorporated into the interior or matrix of,...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... + Removable) 2,3 U-nat, U-235, U-238, and associated decay products 7 1,000 7 5,000 Transuranics, Ra-226, Ra..., I-126, I-131, I-133 200 1,000 Beta-gamma emitters (nuclides with decay modes other than alpha... to radioactive contamination deposited on, but not incorporated into the interior or matrix of,...

  3. Effect of prolonged hypokinesia on tissue blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levites, Z. P.; Fedotova, V. F.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of hypokinesia on the blood flow in the tissues of rabbits was studied. Motor activity of animals was restricted during 90 days and blood flow recorded through resorption rate of NaI-131. Perfusion of tissues under the influence of hypokinesia was found to be reduced.

  4. Identifying removable radioactivity on the surface of cats during the first week after treatment with iodine 131.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, H J; Scrivani, Peter V; Dykes, Nathan L; Erb, Hollis N; Hobbs, J M; Hubble, Lorna J

    2006-01-01

    Because radioiodine (1-131) is excreted in urine and saliva, treated cats can accumulate I-131 on their coats from contacting soiled litter and grooming. This could result in removable radioactivity, which is a potential source of human exposure to radiation and specifically to internal contamination. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is removable radioactivity on cats treated with I-131. Daily wipe tests were performed for 7 days at two sites (both flanks, one site; and all four paws, one site) on six hyperthyroid cats treated with I-131. A y counter was used to determine the counts per minute (cpm) of the samples, which were converted to disintegrations per minute (dpm) to estimate activity. The results were compared to the New York State limits of removable activity for a non-controlled area (<1000dpm/100 cm2) to determine if the amount of removable activity was acceptable for a member of the public. The median value of removable activity was 241 dpm (range from 34 to 4184 dpm) for the flanks, and 308 dpm (range from 60 to 1890 dpm) for the paws. The amount of removable radioactivity on the surface of hospitalized cats treated with I-131 during the first week after treatment, occasionally and without obvious pattern, exceeded the New York State limit. Sporadic activity as high as 4148 dpm was found. It is prudent to advise owners to observe routine hygiene when handling cats after discharge to minimize the risk of internal contamination.

  5. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... like particles and fall to the ground. from nuclear weapons or reactor accidents can occur in particle form, which can be ingested in food or water. I-131 is often used to treat ... used in nuclear medicine. External exposure to large amounts of iodine ...

  6. 8 CFR 245a.35 - Travel outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel outside the United States. 245a.35... OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.35 Travel... travel outside the United States temporarily must apply for advance authorization using Form I-131....

  7. 8 CFR 245a.35 - Travel outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel outside the United States. 245a.35... OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.35 Travel... travel outside the United States temporarily must apply for advance authorization using Form I-131....

  8. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  9. SU-E-I-78: Establishing a Protocol for Quick Estimation of Thyroid Internal Contamination with 131I in Normal and Emergency Situations

    SciTech Connect

    Naderi, S Mehdizadeh; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Zamani, E; Molaeimanesh, Z; Sadeghi, M; Sina, S; Faghihi, R; Entezarmahdi, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: I-131 is one of the most frequent radionuclides used in nuclear medicine departments. The radiation workers, who manipulate the unsealed radio-toxic iodine, should be monitored for internal contamination. In this study a protocol was established for estimating I-131 activity absorbed in the thyroid glands of the nuclear medicine staff in normal working condition and also in accidents. Methods: I-131 with the activity of 10 μCi was injected inside the thyroid gland of a home-made anthropomorphic neck phantom. The phantom is made up of PMMA as soft tissue, and Aluminium as bone. The dose rate at different distances from the surface of the neck phantom was measured using a scintillator detector for duration of two months. Then, calibration factors were obtained, for converting the dose rate at each distance to the iodine activity inside the thyroid. Results: According to the results of this study, the calibration factors for converting the dose rates (nSv/h) at distances of 0cm, 1cm, 6cm, 11cm, and 16cm to the activity (kBq) inside the thyroid were found to be 0.03, 0.04, 0.14, 0.29, and 0.49 . Conclusion: This method can be effectively used for quick estimation of the I-131 concentration inside the thyroid of the staff for daily checks in normal working conditions and also in accidents.

  10. 8 CFR 245a.35 - Travel outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel outside the United States. 245a.35... outside the United States. (a) An alien who departs the United States while his or her application for... travel outside the United States temporarily must apply for advance authorization using Form I-131....

  11. In vivo detection of prostatic carcinoma with antibodies against prostatic acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    De Land, F.H.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Serum prostatic acid phosphates (PAP) immunoassay is used to evaluate patients with prostatic carcinoma; however, as with other tumor markers, the enzyme levels do not necessarily reflect the presence or extent of tumor. The authors investigated the use of radiolabeled PAP antibodies for the in vivo detection of prostatic carcinoma by external scintillation imaging. Nine patients with prostatic carcinoma were entered into the study. Each received from 2.0 to 2.5 mCi of I-131 labeled antibody to PAP, administered i.v. The immunogen (PAP) was purified from normal human seminal fluid. Antiserum was prepared in rabbits by injecting the purified PAP. The antibodies were labeled with I-131 by chloramine-T method (10 to 20 Ci/g of IgG). Total body images were obtained at 24 and 48 hrs following administration of the labeled antibody. Nontarget I-131 activity was diminished by computer processing. Tumor sites detected by I-131 antibodies were correlated with other diagnostic procedures. In 7 of 9 patients primary and metastatic sites of cancer were detected by antibody imaging, however, no bone lesions were detected (6 cases). In 3 patients with concomitant pulmonary tumors, one was identified as of prostate origin. The serum PAP was normal in 4 patients; however, the primary tumor was identified in 3 of these. These findings suggest that the localization of prostatic carcinoma by means of in-vivo imaging of labeled antibodies to PAP is feasible and offers diagnostic opportunities based upon the functional characteristics.

  12. A large substernal goiter as a cause of a pulmonary perfusion defect

    SciTech Connect

    Balon, H.R.; Meier, D.A. )

    1990-11-01

    A pulmonary perfusion defect was caused by an extremely large anterior mediastinal mass subsequently proved by I-131 imaging to be an intrathoracic extension of a cervical goiter. Substernal goiter is not known to be reported previously as one of the causes of a perfusion defect in lung scanning.

  13. In Utero Exposure to Iodine-131 from Chernobyl Fallout and Anthropometric Characteristics in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Neta, Gila; Hatch, Maureen; Kitahara, Cari M.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bolshova, Elena V.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Brenner, Alina V.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m2 per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ≥500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However

  14. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Guhlke, S.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Mokler, F.

    1996-10-01

    Biodistribution studies with the radioiodinated 3(R)- and 3(S)-BMIPP isomers in rats have shown that 3(R)-BMIPP has 20-25% higher heart uptake (15-180 min) than 3(S)-BMIPP, while uptake in other tissues examined is similar. To evaluate the possible differences in metabolic fate of the two isomers, a mixture of [I-125]-3(R)/[I-131]- 3(S)-BMIPP was administered to fasted female Fisher rats. Groups (n=3 rats per group) were sacrificed after 15, 60 and 180 min, and urine and feces collected from another group. Samples of blood, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, and urine were Folch-extracted. The distribution of I-125 and I-131 in the organic, aqueous, and pellet samples were determined. Organic samples were then analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The relative distribution of I-125/I-131 in the lipid, aqueous, and pellet samples was similar for both isomers. Distribution of I-125/I-131 in the various components of the lipid extracts observed by TLC was similar, with principal incorporation into the free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) pools. HPLC analyses (Cl8) of the FFA fraction showed similar I-125/I-131 profiles, corresponding to BMIPP, and the {alpha}-methyl-C,4 (PIPA) and C12, Cl0 and C6 carbon chain-length catabolites. By TLC, urine I-125/I-131 chromatographed with hippuric acid. HPLC analyses (Cl 8) of acid-hydrolyzed urine gave a single I-125/I-131 component with the same RRT as 2-({beta}-iodophenyl)acetic acid, the final {alpha}/{beta}-oxidative BMIPP catabolite. Unexpectedly, HPLC of lipids from base hydrolyzed TG from the heart tissue, showed I-125/I-125 co-chromatographing with short-chain fatty acids, with only levels in BMIPP. These unexpected results demonstrate that the 3(R)-BMIPP and 3(S)-BMIPP isomers are metabolized similarly in rat tissues, and that the higher myocardial extraction observed for the 3(R)-BMIPP may reflect differences in the relative membrane transport of the two isomers.

  15. Radioimmunoimaging of osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice using monoclonal antibodies to osteogenic sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.; Koizumi, M.; Ohta, H.; Kunimatsu, M.; Torizuka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Tanaka, H.; Kotoura, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have developed several monoclonal antibodies against human osteogenic sarcoma, one of which; OST7 (IgGl) selectively localized in osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice. In the present study, F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment was compared with whole IgG and those labeled with In-111 as well as I-131 were used as a radiotracer for the scintigraphic imaging of tumors. IgC and F(ab')/sub 2/ were labeled with I-131 using chloramine-T method and injected into nude mice bearing human osteogenic sarcoma. Scintigrams at day 2 clearly delineated the site of tumors with almost no radioactivity in other organs with F(ab')/sub 2/, which yielded much better images than whole IgG. Tumor-to-blood ratio of 6.09-27.87 was obtained at day 2 using F(ab')/sub 2/, whereas it was 0.76-1.12 at day 2 and 2.05-3.27 at day 7 with IgG. I-131 labeled nonspecific F(ab')/sub 2/ or IgG resulted in no or very low tumor uptake with tumor-to-blood ratio of 0.94-1.18 at day 2 for F(ab')/sub 2/ and 0.67-0.76 at day 7 for IgG, respectively. In-111 labeled F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of OST7, which was prepared using DTPA as a bifunctional chelate, also showed a high tumor accumulation with tumor-to-blood ratio of 11.67-17.54 at day 2, but higher background activity in the liver and kidney was observed than I-131 labeled one. These results indicate that F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of OST7 labeled with either I-131 or In-111, has a great potential for the radioimmunoimaging of osteogenic sarcoma.

  16. A Screening Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases among Individuals Exposed in Utero to Iodine-131 from Chernobyl Fallout

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M.; Brenner, A.; Bogdanova, T.; Derevyanko, A.; Kuptsova, N.; Likhtarev, I.; Bouville, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Kovgan, L.; Shpak, V.; Ostroumova, E.; Greenebaum, E.; Zablotska, L.; Ron, E.; Tronko, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Like stable iodine, radioiodines concentrate in the thyroid gland, increasing thyroid cancer risk in exposed children. Data on exposure to the embryonic/fetal thyroid are rare, raising questions about use of iodine 131 (I-131) in pregnant women. We present here estimated risks of thyroid disease from exposure in utero to I-131 fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional thyroid screening study (palpation, ultrasound, thyroid hormones, and, if indicated, fine needle aspiration) from 2003 to 2006. Participants were 2582 mother-child pairs from Ukraine in which the mother had been pregnant at the time of the accident on April 26, 1986, or 2 months after the time during which I-131 fallout was still present (1494 from contaminated areas, 1088 in the comparison group). Individual cumulative in utero thyroid dose estimates were derived from estimated I-131 activity in the mother’s thyroid (mean 72 mGy; range 0–3230 mGy). Results: There were seven cases of thyroid carcinoma and one case of Hurthle cell neoplasm identified as a result of the screening. Whereas the estimated excess odds ratio per gray for thyroid carcinoma was elevated (excess odds ratio per gray 11.66), it was not statistically significant (P = 0.12). No radiation risks were identified for other thyroid diseases. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in utero exposure to radioiodines may have increased the risk of thyroid carcinoma approximately 20 yr after the Chernobyl accident, supporting a conservative approach to medical uses of I-131 during pregnancy. PMID:19106267

  17. Thrombus detection with a radiolabeled antiplatelet monoclonal antibody: Comparison with In-111-oxine technique in coronary and peripheral thrombi in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Esekowitz, M.D.; Meinken, G.E.; Lange, R.C.; Smith, E.; Carbo, P.; Scudder, L.E.; Coller, B.

    1985-05-01

    Platelets (P) labeled with low concentrations of an I-123 or In-111 labeled anti-P monoclonal antibody (7E3) were shown earlier to successfully image in-vivo thrombi. This study was carried out to compare this technique with In-111-oxine-P for localizing coronary and venous thrombi (CT and DVT) in dogs. Thrombi were induced using either transcatheter placement of a dacron pug, mechanical trauma, or electrocoagulation. 7E3 was labeled with I-131 in 70 +- 10% yield (labeling conditions: 100 ..mu..g 7E3; 5 ..mu..g chloramine T; I/sup -//7E3 less than or equal to1; 2 min reaction; 200 ..mu..l pH 7 phosphate buffer; Sp. act. 10-30 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g). Binding of I-131-7E3 to dog P was 75 +- 10% after 1 hr incubation with whole blood. The dogs were injected with 0.5 mCi In-111-oxine-P and 1 mCi I-131-7E3-P in quick succession and data (blood clearance and imaging) were collected for 4 hr. In one experiment, DVT were clearly imaged within 10 min and CT in 30-60 min with I-131-7E3-P. In contrast, In-oxine-P required at least 30 min for imaging DVT and CT were only faintly visualized at 3-4 hr. The DVT to blood and CT to blood ratios at 2.4 hr were 16 and 12.3 for I-131-7E3-P and 9.4 and 6.5 for In-111-oxine-P respectively. In these preliminary studies, I-131-7E3-P thus appears to be superior to In-oxine-P for imaging venous and coronary thrombi. Additionally, 7E3 can be labeled with Tc-99m and I-123 for reduced dose and better imaging properties.

  18. Realizing the 1000-Ship Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-23

    ineffectual Servicio Maritimo Nacionalxxii may not be. The National Strategy for Maritime Security accurately captures this thought by saying “Maritime...printable_version.php?pnt=85 (accessed 15 September 2006). Servicio Maritimo Nacional. “Funciones Especificas.” http://www.smn.gob.pa/funciones.htm (accessed 15...Canal,” http://www.pancanal.com/esp/general/asi-es-el-canal.html (accessed 03 October 2006). xxii Servicio Maritimo Nacional, “Funciones

  19. The kidney: Imaging with Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine, a technetium-labeled analog of iodohippurate

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.D.; Thorstad, B.L.; Stutzman, M.E.; Yester, M.V.; Fowler, D.; Dubovsky, E.V.

    1989-08-01

    A new renal imaging agent, technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3, mertiatide), is currently undergoing clinical trials. Like iodine-131 orthoiodohippurate (OIH)--and unlike all other available agents--it is avidly secreted by the renal tubules. Fifty patients underwent simultaneous renal imaging studies with I-131 OIH and Tc-99m MAG3. The superior physical properties of the Tc-99m label led to better image quality in all cases, largely due to count rates that were 50-fold better. In two patients, lesions were seen with MAG3 that were not visible with OIH. The biological properties of the two agents were found to be so similar that conventional diagnostic criteria for I-131 OIH could be used for Tc-99m MAG3 with only minor modifications.

  20. Correlation between iodine-131 MIBG imaging and biological markers in advanced neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.D.; Helson, L.; Benua, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging was performed in 38 patients with advanced neuroblastoma. Abnormal images were found in patients with elevations of urinary vanillylmandelic acid and dopamine and high serum neuron-specific enolase levels. Normal or minimal elevation of markers was seen in patients with negative images. In follow-up studies after chemotherapy, the disappearance of abnormal uptake was noted in those patients with normal marker values. A persistently abnormal uptake occurred in patients with high marker values. Conversion from a normal image to an abnormal image also occurred in patients whose markers became elevated. I-131 MIBG imaging is sensitive in detecting active foci of a neuroblastoma and is useful in monitoring chemotherapy in these patients.

  1. Radioablative therapy with Iodine-131 on a patient with thyroid cancer and chronic renal failure in hemodialysis first experience in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apaza Veliz, D. G.; Herrera Vera, R. D.; Cardenas Abarca, C. A.; Oporto Gonzales, C. A.; Aguilar Ramírez, C.; Vega Ramírez, J. L.; Urquizo Baldomero, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    The Iodine-131 (I-131) is a radioisotope used as a standard treatment for radioablation of thyroid remnants. Among thyroid cancer patients, the ones undergoing hemodialysis represent a specific group. The dose of I-131 is given orally to these patients, part of it is absorbed by the thyroid remnants and the rest of it, largely not incorporated, is excreted primarily by renal excretion. The use of a high dose of radioactivity in the process, and the inability of excretion, represents a high risk of exposure to the patient, medical staff and hemodialysis equipment. This work describes the procedure applied on the radioablation therapy for thyroid cancer while receiving hemodialysis, minimizing the risks for the patient and the staff involved. This clinical procedure will establish the dosimetric measures, a plan on radiation protection and a treatment protocol for this specific type of patients.

  2. High-level iodination of monoclonal antibody fragments for radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferens, J.M.; Krohn, K.A.; Beaumier, P.L.; Brown, J.P.; Hellstroem, I.; Hellstroem, K.E.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.

    1984-03-01

    Two different murine monoclonal antibody Fab fragments specific for p97, a melanoma-associated antigen, were labeled with I-131 at high activity levels without excessive chemical damage. Up to 20 mg of Fab were labeled with up to 300 mCi of I-131 using the chloramine-T method and large working volumes at room temperature. As much as 90% of the initial activity was recovered as labeled product. The labeled Fabs varied in their sensitivity to radioiodination damage, as measured by an in vitro cell-binding assay. Radioiodination was performed safely using a remote iodination apparatus. The final product was of radiopharmaceutical quality suitable for clinical diagnosis and experimental radiotherapy in humans.

  3. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  4. Serial thyroid iodine content in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.S.; Sandler, M.P.; Patton, J.A.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-02-01

    X-ray fluorescent scanning was used to measure initial thyroidal iodine content in 64 patients diagnosed as being hyperthyroid and selected for I-131 therapy, and serially in 48 of these patients after therapy in an attempt to determine those patients that were at high risk of becoming hypothyroid. Iodine content fell rapidly after therapy, reaching a nadir at about three months. Based on the population studied, the chance of early hypothyroidism (within 12 months) is about 80% if the iodine content measured at three months is less than 2 mg. If the iodine content is greater than 2 mg, the chance is only about 14%. The serial measurement of thyroidal iodine content (with x-ray fluorescent scanning) may allow early identification of those patients at high risk of developing permanent hypothyroidism following a therapeutic dose of I-131.

  5. New radionuclide tracers for the diagnosis and therapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Delprat, C.C.; Zanin, D.; van der Schoot, J.B.

    1988-03-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a calcitonin-producing tumor that occurs in familial and sporadic forms, can be monitored satisfactorily with measurements of calcitonin and CEA in serum. However, locating the tumor site may be difficult. In the current review of the experience with four new radionuclide tracers for MTC, the relative value of each of these procedures is outlined. Total body imaging using TI-201 chloride and Tc-99m(V) DMSA are both sensitive techniques that can be used for the detection and follow-up of MTC. Imaging using I-131 MIBG and I-131 anti-CEA antibodies/fragments should be performed once the diagnosis and the tumor site have been established, to evaluate if patients might be amenable for therapy with one of these radiopharmaceuticals.

  6. Feasibility of an on-line fission-gas-leak detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lustig, P. H.

    1973-01-01

    Calculations were made to determine if a cladding failure could be detected in a 100-kW zirconium hydride reactor primary system by monitoring the highly radioactive NaK coolant for the presence of I-131. The system is to be completely sealed. A leak of 0.01 percent from a single fuel pin was postulated. The 0.364-MeV gamma of I-131 could be monitored on an almost continuous basis, while its presence could be varified by using a longer counting time for the 0.638-MeV gamma. A lithium-drifted germanium detector would eliminate radioactive corrosion product interference that could occur with a sodium iodide scintillation detector.

  7. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.

  8. Indium-111 labeled monoclonal antibodies (Ab): The effect of DTPA conjugation on the Ab activity and tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.; Ohta, H.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, O.; Ohmomo, Y.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Ab) to human ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) were conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) using cyclic DTPA anhydride and the obtained conjugates, DTPA-Ab, were labeled with In-111. The effect of DTPA conjugation on the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity of Ab was evaluated by radioimmunoassay and Scatchard plot analysis and In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were used for the radioimmunodetection of tumor. Ab containing 1.0 DTPA molecule per Ab showed almost full retention of both the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity. Then, 40 ..mu..Ci of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were injected intravenously to nude mice bearing AFP-producing human testicular tumor and the resulted were compared with I-131 labeled Ab. Scintigraphy clearly revealed transplanted tumor. Localization of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab was significantly higher than I-131 labeled Ab. Tumor to blood ratio obtained at 4 days after injection was 2.59 with In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab compared to 0.99 with I-131 labeled Ab. When more than 1.9 DTPA molecules were incorporated per Ab, the maximum binding capacity decreased, although the affinity constant was less affected. These In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab caused significantly higher liver accumulation. These results indicate that In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab at a cojugated DTPA to Ab molar ratio of 1.0 may be superior to I-131 labeled Ab for tumor imaging, but the maximum binding capacity and tissue distribution of In-111 labeled DTPA-AB are greatly dependent upon the number of DTPA molecules incorporated per Ab molecule.

  9. Participation of the hypophyseal-adrenal cortex system in thrombin clearance during immobilization stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, B. A.; Uljanov, A. M.; Shapiro, F. B.; Bazazyan, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thrombin marked with I-131 resulted in a considerable increase of the thrombined clearance rate in healthy male rats during stress caused by an immobilization lasting 30 minutes, and in an increase of thrombin clearance occurred by a combination of immobilization and administration of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Contrary to ACTH, the thrombin clearance is not stimulated in healthy animals by hydrocortisone. The results of the examination are presented.

  10. Iodine-131 tositumomab (Bexxar) in a radiation oncology environment

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, Roger M. . E-mail: macklir@ccf.org

    2006-10-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) tositumomab (Bexxar; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC) is one of two recently approved radiolabeled antibodies directed against the CD20 surface antigen found on normal B cells and in more than 95% of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The compound itself is formulated as an IgG2a immunoglobulin radiolabeled with the mixed beta/gamma emitter I-131. Multicenter clinical trials have repeatedly shown impressive clinical responses (20-40% complete response rates and 60-80% overall response rates) in the patient groups for whom this treatment is indicated. Treatment-related toxicity is generally extremely mild and typically involves only reversible hematopoietic suppression and (in some cases) a risk of treatment-induced hypothyroidism. Owing to Radiation safety concerns necessitated by the clinical use of this targeted radiopharmaceutical, it is important for radiation oncology departments wishing to participate in the care of these patients to establish methodologies and standard operating procedures for safe and efficient departmental use. This summary reviews the pertinent background information related to the current clinical experience with I-131 tositumomab and highlights some of the major opportunities for the participation of radiation oncology in the patient evaluation and treatment process. I-131 tositumomab provides an excellent example of the way in which the increasingly important new field of 'targeted therapy' intersects with the practice of clinical radiotherapy. The author contends that it will be worth the time and effort involved in establishing a firm basis for the development of a comprehensive program for systemic targeted radiopharmaceutical therapies (STaRT) within Radiation medicine domain.

  11. Retrospective Biological Dosimetry at Low and High Doses of Radiation and Radioiodine Impact on Individual Susceptibility to Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina; Krzysiek, Mateusz; Krajewska, Grażyna; Stępień, Artur; Krajewski, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) is often used in thyroid diagnostics and therapy. External and internal exposure to radioiodine can lead to molecular and cellular damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of low and high doses of I-131 on susceptibility to ionizing radiation. Study groups consisted of 30 individuals free of thyroid diseases, 41 patients exposed diagnostically to low doses of I-131, and 37 hyperthyroidism patients exposed therapeutically to high doses. The standardized DNA repair competence assay was used to test the efficacy of the fast DNA repair process in G0 cells. Cytogenetic preparations were made in fresh blood samples before and after challenging cells in vitro with X-ray dose. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and percentage of cells with significantly elevated numbers of SCE were used as cytogenetic biomarkers associated to homologous recombination and compared to reported earlier cytogenetic biomarkers of cancer risk. Strong individual variation in the biomarkers is observed in all investigated groups before and after challenging. Nevertheless, the efficiency of post challenging fast repair is significantly high in the patients exposed to diagnostic I-131 doses than in unexposed control group and linked to decreased cytogenetic damage. However, 5 weeks after administration of therapeutic doses, significant increases of unrepaired post challenging DNA and cytogenetic damages were observed indicating a health risk. Results also suggest that the appearance of cancers in immediate families might influence DNA repair differently in patients exposed to low than to high doses. PMID:28250909

  12. Prevalence of Hyperthyroidism Following Exposure During Childhood or Adolescence to Radioiodines from the Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Dose-Response Results from the Ukrainian-American Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M.; Furukawa, K.; Brenner, A.; Olinjyk, V.; Ron, E.; Zablotska, L.; Terekhova, G.; McConnell, R.; Markov, V.; Shpak, V.; Ostroumova, E.; Bouville, A.; Tronko, M.

    2013-01-01

    Relatively few data are available on the prevalence of hyperthyroidism (TSH concentrations of < 0.3 mIU/L, with normal or elevated concentrations of free T4) in individuals exposed to radioiodines at low levels. The accident at the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) nuclear plant in Ukraine on April 26, 1986 exposed large numbers of residents to radioactive fallout, principally to iodine-131 (I-131) (mean and median doses = 0.6 Gray (Gy) and 0.2 Gy). We investigated the relationship of I-131 and prevalent hyperthyroidism among 11,853 individuals exposed as children or adolescents in Ukraine who underwent an in-depth, standardized thyroid gland screening examination 12–14 years later. Radioactivity measurements taken shortly after the accident were available for all subjects and were used to estimate individual thyroid doses. We identified 76 cases of hyperthyroidism (11 overt, 65 subclinical). Using logistic regression, we tested a variety of continuous risk models and conducted categorical analyses for all subjects combined and for females (53 cases, n=5,767) and males (23 cases, n=6,086) separately, but found no convincing evidence of a dose response relationship between I-131 and hyperthyroidism. There was some suggestion of elevated risk among females in an analysis based on a dichotomous dose model with a threshold of 0.5 Gy chosen empirically (OR=1.86, P=0.06), but the statistical significance level was reduced (P=0.13) in a formal analysis with an estimated threshold. In summary, after a thorough exploration of the data, we found no statistically significant dose response relationship between individual I-131 thyroid doses and prevalent hyperthyroidism. PMID:21128800

  13. Avid thyroid uptake of (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate in children with goitrous cretinism

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Domstad, P.A.; Choy, Y.C.; DeLand, F.H.

    1981-07-01

    Three children with goitrous hypothyroidism had thyroid scans with (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate, which showed symmetrically enlarged thyroid glands with uniformly increased activities compared to little activities in the salivary glands and low body background activities. These scan findings, simulating those of Graves' disease, reflect acid trapping of this tracer, analogous to that seen with I-131. Perchlorate discharge test was positive in two patients, indicating an organification defect.

  14. Thyroid doses for evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Balonov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    A primary health concern among residents and evacuees in affected areas immediately after a nuclear accident is the internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine, particularly I-131, and subsequent thyroid cancer risk. In Japan, the natural disasters of the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 destroyed an important function of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP) and a large amount of radioactive material was released to the environment. Here we report for the first time extensive measurements of the exposure to I-131 revealing I-131 activity in the thyroid of 46 out of the 62 residents and evacuees measured. The median thyroid equivalent dose was estimated to be 4.2 mSv and 3.5 mSv for children and adults, respectively, much smaller than the mean thyroid dose in the Chernobyl accident (490 mSv in evacuees). Maximum thyroid doses for children and adults were 23 mSv and 33 mSv, respectively. PMID:22792439

  15. Scintigraphic portrayal of the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Yobbagy, J.J.; Levatter, R.; Sisson, J.C.; Shulkin, B.L.; Polley, T.

    1988-06-01

    The scintigraphic appearance of the neoplasms in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN-2B) and the interpretations of the image patterns are described. An 18-year-old male patient with the MEN-2B syndrome underwent TI-201 imaging that showed concentrations of TI-201 in the primary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) tumor and in cervical lymph node metastases. After total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, the TI-201 image was normal. Catecholamine levels in the blood and urine were only borderline elevated. Yet, greater than normal concentrations of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) were present in both adrenal glands. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed normal adrenal glands. These results were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal medullary hyperplasia, a precursor of pheochromocytoma. No operation was indicated to remove the adrenal glands. Imaging with TI-201 appears to be useful in identifying sites of MTC in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome. I-131 MIBG imaging, in conjunction with computed tomography of the adrenal glands and appropriate catecholamine measurements, should be performed in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome to determine the status of the adrenal medullae, which then may be classified as normal, hyperplastic, or tumorous with pheochromocytoma.

  16. Non-invasive measurement of thyroid hormone in feces of a diverse array of avian and mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Samuel K; Azkarate, Jurgi Cristòbal; Booth, Rebecca K; Hayward, Lisa; Hunt, Kathleen; Ayres, Katherine; Vynne, Carly; Gobush, Kathleen; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Rodríguez-Luna, Ernesto

    2010-08-01

    We developed and validated a non-invasive thyroid hormone measure in feces of a diverse array of birds and mammals. An I(131) radiolabel ingestion study in domestic dogs coupled with High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis, showed that peak excretion in feces occurred at 24-48h post-ingestion, with I(131)-labelled thyroid hormone metabolites excreted primarily as triiodothyronine (T3) and relatively little thyroxine (T4), at all excretion times examined. The immunoreactive T3 profile across these same HPLC fractions closely corresponded with the I(131) radioactive profile. By contrast, the T4 immunoreactive profile was disproportionately high, suggesting that T4 excretion included a high percentage of T4 stores. We optimized and validated T3 and T4 extraction and assay methods in feces of wild northern spotted owls, African elephants, howler monkeys, caribou, moose, wolf, maned wolf, killer whales and Steller sea lions. We explained 99% of the variance in high and low T3 concentrations derived from species-specific sample pools, after controlling for species and the various extraction methods tested. Fecal T3 reflected nutritional deficits in two male and three female howler monkeys held in captivity for translocation from a highly degraded habitat. Results suggest that thyroid hormone can be accurately and reliably measured in feces, providing important indices for environmental physiology across a diverse array of birds and mammals.

  17. Thyroid doses for evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Balonov, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    A primary health concern among residents and evacuees in affected areas immediately after a nuclear accident is the internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine, particularly I-131, and subsequent thyroid cancer risk. In Japan, the natural disasters of the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 destroyed an important function of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP) and a large amount of radioactive material was released to the environment. Here we report for the first time extensive measurements of the exposure to I-131 revealing I-131 activity in the thyroid of 46 out of the 62 residents and evacuees measured. The median thyroid equivalent dose was estimated to be 4.2 mSv and 3.5 mSv for children and adults, respectively, much smaller than the mean thyroid dose in the Chernobyl accident (490 mSv in evacuees). Maximum thyroid doses for children and adults were 23 mSv and 33 mSv, respectively.

  18. Estimation of thyroid doses and health risks resulting from the intake of radioactive iodine in foods and drinking water by the citizens of Tokyo after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2012-06-01

    The release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima nuclear power plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 poses health risks. In this study, the intake of iodine 131 (I-131) in drinking water and foods (milk, dairy products, and vegetables) by citizens of Tokyo was estimated. The effects of countermeasures (restrictions on the distribution of foods and the distribution of bottled water for infants) on reducing intake were also evaluated. The average thyroid equivalent doses without countermeasures from 21 March 2011 were 0.42 mSv in adults, 1.49 mSv in children, and 2.08 mSv in infants. Those with countermeasures were 0.28, 0.97, and 1.14 mSv respectively, reductions of 33%, 35%, and 45%. Drinking water contributed more to intake by adults and children than foods. The intake of I-131 within the first 2 weeks was more than 80% of the estimated intake, owing to its short half-life, indicating that rapid countermeasures are important in reducing intake. The average risks of cancer incidence and mortality due to I-131 for infants were estimated to be 3×10(-5) and 0.2×10(-5), respectively, lower than the annual risks of traffic accidents, naturally occurring radioactive material (potassium 40), and environmental pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles.

  19. 137Cesium-induced chromosome aberrations analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization: eight years follow up of the Goiânia radiation accident victims.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, A T; Santos, S J; Darroudi, F; Hadjidikova, V; Vermeulen, S; Chatterjee, S; Berg, M; Grigorova, M; Sakamoto-Hojo, E T; Granath, F; Ramalho, A T; Curado, M P

    1998-05-25

    The radiation accident in focus here occurred in a section of Goiânia (Brazil) where more than a hundred individuals were contaminated with 137Cesium on September 1987. In order to estimate the absorbed radiation doses, initial frequencies of dicentrics and rings were determined in 129 victims [A.T. Ramalho, PhD Thesis, Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiânia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992]. We have followed some of these victims cytogenetically over the years seeking for parameters that could be used as basis for retrospective radiation dosimetry. Our data on translocation frequencies obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could be directly compared to the baseline frequencies of dicentrics available for those same victims. Our results provided valuable information on how precise these estimates are. The frequencies of translocations observed years after the radiation exposure were two to three times lower than the initial dicentrics frequencies, the differences being larger at higher doses (>1 Gy). The accuracy of such dose estimates might be increased by scoring sufficient amount of cells. However, factors such as the persistence of translocation carrying lymphocytes, translocation levels not proportional to chromosome size, and inter-individual variation reduce the precision of these estimates.

  20. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the CNEA, Argentina and the LNMRI/IRD, Brazil in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Nonis, M.; Arenillas, P.; Cerutti, G.; José da Silva, Carlos; Lima da Cruz, Paulo Alberto; Simões Moreira, Denise; Iwahara, Akira; Ubiratan Delgado, José; Poledna, Roberto; Lins da Silva, Ronaldo; de Oliveira, Antônio Eduardo; dos Santos Gomes, Régio

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 and 2013, comparisons of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place, respectively, at the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA, Argentina) and at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD, Brazil). Ampoules containing about 21 kBq (CNEA) and 66 kBq (LNMRI/IRD) of a 99mTc solution were measured in the SIRTI for more than two half-lives. The comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m, is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the degrees of equivalence with the key comparison reference value and between the present CNEA and LNMRI/IRD results, the other K4 participants and the six participants in the K1 comparison have been evaluated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  1. MCNP SIMULATION OF THE HP(10) ENERGY RESPONSE OF A BRAZILIAN TLD ALBEDO NEUTRON INDIVIDUAL DOSEMETER, FROM THERMAL TO 20 MeV.

    PubMed

    Freitas, B M; Martins, M M; Pereira, W W; da Silva, A X; Mauricio, C L P

    2016-09-01

    The Brazilian Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD) runs a neutron individual monitoring system with a home-made TLD albedo dosemeter. It has already been characterised and calibrated in some reference fields. However, the complete energy response of this dosemeter is not known, and the calibration factors for all monitored workplace neutron fields are difficult to be obtained experimentally. Therefore, to overcome such difficulties, Monte Carlo simulations have been used. This paper describes the simulation of the HP(10) neutron response of the IRD TLD albedo dosemeter using the MCNPX transport code, for energies from thermal to 20 MeV. The validation of the MCNPX modelling is done comparing the simulated results with the experimental measurements for ISO standard neutron fields of (241)Am-Be, (252)Cf, (241)Am-B and (252)Cf(D2O) and also for (241)Am-Be source moderated with paraffin and silicone. Bare (252)Cf are used for normalisation.

  2. The Brazilian National Intercomparison Program (PNI/IRD/CNEN): evaluation of 15 years of data.

    PubMed

    Tauhata, Luiz; Vianna, Maria Elizabeth Couto M; de Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo; Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Bragança, Maura Julia C; Clain, Almir Faria; de Faria, Rute Quelvia

    2006-01-01

    The Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria has been coordinating the National Intercomparison Program (PNI) for 15 years, from 1991 to 2005. The objective is to evaluate the analytical performance of the laboratories in low-level activity concentration radionuclide assays in environmental samples. This work presents an evaluation of PNI data from 42 intercomparison runs, which distributed to 22 Brazilian laboratories 2511 samples evaluating 5768 radionuclide assays involving 32 radionuclides in the period from 1991 to 2004. The laboratory performance was evaluated using the Normalized Standard Deviation used by the U.S. EPA. For comparison aims, the Normalized Deviation, used by BIPM was also applied. Laboratory performance were grouped and evaluated in three periods of 5 years each. The first period shows, an average value of good performance of 71.2%, the second shows an average of 78.6% and the last an average of 82.3%. Performance for each kind of radionuclide is also presented.

  3. Tracking the Fukushima releases: from environmental monitoring to a showcase of CTBT verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauser, Georg

    2013-04-01

    In the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident large amounts of antropogenic radionuclides relevant to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) were released and detected globally. Our group participated in the large European monitoring campaign and tracked fission products in various environmental media in Austria. We could show that the intake of environmental I-131 into the thyroids of wild animals can be used for verification of the CTBT. Due to continuous and highly specific accumulation of I-131, its apparent half-life in the thyroid biomonitor exceeds the physical one, thus making I-131 detectable three weeks longer than using conventional CTBT-grade high volume air samplers. This means an increase in sensitivity of almost one order of magnitude compared with conventional systems. In a second campaign we analysed the large data set of analyses of Japanese foods. Food was regarded as a geographically well localized environmental sample. The objective of this study was to determine the radiocesium activity ratio (Cs-134/137) in foods from each geographic area to possibly identify the radioactive signature of the four different reactors (i.e. four independent sources) in the distinct regions. No clear deviations from the average value (0.98) could be confirmed in the various regions. Hence, the releases from reactor No. 4 (carrying a significantly smaller activity ratio) are assumed to be small when compared with the other three reactor release. The individual radioisotopic signatures of reactors No. 1, 2, and 3 could not be identified in various Japanese regions using the food samples, indicating integral radiocesium contamination from these sources.

  4. Iodination of Fab fragments: Effect of I/Fab molar ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore, R.; Eary, J.F.; Beaumier, P.L.; Hellstrom, K.E.; Hellstrom, I.; Nelp, W.B.

    1985-05-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine covalently coupled to antibodies have formed the standard against which other radiolabeled antibody tracers are compared. Since the use of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) for the diagnosis and therapy of malignant diseases is increasing rapidly the authors wished to investigate radiolabeling variables which affect the immunointegrity of radioiodinated antibodies. The authors studied the electrophilic (chloramine-T) iodination of the Fab fragment of a murine MoAb against the high molecular weight proteoglycan antigen of human melanoma. The immunoreactivity of the iodianted Fab was assessed using a cell binding assay with formaldehyde-fixed cells of a selected cell line (number 2669). The in vitro stability of the labeled fragment was studied electrophoretically. The results indicate that the reaction time and concentrations of chloramine-T were not critical within broad limits. On the other hand immunoreactivity and deiodination over time (shelf-life) were inversely related and very sensitive to I/Fab molar ratio even at concentrations below -0.1 atom of I per Fab molecule. This has important implications for the radiotherapy of malignant tumors using I-131 labeled immunoglobulins which often have higher I/Fab molar ratios (100 mCi I-131/10 mg Fab approx. = 0.5 I atoms/Fab) versus diagnostic preparations (10 mCi I-131/5 mg Fab approx. = 0.1 I atoms/Fab). Thus the authors conclude that to maintain high immunointegrity the I/Fab molar ratio should be kept low, especially for therapeutic preparations, by using correspondingly higher amounts of Fab.

  5. Considerations in the radioiodination and chelation labeling of an antiplatelet monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Scudder, L.E.; Coller, B.

    1985-05-01

    Radiolabeling of antibodies in particular with iodine nuclides frequently alters their biological behavior and compromises the specificity of binding to the in vivo antigens. Sensitivity to labeling chemistry however, is quite variable for different antibodies. This study was carried out to investigate the various factors affecting the binding to platelets (P) of an anti-P monoclonal antibody, 7E3, following iodination with I-123, I-125, I-131 and chelation labeling with In-111 and Tc-99m. Parameters such as the nature and amount of oxidant, reaction times, substitution level, specific activity etc., were studied. Results showed that each factor in addition to affecting chemical labeling yields also affected the binding of labeled 7E3 to P in whole blood and their blood clearance and clot uptake. With increasing I/7E3 or DTPA/7E3 molar ratios, a progressive decrease in binding to P resulted. Chloramine T (5-10 ..mu..g/100 ..mu..g 7E3) was superior to other oxidizing agents but the reaction times had to be less than or equal to2 min (labeling yields 70 +- 10%). 7E3 appeared unaffected by specific activities of up to 40 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g (I-131 and In-111) and 300 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g (I-123). Satisfactory In-111-, I-131-, or I-123-7E3-P preparations were obtained that show considerable promise for localizing in vivo thrombi. Results of this study and prior experience with other antibodies indicate that in order to achieve maximum efficacy in imaging or therapy applications, individual antibodies may require a careful optimization of labeling procedures with different radionuclides.

  6. Albumin uptake by renal lymphatics with and without obstruction of the renal vein

    SciTech Connect

    Threefoot, S.A.; Pearson, J.E. Jr.; Georgiardis, A. )

    1989-08-02

    Experiments involving injection of radio-iodinated albumin into the left renal arteries or left ureters of dogs indicate that the renal lymphatics are capable of a major contribution in returning to the circulation albumin (or other large molecules) escaping from renal capillaries. I-131-albumin was injected into the jugular vein of controls or into the left renal artery or in retrograde manner into the left ureter of female dogs. Experimental groups included those with no obstruction, occlusion of left renal veins or left renal lymphatics, or both. Collections were made from the right femoral artery, both renal veins, thoracic duct and both ureters at frequent intervals for 2 to 4 hours. Data analysis included I-131 concentration, specific activity, rate of recovery and selected ratios. After renal arterial injection, the percentage of I131 recovered in thoracic duct lymph of dogs without renal venous obstruction was 5 to 10 times that recovered in those that received injections into the jugular vein. In dogs with renal venous obstruction, recovery from the thoracic duct was 10 to 1,000 times that in control dogs. Most of the differences occurred during the first hour, after which time as recirculation and redistribution occurred the rates of appearance in thoracic duct lymph in each group were similar. The differences in the ratios of concentration in thoracic duct lymph to concentration in femoral arterial blood were also much greater when the renal vein was obstructed than in dogs with no obstruction. The greater return of albumin through the thoracic duct in those with impeded renal venous outflow was probably related to both sequestered concentration and increased intrarenal pressure.

  7. Trends in Imaging after Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Mousumi; Muenz, Daniel G.; Worden, Francis P.; Haymart, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The largest growth in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) diagnosis is in low-risk cancers. Trends in imaging after DTC diagnosis are understudied. Hypothesizing a reduction in imaging utilization due to rising low-risk disease, we evaluated post-diagnosis imaging patterns over time and patient characteristics that are associated with likelihood of imaging. Methods Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we identified patients diagnosed with localized, regional or distant DTC between 1991 and 2009. We reviewed Medicare claims for neck ultrasound, I-131 scan, or PET scan within 3 years post-diagnosis. Using regression analyses we evaluated trends of imaging utilization. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of imaging based on patient characteristics. Results 23,669 patients were included. Patients diagnosed during 2001-2009, compared to 1991-2000, were more likely to have localized disease (p<0.001) and tumors less than 1cm (p<0.001). Use of neck ultrasound and I-131 scan increased in patients with localized disease (p=<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively), regional disease (p<0.001 and p<0.001), and distant metastasis (p=0.001 and p=0.015). Patients diagnosed after 2000 were more likely to undergo neck ultrasound (OR 2.15, 95% CI 2.02-2.28) and I-131 scan (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.35-1.54). PET scan use from 2005-2009, compared to 1996-2004, increased 32.4-fold (p=<0.001) in localized patients, 13.1-fold (p<0.001) in regional disease patients, and 33.4-fold (p<0.001) in patients with distant DTC. Conclusion Despite a rise in low-risk disease, the use of post-diagnosis imaging increased in all stages of disease. The largest growth was in use of PET scan after 2004. PMID:25565063

  8. [Cancer therapy using unsealed radioisotopes-the present and future].

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Katsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) has been used for the ablation of residual thyroid remnants and cancer cells in well-differentiated thyroid cancers. It has also been used for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancers, especially lung and bone metastases. For small lung metastases, I-131 treatment has curative potential, particularly in young patients. Suppression of the thyroid stimulating hormone is also important for prolonging the survival of thyroid cancer patients. Strontium-89 (Sr-89) chloride has a mechanism similar to calcium, and it has been used for the treatment of bone metastases, especially osteoblastic metastases. It has been reported to have analgesic effects in an average of 76% of cases, and it is more effective if used in the early bone metastatic phase. Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) is an anti-CD20 mouse monoclonal antibody labeled with Yttrium-90 (Y-90). It is used for treatment-resistant low grade or follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and mantle lymphomas. Recently, radium-223 (Ra-223) has been used for bone metastases from castration resistant prostate cancers, and in a phase III trial, it has been proven to prolong survival of these patients. Cancer therapy using unsealed radioisotopes has been thought to be promising because it exhibits more targeted therapy than external beam irradiation. Therefore, if many more ideal targeting agents are developed in the future, this treatment might be used more commonly. As many agents such as I-131, Sr-89, and Ra-223 are available for treating bone metastasis, the combined use of other treatments such as high precision radiotherapy, bisphosphonates, hormonal agents, and molecular targeted agents should be investigated.

  9. Monte Carlo verification of polymer gel dosimetry applied to radionuclide therapy: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gear, J. I.; Charles-Edwards, E.; Partridge, M.; Flux, G. D.

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluates the dosimetric performance of the polymer gel dosimeter 'Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin, initiated by Copper' and its suitability for quality assurance and analysis of I-131-targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry. Four batches of gel were manufactured in-house and sets of calibration vials and phantoms were created containing different concentrations of I-131-doped gel. Multiple dose measurements were made up to 700 h post preparation and compared to equivalent Monte Carlo simulations. In addition to uniformly filled phantoms the cross-dose distribution from a hot insert to a surrounding phantom was measured. In this example comparisons were made with both Monte Carlo and a clinical scintigraphic dosimetry method. Dose-response curves generated from the calibration data followed a sigmoid function. The gels appeared to be stable over many weeks of internal irradiation with a delay in gel response observed at 29 h post preparation. This was attributed to chemical inhibitors and slow reaction rates of long-chain radical species. For this reason, phantom measurements were only made after 190 h of irradiation. For uniformly filled phantoms of I-131 the accuracy of dose measurements agreed to within 10% when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. A radial cross-dose distribution measured using the gel dosimeter compared well to that calculated with Monte Carlo. Small inhomogeneities were observed in the dosimeter attributed to non-uniform mixing of monomer during preparation. However, they were not detrimental to this study where the quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution of polymer gel dosimetry were far superior to that calculated using scintigraphy. The difference between Monte Carlo and gel measurements was of the order of a few cGy, whilst with the scintigraphic method differences of up to 8 Gy were observed. A manipulation technique is also presented which allows 3D scintigraphic dosimetry measurements to be compared to polymer

  10. Monte Carlo verification of polymer gel dosimetry applied to radionuclide therapy: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Gear, J I; Charles-Edwards, E; Partridge, M; Flux, G D

    2011-11-21

    This study evaluates the dosimetric performance of the polymer gel dosimeter 'Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin, initiated by Copper' and its suitability for quality assurance and analysis of I-131-targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry. Four batches of gel were manufactured in-house and sets of calibration vials and phantoms were created containing different concentrations of I-131-doped gel. Multiple dose measurements were made up to 700 h post preparation and compared to equivalent Monte Carlo simulations. In addition to uniformly filled phantoms the cross-dose distribution from a hot insert to a surrounding phantom was measured. In this example comparisons were made with both Monte Carlo and a clinical scintigraphic dosimetry method. Dose-response curves generated from the calibration data followed a sigmoid function. The gels appeared to be stable over many weeks of internal irradiation with a delay in gel response observed at 29 h post preparation. This was attributed to chemical inhibitors and slow reaction rates of long-chain radical species. For this reason, phantom measurements were only made after 190 h of irradiation. For uniformly filled phantoms of I-131 the accuracy of dose measurements agreed to within 10% when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. A radial cross-dose distribution measured using the gel dosimeter compared well to that calculated with Monte Carlo. Small inhomogeneities were observed in the dosimeter attributed to non-uniform mixing of monomer during preparation. However, they were not detrimental to this study where the quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution of polymer gel dosimetry were far superior to that calculated using scintigraphy. The difference between Monte Carlo and gel measurements was of the order of a few cGy, whilst with the scintigraphic method differences of up to 8 Gy were observed. A manipulation technique is also presented which allows 3D scintigraphic dosimetry measurements to be compared to polymer

  11. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  12. Development of Nondestructive Measuring Technique of Environmental Radioactive Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Tatsuru; Murata, Jiro

    The Fukushima first nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the Japanese big earthquake in 2011. The main radioactivity concerned after the accident are I-131 (half-life 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years) and 137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days) and 90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new detection technique which enables us to realize quantitative evaluation of the strontium radioactivity by means of nondestructive measurement without chemical separation processing, which is concerned to be included inside foods, environmental water and soil around us, in order to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to the radiation.

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. Nadine Foreman, M.D., August 19, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Dr. Nadine Foreman was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). Dr. Foreman was selected for interview because of the position she held at the University of California, San Francisco. Following a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Foreman describes her work with Dr. Mayo Soley using I-131 in treatment of hyperthyroidism, selection criteria for patients in the radioiodine project, work with Dr. Earl Miller, work at Highland Hospital, radioiodine treatment of diffuse toxic goiter (myxedema), the radiophosphorus and radioiodine programs with Dr. Bert Low-Beer, and treatment of polycythemia vera.

  14. Patient-specific dosimetry based on quantitative SPECT imaging and 3D-DFT convolution

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, G.; Hawkins, W.G.; Eckblade, M.B.; Leichner, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the use of a 3-D discrete Fourier Transform (3D-DFT) convolution method to carry out the dosimetry for I-131 for soft tissues in radioimmunotherapy procedures. To validate this convolution method, mathematical and physical phantoms were used as a basis of comparison with Monte Carlo transport (MCT) calculations which were carried out using the EGS4 system code. The mathematical phantom consisted of a sphere containing uniform and nonuniform activity distributions. The physical phantom consisted of a cylinder containing uniform and nonuniform activity distributions. Quantitative SPECT reconstruction was carried out using the Circular Harmonic Transform (CHT) algorithm.

  15. 10 CFR 30.70 - Schedule A-Exempt concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concentration µCi/ml 1 Col. II Liquid and solid concentration µCi/ml 2 Antimony (51) Sb 122 3×10−4 Sb 124 2×10−4...×10−2 In 114m 2×10−4 Iodine (53) I 126 3×10−9 2×10−5 I 131 3×10−9 2×10−5 I 132 8×10−8 6×10−4 I 133...

  16. 10 CFR 30.70 - Schedule A-Exempt concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concentration µCi/ml 1 Col. II Liquid and solid concentration µCi/ml 2 Antimony (51) Sb 122 3×10−4 Sb 124 2×10−4...×10−2 In 114m 2×10−4 Iodine (53) I 126 3×10−9 2×10−5 I 131 3×10−9 2×10−5 I 132 8×10−8 6×10−4 I 133...

  17. 10 CFR 30.70 - Schedule A-Exempt concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concentration µCi/ml 1 Col. II Liquid and solid concentration µCi/ml 2 Antimony (51) Sb 122 3×10−4 Sb 124 2×10−4...×10−2 In 114m 2×10−4 Iodine (53) I 126 3×10−9 2×10−5 I 131 3×10−9 2×10−5 I 132 8×10−8 6×10−4 I 133...

  18. 10 CFR 30.70 - Schedule A-Exempt concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concentration µCi/ml 1 Col. II Liquid and solid concentration µCi/ml 2 Antimony (51) Sb 122 3×10−4 Sb 124 2×10−4...×10−2 In 114m 2×10−4 Iodine (53) I 126 3×10−9 2×10−5 I 131 3×10−9 2×10−5 I 132 8×10−8 6×10−4 I 133...

  19. 10 CFR 30.70 - Schedule A-Exempt concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concentration µCi/ml 1 Col. II Liquid and solid concentration µCi/ml 2 Antimony (51) Sb 122 3×10−4 Sb 124 2×10−4...×10−2 In 114m 2×10−4 Iodine (53) I 126 3×10−9 2×10−5 I 131 3×10−9 2×10−5 I 132 8×10−8 6×10−4 I 133...

  20. Analytics of Radioactive Materials Released in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Coble, Jamie B.; Miller, Laurence F.

    2015-07-01

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere, the nearby sea, and the surrounding land. Following the accident, several meteorological models were used to predict the transport of the radioactive materials to other continents such as North America and Europe. Also of high importance is the dispersion of radioactive materials locally and within Japan. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Convention on Early Notification of a nuclear accident, several radiological data sets were collected on the accident by the Japanese authorities. Among the radioactive materials monitored, are I-131 and Cs-137 which form the major contributions to the contamination of drinking water. The radiation dose in the atmosphere was also measured. It is impractical to measure contamination and radiation dose in every place of interest. Therefore, modeling helps to predict contamination and radiation dose. Some modeling studies that have been reported in the literature include the simulation of transport and deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 from the accident, Cs-137 deposition and contamination of Japanese soils, and preliminary estimates of I-131 and Cs-137 discharged from the plant into the atmosphere. In this paper, we present statistical analytics of I-131 and Cs-137 with the goal of predicting gamma dose from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. The data sets used in our study were collected from the IAEA Fukushima Monitoring Database. As part of this study, we investigated several regression models to find the best algorithm for modeling the gamma dose. The modeling techniques used in our study include linear regression, principal component regression (PCR), partial least square (PLS) regression, and ridge regression. Our preliminary results on the first set of data showed that the linear regression model with one variable was the best with a root mean square error of 0.0133 μSv/h, compared

  1. Radiochemical analysis of the first plateout probe from the Fort St. Vrain high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Burnette, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    This report presents the analysis of radioactive elements on the first plateout probe from the Fort St. Vrain high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The plateout probe is a device which samples the primary coolant for condensible fission products. Circuit inventories of individual radionuclides are estimated from the probe analysis. The analysis shows that the radioactive contamination in the primary circuit is remarkable low, with activation product concentrations much greater than that of fission products. The analysis demonstrates that the concentrations of the key fission products I-131 and Sr-90 are far below the limits allowed by the technical specification.

  2. Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the evaluation of opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (OMA) syndrome is the most common paraneoplastic neurological syndrome of childhood, associated with occult neuroblastoma in 20%-50% of all cases. OMA is the initial presentation of neuroblastoma in 1%-3% of children. Conventional radiological imaging approaches include chest radiography and abdominal computed tomography (CT). Nuclear medicine techniques, in form of 123I/131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy have been incorporated in various diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of OMA. We describe use of somatostatin receptor PET/CT with 68Gallium- DOTA-DPhe1, Tyr3-octreotate (DOTATATE) in diagnosis of neuroblastoma in two cases of OMA. PMID:24163518

  3. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Press, O.W.

    1996-08-15

    Experiments were performed to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells. An attempt was made to examine in vivo the effects of lysosomotropic amines and thioamides on the retention of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies by tumor cells. Experiments also examined the impact of newer radioiodination techniques on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies, and on the radioimmunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy of neoplasms. The endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with I-131, In-111, and Y-90 were compared. The utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer was investigated.

  4. Electron-tracking Compton gamma-ray camera for small animal and phantom imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabuki, Shigeto; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Amano, Hiroo; Nakamoto, Yuji; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Michiaki; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Ueda, Masashi; Okada, Tomohisa; Kubo, Atsushi; Kunieda, Etuso; Nakahara, Tadaki; Kohara, Ryota; Miyazaki, Osamu; Nakazawa, Tetsuo; Shirahata, Takashi; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ogawa, Koichi; Togashi, Kaori; Saji, Hideo; Tanimori, Toru

    2010-11-01

    We have developed an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) for medical use. Our ETCC has a wide energy dynamic range (200-1300 keV) and wide field of view (3 sr), and thus has potential for advanced medical use. To evaluate the ETCC, we imaged the head (brain) and bladder of mice that had been administered with F-18-FDG. We also imaged the head and thyroid gland of mice using double tracers of F-18-FDG and I-131 ions.

  5. Los Alamos Air Monitoring Data Related to the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is collecting air data and analyzing the data for fission products. At present, we report preliminary data from three high-volume air samplers and one stack sampler. Iodine-131 (I-131) is not optimally measured by our standard polypropylene filters. In addition to the filter data, we have one measurement obtained from a charcoal cartridge. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides are adequate for a preliminary assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi do not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos.

  6. [Autism: the importance of dysmorphology in the identification of associated medical conditions].

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, V L; Arberas, C L

    2017-02-24

    Introduccion. Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) se caracterizan por deficits en la comunicacion e interaccion social asociados a intereses restringidos y conductas estereotipadas. Considerados trastornos del neurodesarrollo, presentan una base neurobiologica reconocida. Las causas geneticas, las anomalias cromosomicas o los defectos genicos son las etiologias mas frecuentemente reconocidas, seguidas por factores toxicos y ambientales (epigeneticos). Desarrollo. Las dismorfias son alteraciones congenitas de la forma de una parte de un ser vivo, producidas durante su desarrollo, y su reconocimiento es esencial en la delineacion de un sindrome o una entidad especifica. En el caso de los TEA permiten diferenciar las formas primarias o idiopaticas de las secundarias o sindromicas. En este trabajo describimos los aspectos dismorfologicos vinculados a los TEA que permitiran definir una presuncion diagnostica y orientar los estudios complementarios de acuerdo con ellos. Conclusiones. La identificacion de estas entidades medicas especificas, asociadas a los TEA, es fundamental, ya que permite inferir la posible evolucion, prevenir eventuales complicaciones y otorgar un asesoramiento genetico adecuado.

  7. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

    2011-04-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented.

  8. Metastatic Mechanisms in Follicular Cell-Derived Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phay, John E.; Ringel, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence is rising annually largely related to enhanced detection and of early stage well-differentiated primary tumors. The prognosis for patients with early stage thyroid cancer is outstanding with most patients being cured with surgery. In selected cases, I-131 is administered to treat known or suspected residual or metastatic disease. Even patients with loco-regional metastases typically have an outstanding long-term prognosis, albeit with monitoring and occasional intervention for residual or recurrent disease. In contrast, individuals with distant metastases from thyroid cancer, particular older patients with larger metastatic burdens and those with poorly differentiated tumors, have a poor prognosis. Patients with metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer have a particularly poor prognosis. Published clinical trials indicate that transient disease control and partial remissions can be achieved with kinase inhibitor therapy directed toward angiogenic targets, and that in some cases, I-131 uptake can be enhanced. However, the direct targets of activity in metastatic lesions are incompletely defined and clear evidence that these treatments increase the duration or quality of life of patients is lacking, underscoring the need for improved knowledge regarding the metastatic process to inform the development of new therapies. In this review, we will focus on current data and hypotheses regarding key regulators of metastatic dormancy, metastatic progression, and the role of putative cancer stem cells. PMID:24036131

  9. Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

  10. Determination of Columbia River flow times from Pasco, Washington using radioactive tracers introduced by the Hanford reactors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Jack L.; Perkins, R.W.; Haushild, W.L.

    1966-01-01

    Radioactive tracers introduced into the Columbia River in cooling water from the Hanford reactors were used to measure flow times downstream from Pasco, Washington, as far as Astoria, Oregon. The use of two tracer methods was investigated. One method used the decay of a steady release of Na24 (15-hour half-life) to determine flow times to various downstream locations, and flow times were also determined from the time required for peak concentration of instantaneous releases of I131 (8-day half-life) to reach these locations. Flow times determined from the simultaneous use of the two methods agreed closely. The measured flow times for the 224 miles from Pasco to Vancouver, Washington, ranged from 14.6 to 3.6 days, respectively, for discharges of 108,000 and 630,000 ft3/sec at Vancouver, Washington. A graphic relation for estimating flow times at discharges other than those measured and for several locations between Pasco and Vancouver was prepared from the data of tests made at four river discharges. Some limited data are also presented on the characteristics of dispersion of I131 in the Columbia River. (Keywords: Radioactivity; time of flow; Columbia River.)

  11. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  12. Body water compartments during bed rest: Evaluation of analytical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, H. L.; Juhos, L.; Castle, B. L.; Yusken, J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Nine healthy young men were studied to determine the reproducibility and interchangeability of the use of radio-iodinated human serum albumin and Evans Blue dye for estimating plasma volume, sodium bromide for extracellular fluid volume, and deuterium oxide for total body water volume. All subjects were tested in a semibasal condition and allowed to rest for at least 30 min. after arriving at the laboratory. The results indicate that there was uniform distribution of I131 and Evans Blue dye 10 min. after injection and of NaBr and D2O 3 hours after oral ingestion; the buildup of residual tracer did not interfere appreciably with the measurement of either or Evans Blue spaces when they are administered at equal intervals, and the buildup of background tracer after ingestion of NaBr and D2O once per week for three consecutive weeks did not affect the accuracy of the measurement. It was found that I131 and Evans Blue may be used interchangeably for estimating plasma volume; for estimating bromide and D2O spaces, one 3-hour equilibrium blood sample gives results similar to the extrapolation of multiple samples.

  13. Radioimmunoimaging of pneumocystis carinii infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Shane, L.B.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Lipszyc, H.; Walzer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinil pneumonia (PCP) is seen in patients with impaired immunity due to chemotherapeutic suppression or to a primary disorder, congenital or AIDS. Although radiogallium imaging has been helpful in the workup of PCP, it is non-specific. Since there is no early specific non-invasive method to diagnose PCP, the authors are developing an imaging technique using radiolabeled antibodies. Fulminant PCP was induced in rats by injecting cortisone, 20mg 2-3 times/wk for 8 wks. PC cells isolated from rat lung were injected into rabbits. The antiserum thus derived was separated and purified using Protein-A bound sepharose column with identification of IgG by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both rabbit antipneumocystis antibodies and purified IgG(Sigma) were iodinated with I-131 to a high specific activity (3-5..mu..Ci/ug) using a lactoperoxidase method. /sup 131/I-labeled specific and non-specific IgG were injected into rats with PC infection and imaged with an Anger camera. After sacrifice, I-131 activity/gram tissue (lung, liver, heart) was determined and expressed as organ ratios. An increased uptake of specific antibody in lungs of rats with PCP was demonstrated by organ counting and imaging. This increase was not seen in normal controls or rats injected with non-specific IgG. These data provide a basis for radioimmunoimaging of infectious diseases.

  14. Targeted Radio-Immunotherapy with Bexxar Produces Durable Remissions in Patients with Late Stage Low Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Capizzi, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with low grade (LG) non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) typically have a median survival of 8-10 years during which they sustain a series of responses and relapses to therapy. More than 95% of B-cell NHLs express the CD20 surface antigen, affording opportunities for CD20-directed therapy of NHL. Since 1990, 5 trials have tested the safety and efficacy of the murine CD20 MAb Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab (Bexxar((R)) therapeutic regimen) in 250 patients with relapsed, refractory, or transformed LG NHL. The I-131 irradiates MAb-bound cells and those within the path length of the isotope. Response rates were 56% (overall) and 30% (complete). With a median follow-up of 44.6 months, 30% of the patients achieved a long-term, durable response; median time to progressive disease or death was 5 years. Thus, a single treatment with Bexxar may produce durable responses and partially reverse the natural history of LG NHL. PMID:17060972

  15. The penetration of topically applied ointment containing hyaluronic acid in rabbit tissues.

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, B; Parafiniuk, M; Bielecka-Grzela, S; Klimowicz, A; Piwowarska-Bilska, H; Mikołajczak, R; Listewnik, M H; Kurzejamska-Parafiniuk, M; Osowski, A; Byszewska-Szpocińska, E

    2011-01-01

    The properties of hyaluronic acid used for treatment of acute and chronic joint disease are known for many years and this compound is widely used both in humans and animals. To obtain a therapeutic effect of a certain drug, the appropriate concentration in the target organ or tissue is important. The application of labeled compounds is one of the frequently applied techniques to estimate drug penetration into the skin and other body tissues or organs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the penetration of hyaluronic acid labeled with I-131 through the skin and its distribution within the knee joint and other internal organs in rabbits after a topical application of an ointment containing hyaluronic acid. The experiment was performed on 22 albino rabbits divided into control and examined groups. Fifteen rabbits were exposed to the multicomponent ointment containing hyaluronic acid labeled with I-131. Time of exposure was 48 hours. Hyaluronate penetrated to a high degree into the examined tissues. No significant differences in terms of leg tissue activity were observed between a leg tissue exposed to labeled ointment and that unexposed, suggesting that after topical administration, the active component of the ointment is delivered to the joint via the blood stream. Hyaluronate applied topically penetrates through the skin into the rabbit tissues and organs and into the joint fluid of both legs (exposed and not exposed). This route of administration seems to be useful for this drug delivery and allows to avoid unnecessary side effects.

  16. A review of treatment options for Graves’ disease: why total thyroidectomy is a viable option in selected patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vinuta; Lind, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. If left untreated, patients may have multiple systemic complications such as cardiac, reproductive, and skeletal disease. Thionamides, such as methimazole and propylthiouracil, and I131 iodine ablation are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Graves’ disease. Total thyroidectomy is often overlooked for treatment and is usually only offered if the other options have failed. In our case, we discuss a patient who was admitted to our medical center with symptomatic hyperthyroidism secondary to long-standing Graves’ disease. She had a history of non-compliance with medications and medical clinic follow-up. The risks and benefits of total thyroidectomy were explained and she consented to surgery. A few months after the procedure, she was biochemically and clinically euthyroid on levothyroxine. She had no further emergency room visits or admissions for uncontrolled thyroid disease. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of the more typically prescribed treatments, thionamides and I131iodine ablation. We also review the importance of shared decision making and the benefits of total thyroidectomy for the management of Graves' disease. Given the improvement in surgical techniques over the past decade and a significant reduction of complications, we suggest total thyroidectomy be recommended more often for patients with Graves’ disease. PMID:27609732

  17. Long-term follow-up after iodine-131 treatment for Plummer's disease (autonomous goiter)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    A follow-up study is presented in 88 patients treated with I-131 for Plummer's disease (localized autonomous thyroid function, either multifocal or as a solitary nodule) one to 17 years before the present study. Studies included clinical examination, scintigraphy, and function tests. One patient was hypothyroid, seven were marginally hyperthyroid, and five still received low dose antithyroid drugs. Of 75 euthyroid patients, the thyrotropin (TSH) response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was absent in 16 (generally with scintigraphic evidence of autonomous function), subnormal in 20, and normal in 39. A single autonomous nodule prior to treatment was found relatively frequently in males and in patients with a normal TRH test at follow-up. Most goiters had become smaller and one third of all solitary nodules could not be detected anymore. Autonomous function at follow-up was probably due to residual rather than recurrent disease in most, if not all, cases. It is concluded that I-131 therapy is at least as satisfactory as partial thyroidectomy in the treatment of Plummer's disease; lifelong follow-up was not found to be necessary.

  18. Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following a postulated accident in PHWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, N.; Kansal, M.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following postulated accident i.e Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with failed Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), performed as part of the reactor safety analysis of a typical 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR). The rationale behind the assessment is that the public needs to be protected in the event that the postulated accident results in radionuclide release outside containment. Radionuclides deliver dose to the human body through various pathways namely, plume submersion, exposure due to ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The total exposure dose measured in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of doses to a hypothetical adult human at exclusion zone boundary by all the exposure pathways. The analysis provides the important inputs to decide upon the type of emergency counter measures to be adopted during the postulated accident. The importance of the various pathways in terms of contribution to the total effective dose equivalent(TEDE) is also assessed with respect to time of exposure. Inhalation and plume gamma dose are the major contributors towards TEDE during initial period of accident whereas ingestion and ground shine dose start dominating in TEDE in the extended period of exposure. Moreover, TEDE is initially dominated by I-131, Kr-88, Te-132, I-133 and Sr-89, whereas, as time progresses, Xe-133,I-131 and Te-132 become the main contributors. (authors)

  19. Antithyroglobulin Antibody as a Marker of Successful Ablation Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dewi, Ayu Rosemeilia; Darmawan, Budi; Kartamihadja, Achmad Hussein Sundawa; Hidayat, Basuki; Masjhur, Johan S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of antithyroglobulin antibody (ATA) serum as a marker of successful I-131 ablation therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with low serum thyroglobulin (Tg). A retrospective study was conducted on 60 patients (10 males and 50 females). All patients underwent posttotal thyroidectomy and received 2.96 to 3 GBq I-131 ablation. Subjects were divided into two groups with succesful and unsuccessful I-131 ablation therapies. The data of age, gender, histopathologic type, tumor size, and metastasis were collected. Preablation serum Tg and ATA level (Tg1 and ATA1) 6–12 months after ablation (Tg2 and ATA2) were measured. The success of ablation therapy was evaluated by diagnostic whole body scan (DxWBS) 6–12 months after ablation. There were no significant differences in age, gender, type of histopathology, tumor size, and nodal metastasis between the two groups. ATA2 ≤30 kIU/L were found in 23 (62.2%) subjects with successful ablation therapy, and ATA2 >30 kIU/L in 16 (69.6%) subjects belonged to the unsuccessful group (P = 0.017). Changes between ATA1 and ATA2 levels did not differ significantly in both the groups (P = 0.062). Tg1 <10 mg/L was found in 26 (57.8%) subjects with successful therapy (P = 0.037). Multivariate analysis showed ATA2 and Tg1 as the independent factors for the success of ablation therapy (P = 0.007 and 0.015). Adjusted odds ratio of postablation ATA was 5.379 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.590 to 18.203] and preablation Tg was 5.822 (95% CI 1.418 to 23.902). ATA levels at 6–12 months after ablation, by considering the preablation Tg levels, is a useful marker to determine successful ablation therapy in WDTC patients with low serum Tg. Changes in serum ATA levels, although not statistically significant, can provide additional information about the course of the disease. PMID:28217014

  20. Detailed source term estimation of atmospheric release during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kajino, Mizuo

    2014-05-01

    Temporal variations of release amounts of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident and their dispersion process are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. Here, we estimated a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data and coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations by WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN developed by the authors. New schemes for wet, dry, and fog depositions of radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (I-131, Te-132, Cs-137, and Cs-134) were incorporated into WSPEEDI-II. The deposition calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data of ocean dispersion calculations by SEA-GEARN. The reverse estimation method based on the simulation by both models assuming unit release rate (1 Bq h-1) was adopted to estimate the source term at the FNPP1 using air dose rate, and air sea surface concentrations. The results suggested that the major release of radionuclides from the FNPP1 occurred in the following periods during March 2011: afternoon on the 12th when the venting and hydrogen explosion occurred at Unit 1, morning on the 13th after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight on the 14th when several openings of SRV (steam relief valve) were conducted at Unit 2, morning and night on the 15th, and morning on the 16th. The modified WSPEEDI-II using the newly estimated source term well reproduced local and regional patterns of air dose rate and surface deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 obtained by airborne observations. Our dispersion simulations also revealed that the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPP1 were created from 15th to 16th March by complicated interactions among rainfall (wet deposition), plume movements, and phase properties (gas or particle) of I-131 and release rates

  1. Correction for collimator-detector response in SPECT using point spread function template.

    PubMed

    Chun, Se Young; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Dewaraja, Yuni K

    2013-02-01

    Compensating for the collimator-detector response (CDR) in SPECT is important for accurate quantification. The CDR consists of both a geometric response and a septal penetration and collimator scatter response. The geometric response can be modeled analytically and is often used for modeling the whole CDR if the geometric response dominates. However, for radionuclides that emit medium or high-energy photons such as I-131, the septal penetration and collimator scatter response is significant and its modeling in the CDR correction is important for accurate quantification. There are two main methods for modeling the depth-dependent CDR so as to include both the geometric response and the septal penetration and collimator scatter response. One is to fit a Gaussian plus exponential function that is rotationally invariant to the measured point source response at several source-detector distances. However, a rotationally-invariant exponential function cannot represent the star-shaped septal penetration tails in detail. Another is to perform Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations to generate the depth-dependent point spread functions (PSFs) for all necessary distances. However, MC simulations, which require careful modeling of the SPECT detector components, can be challenging and accurate results may not be available for all of the different SPECT scanners in clinics. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach to CDR modeling. We use a Gaussian function plus a 2-D B-spline PSF template and fit the model to measurements of an I-131 point source at several distances. The proposed PSF-template-based approach is nearly non-parametric, captures the characteristics of the septal penetration tails, and minimizes the difference between the fitted and measured CDR at the distances of interest. The new model is applied to I-131 SPECT reconstructions of experimental phantom measurements, a patient study, and a MC patient simulation study employing the XCAT phantom. The proposed model

  2. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  3. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest

  4. [Cinema and neurology: early educational applications].

    PubMed

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2015-03-01

    Introduccion. El cine se utiliza, desde sus inicios, en la docencia de la neurologia para ilustrar las explicaciones del profesor y facilitar el aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Objetivo. Analizar algunas de las primeras aplicaciones del cine en la docencia de la neurologia. Desarrollo. Poco despues del nacimiento del cinematografo, se observo que este podia ser de utilidad en la docencia de la medicina, especialmente de la neurologia. En primer lugar, se utilizaron las propias filmaciones de los medicos y, posteriormente, documentales, cortometrajes y peliculas de cine comercial, para mostrar metodos diagnosticos y terapeuticos y diversos signos patologicos, como trastornos del movimiento. No se pretendia sustituir otras metodologias, sino complementarlas y facilitar la adquisicion de conocimientos. Conclusiones. La aplicacion del cine en la docencia es de utilidad para ilustrar los contenidos de diversas materias, en especial en el ambito de la neurologia, y para favorecer la adquisicion de competencias especificas y transversales, obteniendose resultados muy favorables entre los alumnos.

  5. Possible consequences of severe accidents at the Lubiatowo site, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Philipp, Anne; Hofman, Radek; Gufler, Klaus; Sholly, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is under consideration in Poland. One of the sites under discussion is near Lubiatowo, located on the cost of the Baltic Sea northwest of Gdansk. An assessment of possible environmental consequences is carried out for 88 real meteorological cases with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. Based on literature research, three reactor designs (ABWR, EPR, AP 1000) were identified as being under discussion in Poland. For each of the designs, a set of accident scenarios was evaluated and two source terms per reactor design were selected for analysis. One of the selected source terms was a relatively large release while the second one was a severe accident with an intact containment. Considered endpoints of the calculations are ground contamination with Cs-137 and time-integrated concentrations of I-131 in air as well as committed doses. They are evaluated on a grid of ca. 3 km mesh size covering eastern Central Europe.

  6. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment.

  7. [Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of γ-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages.

  8. Synthesis of four stereoisomers of 1-azabiocyclo[2.2.2]OCT-3-YL-{alpha}-fluoroalkyl-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (FQNPe): Potential imaging ligands for the muscarinic-cholinergic receptor (m-AChR) by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    Earlier studies with the racemic 1-azabiocyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-fluoroalkyl-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (FQNPe) mixture had demonstrated high in vitro binding affinity for the muscarinic-cholinergic receptor (m-AChR). Pre-treatment of rats with this new agent significantly blocked receptor localization of subsequently injected [I-131]-Z-(-,-)-IQNP, which is an established high affinity m-AChR ligand. Syntheses and characterization of the four FQNPe stereoisomers: (-)(-) FQNPe, (-)(+) FQNPe, (+)(-) FQNPe, and (+)(+) FQNPe will be presented. The interesting NMR spectra of the diastereomeric salts formed in the resolution of racemic {alpha}-(1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy {alpha}-phenylacetic acid will also be discussed.

  9. Accuracy of quantitative reconstructions in SPECT/CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbinin, S.; Celler, A.; Belhocine, T.; van der Werf, R.; Driedger, A.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the quantitative accuracy of our OSEM-APDI reconstruction method based on SPECT/CT imaging for Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, and I-131 isotopes. Phantom studies were performed on a SPECT/low-dose multislice CT system (Infinia-Hawkeye-4 slice, GE Healthcare) using clinical acquisition protocols. Two radioactive sources were centrally and peripherally placed inside an anthropometric Thorax phantom filled with non-radioactive water. Corrections for attenuation, scatter, collimator blurring and collimator septal penetration were applied and their contribution to the overall accuracy of the reconstruction was evaluated. Reconstruction with the most comprehensive set of corrections resulted in activity estimation with error levels of 3-5% for all the isotopes.

  10. Changing annual incidence of hypothyroidism after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism, 1951-1975

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E.

    1982-02-01

    The incidence of hypothyroidism was analyzed in 4,553 hyperthyroid patients treated with I-131 between 1951 and 1975. The average annual rate of hypothyroidism during the first 7 yr after therapy increased continuously for each 5-yr period of treatment, from 3.6% for patients treated between 1951 and 1955 to 7.7% for patients treated during the period from 1971 though 1975 (p less than 0.001). The increase in the incidence of hypothyroidism was seen before the introduction of TSH assays and when allowance was made for thyroid gland size, the age of the patient, and the experience of the radiotherapist. The use of TSH assays has probably resulted in an earlier recognition of hypothyroidism, which may explain why the most marked rise in the incidence of hypothyroidism was observed after the introduction of TSH assays.

  11. Changing annual incidence of hypothyroidism after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism, 1951-1975

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E.

    1982-02-01

    The incidence of hypothyroidism was analyzed in 4,553 hyperthyroid patients treated with I-131 between 1951 and 1975. The average annual rate of hypothyroidism during the first 7 yr after therapy increased continuously for each 5-yr period of treatment, from 3.6% for patients treated between 1951 and 1955 to 7.7% for patients treated during the period from 1971 through 1975 (p<0.001). The increase in the incidence of hypothyroidism was seen before the introduction of TSH assays and when allowance was made for thyroid gland size, the age of the patient, and the experience of the radiotherapist. The use of TSH assays has probably resulted in an earlier recognition of hypothyroidism, which may explain why the most marked rise in the incidence of hypothyroidism was observed after the introduction of TSH assays.

  12. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of renal transplant failure

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.S.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Waxman, A.D.; Crues, J.V. III

    1988-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was compared with radionuclide scintigraphy (RNS) in 16 patients with renal transplants undergoing renal failure to determine which modality could best discriminate between rejection, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and cyclosporin nephrotoxicity (CN). Although all rejecting transplants had reduced corticomedullary differentiation (CMD) on T1-weighted MR images, four of five cases of ATN had appearances that could not be distinguished from rejection. A normal CMD suggests nonrejection, but diminished CMD is nonspecific. Tc-99m DTPA/I-131 hippuran RNS was superior to MRI in differentiating rejection from ATN. Although ATN and CN have similar RNS patterns, this distinction can usually be made based on the clinical time course. Other potential uses of MRI in the evaluation of the renal transplants are discussed.

  13. Clinical application of SPECT in adrenal imaging with iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimura, J.; Kawanaka, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1989-04-01

    Forty-one patients with or without adrenocortical disorders were studied to evaluate the clinical usefulness of SPECT in adrenal imaging with I-131 Adosterol. In the SPECT images from this study, all glands with either normally functioning or hyperfunctioning adrenal cortices could be detected, while those glands with hypofunctioning adrenal cortices could not be detected. Particularly in transaxial and sagittal slices, the adrenal gland was identified posteriorly and was clearly distinguished from the gallbladder. In preliminary results using SPECT by a standard method, uptake in 68 detectable glands ranged from 1.7% to 4.9% in four glands with Cushing's syndrome, from 1.1% to 1.3% in seven glands with primary aldosteronism, and were distributed below 1.0% in the remaining glands with normally functioning adrenal cortices. These data show that it is possible to evaluate the adrenocortical functioning status simply by analyzing the SPECT images of the adrenal.

  14. Cancer radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    SciTech Connect

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is the development of effective approaches for delivering radiation therapy to patients with cancer using radiopharmaceuticals produced from monoclonal antibodies. One major achievement of this program has been the development of a new, Cu-67 chelator (Teta). This chelator firmly holds copper even in the presence of competitive serum proteins. Copper has proven to be labile with other chelators. Also, a single photon emission tomographic camera was purchased with University and philanthropic funds specifically for this program. This allows full-time developmental work on quantitative imaging approaches and in vivo kinetics of our various radiopharmaceutical antibody products. The pharmakinetics of I-123 antibody and antibody fragments have been obtained in patients utilizing quantitative imaging and have demonstrated significant differences as well as the need for long- term studies with I-131 and Cu-67.

  15. Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in submandibular ectopic thyroid with no orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Guerrissi, Jorge O

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue with no orthotopic gland is extremely rare; malign transformation of ectopic thyroid is also an uncommon event, and rarer is the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. In this clinical report, a case with submandibular ectopic thyroid without orthotropic thyroid gland is presented. Treatment was a complete resection of tumor, and histologic findings reveal follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery, and a substitution treatment with thyroxine was maintained. Physicians should be aware of the possibility that a lingual, submandibular, or lateral neck swelling could be an ectopic thyroid gland. This entity poses specific diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties, and definitive diagnosis is histologic. Computed tomographic scan, radioactive scan, and ultrasonography are necessary in revealing the presence of normal thyroid gland. Recommended treatment is primarily surgical, sometimes associated with radioiodine I 131 therapy and a substitution treatment with thyroxine.

  16. Cyclotron production of I-123: An evaluation of the nuclear reactions which produce this isotope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodd, V. J.; Scholz, K. L.; Blue, J. W.; Wellman, H. N.

    1970-01-01

    The use of the various nuclear reactions is described by which I-123,a low radiation dose radiopharmaceutical, can be cyclotron-produced. Methods of directly producing I-123 and those which indirectly produce the radionuclide through the beta (+) decay of its nautral precursor, Xe-123. It is impossible to separate from the radioiodine contaminants, notably I-124, which occur in the direct method. Thus, it is preferable to produce pure I-123 from Xe-123 which is easily separated from the radioiodines. Among the characteristics of I-123 is the capability of reducing the patient dose in a thyroid uptake measurement to a very small percentage of that delivered by the more commonly used I-131.

  17. Observation of radioactive iodine ((131)I, (129)I) in cropland soil after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    During the early stages of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the temporal variations of (131)I deposited on the ground and of (131)I accumulated in cropland soil were monitored at a fixed location in Japan. Moreover, concentrations of long-lived radioactive iodine ((129)I) in atmospheric deposits and soil were measured to examine the feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing (131)I levels from the levels of accident-derived (129)I. The exceptionally high levels of (131)I in deposits and soil were attributed to rainfall-related deposition of radionuclides. In the crop field studied, the losses of deposited (131)I and (129)I due to volatilization were small. The atomic ratio (129)I/(131)I in the topsoil corresponded to the same ratio in deposits. The (131)I concentrations measured in the topsoil were very consistent with the (131)I concentrations reconstructed from the (129)I concentrations in the soil.

  18. Diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease in infants and children with Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, R.; Klingensmith, W.C.; Lilly, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Thirteen infants and children from 42 days to 14 years old with hepatobiliary disease underwent Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA hepatobiliary imaging. Five patients had biliary atresia, four had biliary hypoplasia, two had neonatal hepatitis, and there were single examples of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and congenital hepatic fibrosis. Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA imaging accurately differentiated biliary atresia (complete bile duct obstruction) from other forms of childhood hepatobiliary disease by demonstrating no intestinal radioactivity in the former and the presence of intestinal radioactivity in the latter. In addition, two of four patients with biliary hypoplasia had nonhomogeneous parenchymal transit, and the one patient with congenital hepatic fibrosis showed possible intrahepatic cysts. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate that Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA provides information not previously available with I-131-rose bengal; this information is likely to be useful in the noninvasive evaluation of childhood hepatobiliary disease.

  19. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Evans, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  20. The necessity of nuclear reactors for targeted radionuclide therapies.

    PubMed

    Krijger, Gerard C; Ponsard, Bernard; Harfensteller, Mark; Wolterbeek, Hubert T; Nijsen, Johannes W F

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear medicine has been contributing towards personalized therapies. Nuclear reactors are required for the working horses of both diagnosis and treatment, i.e., Tc-99m and I-131. In fact, reactors will remain necessary to fulfill the demand for a variety of radionuclides and are essential in the expanding field of targeted radionuclide therapies for cancer. However, the main reactors involved in the global supply are ageing and expected to shut down before 2025. Therefore, the fields of (nuclear) medicine, nuclear industry and politics share a global responsibility, faced with the task to secure future access to suitable nuclear reactors. At the same time, alternative production routes should be industrialized. For this, a coordinating entity should be put into place.

  1. Blood cell labelling. Theory and methods: radiation hazards.

    PubMed

    Trott, N G; Akbari, R B

    1984-02-03

    The chief physical properties of the radionuclide In111 are outlined, and compared with those of three other radionuclides, Tc99m, I131 and Cr51 which have similar applications. It is pointed out that the gamma-rays of In111 are appreciably more penetrating in lead than those of Tc99m and the significance of this, both in the use of shielding on syringes and in the effectiveness of lead glass screens is discussed. Examples are given of the dosimetry for In111 labelled cells in humans and it is noted that the absorbed dose in the spleen per mCi (37 MBq) injected may be some 10 rad (0.1 Gy). The problems that have been noted of damage to cells arising from oxine labelling and now considered to be due to radiation damage are briefly reviewed.

  2. Fission products in National Atmospheric Deposition Program—Wet deposition samples prior to and following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident, March 8?April 5, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Nilles, Mark A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Gay, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes I-131, Cs-134, or Cs-137, products of uranium fission, were measured at approximately 20 percent of 167 sampled National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring sites in North America (primarily in the contiguous United States and Alaska) after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident on March 12, 2011. Samples from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were analyzed for the period of March 8-April 5, 2011. Calculated 1- or 2-week radionuclide deposition fluxes at 35 sites from Alaska to Vermont ranged from 0.47 to 5,100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period of March 15-April 5, 2011. No fission-product isotopes were measured in National Atmospheric Deposition Program samples obtained during March 8-15, 2011, prior to the arrival of contaminated air in North America.

  3. Treatment of neuroblastoma in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome with a PHOX2B polyalanine repeat expansion mutation: New twist on a neurocristopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Amy E; Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Mian, Amir; Maris, John M; Batra, Vandana; Gosiengfiao, Yasmin; Reichek, Jennifer; Madonna, Mary Beth; Bush, Jonathan W; Shore, Richard M; Walterhouse, David O

    2015-11-01

    Neuroblastoma in patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) as part of a neurocristopathy syndrome is a rare finding and has only been associated with paired-like homeobox 2b (PHOX2B) non-polyalanine-repeat-expansion mutations. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of a child with CCHS and Hirschsprung disease who had a PHOX2B polyalanine-repeat-expansion mutation (PARM) (genotype 20/33) and developed high-risk neuroblastoma. We further describe his treatment including chemotherapy and therapeutic I(131) -metaiodobenzylguanidine. This case highlights the need to consider neuroblastoma in patients with CCHS and the longest PHOX2B PARMs and to individualize treatment based on co-morbidities.

  4. The NIST radioactivity measurement assurance program for the radiopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Cessna, Jeffrey T; Golas, Daniel B

    2012-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) maintains a program for the establishment and dissemination of activity measurement standards in nuclear medicine. These standards are disseminated through Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), Calibration Services, radionuclide calibrator settings, and the NIST Radioactivity Measurement Assurance Program (NRMAP, formerly the NEI/NIST MAP). The MAP for the radiopharmaceutical industry is described here. Consolidated results show that, for over 3600 comparisons, 96% of the participants' results differed from that of NIST by less than 10%, with 98% being less than 20%. Individual radionuclide results are presented from 214 to 439 comparisons, per radionuclide, for (67)Ga, (90)Y, (99m)Tc, (99)Mo, (111)In, (125)I, (131)I, and (201)Tl. The percentage of participants results within 10% of NIST ranges from 88% to 98%.

  5. Cancer radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach. Progress report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-12-31

    The objective of this program is the development of effective approaches for delivering radiation therapy to patients with cancer using radiopharmaceuticals produced from monoclonal antibodies. One major achievement of this program has been the development of a new, Cu-67 chelator (Teta). This chelator firmly holds copper even in the presence of competitive serum proteins. Copper has proven to be labile with other chelators. Also, a single photon emission tomographic camera was purchased with University and philanthropic funds specifically for this program. This allows full-time developmental work on quantitative imaging approaches and in vivo kinetics of our various radiopharmaceutical antibody products. The pharmakinetics of I-123 antibody and antibody fragments have been obtained in patients utilizing quantitative imaging and have demonstrated significant differences as well as the need for long- term studies with I-131 and Cu-67.

  6. Isolated Liver Metastasis in Hürthle Cell Thyroid Cancer Treated with Microwave Ablation.

    PubMed

    Segkos, Konstantinos; Schmidt, Carl; Nabhan, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) is a less common form of differentiated thyroid cancer. It rarely metastasizes to the liver, and when it does, the metastasis is almost never isolated. Here we report a 62-year-old male with widely invasive Hürthle cell thyroid cancer, who underwent total thyroidectomy and received adjuvant treatment with I-131 with posttreatment scan showing no evidence of metastatic disease. His thyroglobulin however continued to rise after that and eventually an isolated liver metastasis was identified. He underwent laparoscopic microwave ablation of the liver metastasis, with dramatic decline in thyroglobulin and no structural disease identified to date. This case highlights the rare occurrence of isolated liver metastasis from HCTC and also illustrates the utility of thermoablation as an alternative to surgical resection in the treatment of small isolated liver metastases from HCTC.

  7. Isolated Liver Metastasis in Hürthle Cell Thyroid Cancer Treated with Microwave Ablation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) is a less common form of differentiated thyroid cancer. It rarely metastasizes to the liver, and when it does, the metastasis is almost never isolated. Here we report a 62-year-old male with widely invasive Hürthle cell thyroid cancer, who underwent total thyroidectomy and received adjuvant treatment with I-131 with posttreatment scan showing no evidence of metastatic disease. His thyroglobulin however continued to rise after that and eventually an isolated liver metastasis was identified. He underwent laparoscopic microwave ablation of the liver metastasis, with dramatic decline in thyroglobulin and no structural disease identified to date. This case highlights the rare occurrence of isolated liver metastasis from HCTC and also illustrates the utility of thermoablation as an alternative to surgical resection in the treatment of small isolated liver metastases from HCTC. PMID:28163939

  8. [Effectiveness of Lenvatinib for Thyroid Cancer with Lung Metastases - Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Saki; Matsuo, Sadanori; Takahashi, Mayumi; Umemoto, Yasuko; Hirano, Tomohiro; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Kenichi; Amano, Sadao

    2016-11-01

    A 73-year-old woman visited our hospital 1 year 4 months ago because of multiple lung masses that were incidentally detected on CT. We subsequently conducted a whole body examination. Ultrasonography revealed multiple masses in her thyroid. We performed fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology(ABC), and the cytological diagnosis was papillary carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and modified radical neck dissection were performed. Two months after the operation, cervical lymph nodes were enlarged, and she received I -131 radioisotope therapy. However, the lung masses became enlarged. Five months after operation, she was stared on lenvatinib therapy. The lung lesions did not progress during the 10 months after starting this therapy. In this case, lenvatinib was effective against metastatic thyroid cancer.

  9. Diagnostic imaging in mediastinal thyroid tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Cho, S.R.; Purcell, M.; Tsung-Yao, H.; Domstad, P.A.; Liu, C.I.; DeLand, F.H.

    1984-12-01

    Various diagnostic imagings in nine patients with mediastinal goiters were presented. The clinical manifestations of these patients were various, from totally asymptomatic to severe dyspnea. Six of the nine patients underwent surgical intervention, three were follicular adenomas and three were nodular goiters. A chest radiograph (positive in seven out of nine patients) provided the most valuable initial localization of a goiter mass to the anterior, middle, or posterior compartment. Esophagograms (performed in four patients) showed compression of esophagus by the mediastinal mass. I-131 scintigraphy (performed in seven patients) was capable of detection of functional (in three patients) vs nonfunctional status of thyroid status (in four patients). Angiography (performed in five patients), characterized by anatomic continuity with cervical thyroid gland, calcifications, well-defined border of masses and/or contrast enhancement, offered important roles to direct a diagnosis of intrathoracic goiter. The computed tomography becomes increasingly important because all mediastinal goiters are not radioiodine avid.

  10. Therapeutic use of /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in neuroblastoma: a phase II study in nine patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, O.; Lumbroso, J.; Lemerle, J.; Schlumberger, M.; Ricard, M.; Aubert, B.; Coonaert, S.; Merline, L.; Olive, D.; De Lumley, L.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of high activities of I 131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) were evaluated in nine children with advanced neuroblastoma. All patients had been previously heavily treated and had either primarily refractory disease or resistant relapse. Twenty-two doses of mIBG labeled with 1.3 to 4 GBq (35-108 mCi) of iodine 131 were administered. Three subjective effects, especially relief of pain, and two objective effects were observed. Transient blood pressure increase was observed once and did not recur after prolongation of the infusion time to 6 hours. A major side effect was bone marrow toxicity, essentially marked by thrombopenia, particularly severe in previously bone-marrow-transplanted patients.

  11. Differential renal function in unilateral renal injury: possible effects of radiopharmaceutical choice. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Lallone, R.

    1985-01-01

    An abnormal filtration fraction or a significant divergence between a kidney's ability to extract Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and other function parameters, such as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or the effective renal plasma flow (ERPF, could lead to different estimates of relative or absolute renal function, depending on the radiopharmaceutical administered. To evaluate this possible divergence, the authors measured the relative GFR (I-125 iothalamate), ERPF (I-131 hippurate), and Tc-99m DMSA accumulation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction or unilateral ischemia at various times after renal injury. The relative ERPF of the obstructed kidney was significantly greater than the relative GFR at all time periods studied; significant but less dramatic differences were noted comparing DMSA with GFR in obstruction and DMSA and ERPF with GRF in ischemia.

  12. Role of nuclear medicine in clinical urology and nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.; Fine, E.; Lee, H.B.; Scharf, S.

    1984-05-01

    The application of radionuclide studies to nephrologic and urologic practice has reached a measurable degree of maturity during the past several years. In spite of this, the utilization of these techniques in many institutions in the United States continues to be far less frequent than one would expect from the clinical advantages. The aim of this editorial is to try to place the role of nuclear medicine in urology and nephrology in perspective. At the present time, in spite of the large number of renal agents that have been developed, there is no practical ideal radiopharmaceutical that can serve as a universal agent. Arbitrarily, one may reduce the chief armamentarium to only four radiopharmaceuticals; technetium-99m DTPA, I-131 OIH (orthoiodohippurate), technetium-99m glucoheptonate and technetium-99m DMSA. These agents are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Thyroid cancer radioiodine therapy: health service performance and radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzi, S; Liossis, A; Lamprinakou, M

    2015-07-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission collected data related to radioiodine I-131 therapy (RAIT) delivery to differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients, for the period 2003-13, corresponding to 100 % of hospitals at national level. Radiation safety and health service performance outcome indicators were assessed. The numbers of hospitals and nuclear medicine (NM) therapy wards, as well as RAIT annual frequencies, have increased. Geographical inhomogeneous distribution of existing infrastructure is recorded. In some cases, the observed inefficient use of NM therapy wards seems to be due to lack of human resources (e.g. nurses). Regular assessment of appropriate key indicators could serve as a useful tool for radiation safety monitoring and health service performance improvement.

  14. Lipoprotein-X and other tests in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in the infant.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, P J; Yoss, B; Schussheim, A

    1979-01-01

    The infant with elevated direct-reacting bilirubin levels requires an early specific diagnosis to identify those who would require early surgical intervention and those in whom the bilirubin levels will eventually return to normal. This study compares the accuracy of three tests: the serum lipoprotein-X (LP-X), the I131 rose bengal (IRB) excretion and the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in making a specific diagnosis in 15 patients. When used individually the accuracy of the tests varies from 56-100%. The LP-X and IRB excretion are more specific and when in agreement are 100% acurate in the diagnosis of the neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) or extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO). This study suggests that both the LP-X and IRB excretion should be used in the investigation of the infant with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.

  15. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the peach bottom atomic power station: 1985-1986. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Domotor, S.L.; McLean, R.I.

    1989-07-01

    High-resolution gamma spectroscopy was used to determine radionuclide concentrations in over 450 biota and sediment samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) during 1985-1986. Low concentrations of PBAPS-related radionuclides (Zn65, Cs-134, and Cs-137) were detected in finfish, mussels, and crayfish. These PBAPS-related radionuclides and Co-60 were also detected in sediments. I-131 attributable to the Chernobyl reactor accident (April 26, 1986) was detected in environmental samples collected in May 1986. PBAPS-related radionuclide concentrations in biota and sediments represent small increments to the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system relative to natural and weapons test levels; radionuclide releases by PBAPS, and radiation doses to man, are well within regulatory limits.

  16. Therapeutic applications of radioactive 131iodine: Procedures and incidents with capsules

    PubMed Central

    Al Aamri, Marwa; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatments for thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma thyroid are carried out by oral administration of radioactive iodine (131I) in the form of liquid or capsules. The liquid form of 131I has higher risk factors such as vapourization, spillage and need for management of higher activity wastes. Use of 131I in capsule form simplify procedures of handling compared to liquid form of 131I. The guidelines of safe handling and quality assurance aspects for therapeutic use 131I are well outlined by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports. Aim: A few unusual incidents with I-131 capsules encountered in the past need to be highlighted from health physics point of view. Materials and Methods: In Royal Hospital, Oman, I-131 is imported in capsules, and the total activity handled/year steadily increased over 10 years. Discrete activities range from 185 MBq (5 mCi) up to 7.4 GBq (200 mCi). In four incidents deviations in standard operational procedures were recorded. Results: Nature of incidents is described as follows: (1) After assay of activity, the capsule was directly put in the lead container with missing of inner cap. (2) Patient poured water in the Perspex tube, when the capsule was handed over to her, making an emergency situation. (3) In 3 high activity capsules (2 nos 2.96 GBq, 1 no. 4.26 GBq), observed sticky behavior in capsule holder on the 2nd day post receipt, which were in order on the 1st day. (4) A capsule could not be swallowed by a patient, which was taken back from the mouth. Monitoring of patient later did not show residual ingested activity. Conclusions: The report documents some of the unusual incidents for information to other centers engaged in such radioactive administrations. PMID:27385885

  17. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-03-01

    ABT-869, Acadesine, Acetylsalicylic acid/omeprazole, Adefovir, Adefovir dipivoxil, AEG-35156, Agatolimod sodium, Albiglutide, Alemtuzumab, Alipogene tiparvovec, Alogliptin benzoate, AMG-386, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Apremilast, Aripiprazole, Asoprisnil, Atorvastatin/fenofibrate, AVN-944, Axitinib; Belinostat, Bevacizumab, BHT-3021, BI-2536, Biapenem, Bilastine, Biphasic insulin aspart, Blinatumomab, Bortezomib, Bosentan; Catumaxomab, CD-NP, Cediranib, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Choline fenofibrate, Ciclesonide, CK-1827452,Clevudine, Clofarabine, CSL-360, CYT-997; Dapagliflozin, Darinaparsin, Denosumab, Densiron 68, Desloratadine, Dulanermin; Edoxaban tosilate, Emtricitabine, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fidaxomicintiacumiv, Fulvestrant; G-207, GCR-8015, Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), Glufosfamide; HPV16L1E7CVLP; Ibutamoren mesilate, Imatinib mesylate, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Iodine (I131) tositumomab, Istaroxime, ITMN-191, Ixabepilone; JZP-4, Lenalidomide; Levetiracetam, Linaclotide acetate, Liposomal cytarabine/daunorubicin, Liposomal doxorubicin, Liraglutide, LY-518674; Milatuzumab, MMR-V, Motesanib diphosphate, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Niacin/simvastatin; Obatoclax mesylate, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Pazufloxacin, PBT-2, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pemetrexed disodium, Perampanel, PfCP2.9, Pitavastatin calcium, Poly I:CLC, Pomalidomide, Pralatrexate, Pramlintide acetate, Prucalopride; rhGAD65, Roflumilast; RTS,S/AS02D; SCH-530348, Semagacestat, Sirolimus-eluting coronary stent, Sirolimus-Eluting Stent, SIR-Spheres, Sivelestat sodium hydrate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Tafluprost, Tanespimycin, Teduglutide, Telaprevir, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tiotropium bromide, TMC-435350, Tositumomab/iodine (I131) tositumomab, Travoprost/timolol, Triciribine

  18. High-Dose [131I]Tositumomab (anti-CD20) Radioimmunotherapy and Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Adults ≥ 60 Years Old with Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, Ajay K.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Gooley, Ted; Pagel, John M.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Petersdorf, Stephen; Maloney, David G.; Eary, Janet F.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Press, Oliver W.

    2007-04-10

    Purpose: The majority of patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) are over 60 years of age, yet they are often denied potentially curative high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplants (ASCT) due to the risk of excessive treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Myeloablative anti-CD20 radioimmunotherapy (RIT) can deliver curative radiation doses to tumor sites while limiting exposure to normal organs and may be particularly suited for older adults requiring high-dose therapy. Methods: Patients over age 60 with relapsed B-NHL received infusions of tositumomab anti-CD20 antibody labeled with 5-10mCi I-131 tracer for dosimetry purposes followed 10 days later by individualized therapeutic infusions of I-131-tositumomab (median 525 mCi, range 328-1154 mCi) to deliver 25-27Gy to the critical normal organ receiving the highest radiation dose. ASCT was performed approximately 2 weeks after therapy. Results: Twenty-four patients with a median age of 64 (range 60-76) who had received a median of four prior regimens (range 2-14) were treated. Thirteen (54%) had chemotherapy-resistant disease. The estimated 3-year overall and progression-free survivals were 59% and 51%, respectively with a median follow-up of 2.9 years (range 1-6 years). All patients experienced expected myeloablation with engraftment of platelets (≥20K/µL) and neutrophils (≥500/µL) occurring a median of 9 and 15 days, respectively following ASCT. There were no treatment-related deaths, and only two patients experienced grade 4 non-hematologic toxicity. Conclusions: Myeloablative RIT and ASCT is a safe and effective therapeutic option for older adults with relapsed B-NHL.

  19. Evolution of flavone synthase I from parsley flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Yvonne Helen; Witte, Simone; Steuber, Holger; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    Flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase (FHT) and flavone synthase I (FNS I) are 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases with 80% sequence identity, which catalyze distinct reactions in flavonoid biosynthesis. However, FNS I has been reported exclusively from a few Apiaceae species, whereas FHTs are more abundant. Domain-swapping experiments joining the N terminus of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) FHT with the C terminus of parsley FNS I and vice versa revealed that the C-terminal portion is not essential for FNS I activity. Sequence alignments identified 26 amino acid substitutions conserved in FHT versus FNS I genes. Homology modeling, based on the related anthocyanidin synthase structure, assigned seven of these amino acids (FHT/FNS I, M106T, I115T, V116I, I131F, D195E, V200I, L215V, and K216R) to the active site. Accordingly, FHT was modified by site-directed mutagenesis, creating mutants encoding from one to seven substitutions, which were expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for FNS I and FHT assays. The exchange I131F in combination with either M106T and D195E or L215V and K216R replacements was sufficient to confer some FNS I side activity. Introduction of all seven FNS I substitutions into the FHT sequence, however, caused a nearly complete change in enzyme activity from FHT to FNS I. Both FHT and FNS I were proposed to initially withdraw the beta-face-configured hydrogen from carbon-3 of the naringenin substrate. Our results suggest that the 7-fold substitution affects the orientation of the substrate in the active-site pocket such that this is followed by syn-elimination of hydrogen from carbon-2 (FNS I reaction) rather than the rebound hydroxylation of carbon-3 (FHT reaction).

  20. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk.

  1. Evaluation of iodovinyl antibody conjugates: Comparison with a p-iodobenzoyl conjugate and direct radioiodination

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Wilbur, D.S. )

    1990-03-01

    The preparations and conjugations of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl 5-(125I/131I)iodo-4-pentenoate (7a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl 3,3-dimethyl-5-(125I/131I)iodo-4-pentenoate (7b) to monoclonal antibodies are reported. Reagents 7a and 7b were prepared in high radiochemical yield by iododestannylation of their corresponding 5-tri-n-butylstannyl precursors. Radioiodinated antibody conjugates were prepared by reaction of 7a or 7b with the protein at basic pH. Evaluation of these conjugates by several in vitro procedures demonstrated that the radiolabel was attached to the antibody in a stable manner and that the conjugates maintained immunoreactivity. Comparative dual-isotope biodistribution studies of a monoclonal antibody Fab fragment conjugate of 7a and 7b with the same Fab fragment labeled with N-succinimidyl p-(131I)iodobenzoate (PIB, p-iodobenzoate, 2) or directly radioiodinated have been carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. Coinjection of the Fab conjugate of 7a with the Fab conjugate of 2 demonstrated that the biodistributions were similar in most organs, except the neck tissue (thyroid-containing) and the stomach, which contained substantially increased levels of the 7a label. Coinjection of the Fab conjugate of 7a with the Fab fragment radioiodinated by using the chloramine-T method demonstrated that the biodistributions were remarkably similar, suggesting roughly equivalent in vivo deiodination of these labeled antibody fragments. Coinjection of the Fab conjugate of 7a with the Fab conjugate of 7b indicated that there was {approximately} a 2-fold reduction in the amount of in vivo deiodination of the 7b conjugate as compared to the 7a conjugate.

  2. Standardization of ¹³¹I: implementation of CIEMAT/NIST method at BARC, India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Reddy, P J; Joseph, Leena

    2011-10-01

    The CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method using ³H standard was implemented at Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) for the standardization of ¹³¹I radioactive solution. Measurements were also carried out using the 4π β-γ coincidence counting system maintained as a primary standard at the laboratory. The implementation of the CIEMAT/NIST method was verified by comparing the activity concentration obtained in the laboratory with that of the average value of the APMP intercomparison (Yunoki et al., in progress, (APMP.RI(II)-K2.I-131)). The results obtained by the laboratory is linked to the CIPM Key Comparison Reference Value (KCRV) through the equivalent activity value of National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) (Yunoki et al., in progress, (APMP.RI(II)-K2.I-131)), which was the pilot laboratory for the intercomparison. The procedure employed to standardize ¹³¹I by the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing technique is presented. The activity concentrations obtained have been normalized with the activity concentration measured by NMIJ to maintain confidentiality of results until the Draft-A report is accepted by all participants. The normalized activity concentrations obtained with the CIEMAT/NIST method was 0.9985 ± 0.0035 kBq/g and using 4π β-γ coincidence counting method was 0.9909 ± 0.0046 kBq/g as on 20 March 2009, 0 h UTC. The normalized activity concentration measured by the NMIJ was 1 ± 0.0024 kBq/g. The normalized average of the activity concentrations of all the participating laboratories was 1.004 ± 0.028 kBq/g. The results obtained in the laboratory are comparable with the other international standards within the uncertainty limits.

  3. A review of source term and dose estimation for the TMI-2 reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Dickerson, M.H.

    1990-09-01

    The TMI-2 nuclear reactor accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, produced environmental releases of noble gases and small quantities of radioiodine. The releases occurred over a roughly two week period with almost 90% of the noble gases being released during the first three days after the initiation of the accident. Meteorological conditions during the prolonged release period varied from strong synoptic driven flows that rapidly transported the radioactive gases out of the Harrisburg area to calm situations that allowed the radioactivity to accumulate within the low lying river area and to subsequently slowly disperse within the immediate vicinity of the reactor. The results reported by various analysts, revealed that approximately 2.4--10 million curies of noble gases (mainly Xe-133), and about 14 curies of I-131 were released. During the first two days, when most of the noble gas release occurred, the plume was transported in a northerly direction causing the most exposed area to lie within a northwesterly to northeasterly direction from TMI. Changing surface winds caused the plume to be subsequently transported in a southerly direction, followed by an easterly direction. The calculated maximum whole body dose due to plume passage exceeded 100 mrem over an area extending several kilometers north of the plant, although the highest measured dose was 75 mrem. The collective dose equivalent (within a radius of 80 km) due to the noble gas exposure ranged over several orders of magnitude with a central estimate of 3300 person-rem. The small I-131 release produced barely detectable levels of activity in air and milk samples. This may have produced thyroid doses of a few milirem to a small segment of the population. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Localization of radiolabeled anti-DNA monoclonal antibodies in murine systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R.; Hahn, B.; Ebling, F.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of SLE can be extremely difficult. This multi-system disease is characterized by the deposition of DNA-anti-DNA antibody (Ab) complexes in many tissues, producing glomerulonephritis and systemic vasculitis. This study evaluates an IGG monoclonal (Mo) Ab directe3d against DNA (MrSSl) for potential radioimmunodiagnosis of SLE. Six 15 wk. old F-1 female hybrids of NZB+NZW mice (an animal SLE model that develops vasculitis and nephritis) were injected with 50 ..mu..Cl of I-131 MrSSl and 15 ..mu..Cl of I-125 isotype-matched control mouse myeloma (LPC-1) (non-reactive with DNA). Imaging and tissue distribution were studied. Two animals were also imaged using I-131 LPC Ab. Images at 2 and 9 days showed no clear differences in scan patterns using MrSSl or LPC-1 Ab. Tissue distribution studies at six days, however, showed a significantly higher accumulation of MrSSl in the kidneys vs. control Ab (2.7% vs. 1.8% of injected dose) (p < .04). Similarly, higher levels of MrSS were also seen in the spleen, liver and lungs (p < .03). Blood levels tended to be higher with the specific antibody as well. These differences were not apparent at 3 days post injection. The increased concentration of MrSSl present at 9 days in several organs may be secondary to MrSSl binding to DNA containing immune complexes present in diseased tissues. Blocked clearance by immune complexes or DNA, or differences in electrical charges of the antibodies could be contributing to the higher MrSSl levels seen. Images did not suggest deiodination as responsible. Further studies are necessary to determine if the amount of MrSSl retained by diseased animals is indicative of SLE disease activity.

  5. A software to digital image processing to be used in the voxel phantom development.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J W; Lima, F R A

    2009-11-15

    Anthropomorphic models used in computational dosimetry, also denominated phantoms, are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real people by Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The voxel phantom construction requests computational processing for transformations of image formats, to compact two-dimensional (2-D) images forming of three-dimensional (3-D) matrices, image sampling and quantization, image enhancement, restoration and segmentation, among others. Hardly the researcher of computational dosimetry will find all these available abilities in single software, and almost always this difficulty presents as a result the decrease of the rhythm of his researches or the use, sometimes inadequate, of alternative tools. The need to integrate the several tasks mentioned above to obtain an image that can be used in an exposure computational model motivated the development of the Digital Image Processing (DIP) software, mainly to solve particular problems in Dissertations and Thesis developed by members of the Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numérica (GDN/CNPq). Because of this particular objective, the software uses the Portuguese idiom in their implementations and interfaces. This paper presents the second version of the DIP, whose main changes are the more formal organization on menus and menu items, and menu for digital image segmentation. Currently, the DIP contains the menus Fundamentos, Visualizações, Domínio Espacial, Domínio de Frequências, Segmentações and Estudos. Each menu contains items and sub-items with functionalities that, usually, request an image as input and produce an image or an attribute in the output. The DIP reads edits and writes binary files containing the 3-D matrix corresponding to a stack of axial images from a given geometry that can be a human body or other volume of interest. It also can read any type of computational image and to make conversions. When the task involves only an output image

  6. Management of thyroid cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A L; Gandhi, A; Scott-Coombes, D; Perros, P

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. This paper provides recommendations on the management of thyroid cancer in adults and is based on the 2014 British Thyroid Association guidelines. Recommendations • Ultrasound scanning (USS) of the nodule or goitre is a crucial investigation in guiding the need for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). (R) • FNAC should be considered for all nodules with suspicious ultrasound features (U3-U5). If a nodule is smaller than 10 mm in diameter, USS guided FNAC is not recommended unless clinically suspicious lymph nodes on USS are also present. (R) • Cytological analysis and categorisation should be reported according to the current British Thyroid Association Guidance. (R) • Ultrasound scanning assessment of cervical nodes should be done in FNAC-proven cancer. (R) • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) should be done in suspected cases of retrosternal extension, fixed tumours (local invasion with or without vocal cord paralysis) or when haemoptysis is reported. When CT with contrast is used pre-operatively, there should be a two-month delay between the use of iodinated contrast media and subsequent radioactive iodine (I131) therapy. (R) • Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography imaging is not recommended for routine evaluation. (G) • In patients with thyroid cancer, assessment of extrathyroidal extension and lymph node disease in the central and lateral neck compartments should be undertaken pre-operatively by USS and cross-sectional imaging (CT or MRI) if indicated. (R) • For patients with Thy 3f or Thy 4 FNAC a diagnostic hemithyroidectomy is recommended. (R) • Total thyroidectomy is recommended for patients with tumours greater than 4 cm in diameter or tumours of any size in association with any of the following characteristics: multifocal disease, bilateral disease, extrathyroidal

  7. Tracing Fukushima Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere -An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Punam; Ballard, Sally; Nelson, Roger

    2013-04-01

    A massive 9.0 earthquake and ensuing tsunami struck the northern coast of the Honshu-island, Japan on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the electric system of the Fukushima- Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The structural damage to the plant disabled the reactor's cooling systems. Subsequent fires, a hydrogen explosion and possible partial core meltdowns released radioactive fission products into the atmosphere. The atmospheric release from the crippled Fukushima NPP started on March 12, 2011 with a maximum release phase from March 14 to 17. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases xenon (Xe-133) and krypton (Kr-85); iodine (I-131,I-132); cesium (Cs-134,Cs-136,Cs-137); and tellurium (Te-132). The non-volatile radionuclides such as isotopes of strontium and plutonium are believed to have remained largely inside the reactor, although there is evidence of plutonium release into the environment. Global air monitoring across the northern hemisphere was increased following the first reports of atmospheric releases. According to the source term, declared by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of Japan), approximately 160 PBq (1 PBq (Peta Becquerel = 10^15 Bq)) of I-131 and 15 PBq of Cs-137 (or 770 PBq "iodine-131 equivalent"), were released into the atmosphere. The 770 PBq figure is about 15% of the Chernobyl release of 5200 PBq of "iodine-131 equivalent". For the assessment of contamination after the accident and to track the transport time of the contaminated air mass released from the Fukushima NPP across the globe, several model calculations were performed by various research groups. All model calculations suggested long-range transport of radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima NPP towards the North American Continent to Europe and to Central Asia. As a result, an elevated level of Fukushima radionuclides were detected in air, rain, milk, and vegetation samples across the northern

  8. Freshwater sediments and sludges: two important terrestrial sinks for emissions from damaged NPPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Evangelia Souti, Maria; Ulbrich, Susanne; Hormann, Volker

    2013-04-01

    Surface deposition of radionuclides released from the damaged Fukushima NPPs is well documented and emissions to the Pacific Ocean and their distribution with time and space are also subject to monitoring and research. In both cases, solid matter (soil and sea sediment, respectively) acts as a sink for radioisotopes after their transport through air and water. The possible hazards from direct irradiation of workers and public and from entry of radionuclides into food chains are well recognized. Apart from direct deposition onto soil, plants, building roofs etc., aerosols and contaminated rainwater will reach surface waters, leading to long-term deposition in freshwater sediments (and possibly to interim contamination of drinking water). In populated and industrial areas, drained rainwater will enter the wastewater collection and treatment chain if a combined rain and wastewater sewer is used. Depending on the processes in the wastewater treatment plant and chemical element and speciation, the isotopes will either concentrate in treatment sludge or be released with the effluent to rivers and lakes and their sediments. The mentioned media may act as long-term storage for radioisotopes when disposed of properly, but can also contribute to direct irradiation of workers or public, lead to continuous releases to the environment and possibly enter the food chain in the same way as soil and sea sediments. It appears therefore essential to monitor these environmental compartments as well. However, very few data on Fukushima-related radioisotope concentration in sludges and freshwater sediments have been published to date. We will therefore compare data for regional surface deposition and related concentrations in surface water, river sediments and sewage sludge obtained in Europe during 1986 to published data from Japan in 2011 for the most important common short-lived (I-131, half-life = 8.02 d) and long-lived (Cs-137, half-life = 30.17 yr) isotopes. As in central Europe

  9. Long-lived positron emitters zirconium-89 and iodine-124 for scouting of therapeutic radioimmunoconjugates with PET.

    PubMed

    Verel, Iris; Visser, Gerard W M; Boerman, Otto C; van Eerd, Julliette E M; Finn, Ron; Boellaard, Ronald; Vosjan, Maria J W D; Stigter-van Walsum, Marijke; Snow, Gordon B; van Dongen, Guus A M S

    2003-08-01

    Antibody-PET imaging might be of value for the selection of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) candidates to confirm tumor targeting and to estimate radiation doses to tumor and normal tissues. One of the requirements to be set for such a scouting procedure is that the biodistributions of the diagnostic and therapeutic radioimmunoconjugates should be similar. In the present study we evaluated the potential of the positron emitters zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) and iodine-124 ((124)I) for this approach, as these radionuclides have a relatively long half-life that matches with the kinetics of MAbs in vivo (t(1/2) 3.27 and 4.18 days, respectively). After radiolabeling of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)-selective chimeric antibody (cMAb) U36, the biodistribution of two diagnostic (cMAb U36-N-sucDf-(89)Zr and cMAb U36-(124)I) and three therapeutic radioimmunoconjugates (cMAb U36-p-SCN-Bz-DOTA-(88)Y-with (88)Y being substitute for (90)Y, cMAb U36-(131)I, and cMAb U36-MAG3-(186)Re) was assessed in mice with HNSCC-xenografts, at 24, 48, and 72 hours after injection. Two patterns of biodistribution were observed, one pattern matching for (89)Zr- and (88)Y-labeled cMAb U36 and one pattern matching for (124)I-, (131)I-, and (186)Re-cMAb U36. The most remarkable differences between both patterns were observed for uptake in tumor and liver. Tumor uptake levels were 23.2 +/- 0.5 and 24.1 +/- 0.7%ID/g for the (89)Zr- and (88)Y-cMAb U36 and 16.0 +/- 0.8, 15.7 +/- 0.79 and 17.1 +/- 1.6%ID/g for (124)I-, (131)I-, and (186)Re-cMAb U36-conjugates, respectively, at 72 hours after injection. For liver these values were 6.9 +/- 0.8 ((89)Zr), 6.2 +/- 0.8 ((88)Y), 1.7 +/- 0.1 ((124)I), 1.6 +/- 0.1 ((131)I), and 2.3 +/- 0.1 ((186)Re), respectively. These preliminary data justify the further development of antibody-PET with (89)Zr-labeled MAbs for scouting of therapeutic doses of (90)Y-labeled MAbs. In such approach (124)I-labeled MAbs are most suitable for scouting of (131)I- and (186)Re

  10. Thyroid Patient Salivary Radioiodine Transit and Dysfunction Assessment Using Chewing Gums.

    PubMed

    Okkalides, Demetrios

    2016-11-01

    Radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction is the most frequent side-effect of I-131 thyroid therapy. Here, a novel saliva sampling method with ordinary chewing gums administered to the patients at appropriate time intervals post-treatment (TIPT) was used to relate this effect to chewing gum saliva activity (CGSA) content. Saliva samples were acquired after the oral administration of prescribed I-131 activity (radioactivity administered [RA]) to 19 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and 16 hyperthyroidism patients of the radioisotope unit (RIU) during 2014 and 2015. The error of this saliva collecting process was found to be 1.2%-2.05%, and so, the method was considered satisfactory. For each patient, the CGSA was plotted against the TIPT producing a curve, R(t). On this, two functions were fitted: a linear on the first few rising data points and a gamma variate over the peak of the R(t). From these, several parameters related to the radioactivity oral transit were calculated and the total radioactivity administered (TRA) during all past treatments of each patient was obtained from RIU records. The patients were asked to report any swelling, dry mouth, taste-smell change, or pain and were graded as a morbidity score (MS) describing the quality of life of each. The peak radioactivity in the saliva samples, Rmax, was found to be proportional to RA and was plotted against the CGSA extrapolated at 24 and 36 hours. The linear fits produced were used to estimate the salivary glands' activity average effective half-life (16.3 hours). The MS of DTC patients was found to depend linearly both on Rmax and TRA (MS = 0.0032 × Rmax - 0.7107 and MS = 0.1862 × TRA +0.66, respectively). Both lines were used to extrapolate symptom thresholds. The measurement of Rmax in DTC patients proved very useful for individualized radiation protection, and the dependence of MS on TRA should be used when additional treatments are considered for repeat DTC patients.

  11. Analysis of time series of Cs-137 concentration in sewage sludge at Fukushima City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Mack, Majvor; Shikano, Yudai; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Daily routine radioisotope measurements of sewage sludge at the sewage plant of Fukushima City starting in 2011 have provided a detailed data set for the isotopes Cs-137, Cs-134 and I-131. The long-term trend for the Cs isotopes is comparable to data sets from Central Europe caused by the Chernobyl emissions in 1986 - the average Cs-137 concentration decreases faster in the first year (T1/2 < 1 yr) and slower in later years (T1/2 > 1 yr). Absolute values at Fukushima City are comparably low (mostly below 1 kBq/kg dry mass), due to the existence of separate wastewater and rainwater sewer systems, with only a small portion of rainwater and erosion products reaching the purification plant. Cs-134 data decay faster due to the shorter radioactive half-life. I-131 appears even years after the NPP releases and is assumed to originate from the common medical usage of the isotope for thyroid treatment. Short-term Cs data show a clear dependence on rainfall: each significant rainfall event causes a concentration increase in sludge of up to a factor of ten. Therefore the time series exhibits high short-term variability. Here we attempt to numerically analyse the detailed Cs-137 data set, using two separate approaches: The first method tries to connect parameters like the local surface deposition density, surface types (sealed/unsealed), rainfall statistics, rainfall-induced erosion rate, leakage rate from rainwater to wastewater sewer, transport time in the sewer and residence time in the purification plant for a basically physical approach. As not all parameters are known, values have to be assumed or can be extracted in the course of the fitting process. The second approach is purely heuristic, based on a water surface runoff and transport model. Whilst there is no ad-hoc physical meaning in the extracted parameters, they can possibly be interpreted as such when compared with physical modeling results. The combination of both methods is expected to give a deeper insight

  12. [Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. A rare cause of ischaemic stroke].

    PubMed

    del Saz-Saucedo, Pablo; Alfaya-Muñoz, Laura Blanca; Recio-Bermejo, Marta; Lara-Medina, Francisco Javier; García-Chiclano, Amalia; Ortega-León, Teresa; Rueda-Medina, Ignacio; Domínguez-Fernández, María José; Madrid-Muñiz, Carmen; Franco-Huerta, María

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La epiteliopatia pigmentaria placoide multifocal posterior aguda (EPPMPA) es una enfermedad inflamatoria rara, generalmente de etiologia indeterminada, de la coriocapilar, el epitelio pigmentario y la retina externa. Afecta predominantemente a pacientes jovenes y en algunos casos puede involucrar al sistema nervioso central en forma de ictus o de meningoencefalitis. Presentamos el caso clinico de una mujer joven con EPPMPA complicada con ictus e hipertension intracraneal. Caso clinico. Mujer de 16 anos que comienza con cefalea intensa sugestiva de hipertension intracraneal, asi como con un deficit agudo hemisferico izquierdo. La resonancia magnetica craneal ponia de manifiesto lesiones embolicas o vasculiticas en diferentes territorios. No se evidenciaron datos de meningoencefalitis en el estudio del liquido cefalorraquideo, pero si de hipertension intracraneal asociada. La presencia de lesiones muy especificas en el polo ocular posterior permitio el diagnostico de EPPMPA complicada con ictus isquemico, probablemente por mecanismo vasculitico. Un amplio estudio etiologico fue negativo para identificar un factor desencadenante claro del proceso. Se inicio tratamiento corticoideo con buena evolucion clinica y radiologica. Conclusiones. La EPPMPA es una entidad rara que generalmente entrana buen pronostico; sin embargo, en algunos casos puede complicarse con afectacion del sistema nervioso central, y el ictus isquemico secundario a vasculitis es la complicacion mas grave. Ante un paciente joven con ictus que presente sintomatologia visual y lesiones coriorretinianas, debe considerarse la EPPMPA en su diagnostico etiologico.

  13. [The mind-brain problem (I): onto-epistemological foundations].

    PubMed

    Goni-Saez, F; Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. La ciencia y la filosofia han abordado a lo largo de la historia del pensamiento y desde diferentes perspectivas epistemicas el problema mente-cerebro. La primera de ellas acota areas especificas de la realidad y construye hipotesis de corto alcance y multiple conectividad intercientifica con el objetivo de validar modelos teoricos; la segunda extiende su arquitectura sistemica al conjunto de lo real (incluida la actividad cientifica). Desarrollo. La complejidad del problema mente-cerebro exige generar un vinculo de conexion disciplinar entre la filosofia y la ciencia; nuestros presupuestos ontoepistemologicos se erigen, por lo tanto, en el marco de una filosofia orientada cientificamente (filosofia cientifica). Se defiende el materialismo emergentista como solucion filosofico-cientifica coherente y contrastable en contraposicion a otras propuestas desarrolladas desde diferentes modelos ontologicos (por ejemplo, dualismo interaccionista, funcionalismo, teoria de la identidad, epifenomenalismo...). Conclusiones. La respuesta al problema mente-cerebro solo es factible desde una neurociencia cognitiva fundamentada filosoficamente: el materialismo emergentista –postulado ontologico– afirma que la mente es una propiedad emergente (novedad cualitativa) del cerebro; el realismo cientifico –postulado epistemologico– sostiene que la neurociencia cognitiva es la herramienta teorico-experimental basica que posibilita el acceso cognoscitivo tanto al cerebro como a sus procesos neurocognitivos. Consideramos que a partir de esta fundamentacion filosofica, la neurociencia cognitiva adquiere legitimidad epistemica para acometer el estudio del proceso mental mas genuinamente humano: la conciencia.

  14. [Optogenetics: its history, fundamentals and relevance in the present and the past].

    PubMed

    Morgado, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    Introduccion. La optogenetica es una tecnica experimental que combina procedimientos de ingenieria genetica y de fisica optica para marcar neuronas especificas del cerebro y poder activarlas despues a voluntad mediante rayos de luz de determinada frecuencia. Objetivo. Explicar a los lectores, especialmente a los no versados en genetica, la historia, los fundamentos y las aplicaciones presentes y futuras de la optogenetica en la investigacion sobre el cerebro y los procesos mentales. Desarrollo. El desarrollo actual de esta tecnica esta permitiendo considerables avances en el conocimiento preciso sobre los circuitos neuronales que controlan conductas y estados motivacionales y cognitivos especificos, como el hambre y la sed, el dolor, el sueño, o el aprendizaje y la memoria. Entre los primeros resultados impactantes destacan los que han hecho posible la creacion y el control cerebral de falsas memorias. Conclusiones. La optogenetica es una tecnica revolucionaria llamada a sustituir algunas de las tecnicas clasicas en la investigacion cerebral y a abrir un importante y nuevo camino en el desarrollo y control de los procesos mentales y en la terapia de sus patologias.

  15. [Healthcare management of an epilepsy clinic: factors involved in the demand for health care and clinical situation of patients].

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Guillermina; Martín-Reyes, Guillermina; Dawid-Milner, Marc Stefan; Chamorro-Muñoz, M Isabel; Pérez-Errazquin, Francisco; Romero-Acebal, Manuel

    2013-05-16

    Introduccion. La epilepsia es una enfermedad cronica que implica un seguimiento periodico del paciente a largo plazo, lo que supone un aumento del numero de pacientes visitados con el tiempo y, por tanto, un coste al sistema sanitario. Objetivo. Determinar los factores implicados en el tiempo para la siguiente visita de un paciente epileptico. Pacientes y metodos. Seleccion de pacientes durante un ano que acuden consecutivamente a consulta de epilepsia de nuestro hospital. Se analiza su situacion clinica y relacion con el consejo medico dado, y los factores implicados en el tiempo transcurrido hasta la siguiente visita mediante modelos econometricos predictivos. Resultados. Existe una clara asociacion entre la situacion clinica del paciente y la modificacion del tratamiento propuesta por el neurologo en la visita anterior. Los factores implicados en el tiempo hasta la siguiente visita fueron frecuencia de crisis, efectos adversos medicamentosos, sobre todo los que afectan a la cognicion, y consejo medico al paciente. No resultaron significativos la politerapia, los trastornos psicoafectivos ni la situacion social del paciente. Conclusiones. El seguimiento en una consulta especifica de epilepsia mejora la situacion del paciente. Se trata del primer analisis de demanda asistencial en pacientes con epilepsia realizado mediante metodos econometricos y desde una perspectiva mixta medico-paciente. Dado que los factores que determinan el tiempo para la siguiente visita son modificables, podria disminuir el numero de visitas al ano, mejorando la situacion clinica de los pacientes. Proponemos una mayor duracion por visita para poder incidir en ello y reducir costes a largo plazo.

  16. [Comparison between the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with the DSM-5 and neuropsychological evaluation of the executive functions].

    PubMed

    Abad-Mas, L; Caloca-Catala, O; Mulas, F; Ruiz-Andres, R

    2017-02-24

    Introduccion. El trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) tiene una prevalencia del 3-7% de la poblacion en edad escolar y cursa con problemas academicos y disfunciones ejecutivas. Objetivo. Estudiar la relacion entre el diagnostico del TDAH por medio de los criterios del Manual diagnostico y estadistico de los trastornos mentales, quinta edicion (DSM-5), y la evaluacion neuropsicologica de las funciones ejecutivas. Sujetos y metodos. Se evaluo a 50 sujetos, 12 mujeres y 38 varones, entre 8 y 10 años. Para evaluar el control inhibitorio se utilizo el Continuous Performance Test (CPT) y el test de Stroop; para la inteligencia y la memoria de trabajo, la escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para niños-IV; y para la atencion, el CPT y el Selective Attention Test. Resultados. No habia diferencias significativas entre ambos subtipos de TDAH en cuanto a la memoria de trabajo. Las niñas presentaban mejores habilidades en la tarea de flexibilidad cognitiva que los niños, y los sujetos diagnosticados de TDAH combinado presentaban mayores dificultades en el control inhibitorio. Conclusiones. Confirmamos que las definiciones del TDAH en el DSM-5 son imprecisas. Son una escasa enumeracion de sintomas clinicos del trastorno, sin definir con claridad criterios propios de el. Por lo tanto, la definicion del trastorno se realiza por la evaluacion especifica de la atencion y de los mecanismos de control inhibitorio y, por ello, es necesaria una evaluacion neuropsicologica de las funciones cerebrales superiores.

  17. [Structural congenital myopathies].

    PubMed

    Erazo-Torricelli, Ricardo

    2013-09-06

    Introduccion. Las miopatias congenitas son un grupo heterogeneo de enfermedades que comparten clinica de inicio precoz y alteraciones histopatologicas musculares especificas. El estudio genetico permite determinar la mutacion causal en la mayoria de los casos. Existe heterogeneidad fenotipica y genotipica, lo que se ilustra al observar que un genotipo puede expresarse en mas de una forma clinicopatologica y un fenotipo puede estar causado por diferentes mutaciones geneticas. Desarrollo. En esta revision, se detallan las caracteristicas de las principales miopatias congenitas que permiten su identificacion clinica, patologica y genetica. Se describen los hallazgos de la biopsia muscular que constituyen el principal pilar diagnostico. Se enfatiza y se detalla la importancia del diagnostico diferencial, descartando otras patologias que se presentan con hipotonia en la lactancia o el periodo neonatal. Se destacan las formas neonatales graves (nemalinica, miotubular ligada al X) que se deben identificar precozmente para establecer el pronostico y brindar un consejo genetico adecuado. Se subrayan las mutaciones del gen rianodina (RYR1) por su asociacion a la hipertermia maligna y las mutaciones de la selenoproteina 1 (SEPN1) y la miopatia nemalinica por su asociacion a hipoventilacion nocturna. Conclusiones. El conocimiento profundo de las miopatias estructurales congenitas facilita la confirmacion diagnostica de la miopatia congenita, lo que permite la aplicacion oportuna de medidas relacionadas con la respiracion y la alimentacion de los casos mas graves y con la optimizacion de la funcion motora en todos los pacientes con miopatia congenita.

  18. [Angular gyrus connectivity model for language: a functional neuroimaging meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron

    2015-06-01

    Introduccion. Las tecnicas modernas de neuroimagen funcional permiten analizar la activacion simultanea de diversas areas cerebrales y sugerir modelos de conectividad para funciones cognitivas especificas. Objetivo. Realizar un metaanalisis de las redes funcionales de la region angular (area de Brodmann 39) con relacion al lenguaje. Materiales y metodos. Partiendo de la base de datos BrainMap, se analizaron las coordenadas de activacion en estudios de resonancia magnetica funcional que mostraban una activacion del area de Brodmann 39 durante la realizacion de tareas linguisticas. Se seleccionaron ocho articulos con 13 experimentos, que incluian un total de 155 sujetos, y 265 localizaciones. Resultados. Los resultados mostraron 16 conglomerados de activacion significativos que conformaban una red de coactivacion, la cual incluia las dos regiones angulares, el lobulo parietal superior y la circunvolucion supramarginal derechos, el lobulo temporal izquierdo (cara lateral medial y cara medial inferior) y el lobulo frontal (premotor bilateral y prefrontal izquierdo). Conclusiones. Estos resultados coinciden con los hallazgos obtenidos con tecnicas de conectividad estructural y apoyan el papel integrador de la region angular en funciones linguisticas.

  19. [The Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) in acquired brain injury: agreement between the scores of patients, relatives and professionals].

    PubMed

    Huertas-Hoyas, E; Pedrero-Perez, E J; Martinez-Campos, M; Laselle-Lopez, M

    2016-11-01

    Introduccion. El uso de autoinformes sobre sintomas de mal funcionamiento en la vida diaria derivados de deficits funcionales de origen prefrontal se ha generalizado en la practica clinica, dado que permiten aportar validez ecologica incremental a otras pruebas especificas. Sin embargo, queda por determinar si la autoevaluacion es suficiente por si misma o es preferible la participacion de un evaluador externo. Sujetos y metodos. Se administro el inventario de sintomas prefrontales (ISP) a 115 sujetos en tratamiento por diversas patologias cerebrales. La misma prueba, referida al paciente, se administro a algun profesional que siguiera estrechamente la evolucion del caso y, cuando fue posible (n = 88), a un familiar o cuidador. Se exploro la bondad psicometrica del ISP en las tres muestras y se estimo el grado de correlacion y concordancia entre las tres evaluaciones. Resultados. Las tres evaluaciones mostraron correlacion significativa, aunque los pacientes declararon menos sintomas que sus familiares y cuidadores en funcionamiento ejecutivo. Las evaluaciones de familiares y pacientes se superpusieron y mostraron un alto grado de concordancia en perfil y magnitud. Conclusiones. Se recomienda, junto con la obligada evaluacion neuropsicologica, la cumplimentacion de cuestionarios o inventarios de sintomas como el ISP, con probada robustez psicometrica, que permitan explorar el impacto de las disfunciones cerebrales en el funcionamiento cotidiano. Dado que muchas de estas disfunciones se acompañan de diversos grados de anosognosia, se recomienda su administracion a observadores externos, familiares o profesionales, de cara a obtener una evaluacion mas adecuada de la magnitud de las dificultades funcionales.

  20. [The social brain: neurobiological bases of clinical interest].

    PubMed

    Álvaro-González, Luis C

    2015-11-16

    Introduccion. Las capacidades sociales humanas son evolutivamente tardias y unicas. Permiten una especializacion que mejora la disponibilidad de recursos y facilita la reproduccion. Nuestra complejidad social descansa en circuitos y mecanismos especificos, que analizamos. Desarrollo. A esos efectos, resultan operativos: el conocimiento del otro mediante la empatia, mecanismos especificos que nos dotan de capacidad para detectar defraudadores, factores geneticos y bioquimicos, y el sistema nervioso autonomo. La empatia es el mecanismo basico de la sociabilidad. Reconoce niveles de complejidad (emocional, cognitiva, de atribucion), con diferenciacion anatomica especifica. Lo social va ligado a lo emocional, y esto a lo homeostatico. Asi, dolor fisico y social comparten matriz anatomica y terapias. Somos seres sociales de naturaleza biologica egoista, que ajustamos gracias a una capacidad especial para detectar defraudadores, dominante sobre las de planificacion o abstraccion. La oxitocina es el mediador neuroquimico prosocial esencial. La serotonina y la enzima MAO se consideran con capacidad antisocial, dependiente de la interaccion con ambientes adversos. Finalmente, el sistema vagal mas reciente filogeneticamente y mielinizado, el del nucleo dorsal del vago, es requisito para la interaccion social acogedora y ludica. Conclusiones. La neurobiologia de lo social permite reconocer trastornos de esta conducta en lesiones estructurales (vasculares, de la sustancia blanca, demencias...), alteraciones del neurodesarrollo (autismo), enfermedades psiquiatricas (esquizofrenia) o trastornos de la personalidad. Existen posibilidades de intervencion terapeutica (estimulacion magnetica transcraneal, farmacos) prometedoras. La adicion de factores culturales y ambientales a los neurobiologicos introduce complejidad ecologica, sin restar validez a lo expuesto.

  1. [Reversible neuropsychological deterioration associated to zonisamide in a paediatric patient with tuberous sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Fournier-Del Castillo, M Concepción; Melero-Llorente, Javier; Blanco-Beregana, Miriam; Robles-Bermejo, Fernando; Budke, Marcelo; Garcia-Fernandez, Marta; Garcia-Penas, Juan José; Perez-Jimenez, M Ángeles

    2015-01-16

    Objetivo. Documentar el deterioro cognitivo reversible asociado a altas dosis de zonisamida, utilizando indices de cambio fiable para controlar los efectos de practica derivados de evaluaciones neuropsicologicas repetidas. Caso clinico. Niño de 11 años con complejo esclerosis tuberosa y epilepsia refractaria del lobulo frontal izquierdo, evaluado en el contexto de un programa de cirugia de la epilepsia pediatrica. La zona epileptogena se relaciono con un tuber epileptogeno localizado en el giro frontal inferior del hemisferio izquierdo. Los efectos de altas dosis de zonisamida mimetizaron una afectacion de la corteza elocuente en la zona epileptogena y un impacto de las crisis no controladas en el funcionamiento cognitivo asociado al hemisferio dominante para el lenguaje. La retirada del farmaco mejoro significativamente, mas alla de los efectos de practica, el cociente intelectual total, el indice intelectual de comprension verbal y habilidades cognitivas especificas sustentadas en el lenguaje. Conclusiones. La diferenciacion entre los efectos cognitivos de los farmacos y la existencia de un deficit funcional por afectacion de la corteza elocuente en el area epileptogena puede ser crucial para la toma de decisiones en cirugia de la epilepsia.

  2. [Development of integrated support software for clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Siquier Homar, Pedro; Pinteño Blanco, Manel; Calleja Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Fernández Cortés, Francisco; Martínez Sotelo, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Objetivos: desarrollar una aplicacion informatica integral en el soporte nutricional especializado, e integrado en la historia clinica electronica, que detecte de forma automatizada y precoz a los pacientes desnutridos o en riesgo de desarrollar desnutricion, determinando puntos de oportunidad de mejora y evaluacion de resultados. Métodos: se han tenido en cuenta los estandares de calidad publicados por el grupo de trabajo de nutricion de la Sociedad Espanola de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SEFH) y las recomendaciones del grupo de farmacia de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral (SENPE). De acuerdo con dichos estandares de calidad, las etapas o subprocesos asistenciales que debe contemplar el soporte nutricional son: cribado nutricional, valoracion nutricional, plan de cuidados nutricionales, formulacion, elaboracion y administracion. Resultados: la aplicacion permite, de forma automatizada, realizar una valoracion nutricional especifica a los pacientes con riesgo nutricional, instaurando, si fuese preciso, un plan de tratamiento nutricional y realizando el seguimiento y trazabilidad de los resultados derivados de la implantacion de acciones de mejora y, cuantificando en que medida nuestra practica se aproxima a la establecida como estandar. Conclusiones: la aplicacion permite estandarizar el soporte nutricional especializado desde un punto multidisciplinar, introduciendo el concepto de control de calidad por procesos y al paciente como cliente principal.

  3. [Effects of combined aerobic and resistance training on cognition following stroke: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    García-Soto, Edurne; López de Munaín, M Lourdes; Santibáñez, Miguel

    2013-12-16

    Introduccion. El ictus es una de las principales causas de discapacidad. El ejercicio fisico ha demostrado beneficio en la rehabilitacion fisica de estos pacientes, pero su impacto en la funcion cognitiva no ha sido tan estudiado. Objetivo. Revisar los estudios que han evaluado el impacto del ejercicio fisico, especificamente del entrenamiento en fuerza/resistencia, sobre la mejora cognitiva en estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo una busqueda en CENTRAL, Medline e ISI Web of Knowledge de estudios llevados a cabo en pacientes con ictus en los que se intervino con ejercicio fisico y se evaluo la funcion cognitiva tras la intervencion. Resultados. Se identificaron cinco estudios (93 pacientes). Los estudios identificados muestran una gran heterogeneidad en los tests usados para evaluar la funcion cognitiva y en los protocolos de ejercicio, y apoyan el impacto positivo del entrenamiento aerobico en la mejora en la funcion cognitiva. Los dos ultimos estudios publicados (50 pacientes) han evaluado de manera especifica la combinacion de entrenamiento aerobico y de fuerza/resistencia. Estos estudios sugieren que añadir fuerza/resistencia mejoraria en mayor medida la funcion cognitiva en general y la funcion ejecutiva en particular. Conclusiones. La actividad fisica constituye una estrategia prometedora para mejorar las funciones cognitivas tras el ictus. Se necesitan ensayos clinicos de mayor tamaño muestral y con mayor homogeneidad, tanto en los protocolos de ejercicio como en los tests usados para la funcion cognitiva, que confirmen estos resultados.

  4. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some human tissues and dosimetric materials for mean energies of various radiation sources relevant to radiotherapy and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2014-09-01

    Effective atomic numbers, Zeff, and electron densities, neff, are convenient parameters used to characterise the radiation response of a multi-element material in many technical and medical applications. Accurate values of these physical parameters provide essential data in medical physics. In the present study, the effective atomic numbers and electron densities have been calculated for some human tissues and dosimetric materials such as Adipose Tissue (ICRU-44), Bone Cortical (ICRU-44), Brain Grey/White Matter (ICRU-44), Breast Tissue (ICRU-44), Lung Tissue (ICRU-44), Soft Tissue (ICRU-44), LiF TLD-100H, TLD-100, Water, Borosilicate Glass, PAG (Gel Dosimeter), Fricke (Gel Dosimeter) and OSL (Aluminium Oxide) using mean photon energies, Em, of various radiation sources. The used radiation sources are Pd-103, Tc-99, Ra-226, I-131, Ir-192, Co-60, 30 kVp, 40 kVp, 50 kVp (Intrabeam, Carl Zeiss Meditec) and 6 MV (Mohan-6 MV) sources. The Em values were then used to calculate Zeff and neff of the tissues and dosimetric materials for various radiation sources. Different calculation methods for Zeff such as the direct method, the interpolation method and Auto-Zeff computer program were used and agreements and disagreements between the used methods have been presented and discussed. It has been observed that at higher Em values agreement is quite satisfactory (Dif.<5%) between the adopted methods.

  5. Monte Carlo calculated doses to treatment volumes and organs at risk for permanent implant lung brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, J. G. H.; Furutani, K. M.; Thomson, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    Iodine-125 (125I) and Caesium-131 (131Cs) brachytherapy have been used with sublobar resection to treat stage I non-small cell lung cancer and other radionuclides, 169Yb and 103Pd, are considered for these treatments. This work investigates the dosimetry of permanent implant lung brachytherapy for a range of source energies and various implant sites in the lung. Monte Carlo calculated doses are calculated in a patient CT-derived computational phantom using the EGsnrc user-code BrachyDose. Calculations are performed for 103Pd, 125I, 131Cs seeds and 50 and 100 keV point sources for 17 implant positions. Doses to treatment volumes, ipsilateral lung, aorta, and heart are determined and compared to those determined using the TG-43 approach. Considerable variation with source energy and differences between model-based and TG-43 doses are found for both treatment volumes and organs. Doses to the heart and aorta generally increase with increasing source energy. TG-43 underestimates the dose to the heart and aorta for all implants except those nearest to these organs where the dose is overestimated. Results suggest that model-based dose calculations are crucial for selecting prescription doses, comparing clinical endpoints, and studying radiobiological effects for permanent implant lung brachytherapy.

  6. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Gordon, Murray B

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I(131) therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH.

  7. Radioimmunotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A review for radiation oncologists

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, Roger M. . E-mail: macklir@ccf.org; Pohlman, Brad

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to review advances in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to discuss the role of Radiation oncologist in administering this important new form of biologically targeted radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A review of articles and abstracts on the clinical efficacy, safety, and radiation safety of yttrium Y 90 ({sup 9}Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and iodine I 131 tositumomab (Bexxar) was performed. Results: The clinical efficacy of RIT in NHL has been shown in numerous clinical trials of {sup 9}Y ibritumomab tiuxetan and {sup 131}I tositumomab. Both agents have produced significant responses in patients with low-grade, follicular, or transformed NHL, including patients with disease that had not responded or had responded poorly to previous chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Reversible toxicities such as neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia are the most common adverse events with both agents. Conclusions: Radioimmunotherapy is safe and effective in many patients with B-cell NHL. {sup 9}Y ibritumomab tiuxetan and {sup 131}I tositumomab can produce clinically meaningful and durable responses even in patients in whom chemotherapy has failed. Treatment with RIT requires a multispecialty approach and close communication between Radiation oncologist and other members of the treatment team. Radiation oncologist plays an important role in treating patients with RIT and monitoring them for responses and adverse events after treatment.

  8. Development of a software tool for an internal dosimetry using MIRD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichana, A.; Tocharoenchai, C.

    2016-03-01

    Currently, many software packages for the internal radiation dosimetry have been developed. Many of them do not provide sufficient tools to perform all of the necessary steps from nuclear medicine image analysis for dose calculation. For this reason, we developed a CALRADDOSE software that can be performed internal dosimetry using MIRD method within a single environment. MATLAB software version 2015a was used as development tool. The calculation process of this software proceeds from collecting time-activity data from image data followed by residence time calculation and absorbed dose calculation using MIRD method. To evaluate the accuracy of this software, we calculate residence times and absorbed doses of 5 Ga- 67 studies and 5 I-131 MIBG studies and then compared the results with those obtained from OLINDA/EXM software. The results showed that the residence times and absorbed doses obtained from both software packages were not statistically significant differences. The CALRADDOSE software is a user-friendly, graphic user interface-based software for internal dosimetry. It provides fast and accurate results, which may be useful for a routine work.

  9. Micrometer-level naked-eye detection of caesium particulates in the solid state

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Taizo; Akamatsu, Masaaki; Okamoto, Ken; Sumita, Masato; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Hideki; Hill, Jonathan P; Abe, Masahiko; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of radioactive material were released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in Japan, contaminating the local environment. During the early stages of such nuclear accidents, iodine I-131 (half-life 8.02 d) is usually detectable in the surrounding atmosphere and bodies of water. On the other hand, in the long-term, soil and water contamination by Cs-137, which has a half-life of 30.17 years, is a serious problem. In Japan, the government is planning and carrying out radioactive decontamination operations not only with public agencies but also non-governmental organizations, making radiation measurements within Japan. If caesium (also radiocaesium) could be detected by the naked eye then its environmental remediation would be facilitated. Supramolecular material approaches, such as host–guest chemistry, are useful in the design of high-resolution molecular sensors and can be used to convert molecular-recognition processes into optical signals. In this work, we have developed molecular materials (here, phenols) as an optical probe for caesium cation-containing particles with implementation based on simple spray-on reagents and a commonly available fluorescent lamp for naked-eye detection in the solid state. This chemical optical probe provides a higher spatial resolution than existing radioscopes and gamma-ray cameras. PMID:27877560

  10. Update on basic research and clinical experience with metaiodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    I-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is an aralkylguanidine with certain structural similarities to norepinephrine (NE). It is concentrated, stored, and released from chromaffin granules in a manner almost identical with that of NE. It will image the enlarged adrenal medullae of adrenal medullary hyperplasia when the CAT and NMR scans are normal. It is more sensitive in detecting extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas than CAT and NMR imaging. Because 46% of our 176 patients with histopathologically proved ''benign'' pheochromocytomas (pheos) have developed demonstrable metastases, with or without elevated plasma and urinary catecholamines, we now image all patients with benign pheos yearly. As of January 22, 1986 we had treated 28 patients with malignant pheos 71 times with MIBG. As of July 24, 1986, we had given 34 neuroblastoma patients 55 tracer doses. In some cases MIBG demonstrates more neuroblastoma than all other imaging modalities and this is helpful in staging. We have had 30-50% objective regressions in neuroblastoma tumor mass in 3 out of the first 12 patients treated. These three patients had slower-growing tumors and a lower body burden than the nonresponders. We also record the sensitivity of MIBG imaging of neuroendocrine tumors other than pheos and neuroblastomas. 31 references.

  11. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scintigraphy: A one year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Baulieu, J.L.; Guilloteau, D.; Chambon, C.; Viel, C.; Baulieu, F.; Itti, R.; Pourcelot, L.; Besnard, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    During one year, mIBG scintigraphy was performed in 31 patients: group I (n=27): I-131 mIBG: 18 patients without pheochromocytoma, and 9 patients with proved pheochromocytoma; grout II (n=4): I-123 mIBG: two children without neuroblastoma and two children with proved neuroblastoma. Uptake in various organs or sites of activity was evaluated by an entire score varying from 0 to 3 according respectively to no visualization, visualization only from digitalized images, visualization on analogic images and predominant activity. Most of the organs appeared more visible in patients without pheochromocytoma. In patients with pheochromocytoma, the heart was not apparent on 48 hours views. In group I, pathologic examination resulted in eight true positives one false positive and one false negative. In group II, the neuroblastoma exhibited mIBG accumulation, while no abnormal uptake was observed in children without neuroblastoma. According to the final diagnosis, sensitivity was found to be .91 and specificity .95. The results confirm that mIBG is valuable for pheochromocytoma localization and suggest that I-123 mIBG could be useful in investigating neuroblastoma in children.

  12. Survey on radioactive contamination in Beijing following the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yun; Wan, Ling; Ma, Yongzhong; Li, Huijuan; Meng, Qinghua; Kong, Yuxia; Zhu, Weijie; Wu, Dapeng; Cui, Limeng

    2013-09-01

    The radioactive contamination in Beijing caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident was monitored. In this research, samples of air, rainwater, surface water and vegetables in Beijing were collected and measured to estimate the radioactive contamination levels in Beijing. During the period from the 15th to the 41st day after the first emission of radioactive material (first emission) from the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power station (NPS) on 12 March 2011, obvious radioactive contamination was found in the Beijing air samples. The maximum concentration of I-131 was 5.89 mBq m(-3) in the air samples detected on the 22nd day after the first emission, and the maximum concentration of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was found on the 20th day after the first emission. Except for one sample of rainwater, no artificial radionuclides associated with Fukushima were found in surface water. The measurement results showed that there was no harm to the health of local Beijing residents.

  13. Is Every Patient Followed up as a Papillary Thyroid Cancer Patient Really That?

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrezzak, Ummuhan; Tutus, Ahmet; Kula, Mustafa; Öztürk, Figen; Soyuer, Işın

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old man followed up for two years as suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). In the patient’s follow up, despite thyroglobulin level and I-131 whole body scan results being normal, metastases were identified at the 4th thoracic vertebra corpus by MR. Histopathological findings were carcinoma metastases. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed increased metabolic activity in the right renal mass, bilaterally in the surrenal gland, multiple lymph nodes in the thoracic and abdominal para-aortic region and in multiple vertebral and pelvic bones. An excisional biopsy of the right renal mass was reported as renal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining performed retrospectively to the first thyroid preparation showed renal cell carcinoma metastases. Consequently, any patient who presents with a thyroid nodule can also be considered as possibly suffering from metastatic disease. F-18 FDG PET/CT can provide valuable information in finding the primary focus and metastases. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487501

  14. High resolution spectroscopy over 8500-8750 Å for GAIA <= 50 000 K. III. A library of synthetic spectra for 7750 <= Teff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, F.; Munari, U.

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we complete the library of synthetic spectra for the range 7650-8750 Å, which includes the 8500-8750 Å interval currently base-lined for the spectroscopic observations by GAIA, candidate ESA Cornerstone 5 mission. As for Paper II, the spectra are based on Kurucz's codes and line data. The explored metallicity, gravity and temperature ranges are -2.5<= [Z/Zsun]<= +0.5, 4.5<=log g<= 2.0 and 7750<=Teff <=50 000 K, respectively. The 698 new spectra are computed at the same lambda / bigtriangleup lambda =20 000 resolving power of the observed spectra given in Paper I (131 standard stars mapping the MKK spectral classification system) and the 254 synthetic spectra of Paper II (characterized by Teff <= 7 500 K). Tables 2-4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/366/1003 or via the personal HomePage http://ulisse.pd.astro.it/Astro/Atlases/ The spectra are available in electronic form at the CDS. Figures 5-224 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  15. Biodistribution and dosimetry of free 211At, 125I- and 131I- in rats.

    PubMed

    Spetz, Johan; Rudqvist, Nils; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2013-11-01

    131I is widely used for therapy in the clinic and 125I and 131I, and increasingly 211At, are often used in experimental studies. It is important to know the biodistribution and dosimetry for these radionuclides to determine potential risk organs when using radiopharmaceuticals containing these radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of 125I-, 131I-, and free 211At in rats and to determine absorbed doses to various organs and tissues. Male Sprague Dawley rats were injected simultaneously with 0.1-0.3 MBq 125I- and 0.1-0.3 MBq 131I-, or 0.05-0.2 MBq 211At and sacrificed 1 hour to 7 days after injection. The activities and activity concentrations in organs and tissues were determined and mean absorbed doses were calculated. The biodistribution of 125I- was similar to that of 131I- but the biodistribution of free 211At was different compared to 125I- and 131I-. The activity concentration of radioiodine was higher compared with 211At in the thyroid and lower in all extrathyroidal tissues. The mean absorbed dose per unit injected activity was highest to the thyroid. 131I gave the highest absorbed dose to the thyroid, and 211At gave the highest absorbed dose to all other tissues studied.

  16. Environmental Monitoring and Characterization of Radiation Sources on UF Campus Using a Large Volume NaI Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, Jesse A.; Gardiner, Hannah E.; Jordan, Kelly A.; Baciak, James E.

    2016-09-01

    Environmental radiation surveys are important for applications such as safety and regulations. This is especially true for areas exposed to emissions from nuclear reactors, such as the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR). At the University of Florida, surveys are performed using the RSX-1 NaI detector, developed by Radiation Solutions Inc. The detector uses incoming gamma rays and an Advanced Digital Spectrometer module to produce a linear energy spectrum. These spectra can then be analyzed in real time with a personal computer using the built in software, RadAssist. We report on radiation levels around the University of Florida campus using two mobile detection platforms, car-borne and cart-borne. The car-borne surveys provide a larger, broader map of campus radiation levels. On the other hand, cart-borne surveys provide a more detailed radiation map because of its ability to reach places on campus cars cannot go. Throughout the survey data, there are consistent radon decay product energy peaks in addition to other sources such as medical I-131 found in a large crowd of people. Finally, we investigate further applications of this mobile detection platform, such as tracking the Ar-41 plume emitted from the UFTR and detection of potential environmental hazards.

  17. Fetus dose estimation in thyroid cancer post-surgical radioiodine therapy.

    PubMed

    Mianji, Fereidoun A; Diba, Jila Karimi; Babakhani, Asad

    2015-01-01

    Unrecognised pregnancy during radioisotope therapy of thyroid cancer results in hardly definable embryo/fetus exposures, particularly when the thyroid gland is already removed. Sources of such difficulty include uncertainty in data like pregnancy commencing time, amount and distribution of metastasized thyroid cells in body, effect of the thyroidectomy on the fetus dose coefficient etc. Despite all these uncertainties, estimation of the order of the fetus dose in most cases is enough for medical and legal decision-making purposes. A model for adapting the dose coefficients recommended by the well-known methods to the problem of fetus dose assessment in athyrotic patients is proposed. The model defines a correction factor for the problem and ensures that the fetus dose in athyrotic pregnant patients is less than the normal patients. A case of pregnant patient undergone post-surgical therapy by I-131 is then studied for quantitative comparison of the methods. The results draw a range for the fetus dose in athyrotic patients using the derived factor. This reduces the concerns on under- or over-estimation of the embryo/fetus dose and is helpful for personal and/or legal decision-making on abortion.

  18. Micrometer-level naked-eye detection of caesium particulates in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Taizo; Akamatsu, Masaaki; Okamoto, Ken; Sumita, Masato; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Hideki; Hill, Jonathan P.; Abe, Masahiko; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2013-02-01

    Large amounts of radioactive material were released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in Japan, contaminating the local environment. During the early stages of such nuclear accidents, iodine I-131 (half-life 8.02 d) is usually detectable in the surrounding atmosphere and bodies of water. On the other hand, in the long-term, soil and water contamination by Cs-137, which has a half-life of 30.17 years, is a serious problem. In Japan, the government is planning and carrying out radioactive decontamination operations not only with public agencies but also non-governmental organizations, making radiation measurements within Japan. If caesium (also radiocaesium) could be detected by the naked eye then its environmental remediation would be facilitated. Supramolecular material approaches, such as host-guest chemistry, are useful in the design of high-resolution molecular sensors and can be used to convert molecular-recognition processes into optical signals. In this work, we have developed molecular materials (here, phenols) as an optical probe for caesium cation-containing particles with implementation based on simple spray-on reagents and a commonly available fluorescent lamp for naked-eye detection in the solid state. This chemical optical probe provides a higher spatial resolution than existing radioscopes and gamma-ray cameras.

  19. Confirmatory radiological survey of portions of the former A. H. Robins Research Center, Richmond, Virginia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.C.

    1992-05-01

    The former A.H. Robins Research Center, in Richmond, VA, was devoted primarily to the research and development of pharmaceuticals. The use of radionuclides at the A.H. Robins Research Center was first begun in the early 1960s and the facility is now operating under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License No. 45-09042-01. A. H. Robins` Drug Metabolism Department used radioactive material (H-3, C-14, Na-22, P-32, S-35, CI-36, Ca-45, Cr-51, Ni-63, Rb-86, I-125, I-129, I-131, and Cs-137) in laboratory tracer studies on animals, for calibration of instrumentation, and for research analyses. The radionuclides were used in various,rooms throughout the facility. Following its acquisition by American Home Products in 1990, radionuclide activities were discontinued at this facility. The process for the termination of the material license for A.H. Robins (AHR) was initiated by the Corporate Radiation Health Safety Officer of Wyeth-Ayerst Research (WAR), another wholly owned subsidiary of American Home Products (AHP). In June 1990, WAR developed and submitted a decommissioning plan to the NRC. A radiological survey of the areas in which radionuclides were known to have been handled was performed to determine the extent of the contamination. During the cleanup and survey of the facility, the licensee identified H-3 and C-14 as the major

  20. Confirmatory radiological survey of portions of the former A. H. Robins Research Center, Richmond, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.C.

    1992-05-01

    The former A.H. Robins Research Center, in Richmond, VA, was devoted primarily to the research and development of pharmaceuticals. The use of radionuclides at the A.H. Robins Research Center was first begun in the early 1960s and the facility is now operating under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License No. 45-09042-01. A. H. Robins' Drug Metabolism Department used radioactive material (H-3, C-14, Na-22, P-32, S-35, CI-36, Ca-45, Cr-51, Ni-63, Rb-86, I-125, I-129, I-131, and Cs-137) in laboratory tracer studies on animals, for calibration of instrumentation, and for research analyses. The radionuclides were used in various,rooms throughout the facility. Following its acquisition by American Home Products in 1990, radionuclide activities were discontinued at this facility. The process for the termination of the material license for A.H. Robins (AHR) was initiated by the Corporate Radiation Health Safety Officer of Wyeth-Ayerst Research (WAR), another wholly owned subsidiary of American Home Products (AHP). In June 1990, WAR developed and submitted a decommissioning plan to the NRC. A radiological survey of the areas in which radionuclides were known to have been handled was performed to determine the extent of the contamination. During the cleanup and survey of the facility, the licensee identified H-3 and C-14 as the major

  1. Management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis: a case report and review of the Chinese literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Da-ren; Feng, Cheng-cheng; Zhou, Chuan-biao; Zhan, Chen-ni; Que, Ri-sheng; Chen, Li

    2014-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a common malignancy. The general treatments are thyroidectomy of the affected lobe along with lymphadenectomy. However, bone metastasis is rare in DTC compared with other malignancies and the management of metastasis foci is still controversial. Here we present a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with the 6th cervical vertebra body metastasis successfully treated by total thyroidectomy, cervical corpectomy, and internal fixation, followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy. Eleven additional patients diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis collected from Chinese literature between January 1996 and December 2013 were also reviewed. The mean age of the 12 patients at presentation was (53.9±9.2) years (rang, 42-72 years) and the male to female ratio was 1:2. Nine cases received total/near-total thyroidectomy or lobectomy while the other three patients refused for personal reasons. The interventions for bone metastasis were one-stage operation (9/12), I(131) adjuvant therapy (3/12), chemotherapy (1/12), and no intervention (1/12). During the follow-up, two patients died of metastatic carcinoma recurrence, one died of multiple organ metastasis, and one with an unknown reason. We conclude that the management of thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis needs multidisciplinary cooperation. Surgical resection is still the first choice for cure, while the combined one-stage operation on the primary and metastatic sites followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy is an applicable treatment.

  2. A Peculiar Case of the Abscopal Effect: Radioactive Iodine Therapy Incidentally Palliating Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kornas, Robert C.; Shields, Sarah-Kim; Goldman, Lyle S.

    2015-01-01

    The abscopal effect is an extremely rare phenomenon occurring when irradiation or treatment of a primary tumor burden not only results in debulking of the targeted site but also reduces tumor size at distant sites from the intended treatment area. We present the abscopal effect occurring in a patient with low-grade marginal zone lymphoma who subsequently received radioactive iodine therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. She was 67 years old when a routine complete blood count at her primary care physician's office yielded a persistent leukocytosis of 14,500/μL with lymphocytosis of 9,870/μL. Immunophenotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed low-grade marginal zone lymphoma. Over eight years, her peak leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were 24,100/μL and 18,100/μL, respectively. Subsequently, she was diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma after presenting with a new complaint of dysphagia. A total thyroidectomy was performed, followed by 172.1 millicuries of oral I-131 sodium iodine radioactive ablation therapy. Following treatment, her leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were 3,100/μL and 1,100/μL, respectively. Over the next four years, her leukocyte and lymphocyte counts remained within normal limits and she remained symptom free. To our knowledge, there has never been a published report describing the use of radioactive iodine causing abscopal effect benefits for patients with underlying lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:25709847

  3. Antibody deposition in tumor in relation to blood clearance using a nephrectomized mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Nelp, W.B.; Eary, J.F.; Beaumier, P.; Krohn, K.A.; Hellstrom, K.E.; Hellstrom, I.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study tumor deposition of monoclonal anti-p97 melanoma antibody (Fab) as a function of its blood concentration over time. I-131-anti-p97 Fab and I-125 non-specific Fab were injected I.V. into 28 control athymic (nude) mice (CM) bearing human xenografted malignant melanoma containing p-97 antigen. Fab (M.W. 50,000) is rapidly excreted by kidney and >90% excretion occurred in 24 hr. To create maximum sustained high blood concentrations of Fab 10 similar mice were likewise injected 1 hr after acute nephrectomy (NM). In this case 24 hr. body excretion was <1%. Blood clearance in CM was biexponential with initial T-1/2 0.4 hr. (80%) a second T-1/2 of 4.4 hr. In NM clearance was monoexponential with a T-1/2 of 29.6 hr. Blood concentrations at 4 hrs. were 2 vs. 19% dose/gm (CM vs NM) and 0.15 vs 12 at 24 hrs. This tumor binding resembled a 2nd order phenomenon. Such information may be useful in predicting the effect of dosage manipulations (multiple bolus or sustained infusions) designed to increase Fab blood levels and enhance tumor labeling with Fab. The NM model should be useful to study the kinetics of antibody tumor deposition with various antibodies.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of radioiodinated 1-methyl-1-(alkyl or hydroxyalkyl)-4-phenylpiperazinium salts as myocardial imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.N.; Hassan, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    In this study the authors evaluate the effect of various substituents upon the myocardial uptake and selectivity of radioiodinated phenylpiperazinium derivatives. A series of 1-methyl-1-(alkyl or hydroxyalkyl)-4-(substituted phenyl) piperazinium salts were synthesized, characterized, radioiodinated at the no-carrier-added level with Na/sup 125/I and chloroamine-T, and isolated in 50-85% radiochemical yields using HPLC. The tissue distribution of the radiochemicals was determined in rats at 0.25 - 4 hr following i.v. administration. The compounds where R/sub 2/=CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/OH had the highest myocardial uptake and selectivity. The radioactivity in the heart did not diminish during the time period evaluation but also was not displaced by tetraethylammonium, or other quaternary amines. Scintigraphic imaging in the dog with (I-131) 1-methyl-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-(2-methylphenyl)piperazine clearly visualized the heart. Following sacrifice at 2 hrs and tissue dissection, the heart uptake was 4.5-6.5% ID with H/B1=25 and H/lung=l.5. In summary, the initial data suggest that this agent which can be readily labeled with radioiodide possesses substantial potential as a myocardial perfusion agent.

  5. Self-irradiation of the blood from selected nuclides in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Eberlein, U.; Lassmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dosimetry and research in biodosimetry often require the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the blood. This study provides coefficients for the absorbed dose rates to the blood related to the activity concentration in the blood as a function of the vessel radius for radionuclides commonly used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET-diagnostics: C-11, F-18, Ga-68, Y-90, Tc-99 m, I-124, I-131, and Lu-177. The energy deposition patterns after nuclear disintegrations in blood vessel lumina (cylinders homogeneously filled with blood) with radii from 0.01 to 25.0 mm were simulated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. An additional contribution from photon radiation from activity in blood in the remainder of the body was taken into account based on a reasonable blood distribution model. The fraction of energy absorbed from non-penetrating radiation in the blood is low in thin blood vessels but approaches the total energy emitted by particles with increasing lumen radius. For photon radiation, irradiation to blood in small vessels is almost completely due to radioactive decays in distant blood distributed throughout the body, whereas the contribution from activity in the vessel becomes dominant for lumen radii exceeding 13 mm. The dependences of the absorbed dose rates on the lumen radius can be described with good accuracy by empirical functions which can be used to determine the absorbed doses to the blood and to the surrounding tissue.

  6. Single visit captopril renography for the diagnosis of curable renovascular hypertension (RVH)

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Kyriakides, G.; Jaffe, D.; Bourgoigne, J.; Freundlich, M.; Spoliansky, G.; Bisset, R.

    1985-05-01

    Renal scintigraphy has a sensitivity of 85% and it is not entirely specific for RVH. Angiotensino converting enzyme inhibitors (captopril or enalapril) increase the sensitivity and specificity of differential renal vein renin determinations for diagnosing potentially curable RVH, but this is an invasive test. Captopril decreases renal function in RVH through alterations in renal hemodynamics of the affected kidney. The authors studied the yield of one visit captopril renography for the diagnosis of potentially curable renovascular hypertension. Twelve studies in patients with clinical RVH were performed without technical problems as following: After hydration (10ml/kg) the patient was injected iv with 300 ..mu..Ci of I-131-Hippuran and routine imaging in 2 min intervals with computer assisted generation of renograms in 30 sec intervals was performed for at least twenty min. Three hours later the patient received an oral dose of 50mg (weight adjusted for children) of captopril and one hour later the above test was repeated. Four patients showed normal baseline scintigraphy but unilateral decrease in split function and increase in Hippuran transit time (cortical retention at 20 min); two of them, who had angiography and transluminal angioplasty, were cured and repeat studies showed no effect of captopril. Six patients had normal studies (without response to captopril) two with proven lack of RVH (one angiography and one transient post transplantation hypertension); the remaining are followed clinically. The noninvasive approach appears promising for the diagnosis of potentially curable RVH.

  7. Renal blood flow transit time in the study of renal transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Ihmeidan, I.; Kyriakides, G.; Martinez, B.; Hourani, M.; Miller, J.; Serafini, A.

    1985-05-01

    Radio-hippurate scintigraphy has been used to study renal transplant function because of its unique advantages over other noninvasive methods. Despite a great sensitivity in diagnosing the existence of a functional problem the test lacks in specificity. In an effort to differentiate between acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and graft rejection (RJ) the authors preceded hippurate scintigraphy by measurements of renal flow transit time (TT). After an intravenous injection of 8 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid flow curves from the kidney and the abdominal aorta in 1 sec intervals for 1 min were obtained. Renal transit time was mathematically calculated and corrected for bolus and circulatory differences by dividing it with the corresponding Aortic TT (corrected Renal TT(cRTT). Radiohippuran (O-I-131-Hippurate), 150 ..mu..Ci was injected subsequently and of the different computer generated parameters the 30 min net cortical residual (% of the peak) activity (Hippuran Residual Activity, HRA) was found more sensitive and reproducible for comparisons. Results of documented cases showed a statistically significant difference. Uncomplicated cases (usually on antirejection therapy) showed a tendency to increasing the cRTTs with time (not significantly) but their HRAs were significantly lower than in ATN and RJ (p< 0.001).

  8. Combretastatin-A4 phosphate improves the distribution and antitumor efficacy of albumin-bound paclitaxel in W256 breast carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meng; Zhang, Dongjian; Jin, Qiaomei; Jiang, Cuihua; Wang, Cong; Li, Jindian; Peng, Fei; Huang, Dejian; Zhang, Jian; Song, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicine holds great promise for fighting against malignant tumors. However, tumor elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) seriously hinders convective transvascular and interstitial transport of nanomedicines and thus damages its antitumor efficacy. In this study, combretastatin-A4 phosphate (CA4P) was utilized to reduce tumor IFP, and thereby to improve the intratumoral distribution and antitumor efficacy of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel). IFP was measured using the wick-in-needle method in tumors growing subcutaneously pretreatment and posttreatment with a single intravenous injection of CA4P. The tracing method of iodine 131 isotope was used for biodistribution analysis of nab-paclitaxel. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect the intratumoral concentration of paclitaxel. Magnetic resonance imaging was applied to monitor tumor volume and ratios of necrosis. The tumor IFP continued to decline gradually over time following CA4P treatment, reaching approximately 31% of the pretreatment value by 1 h posttreatment. Biodistribution data indicated that both 131I-nab-paclitaxel and paclitaxel exhibited higher tumor uptake in CA4P + 131I-nab-paclitaxel group compared with I131-nab-paclitaxel group. Nab-paclitaxel combined with CA4Pshowed significant tumor growth inhibition and higher tumor necrosis ratio relative to PBS, CA4P and nab-paclitaxel group, respectively. In conclusion, CA4P improved the intratumoral distribution and antitumor efficacy of nab-paclitaxel in W256 tumor-bearing rats. PMID:27531898

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2009-06-09

    CAU 107, “Low Impact Soil Sites,” consists of 15 CASs in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities. ROTC Justification: The FFACO UR as published in the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2009) states that the UR for CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky), was implemented for assumed radioactive contamination that could cause a dose greater that 25 millirems per year. This document further clarifies that this was based on particulate releases of radionuclides identified in Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests, 1961 through 1992 (DOE/NV, 1996). The radionuclides listed in this document are krypton (Kr)-85, Kr-85m, Kr-87, Kr-88, rubidium (Rb)-87, strontium (Sr)-89, Sr-91, yttrium (Y)-91, iodine (I)-131, I-132, I-133, I-134, I-135, xeon (Xe)-133, Xe-135, Xe-138, cesium (Cs)-135, Cs-138, barium (Ba)-139, and Ba-140.

  10. Glucose metabolism in different regions of the rat brain under hypokinetic stress influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konitzer, K.; Voigt, S.

    1980-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in rats kept under long term hypokinetic stress was studied in 7 brain regions. Determination was made of the regional levels of glucose, lactate, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyrate and the incorporation of C-14 from plasma glucose into these metabolites, in glycogen and protein. From the content and activity data the regional glucose flux was approximated quantitatively. Under normal conditions the activity gradient cortex and frontal pole cerebellum, thalamus and mesencephalon, hypothalamus and pons and medulla is identical with that of the regional blood supply (measured with I131 serum albumin as the blood marker). Within the first days of immobilization a functional hypoxia occurred in all brain regions and the utilization of cycle amino acids for protein synthesis was strongly diminished. After the first week of stress the capillary volumes of all regions increased, aerobic glucose metabolism was enhanced (factors 1.3 - 2.0) and the incorporation of glucose C-14 via cycle amino acids into protein was considerably potentiated. The metabolic parameters normalized between the 7th and 11th week of stress. Blood supply and metabolic rate increased most in the hypothalamus.

  11. Radionuclide (131)I labeled reduced graphene oxide for nuclear imaging guided combined radio- and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Yi, Xuan; Huang, Min; Ning, Ping; Liu, Teng; Ge, Cuicui; Chai, Zhifang; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Nano-graphene and its derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine, including their applications in cancer theranostics. In this work, we develop 131I labeled, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated reduced nano-graphene oxide (RGO), obtaining 131I-RGO-PEG for nuclear imaging guided combined radiotherapy and photothermal therapy of cancer. Compared with free 131I, 131IRGO- PEG exhibits enhanced cellular uptake and thus improved radio-therapeutic efficacy against cancer cells. As revealed by gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of 131I-RGO-PEG is observed after its intravenous injection. While RGO exhibits strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and could induce effective photothermal heating of tumor under NIR light irradiation, 131I is able to emit high-energy X-ray to induce cancer killing as the result of radio ionization effect. By utilizing the combined photothermal therapy and radiotherapy, both of which are delivered by a single agent 131IRGO- PEG, effective elimination of tumors is achieved in our animal tumor model experiments. Toxicology studies further indicate that 131I-RGO-PEG induces no appreciable toxicity to mice at the treatment dose. Our work demonstrates the great promise of combing nuclear medicine and photothermal therapy as a novel therapeutic strategy to realize synergistic efficacy in cancer treatment.

  12. Survival outcome of radioiodine therapy in post thyroidectomy thyroid carcinoma patients: Outcome of long term follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, F.; Nahar, N.; Sultana, S.; Nasreen, F.; Jabin, Z.; Alam, A. S. M. M.

    2016-03-01

    The overall prognosis of patients with thyroid carcinoma is excellent whenever managed following best practice guidelines. Objective: To calculate sex and age group affected by thyroid cancer; to compare between single or multiple dose of radio ablation needed after thyroidectomy and to determine the percentage of patients become disease free during their follow up. Methods: This was a retrospective study done in NINMAS, Bangladesh on 687 patients from 1984 to 2004. In all cases total or near total thyroidectomy was done before commencing radioiodine therapy. Patients TG level, neck ultrasonography, thyroid scan, whole body I131 scans, neck examination were done every six monthly/yearly. Results: Among 687 patients, female were more sufferers (68.1%) and female to male ratio was 2:1. Age group 19-40 years was mostly affected (57.8%). Most common type seen was papillary carcinoma (81.8%). After ablation 100 patients did not follow-up. Total 237 patients discontinued within 4 years. Remaining 450 patients undergone regular follow-up for 5 years and more, 394 were disease free (87.6%). Total recurrence of metastasis was 23 and 12 patients expired at different times. Conclusions: Long-term regular follow-up is necessary after radioiodine ablation to become free of disease.

  13. PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHLYER,D.J.

    2001-08-08

    Probably the most widely used cyclotron produced radiohalogen is I-123. It has gradually replaced I-131 as the isotope of choice for diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals containing radioiodine. It gives a much lower radiation dose to the patient and the gamma ray energy of 159 keV is ideally suited for use in a gamma camera. The gamma ray will penetrate tissue very effectively without excessive radiation dose. For this reason, it has in many instances replaced the reactor produced iodine-131 (Lambrecht and Wolf 1973). A great number of radiopharmaceuticals have been labeled using I-123 and the number is increasing. One of the most promising uses of I-123 is in the imaging of monoclonal antibodies to localize and visualize tumors. However, preclinical and clinical experiences with radiolabeled antibodies have not realized the expectations regarding specificity and sensitivity of tumor localization with these agents. It appears that much of the administered activity is not associated with the tumor site and only a small fraction actually accumulates there. Work continues in this area and tumor-associated antigens can be targets for specific antibody reagents.

  14. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  15. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  16. Radioimmunotherapy in a radiation oncology environment: Building a multi-specialty team

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, Roger M. . E-mail: macklir@ccf.org

    2006-10-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a new branch of radiation medicine in which antibodies specific for tumor-associated antigens are linked to radioactive atoms to provide biologically targeted short-range molecular radiotherapy. Two such biologically targeted radiopharmaceuticals have been approved for commercial use in the last few years. Y-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and I-131 tositumomab (Bexxar) both recognize the CD-20 surface antigen found on normal and malignant B cells. Both of these compounds produce impressive clinical results when used in the management of indolent, refractory, and transformed CD-20+ B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but the unsealed sources involved in this class of compounds also require new types of patient care coordination and patient/environmental safety procedures. Because these multifunctional compounds are ideally administered through a multi-departmental team approach, the planning process to initiate and direct such a team is quite important. This article reviews some of the key processes that may be necessary to establish a successful clinical RIT team. The manuscript highlights the important roles that Radiation oncology team members may play in this multi-department enterprise.

  17. P-31-NMR analysis of in vivo metabolic events in lymphoma during RIT

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-05-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is potentially a powerful method for treatment of cancer. The efficacy of radioimmunopharmaceuticals on target tissue were measured serially, in vivo, in the human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RAJI tumor) using P-31 surface coil NMR. During application of a pulse dosage at curative levels I-131-labeled monoclonal antibody (Lym-1) specific for this tumor, approximately 10,000 rads were delivered to the tumor and 3,000 to the kidney. ATP/Pi ratios and tissue pH were determined in these tumors during therapy and correlated with tumor volumes and radiation-induced tissue damage. During the course of these experiments, the authors noted that the effects of the radiation dose, calculated to be curative, are non-uniform throughout the tissue mass. Therefore, regions of the sample have been distinguished on the basis of differing magnetization precessional rates around the spatially dependent B/sub 1/ field. Two-dimensional FT processing yielded a metabolite map as a set of spectra deployed as a function of mapping distance from the surface coil. In this fashion, metabolites within the tissue slice can be spatially defined. This noninvasive determination of metabolic function appears useful in characterizing the extent of radiation-induced necrosis, spontaneous recurrence of tumor tissue, and sequential evaluation of various dose modalities. These data will be useful in optimization of human RIT regimens.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of Graves' disease with particular emphasis on appropriate techniques in nuclear medicine. General state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Prasek, Karolina; Płazińska, Maria Teresa; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease. It accounts for 50-80% of cases of hyperthyroidism. Antibodies against the TSH receptor (TRAb) are responsible for hyperthyroidism (TRAB). The key role in monitoring and diagnosis of Graves' disease plays the level of hormones of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Helpful is an ultrasound of the thyroid scintigraphy which due to its functional character is both a valuable addition to morphological studies as well as plays an important role in the diagnosis and therapy in patients with Graves' disease. There is no perfect treatment for Graves' disease. The reason for this is the lack of therapy directed against primary pathogenic mechanisms. Currently available treatments need to be thoroughly discussed during the first visit as the patient's understanding of the choice of a treatment constitutes a vital role in the success of therapy. Graves' disease treatment is based on three types of therapies that have been carried out for decades including: pharmacological treatment anti-thyroid drugs, I131 therapy and radical treatment - thyroidectomy. The purpose of the treatment is to control symptoms and patient to return to euthyreosis. Treatment of Graves' disease is of great importance because if left untreated, it can lead to long-term harmful effects on the heart, bone and mental well-being of patients.

  19. New cholescintigraphic agent: ruthenium-97-DISIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G,E.; Robeson, W.; Mausner, L.F.; Fairchild, R.G.; Margouleff, D.

    1986-06-01

    These studies demonstrate the first application of Ru-97-DISIDA in human subjects. High quality images were obtained. Scintigraphic findings in patients with hepatobiliary disorders were consistent with the biodistribution data obtained in experinmental animals and with other imaging procedures and clinical findings. Administration of Ru-97-DISIDA I.V. and of a solid test meal labeled with Tc-99m-Sulfur Colloid allowed simulateneous detection and quantification of deodenogastric reflux and determination of the gastric emptying rate. This represents an advantage as compared to the currently used techniques which necessitate two separate studies if a solid meal is used, or would mandate a liquid meal for a simultaneous study. The excellent nuclear decay characteristics of Ru-97 (tl/2 69.6 h, gamma 216 keV, 86%, no betas) permit delayed study of the hepatobiliary system with considerably less radiation exposure than I-131 Rose Bengal and with a marked improvement in image quality. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Assessment of the potential impact of Nuclear Power Plant accidents on aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Arnold, Delia; Maurer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear accidents in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 demonstrated the urgent need to provide adequate guidance for land-based, marine and airborne transport. Quick assessments of potential impacts are essential to avoid unnecessary traffic disruptions while guaranteeing appropriate safety levels for staff in the transport industry as well as travellers. Such estimates are to be provided under difficult circumstances, mostly due to the lack of reliable initial information on the severity of the accident and the exact source term of radionuclides. Regarding aviation, there are three equally relevant aspects to look at, namely aircraft in cruising altitude (about 40000 ft), aircraft approaching an airport, and finally the airports as such as critical infrastructure, including airport operations and ground transport. Based on the accident scenarios encountered in the Chernobyl and Fukushima cases, exemplary case studies shall be provided to assess the potential impacts of such events on aviation. The study is based on the Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Model (ATDM) FLEXPART and a simplified scheme to calculate effective dose rates based on a few key radionuclides (Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133). Besides the impact assessment, possible new products provided by WMO Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres in the event of an accident shall be discussed as well.

  1. [Study on Indicator Densitometry Determination Method of Hemodynamic Parameters].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-da; Zhou, Run-dong; Zha, Yu-tong; Cai, Jing; Niu, Jun-qi; Gao, Pu-jun; Liu, Li-li

    2016-03-01

    Measurement for hemodynamic parameters has always been a hot spot of clinical research. Methods for measuring hemodynamic parameters clinically have the problems of invasiveness, complex operation and being unfit for repeated measurement. To solve the problems, an indicator densitometry analysis method is presented based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and indicator dilution theory, which realizes the hemodynamic parameters measured noninvasively. While the indocyanine green (ICG) was injected into human body, circulation carried the indicator mixing and diluting with the bloodstream. Then the near-nfrared probe was used to emit near-infrared light at 735, 805 and 940 nm wavelengths through the sufferer's fingertip and synchronously capture the transmission light containing the information of arterial pulse wave. By uploading the measured data, the computer would calculate the ICG concentration, establish continuous concentration curve and compute some intermediate variables such as the mean transmission time (MTT) and the initial blood ICG concentration (c(t0)). Accordingly Cardiac Output (CO) and Circulating Blood Volume (CBV) could be calculated. Compared with the clinical "gold standard" methods of thermodilution and I-131 isotope-labelling method to measure the two parameters by clinical controlled trials, ten sets of data were obtained. The maximum relative errors of this method were 8.88% and 4.28% respectively, and both of the average relative errors were below 5%. The result indicates that this method can meet the clinical accuracy requirement and can be used as a noninvasive, repeatable and applied solution for clinical hemodynamnic parameters measurement.

  2. From Alamogordo to the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Michael

    2008-04-01

    After W.W.II., the U.S. continued its program for the development of nuclear weapons. Winds carried radioactive debris far beyond the Nevada test site, and these fission products were deposited by rain, to enter the human food chain. The isotopes of greatest concern were Sr90 and I131, that, after ingestion, become concentrated in bone and thyroid respectively. There was a growing public anxiety about possible heath hazards posed by radiation from this fallout. In March 1958, the Greater St. Louis Citizens' Committee for Nuclear Information (C.N.I.) was formed. Among the leaders of C.N.I. were E. U. Condon and Barry Commoner. The aim of C.N.I. was ``to collect and distribute in the widest possible manner information which the public requires to understand the present and future problems which arise from potential large-scale use of nuclear weapons in war; testing of nuclear weapons; and nonmilitary uses of nuclear energy.'' In accordance with its objectives, members of C.N.I. gave many nontechnical talks, where we described the various forms of radiation and what was then known about the biological effects of radiation. Some of our members testified at Congressional committee hearings. We published a newsletter, initially titled Nuclear Information, and later Scientist and Citizen. In this presentation, I will describe some of the activities of this idealistic organization.

  3. (University of California, Davis) annual report for radioimmunotherapy program, Year 4, (1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-28

    The goal of this program is to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach to delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. These basic questions refer to the choice of antibody fragments related to their biokinetics, the variation of the biokinetics with variations in the radiochemistry of labeling and the radionuclide used to label, the radionuclide radiation dosimetry, and the feasibility calculated from quantitative imaging in patients and implementation of a proven kinetic model. To approach these problems this program has five discrete, but interrelated aims. Radionuclide choices for effective therapy for solid tumors and bone marrow infiltrating tumor cells; The development of radiochemistry to optimize tumor uptake and increase non-target tissue clearance of the radiopharmaceuticals; Further development and documentation of the peri-fusion system for screening antibodies for human tumor uptake, normal tissue cross-reactivity, and tissue stability of new antibody radiometal linkages; Quantitation in vivo of pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry for radioiodinated and radiometal chelate-labeled antibodies and fragments; and Verification of dosimetry predictions and therapy feasibility in patients using selected I-131 and Cu-67 radioimmunopharmaceuticals.

  4. [University of California, Davis] annual report for radioimmunotherapy program, Year 4, [1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-28

    The goal of this program is to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach to delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. These basic questions refer to the choice of antibody fragments related to their biokinetics, the variation of the biokinetics with variations in the radiochemistry of labeling and the radionuclide used to label, the radionuclide radiation dosimetry, and the feasibility calculated from quantitative imaging in patients and implementation of a proven kinetic model. To approach these problems this program has five discrete, but interrelated aims. Radionuclide choices for effective therapy for solid tumors and bone marrow infiltrating tumor cells; The development of radiochemistry to optimize tumor uptake and increase non-target tissue clearance of the radiopharmaceuticals; Further development and documentation of the peri-fusion system for screening antibodies for human tumor uptake, normal tissue cross-reactivity, and tissue stability of new antibody radiometal linkages; Quantitation in vivo of pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry for radioiodinated and radiometal chelate-labeled antibodies and fragments; and Verification of dosimetry predictions and therapy feasibility in patients using selected I-131 and Cu-67 radioimmunopharmaceuticals.

  5. Distribution and source of (129)I, (239)(,240)Pu, (137)Cs in the environment of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ežerinskis, Ž; Hou, X L; Druteikienė, R; Puzas, A; Šapolaitė, J; Gvozdaitė, R; Gudelis, A; Buivydas, Š; Remeikis, V

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for (129)I, (137)Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of (238)Pu/((239,24)0)Pu, (129)I/(127)I and (131)I/(137)Cs were used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02-0.18 and 0.18-0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 10(-9) to 10(-6) for (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio revealed that the source of (129)I in Lithuania is global fallout in most cases though several sampling sites shows a possible impact of reprocessing releases. Estimated (129)I/(131)I ratio in soil samples from the southern part of Lithuania shows negligible input of the Chernobyl fallout. No correlation of the (137)Cs and Pu isotopes with (129)I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout.

  6. First human Cerenkography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Ferdeghini, Marco; Cavedon, Carlo; Zivelonghi, Emanuele; Calandrino, Riccardo; Fenzi, Alberto; Sbarbati, Andrea; Boschi, Federico

    2013-02-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging is an emerging optical preclinical modality based on the detection of Cerenkov radiation induced by beta particles when traveling though biological tissues with a velocity greater than the speed of light. We present the first human Cerenkography obtained by detecting Cerenkov radiation escaping the thyroid gland of a patient treated for hyperthyroidism. The Cerenkov light was detected using an electron multiplied charge coupled device and a conventional C-mount lens. The system set-up has been tested by using a slab of ex vivo tissue equal to a 1 cm slice of chicken breast in order to simulate optical photons attenuation. We then imaged for 2 min the head and neck region of a patient treated orally 24 h before with 550 MBq of I-131. Co-registration between photographic and Cerenkov images showed a good localization of the Cerenkov light within the thyroid region. In conclusion, we showed that it is possible to obtain a planar image of Cerenkov photons escaping from a human tissue. Cerenkography is a potential novel medical tool to image superficial organs of patients treated with beta minus radiopharmaceuticals and can be extended to the imaging of beta plus emitters.

  7. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Bilateral Cheek Masses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Hah, J. Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration and diagnosed as simple benign nodules. Due to continuous oral bleeding and the locally destructive feature of the lesions, we decided to excise the mass surgically. To avoid functional deficit, a stepwise approach was performed: Firstly, the larger left mass was excised and the mandible was reconstructed with a fibular free flap. The final pathologic diagnosis was follicular thyroid cancer. Postoperative I-131 thyroid scan and whole body positron-emissions-tomography were performed. Right side mass was revealed as a thyroid malignancy. Multiple bony metastases were detected. Since further radioactive iodine therapy was required, additional total thyroidectomy and right side mandibulectomy with fibular free flap reconstruction was performed. The patient also underwent high dose radioactive iodine therapy and palliative extra-beam radiotherapy for the metastatic lumbar lesion. Follicular thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mandibular mass lesions. PMID:23526730

  8. Follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as bilateral cheek masses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Hah, J Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration and diagnosed as simple benign nodules. Due to continuous oral bleeding and the locally destructive feature of the lesions, we decided to excise the mass surgically. To avoid functional deficit, a stepwise approach was performed: Firstly, the larger left mass was excised and the mandible was reconstructed with a fibular free flap. The final pathologic diagnosis was follicular thyroid cancer. Postoperative I-131 thyroid scan and whole body positron-emissions-tomography were performed. Right side mass was revealed as a thyroid malignancy. Multiple bony metastases were detected. Since further radioactive iodine therapy was required, additional total thyroidectomy and right side mandibulectomy with fibular free flap reconstruction was performed. The patient also underwent high dose radioactive iodine therapy and palliative extra-beam radiotherapy for the metastatic lumbar lesion. Follicular thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mandibular mass lesions.

  9. Updated and New Perspectives on Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapy of Malignant Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Parenti, Gabriele; Zampetti, Benedetta; Rapizzi, Elena; Ercolino, Tonino; Giachè, Valentino; Mannelli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Malignant pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas are rare tumors with a poor prognosis. Malignancy is diagnosed by the development of metastases as evidenced by recurrences in sites normally devoid of chromaffin tissue. Histopathological, biochemical, molecular and genetic markers offer only information on potential risk of metastatic spread. Large size, extraadrenal location, dopamine secretion, SDHB mutations, a PASS score higher than 6, a high Ki-67 index are indexes for potential malignancy. Metastases can be present at first diagnosis or occur years after primary surgery. Measurement of plasma and/or urinary metanephrine, normetanephrine and metoxytyramine are recommended for biochemical diagnosis. Anatomical and functional imaging using different radionuclides are necessary for localization of tumor and metastases. Metastatic pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas is incurable. When possible, surgical debulking of primary tumor is recommended as well as surgical or radiosurgical removal of metastases. I-131-MIBG radiotherapy is the treatment of choice although results are limited. Chemotherapy is reserved to more advanced disease stages. Recent genetic studies have highlighted the main pathways involved in pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas pathogenesis thus suggesting the use of targeted therapy which, nevertheless, has still to be validated. Large cooperative studies on tissue specimens and clinical trials in large cohorts of patients are necessary to achieve better therapeutic tools and improve patient prognosis. PMID:22851969

  10. NEMA NU1-2001 performance tests of four Philips Brightview cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seret, Alain

    2011-08-01

    The Brightview is the latest generation dual-head SPECT and SPECT-CT camera from Philips. It is equipped with two large field of view γ-ray digital Anger detectors and with an X-ray flat panel detector. All primary and some secondary NEMA NU1-2001 performance tests were conducted on four (two SPECT and two SPECT-CT) recently installed Brightview systems mainly with 99mTc and low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimators. Intrinsic uniformity for four other isotopes (67Ga, 123I, 131I, 111In) and system uniformity with medium (ME) and high (HE) energy collimators were also measured. The measured parameters were almost identical for all the tested systems and the vast majority of measurements were within the manufacturer’s specifications. The only exception was some of the uniformity indexes of two of the heads but a new calibration solved that particular problem. System alignment could not be processed using the NEMA performance tests due to a file writing problem when performing 360° rotation for each head. However, the Philips COR test was conducted and found to be satisfactory.

  11. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  12. Landfarming of municipal sewage sludge at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Tischler, M.L.; Pergler, C.; Wilson, M.; Mabry, D.; Stephenson, M.

    1995-12-01

    The City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been applying municipal sanitary sludge to 9 sites comprising 90 ha on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983. Approximately 13,000,000 L are applied annually by spraying sludge (2 to 3% solids) under pressure from a tanker. Under an ongoing monitoring program, both the sludge and the soil in the application areas are analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radioactive parameters on a regular basis. Organic pollutants are analyzed in sludge on a semiannual basis and in the soil application areas on an annual basis. Inorganic parameters are analyzed daily (e.g., pH, total solids) or monthly (e.g., nitrogen, manganese) in sludge and annually in soil in application areas. Radionuclides (Co-60, Cs-137, I-131, Be-7, K-40, Ra-228, U-235, U-238) are scanned daily during application by the sewage treatment plant and analyzed weekly in composite sludge samples and annually in soil. Additionally, data on radioactive body burden for maximally exposed workers who apply the sludge show no detectable exposures. This monitoring program is comprehensive and is one of the few in the United States that analyzes radionuclides. Results from the monitoring program show heavy metals and radionuclides are not accumulating to levels in the soil application areas.

  13. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks.

    PubMed

    Dagadu, C P K; Akaho, E H K; Danso, K A; Stegowski, Z; Furman, L

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process.

  14. Evaluation of an immunoextraction procedure for the estimation of free thyroxine concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, L.R.; Shuler, S.E.; Gilbert, S.S.

    1984-02-01

    The authors have examined the performance of a commercial free-thyroxine assay in which a radiolabeled T/sub 4/ derivative permits the competitive quantitation of extracted T/sub 4/ in the presence of serum proteins. After the total T/sub 4/ pool had been radiolabeled with either I-125 T/sub 4/ or I-131 T/sub 4/, the solid-phase antibody was found to be associated with 4-8% of the total T/sub 4/ present in the assay tube. Of this, 15-60% was displaceable (antibody-bound). The assay estimated free T/sub 4/ to be 0.6-1.8 ng/dl in euthyroid patients, and distinguished them from hyperthyroid (sensitivity 91%) and hypothyroid patients (sensitivity 91%) without apparent TBG dependence. In patients with severe nonthyroidal illnesses, the assay correctly quantitated a reduced extracted mass in some. In other patients, however, the assay results were inappropriately lower than the actual extracted mass, in agreement with the FTI but not with the measurements of free T/sub 4/ by dialysis. This assay appears to produce clinically appropriate results in most patients. In some nonthyroidally ill patients however, the indicated free T/sub 4/ is spuriously low.

  15. Human absorbed dose calculations for iodine-131 and iodine-123 labeled meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine (mIBG): a potential myocardial and adrenal medulla imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.P.; Carey, J.E.; Brown, L.E.; Kline, R.C.; Wieland, D.M.; Thrall, J.H.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1981-06-01

    Tissue distribution studies with radiolabeled meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine (mIBG), an analog of the adrenergic neuronal blocking agent-guanethidine, suggest that this radiotracer may be useful for both myocardial imaging (labeled with I-123) and adrenal medulla imaging (labeled with I-131). Total body elimination was determined by whole body counting (well-type ionization chamber) of rats administered /sup 131/I-mIBG and time-activity tissue distribution data was obtained in dogs using /sup 125/I-mIBG. Using the MIRD formalism, researchers have estimated the human absorbed dose from /sup 131/I-mIBG, radionuclidically pure /sup 123/I-mIBG, and /sup 1/''/sup 3/I-mIBG contaminated with 4.8% /sup 125/I-mIBG (based on /sup 123/I radionuclidic purity specification of 1.4% I-125 at calibration). The largest absorbed dose from /sup 131/I-mIBG was delivered to the adrenals. For pure /sup 123/I-mIBG the largest absorbed dose was delivered to the thyroid (unblocked). The /sup 125/I contamination increased the absorbed dose to the adrenal medulla by a factor of 3.5.

  16. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1991-06-01

    In this report the development of a solvent extraction technique for the efficient separation of iridium radioisotopes from osmium radioisotopes is described. The Os-191 (Os-VIII) was efficiently separated from iridium-192 by extraction of a 1 M HCl solution with <10{sup {minus}2}M tetrahexylamine (THA) in methyl isobutyl ketone. Over 99% of the osmium is extracted in one step, leaving the radioactive iridium in the aqueous acidic solution. This simple extraction technique may be useful for the development of a new Os-194/Ir-194 generator prototype which is currently being explored. Also in this report, biodistribution studies of the two iodine-125 (I-125)-labeled spiroperidol analogues, E-3-N-(iodo-1-propen-3-yl)- and E-3-N-(iodo-1-penten-5-yl)spiroperidol in male Balb C mice are described. Several samples were supplied for collaborative research projects during this period and included I-125 and I-131 methyl-branched fatty acids, samples of tin-117m (Sn-117m), gold-199 (Au-199) and scandium-47 (Sc-47). 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Split renal function in patients with hypertension following continued captopril treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Takayama, T.; Nakajima, K.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.; Yasuhara, S.; Miyamori, I.; Takeda, R.

    1985-05-01

    The three different methods to evaluate the alterations of split renal function following continued captopril treatment were studied in patients with hypertension. Five patients had unilateral and 2 had bilateral renal artery stenosis, and 13 had normal renal arteries. The studies were performed the day prior to receiving captopril (baseline), and 6th or 7th day following continued captorpril treatment (37.5mg or 75mg/day): Split effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after injections of I-131 iodohippuran and Tc-99m DTPA were measured respectively by the methods using kidney counting corrected for depth and dose, described by Schlegel and Gates. And Tc-99m DMSA uptake was also evaluated qualitatively. In most of patients with renal artery stenosis, split GFR and Tc-99m DMSA uptake in the affected kidney were markedly decreased 6th or 7th day following continued captorpril treatment. These findings suggest that the captopril induced alterations of split renal function may be of importance for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. For this purpose, split GFR determination and Tc-99m DMSA study are more useful than split ERPF determination.

  18. The effect of radiopharmaceutical choice on the determination of relative renal function in rats with unilateral renal obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.; Lallone, R.

    1984-01-01

    A significant divergence of GFR and ERPF within a single kidney could lead to different estimates of relative renal function depending on which radiopharmaceutical is administered. To address this question, the authors studied adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction by giving each animal an intravenous injection of 10 ..mu..Ci of I-125 iothalamate (GFR), I-131 hippurate (ERPF), and TC-99m DMSA and measuring the 30 minute clearance (renal uptake and urine excretion) of each agent. Normal control animals were sham operated; 25 experimental animals were subjected to permanent unilateral ureteral occlusion and studied at 6 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. Acute ureteral obstruction impaired the clearance of iothalamate to a much greater degree than OIH or DMSA at 6 hours and 1 day (rho<.005) and 3 days (rho<.05). The decline in DMSA clearance reflected ERPF more closely than GFR. In evaluating renal disease, one should consider the functional parameter reflected by the radiopharmaceutical as well as the underlying disease state.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and HLA in the North of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís; Lopes, João; Ramalheira, João; Cunha, Daniela; Carvalho, Cláudia; Bettencourt, Andreia; Bras, Sandra; Costa, Sandra; Silva, M Berta; Martins-da-Silva, António

    2015-10-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) es una enfermedad frecuente, compleja y poligenica, con diversas etiologias que interaccionan originando un fenotipo unico. El SAOS puede ocurrir a cualquier edad del individuo y se presume la existencia de agregacion familiar. Han sido descritos diversos factores de predisposicion, como la edad, el sexo y la obesidad. La relacion entre los polimorfismos del antigeno leucocitario humano (HLA) y trastornos del sueño esta confirmada, tanto en poblaciones europeas como no europeas. No obstante, las relaciones descritas entre los alelos HLA y SAOS no han sido coherentes y carecen de valor informativo para la clasificacion del trastorno del sueño. Objetivo. Explorar la asociacion genetica del HLA con el SAOS en una poblacion del norte de Portugal y evaluar el papel de la obesidad en el contexto del HLA en el SAOS. Pacientes y metodos. Se estudio una cohorte de 131 pacientes con SAOS. Los pacientes fueron atendidos en una clinica del sueño ambulatoria donde se valoraron los antecedentes clinicos, se les practico una polisomnografia nocturna, una prueba de latencia multiple del sueño (si lo exigio el diagnostico diferencial), analiticas y estudios demograficos. A efectos comparativos, se utilizo una poblacion de control de 223 personas sanas. Se efectuo el genotipado del HLA-DRB1 con la reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa mediante cebadores de secuencia especifica. Resultados. En esta cohorte, el alelo HLA-DRB1*03 fue identificado como un factor de predisposicion para el SAOS (24% del SAOS frente a 15% de la poblacion de control; p = 0,025; odds ratio = 1,861; intervalo de confianza al 95% = 1,081-3,205). No hubo diferencias significativas en lo referente a otros alelos HLA-DBR1*. Conclusion. El HLA-DRB1*03 es un factor de predisposicion para el SAOS en la poblacion portuguesa.

  20. [Appraisal of the formation of afterimages by means of a new computer application in patients with demyelinating optic neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Fernandez Jimenez-Ortiz, H; Reche-Sainz, J A; Villarrubia-Torcal, B; Toledano-Fernandez, N; Perucho-Martinez, S

    2016-10-16

    Introduccion. En las neuritis opticas se afecta, entre otras funciones visuales, la percepcion del color. La mayoria de las pruebas existentes para evaluar discromatopsias se basa en evaluar el matiz, pero no se ha estudiado clinicamente la formacion de postimagenes en la retina en estos pacientes. Objetivo. Evaluar la discromatopsia adquirida en las neuritis opticas desmielinizantes mediante la formacion de postimagenes en la retina. Sujetos y metodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, de casos y controles. Los casos son pacientes con al menos un episodio de neuritis optica y esclerosis multiple confirmada. Se selecciono un control sano por cada caso, emparejado por edad y sexo. La variable principal es la capacidad de ver postimagenes tras saturar los fotorreceptores retinianos. Para evaluar dicho fenomeno se desarrollo una aplicacion informatica especifica. Resultados. La muestra comprende 30 casos y 30 controles (63% mujeres; edad media: 33 años; rango: 18-48 años). Los casos mostraron menor probabilidad de ver la postimagen (el 36,6% de los casos y ningun control no veian postimagen) y, en caso de verla, una menor permanencia de ella. La curva ROC muestra una sensibilidad del 86,3% y una especificidad del 83,3%. La odds ratio era de 5 (intervalo de confianza al 95%: 2,21-11,3) para la probabilidad de ver la postimagen en los controles frente a los casos. Conclusiones. Los pacientes con al menos un episodio de neuritis optica presentan una menor capacidad de observar postimagenes, por lo que la prueba es util para la evaluacion y el seguimiento del daño funcional en neuropatias opticas desmielinizantes.

  1. [Desvenlafaxine and neuropathic pain: additional clinical benefits of a second generation serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Alcantara-Montero, A

    2017-03-01

    Introduccion. La desvenlafaxina es el tercer antidepresivo incluido entre los inhibidores de la recaptacion de serotonina y noradrenalina. Las ultimas guias de practica clinica consultadas coinciden en señalar que los antidepresivos triciclicos, los duales (venlafaxina/duloxetina) y los antiepilepticos gabapentina y pregabalina constituyen los farmacos de primera linea en el tratamiento del dolor neuropatico. El tramadol, los apositos de lidocaina al 5% y los parches de capsaicina al 8% son los farmacos de segunda linea, mientras que los opioides potentes constituirian una tercera linea de tratamiento. La interaccion entre el binomio dolor y depresion es muy habitual y representa la complicacion psicologica mas frecuente en los pacientes con dolor cronico. Desarrollo. Tras una busqueda bibliografica, en este articulo se resumen los datos farmacologicos mas relevantes de la desvenlafaxina y su utilidad en la practica clinica, asi como la bibliografia especifica de este farmaco en el dolor neuropatico y el dolor cronico. Conclusiones. Aunque la evidencia de la desvenlafaxina en el dolor neuropatico es escasa, presenta unas caracteristicas farmacocineticas interesantes, como son no ser sustrato ni actuar sobre la glicoproteina P y tener un metabolismo que practicamente no depende del sistema del citocromo P450, lo que limita el riesgo de interacciones farmacocineticas y los potenciales problemas de tolerabilidad asociados cuando se administra con farmacos que sean inhibidores moderados o potentes del CYP2D6 o con otros sustratos de esta isoenzima. Estas caracteristicas hacen de la desvenlafaxina un antidepresivo distinto y especialmente util en algunos subgrupos de pacientes con dolor cronico (como polimedicados y pacientes con insuficiencia hepatica), donde la depresion comorbida es frecuente.

  2. [Theta/beta ratio (NEBA) in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Mejía, Iván D; Palencia-Avendaño, M Luisa; Mogollón-Rincón, Carolina; Etchepareborda, Máximo C

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. En julio del año 2013, la Food and Drug Administration estadounidense aprobo el NEBA como el primer dispositivo para la evaluacion complementaria del trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH), basado en el electroencefalograma cuantificado (EEGq) e incluyendo la relacion theta/beta estandarizada, cuyos resultados fueron consistentes con la evaluacion clinica, tanto medica como psicologica, y es una herramienta util para determinar si el TDAH es primario, secundario o comorbido a otro trastorno. Sin embargo, ninguna de las publicaciones, hasta la fecha, especifica si se trata de un cociente theta/beta total, o theta/beta-1 y theta/beta-2, como tampoco se aportan datos para discriminar entre subtipos diagnosticos del TDAH. Objetivo. Cuantificar los cocientes theta/beta, a traves del EEGq, en una muestra de pacientes rioplatenses con diagnostico principal confirmado de TDAH, para comparar el patron neurofisiologico segun el subtipo diagnostico. Pacientes y metodos. Muestra aleatoria estratificada de 62 sujetos de ambos sexos, de 8 a 17 años, distribuidos en dos grupos segun subtipo diagnostico, TDAH subtipo deficit de atencion (n = 31) y TDAH subtipo combinado (n = 31). Resultados. Se confirman cocientes altos theta/beta-1 y theta/beta-2 en la region Cz, mayores a los cocientes en las areas C3 y C4. Se encontraron diferencias moderadas y estadisticamente significativas entre los dos subtipos solo en la banda beta-1 en las regiones occipitales. El analisis de la coherencia interhemisferica sugiere una asociacion del pico de potencia cruzada con el subtipo diagnostico, que para el subtipo combinado es el pico mas rapido (10 Hz). No se encuentran diferencias importantes al analizar los espectros de fase, ni los cocientes theta/alfa. Conclusiones. Si bien la bibliografia cientifica, especificamente el sistema NEBA, plantea la importancia del cociente theta/beta en el diagnostico diferencial del TDAH de muestras controles y otros trastornos

  3. [Functional assessment for people unable to walk due to spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Translation and validation of the Egen Klassifikation 2 scale for the Spanish population].

    PubMed

    Fagoaga, Joaquín; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Febrer, Anna; Steffensen, Birgit F

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. La escala Egen Klassifikation 2 (EK2), ampliacion de la escala EK, evalua la capacidad funcional de personas con atrofia muscular espinal (AME) y distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) que estan en fase de silla de ruedas. Esta version es mas especifica para la AME que su antecesora. Objetivo. Analizar la validez y fiabilidad de la version española de dicha escala como instrumento de medicion de la capacidad funcional en pacientes afectos de AME y DMD que estan en silla de ruedas. Pacientes y metodos. Primeramente se realizo una traduccion-retrotraduccion al español de la version en ingles de la EK2 y, posteriormente, se estudio la fiabilidad de la version traducida. Para ello, se seleccionaron 39 pacientes, de edades comprendidas entre 4 y 60 años, que fueron valorados por dos observadores. Para evaluar la concordancia intraobservador se realizaron dos evaluaciones por un mismo observador, y para la interobservador, se realizo una tercera evaluacion por un segundo observador. Resultados. Los valores obtenidos referidos a la puntuacion total de los items de la escala (suma EK2) reflejan una fiabilidad intra e interobservador excelente, de 0,993 y 0,988, respectivamente. Asimismo, para cada uno de los items, la fiabilidad fue excelente, a excepcion de un item, en el que fue buena. Conclusiones. La version española de la escala EK2 es un instrumento valido y fiable para la poblacion española como herramienta de medicion de la capacidad funcional en pacientes con AME y DMD que estan en silla de ruedas.

  4. [Phenotypic variability of the 1q21.1 microdeletion syndrome in members of the same family: relevance of detection of neuropsychiatric disorders for diagnosis of genetic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Natera-De Benito, Daniel; Vidal-Esteban, Arantxa; Sanchez-Del Pozo, Jaime; Moreno-Garcia, Marta; Suela-Rubio, Javier; Cruz-Rojo, Jaime; Rivero-Martin, María José

    2015-12-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de microdelecion 1q21.1 esta causado por una delecion recurrente de aproximadamente 800 kb que incluye al menos siete genes y se asocia a un fenotipo variable. Esta variacion en el numero de copias patogenica puede aparecer de novo o ser heredada de uno de los progenitores. La presencia de trastornos psiquiatricos se ha descrito en muchos de los casos publicados, pero se desconoce su prevalencia exacta. Objetivo. Exponer la variabilidad fenotipica de los individuos que presentan una microdelecion 1q21.1. Casos clinicos. Se incluyen cuatro individuos portadores de una delecion de 1,74 Mb en 1q21.1, todos miembros de la misma familia. El estudio genetico del caso indice se llevo a cabo mediante array de hibridacion genomica comparada, y el del resto de familiares mediante hibridacion in situ fluorescente, con una sonda especifica para la region delecionada. Los individuos presentan un fenotipo heterogeneo, y es comun a todos ellos la presencia de alteraciones psiquiatricas o del comportamiento, con un claro predominio de la presencia de trastornos relacionados con las dificultades para el control de impulsos en sus diferentes subtipos. Conclusiones. El sindrome de microdelecion 1q21.1 es fenotipicamente heterogeneo, incluso entre los miembros de una misma familia. Destaca la presencia de alteraciones psiquiatricas o del comportamiento como rasgo comun en todos los pacientes que presentamos. Existen formas paucisintomaticas en las que el individuo portador de la delecion presenta exclusivamente alteraciones psiquiatricas.

  5. [Detection of the PMP22 gene duplication in peripheral neuropathy patients: a study in Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Cortés, Hernán; Hernández-Hernández, Óscar; Bautista-Tirado, Teresa; Escobar-Cedillo, Rosa Elena; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) es una neuropatia que afecta los nervios motores y sensitivos, y la CMT1A es el subtipo mas frecuente en el mundo. La CMT1A se produce por una duplicacion de 1,5 Mb en el locus 17p11.2-p12, donde se localiza el gen PMP22. Para el diagnostico de CMT1A es importante contar con tecnicas moleculares especificas para la determinacion de esta mutacion. Objetivos. Establecer un metodo de uso rutinario para detectar la duplicacion de PMP22 en la poblacion mexicana y estimar su frecuencia en pacientes con caracteristicas clinicas para la CMT. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizaron 157 pacientes mexicanos no relacionados entre si, diagnosticados de CMT por valoracion clinica. La determinacion de la duplicacion de PMP22 se realizo a traves de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real mediante el metodo comparativo 2–ΔΔCT. Resultados. El metodo 2–ΔΔCT para detectar la duplicacion del gen PMP22 mostro ser sensible y fiable. Los resultados fueron consistentes con los obtenidos mediante la tecnica de hibridacion in situ fluorescente. Se detecto la duplicacion de PMP22 en 79 pacientes (50,3%), con un comportamiento similar a lo comunicado en Estados Unidos, Australia, Finlandia, Suecia y España. Sin embargo, se observo que existen diferencias con otras poblaciones. Conclusiones. La tecnica de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa se implemento como un diagnostico molecular de CMT1A eficaz y de bajo coste, por lo que puede utilizarse rutinariamente en Mexico. Esto es esencial para el asesoramiento genetico y el tratamiento oportuno de los pacientes con CMT. La frecuencia de la duplicacion del gen PMP22 varia entre regiones geograficas, por lo que es importante estimarla en diferentes poblaciones.

  6. [Differences in the management of epileptic seizures between the elderly and younger adults treated in an emergency department].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, C; Matias-Guiu, J A; Castillo, C; Fuentes-Ferrer, M E; Gonzalez-Del Castillo, J; Martin-Sanchez, F J

    2014-09-16

    Objetivo. Estudiar las diferencias en el manejo y los resultados a corto plazo de los pacientes adultos atendidos en un servicio de urgencias por una crisis epileptica en funcion de ser anciano. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional de cohorte retrospectivo que selecciono a todos los pacientes de 15 años o mas atendidos por una crisis epileptica en un servicio de urgencias de un hospital terciario y universitario desde el 1 de septiembre al 31 de diciembre de 2011. Se recogieron las variables de la atencion aguda y de seguimiento a los 30 dias del episodio indice de urgencias. Resultados. Se incluyeron 114 pacientes con una mediana de edad de 46,4 años (rango intercuartilico: 32,6-74,3 años), de los cuales 34 (29,8%) tenian 65 años o mas. El grupo de los mayores presento mas frecuentemente un primer episodio epileptico (p = 0,001), desencadenante desconocido (p = 0,02), etiologia estructural (p < 0,001), realizacion de tomografia computarizada en urgencias (p < 0,001), inicio de farmaco antiepileptico preventivo en urgencias (p = 0,001) y estancia prolongada (p = 0,002) que los adultos mas jovenes. Tras un analisis multivariable, el ser anciano fue un factor independiente asociado a un mayor requerimiento de pruebas complementarias especificas (Odds ratio = 3,7; intervalo de confianza al 95% = 1,3-10,3) e intervencion farmacologica en urgencias (odds ratio = 3,3; intervalo de confianza al 95% = 1,4-8,1). No hubo diferencias estadisticamente significativas en los resultados a 30 dias entre ambos grupos en terminos de revisita (p = 0,316) y mortalidad (p = 0,087). Conclusiones. La atencion de las crisis epilepticas del anciano en urgencias, en comparacion con adultos mas jovenes, es mas compleja, siendo necesario un mayor consumo de recursos hospitalarios.

  7. [Instrumental gait analysis in stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, P; Molina-Rueda, F; Cuesta-Gomez, A; Carratala-Tejada, M; Miangolarra-Page, J C

    2016-11-16

    Introduccion. Las alteraciones en el control motor consecuentes al ictus afectan al patron de marcha, existiendo una importante variabilidad intersujeto. Objetivos. Valorar, a traves de un sistema de captura del movimiento, el patron cinematico de la marcha en sujetos con ictus y establecer que alteraciones del patron de la marcha son comunes entre los participantes. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron nueve pacientes con ictus con capacidad de marcha y diez sujetos controles. Para la captura del movimiento se empleo el sistema VICON Motion System ®. Se analizaron los movimientos articulares de pelvis, cadera, rodilla y tobillo en el plano sagital, y los parametros espaciotemporales de la marcha. Resultados. La funcion motora de los participantes, valorada mediante la escala Fugl-Meyer (seccion del miebro inferior), oscilo entre 15 y 33 puntos. Los participantes presentaron alteraciones en la cinematica comunes entre ellos. En los pacientes con ictus se registro: aumento de la amplitud de movimiento de la pelvis en ambos hemicuerpos (lado afecto y no afecto frente a control, p < 0,01); en la cadera, disminucion de la maxima extension durante la fase de apoyo en el lado afecto (p < 0,01) e incremento de la flexion en las fases de apoyo y oscilacion en el no afecto (p = 0,025); en la rodilla, mayor flexion durante la fase de contacto inicial (lado afecto frente a control, p < 0,01; lado no afecto frente a control, p = 0,02); y en el tobillo, ligera flexion plantar durante la fase de contacto inicial en el lado afecto. Conclusiones. A pesar de la variabilidad clinica, existen alteraciones especificas comunes de la marcha en sujetos con ictus.

  8. [The atypical developments of rolandic epilepsy are predictable complications].

    PubMed

    Pesántez-Ríos, Gabriela; Martínez-Bermejo, Antonio; Arcas, Joaquín; Merino-Andreu, Milagros; Ugalde-Canitrot, Arturo

    2015-08-01

    Introduccion. Las evoluciones atipicas de la epilepsia rolandica son parte de un espectro clinico de fenotipos variables, idiopaticos, dependientes de la edad y con una predisposicion geneticamente determinada. Objetivo. Estudiar las caracteristicas electroclinicas sugestivas de una evolucion atipica en la epilepsia rolandica. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo una busqueda retrospectiva de 133 niños diagnosticados de epilepsia focal benigna atipica (EFBA), sindrome de Landau-Kleffner y epilepsia de punta-onda continua durante el sueño (POCS). Se seleccionaron nueve pacientes que, en el trascurso de su epilepsia rolandica, presentaron un cuadro clinico atipico y un patron electroencefalografico (EEG) de estado epileptico electrico durante el sueño (ESES). Resultados. El inicio de la epilepsia rolandica fue, en promedio, a los 5 años. Los pacientes presentaron un empeoramiento clinico y del EEG año y medio mas tarde en promedio. En tres pacientes se observaron caracteristicas de EFBA, y en seis, de POCS. No se encontraron casos de sindrome de Landau-Kleffner. El EEG en vigilia mostro una focalidad centrotemporal izquierda en seis pacientes, y derecha, en tres. Todos los pacientes presentaron un ESES en el EEG de sueño. En tres de ellos se observo un patron atipico de ESES regional. Ademas, se detectaron alteraciones cognitivas y conductuales por deficits en areas especificas del aprendizaje, como lenguaje, memoria, atencion e inquietud. Conclusiones. El inicio precoz de la epilepsia rolandica, la aparicion de nuevas crisis con un incremento en su frecuencia y una focalidad frontocentrotemporal en el EEG, que aumenta en frecuencia, tanto en vigilia como en sueño, son caracteristicas electroclinicas sugerentes de una evolucion atipica.

  9. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  10. Methylene blue solder re-absorption in microvascular anastomoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Jeremy F.; Hepplewhite, J.; Frier, Malcolm; Bell, Peter R. F.

    2003-06-01

    Soldered vascular anastomoses have been reported using several chromophores but little is known of the optimal conditions for microvascular anastomosis. There are some indications of the optimal protein contents of a solder, and the effects of methylene blue on anastomotic strength. The effects of varying laser power density in vivo have also been described, showing a high rate of thrombosis with laser power over 22.9Wcm-2. However no evidence exists to describe how long the solder remains at the site of the anastomosis. Oz et al reported that the fibrin used in their study had been almost completely removed by 90 days but without objective evidence of solder removal. In order to address the issue of solder re-absorption from the site of an anastomosis we used radio-labelled albumin (I-125) incorporated into methylene blue based solder. This was investigated in both the situation of the patent and thrombosed anastomosis with anastomoses formed at high and low power. Iodine-125 (half life: 60.2 days) was covalently bonded to porcine albumin and mixed with the solder solution. Radio-iodine has been used over many years to determine protein turnover using either I-125 or I-131. Iodine-125 labelled human albumin is regularly used as a radiopharmaceutical tool for the determination of plasma volume. Radio-iodine has the advantages of not affecting protein metabolism and the label is rapidly excreted after metabolic breakdown. Labelling with chromium (Cr-51) causes protein denaturation and is lost from the protein with time. Labelled albumin has been reported in human studies over a 21-day period, with similar results reported by Matthews. Most significantly McFarlane reported a different rate of catabolism of I-131 and I-125 over a 22-day period. The conclusion from this is that the rate of iodine clearance is a good indicator of protein catabolism. In parallel with the surgery a series of blank standards were prepared with a known mass of solder to correct for isotope

  11. Application of Frequency of Detection Methods in Design and Optimization of the INL Site Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, Arthur S.; Sondrup, A. Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    This report presents an evaluation of a hypothetical INL Site monitoring network and the existing INL air monitoring network using frequency of detection methods. The hypothetical network was designed to address the requirement in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H (2006) that “emissions of radionuclides to ambient air from U.S. DOE facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent exceeding 10 mrem/year.” To meet the requirement for monitoring only, “radionuclide releases that would result in an effective dose of 10% of the standard shall be readily detectable and distinguishable from background.” Thus, the hypothetical network consists of air samplers placed at residence locations that surround INL and at other locations where onsite livestock grazing takes place. Two exposure scenarios were used in this evaluation: a resident scenario and a shepherd/rancher scenario. The resident was assumed to be continuously present at their residence while the shepherd/rancher was assumed to be present 24-hours at a fixed location on the grazing allotment. Important radionuclides were identified from annual INL radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants reports. Important radionuclides were defined as those that potentially contribute 1% or greater to the annual total dose at the radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants maximally exposed individual location and include H-3, Am-241, Pu-238, Pu 239, Cs-137, Sr-90, and I-131. For this evaluation, the network performance objective was set at achieving a frequency of detection greater than or equal to 95%. Results indicated that the hypothetical network for the resident scenario met all performance objectives for H-3 and I-131 and most performance objectives for Cs-137 and Sr-90. However, all actinides failed to meet the performance objectives for most sources. The shepherd/rancher scenario showed

  12. Production and Clinical Applications of Radiopharmaceuticals and Medical Radioisotopes in Iran.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Amir Reza; Beiki, Davood; Hassanzadeh-Rad, Arman; Eftekhari, Arash; Geramifar, Parham; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    During past 3 decades, nuclear medicine has flourished as vibrant and independent medical specialty in Iran. Since that time, more than 200 nuclear physicians have been trained and now practicing in nearly 158 centers throughout the country. In the same period, Tc-99m generators and variety of cold kits for conventional nuclear medicine were locally produced for the first time. Local production has continued to mature in robust manner while fulfilling international standards. To meet the ever-growing demand at the national level and with international achievements in mind, work for production of other Tc-99m-based peptides such as ubiquicidin, bombesin, octreotide, and more recently a kit formulation for Tc-99m TRODAT-1 for clinical use was introduced. Other than the Tehran Research Reactor, the oldest facility active in production of medical radioisotopes, there is one commercial and three hospital-based cyclotrons currently operational in the country. I-131 has been one of the oldest radioisotope produced in Iran and traditionally used for treatment of thyrotoxicosis and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Since 2009, (131)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine has been locally available for diagnostic applications. Gallium-67 citrate, thallium-201 thallous chloride, and Indium-111 in the form of DTPA and Oxine are among the early cyclotron-produced tracers available in Iran for about 2 decades. Rb-81/Kr-81m generator has been available for pulmonary ventilation studies since 1996. Experimental production of PET radiopharmaceuticals began in 1998. This work has culminated with development and optimization of the high-scale production line of (18)F-FDG shortly after installation of PET/CT scanner in 2012. In the field of therapy, other than the use of old timers such as I-131 and different forms of P-32, there has been quite a significant advancement in production and application of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in recent years. Application of (131)I

  13. Post-reconstruction non-local means filtering methods using CT side information for quantitative SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Se Young; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Dewaraja, Yuni K.

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative SPECT techniques are important for many applications including internal emitter therapy dosimetry where accurate estimation of total target activity and activity distribution within targets are both potentially important for dose-response evaluations. We investigated non-local means (NLM) post-reconstruction filtering for accurate I-131 SPECT estimation of both total target activity and the 3D activity distribution. We first investigated activity estimation versus number of ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) iterations. We performed simulations using the XCAT phantom with tumors containing a uniform and a non-uniform activity distribution, and measured the recovery coefficient (RC) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) to quantify total target activity and activity distribution, respectively. We observed that using more OSEM iterations is essential for accurate estimation of RC, but may or may not improve RMSE. We then investigated various post-reconstruction filtering methods to suppress noise at high iteration while preserving image details so that both RC and RMSE can be improved. Recently, NLM filtering methods have shown promising results for noise reduction. Moreover, NLM methods using high-quality side information can improve image quality further. We investigated several NLM methods with and without CT side information for I-131 SPECT imaging and compared them to conventional Gaussian filtering and to unfiltered methods. We studied four different ways of incorporating CT information in the NLM methods: two known (NLM CT-B and NLM CT-M) and two newly considered (NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H). We also evaluated the robustness of NLM filtering using CT information to erroneous CT. NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H yielded comparable RC values to unfiltered images while substantially reducing RMSE. NLM CT-S achieved -2.7 to 2.6% increase of RC compared to no filtering and NLM CT-H yielded up to 6% decrease in RC while other methods yielded lower RCs

  14. Post-reconstruction non-local means filtering methods using CT side information for quantitative SPECT.

    PubMed

    Chun, Se Young; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Dewaraja, Yuni K

    2013-09-07

    Quantitative SPECT techniques are important for many applications including internal emitter therapy dosimetry where accurate estimation of total target activity and activity distribution within targets are both potentially important for dose–response evaluations. We investigated non-local means (NLM) post-reconstruction filtering for accurate I-131 SPECT estimation of both total target activity and the 3D activity distribution. We first investigated activity estimation versus number of ordered-subsets expectation–maximization (OSEM) iterations. We performed simulations using the XCAT phantom with tumors containing a uniform and a non-uniform activity distribution, and measured the recovery coefficient (RC) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) to quantify total target activity and activity distribution, respectively. We observed that using more OSEM iterations is essential for accurate estimation of RC, but may or may not improve RMSE. We then investigated various post-reconstruction filtering methods to suppress noise at high iteration while preserving image details so that both RC and RMSE can be improved. Recently, NLM filtering methods have shown promising results for noise reduction. Moreover, NLM methods using high-quality side information can improve image quality further. We investigated several NLM methods with and without CT side information for I-131 SPECT imaging and compared them to conventional Gaussian filtering and to unfiltered methods. We studied four different ways of incorporating CT information in the NLM methods: two known (NLM CT-B and NLM CT-M) and two newly considered (NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H). We also evaluated the robustness of NLM filtering using CT information to erroneous CT. NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H yielded comparable RC values to unfiltered images while substantially reducing RMSE. NLM CT-S achieved −2.7 to 2.6% increase of RC compared to no filtering and NLM CT-H yielded up to 6% decrease in RC while other methods yielded lower

  15. WE-AB-204-11: Development of a Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry Module for the GPU-Based Monte Carlo Code ARCHER

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T; Lin, H; Xu, X; Stabin, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a nuclear medicine dosimetry module for the GPU-based Monte Carlo code ARCHER. Methods: We have developed a nuclear medicine dosimetry module for the fast Monte Carlo code ARCHER. The coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo transport kernel included in ARCHER is built upon the Dose Planning Method code (DPM). The developed module manages the radioactive decay simulation by consecutively tracking several types of radiation on a per disintegration basis using the statistical sampling method. Optimization techniques such as persistent threads and prefetching are studied and implemented. The developed module is verified against the VIDA code, which is based on Geant4 toolkit and has previously been verified against OLINDA/EXM. A voxelized geometry is used in the preliminary test: a sphere made of ICRP soft tissue is surrounded by a box filled with water. Uniform activity distribution of I-131 is assumed in the sphere. Results: The self-absorption dose factors (mGy/MBqs) of the sphere with varying diameters are calculated by ARCHER and VIDA respectively. ARCHER’s result is in agreement with VIDA’s that are obtained from a previous publication. VIDA takes hours of CPU time to finish the computation, while it takes ARCHER 4.31 seconds for the 12.4-cm uniform activity sphere case. For a fairer CPU-GPU comparison, more effort will be made to eliminate the algorithmic differences. Conclusion: The coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo code ARCHER has been extended to radioactive decay simulation for nuclear medicine dosimetry. The developed code exhibits good performance in our preliminary test. The GPU-based Monte Carlo code is developed with grant support from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering through an R01 grant (R01EB015478)

  16. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively.

  17. Regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    Potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees were analyzed. The most potentially hazardous accident, by a large margin, was determined to be the sudden rupture of a heated multi-ton cylinder of UF/sub 6/. Acute fatalities offsite are probably not credible. Acute permanent injuries may be possible for many hundreds of meters, and clinically observable transient effects of unknown long term consequences may be possible for distances up to a few miles. These effects would be caused by the chemical toxicity of the UF/sub 6/. Radiation doses would not be significant. The most potentially hazardous accident due to radiation exposure was determined to be a large fire at certain facilities handling large quantities of alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., Po-210, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244) or radioiodines (I-125 and I-131). However, acute fatalities or injuries to people offsite due to accidental releases of these materials do not seem plausible. The only other significant accident was identified as a long-term pulsating criticality at fuel cycle facilities handling high-enriched uranium or plutonium. An important feature of the most serious accidents is that releases are likely to start without prior warning. The releases would usually end within about half an hour. Thus protective actions would have to be taken quickly to be effective. There is not likely to be enough time for dose projections, complicated decisionmaking during the accident, or the participation of personnel not in the immediate vicinity of the site. The appropriate response by the facility is to immediately notify local fire, police, and other emergency personnel and give them a brief predetermined message recommending protective actions. Emergency personnel are generally well qualified to respond effectively to small accidents of these types.

  18. Radiolabeling of new generation magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanoparticles with (131) I and preliminary investigation of its radiopharmaceutical potential using albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Avcıbaşı, Uğur; Demiroğlu, Hasan; Ediz, Melis; Akalın, Hilmi Arkut; Özçalışkan, Emir; Şenay, Hilal; Türkcan, Ceren; Özcan, Yeşim; Akgöl, Sinan; Avcıbaşı, Nesibe

    2013-12-01

    In this study, N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine (MAPA) containing poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (HEMA)-based magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanobeads [mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)] were radiolabeled with (131) I [(131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)], and the radiopharmaceutical potential of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was investigated. Quality control studies were carried out by radiochromatographic method to be sure that (131) I binded to mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) efficiently. In this sense, binding yield of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was found to be about 95-100%. In addition to this, optimum radiodination conditions for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were determined by thin-layer radiochromatography studies. In addition to thin-layer radiochromatography studies, lipophilicity (partition coefficient) and stability studies for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were realized. It was determined that lipophilicities of mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) and (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were 0.12 ± 0.01 and 1.79 ± 0.76 according to ACD/logP algorithm program, respectively. Stability of the radiolabeled compound was investigated in time intervals given as 0, 30, 60, 180, and 1440 min. It was found that (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) existed as a stable complex in rat serum within 60 min. After that, biodistribution and scintigraphy studies were carried out by using albino Wistar rats. It was determined that the most important (131) I activity uptake was observed in the breast, the ovary, and the pancreas. Scintigraphy studies well supported biodistribution results.

  19. Preconstruction radioactivity levels in the vicinity of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Routine samples of ground water, river water, and bottom sediment were collected from the Clinch River in 1983 in the preconstruction-construction phase of the CRBRP environmental radiological monitoring program. The water samples analyzed for iodine-131 yielded only a slight indication of the presence of I-131 at levels below the nominal lower limit of detection of 0.5 pCi/L. The only significant radioisotopes identified in sediment samples were /sup 137/Cs, /sup 60/Co, and the naturally occurring /sup 40/K. The results for /sup 137/Cs vary from 2.2 to 10.1 pCi/g (dry weight), while the results for /sup 60/Co range from 0.35 to 1.2 pCi/g (dry weight). With the exception of tritium, no significant radioactivity was detected in ground or surface water at the CRBRP site. Tritium concentrations ranging from 12,667 to 12,823 pCi/L were found in samples of surface water taken from the Clinch River below Melton Hill Dam while samples taken at the dam exhibited tritium levels from 28 to 942 pCi/L. These elevated tritium levels in the Clinch River below Melton Hill Dam are attributable to DOE operations at Oak Ridge. The external gamma radiation levels measured at the CRBRP site averaged 17.4 +- 3.2 mR/quarter for 1983. This is consistent with levels measured at TVA's nonoperating nuclear power plant construction sites. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  20. Role of B-RafV600E in differentiated thyroid cancer and preclinical validation of compounds against B-RafV600E

    PubMed Central

    Nucera, Carmelo; Goldfarb, Melanie; Hodin, Richard; Parangi, Sareh

    2012-01-01

    Summary B-RafV600E, an oncogenic protein kinase, is the most frequent genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). PTC represents 80–90% of all thyroid cancers and over the past five years, more than 200 manuscripts have been published about the relationship between “B-RafV600E and thyroid cancer”. B-RafV600E genetically arises from a transversion point mutation (valine-to-glutamate substitution at amino acid residue-600, V600E) and leads to over activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signalling pathway. The MAPK pathway is essential for transmitting proliferation signals generated by cell surface receptors and cytoplasmic signaling elements to the nucleus. In many cancers, including thyroid cancer, B-RafV600E appears to play a crucial role in cell proliferation, survival and de-differentiation. In thyroid cancer, the V600E mutation occurs with greater frequently in aggressive subtypes of PTC, and in individuals that present at advanced stages of disease with extra-thyroidal extension and/or lymph node metastases. B-RafV600E is considered a marker of aggressive disease in both PTC (>1 cm) and micro-PTC (≤1 cm), and interestingly, is associated with both loss of I-131 avidity and PTC recurrence. Though treatment of patients with thyroid cancer is usually successful and most patients are rendered disease-free, to date there are no effective therapies for patients with invasive, non-radioiodine sensitive tumors or metastatic disease. In this article we will review the relation between B-RafV600E and PTC, as well as both non-selective and selective pharmacological agents currently under investigation for treatment of B-RafV600E positive PTC. PMID:19356676

  1. Development and characterization of a compact hand-held gamma probe system, SURGEOGUIDE, based on NEMA NU3-2004 standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviani, S.; Zeraatkar, N.; Sajedi, S.; Gorjizadeh, N.; Farahani, M. H.; Ghafarian, P.; El Fakhri, G.; Sabet, H.; Ay, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Using an intra-operative gamma probe after periareolar or peritumoral injection of a radiotracer during surgery helps the surgeon to identify the sentinel, or first, nodal site of regional metastasis in clinically node-negative patients. The pathological analysis of this node can have an important influence on the treatment staging in various cancers. This paper reports the design and performance evaluation of a gamma probe recently developed in our department. The detector unit of this system consists of an 8 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness monolithic CsI(Tl) scintillator optically, coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) with an active area of 6×6 mm2, and a single-hole collimator. The unit is shielded using tungsten. The system can operate in three different modes for Tc-99m, I-131, or F-18 isotopes. The following measurements were carried out to evaluate the performance of the probe: sensitivity in air and scatter medium, spatial resolution in scatter medium, angular resolution in scatter medium, and side and back shielding effectiveness. All experiments have been performed based on the NEMA NU3-2004 standard set up. The measured system sensitivities in air and scatter medium (water) are 1700 cps/MBq and 1770 cps/MBq, respectively, both measured at 3 cm from the collimator. The spatial resolution in the scatter medium is about 45 mm at 3 cm distance from the collimator. Also, the angular resolution of the probe is 74o FWHM. Finally, a shielding effectiveness of 99.5% is measured. The results show that the probe can potentially be used for sentinel lymph node localization during the surgery.

  2. 12. Chernobyl's radioactive contamination of food and people.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B; Yablokov, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    In many European countries levels of I-131, Cs-134/137, Sr-90, and other radionuclides in milk, dairy products, vegetables, grains, meat, and fish increased drastically (sometimes as much as 1,000-fold) immediately after the catastrophe. Up until 1991 the United States imported food products with measurable amounts of Chernobyl radioactive contamination, mostly from Turkey, Italy, Austria, West Germany, Greece, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Sweden, and Denmark. These products included juices, cheeses, pasta, mushrooms, hazelnuts, sage, figs, tea, thyme, juniper, caraway seeds, and apricots. In Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest provinces in Belarus 7-8% of milk and 13-16% of other food products from small farms exceeded permissible levels of Cs-137, even as recently as 2005-2007. As of 2000, up to 90% of the wild berries and mushrooms exceeded permissible levels of Cs-137 in Rovno and Zhytomir provinces, Ukraine. Owing to weight and metabolic differences, a child's radiation exposure is 3-5 times higher than that of an adult on the same diet. From 1995 to 2007, up to 90% of the children from heavily contaminated territories of Belarus had levels of Cs-137 accumulation higher than 15-20 Bq/kg, with maximum levels of up to 7,300 Bq/kg in Narovlya District, Gomel Province. Average levels of incorporated Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the heavily contaminated territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia did not decline, but rather increased from 1991 to 2005. Given that more than 90% of the current radiation fallout is due to Cs-137, with a half-life of about 30 years, we know that the contaminated areas will be dangerously radioactive for roughly the next three centuries.

  3. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Blystone, S.L.; Kropp, A.; Lisic, E.C.; Rice, D.E.

    1989-03-01

    During this period the properties of the unknown metabolite released from Langendorff-perfused rat hearts administered radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) have been further evaluated. Identification of this metabolite is important to provide a better understanding of the myocardial metabolism of methyl-branched fatty acids and to illuminate the factors affecting myocardial retention of such agents. The metabolite is the principal component in the outflow of the isolated rat hearts. Following isolation and purification of the metabolite, treatment with NaBH/sub 4/ had no effect on the chromatographic properties. In contrast, a much less polar product was formed by treatment with acetic anhydride, suggesting the presence of a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. In addition, the metabolite is soluble in dilute base and extracted from an acid solution with ether, demonstrating the presence of a carboxyl group. These combined results suggest BMIPP is metabolized to a hydroxy acid of unknown structure. Studies are now in progress to identify this material. Studies of the effects of chain length on the complexation of a series of p-carboxyalkylphenylglyoxal bis-(N-alkylthiosemicarbazones) (TSC) have continued. After complexation with either Cu-64 or Cu-67 followed by activation to the tetrafluorophenyl esters, the bifunctional ligands were attached to BSA and purified by G-25 Sephadex. Yields varied from 2--3% to 40%, with higher yields for the shorter chain analogues. Because of simpler formation and higher yield, future studies will focus on the radiolabeling of antibodies with the short-chain analogues of the 1,2-diketone TSC derivatives. Also during this period (I-131)IPPA was supplied to collaborators at the Institute of Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, for studies with an isolated working rat heart model.

  4. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Lambert, C.R.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Luo, H.

    1994-08-01

    In this report we describe tile first successful synthesis and in vivo evaluation of a fluorinated analogue of the IQNP muscarinic-cholinergic receptor ligand. Unanticipated synthetic hurdles lead to several unsuccessful approaches before the synthesis of a model compound was achieved. The successful route involved introduction of the fluoroethyl moiety at an early stage of the synthesis by alkylation of ethyl 1,3-dithiane-2-carboxylate with 1-fluoro-2-bromoethane. Subsequent unmasking of the carbonyl, followed by introduction of the phenyl group with phenylmagnesium bromide and subsequent transesterification with racemic quinuclidinol afforded the target compound, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoroethan-2-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (QNF). Pretreatment of Fisher rats with QNF one hour prior to the intravenous administration of the [I-131]-Z-(R,R) IQNP isomer demonstrated that the new fluoro analogue blocked uptake of iodine-131 in those regions of the brain rich in muscarinic-cholinergic receptors measured three hours after injection. As an example, the control values for group of nontreated animals were (5 animals; mean {+-} SD): cortex, 1.20{+-}0.27; striatum, 0.73{+-}0.19; pons, 0.70{+-}0.20; cerebellum, 0.43{+-}0.114. Brains from animals pretreated with the fluoro analogue had the following values (mean{+-}SD; % decrease): cortex, 0.67{+-}0.15 (65%); striatum, 0.35{+-}0.114 (52%); pons, 0.40{+-}0.08 (43%); cerebellum, 0.16{+-}0.09(63%). Also during this period several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators and tin-117m samples were provided for collaborative studies.

  5. [Isotopic kidney investigations in staghorn lithiasis in the adult (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gaussin, G; Oliveux, A; Scheiben, C; Bollack, C

    1980-01-01

    The authors report a study of 37 kidneys in 30 patients with staghorn calculi undergoing isotopic investigation of renal function by sequential scintigraphy and isotopic nephrogram by gamma-camera. 7 of the patients had bilateral staghorn calculi. Tracers used: Hippuran labelled with I131 and DPTA labelled with Technetium 99 m. 62% of kidneys poorly tolerated their staghorn calculus as shown by severe impairment of the isotopic nephrogram involving the uptake phase. Amongst the 20 cases of unilateral lithiasis, a nephrectomy was performed whenever the functional value was less than 20% normal (7 kidneys). Twelve stones were removed with conservation of the kidney. It should be noted that with renal function greater than 70% normal, the thickness of the renal parenchyma as assessed by IVU is never less by more than 1/2 cm that of the contralateral kidney. In the group, 11 patients underwent postoperative urography and scintigraphy with a mean follow up of 4 years. All extractions of calculi by pyelotomy with or without a small nephrotomy benefited initially impaired kidneys. By contrast, in 5 kidneys where a large nephrotomy was made, there was a gain in function in only one. 1 remained stationary and the others lost respectively 20, 30 and 100% of their function. Correlation was good with other methods of split renal function studies (IVU and renal arteriography). Of essential importance is the fact that the irradiation associated with these isotopic investigations is 20 to 50 times less than that of IVU. Isotopic investigation is thus a good method for the assessment of changes in renal function after surgery for staghorn calculus.

  6. Participation of the NDC Austria at the NDC Preparedness Exercise 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitterbauer, Ulrike; Wotawa, Gerhard; Schraick, Irene

    2013-04-01

    NDC Preparedness Exercises (NPEs) are conducted annually by the National Data Centers (NDCs) of CTBT States Signatories to train the detection of a (hypothetical) nuclear test. During the NDC Preparedness Exercise 2012, a fictitious radionuclide scenario originating from a real seismic event (mining explosion) was calculated by the German NDC and distributed among all NDCs. For the scenario computation, it was assumed that the selected seismic event was the epicentre of an underground nuclear fission explosion. The scenario included detections of the Iodine isotopes I-131 and I-133 (both particulates), and the Radioxenon Isotopes Xe-133, Xe-133M, Xe-131M and Xe-135 (noble gas). By means of atmospheric transport modelling (ATM), concentrations of all these six isotopes which would result from the hypothetical explosion were calculated and interpolated to the IMS station locations. The participating NDCs received information about the concentration of the isotopes at the station locations without knowing the underlying seismic event. The aim of the exercise was to identify this event based on the detection scenario. The Austrian NDC performed the following analyses: • Atmospheric backtracking and data fusion to identify seismic candidate events, • Seismic analysis of candidate events within the possible source region, • Atmospheric transport modelling (forward mode) from identified candidate events, comparison between "measured" and simulated concentrations based on certain release assumptions. The main goal of the analysis was to identify the event selected by NDC Germany to calculate the radionuclide scenario, and to exclude other events. In the presentation, the analysis methodology as well as the final results and conclusions will be shown and discussed in detail.

  7. Simultaneous quantification of iodine and high valent metals via ICP-MS under acidic conditions in complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kristina; Hein, Christina; Sander, Jonas Michael; Kautenburger, Ralf

    2017-05-15

    The determination of iodine as a main fission product (especially the isotopes I-129 and I-131) of stored HLW in a disposal beside its distribution as a natural ingredient of many different products like milk, food and seawater is a matter of particular interest. The simultaneous ICP-MS determination of iodine as iodide together with other elements (especially higher valent metal ions) relevant for HLW is analytically very problematic. A reliable ICP-MS quantification of iodide must be performed at neutral or alkaline conditions in contrast to the analysis of metal ions which are determined in acidic pH ranges. Herein, we present a method to solve this problem by changing the iodine speciation resulting in an ICP-MS determination of iodide as iodate. The oxidation from iodide to iodate with sodium hypochlorite at room temperature is a fast and convenient method with flexible reaction time, from one hour up to three days, thus eliminating the disadvantages of quantifying iodine species via ICP-MS. In the analysed concentration range of iodine (0.1-100µgL(-1)) we obtain likely quantitative recovery rates for iodine between 91% and 102% as well as relatively low RSD values (0.3-4.0%). As an additional result, it is possible to measure different other element species in parallel together with the generated iodate, even high valent metals (europium and uranium beside caesium) at recovery rates in the same order of magnitude (93-104%). In addition, the oxidation process operates above pH 7 thus offering a wide pH range for sample preparation. Even analytes in complex matrices, like 5M saline (NaCl) solution or artificial cement pore water (ACW) can be quantified with this robust sample preparation method.

  8. Quantifying Atmospheric Fallout of Fukushima-derived Radioactive Isotopes in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Trista; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage and released the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawaii and in milk samples analyzed from the Big Island. Because the detected levels were significantly below levels of health concern, the state did not attempt to quantify the deposition of these nuclides on the islands. This study estimated the magnitude of atmospheric fallout of cesium and iodine, and examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed in March 2011. Mushroom and soil samples were collected along precipitation gradients on Oahu and the island of Hawaii and analyzed for cesium isotopes using gamma spectrometry. Fukushima-derived fallout was differentiated from historic nuclear weapons testing fallout by the presence of Cs-134, which has a shorter half-life of 2.06 years and the fact that Cs-134 and 137 were released from the severed power plant nearly in parity. We found that Fukushima-derived cesium was present in both mushrooms and soil and the soil inventories ranged 2.2-60.9 Bq/m2 for Cs-137 and 16.1-445.8 Bq/m2 for I-131. Additionally, we found that Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in soils were correlated with precipitation gradients. This research confirmed and quantified the presence of Fukushima-derived fallout in Hawaii, however the activities detected were orders of magnitude lower than fallout associated with the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.

  9. Reinforcement of Dental Methacrylate with Glass Fiber after Heated Silane Application

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; de Paula, Marcella Silva; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; de Almeida, Letícia Nunes; Mendes, Gustavo Adolfo Martins; Carlo, Hugo Lemes

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of silane heat treatment and glass fiber fabrication type, industrially treated (I) or pure (P), on flexural and compressive strength of methacrylate resin bars (BISGMA/TEGDMA, 50/50%). Six groups (n = 10) were created: I-sil: I/silanated; P-sil: P-silanated; I-sil/heat: I/silanated heated to 100°; P-sil/heat: P/silanated heated to 100°; (I: I/not silanated; and P: P/not silanated. Specimens were prepared for flexural strength (10 × 2 × 1 mm) and for compressive strength 9.5 × 5.5 × 3 mm) and tested at 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analysis demonstrated the following for flexural strength (P < 0.05): I-sil: 155.89 ± 45.27BC; P-sil: 155.89 ± 45.27BC; I-sil/heat: 130.20 ± 22.11C; P-sil/heat: 169.86 ± 50.29AB; I: 131.87 ± 15.86C. For compressive strength, the following are demonstrated: I-sil: 1367.25 ± 188.77ab; P-sil: 867.61 ± 102.76d; I-sil/heat: 1162.98 ± 222.07c; P-sil/heat: 1499.35 ± 339.06a; and I: 1245.78 ± 211.16bc. Due to the impossibility of incorporating the stipulated amount of fiber, P group was excluded. Glass fiber treatment with heated silane enhanced flexural and compressive strength of a reinforced dental methacrylate. PMID:24967361

  10. Impact of high 131I-activities on quantitative 124I-PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braad, P. E. N.; Hansen, S. B.; Høilund-Carlsen, P. F.

    2015-07-01

    Peri-therapeutic 124 I-PET/CT is of interest as guidance for radioiodine therapy. Unfortunately, image quality is complicated by dead time effects and increased random coincidence rates from high 131 I-activities. A series of phantom experiments with clinically relevant 124 I/131 I-activities were performed on a clinical PET/CT-system. Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) curves and quantitation accuracy were determined from repeated scans performed over several weeks on a decaying NEMA NU-2 1994 cylinder phantom initially filled with 25 MBq 124 I and 1250 MBq 131 I. Six spherical inserts with diameters 10-37 mm were filled with 124 I (0.45 MBq ml-1 ) and 131 I (22 MBq ml-1 ) and placed inside the background of the NEMA/IEC torso phantom. Contrast recovery, background variability and the accuracy of scatter and attenuation corrections were assessed at sphere-to-background activity ratios of 20, 10 and 5. Results were compared to pure 124 I-acquisitions. The quality of 124 I-PET images in the presence of high 131 I-activities was good and image quantification unaffected except at very high count rates. Quantitation accuracy and contrast recovery were uninfluenced at 131 I-activities below 1000 MBq, whereas image noise was slightly increased. The NECR peaked at 550 MBq of 131 I, where it was 2.8 times lower than without 131 I in the phantom. Quantitative peri-therapeutic 124 I-PET is feasible.

  11. The Cu-64 uptake test for evaluation of zinc therapy in Wilson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Juni, J.E.; Brewer, G.J.; Dick, R.D.; Hill, G.M.; Wehr, L.

    1984-01-01

    The reduced hepatic excretion of dietary copper (Cu) by pts with Wilson's disease (WD) leads to accumulation in tissue which may result in disability or death. Penicillamine (PNC), the current treatment of choice, promotes urinary excretion causing a -Cu balance, but frequently has toxic effects. A recent therapeutic approach attempts to reduce absorption of Cu from the diet. Zinc is known to induce production of metallothionine (MT), a metal-binding protein, in gut mucosa. MT binds Cu with a high affinity, thus preventing its absorption. To assess the effects of oral zinc therapy for WD, the authors measured the absolute plasma uptake of oral Cu-64 in 8 pts. Four received elemental zinc 100-250 mg p.o. qD for at least 3 months. Four were untreated or taking PNC. Pts were hospitalized for measurements of dietary intake and total urinary and fecal excretion of Cu. Plasma volume was determined by I-131 serum albumin. Pts. then swallowed 0.5 mCi Cu-64 in 40 cc of cow's milk. Blood samples were drawn q 15 min x 90 mins with 5 additional samples over 24 hrs. Sample counts were corrected for decay and hematocrit. Total plasma uptake of Cu-64 over time was plotted as a fraction of the administered dose. Plasma uptake reached an initial peak within 90 min. in all cases and was 3.4-11.9% (mean=7.5) in pts not taking zinc but only 0.3-1.98% (mean=1.2) in those on zinc therapy (p=0.013). Preliminary data indicated a -Cu balance in zinc treated pts and a +Cu balance in those off zinc. The oral Cu-64 absorption test is far more easily performed than longterm measurements of Cu balance. It provides a rapid and simple means of assessing the efficacy of anti-absorptive therapy.

  12. Preparation and use of 131I magic gel as a dosimeter for targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Courbon, Frédéric; Love, Peter; Chittenden, Sarah; Flux, Glen; Ravel, Patrice; Cook, Gary

    2006-10-01

    Clinical interest in targeted radiotherapy is increasing, but accurate dosimetry studies are difficult to achieve. The aim of this study was to investigate the preparation and use of a "normoxic" polymer gel (with a tissue-equivalent density), known as MAGIC gel, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for nonsealed source dosimetry. MAGIC gel samples were mixed with deionized water (MAGIC95) or a solution of 131I (131I-MAGIC95). By measuring the radioinduced variations of R2 values (relaxivity) of irradiated gels, we analyzed the response of MAGIC95 and MAGIC samples to external photon beam or 131I irradiation (131I-MAGIC95). MRI showed that a homogeneous dose distribution from 131I can be achieved if the MAGIC gel, at a temperature of approximately 35 degrees C, is mixed in 131I solution and the resulting mixture shaken gently for 30 minutes. It is important that the vials are completely filled, as residual air reduces polymerization and causes spontaneous polymerization stripes. Responses of MAGIC95 or MAGIC gels to external photon beam irradiation are similar. The variations of R2 values for 131I-MAGIC95 gel depend on the absorbed dose and not on the duration of the irradiation being reproducible from one batch of gel to another. MAGIC gel responses to 131I or external beam irradiation (EBI) are different. Our preliminary results suggest that radiolabeled "normoxic" polymer can be easily and safely produced. Radiolabeled MAGIC gel may, therefore, be suitable for the creation of phantoms dedicated to nonsealed source dosimetry.

  13. Regional and global contributions of anthropogenic iodine-129 in monthly deposition samples collected in North East Japan between 2006 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2017-02-07

    We measured the monthly atmospheric deposition flux of (129)I at Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan-the location of a commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant-from 2006 to 2015 to assess the impact of the plant on environmental (129)I levels. The plant is now under final safety assessment by a national authority after test operation using actual spent nuclear fuel. During cutting and chemical processing in test operations from April 2006 to October 2008, (129)I was discharged to the atmosphere and detected in our deposition samples. (129)I deposition fluxes largely followed the discharge pattern of (129)I from the plant to the atmosphere, and most of the deposited (129)I originated from the plant. In and after 2009, (129)I deposition fluxes decreased dramatically to reach the background level; the (129)I deposition fluxes at Rokkasho were almost the same as those at Hirosaki, where an additional sampling point was set up as a background site 85 km from the plant in 2011. The background (129)I deposition fluxes showed seasonal variation-high in winter and low in the other seasons-at both Rokkasho and Hirosaki. The results of a backward trajectory analysis of the air mass at Rokkasho suggested that reprocessing plants in Europe were the origins of the high (129)I flux in winter. The contribution of (129)I released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to the (129)I deposition flux at Rokkasho in 2011 was small on the basis of the (129)I/(131)I activity ratio.

  14. [Effect of nitrates on active transport of iodine].

    PubMed

    Szökeová, E; Tajtáková, M; Mirossay, L; Mojzis, J; Langer, P; Marcinová, E; Petrovicová, J; Zemberová, E; Bodnár, J

    2001-11-01

    Active iodine transport into the thyrocyte is catalyzed by the transmembrane transport protein Na+/J- symport (NIS) Nitrates can expel iodine from the bond with this transport protein which was found not only in the thyrocyte membrane but also in the cell membrane of the gastric mucosa. The weight of the thyroid gland in mg was significantly greater even when calculated in relation to body weight in the NIT group of rats who were given for 6 days nitrate by gastric tube (100 mg/kg/day) as compared with controls (CON) 17.56 +/- 8.4, 0.07 +/- 0.03/12.10 +/- 9.57, 0.05 +/- 0.03, P < or = 0.01. A lower thyroid activity in per cent calculated per 1 mg of its weight (1.39 +/- 1.0/2.22 +/- 0.9, P < or = 0.01), a higher activity in blood before removal of the thyroid gland (8.54 +/- 4.09/5.45 +/- 2.78) and a lower one after removal of the thyroid gland (1.09 +/- 0.05/0.21 +/- 0.10) before oral administration of I131 in group NIT, suggests a negative effect of nitrates on active iodine transport not only at the level of the thyrocyte but also possible interaction with iodine at the level of the digestive tract. A significantly higher serum level of TT3 in group NIT (0.66 +/- 0.27/0.44 +/- 0.21, P < or = 0.01 regardless of the TSH serum level (2.31 +/- 1.83/2.64 +/- 1.52) and T4 (22.72 +/- 8.2/25 +/- 11.0) suggests a qualitative change in thyroid hormone production in favour of T3 caused even by short-term nitrate administration.

  15. Iodine isotopes in precipitation: temporal responses to (129)i emissions from the fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hou, Xiaolin; Watanabe, Akira; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Luyuan

    2013-10-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 has released a large amount of radionuclides to the atmosphere, and the radioactive plume has been dispersed to a large area in Europe and returned to Asia. To explore long-term trend of the Fukushima-derived radioactive plume and the behavior of harmful radioiodine in the atmosphere, long-term precipitation samples have been collected over 2010-2012 at Fukushima, Japan for determination of long-lived (129)I. It was observed that (129)I concentrations of 1.2 × 10(8) atom/L in 2010 before the accident dramatically increased by ∼4 orders of magnitude to 7.6 × 10(11) atom/L in March 2011 immediately after the accident, with a (129)I/(127)I ratio up to 6.9 × 10(-5). Afterward, the (129)I concentrations in precipitation decreased exponentially to ∼3 × 10(9) atom/L by October 2011 with a half-life of about 29 days. This declining trend of (129)I concentrations in precipitation was interrupted around October 2011 by a new input of (129)I to the atmosphere following a second exponential decrease. Such a cycle has occurred three times until the present. This temporal variation can be attributed to alternating (129)I dispersion and resuspension from the contaminated local environment. A (129)I/(131)I atomic ratio of 16 ± 1 obtained from rainwater samples is comparable with a value estimated for surface soil samples. (129)I results from Denmark suggest an insignificant effect of (129)I released from Fukushima to the (129)I levels in Europe.

  16. SU-E-T-345: Validation of a Patient-Specific Monte Carlo Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Dosimetry Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Besemer, A; Bednarz, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There is a compelling need for personalized dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy given that conventional dose calculation methods fail to accurately predict dose response relationships. To address this need, we have developed a Geant4-based Monte Carlo patient-specific 3D dosimetry platform for TRT. This platform calculates patient-specific dose distributions based on serial CT/PET or CT/SPECT images acquired after injection of the TRT agent. In this work, S-values and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were calculated using this platform and benchmarked against reference values. Methods: S-values for 1, 10, 100, and 1000g spherical tumors with uniform activity distributions of I-124, I-125, I-131, F-18, and Ra-223 were calculated and compared to OLINDA/EXM reference values. SAFs for monoenergetic photons of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 MeV and S factors for monoenergetic electrons of 0.935 MeV were calculated for the liver, kidneys, lungs, pancreas, spleen, and adrenals in the Zubal Phantom and compared with previously published values. Sufficient particles were simulated to keep the voxel statistical uncertainty below 5%. Results: The calculated spherical S-values agreed within a few percent of reference data from OLINDA/EXM for each radionuclide and sphere size. The comparison of photon SAFs and electron S-values with previously published values showed good agreement with the previously published values. The S-values and SAFs of the source organs agreed within 1%. Conclusion: Our platform has been benchmarked against reference values for a variety of radionuclides and over a wide range of energies and tumor sizes. Therefore, this platform could be used to provide accurate patientspecific dosimetry for use in radiopharmaceutical clinical trials.

  17. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. [Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1990-10-15

    The overall objective of this work was to promote nuclear medicine applications in oncology. This is being done by improving the scientific basis of diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up with cyclotron-produced tracers. For diagnostic use, positron-emitting isotopes such as Ga-66 and I-124 are being used. Initial studies on the characterization of He-4 particle energies required for Ga-66 production have been completed. Parameters for I-124 radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies have been determined; the labelled antibodies have been used in animal studies using positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify antibody concentration within tumors in vivo. Imaging physics studies have demonstrated that I-124 can be quantitatively imaged by PET, even in the presence of 100-told greater concentrations of I-131. Measurement of concentrations of label in vivo has been accomplished in nuclei mice bearing neuroblastoma tumors and nude rats bearing human ovarian cancer cells. These studies have major implications for both the quantification of dosimetry and quantification kinetic assessment of anti-tumor antibody localization in vivo. For treatment of tumors, F-18 has been incorporated in 2-fluoro-2-deoxy glucose and 5-fluoro uridine, and O-15 labelled water has been produced. Reagents incorporating C-11 and N-13 are under development. In a related area, C-14 labelled colchicine is being studied as a means of assaying cells for multiple drug resistance (MDR). Cells expressing MDR are shown to retain significantly less C-14 colchiene. This suggest that colchiene retention may be of useful probe in modelling and studying MDR development in human tumors. The precursor required for producing C-11 colchicine has also been synthesized. 11 refs. (MHB)

  18. A voxel-based mouse for internal dose calculations using Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar, A.; Lisbona, A.; Thedrez, P.; Sai Maurel, C.; LeForestier, D.; Barbet, J.; Bardies, M.

    2007-02-01

    Murine models are useful for targeted radiotherapy pre-clinical experiments. These models can help to assess the potential interest of new radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, we developed a voxel-based mouse for dosimetric estimates. A female nude mouse (30 g) was frozen and cut into slices. High-resolution digital photographs were taken directly on the frozen block after each section. Images were segmented manually. Monoenergetic photon or electron sources were simulated using the MCNP4c2 Monte Carlo code for each source organ, in order to give tables of S-factors (in Gy Bq-1 s-1) for all target organs. Results obtained from monoenergetic particles were then used to generate S-factors for several radionuclides of potential interest in targeted radiotherapy. Thirteen source and 25 target regions were considered in this study. For each source region, 16 photon and 16 electron energies were simulated. Absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-factors were calculated for 16 radionuclides of interest for targeted radiotherapy. The results obtained generally agree well with data published previously. For electron energies ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 MeV, the self-absorbed fraction varies from 0.98 to 0.376 for the liver, and from 0.89 to 0.04 for the thyroid. Electrons cannot be considered as 'non-penetrating' radiation for energies above 0.5 MeV for mouse organs. This observation can be generalized to radionuclides: for example, the beta self-absorbed fraction for the thyroid was 0.616 for I-131; absorbed fractions for Y-90 for left kidney-to-left kidney and for left kidney-to-spleen were 0.486 and 0.058, respectively. Our voxel-based mouse allowed us to generate a dosimetric database for use in preclinical targeted radiotherapy experiments.

  19. Impact of high (131)I-activities on quantitative (124)I-PET.

    PubMed

    Braad, P E N; Hansen, S B; Høilund-Carlsen, P F

    2015-07-07

    Peri-therapeutic (124)I-PET/CT is of interest as guidance for radioiodine therapy. Unfortunately, image quality is complicated by dead time effects and increased random coincidence rates from high (131)I-activities. A series of phantom experiments with clinically relevant (124)I/(131)I-activities were performed on a clinical PET/CT-system. Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) curves and quantitation accuracy were determined from repeated scans performed over several weeks on a decaying NEMA NU-2 1994 cylinder phantom initially filled with 25 MBq (124)I and 1250 MBq (131)I. Six spherical inserts with diameters 10-37 mm were filled with (124)I (0.45 MBq ml(-1)) and (131)I (22 MBq ml(-1)) and placed inside the background of the NEMA/IEC torso phantom. Contrast recovery, background variability and the accuracy of scatter and attenuation corrections were assessed at sphere-to-background activity ratios of 20, 10 and 5. Results were compared to pure (124)I-acquisitions. The quality of (124)I-PET images in the presence of high (131)I-activities was good and image quantification unaffected except at very high count rates. Quantitation accuracy and contrast recovery were uninfluenced at (131)I-activities below 1000 MBq, whereas image noise was slightly increased. The NECR peaked at 550 MBq of (131)I, where it was 2.8 times lower than without (131)I in the phantom. Quantitative peri-therapeutic (124)I-PET is feasible.

  20. Thyroid cancer in children: a 20-year study at a Romanian oncology institute.

    PubMed

    Piciu, Doina; Piciu, Andra; Irimie, Alexandru

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma (TC) has an increasing incidence in the last decade and continues to represent the most frequent form of endocrine tumor. The aim of the study was to analyze the pediatric files of TC from the registry of "Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta" Institute of Oncology Cluj-Napoca, Romania (IOCN) and to provide the data related to the impact of nuclear fallout of Chernobyl on this pathology. We studied 72 children with TC treated between 1991 and 2010. The mean age was 15.3 years; the ratio female/male was 6.2:1. Twenty-nine children (40.2%) revealed metastasis in regional lymph nodes or lungs at the initial diagnostic. There were 63 differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), 6 cases with medullary cancer (MC), 1 case with anaplastic carcinoma (AC), and 2 mixed cases. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and the radioiodine was administered in 64 cases (activities between 1.1 - 28.1 GBq I-131). Fifty-two children (80.5%) are free of disease, 8 are in partial remission and 4 children are in evolution of the disease at minimum 12 months of follow-up. The incidence of TC was significantly increased 10 years after the accident. In the years after, the increasing trendline was stopped and at 25 years, the number of cases is stationary. The diagnosis of pediatric TC is made frequently in metastatic disease and the therapies must be conducted for many years till complete remission. A more clear strategy adapted to children is needed in the future.

  1. Potential for imaging ovarian carcinoma by radioiodinated 11. beta. methoxy 17. cap alpha. -iodovinylestradiol (MIVE/sub 2/)

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.E.; Holt, J.A.; Greene, G.L.; Jagoda, E.M.; Eckelman, W.C.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Francis, B.E.; Reba, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    I-125 labeled MIVE/sub 2/ provides the highest extent of receptor mediated localization and the highest uterus to blood ratio (immature rat) of any radioiodinated derivative of estradiol. The authors have determined that 48% of the activity which localizes in the uterus remains after 24 hrs. Nonetheless, in vivo the I-127 derivative is an agonist as demonstrated by the induction of progesterone synthesis by the ovaries of rabbit. In addition to estrogen dependent breast tumors, ovarian carcinoma (OVCA) has been shown to exhibit high concentrations of estrogen receptor. The receptor isolated from OVCA has been studied using I-125 labeled MIVE/sub 2/ as the receptor radiotracer. In addition to sucrose gradient profiles consistent with that of ER and competition studies (diethylstilbestrol and estradiol compete, testosterone, progesterone and cortisol do not) consistent with an ER drug profile, antibodies H222, H226 (Abbott Lab.) and D547, all raised against human breast cancer, interact with the receptor from OVCA. The affinities of MIVE/sub 2/ for ER from rat uterus and OVCA are the same (K/sub A/ = 6.5 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ and K/sub A/ = 9.1 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/, respectively). These results are consistent with the receptor being ER. The longer retention time of MIVE/sub 2/ in ER rich tissue should provide time for clearance of radiotracer from background tissues to allow the imaging of OVCA primaries and metasteses. In addition, MIVE/sub 2/ labeled with I-131 or an analogue containing Br-80m or Br-77, may prove radiotoxic to the receptor rich OVCA.

  2. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  3. Measurement of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil around F1NPP accident site by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, vast amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. However, very little work has been done concerning accident-derived long-lived nuclides such as 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 × 107 year) and 36Cl (T1/2 = 3.01 × 105 year). 129I and 131I are both produced by 235U fission in nuclear reactors. Being isotopes of iodine, these nuclides are expected to behave similarly in the environment. This makes 129I useful for retrospective reconstruction of 131I distribution during the initial stages of the accident. On the other hand, 36Cl is generated during reactor operation via neutron capture reaction of 35Cl, an impurity in the coolant or reactor component. Resulting 36Cl/Cl ratio within the reactor is thus much higher compared to that in environment. Similar to 129I, 36Cl is expected to have leaked out during the accident and it is important to evaluate its effects. In this study, 129I concentrations were determined in several surface soil samples collected around F1NPP. Average 129I/131I ratio was estimated to be 26.1 ± 5.8 as of March 11, 2011, consistent with calculations using ORIGEN2 code and other published data. 36Cl/Cl ratios in some of the soil samples were likewise measured and ranged from 1.1 × 10-12 to 2.6 × 10-11. These are higher compared to ratios measured around F1NPP before the accident. A positive correlation between 36Cl and 129I concentration was observed.

  4. Autoimmune alternating hyper- and hypo-thyroidism: a rare condition in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Ana Rita; Jerónimo, Mónica; Caetano, Joana Serra; Cardoso, Rita; Dinis, Isabel; Mirante, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alternating between hyper- and hypo-thyroidism may be explained by the simultaneous presence of both types of TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAbs) – thyroid stimulating autoantibodies (TSAbs) and TSH blocking autoantibodies (TBAbs). It is a very rare condition, particulary in the pediatric age. The clinical state of these patients is determined by the balance between TSAbs and TBAbs and can change over time. Many mechanisms may be involved in fluctuating thyroid function: hormonal supplementation, antithyroid drugs and levels of TSAbs and TBAbs. Frequent dose adjustments are needed in order to achieve euthyroidism. A definitive therapy may be necessary to avoid switches in thyroid function and frequent need of therapeutic changes. We describe an immune-mediated case of oscillating thyroid function in a 13-year-old adolescent. After a short period of levothyroxine treatment, the patient switched to a hyperthyroid state that was only controlled by adding an antithyroid drug. Learning points Autoimmune alternating hypo- and hyper-thyroidism is a highly uncommon condition in the pediatric age.It may be due to the simultaneous presence of both TSAbs and TBAbs, whose activity may be estimated in vitro through bioassays.The clinical state of these patients is determined by the balance between TSAbs and TBAbs and can change over time.The management of this condition is challenging, and three therapeutic options could be considered: I-131 ablation, thyroidectomy or pharmacological treatment (single or double therapy).Therapeutic decisions should be taken according to clinical manifestations and thyroid function tests, independent of the bioassays results.A definitive treatment might be considered due to the frequent switches in thyroid function and the need for close monitoring of pharmacological treatment. A definitive treatment might be considered due to the frequent switches in thyroid function and the need for close monitoring of pharmacological treatment. PMID

  5. A retrospective study on hypothyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Barton, E N; Kelly, D; Morrison, E Y

    1991-03-01

    A retrospective study of 58 hypothyroid patients attending the Endocrine Clinic, University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica, between July and August 1989, was undertaken. The age range at initial presentation varied from one month to eighty-four years. The majority of cases (51 or 87.9%) were between 21 and 70 years. There were 50 females (86.2%) and 8 males (13.8%). The underlying causes were idiopathic hypothyroidism (35 or 60.3%), posthyroidectomy (13 or 22.4%), post I131 therapy (6 or 10.4%), panhypopituitarism (3 or 5.2%), hypophysectomy (1 or 1.7%). Biochemical parameters used in diagnosis were serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Forty-six patients (79.2%) had elevated TSH, indicative of a high correlation of elevated TSH with hypothyroidism. Duration of symptomatology prior to diagnosis was one year in 27 patients (46.5%), 2-10 years in 23 (39.6%) and 10 years in 4 cases (6.9%). The major presenting signs and symptoms were lethargy (20 or 34.5%), anaemia (mixed normochromic, microcytic (16 or 27.6%), slow relaxation of tendon reflexes (16 or 27.6%), coarsening of skin (15 or 25.9%), weight gain 10 or 17.2%), hoarseness (9 or 15.5%) and psychiatric symptoms (7 or 12%). The known association of primary hypothyroidism with other autoimmune disorders was not borne out in this study. The time-lapse in diagnosis from symptomatology emphasized the need for clinicians to be more alert to the subtle and varied presentation of hypothyroidism.

  6. The retention of iodine in stainless steel sample lines

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.J.; Deir, C.; Ball, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    Following an accident in a multi-unit CANDU nuclear generating station, decontamination of air vented from containment would play a critical role in minimizing the release of iodine to the environment. The concentration of gas phase iodine in containment air would be measured using the post accident radiation monitoring system, requiring that air samples be passed through a considerable length of tubing to a remote location where the desired measurements could safely be made. A significant loss of iodine, due to adsorption on the sample line surfaces, could greatly distort the measurement. In this study, the retention of I{sub 2}(g) on stainless steel was evaluated in bench scale experiments in order to evaluate, and if possible minimise, the extent of any such line losses. Experiments at the University of Toronto were performed using 6 inch lengths of 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing. Air, containing I-131 labelled I{sub 2}(g), ranging in concentration from 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}6} mol/dm{sup 3} and relative humidity (:RH) from 20 to 90 %, was passed through tubing samples maintained at temperatures ranging from 25 to 90{degrees}C. Adsorption at low gas phase iodine concentrations differed substantially from that at higher concentrations. The rate of deposition was proportional to the gas phase concentration, giving support to the concept of a first order deposition velocity. The surface loading increased with increasing relative humidity, particularly at low RH values, while the deposition rate decreased with increasing temperature. Surface water on the steel may play an important role in the deposition process. The chemisorbed iodine was located primarily in areas of corrosion. Furthermore, water used to wash the steel contained Fe, Mn and iodine in the form of iodide, suggesting that I{sub 2} reacted to form metal iodides. The deposition of I{sub 2} was also found to depend on the initial surface condition.

  7. Radiation measurements at the campus of Fukushima Medical University through the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake and subsequent nuclear power plant crisis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    An earthquake, Tohoku region Pacific Coast earthquake, occurred on the 11th of March, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents have been stirring natural radiation around the author's office in Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima city, and is 57 km (35 miles) away from northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This paper presents three types of radiation survey undertaken through the unprecedented accidents at the campus and the hospital of FMU. First, a group of interested people immediately began radiation surveillance; the group members were assembled from the faculty members of " Life Sciences and Social Medicine" and " Human and Natural Sciences." Second, the present author, regardless of the earthquake, had serially observed natural radiations such as gamma radiation in air with NaI scintillation counter, atmospheric radon with Lucas cell, and second cosmic rays with NaI scintillation. Gamma radiation indicated most drastic change, i.e., peak value (9.3 times usual level) appeared on March 16, and decreased to 1.7 times usual level after two months. A nonlinear least squares regression to this decreasing data gave short half-life of 3.6 days and long half-life of 181 days. These two apparent half-lives are attributed to two groups of radioisotopes, i.e., short half-life one of I-131 and long half-life ones of Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Also, atmospheric radon concentration became high since a stop of ventilation, while second cosmic rays did not show any response. Third, late April, 2011, a team of radiation dosimetry under the direct control of Dean, School of Medicine, was established for the continuation of radiation survey in the campus and the hospital of Fukushima Medical University.

  8. Characterization of a human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line (UCLA RO 82 W-1).

    PubMed

    Estour, B; Van Herle, A J; Juillard, G J; Totanes, T L; Sparkes, R S; Giuliano, A E; Klandorf, H

    1989-01-01

    A thyroid tumor cell line has been established from the metastases of a follicular carcinoma in a female patient. Although the primary tumor released thyroglobulin (Tg) into the circulation (greater than 10,000 ng/ml), the uptake of I131 was less than 2%. After 37 replications the doubling time was 4 days and confluency was reached after 7 days from inoculation of 3 x 10(7) cells. This human thyroid tumor cell line has now been growing in culture for several years. An aneuploid chromosomal pattern was observed (62-82 chromosomes). A pair of X chromosomes was present but no Y chromosome was found which is compatible with the female origin of the cell line. EM studies revealed the presence of microvilli. Immunoperoxidase staining using specific anti-human Tg antisera indicated the presence of Tg within the cells. Nude mice developed solid-cystic tumors within 6 months after injection of the cells. The basal release of immunodetectable Tg, as measured in a perifusion system, increased in response to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (P less than 0.025) or TSH combined with theophylline (P less than 0.001). Unusual isoenzyme patterns for galactose-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase (GALT) and phosphoglucomutase1 (PGM1) were detected in the tumor, compared with normal human fibroblasts and blood cells and isoenzyme patterns from the patient's lymphocytes. Because this malignant human thyroid follicular cell line has retained the ability to synthesize Tg it represents a valuable model for the study of human follicular carcinomas.

  9. Preparation and preclinical evaluation of (131) I-trastuzumab for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Gota, Vikram; Ambade, Rajwardhan; Gupta, Sudeep; Dash, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Trastuzumab that targets the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is known to benefit patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. The objective was to explore the potential of (131) I-trastuzumab for treatment of breast cancers. Radioiodination of trastuzumab was carried out by chloramine-T method, purified by using PD-10 column, and characterized by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography on a gel column. In vitro studies were carried out in HER2+ cells to determine the specificity of the radioimmunoconjugate. Uptake and retention of (131) I-trastuzumab were determined by biodistribution studies in tumor-bearing non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency and normal severe combined immunodeficiency mice. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of (131) I-trastuzumab was 98 ± 0.4% with retention time of 17 minutes by high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro stability studies exhibited RCP of more than 90% in serum at 37°C after 120 hours of radioiodination. In vitro cell binding with (131) I-trastuzumab in HER2+ cells showed binding of 28% to 35% which was inhibited significantly, with unlabeled trastuzumab confirming its specificity. Kd value of (131) I-trastuzumab was 0.5 nM, while its immunoreactivity was more than 80%. Uptake of more than 12% and retention were observed in the tumors up to 120 hours p.i. (131) I-trastuzumab prepared in-house-exhibited RCP of more than 98%, excellent immunoreactivity, affinity to HER2+ cell lines and good tumor uptake thereby indicating its potential for further evaluation in HER2+ breast cancers.

  10. Evaluation of I-123 and In-111 labeled anti-platelet monoclonal antibody for the scintigraphic localization of in vivo thrombi

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Coller, B.; Atkins, H.L.; Scudder, L.E.; Mausner, L.F.; Yamamoto, K.; Brill, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Development of a method to selectively label platelets in whole blood in vitro or in vivo is a highly desirable goal. The authors have investigated the labeling with I-123, I-131, and In-111 of an IgG/sub 1/ monoclonal antibody, 7E3 (MAb) that specifically inhibits the interaction of dog platelets with fibrinogen-coated beads and blocks ADP-induced aggregation of dog platelets. The MAb, typically 100 ..mu..g, was radioiodinated using the chloramine T method. Following a G-25 or P-6 column purification, labeling yields of approx. =70% were achieved (2 I/MAb). The MAb-DTPA conjugate was labeled with In-111 in >80% yields with a specific activity of 10-30 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g (approx. =0.1 In/MAb). Retention of inhibiting activity in the fibrinogen-coated bead assay was excellent for both I-123 and In-111 labeled 7E3. In dogs, the blood pool activity persisted for up to 24 hr and some urinary excretion (In-111) and deiodination (I-123) were observed in vivo. When In-111-MAb was incubated with whole blood (0.13 ..mu..g/ml) and the mixture then clotted with thrombin (l..mu../ml), 68% of the radioactivity remained with the clot despite repeated washing. Preliminary in vivo data in dogs suggest that the label becomes localized at the site of vascular injury and/or thrombus formation. The authors conclude that radiolabeled monoclonal anti-platelet antibodies may show promise for imaging vascular lesions and thrombi.

  11. Radioimmunotherapy treatment planning based on radiation absorbed dose or patient size

    SciTech Connect

    Eary, J.F.; Krohn, K.A.; Press, O.W. |

    1996-05-01

    Several approaches have been used to plan treatment doses for patients undergoing radioimmunotherapy. Investigators often use fixed doses, or doses based on patient size (mCi/kg or mCi/m{sup 2}). Our treatment protocols for lymphoma and leukemia involved calculation of tissue radiation absorbed dose based on images from a trace labeled infusion of antibody prior to treatment. In a recent analysis of patients treated in the Phase I and II dose escalation trial for treatment of non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma with I-131 anti-CD20 antibody (B1), we investigated the relationship between our dosimetry based treatment and dose based on patient size. Tissue radiation dose for several normal organs and for tumors were plotted versus the mCi administered per kg or m{sup 2} of the patient to evaluate the relationship between the two treatment approaches. These graphs showed correlation coefficients ranging from 0.021 to 0.684, demonstrating the variability in antibody catabolism between patients. This means that fixed doses or administrations based on patient size do not deliver consistent radiation doses to normal organs or tumors. This finding was extrapolated to show that toxicity from doses based on patient size di not correlate with treatment dose; those based on calculated rad/organ did. Phase I clinical trials using treatment doses based on patient size where there are likely to be variations in patient antibody catabolism will result in confounding toxicities at apparently similar mCi dose levels. Use of pre-treatment scans for treatment dose planning are worth the additional effort by normalizing the normal tissue toxicity.

  12. Reinforcement of dental methacrylate with glass fiber after heated silane application.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; de Paula, Marcella Silva; Favarão, Isabella Negro; Kasuya, Amanda Vessoni Barbosa; de Almeida, Letícia Nunes; Mendes, Gustavo Adolfo Martins; Carlo, Hugo Lemes

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of silane heat treatment and glass fiber fabrication type, industrially treated (I) or pure (P), on flexural and compressive strength of methacrylate resin bars (BISGMA/TEGDMA, 50/50%). Six groups (n = 10) were created: I-sil: I/silanated; P-sil: P-silanated; I-sil/heat: I/silanated heated to 100°; P-sil/heat: P/silanated heated to 100°; (I: I/not silanated; and P: P/not silanated. Specimens were prepared for flexural strength (10 × 2 × 1 mm) and for compressive strength 9.5 × 5.5 × 3 mm) and tested at 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analysis demonstrated the following for flexural strength (P < 0.05): I-sil: 155.89 ± 45.27(BC); P-sil: 155.89 ± 45.27(BC); I-sil/heat: 130.20 ± 22.11(C); P-sil/heat: 169.86 ± 50.29(AB); I: 131.87 ± 15.86(C). For compressive strength, the following are demonstrated: I-sil: 1367.25 ± 188.77(ab); P-sil: 867.61 ± 102.76(d); I-sil/heat: 1162.98 ± 222.07(c); P-sil/heat: 1499.35 ± 339.06(a); and I: 1245.78 ± 211.16(bc). Due to the impossibility of incorporating the stipulated amount of fiber, P group was excluded. Glass fiber treatment with heated silane enhanced flexural and compressive strength of a reinforced dental methacrylate.

  13. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    PubMed Central

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137Cesium (137Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132Te-132I, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h−1 per initial 137Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m−2, whereas it was 100 μGy h−1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m−2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums (134Cs + 137Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  14. Synthesis and biodistribution of novel magnetic-poly(HEMA-APH) nanopolymer radiolabeled with iodine-131 and investigation its fate in vivo for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avcıbaşı, Uğur; Avcıbaşı, Nesibe; Akalın, Hilmi Arkut; Ediz, Melis; Demiroğlu, Hasan; Gümüşer, Fikriye Gül; Özçalışkan, Emir; Türkcan, Ceren; Uygun, Deniz Aktaş; Akgöl, Sinan

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we investigated the biological uptake, distribution, and radiopharmaceutical potential of a novel molecule based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and anilinephtalein (APH) in the metabolism of Albino Wistar rats. In order to achieve this, we synthesized APH using organic synthesis methods and copolymerized APH with HEMA using a common polymerization method, surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. In the presence of Fe3O4 particles, we obtained a new generation magnetic-nano-scale polymer, magnetic-poly(HEMA-APH). This new molecule was chemically identified and approved by several characterization methods using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, atomic force microscope, and Zeta particle-size analysis. To evaluate the biological activity in live metabolism and anti-cancer potential of mag-poly(HEMA-APH), molecule was radioiodinated by a widely used labeling technique, iodogen method, with a gamma diffuser radionuclide, 131I. Thin-layer radiochromatography experiments demonstrated that 131I binded to nanopolymer with the labeling yield of 90 %. Lipophilicity and stability experiments were conducted to determine the condition of cold and labeled mag-poly(HEMA-APH) in rat blood and lipid medium. Results demonstrated that radioiodinated molecule stayed as an intact complex in rat metabolism for 24 h and experimental lipophilicity was determined as 0.12 ± 0.02. In vivo results obtained by imaging and biological distribution experiments indicated that mag-poly(HEMA-APH) labeled with 131I [131I-mag-poly(HEMA-APH)] highly incorporated into tissues of the uterus, the ovarian, the prostate, and the lungs in rat metabolism. Based on these results, it may be evaluated that novel mag-poly(HEMA-APH) molecule labeled with 131I is a compound which has a significant potential for being used as an anti-cancer agent. Certain results can only be obtained whether this

  15. Effective dose conversion coefficients for health care provider exposed to pediatric and adult victims in radiological dispersal device incident.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Young; Ha, Wi-Ho; Jin, Young-Woo; Bolch, Wesley E; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-01

    After an incident of radiological dispersal devices (RDD), health care providers will be exposed to the contaminated patients in the extended medical treatments. Assessment of potential radiation dose to the health care providers will be crucial to minimize their health risk. In this study, we compiled a set of conversion coefficients (mSv MBq(-1) s(-1)) to readily estimate the effective dose from the time-integrated activity for the health care providers while they deal with internally contaminated patients at different ages. We selected Co-60, Ir-192, Am-241, Cs-137, and I-131 as the major radionuclides that may be used for RDD. We obtained the age-specific organ burdens after the inhalation of those radionuclides from the Dose and Risk Calculation Software (DCAL) program. A series of hybrid computational phantoms (1-, 5-, 10-, and 15 year-old, and adult males) were implemented in a general purpose Monte Carlo (MC) transport code, MCNPX v 2.7, to simulate an adult male health care provider exposed to contaminated patients at different ages. Two exposure scenarios were taken into account: a health care provider (a) standing at the side of patients lying in bed and (b) sitting face to face with patients. The conversion coefficients overall depended on radionuclides, the age of the patients, and the orientation of the patients. The conversion coefficient was greatest for Co-60 and smallest for Am-241. The dose from the 1 year-old patient phantom was up to three times greater than that from the adult patient phantom. The conversion coefficients were less dependent on the age of the patients in the scenario of a health care provider sitting face to face with patients. The dose conversion coefficients established in this study will be useful to readily estimate the effective dose to the health care providers in RDD events.

  16. [MAST and AUDIT. Evaluation of psychometric characteristics in patients with alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Fonte, Aníbal; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Introdução/Objectivo: Avaliar a correlação entre a pontuação no MAST e no AUDIT em doentes internados para desintoxicaçãopor dependência de álcool e analisar a possibilidade destas pontuações refletirem a intensidade da gravidade da dependência e dos problemas relacionados com o uso do álcool.Material e Métodos: Estudo correlacional. Doentes internados pela primeira vez, para tratamento por dependência de álcool. Além de uma entrevista estruturada, do MAST e do AUDIT, foi utilizado o SADD para avaliação do grau de dependência do álcool e o APQ para os problemas relacionados com o consumo de álcool.Resultados: A consistência interna (α de Cronbach) do MAST foi 0,77 e a do AUDIT foi 0,73. A correlação entre os dois instrumentos foi moderada (R = 0,497, p < 0,001). Ambos apresentam correlação moderada e significativa (p < 0,001) com o SADD e o APQ. O conjunto de itens do AUDIT dirigidos para a dependência têm maior correlação com o SADD do que com o APQ, sucedendo o inverso com o conjunto de itens pertencentes à dimensão problemas/consequências adversas. Os dois instrumentos apresentam correlação baixa com o volume de álcool consumido avaliado em g/d.Conclusão: Tanto o MAST como o AUDIT apresentam uma pontuação total que reflete a gravidade da dependência e das perturbações induzidas pelo álcool. Em populações clínicas estes instrumentos podem ser utilizados como variável contínua, para registo quantitativo da magnitude dos problemas. O AUDIT, relativamente ao MAST, tem a vantagem de apresentar um número menor de itens, ser mais fácil de responder e de cotar. O AUDIT tem ainda a vantagem de apresentar conjuntos de itens pertencentes a três dimensões (quantidade/frequência, dependência, problemas/consequências adversas) que podem ser analisados separadamente permitindo uma caracterização mais especificação das situações em estudo.

  17. Nonlinear Propagation of Mag Waves Through the Transition Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Steinolfson, R. S.; Mahajan, S.; Tajima, T.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Una onda de gravitaci5n magneto acustica (GMA), se inicia en el regimen de alta beta cerca de la basa de fot5sfera solar y es segui- da, usando simulaciones numericas, mientras viaja radialmente a traves de la cromosfera, la regi5n de transici6n y dentro de la corona. Se ha' seleccionado parametros iniciales de manera que la beta resulte menor que uno cerca de la parte alta de la regi6n de transici6n. Nuestro interes maximo se concentra en la cantidad y forma del flujo de energia que puede ser llevada por la onda hasta la corona dados una atm6sfera inicial y amplitud de onda especificas. Segun los estudios a la fecha, el flujo de energ1a termico domina, aumentando linealmente con la ampli tud deonda y resulta de aproximadamente i05 ergs/cm2-s en una amplitud de 0.5. El flujo de energia cinetica siempre permanece despreciable, mientras que el flujo de energia magnetica depende de la orientaci5n inicial del campo. Un modo GMA rapido y casi paralelo, el cual es esen- cialmente un modo MHD en la corona se convierte a un modo rapido modificado y a uno lento, cuando la beta atmosferica disminuye a uno. ABSTRACT: A magneto-acoustic-gravity (MAG) wave is initiated in the high-beta regime near the base of the solar photosphere and followed, using numerical siriiulations, as it travels radially through the chromosphere, the transition region, and into the corona. Initial parameters are selected such that beta becomes less than one near the top of the transition region. Our primary interest is in the amount and form of energy flux that can be carried by the wave train into the corona for a specified initial atmosphere and wave amplitude. For the studies conducted to date, the thermal energy flux dominates, it about linearly with wave amplitude and becomes approximately 10 ergs/cm2-s at an amplitude of 0.5. The kinetic energy flux always remains negligible, while the magnetic energy flux depends on the inLtial field orientation. A nearly parallel fast MAG mode, which

  18. Assessing sediment connectivity to understand dynamics of contaminated sediment within coastal catchments of Fukushima Prefecture (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Ottlé, Catherine; Brossoni, Camille; Lefèvre, Irène; Lepage, Hugo; Bonté, Philippe; Patin, Jeremy; Ayrault, Sophie

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has led to the release of large radionuclide quantities (e.g., about 20 PBq of Cs-137 and 200 PBq of I-131) into the atmosphere. About 80% of the release was blown out and over the Pacific Ocean. The remaining 20% of emissions were deposited as wet and dry deposits on soils of Fukushima Prefecture, mainly between 15-16 March. As most radionuclides are strongly sorbed by fine particles, they are likely to be redistributed within the landscape in association with soil and sediment particles transported by runoff and erosion processes. A spatial analysis of Ag-110m:Cs-137 ratio in soils and river sediments provided a way to trace those transfers. This fingerprinting study showed that particles eroded from inland mountain ranges exposed to the highest initial radionuclide fallout were already dispersed along coastal rivers, most likely during summer typhoons and spring snowmelt. Those results suggest that hillslopes and rivers have become a perennial source of radioactive contaminants to the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima Prefecture. This study aims to specify the location and nature of the preferential sources supplying contaminated material to the main rivers draining the Fukushima contamination plume. To this end, important parameters controlling soil erosion and sediment transfers within catchments, i.e. landscape morphology and land use characteristics, were preliminary derived from DEM data and satellite images for the River Mano, Nitta and Ota catchments (ca. 525 km²) draining the most radioactive part of the contamination plume that formed across Fukushima Prefecture. Then, those data were used to compute indices assessing the potential sediment connectivity (i) between hillslopes and rivers and (ii) between hillslopes and catchment outlets. Finally, spatially-distributed values of connectivity indices were confronted to gamma-emitting radionuclide activities (Cs-134, Cs-137 and Ag-110m) measured in riverbed

  19. Calibration of the γ-H2AX DNA Double Strand Break Focus Assay for Internal Radiation Exposure of Blood Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eberlein, Uta; Peper, Michel; Fernández, Maria; Lassmann, Michael; Scherthan, Harry

    2015-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) formation induced by ionizing radiation exposure is indicated by the DSB biomarkers γ-H2AX and 53BP1. Knowledge about DSB foci formation in-vitro after internal irradiation of whole blood samples with radionuclides in solution will help us to gain detailed insights about dose-response relationships in patients after molecular radiotherapy (MRT). Therefore, we studied the induction of radiation-induced co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci as surrogate markers for DSBs in-vitro, and correlated the obtained foci per cell values with the in-vitro absorbed doses to the blood for the two most frequently used radionuclides in MRT (I-131 and Lu-177). This approach led to an in-vitro calibration curve. Overall, 55 blood samples of three healthy volunteers were analyzed. For each experiment several vials containing a mixture of whole blood and radioactive solutions with different concentrations of isotonic NaCl-diluted radionuclides with known activities were prepared. Leukocytes were recovered by density centrifugation after incubation and constant blending for 1 h at 37°C. After ethanol fixation they were subjected to two-color immunofluorescence staining and the average frequencies of the co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci/nucleus were determined using a fluorescence microscope equipped with a red/green double band pass filter. The exact activity was determined in parallel in each blood sample by calibrated germanium detector measurements. The absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegrations occurring in 1 ml of blood were calculated for both isotopes by a Monte Carlo simulation. The measured blood doses in our samples ranged from 6 to 95 mGy. A linear relationship was found between the number of DSB-marking foci/nucleus and the absorbed dose to the blood for both radionuclides studied. There were only minor nuclide-specific intra- and inter-subject deviations. PMID:25853575

  20. Revised series of stylized anthropometric phantoms for internal and external radiation dose assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Eunyoung

    At present, the dosimetry systems of both the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee utilize a series of stylized or mathematical anthropometric models of patient anatomy developed in 1987 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this study, substantial revisions to the ORNL phantom series are reported with tissue compositions, tissue densities, and organ masses adjusted to match their most recent values in the literature. In addition, both the ICRP and MIRD systems of internal dosimetry implicitly consider that electron and beta-particle energy emitted within the source organs of the patient are fully deposited within these organs. With the development of the revised ORNL phantom series, three additional applications were explored as part of this dissertation research. First, the phantoms were used in combination to assess external radiation exposures to family members caring or interacting with patients released from the hospital following radionuclide therapy with I-131. Values of family member effective dose are then compared to values obtained using NRC guidance and based on a simple point-source methodology which ignores the effects of photon attenuation and scatter within both the source individual (patient) and the target individual (family member). Second, the anatomical structures of the extrathoracic airways and thoracic airways (exclusive of the lungs themselves) have been included in the entire revised ORNL phantom series of pediatric individuals. Values of cross-region photon dose are explored for use in radioactive aerosol inhalation exposures to members of the general public, and comparisons are made to values given by the ICRP in which surrogate organ assignments were made in the absence of explicit models of these airways. Finally, the revised ORNL phantoms of the adult male and adult female are used to determine internal photon exposures to

  1. Preparation of Rh[16aneS4-diol](211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol](211)At complexes as potential precursors for astatine radiopharmaceuticals. Part I: Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pruszyński, Marek; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a new approach that can be applied for labeling biomolecules with (211)At. Many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking different (211)At labeling strategies. The approach evaluated in this study was to attach astatide anions to soft metal cations, which are also complexed by a bifunctional ligand. Ultimately, this complex could in principle be subsequently conjugated to a biomolecule with the proper selection of ligand functionality. We report here the attachment of (211)At(-) and *I(-) (*I = (131)I or (125)I) anions to the soft metal cations Rh(III) and Ir(III), which are complexed by the 1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16aneS4-diol) ligand. Radioactive *I(-) anions were used for preliminary studies directed at the optimization of reaction conditions and to provide a baseline for comparison of results with (211)At. Four complexes Rh[16aneS4-diol]*I/(211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol]*I/(211)At were synthesized in high yield in a one-step procedure, and the products were characterized mainly by paper electrophoresis and reversed-phase HPLC. The influences of time and temperature of heating and concentrations of metal cations and sulfur ligand 16aneS4-diol, as well as pH on the reaction yields were determined. Yields of about 80% were obtained when the quantities of Rh(III) or Ir(III) cations and 16aneS4-diol ligand in the solutions were 62.5 nmol and 250 nmol, respectively, and the pH ranged 3.0-4.0. Syntheses required heating for 1-1.5 h at 75-80 degrees C. The influence of microwave heating on the time and completeness of the complexation reaction was evaluated and compared with the conventional method of heating in an oil bath. Microwave synthesis accelerates reactions significantly. With microwave heating, yields of about 75% for Rh[16aneS4-diol](131)I and Ir[16aneS4-diol](131)I complexes were obtained after only 20 min exposure of the reaction mixtures to

  2. 355 Ocular Muscles Myopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis. Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Camaño, Eugenia; Castrejon-Vázquez, Isabel; Plazola-Hernández, Sara I.; Moguel-Ancheita, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is commonly associated with Graves' disease with lid retraction, exophthalmos, and periorbital swelling, but rarely with autoimmune thyroiditis or euthyroid state. We reviewed 3 cases from our hospital whose antibodies to anti-receptor of TSH were normal. Methods Case 1: 60 year-old non-diabetic woman with bilateral glaucoma in treatment, recurrent media otitis and euthyroidism, acute onset of painless diplopia, and lid ptosis in the left eye. MRI of orbit showed increased size of the III right cranial pair and high levels of thyroid autoantibodies (Tab) anti-tiroglobulin (ATG) 115.1, anti-thyroid peroxidase (ATPO) 1751 U/mL. She started oral deflazacort 30 mg each 3 days. Sixty days later, complete remission of eye symptoms correlated with lower auto-antibodies level (ATG 19 ATPO 117). Case 2: 10 year-old girl. At age 8, she had diplopia, lid ptosis and limitations of upper gaze in the left eye. The neurological study discarded ocular myasthenia; with thyroid goitier, and hypothyrodism, she started oral levothyroxin. At age 10 with normal IRM Botulinic toxin was injected, without change. High levels of Tab were found, ATG 2723, ATPO 10.7. She started oral deflazacort 30 mg each 3 days, azathioprin 100 mg, daily. Actually, Tab levels are almost normal, but she remains with ocular alterations. Case 3: 56 year-old woman, Grave´s disease with exophtalmos in 1990, treated with I131 and immunosupression, with good outcome; obesity, hypertension and bilateral glaucoma in treatment. She suddenly presented diplopia and IV pair paresia of the right eye. A year later, ATb were found slightly elevated, ATG 100 years ATPO 227; despite prednisone 50 mg, each 3 days and azathioprin 150 mg/daily treatment, a surgical procedure was required for relieve the ocular symptoms. Results We found only 3 cases previously reported with this type of eye thyroid disease. Is important to note that awareness of this atypical form of orbitopathy

  3. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1-1.2·10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m.

  4. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  5. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    volume method. The parabolic and hyperbolic problem can be solved separately by operator-splitting. The resulting system of linear equations is solved by the algebraic multigrid library SAMG, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Algorithms and Scientific Computing, Germany. CSMP++ is developed at Montan University of Leoben, ETH Zuerich, Imperial College London and Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. This study examines barometric pumping-driven subsurface transport of Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133, Xe-131m including I-131, I-133 and I-135 on arrival times and isotopic activity ratios. This work was funded by the CTBTO Research Award for Young Scientist and Engineers (2013).

  6. SU-E-T-256: Optimizing the Combination of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Agents Using a Multi-Scale Patient-Specific Monte Carlo Dosimetry Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Besemer, A; Bednarz, B; Titz, B; Grudzinski, J; Weichert, J; Hall, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Combination targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is appealing because it can potentially exploit different mechanisms of action from multiple radionuclides as well as the variable dose rates due to the different radionuclide half-lives. The work describes the development of a multiobjective optimization algorithm to calculate the optimal ratio of radionuclide injection activities for delivery of combination TRT. Methods: The ‘diapeutic’ (diagnostic and therapeutic) agent, CLR1404, was used as a proof-of-principle compound in this work. Isosteric iodine substitution in CLR1404 creates a molecular imaging agent when labeled with I-124 or a targeted radiotherapeutic agent when labeled with I-125 or I-131. PET/CT images of high grade glioma patients were acquired at 4.5, 24, and 48 hours post injection of 124I-CLR1404. The therapeutic 131I-CLR1404 and 125ICLR1404 absorbed dose (AD) and biological effective dose (BED) were calculated for each patient using a patient-specific Monte Carlo dosimetry platform. The optimal ratio of injection activities for each radionuclide was calculated with a multi-objective optimization algorithm using the weighted sum method. Objective functions such as the tumor dose heterogeneity and the ratio of the normal tissue to tumor doses were minimized and the relative importance weights of each optimization function were varied. Results: For each optimization function, the program outputs a Pareto surface map representing all possible combinations of radionuclide injection activities so that values that minimize the objective function can be visualized. A Pareto surface map of the weighted sum given a set of user-specified importance weights is also displayed. Additionally, the ratio of optimal injection activities as a function of the all possible importance weights is generated so that the user can select the optimal ratio based on the desired weights. Conclusion: Multi-objective optimization of radionuclide injection activities

  7. Gaseous iodine monitoring in Europe after the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Olivier; de Vismes-Ott, Anne; Manificat, Guillaume; Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Debayle, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    After the Fukushima accident and following the worldwide dispersion of contaminated air masses, many monitoring networks have reported airborne levels of emitted radionuclides, namely and mainly cesium isotopes and iodine 131. Most of the values focused on the particulate fraction (i.e. radionuclide-labeled aerosols) and were dedicated to cesium 137, cesium 134 and iodine 131. Iodine-131 was also found under gaseous form that accounted for most part of the total (gaseous + particulate)I-131 throughout the world. This gaseous predominance was also noticed after the Chernobyl accident despite differences in the type of accident. This predominance is due to the high iodine volatility and also by a rather low transfer from the gaseous form to the particulate one by adsorption on ambient airborne particles. Paradoxically, the number of gaseous determinations was rather low compared to the magnitude of data related to the particulate form (around 10 percent). Routine monitoring of airborne radionuclides species have been extensively based on aerosol sampling for decades as this allows the long term characterization of trace levels of remnant anthropogenic radionuclides. Moreover the capability of gaseous sampler equipped with activated charcoal to allow the quantification of 131I gaseous at trace level is limited by the contact time required for the sorption of iodine on the sorbent and thus by the low acceptable flow rate (usually between 3 and 5 m3/h, exceptionally 12 m3/h). In this context and despite the fact that airborne level outside Japan were of no concern for public health, this contribute to the lack of information on the actual levels of gaseous iodine. Other incidents involving iodine determination in the air have been reported in Europe in 2011 and 2012 without any relation with the Fukushima accident. For the same reason as previously mentioned, mainly, if not only, the particulate form was reported whereas it can be supposed that the predominant form was

  8. Managing Written Directives: A Software Solution to Streamline Workflow.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert H; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Gabriel, Medhat Sam; Halama, James; Bova, Davide

    2017-03-09

    A written directive (WD) is a requirement of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations and is required for all uses of I-131 above 1.11 MBq (30 microcuries) and for patients receiving therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. These regulations have also been adopted and are required to be enforced by the agreement states. A paper trail method of WD management is inefficient and prone to error, loss, and duplication. As the options for therapy in Nuclear Medicine increase with the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals, the time spent on the regulatory burden and paperwork has also increased. The management of regulatory requirements has a significant impact on physician and technologist time utilization and these pressures may increase the potential for inaccurate or incomplete WD data and subsequent regulatory violations. A software tool for the management of WDs using a HIPAA compliant database has been created. This WD software allows for the secure sharing of data among physicians, technologists and managers while saving time, reducing errors and eliminating the possibility of loss and duplication. Methods: Software development was performed using Microsoft Visual Basic® (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) which is part of the Microsoft Visual Studio® development environment for the Microsoft Windows® platform. The database repository for patient data is Microsoft Access® and stored locally on a HIPAA secure server or hard disk. Once a working version was developed, it was installed and used at our institution for the management of WDs. Updates and modifications were released regularly until no significant problems were found with the operation of the software. Results: The software has been in use at our institution for over two years and has reliably kept track of all directives during that time. All physicians and technologists use the software as part of their daily workflow and find it superior to paper directives. We are able to

  9. Current Status of Human Resource Training Program for Fostering RIBiomics Professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Eun; Jang, Beom-Su; Choi, Dae Seong; Park, Tai-jin; Park, Sang Hyun

    2015-07-01

    RI-Biomics is a state-of-the-art radiation fusion technology for evaluating in-vivo dynamics such as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of new drug candidates and biomaterials using radioisotope (RI), and quantitative evaluation of their efficacy via molecular imaging techniques and animal models. The RI-Biomics center is the sole comprehensive research and experiment complex in Korea that can simultaneously perform the radio-synthesis of drug candidate with radioisotope, analysis, and molecular imaging evaluation with animal model. Molecular imaging techniques, including nuclear imaging (SPECT and PET), near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are the cutting-edge technologies for evaluating drug candidates. Since they allow in vivo real-time imaging of the diseased site, monitoring the biodistribution of drug and determining the optimal therapeutic efficacy following treatments, we have integrated RI-ADME and molecular imaging to provide useful information for drug evaluation and to accelerate the development of new drugs and biomaterials. The RI-Biomics center was established with total investment of 18 million $ during four years from 2009 to 2012 in order to develop a comprehensive analyzing system using RI for new drug development as an axis for national growth in the next generation. The RI-Biomics center has labeling synthesis facility for the radiosynthesis of drug candidate with radioisotope such as Tc-99m, I-125, I-131, F-18, H-3 and C-14 using hot cell. It also includes RI-general analysis facilities, such as Radio-HPLC, LC/MS, GC/MS, gamma counter that can analyzing the radio-synthesized materials, and animal image analysis facilities that developed small animal imaging equipment such as SPECT/PET/CT, 7 T MRI, in-vivo optical imaging system and others. In order to achieve the system to verify safety and effectiveness of the new drugs using RI, it is necessary to establish a human resource

  10. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North Western Pacific in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Vjacheslav

    2013-04-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Sea of Japan and in Kurile-Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean, in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP, two expedition surveys were conducted in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36°00'-39°33' n., 146°33'-150°00' e.): first survey April - May 2011, second survey August-September 2012. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The results of measurements of Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, Pu-239,240 and H-3 concentrations in the sea water samples and I-131, Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentrations in atmospheric aerosol samples are presented and discussed. The data received allowed to conclude that the levels of contamination by products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP observed in investigated water areas near the Russian Federation coast of the Sea of Japan and of the Kurile- Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean have no hazard. However, these expedition surveys revealed large-scale contamination by Cs-137 and Cs-134 of water areas of the North-Western Pacific in the investigated region of the Kuroshio current. The Cs-137 concentration in sea water at a distance about 400 km from accidental NPP in April-May, 2011 reached 30 Bq/m3, which approximately 20 times exceed preaccidental level, and it was found that water mass till more than 100 m below the surface was contaminated. For correct estimation of current and potential consequences of the "Fukushima-1" accident for the Far-Eastern water areas a special study is reasonable to perform of transport with marine currents of products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP.

  11. Lymphoma, melanoma, colon cancer: diagnosis and treatment with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. The 1986 Eugene P. Pendergrass New Horizons Lecture.

    PubMed

    Larson, S M

    1987-11-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies for use as in vivo carriers of radioactivity for diagnosis and therapy of malignant neoplasms is proceeding rapidly within academic and commercial sectors. The author and his colleagues studied anticancer antibodies formed against tumors of both somatic and hematopoietic origins. Several general principles have been established with the work with somatic tumors, including the following: Improved tumor-to-normal-tissue ratios can be achieved with Fab fragments as opposed to whole IgG; each antitumor antibody has a characteristic biodistribution in humans that cannot be readily predicted from tissue or small animal studies; and for many antibodies, there is a strong dependency of tumor uptake on total mass amount of antibody administered (greater uptake with greater mass dose). Initial work with iodine-131 labeled Fab fragments of the antimelanoma antibodies, 96.5 and 48-7, documented that tumor uptake was broadly proportional to antigen content of the tumors and that under optimal conditions, some tumors were sufficiently loaded with radiolabeled antibody to serve as radiation therapy. In one patient, an objective response was seen that lasted for 4 months; of five other patients, one had long-term stabilization of a previously rapidly growing tumor; two other patients had no response at doses of radioactivity that had caused significant bone marrow suppression but no treatment-related symptoms or morbidity. The antitumor antibody B-72.3, as IgG, has been particularly promising when administered intraperitoneally. In ten patients who were administered I-131 B-72.3 via a Tenkhoff catheter, the sensitivity and specificity of tumor location were excellent for peritoneal implants, and in three of these patients, surgically confirmed tumor was seen with the radiolabeled antibody technique when abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance studies were negative. In a separate series of 20 patients with mycoses fungoides, the

  12. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident; based on the Final Report of Atomic Energy Society of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimura, Naoto

    2014-09-01

    The Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) published the Final Report of the AESJ Investigation Committee on Fukushima Daiichi NPS Accident in March 2014. The AESJ is responsible to identify the underlying root causes of the accident through technical surveys and analyses, and to offer solutions for nuclear safety. At the Fukushima Daiichi, Units 1 to 3, which were under operation, were automatically shut down at 14:46 on March 11, 2011 by the Tohoku District-off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake. About 50 minutes later, the tsunami flooded and destroyed the emergency diesel generators, the seawater cooling pumps, the electric wiring system and the DC power for Units 1, 2 and 4, resulting in loss of all power except for an air-cooled emergency diesel generator at Unit 6. Unit 3 lost all AC power, and later lost DC before dawn of March 13. Cooling the reactors and monitoring the results were heavily dependent on electricity for high-pressure water injection, depressurizing the reactor, low pressure water injection, and following continuous cooling. In Unit 3, for example, recent re-evaluation in August 2014 by TEPCO shows that no cooling water was injected into the reactor core region after 8 PM on March 12, leading to the fuel melting from 5:30 AM on March 13. Even though seawater was injected from fire engines afterwards, the rupture of pressure vessel was caused and the majority of melted fuel dropped into the containment vessel of Unit 3. The estimation of amount of radioactive materials such as Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137 and Cs-134, emitted to the environment from Units 1 to 3 is discussed in the presentation. Direct causes of the accident identified in the AESJ Report were, 1) inadequate tsunami measures, 2) inadequate severe accident management measures and 3) inadequate emergency response, post-accident management/mitigation, and recovery measures. These were caused by the following underlying factors, i.e., a) lack of awareness on the roles and responsibilities by

  13. Detailed analysis of isotopic ratio of radioactive iodine in surface soil around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Honda, Maki

    2013-04-01

    In March 2011, there was an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and a lot of radionuclides were discharged into the environment, resulting from a powerful earthquake and tsunami. Considering the impact on human health, the radiation dosimetry is the most important for Iodine-131 among radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the release of radionuclides. However, Iodine-131 cannot be detected after several months owing to its short half-life (8 days). Cesium-137 was also leaked out from the FDNPP and this can be detected now. But this did not identically act with Iodine-131 and be suitable for the reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution at the initial stage. Since Iodine-129 (half-life: 1.57E7 yrs) can be detected in the future and it act chemically identically with Iodine-131, the reconstruction by Iodine-129 analysis is important. For this reconstruction, it is necessary to know the isotopic ratio of radioactive iodine (129I/131I) released from the FDNPP. In this study, the Iodine-129 concentration was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in several surface soil samples collected around the FDNPP for which the Iodine-131level had already been determined. Soil samples were put into a U8 standard vessel after being roughly homogenized and dried. Then, samples were homogenized again more completely and several grams were taken for Iodine-129 measurement. Each sample was combusted in a quartz tube and outgas was trapped in alkali solution. An aliquot was taken from the trap solution for the determination of the Iodine-127 concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The iodine carrier was added to the trap solution, from which the iodine fraction was purified by solvent extraction and back extraction. Finally, silver iodide precipitation was obtained by adding silver nitrate solution. After dried, the precipitation was mixed with niobium powder and pressed into a cathode for the target

  14. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate; ACP-103, Ad.Egr.TNF.11 D, adalimumab, AF-IL 12, AIDSVAX gp120 B/B, alefacept, alemtuzumab, a-Galactosylceramide, ALVAC vCP 1452, alvimopan hydrate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, antarelix, aprepitant, aripiprazole, arsenic sulfide, asoprisnil, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BrachySil, brivudine; Caffeine, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, capsaicin for injection, caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, cetuximab, CGP-36742, clofazimine, CpG-7909, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, dimethylfumarate, dronabinol/cannabidiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, estradiol acetate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fampridine, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GPI-0100; hA 20, HTU-PA, human insulin, HuOKT 3 gamma 1(Ala 234-Ala 235), hyaluronic acid; Icatibant, imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, INKP-100, INKP-102, iodine (I131) tositumomab, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, landiolol, lanthanum carbonate, lasofoxifene tartrate, LB-80380, lenalidomide, lidocaine/tetracaine, linezolid, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Maribavir, morphine glucuronide, MVA-5 T

  15. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    indefinido y al gen para la proteina de la DNA polimerasa en otros virus herpes. Se encontraron tres o cuatro grupos de iniciadores especificos para el virus vacunal y para el 100% (7/7) de los a??slamientos de campo, pero no amplificaron el DNA del virus de hepatitis por cuerpos de inclusi??n de grullas. Se analiz?? la especificidad de un primer juego de iniciadores con moldes del genoma de otros virus herpes aviares, incluyendo el ?!guila dorada, ?!guila de cabeza blanca, lechuza de cuernos grandes, lechuza blanca, halc??n peregrino, palomas, aves psit?!cidas y pollos (virus de laringotraqueitis infecciosa), pero no se produjeron los productos finales. Por lo tanto, esta prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa es altamente especifica para el DNA del virus. Dos grupos de iniciadores fueron capaces de detectar un fragmento de DNA de la cepa vacunal equivalente a cinco copias del genoma. Adem?!s, se determin?? que la proporci??n de la dosis infecciosa en cultivo celular y copias del genoma del virus vacunal de c??lulas de embri??n de pato infectadas era de 10 a 100 respectivamente, haciendo la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa 20 veces m?!s sensible que el cultivo celular para detectar el virus. La velocidad, sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa suministra una herramienta de investigaci??n y de diagn??stico altamente mejorada para el estudio de la epizootiolog?-a del virus.

  16. [Blood glucose and insulin responses to two hypocaloric enteral formulas in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Izaola, O; de la Fuente, B; Araújo, K

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar la respuesta glucémica e insulinémica de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 tras la administración oral de 250 ml de dos formulas enterales: una formula especifica (Novasource® Diabet Smartflex®) frente a una fórmula isocalórica estándar. Material y métodos: El diseño fue cruzado, recibiendo los pacientes diabéticos (n = 15) de manera aleatoria las dos fórmulas. Se realizó una curva de glucemia e insulinemia en los tiempos 0, 10,20, 30,60, 90, 120,150 y 180 minutos. Las variables analizadas fueron, el área bajo la curva (AUC0-t), la concentración máxima (Cmax), el tiempo en que se alcanza la concentración máxima (Tmax) y las concentraciones de los parámetros bioquímicos en cada período del estudio. Resultados: Se estudiaron 11 varones (73.3%) y 4 mujeres (26.7%), la edad media fue de 56,9 ± 10,9 años. Los pacientes que recibieron Novasource® Diabet presentan una media menor de AUC0-t, diferencia entre medias de glucemia -4.753,26 mg/min/dl (IC 95%: -7.256,7 a -2.249,82), también presentaron una media de insulinemia significativamente menor de AUC0-t, diferencia de medias: -930,27 uU/min/ml (IC 95%: -1.696,34 a -164,2). La Cmax mostró unas medias de glucemia significativamente menores con la fórmula específica, diferencia de medias -26,89 mg/dl (IC 95% 42,11 a -11,67) e insulinemia, diferencia de medias: -5,39 uU/ml (IC 95%: -10,37 a -1,43). El análisis de Tmax muestra que las medias de glucemia con la fórmula específica son significativamente menores, diferencia de medias -19,82 min (IC 95%: -32,11 a -7,33), sin diferencia significativa en la Tmax de insulinemia. Finalmente el análisis de las concentraciones de glucosa en el total del estudio muestra que el grupo con la formula específica tiene una media menor de glucosa 25,77 mg/dl (IC 95%: 18,29 a 33,25), sucediendo lo mismo con la insulinemia 4,39 U/ml (IC 95%: 0,927 a 7,87). Conclusiones: Los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 que

  17. A probabilistic gastrointestinal tract dosimetry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Chulhaeng

    In internal dosimetry, the tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract represent one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body with the hematopoietic bone marrow. Endoscopic ultrasound is a unique tool to acquire in-vivo data on GI tract wall thicknesses of sufficient resolution needed in radiation dosimetry studies. Through their different echo texture and intensity, five layers of differing echo patterns for superficial mucosa, deep mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria and serosa exist within the walls of organs composing the alimentary tract. Thicknesses for stomach mucosa ranged from 620 +/- 150 mum to 1320 +/- 80 mum (total stomach wall thicknesses from 2.56 +/- 0.12 to 4.12 +/- 0.11 mm). Measurements made for the rectal images revealed rectal mucosal thicknesses from 150 +/- 90 mum to 670 +/- 110 mum (total rectal wall thicknesses from 2.01 +/- 0.06 to 3.35 +/- 0.46 mm). The mucosa thus accounted for 28 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 6% of the total thickness of the stomach and rectal wall, respectively. Radiation transport simulations were then performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) 4C transport code to calculate S values (Gy/Bq-s) for penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations such as photons, beta particles, conversion electrons and auger electrons of selected nuclides, I123, I131, Tc 99m and Y90 under two source conditions: content and mucosa sources, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate generally good agreement with published data for the stomach mucosa wall. The rectal mucosa data are consistently higher than published data compared with the large intestine due to different radiosensitive cell thicknesses (350 mum vs. a range spanning from 149 mum to 729 mum) and different geometry when a rectal content source is considered. Generally, the ICRP models have been designed to predict the amount of radiation dose in the human body from a "typical" or "reference" individual in a given population. The study has been performed to

  18. Disclosure of the National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise 2013 radionuclide release and atmospheric dispersion scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, J. Ole; Hartmann, Gernot; Ceranna, Lars; Gestermann, Nicolai

    2015-04-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits all kinds of nuclear explosions. For the detection of treaty violations the International Monitoring System (IMS) operates stations observing seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound signals as well as radioisotopes in the atmosphere. While the IMS data is collected, processed and technically analyzed in the International Data Center (IDC) of the CTBT-Organization, National Data Centers (NDC) provide interpretation and advice to their government concerning suspicious detections occurring in IMS data. NDC Preparedness Exercises (NPE) are regularly performed dealing with fictitious treaty violations to practice the combined analysis of CTBT verification technologies and for the mutual exchange of information between NDC and also with the IDC. The scenario of the NPE2013 was the most complex so far. As exercise trigger, a fictitious accusing State Signatory points to a series of (simulated) radionuclide findings at IMS stations in Europe/Asia and postulates a connection with detections of a supposed seismic event which occurred within the territory of the fictitious state of FRISIA on September 4th, 2013. FRISIA is located at the Coast of the North Sea in Central Europe. The synthetic radionuclide detections start in Vienna (8 Sept, I-131) and Schauinsland (11 Sept, Xe-133) with rather low activity concentrations and are most prominent in Stockholm and Spitsbergen mid of September 2013. Smaller concentrations in Asia follow later on. The potential connection between the waveform and radionuclide evidence remained unclear for the participants. The verification task was to identify the waveform event in the given tempo-spatial domain and to investigate potential sources of the simulated radionuclide findings. Finally the potential conjunction between the sources and the CTBT-relevance of the whole picture has to be evaluated. The overall question is whether requesting an On-Site-Inspection in FRISIA would be

  19. WE-A-17A-07: Evaluation of a Grid-Based Boltzmann Solver for Nuclear Medicine Voxel-Based Dose Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Mikell, J; Kappadath, S; Wareing, T; Mourtada, F

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Grid-based Boltzmann solvers (GBBS) have been successfully implemented in radiation oncology clinics as dose calculations for e×ternal photon beams and 192Ir sealed-source brachytherapy. We report on the evaluation of a GBBS for nuclear medicine vo×el-based absorbed doses. Methods: Vo×el-S-values were calculated for monoenergetic betas and photons (1, 0.1, 0.01 MeV), 90Y, and 131I for 3 mm vo×el sizes using Monte Carlo (DOS×YZnrc) and GBBS (Attila 8.1-beta5, Transpire). The source distribution was uniform throughout a single vo×el. The material was an infinite 1.04 g/cc soft tissue slab. To e×plore convergence properties of the GBBS 3 tetrahedral meshes, 3 energy group structures, 3 different square Chebyschev-Legendre quadrature set orders (Sn), and 4×2013;7 spherical harmonic e×pansion terms (Pn) were investigated for a total of 168 discretizations per source. The mesh, energy group, and quadrature sets are 8×, 3×, and 16×, respectively, finer than the corresponding coarse discretization. GBBS cross sections were generated with full electronphoton-coupling using the vendors e×tended CEP×S code. For accuracy, percent differences (%Δ) in source vo×el absorbed doses between MC and GBBS are reported for the coarsest and finest discretization. For convergence, ratios of the two finest discretization solutions are reported along each variable. Results: For 1 MeV, 0.1 MeV, 0.01 MeV, Y90, and I-131 beta sources the %Δ in the source vo×el for (coarsest,finest) discretization were (+2.0,−6.4), (−8.0, −7.5), (−13.8, −13.4), (+0.9,−5.5), and (− 10.1,−9.0) respectively. The corresponding %Δ for photons were (+33.7,−7.1), (−9.4, −9.8), (−17.4, −15.2), and (−1.7,−7.7), respectively. For betas, the convergence ratio of mesh, energy, Sn, and Pn ranged from 0.991–1.000. For gammas, the convergence ratio of mesh, Sn, and Pn ranged from 0.998–1.003 while the ratio for energy ranged from 0.964–1.001. Conclusions: GBBS is

  20. Effect of tree thinning and litter removal on the radiocesium (Cs-134, 137) discharge rates in the Kawauchi forest plantation (Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Hisadome, Keigo

    2016-04-01

    On 11 March 2011 a 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami occurred in central-eastern Japan triggering, one day after, the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Despite the bulk of radionuclides (ca. 80%) were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, significant wet and dry deposits of those radionuclides occurred mainly in the Fukushima Prefecture and in a minor way in the Miyagi, Tochigi, Gunma and Ibaraki Prefectures. As a consequence and among other radionuclides, a total of 511,000 TBq of I-131, 13,500 TBq of Cs-134 and 13,600 TBq of Cs-137 were released into the atmosphere and the ocean, contaminating cultivated soils, rivers, settlements and forested areas. This accident caused severe environmental and economic damages. Several decontamination practices have done, including tree thinning and litter removal within the forests and tree plantations. In this study we analysed the effect of eight different management practices on the radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) discharge rates during 20 months (May'2013 - Dec'2014) in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation (stand age of 57 years), located in a hillslope near the Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan. This study area (37⁰ 20' 04" N, 140⁰ 53' 13.5" E) is located 16 km southwestern from the DNPP and within the evacuation area. The soils are Andosols. Ten runoff plots (5 x 2 meters) were installed and measurements started on May 2013. Two plots remained without any treatment as control plots and the other eight plots represented the following management practices: Mng1) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng2) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng3) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng4) Litter removal; Mng5) Thinning (logged area); Mng6) Thinning (under remnant trees); Mng7) Litter removal + thinning (logged area); Mng8) Litter removal + thinning (under remnant trees). Each plot had a gauging station and sediment samples